Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire -- The Secret Life of the World's

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire -- The Secret Life of the Worl

Postby admin » Tue Jun 09, 2015 3:25 am

Epilogue

After Abu Iyad's murder in January 1991, I tried to trace Jorde to the Mediterranean haunts where we had first met the previous summer. He had disappeared. Some of his mates said he was afraid Abu Nidal would kill him and he had gone into hiding. Others believed he had made his way back to Spain, to the tourist bars and discos of Barcelona. He was resourceful, and I had no doubt that he would survive somehow, perhaps even cross my path again one day.

But Jorde was not the only one to hide. The murder of Abu Iyad robbed many people of their protector. In Tunis, where the PLO had gone after being thrown out of Beirut in 1982, it was as if someone had overturned an ant heap, sending its inhabitants in all directions. The PLO had not recovered its nerve since the Israelis had killed its military supremo, Abu Jihad, in Tunis in 1988. The murder of Abu Iyad made matters even worse. By killing Abu Iyad, Abu Nidal had shown that he could hit the very top of the PLO's intelligence and security apparatus. No one was safe. Arafat's organization was shown up yet again as lax, chaotic, and infiltrated. No one trusted anyone else and PLO morale was terrible.

Atif Abu Bakr and his colleagues in the Emergency Leadership were also in trouble. They had vowed to wrest Abu Nidal's organization from him. But having lost Abu Iyad, they too dispersed, terrified of being killed. Some went underground. Others, like Abu Bakr, who was now penniless, scraped up what they could and left Tunis in search of safer haven abroad. These men could scarcely count how many times they had been forced to pack their bags.

The disaster suffered by the PLO and by the Emergency Leadership was soon made vastly worse by the ignominious defeat of Saddam Hussein, whom Arafat had supported. Arafat, who had wanted to be recognized by the West, now found himself condemned by much of it, and by most Arabs too -- by Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Kuwait, and their allies in the wartime coalition, who had now stopped sending money to the PLO. Many Palestinians were now sick of Arafat, although most could not say so out loud. The structure of Palestinian resistance outside the occupied territories was collapsing. Years of diplomatic effort had been thrown away. By the summer of 1991, the PLO seemed weak and more isolated than ever.

Arafat's misfortune was Abu Nidal's good fortune, although this was not always understood by outsiders at the time. During the 1990-1991 Gulf conflict, the Western press had speculated that Abu Nidal would place his terrorist network at the disposal of Saddam Hussein, his first sponsor. But this was to misread Abu Nidal, who was too shrewd to back a loser; nor would he choose the same side the PLO chose. Far from supporting Iraq, he had immediately exploited the conflict to ingratiate himself with members of the anti-Saddam coalition.

In the early summer of 1991, as if suddenly oblivious of his terrorist record, Egypt, incredibly, let Abu Nidal open offices in Cairo -- apparently, to punish Arafat for choosing the wrong side. With this move, Abu Nidal had been given a second chance in an Arab world more deeply divided than ever by the Gulf war.

Abu Nidal is a professional killer who has sold his deadly services certainly to the Arabs and perhaps to the Israelis as well. His genius has been to understand that states will commit any crime in the name of national interest. A criminal like Abu Nidal can flourish doing their dirty work. He could not have survived if his "clients" had not found him useful. They are responsible for his actions. Iraq set him up; Syria took him over; Libya inherited him; whether or not Israel manipulated and exploited him -- and at the very least the evidence suggests there is a case to answer -- it has certainly benefited from his attacks on the moderate PLO and has done nothing to stop him despite his attacks on Jewish and Israeli targets. And now Egypt has resuscitated him in opposition to Arafat, whom it despises for supporting Saddam.

Abu Nidal has served many masters with many interests. His shrewd grasp of regional politics, his lack of moral restraint, and his talent for survival have made him the king of the Middle East underworld, a world-class gangster.

Throughout Abu Nidal's career, the thread has been his hostility to Yasser Arafat and the PLO, a hostility shared by each of his sponsors, including most recently Egypt. This provides the clue to his success. Israel has for years wanted to destroy the PLO. Abu Nidal's Arab sponsors have also found the PLO threatening, and though they have been willing to buy it off, they have also felt it necessary to contain and enfeeble it, so as to frustrate Arafat's ambition of independent policy making. For years Abu Nidal has kept the Palestinian national movement down and both Arabs and Israelis have benefited.

Arab leaders have publicly supported the Palestinian cause, but they have, almost without exception, distrusted the PLO, which has often challenged their authority in their own countries, attracted Israeli reprisals, and even threatened to drag them into war. The PLO must share part of the blame for this Arab hostility. Under Arafat's leadership, it allowed itself to get involved in Arab squabbles; it clashed at various times with the state interests of Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Tunisia and, most recently, Kuwait; its bureaucracy is incompetent and often corrupt; it clung too long to hollow warlike slogans and was fatally slow in defining realistic political objectives; it was hopeless at presenting its case to the West; it has been a babel of conflicting and self-serving voices rather than a disciplined liberation movement.

Yet Arafat is still owed the credit for renouncing terrorism and attempting to seek a negotiated settlement with Israel since 1974 -- a position that so alarmed both Israeli and Arab rejectionists that the most committed PLO doves were murdered by Israeli and Arab killers, the latter, Abu Iyad believed, acting on Israel's behalf. The truth is that the PLO has for years been the main victim of terrorism rather than its perpetrator, the antithesis of the popular perception encouraged by Israeli propaganda.

Today, although battered and stumbling from Israeli and Arab assaults, the PLO remains, for lack of an alternative, the champion of Palestinian aspirations for a homeland. Arafat will sooner or later pass from the scene, the intifada may be crushed or die from exhaustion, but Palestinian nationalism will not go away -- and will perhaps become more violent -- so long as there are five million people alive who call themselves Palestinian. The next Abu Nidal who emerges may not so easily be turned against his own people.

Until the Palestinians' legitimate grievances are met, Palestinians, and perhaps all Arabs, will never live in peace with Israel. The Arab leaders' betrayal of the Palestinians makes a joke of Arab nationalism, while Palestinian suffering at Israel's hands is the blackest stain on Israel's national record.

The Arab states have dealt harshly with the Palestinians out of weakness, probably because they could not defend them against a far more powerful Israel. One reason Arab leaders hate the PLO is that it is an unwelcome reminder of Arab impotence. Israel, meanwhile, has dealt harshly with the Palestinians from strength, because there was no one around to restrain it. No countervailing Arab power, no force in the region, and, apparently, no international pressure has sought to make Israel desist from the brutalities, listed by Amnesty International and others, that it inflicts on its captive Palestinian population.

Many of these problems -- Israeli occupation, guerrilla resistance, civilian suffering, terror -- stem from Israel's victory in 1967 over Egypt, Syria, and Jordan, when it seized great tracts of territory and emerged as an imperial power immeasurably stronger than all its neighbors put together. Isaac Deutscher, a historian of the Russian revolution, was one of the first to observe that colonizing a million or more Arabs would hurt Israel. He quoted the bitter German phrase Man kann sich totsiegen: "You can drive yourself victoriously into your grave."

Just a few days after the Six-Day War, Deutscher, a Jew and a distinguished anti-Stalinist, told an interviewer (New Left Review, June 23, 1967): "It was only with disgust that I could watch on television the scenes from Israel in those days; the displays of the conquerors' pride and brutality; the outbursts of chauvinism; and the wild celebrations of the inglorious triumph, all contrasting sharply with the pictures of Arab suffering and desolation, the treks of Jordanian refugees and the bodies of Egyptian soldiers killed by thirst in the desert. I looked at the medieval figures of the rabbis and hassidim jumping with joy at the Wailing Wall; and I felt how the ghosts of Talmudic obscurantism -- and I know these only too well -- crowded in on the country, and how the reactionary atmosphere in Israel had grown dense and stifling. Then came the many interviews with General Dayan, the hero and saviour, with the political mind of a regimental sergeant-major, ranting about annexations and venting a raucous callousness about the fate of the Arabs in the conquered areas. ('What do they matter to me?' 'As far as I am concerned, they may stay or they may go.')"

What would Deutscher have thought, I wonder, of Shamir and Rabin, of Arens, Sharon, Geula Cohen, and the rest of them, of the bone-breaking beatings and the tortures, of the grisly detention camps and the pitiless curfews, of the death squads, of the children murdered by the score, of the Palestinian girl of nineteen I read about the other day who was forced to give birth while handcuffed to the bars of her Israeli hospital bed?

How can Jews, who have known far greater suffering themselves, do such things? For the miserable career of Abu Nidal might never have happened had Israel been willing to talk with the PLO in 1974, when Arafat sent his four messages to Henry Kissinger saying that he was ready to sit down.

The Israeli writer Amos Oz says that Israelis and Palestinians have gone mad and, for their own protection, need to be separated until they can recover their sanity. This book describes a case of dementia. I have written it to show what bloodstained lunacy goes on behind the scenes. Palestinians and Israelis have been killing one another over a pocket handkerchief of territory -- the West Bank -- captured by Israel in 1967. Palestinian hopes of identity and self-respect rest on this sliver of land: For them, anything less than self-government there means a continued diaspora or bitter servitude. They kill and die to get it back. But many Israelis, claiming that the West Bank is an integral part of the "land of Israel," will kill and die rather than give it up. Without peace, the prospect ahead is of more terror and counterterror of the cruel, remorseless sort I have described in this book.

Over the years, I have come to believe that Israel's long-term security lies not in crushing Palestinian nationalism and the PLO but in coming to terms with them. Far from threatening Israel, a Palestinian statelet on its borders would strengthen Israel, by gaining it full acceptance into the Middle Eastern family.

Israelis tend to express their situation in existential terms as if under constant threat of extinction. But Israel faces no existential threat. The last time it faced such a threat was in the brief truce during the 1948 war, as Ezer Weizman, an Israeli war hero and former air force chief, has publicly acknowledged. The debate today is not about Israel's existence -- that question was settled over forty years ago -- but about the terms and nature of the peace that it must make with its Arab hinterland. It is a peace that I, for one, involved in studying the area for the past three decades, ardently hope for.

Although the Arabs want peace, there are in my estimation two things that they will not accept and that, if Israel insists on them, are bound to breed further terrorist violence such as Abu Nidal's, and in due course further wars. The first is the permanent oppression and dispersal of the Palestinian people. If Israel wants real peace, it must make room for a Palestinian homeland, as a partner not an adversary, within the boundaries of historic Palestine.

The second thing the region will not tolerate is permanent Israeli domination. Accepting Israel as a major player in the Middle East system, competing and interacting with Egypt, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and the others, is something the Arab players are reconciled to, indeed expect and look to. But they are not ready to live indefinitely in the shadow of Israeli power, in fear of attack by its far superior military force. Vulnerability and humiliation inevitably drive them to acquire the means to hold Israel in check. Such deterrent means may not yet be available to Israel's weak and divided neighbors, but the quest for them will go on -- and, most likely, cause Israel to preempt, setting off a new cycle of violence.

Yet a stable and long-lasting peace between Israel and its neighbors can only rest on mutual deterrence, on an Arab-Israeli balance of power, and eventually on good neighborliness. Israel's security cannot forever be maintained at the cost of the insecurity of its neighbors -- the formula of successive Israeli and American governments over the decades.

Readers must reach their own conclusions about Abu Nidal, bearing in mind that Abu Iyad and his Fatah allies had every reason to make a case against Abu Nidal and Israel, their two greatest enemies. If, despite his crimes, he is judged to be a Palestinian "patriot," then he proves how the conflict has reduced to gangsterism the Palestinians' yearning for a homeland. If Abu Iyad and others are right that he is an Israeli instrument, then he is proof of the political and moral depravity to which Israel and its Arab collaborators have sunk.

The cost of Israel's possession of the West Bank is incalculable. It has been paid by Palestinians in deaths and in shattered lives, but also by Israel, in the brutalizing of its society and its army; in the glaring absence, as it shapes its policies, of anything worthy of Jewish ethics; in the loss of its good name and the corruption of its diplomacy as it manipulates international opinion and ducks and weaves to avoid negotiations that might entail the return of the territories to their owners.

When Eduard Shevardnadze, Gorbachev's foreign minister, was accused by hard-line Soviet critics of having "lost" Eastern Europe and "allowed" Germany to unite, he thoughtfully replied, "It was the price we had to pay in order to become a civilized country." It is an answer that Israel might ponder as it considers the fate of the occupied territories, suffering and seething under its rule.
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Re: Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire -- The Secret Life of the Worl

Postby admin » Tue Jun 09, 2015 3:26 am

Appendix

Abu Nidal's Closest Associates


In 1990-91, membership of Abu Nidal's three principal institutions -- the Political Bureau, the Central Committee, and the Revolutionary Council -- was believed to be as follows:

Political Bureau

SABRI AL-BANNA (Abu Nidal), leader, known by his Arabic title of Amin al-Sirr

ISAM MARAQA (Salim Ahmad), deputy chief since 1987, when he took over from Mustafa Murad (Abu Nizar). However, in 1991, Maraqa lost the job to Mansur Hamdan, although retaining his membership in the Political Bureau

MANSUR HAMDAN, appointed deputy chief in 1991, formerly head of the Political Directorate and official spokesman

SULAIMAN SAMRIN (Dr. Ghassan al-Ali), first secretary of the Central Committee and head of the Secretariat

MUHAMMAD WASFI HANNUN (Wasfi Hannun), head of the People's Army

ISAM AWDAH (Zakariya Ibrahim)

ABDALLAH HASSAN (Abu Nabil), head of the Committee for Revolutionary Justice

SHAWQI MUHAMMAD YUSIF (Munir Ahmad)

Central Committee

The Central Committee consisted of members of the Political Bureau, plus the following:

THABIT ABD AL-KARIM MAHMUD (Zaidan), deputy head of the Organization Directorate

ALI AL-FARRA (Dr. Kamal), Libya-based intelligence chief

ATIF HAMMUDA (Abu Siham), head of the Financial Directorate

ALI AL-BATMA (Samir Darwish)

ISMA'IL ABD AL-LATIF YUSIF (Hamdi Abu Yusif)

ADNAN KHALIFA (Abu Hazim)

RISQ SA'ID ABD AL-MAIID (Walid Khalid), the organization's Beirut spokesman, who rose to prominence during the Silco affair

NABIL MUHAMMAD ABDALLAH SALIM (Sari Abdallah)

MUHAMMAD AL-TAHIR (Fu'ad Abu al-Tahir)

MUSTAFA IBRAHIM SANDUQA (Hussein bin Ali), the real boss of the Committee for Revolutionary Justice

HASAN AZIZ ABD AL-KHALIQ (Awwad), head of the Membership Committee

ISA JARADAT (Sulaiman), member of command of the Intelligence Directorate

ABD AL-KARIM AL-BANNA (Husam Mustafa)

GHANIM SALIH

Revolutionary Council

Membership of the Revolutionary Council consisted of members of the Political Bureau and the Central Committee, plus the following:

HAMDI ABU ASBA (Azmi Hussein), representative in Libya, 1985-87, transferred to Algeria in 1989

IBRAHIM AL-TAMIMI (Tariq Mahmud), member of the Committee for Revolutionary Justice

ALI ZAIDAN (Haitham), member of the Intelligence Directorate

ADNAN AL-FARIS (Sami Abu al-Haitham)

MAJID AL-AKKAWI, deputy head of People's Army in northern Lebanon

ABD AL-KARIM MUHAMMAD (Awni Jabr), sometime representative in Sudan, Aden, and Libya

KHALIL KHUDR SALAHAT (Ma'n Adham)

HISHAM HARB, a key man in foreign operations

SAMI ABU ALI (Mazen al-Khalili), People's Army Directorate

MUHAMMAD HABIB (Salim Abd aI-Rahman)

MUHAMMAD AHMAD ABU ASAL (Abu Marwan)

MAHIR AL-RUSAN (Walid), brother of Nawwaf al-Rusan (Uthman), currently in jail in Britain for the attempt on the life of Ambassador Argov

SAMI AL-SHAYIB (Isam)

WALID ISA

SAMIH ABU ALI

Defections and Casualties from the Central Committee

AL-HAJJ ABU MUSA, chief military instructor, killed in Libya in late 1987

MUSTAFA MURAD (Abu Nizar), Abu Nidal's deputy, killed in Libya on October 17, 1988

ABD AL-RAHMAN ISA, defected in October 1989, survived an attempt on his life in Algeria

JASIR AL-DISI (Abu Ma'mun), prominent People's Army commander, killed November 1987

AYISH BADRAN (Abu Umar), prominent People's Army commander, killed late 1987

ATIF ABU BAKR (Abu Farah), defected November 1989 and formed Emergency Leadership

KHALID AL-MADI, of the Finance Directorate, downgraded to cadre

FAISAL AL-KAFRI (Kamal Mansur), defected

FU'AD AL-SUFFARINI (Umar Hamdun), defected to Jordan in 1987

Defections and Casualties from the Revolutionary Council

WAJIH MUSTAFA (Abu Mustafa), defected

BAHIJ YUNIS, in prison in Austria

UTHMAN AL-RUSAN, in prison in Britain for attack on Ambassador Argov

MUHAMMAD DAW MURTAH (Yunis Umran), Tunisian, rallied to the Emergency Leadership

ZIAD SAHMUD (Basil), a People's Army commander, rallied to the Emergency Leadership

NIDAL TAWFIQ MUSA HAMADA (Bajis Abu Atwan), key figure in Intelligence Directorate, defected to Syria, then to Jordan

AHMAD ABU MATAR, director of Al Sabra press, left the organization after it moved from Syria

ABD AL-SAMAD ABD AL-HAFIZ, former deputy head of the Revolutionary Council

MUSA AL-HUSSEINI (sometimes known as Musa al-Haidari or Abu Mazin)

MUHAMMAD ABU JABIR

MUJAHID AL-BAYYARI (Zuhair Khalid), killed by Sidon car bomb

SAMIH MUHAMMAD KHUDR (Zuheir al-Rabbah), key figure in Intelligence Directorate, killed in Athens by car bomb in 1988

ABD AL-FATTAH GHAZAL (Kifah Khalid), killed by a car bomb

UMAR HUMAIDI (Wahid Hasanain), killed in Rashidiyyah camp in Lebanon in 1990

FARID HUAB (Kayid Abu Arisha), killed by a car bomb in June 1990
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Re: Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire -- The Secret Life of the Worl

Postby admin » Tue Jun 09, 2015 3:27 am

Index

Abbas, 253-54
Abbas, Abu'l, 50, 77, 238
Abbud, Ibtissam, 199
Abd, Ibrahim al-, 291
Abdallah, King of Jordan, 63-64
Abu Dhabi, 129
Achille Lauro hijacking (1985), 77, 238
Action Committee for the Liberation of
Palestine, 174
Afifi, Ali, 277
Aharon, Yossi Ben-, 161
Abbal, Sheikh Abdallah al-, 280
Ahmar, Abdallah al-, 239
Ahram, al- (newspaper), 164
Ain al-Hilwa camp, 214, 215
airline terrorism, 25, 74-75, 83, 95, 127,
164, 228, 230-42; British Airways
attacks, 102-103, 235, 236, 237; Egypt
Air hijacking (1985), 238, 242, 256; El
Al attacks, 46, 48, 73-74, 83, 174, 183,
211, 228, 238-39, 240, 243-52, 271; Gulf
Air 737 bombing (1983), 129; Jordanian
Airline attacks, 127; Orly Airport attack
(1983), 274, 275; Pan-Am hijacking
(1986, Karachi), 183, 192, 228, 241,
252-55, 256; Pan Am 103 bombing
(Lockerbie), 44, 254-55; Pan Am 707
attack (1973, Rome), 101, 102; Sabena
hijacking (I972), 85; Syrian Airline
attacks, 107, 127; TWA Boeing
hijacking (1969), 83; TWA jet bombing
(1986), 240
Akkur, Mufid, 252
Alaa, 188-90, 199, 202, 206, 209, 215-17,
246, 288, 295, 310
Alawite sect, 58, 121, 146
Algeria, 9, 10, 14, 15, 32, 73, 92, 95, 185,
193, 272, 297, 303; intelligence, 27-28,
261, 262, 310
Algiers, 9, 15, 28, 40, 41, 74, 147, 166, 265,
308-11; Fourth Non-Aligned
Conference in, 92; Palestine National
Council meetings in, 173, 302-307
al-Hameh camp, 81
Ali, Ben, 39
Ali, Comrade, 20-23
Ali, Naji al-, 4
Alia, 127
Allush, Naji, 86, 98, 116-19, 142,
194
Alon, Yosef, 48
Amal, 7, 140, 141, 142, 214
Amli, Abu Khalid al-, 132, 134
Amman, 64, 66, 68-71, 73, 75, 78, 8O-S1,
89, 121, 122, 142, 146-47; 1984
Intercontinental Hotel bombing, 127,
235
Ammash, Salih Mahdi, 78
Amri, Hasan al-, 28
Ankara, 28, 107, 127, 192, 271-74
Antwerp, 171, 268, 269
Arab-Israeli negotiations, 50-52, 93-94,
121, 126-28, 132, 142, 152, 160-63,
166-67, 169, 174, 315-16, 320-24
Arab-Jewish war (1948), 60-61 and n., 62,
72, 159
Arab Liberation Front (ALF), 77, 95, 176,
293
Arab revolt of 1936-39, 60, 71-72
Arab Revolutionary Brigades, 129-30, 254
Arab Summit Conference: of 1964, 76; of
1974, 93-94; of 1978, 112, 166
Arab Times (newspaper). 130
Ararat, Yasser, 4-5, 7, 10, 32, 39, 40, 41,
44, 48, 49-52, 66, 76-80, 83, 93, 104,
121, 125, 139, 147, 149, 173, 180, 237,
239.278, 279, 314; assassination
attempts on, 159-60; becomes PLO
chairman, 76-77; Cairo Declaration of,
238; and diplomatic role of PLO, 93-96,
102, 126, 132, 142, 16Q-.j;3, 238, 239,
319-21; Fatah mutiny against, 131-35,
159, 208; and Gulf War, 32, 313-16,
319; and Israeli invasions of Lebanon,
114-16, 131-32, 148, 222-27; and
mid-1980s Palestinian resistance
reconciliation, 142-43; Abu Nidal vs.
PLO and, 5, 69-70, 79, 85-86, 92, 96,
97-100, 114-16, 131-35, 151-54, 158-78,
198, 200, 224, 271-72, 302-27; 1974 UN
General Assembly address by, 94, 160;
and Qaddafi, 148-49, 313-14; relations
with Iraq, 96, 112, 166, 313-16; relations
with Syria, 132. 134, 223-26; and Third
Fatah Congress, 86-87. 99; and War of
the Camps, 140-42, 159
A'raj, Bassam al-, 189
Arauki, Nabil, 118
Arens, Moshe, 235, 322
Argov, Shlomo, 223, 232, 271
Argov affair, 222-27, 232, 271
Armenia, 190, 206, 230, 273
Armenian Revolutionary Federation,
273-75
Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation
of Armenia (ASALA), 190, 206, 272-75
Asba, Hamm Abu, 149, 311
Assad, Hafez al-, 39-40, 42, 58, 96,
106-107, 111, 120, 125, 132, 141, 145,
166, 201, 223, 224, 234, 241, 265, 315;
and Hindawi affair, 248-51, 256, 257;
relations with Jordan, 121, 125-28
Ata, Amjad, 5, 18, 92, 184, 300, 301
Athens, 21, 22, 83, 184, 241; terrorist
attacks in, 127, 213, 222, 235-38, 242,
266, 274
Atwan, Bajis Abu, 256
Austria, 54, 173, 204, 260; terrorist attacks
in, 46, 170-71, 183, 186, 211, 228,
238-39, 243-47, 278
Awad, Mustafa, see Alaa
Awad, Ramzi, 183-84, 236
Awdah, Isam, 226
Ayyat, Lakhal, 304
Aziz, Khalifa Ahmad Abd al-, 129
Aziz, Tariq, 111, 123, 145, 166, 201

Ba'ath party, 63-67, 77, 88, 95-97, 109-11,
120, 214, 229-30, 239
Badawi, Abdallah Ghani, 28
Badran, Ayish, 290-91
Baghdad, 32, 37, 95, 110, 217, 230, 231,
279; Abu Nidal's operations in, 77-80,
84, 85, 88-108, 109, 112-24, 180-86,
198, 207, 282-84; 1978 Arab summit in,
112, 166; Pact, 64
Bakr, Ahmad Hasan al-, 78, 79, 88, 92,
95-96, 100, 111-12, 121, 145, 166
Bakr, Atif Abu, 35, 38, 45, 53, 141-43,
183, 188, 200, 201, 212, 213, 218-21,
255, 259, 279, 295-301, 307-12, 318-19;
defection of, 307-309
Bangkok, 27, 30-31, 48
Bank of Credit and Commerce
International (BCCI), 204-205
Banna, Abd al-Karim al-, 293
Banna, Khalil at-, 57, 61
Banna, Marwan al-, 223, 225
Banna, Muhammed al-, 58
Banna, Sabri al-, see Nidal, Abu
Banna, Salwa al-, 199-200
Barak, Ehud, 40
Basil, 104-105, 225-27, 284-85, 290-91
Bayyari, Mujahid al-, 292-93
Begin, Menachem, 51-52, 71, 111, 114,
160, 167, 169, 171-72, 222-27, 232, 233
Beirut, 7, 10, 13, 15, 31, 40, 47-49, 65, 74,
83, 84, 98, 101, 102, 141, 165, 167, 169,
173, 182, 199, 217, 220, 235, 268, 273, .
279, 283; Israeli invasions of, 114-16,
132, 148, 159-0, 222, 224, 227, 232,
262; 19805 terrorism in, 226, 232-41
Bekaa Valley, 131-33, 140, 226-27, 232,
253, 273, 285, 288
Belgium, 23, 165, 168-71, 280; and Silco
affair, 267-69
Belgrade, 23-24, 30, 37, 52, 272, 276, 277,
279
Berlin, 277, 278, 294; 1986 discotheque
bombing in, 240, 246
Bernadotte, Count, 230
Biram, 47
Bishari, Ibrahim al-, 136, 144
Bitar, Hussein al-, 146-47
Black June, 107-108
Black September, 46, 47, 48, 81-85, 93,
101, 105, 153, 158, 160, 167-8
Boudia, Muhammad, 48
Boumedienne, Houari, 92, 147
Bourdet, Claude, 163, 178
Bourguiba, President, 103
Bqasta, 205, 211, 285-86, 291, 312
Brahimi, Lakhdar, 304
Britain, 5, 59, 60, 64, 71, 72, 137, 191, 235;
and Argov affair, 223-25, 232, 271; and
Hindawi affair, 247-52; Abu Nidal's
operations in, 183-84, 192, 204, 205,
223-25, 232, 235-36, 247-52, 254, 271;
terrorist attacks against, 47, 49, 52,
127, 137, 148, 159, 162-63, 165, 169,
211, 223-25, 232, 234-41, 243, 247-52,
271
British Airways, terrorist attacks on,
102-103, 235-37
Brussels, 23, 47, 49, 157, 159, 268, 269;
terrorist attacks in, 165, 168-70, 231,
269, 280
Budapest, 37, 53, 278-79
Bulgaria, 36, 204, 279
Bull, Gerald, 231
Bureau of the Political Directorate
Abroad, 198, 208
Bush, George, 234, 314, 315

Cabral, Amilcar, 158-59
Cadres School, 211
Cairo, 81, 90, 91, 93, 96, 230, 237, 238,
242-43, 272, 319
Camp David accords, 112, 166, 169
Carter, Jimmy, 52, 112, 114, 168, 257
Casey, William, 52, 234, 236
Cells of the Arab Fedayeen, 254, 263
Central Committee, 5, 14, 16, 18, 180-81,
187, 195, 202, 203, 206, 209, 262, 290,
296, 300
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 50, 52,
110, 145, 153, 167-68, 175-76, 178, 203,
213, 234, 236, 239, 291
China, 87-88, 276
Chirac, Jacques, 249
Chou En-tai, 87-88
City of Poros (ship), attack on, 222,
265-67, 281
Cohen, Baruch, 48, 156-58
Cohen, Gula, 322
Collett, Alec, 236, 240, 271
Committee for Arab Countries, 191-93
Committee for Foreign Countries, 191-92
Committee for Revolutionary Justice, 181,
205-206, 217-19, 285-87, 288; structure
and workings of, 205-206
Committee for Special Missions, 6, 20, 24,
183-84, 186, 188, 212, 245
Counterespionage Committee, 186, 188
Cuba, 8, 52, 94, 117
Cyprus, 36, 37, 48, 54, 105, 156, 164, 187,
222-23, 245, 237, 240-43, 262-67
Czechoslovakia, 275, 279

Damascus, 6, 8, 36, 40, 63, 81, 83, 85, 97,
98, 126, 173, 239, 248-52, 279; Abu
Nidal's operations in, 107-108, 109,
119-35, 143-47, 194-95, 198, 199, 201,
229, 256, 257, 280, 284-85
Damm, Sayyid Qaddaf al-, 103, 245
Dar Sabra (news agency), 125, 198-99
Darwish, Samir, 212
Dawud, Abu, 41, 48, 49, 53, 70, 86-90, 91,
92, 96-99, 106-107, 114-15, 117, 189,
289; assassination attempt on, 176-178,
180
Dayan, Moshe, 151, 322
Democratic Front for the Liberation of
Palestine (DFLP), 41, 76-77, 176, 210
Desert Storm, 32, 50, 268, 281, 313-16,
319
Deutscher, Isaac, 321, 322
Dikko, Umaro, 236
Din, Mahmud Nur al-, 243
Disi, Jasir a1-, 290-91
Douglas, Leigh, 240
Druqi, Salih al-, 245
Druze forces, 205, 214, 233
Duba, Ali, 120, 121

East Berlin, 119, 203, 277, 278
East Germany, 89, 275, 277-78, 324
East Jerusalem, 66, 314
Egypt, 50-51, 64, 65, 72-73, 77, 102, 106,
126, 134, 137, 162, 164, 174, 223, 231,
237, 238, 242-43, 264, 266, 272, 319-20;
Camp David accords, 112, 166, 169;
Fatah in, 88; October War (1973), 50,
90, 93, 106, 126, 311; relations with
Libya, 109, 147, 148, 242-43; Six-Day
War (1967), 66, 72, 73, 155, 315; U.S.
relations with, -112
Egypt Air hijacking (1985), 238, 242,
256
Egypt's Revolution, 242-43, 254, 272
Eid, Guy, 48
Eitan, Rafael, 224
El Al Airlines, terrorist attacks on, 46, 48,
73-74, 83, 174, 183, 211, 228, 238-39,
240, 243-52, 271
Eldar, Efraim, 170
Eldred, Israel, 230
Emergency Leadership, 53, 218-19, 284,
309-12, 318-19
ETA, 16, 229, 272
Ethiopia, 94, 227, 263
Etritean People's Liberation Front, 94
European operations of Abu Nidal, 23-25,
28, 54, 91-92, 105, 119, 130, 134,
168-78, 183-84, 190-92, 204, 231, 236,
243-52, 254, 265-72, 275-79, 294; see
also specific cities and countries

Fadi, Abu, 64
Fadlallah. Muhammad Hussein, 236. 281
Fabmi, Umar, 117
Faisal, King of Saudi Arabia, 88, 92
Faraj, 117, 119
Farazani, Muftah at-, 144
Faris, Aduan al-, 252, 277
Farra. Ali al-, see Kamal, Dr.
Fatah, 7, 10-31, 32, 36-37, 40, 42, 48, 49,
66, 68-80, 117, 155, 176, 180, 210, 228,
275, 278, 290, 295, 310, 311, 314; and
Black September, 81-85, 101, 105, 153,
158. 160, 167-68; diplomatic role of,
93-96, 101, 132, 142, 160-61; in Egypt,
88; in Europe, 156-58, 192, 243-47, 275,
276, 277; internal quarrels, 31, 75-77,
82, 85-86, 94-104, 109, 142, 155,
159-63; in Iraq, 77-80, 84, 85, 88-108,
203, 207, 283; in Jordan, 68-71, 75-83,
85-90, 93, 101, 153, 167; in Kuwait, 66;
in Lebanon, 82, 83, 84, 96, 101, 102,
114-17, 122, 131-35, 165, 167, 173; in
Libya, 88, 101, 102, 139, 147-48;
mid-1980s reconciliation in, 142-43;
mutiny of 1983, 131-35, 139, 141, 159,
208; Abu Nidal in, 66-71, 78-80, 88-99,
101, 154; Abu Nidal's breach with,
78-80, 86, 93, 97-100, 118, 119, 142,
160-61, 182, 185, 276, 282, 303-306;
penetration and manipulation of,
155-78, 210-27; in Syria, 88, 96-97, 122,
131, 132; terrorist and counterterrorist
activities with Israel, 71-85, 88, 230-42;
Third Congress, 85-87, 99; working
methods of, 6-31
Fatah; The Revolutionary Council,
99-100, 305
Fartah, Nabil Abd al-, 283-84
Fawaris, Mustafa Abu al-, 207
Fawaris, Naji Abu al-, 186
Filastin al-thawra (journal), 7, 198-200
Finance Directorate, 181, 190, 202-205,
259, 270, 291
Fletcher, Yvonne, 137, 234
Force 17, 4, 49, 167, 237
Foreign Intelligence Committee, 186, 188,
266
France, 32, 64, 105, 175, 178, 180, 187,
190, 201, 222, 229, 293; and Silco affair,
267-70; terrorist attacks in, 47, 48, 49,
91-92, 129, 157, 159, 165, 184, 270-72,
274, 293
Free Officers movement, 137, 148
French Action Directe, 180, 229, 272
Fu'ad, Abu Ahmad, 288

Garang, John, 264
Gaza, 61, 62, 66, 82, 93, 159, 267, 314
Gemayel, Amin, 232, 234
Gemayel, Bashir, 169, 222, 227, 232
Geneva, 106, 127, 187, 205
Ghafur, Ahmad Ahd al-, 100-104, 282
Ghassan al-Ali, Dr., 145, 177, 179, 181-85,
186, 190, 195, 202, 205, 206, 209, 215,
218-21, 225, 227, 245-46, 288-91, 301,
310
Ghubash, Sail al-, 107, 129, 245
Gilzer, Simha, 48
Golan Heights, 66, 93, 11 \, 223, 233,
314-15
Goldmann, Nahum, 172
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 324
Goutierre, Christian, 274
Greece, 54, 83, 105, 127, 184, 187, 193,
213, 235, 236, 237, 242; terrorist attacks
in, 127, 213, 222, 235-39, 242, 265-67,
281
Gulf Air 737 bombing (1983), 129
Gulf War (1991), 32-33, 38, 50, 110, 159,
268, 281, 313-16, 319

Habash, George, 7, 41, 47, 74, 76, 83, 95,
97, 139, 254
Haddad, Sa'd, 114
Haddad, Sami, 156-57
Haddad, Wadi, 74-75, 83, 95, 97, 199, 273
Hagana, 60, 61
Hagopian, Hagop, 273-75
Haidar, Lutfallah, 248
Haig, Alexander, 52, 223, 227, 233
Hama, 120; 1982 massacre, 223, 230
Hamadani, Adnan al-, 145
Hamdan, Mansur, 201
Hammad, Adnan, 165
Hammad, Nimr, 165
Harnmami, Ahmad, 165
Hammami, Sa'id, 43, 49, 52, 148, 159;
murder of, 162-66, 175, 179, 304
Hammuda, Atif, 190, 202-203, 205, 259,
270, 299
Hamshari, Mahmud al-, 47, 157
Hannun, Wasfi, 208-209, 215, 290
Hantash, Yusif Abu, 49, 165
Harb, Hisham, 24-27, 30, 266
Harzallah, Fathi, 214-17
Hasan, Abdallah, 206
Hasan, Kamal, 182
Hatem, Husni, 272
Hawatmeh, Nayif, 41, 76
Higgins, Robert, 226
Hijazi, Abdallah, 103, 245
Hindawi, Nizar, 240, 241, 247-51
Hindawi affair, 247-52, 256-57, 265
Hindi, Hani al-, 74
Hitler, Adolf, 59
Hizballah, 7, 210, 214, 226, 236, 280-81
Hol, Abu al-, 32-35, 37-39, 314, 316
Holocaust, 59, 62
Honecker, Erich, 275, 278
Humaidi, Khwaldi al-, 148
Hungary, 37, 192, 275, 278-79
Huni, Abd al-Mun'im al-, 103, 148, 313
Hurok, Sol, 230
Hussein, Kayid, 163, 166, 272
Hussein, King of Jordan, 46, 64, 93, 94,
125, 159, 194, 229, 233, 238, 251; and
Arab-Israeli negotiations, 126-28, 132,
142; vs. Fatab, 70-82, 83, 86-90, 91,
153; relations with Syria, 121, 125-28
Hussein. Saddam, 32, 88, 96, 107, 166; and
Arafat, 112, 315-16; and Argov affair,
224-25; and Gulf War, 32, 159, 313-16,
319; and killing of Abu Iyad, 313-16;
and Abu Nidal, 111-13, 123, 280, 283,
313-16, 319-20; rise to power, 111-13

Ibrahim, Hamza, 130
Idris, King, 101
lkrit, 47
India, 192, 235, 236
Intelligence Directorate, 20, 25, 125, 149,
181, 183-91, 201, 206, 208, 209, 212,
221, 243, 253, 256, 259, 266, 270, 277,
288, 293, 295; structure and workings
of, 185-91
intifada, 159, 193, 212-13, 221, 262-67,
269, 288, 310, 321
Iran, 31, 52, 94, 105, 140, 204, 227,
280-81; Abu Nidal's relations with,
280-81
Iran, Shah of, 105
Irangate scandal, 241-42
Iran-Iraq war, 110, 112-13, 123, 124, 151,
204, 224, 230, 281
Iraq, 27, 32, 37, 45, 77, 92, 94, 95, 100,
148, 155, 164, 173, 174, 239, 280-81; vs.
Arafat and the PLO, 96, 166, 313-16;
and Argov affair, 224-25; Ba'ath party
in, 95-97, 109-11, 229-30; Fatah in,
77-80, 84, 85, 88-108, 203, 207, 283;
and Gulf War, 32-33, 110, 159, 268,
281, 313-16, 319; Hussein's rise to
power in, 111-13; Abu Nidal's expulsion
from, 123-24; Abu Nidal's operations
concerning, 77-80, 84, 85, 88-108, 109,
111-24, 148, 151, 164-66, 184, 186, 193,
200-204, 207, 280-81, 282-84, 287;
Syrian relations with, 96-97, 106-108,
109, 111, 120-22, 166, 223-25, 242; U.S.
relations with, 112
Irgun, 51, 71-72
Irish Republican Anny, 229, 254, 271, 272
Isa, Abd al-Rabinan, 45, 53, 113, 120-23,
125, 128, 131, 136-37, 145, 243, 255-58,
266-67, 273, 282-83, 286, 294-300,
309-11; in Intelligence Directorate,
187-88
Islamic Association of Libya, 137
Islamic Jihad, 31, 280
Isma'il, Colonel, 132
Israel, 5 and n., 21, 26, 33, 36, 37-42, 50,
102, 104-105, 106, 109, 110, 121, 155,
230; active self-defense policy of, 83,
210-11; and Argov affair, 222-27, 232;
Camp David accords, 112, 166, 169;
future of, 322-24; and Gulf War (1991),
314-16; invasions of Lebanon, 113-16,
131-32, 140, 148, 159, 189, 222-27, 232,
234, 262, 273; Jordanian relations with,
126-28, 152-53, 251; lists of attacks on
Palestinians, 46-50, 232-42; negotiations
with Arabs, 50-52, 93-94, 121, 126-28,
132, 142, 152, 160-63, 166-67, 169, 174,
315-16, 320-24; Abu Nidal's
connections with, 43-53, 55, 78, 152-80,
183, 206, 210-27, 246, 257, 264-67, 290,
293, 304, 307, 314, 316-24; 1980s
relations with Lebanon, 169, 210-15,
230-42; October War of 1973, 50, 84,
90, 93, 94, 126; penetration of
Palestinian groups, 155-59, 210-27; and
the PLO. 43-53, 1l4-16, 142, 152,
155-58, 160-78, 189, 210, 222-27,
231-42, 315-23; Six-Day War (1967),
66, 68, 72, 73, 93, 155, 159, 315, 321;
statehood of, 59-63, 68, 159; terrorist
and counterterrorist activities with
Palestinian groups, 71-85, 88, 230-42;
U.S. relations with, 83, 94, 111, 114,
223, 232-42; see also Mossad
Istanbul, 107, 271; synagogue attacks in,
26, 46, 183, 21l, 228, 241, 271
Italy, 32, 54, 105, 187, 206, 271; terrorist
attacks in, 46-49, 73, 83, 101, 102, 107,
127, 129, 157, 183, 211, 219, 228,
237-39, 243-47, 271
Iyad, Abu, 32-55, 77-80, 84, 90, 93, 95,
101-104, 1l2, 130, 165, 166, 179, 281,
297-98; and Arafat, 114-16; and
Emergency Leadership, 309-12; murder
of, 33-35, 36, 38, 39, 312-18; and Abu
Nidal, 33-53, 69-71, 77, 78-80, 86,
97-99, 104, 114-16, 166, 174, 227,
246-47, 302-17; and Qaddafi, 147-48,
313-14, 323
Iyad, Abu Ali, 81-82, 85

Jabotinsky, Vladimir, 71
Jabr, Mustafa, 89, 90
Jallud, Abd al-Salem, 148
Japanese Red Army, 261, 272
Jarallab, Ahmad al-, 170
Jerusalem, 52, 62, 72, 287
Jibril, Ahmad, 41, 44, 76-77, 95, 97, 125,
139, 150, 244, 298, 308
Jihad, Abu, 34, 38, 39, 40-42, 49, 79, 102,
175, 213; murder of, 219 and n., 220n.,
314
Jordan, 16, 36, 46, 48, 63-64, 69, 71, 73,
76, 100, 105, 135, 155, 174, 185, 208,
230, 283-84, 320; Fatah activities in,
68-82, 83, 85, 86-90, 93, 101, 153, 167;
and list of 1980s terrorism, 235; Abu
Nidal's operations concerning, 122, 123,
125-28, 193-94, 208-209, 229, 235, 236;
1970-71 Palestinian rebellion, 77-82,
153, 159; relations with Israel, 126-28,
152-53, 251; relations with Syria,
120-22, 125-28, 145, 147, 151, 153, 223,
250-51
Jordanian Airlines, terrorist attacks on,
127
Jorde, Hussein, 9-31, 53-54, 92, 184,
318
Jum'a, Ahmad, 283
Jomblat, Walid, 8, 198, 205, 312

Kahane, Rabbi Meir, 230
Kalthoum, Umm. 16-17
Kamal, Dr., 149, 188, 190, 202, 270, 277,
295
Kanafani, Ghassan, 47
Karachi, 28, 129, 130, 189; 1986 Pan Am
hijacking, 183, 192, 228, 241, 252-56
Karameh, 70, 73, 81, 174, 306
Kaylani, Adnan al-, 203
Khaddam, Abd al-Halim, 107-108, 120,
129, 193
Khair, Hussein Abu al-, 48
Khair, Muhammad, 220, 291-92
Khalaf, Salah, see Iyad, Abu
Khalid, Walid, 201, 268-69
Khalifa, Munzhir, 81-82
Khaliq, Aziz Abd al-, 196
Khartoum, 48, 70, 75, 78, 230; 1988
bombings, 263-65
Khatib, Ahmad at-, 74
Khomeini, Ayatollah, 280
Khudr, Na'im. 49, 159; murder of, 168-72,
175, 179
Khudr, Samih Muhammad, 164, 253,
266-67, 269
Khuly, Muhammad al-, 120, 121, 122, 145,
248, 249, 252, 257, 296
Kilburn, Peter, 240
Kissinger, Henry, 50-51, 94, 106, 322
Klinghoffer, Leon, 238
K1utznick, Philip, 172
Kreisky, Bruno, 171, 172, 174, 186
Kurds, 94, 227, 230
Kuwait, 9, 44, 49, 66, 91, 107, 159, 320;
Iraqi invasion of, 32, 110, 159, 281,
313-16, 319; Abu Nidal's operations
concerning, 130, 147, 148, 165, 219, 254,
266, 291, 293
Kuwait Airlines, 9, 91

Lavon affair, 230
Lebanon, 6, 9, 10, 37, 40, 45, 47, 48, 71,
102-105, 111, 117, 120, 126, 169, 230,
320; Americans attacked in, 226, 233,
234, 240; ASALA in, 272-75; civil war
in, 51, 106-107, 110; Fatah in, 82-84,
96, 101, 102, 114-17, 122, 131-35, 165,
167, 173; Israeli invasions of, 113-16,
131-32, 140, 148, 159, 189, 222-27,
232-34, 262, 273; and list of 1980s
terrorism, 232-42; Abu Nidal's
operations concerning, 122, 131-35,
139-44, 146, 181, 184, 190, 198, 199,
201, 202, 205-27, 255-59, 261, 269,
272-75, 281, 284, 287-90, 293, 294-301,
303, 307, 311-12; 1980s relations with
Israel, 169, 210-15, 230-42; and War of
the Camps, 140-44, 159, 208
Lebanon Committee, 186, 188
Libya, 3, 27, 38, 45, 50, 52, 77, 90, 101,
103, 135; Egyptian relations with, 109,
147, 148, 242-43; Fatah in, 88, 101, 102,
139, 147-48; intelligence apparatus in,
149-50, 261; and list of 1980s terrorism,
234, 238-40; Abu Nidal's operations
concerning, 3-31, 109, 112, 139, 143-51,
165, 180, 181, 184, 188, 190, 193, 195,
201, 202, 206, 219, 221, 228-29, 238-47,
254-72, 287-91, 294-301, 303, 307-17,
319; refugee camps in, 3-31, 184, 289;
and Silco affair, 267-72; U.S. relations
with, 149, 238-40, 246-47, 251, 267
Libyan Airlines, 1973 Israeli attack on, 48
Libyan Constitutional Union, 137
Libyan Democratic National Rally, 137
Libyan People's Bureau (London), 137,
234
Lad Airport, 1972 terrorist attack on, 47
London, 4, 39, 43, 102, 119, 126, 162, 184,
204, 205, 235; and Argov affair, 223-25,
232; and Hindawi affair, 247-52;
terrorist attacks in, 47, 49, 52, 127, 137,
148, 159, 162-li3, 165, 169, 211, 223-25,
232, 234, 236, 240, 247-52
London Agreement (1987), 251
Lutf, Abu al-, 78, 79

Machanaimi, Gideon, 239
Madi, Khalid al-, 202-203
Madrid, 48, 127, 130, 156-58
Mafia, 272
Mahdi, Sadiq al-, 264, 265
Mahjubi. Muhammad Ali, 219n.-20n.
Maliki, Salah al-, 31
Malta, 22, 49, 54, 201, 219, 238, 242, 267
Manara Press, 199-200
Mao Tse-tung, 87-88
Maraqa, Isam, 182, 195, 277, 288, 290-91,
294, 301
Maronites, 106, 140, 159, 224, 230, 233
Marxism, 276
Masri, Zafir al-, 254
Matar, Ahmad Abu, 198-99
Mazin, Abu. 48, 79, 92, 97-98; attempted
murder of, 98-99, 194
Mazin, Max, 171
Meir, Golda, 46, 83
Membership Committee, 181, 185, 196-97
Mendes-France, Pierre, 172
Military Committee, 104-108, 117, 118,
180, 184, 185-86, 190, 194, 195, 207, 208
Mir'i, Mahmud, 33
Mohtashemi, Ali Akbar, 280
Monde, Le, 42 and n., 172
Moore, George, 48
Morocco, 93-94, 137, 174-75, 178
Mossad, 5, 7, 37, 43, 45, 46, 48, 78, 83,
104, 152, 180, 181, 190, 214, 236,
249-50, 281, 291, 292; Abu Nidal's
connections to, 152-58, 168-80, 183,
206, 210-27, 246, 257, 264-67, 290, 293,
307, 316-17; penetration of Palestinian
groups, 154-58, 168-78, 210-27
Movement of Arab Nationalists (MAN),
74, 75, 76
Movement of the Disinherited, 140
Moyne, Lord, 72, 230
Mraish, Ma'mun, 213
Mubarak, President, 229, 238, 242
Mufti, Azmi al-, 279
Muhammad, Abd al-Karim, 264-65
Muhammad, Iyad, 277
Muhsin, Hashim Ali, 131
Muhsin, Zuhair, 293
Mukhtar, Umar al-, 276
Munich, 174; 1972 Olympics, 41, 47, 85
Musa, Abu, 132, 134, 150, 206, 289, 292
Muslim Brotherhood, 108, 120-21, 125,
126, 128, 223, 239, 264
Mustafa, Abd al-Rahman, 4, 5
Mustafa, Husam, 133

Nablus, 61, 63, 64, 66, 254, 283
Naji al-Ali camp, 3-31, 184, 289
Najjar, Fu'ad al-, 33
Najjar, Muhanunad Yusif, 40, 48, 314
Najm al-Din, Samir, 203, 204-205
Nasser, Kamal, 48
Nasser, Khalid Abd al-, 242-43, 272
Nasser, President, 64, 65, 72-73, 231, 315
Nasserite Unified Organization-Cairo,
241, 243
National Command of Arab
Revolutionary Forces, 149-50, 239
National Front for the Salvation of Libya,
137, 148-49
Nazzal, Muhammad, 244
Netanyahu, Benjamin, 235
New People's Army (Philippines), 190, 261
Nicosia, 48, 164, 253, 262-63
Nidal, Abu: and Allush split, 116-19; and
Argov affair, 227-27, 232, 271; and
ASALA, 272-75; attempted murder of
Abu Mazin, 98-99, 194; and Ba'ath
party, 64-67, 95-97, 109, 110-11; and
Black September, 84, 105, 160, 167;
breach with Fatah, 78-80, 86, 93,
97-100, 118, 119, 142, 160-61, 182, 185,
276, 282, 303-306; childhood of, 56-64;
defections from organization of, 184-85,
193-94, 221, 253, 256, 278, 279, 296-98,
307-13; vs. Emergency Leadership,
309-12; European operations of, 23-25,
28, 54, 87, 91-92, 105, 119, 130, 134,
168-78, 183-84, 190-92, 204, 231, 236,
243-52, 254, 265-72, 275-79, 294;
expulsion from Iraq, 123-24; expulsion
from Syria, 255-57; as an extortionist,
128-30, 152, 192, 204; in Fatah, 66-71,
78-80, 88-99, 101, 154; and Fatah
mutiny, 131-35, 139, 208; finances of,
128-30, 151-52, 192, 198, 261, 270-71,
291; and Gulf War, 313-16; and
Saddam Hussein, 111-13, 123, 280, 283,
313-16, 319-20; immunity from attack,
210-12; intifada undermined by, 262-67;
Iraqi operations of, 77-124, 148, 151,
164-66, 184, 186, 193, 200-204, 207,
280-87; Israeli connections of, 43-53,
55, 78, 152-80, 183, 206, 210-27, 246,
257, 264-67, 290, 293, 304, 307, 314,
316-24; and Abu Iyad, 33-53, 69-80,
86, 97-99, 104, 114-16, 166, 174, 227,
246-47, 302-17; Jordanian operations
of, 122-28, 193-94, 208-209, 229, 235,
256; Kuwaiti operations of, 130, 147,
148, 165, 219, 254, 266, 291, 293;
leadership style of, 108, 179-209,
258-60, 282-87, 294; Lebanese
operations of, 122, 131-35, 139-46, 181,
184, 190, 198, 199, 201, 202, 205-15,
220-27, 255, 257-59, 261, 269, 272-75,
281, 284, 287-90, 293-301, 303, 307,
311-12; Libyan operations of, 3-31, 109,
112, 139, 143-51, 165, 180, 181, 184,
188, 190, 193, 195, 201, 202, 206, 219,
221, 228-29, 238-47, 254-72, 287-91,
294-301, 303, 307-17, 319; lists of
Palestinians attacked by, 46-50, 230-42;
mid-late 1980s terrorists acts of, 221-22,
228-81; move to Libya, 147-50, 257;
murder of Abu Nizar, 296-301, 307;
murder of Ahmad Abd al-Ghafur,
100-104; Occupied Territories
operations of, 212-15; organization
structure and workings, 179-209 (see
also specific directorates and
committees); and partition of Palestine,
59-63, 68; personality of, 56-59, 69, 84,
97, 118, 144, 146, 258-59; personal
security of, 144, 260, 261; vs. the PLO
and Arafat, 5, 46-50, 69-70, 79, 85-86,
92, 96, 97, 99-100, 114-16, 132-35, 148,
151-54, 158, 159-79, 198, 200, 210, 224,
271-72, 302-23; in Poland, 119, 125,
134-35, 139-46, 195, 227, 275, 278, 294;
purges within organization of, 287-301,
307, 311; and Qaddafi, 136-39, 147-50,
201, 229, 238-39, 245, 258, 261-;;9, 313;
as a rejectionist, 95, 151-52, 158, 161,
173; Revolutionary Council group
formed by, 99-100; Saudi operations of,
27-31, 91-92, 106, 128, 184, 204, 222,
280; and Silco affair, 267-72; Southeast
Asian operations of, 27-31, 192;
Sudanese operations of, 263-65; Syrian
operations of, 106-12, 119-35, 139,
143-47, 150, 151, 180, 184, 186, 187,
193-98, 201, 220, 224-25, 229, 248-57,
284-87, 293-97, 303; weapons
operations of, 105, 107, 113, 116, 119,
122, 125, 128, 149, 183-87, 204, 207,
255-56, 275, 277, 279; wife and children
of, 59, 108, 119, 146-47, 205, 257, 260
Nidal, Hiyam, 146-47, 257
Nimri, Michel, 237
Nir, Amiram, 240
Nittal, Heinz, 171, 172, 186
Nizar, Abu, 98, 131, 142, 145, 146, 188,
194-95, 205, 258, 273, 294-96; murder
of, 296-301, 307, 308, 311
Noel, Cleo, 48
Norris, Percy, 235
North, Oliver, 240
North Korea, 8, 87, 88
Numeiri, Ja'far al-, 70

Occupied Territories, Abu Nidal's
operations in, 212-15
October War (1973), 50, 84, 90, 93, 94, 96,
106, 111, 126, 311
Operation Flood, 156
Operation Litani, 113-16
Ophir, Zadok, 47
Organization Directorate, 181, 191-95,
219, 295; structure of, 191-95
Organization of the Soldiers of Justice, 280
Orly Airport attack (1983), 274, 275
Ostrovsky, Victor, 168-70
Oz, Amos, 322

Pakistan, 36, 49, 191, 192
Palestine, 1947-48 partition of, 59-63, 68,
159
Palestine/Jordan Committee, 191-94, 212,
219
Palestine Liberation Front, 77
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO),
4-5, 19, 76-77, 93, 102, 111, 121, 139,
141, 142, 143, 148, 212, 217, 302;
assassinations in, 46-50, 159-79, 210;
beginnings of, 76-77; diplomatic role of,
93-96, 132, 142, 160-63, 238, 239,
319-21; European relations with,
156-58, 243-47, 271-79; future of,
320-21; and Gulf War, 32-33, 38, 159,
313-16, 319; internal quarrels, 31,
75-77, 82-86, 94-104, 142, 155, 159-;;3;
and Israel, 43-53, 114-16, 142, 152,
155-58, 160-78, 189, 210-27, 231-42,
315-23; and Israeli invasions of
Lebanon, 114-16, 131-32, 148, 222-27;
and list of 1980s terrorism, 230-41; vs.
Abu Nidal, 5, 69-70, 79, 85-86, 92, 96,
97, 99-100, 114-16, 132-35, 151-54,
158, 159-78, 198, 200, 224, 271-72,
302-23; penetration of, 155-78, 210-27;
and Qaddafi, 148-49, 313-14; U.S.
relations with, 77, 94, 167-68
Palestine Liberation Organization
Executive Committee, 76, 96, 304
Palestine National Charter, 76
Palestine National Council (PNC), 40-41,
43, 76, 93-94, 96, 304; 1974 Cairo
meeting, 93; 1983 Algiers meeting, 173;
1984 Amman meeting, 142; 1987 Algiers
meeting, 302-307
Palestine National Salvation Front, 303
Palestine Secret Organization, 65, 66
Palestinian resistance movement, 66-90;
assassinations in, 46-50, 159-79, 210;
internal quarrels, 31, 75-77, 82, 83,
85-86, 94-104, 109, 142, 155, 159-63,
214; Israeli penetration of, 154-78,
210-27; mid-1980s reconciliation in,
142-43; Abu Nidal's development in,
66-80; terrorist and counterterrorist
activities with Israel, 71-85, 88, 230-42;
Third Fatah Congress, 85-87, 99; see
also specific organizations
Pan Am Airline terrorism: flight 103
bombing (Lockerbie), 44, 254-55;
Karachi hijacking (1986), 183, 192, 228,
241, 252-55, 265; Rome attack (1973),
101, 102
Papandreau, Andreas, 265-66
Paris, 21, 25, 27, 44, 54, 129, 178, 184;
terrorist attacks in, 47, 48, 49, 91-92,
106, 129, 157, 159, 165, 184, 270-72, 274
Party of Socialist Action. 131
passports and visas, 21-24, 25, 26, 30, 119,
144, 184, 187, 206-207, 259, 270, 308
People's Army, 4, 139, 143, 181, 207-209,
214-15, 226, 259, 284, 288, 290, 295;
structure and workings of, 207-209
Peres. Shimon. 26, 238, 239, 240, 251
Philippines, 37-38, 94, 190, 192, 261
Poland, 113, 176-78, 204; Abu Nidal in,
119, 125, 134-35, 139, 142-46, 195, 227,
275, 278, 294
Political Bureau, 142, 180-81, 189, 208,
259, 262, 296
Political Directorate, 45, 142, 181,
197-201, 208, 213, 220, 264, 292;
structure and workings of, 197-201
Political Relations Committee, 198, 201,
259, 277, 292
Pollard, Jonathan Jay, 238
Popular Arab Movement, 118
Popular Front for the Liberation of
Palestine (PLFP), 7, 41, 47, 48, 74-77,
83, 86, 95, 97, 131, 139, 176, 199, 210,
238, 254, 273, 288, 295
Popular Front for the Liberation of
Palestine-General Command, 76-77, 95,
97, 125, 139, 176, 210, 216, 244, 295
Portugal, 49, 158-59, 170, 173, 271-72
Prague, 37, 53, 134, 279
press, 7, 78-80, 85, 98, 117, 122, 125, 182,
197-201, 228-29, 241, 254, 261; see also
specific publications
Publications Committee. 197-201, 292

Qaddafi, Muammar al-, 3, 5-6, 39, 100,
103, 109, 144, 201, 238-41, 243, 289,
298; and Fatah, 139, 147-49; Green
Book, 136-37, 147-48; and killing of
Abu Iyad, 313-14; and Abu Nidal,
136-39, 147-50, 201, 229, 238-39, 245,
258, 261-69, 313; and the PLO, 148-49,
313-14; and Silco affair, 267-69;
terrorist attacks on, 240, 247
Qaddumi, Faruq, 173
Qaddura, Abu Mustafa, 102
Qadir, Khalid Abd al-, 260
Qaisi, Fadil al-, 212
Qalaq, Izz al-Din, 44, 49, 159, 270, 272;
murder of, 165-67, 175, 179
Qasim, Ali, 33
Qasim, Ghassan Ahmad, 204-205
Qassam, Sheikh Izz al-Din, 60
Qubaisi, Basil at-, 48
Qubrusli, Abir, 189

Rabin, Yitzhak, 160
Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar, 280
Ramadi training camp, 100, 120, 123, 124
Rashid, Muhammad Hussein, 272
Rashidi, Adnan al-, 170
Rashidiya camp, 269, 311-12
Reagan, Ronald, 52, 223, 229, 232-39
Red Anny Faction (Germany), 229
Red Front, 157
Rejection Front, 95
refugee camps, 6, 60-61 and n., 62,
140-42, 214, 215, 224, 232, 244, 249,
287, 288-89, 311-12; Naji al-Ali (Libya),
3-31, 184, 289; see also specific camps
Revolutionary Command Council (Iraq),
77-78, 111
Revolutionary Council, 10, 97, 98, 107,
180; formed by Abu Nidal, 99-100
Revolutionary Organization of Socialist
Muslims, 235-36, 237, 240, 254
Rimawi, Abdallah, 64, 65
Riyadh, 28, 64, 65, 68-69, 91, 128, 222
Romania, 279
Rome, 21, 184; terrorist attacks in, 46, 47,
48, 49, 73, 83, 101, 102, 107, 127, 129,
157, 183, 211, 219, 228, 237-39, 243-47,
254, 271
Rosan, Nawaf, 223
Roumis, Victor, 24

Sabena jet hijacking (1972), 85
Sabra camp, 232, 244, 245
Sa'd, Mustafa, 214, 312
Sadat, Attwar, 50, 102, 107, 111, 126, 162,
164, 253, 311
Sadiq, Dr., 203
Sadr, Imam Musa al-, 140, 313
Sa'id, Ahmad, 33
Sa'id, Haitham, 249, 252, 274
Sa'id, Hisham, 243
Sa'id, Hussein, 223
Sa'id, Nasir al-, 268-69
Sa'iqa, al-, 77, 97, 293
Salahat, Muhammad Khudr, 185
Salameh, Ali Hasan, 47, 48, 49, 167-68
Salem, Arif, 185
Salih, Abu, 132, 134, 208
Salih, Ali Abdallah, 39
Salih, Maittnud, 49
Samirra'i, Abd al-Khaliq, 77, 79
Sammur, Hani, 243
Samrin, Sulaiman, see Ghassan al-Ali, Dr.
Sanduqa, Mustafa Ibrahim, 206, 209,
217-19, 221, 286, 288
Sanussi, Abdallah al-, 144, 261
Saqr, Hisham Muhammad, 311
Saqr, Ra'id, 20
Sartawi, Isam, 49, 159, 172-76, 272
SAS, 119, 203
Saudi Arabia, 27, 48, 64-66, 88, 91.112,
168, 236, 315; Abu Nidal's operations
concerning, 27-31, 91-92, 106, 128, 184,
204, 222, 280
Sayigh, Anis at-, 47
Schiff, Ze'ev, 155
Scientific Committee. 181, 182-83, 207,
217, 218
Secretariat, 181-85, 209, 218, 259, 261;
structure and workings of, 181-85
Shachori, Ami, 47
Shahin, Abu Ali, 66, 154
Shakir, Sa'dun, 80, 100, 111, 166
Shamir, Yitzhak, 71, 160-61, 230, 251, 322
Sharah, Faisal Abu, 237
Sharar, Majid Abu, 49, 219
Sharif, Bassam Abu, 41, 47
Sharon, Ariel, 37-38, 82, 159, 172, 222-23,
227, 322
Shatila camp, 232, 244, 245
Shazli, Sa'd al-Din, 311
Shevardnaze, Eduard, 324
Shin Bet, 155
Sh'ites, 7, 58, 140-44, 210, 214, 226, 230,
233-37, 276, 313
Shultz, George, 233, 234
Shuquairy, Ahmad, 76
Siba'i, Yusuf al-, 164, 253, 266
Sidnn, 8, II, 106, 139, 181, 189, 196, 206,
214, 226, 236, 271, 293, 312
Silco affair, 201, 222, 267-72
Silwani, Dirar Abd al-Fattah al-, 203, 270,
'278
Sinai, 48, 66, 72
Six-Day War (1967), 66, 68, 72, 73, 93,
155, 159, 315, 321
Southeast Asian operations of Abu Nidal,
27-31, 192
South Lebanon, 8, 213-15, 236, 281,
285-90, 315; ASALA in, 272-75; Israeli
invasions of, 113-14, 132, 226-27, 233;
and War of the Camps, 140
Soviet Union, 52, 87, 90, 111, 168, 213,
230, 276, 279, 315
Spain, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 29, 48, 118, 127,
178, 191, 318; Fatah in, 156-58, 191;
Abu Nidal's operations in, 192, 204,
237, 271
Stasi, 277-78
Stem Gang, 60, 71-72, 230
Sudan, 70, 110, 137, 154, 206, 222, 230;
Abu Nidal's operations in, 263-65
Suez War of 1956, 64, 73
Suffarini, Fu'ad al-, 107, 193-94, 253, 277
Sufyan, 215-17, 218
Sughayyir, Azmi al- 102
Suwaidi, Muhammad al-, 129-30
Sweden, 271
Switzerland, 187, 204; Abu Nidal's
operations in, 205, 270-71, 291, 294
synagogue attacks: in Istanbul, 26, 46, 183,
211, 228, 241, 271; in Vienna, 170, 171
Syria, 16, 27, 36, 39-40, 42, 45, 50, 51, 52,
57-58, 64, 66, 72-73, 75, 77, 93, 112,
140, 155, 157, 169, 214, 222, 315, 320;
and Argov affair, 222-27; Ba'ath party
in, 109, 120; Fatah in, 88, 96-97, 122,
131, 132; and Hindawi affair, 247-52,
256-57; Iraqi relations with, 96-97,
106-108, 109, 111, 120-22, 166, 223-25,
242; Jordanian relations with, 120-22,
125-28, 145, 147, 151, 153, 223, 25<>-51;
and list of 1980s terrorism, 232-42; Abu
Nidal's expulsion from, 255-57; Abu
Nidal's operations concerning, 106-109,
111, 112, 119-35, 139, 143-47, ISO, 151,
180, 184, 186, 187, 193-98, 201, 220,
224-25, 229, 248-57, 284-85, 287,
293-97, 303; relations with Arafat and
the PLO, 132, 134, 223-24
Syrian Airlines, 91, 248; terrorist attacks
on, 107, 127, 247-52
Syrian Arab News Agency, 128
Syrian-Egyptian Union (1958), 65
Syrian-Jordanian war, 126-28
Syrian Social Nationalist Party, 226

Takriti, Hardan al-, 78
Tal, Wasfi al-, 81-82, 84, 85, 86, 153
Tamim, Mahmud, 208-209
Tamimi, Ibrahim al-, 200
Tariq, Abu, 49
Tariq, alp (magazine), 26, 182, 259
Technical Committee, 23, 181, 206-207,
248
Tehran, 52, 101, 280-81
Tel Aviv, 46, 47, 60, 61, 73, 77, 83, 85, 157
terrorist and counterterrorist activities,
Israeli-Palestinian, 71-85, 88, 230-42
Thailand, 27-31, 192
Thatcher, Margaret, 229, 238, 249, 251,
254
Third Fatah Congress (1971), 85-87, 99
Tlas, Mustafa, 145
torture methods, 286-87
Trieste, 47, 167
Tripoli, 3, 5-6, 8, 20, 21, 22, 27, 30, 31,
38, 103, 132, 137, 143, 147, 235, 239,
240, 242, 278; Abu Nidal's operations
in, 147-50, 165, 180, 181, 190, 219, 229,
255, 259, 298-301, 303, 308
Tunis, 32, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 45, 49, 53,
54, 102, 160, 175, 219, 231, 237-38,
318-19
Tunisia, 3, 26-27, 35, 38-39, 45, 103, 219,
320
Turk, Muhammad Harb al-, 253, 284
Turkey, 57, 94, 105, 107, 127, 186-87, 191,
192, 207, 230, 271, 273-74, 279, 292
TWA jet bombing (1986), 240
Tyre, 9, 232, 236, 311

Ubaid, Abd al-Karim, 226
Udwan, Kamal, 48
Umari, Fakhri al-, 33, 34, 35
UNIFIL, 114
United Arab Emirates, 123, 129-30, 193,
216, 245
United National Leadership of the
Uprising (UNLU), 212
United Nations, 51, 224, 226, 236; 1947
partition plan for Palestine, 59-3, 68;
1991 ultimatum to Saddam Hussein, 32,
316
United Nations General Assembly, 94;
1974 Arafat address to, 94, 160;
Resolution 181, 59
United Nations Relief and Works Agency
(UNRWA), 9, 236
United Nations Security Council:
Resolution 242, 106; Resolution 425,
114
United States, 28, 48. 101, 110, 137, 145,
203, 230; Camp David accords, 112,
166; in Gulf War (1991), 32, 50, 268,
281, 313-16, 319; Irangate scandal,
241-42; Libya attacked by, 149, 238-40,
246-47, 251, 267; Middle East policies
of, 40, 50-52, 64, 75, 77, 83, 94, 111,
114, 126, 149, 161, 167-68, 223, 230-42,
257, 267, 313-16
U.S. Marine Corps, 230; attacks on, in
Lebanon, 226, 233, 234
Uthman, Faruq and Nabil, 219

Vanunu, Mordechai, 241
Vienna, 30, 85, 173, 294; terrorist attacks
in, 46, 170, 171, 183, 186, 211, 228,
238-39, 243-47, 254, 278
Vietnam, 73, 94, 117, 315
Voice of Palestine, 78-80

WAFA (Palestinian news agency), 98
Waldheim, Kurt, 92, 114
Walters, Vernon, 50
War of the Camps, 140-44, 159, 195, 208,
220, 229, 291, 295
War of the Spooks, 46, 50, 84
Warsaw, 37, 119, 176-78, 203, 294
Washington Post, The, 236, 241, 247
Wazir, Khalil al-, see Jihad, Abu
weapons operations, 23, 26, 29, 89, 100,
105, 107, 113, 116, 119, 122, 125, 128,
143, 149, 183-87, 204, 207, 255-56,
275-79
Weinberger, Caspar, 241
Weizman, Ezer, 323
West Bank, 42, 43, 50-51, 52, 58, 61, 62,
63, 66, 70, 73, 82, 88, 93, 94, 173,
213-16, 222, 234, 254, 314, 322, 324
West Germany, 187, 203, 229, 244, 249,
278, 324; 1972 Munich Olympics, 41, 47,
85; 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing,
240, 246
Whitty, Ken, 235
Woodward, Bob, Veil, 236
World War II, 57-58, 72

Yanikian, Gourgen, 273
Yassin, Ali, 44, 49, 91, 148, 159; murder
of, 165-67, 176
Yelin-Mor, Nathan, 230
Yemen, 21, 30, 39, 50, 73, 95, 204
Yugoslavia, 36, 191, 192, 276-77
Yusif, Husam, 12, 13, 31, 289
Yusif, Shawqi Muhammad, 309
Yusuf, Isma'il Abd al-, 206-207

Zaid, Hamza Abu, 33-39, 45, 312, 316
Zaidan, Ali, 107
Zaidan, Yusif, 217-18
Zaidan, Ziyad, 214-17
Zayid bin Sultan, Sheikh, 129-30
Zibado, 203, 278
Zionism, 160, 227
Zu'aiter, Wa'il, 47, 157
Zurich, 21, 271, 294

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

PATRICK SEALE is one of Britain's best-known and most distinguished Middle East specialists. As an author and a former correspondent for the London Observer, he has spent thirty years studying the politics of the region and interviewing its leaders. He is the author of the standard biography of Hafez al Assad, Asad of Syria: The Struggle for the Middle East, and the classic history of Syria, The Struggle for Syria. Other books by Seale include Philby: The Long Road to Moscow; The Hilton Assignment; and Red Flag, Black Flag.
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