United States Dual-Use Exports to Iraq and Their Impact

Your relationship with government is simple: government knows everything about you, and you know nothing about government. In practice this means government can do whatever it wants to you before you know it's going to happen. Government policy makers think this is a good way of ensuring citizen compliance. Thus, all of these investigations are retrospective -- they look back at the squirrely shit that government has pulled, and occasionally wring their hands about trying to avoid it happening in the future. Not inspiring reading, but necessary if you are to face the cold reality that Big Brother is more than watching.

Re: United States Dual-Use Exports to Iraq and Their Impact

Postby admin » Mon Dec 21, 2015 1:48 am


United States Senate
WASHINGTON, DC 20510-8075

April 15, 1994

Lawrence Livermore National Labs
7000 East Avenue
Building 345, Room 1122
Attn: Brian Andresen
Forensic Science Center
Livermore, California 94550

Dear Dr. Andresen:

Reference is made to the telephone conversations between James J. Tuite of Committee staff and Brian Andresen of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Banking Committee has Senate oversight responsibility for the Export Administration Act which is schedule for legislative action later this session. As you know, many of the materials used in the Iraqi chemical and biological warfare program, as well as in their nuclear weapons program, were exported directly from the U.S. The Committee is currently conducting an inquiry to determine whether any of these, or any other hazardous materials from the Gulf War theater of operations, may be contributing to the illnesses being experienced by Gulf War veterans.

The following examinations are requested, in part, to determine what some of these exposures may have been.


Questioned Specimen #1

Iraqi gas mask delivered to the Committee on April 15, 1994. This mask was in the possession of a U.S. Army veteran of the Gulf War. Reportedly, the mask has a yellow-color growth and when the mask was uncased on April 13, 1994, it caused several individuals to experience nasal burning, watery eyes, and facial numbness. These individuals also reported noting the odor of ammonia.


Conduct appropriate analysis to determine what, if any, chemical or biological warfare-related materials, or other hazardous materials or substances might have contaminated this mask.

Questioned Specimen #2

Iraqi gas mask delivered to the Committee on January 20, 1994. This mask was in the possession of a U.S. Army veteran of the Gulf War. Reportedly, the mask has a yellow-color growth.


Conduct appropriate analysis to determine what, if any, chemical or biological warfare-related materials or other hazardous materials or substances might have contaminated this mask.

Questioned Specimen #3

U.S. gas mask filters delivered to the Committee on December 3, 1993. This mask was in the possession of a U.S. Army veteran of the Gulf War. Reportedly, the filters are sticky and have a foul odor.


Conduct appropriate analysis to determine what, if any, chemical or biological warfare-related materials, or other hazardous materials or substances might have contaminated this mask.

Questioned Specimen #4

Military dosimeter worn by a U.S. Navy employee during Operation Desert Shield/Storm.


If possible conduct reading or refer for reading. If the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories cannot perform the reading, then the dosimeter should be returned to the Committee.

Findings regarding examinations performed should be reported only to James J. Tuite or to myself if he is unavailable. Questions regarding the requested examinations or the questioned specimens should be referred to James Tuite at 202-224-3162 or 202-224-7391.

Donald W. Riegle, Jr.
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Re: United States Dual-Use Exports to Iraq and Their Impact

Postby admin » Mon Dec 21, 2015 2:10 am


Preliminary Results of Gas Masks and Exposure-Monitoring Equipment Associated with Desert Storm: Chemical and Biological Analyses of First Sample Set

Brian D. Andresen, Ph.D., Jackie Stillwell. M.S., Patrick Grant, Ph.D., Jeff Haas, M.S., Richard Whipple, B.A., and Armando Arcarez, M.S.

Forensic Science Center
J-Division/NAI Directorate
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Livermore, California 94550

June 1994

Preliminary Results of Gas Masks and Exposure-Monitoring Equipment Associated with Desert Storm: Chemical and Biological Analyses of First Sample Set

Tentative Results Obtained During the Period of May-June 1994 at the Forensic Science Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory


On April 21, 1994 a sample box arrived by Federal Express at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Forensic Science Center. The box contained three paint-can sample-containers and one small cardboard box. One set of metal containers held a complete Iraq gas mask with filters, carrying bag, and respirator filters. Another paint-can held a set of U.S. gas mask filters The cardboard box contained a black plastic dosimeter pendant. All samples were handled under strict isolation conditions and were screened for radiation, chemical agents and biological organisms of unknown origin.

Analytical Tests

The Forensic Science Center at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has an extensive suite of nuclear, chemical, and biological analysis capabilities. A comprehensive analytical protocol was applied to selected samples obtained from the mask and materials submitted to the laboratory. First we applied sensitive gamma counting techniques to all samples to screen for radioactivity. Organic extraction steps were applied to the surface of the samples. The extracts were then concentrated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrumentation to screen for chemical weapons and other unusual compounds. Concurrent with these analyses, samples were cultured and wipe samples were processed and analyzed for DNA fragments indicative of a suite of known pathogenic agents.

All organic and biological analyses are still ongoing. The results presented below are preliminary and highlight the work performed over the last two months. Additional research will be applied to these samples and follow-up experiments will be conducted.

Overview of Nuclear, Organic, and Biological Preliminary Data

A. Nuclear

Sensitive nuclear interrogation of the submitted samples did not reveal any unusual radioactive species. Scintillation counting with a low background sodium iodide detector system did not reveal any radioactive species above background for any of the gas masks, filters, or pendant.

B. Organic Analysis

1. Sample Isolation and Chemical Preparation

The submitted samples were either swiped with a solvent-saturated swab or treated with the appropriate solvents to completely remove any surface residues. The collected organics were then concentrated by evaporation to a few microliters and injected into a computer controlled GC-MS instrument. In addition, sample aliquots were taken to dryness and then derivatized chemically in order to form volatile compounds, making polar analytes more amenable to GC-MS analysis.

2. Tentative Results

A large number of representative samples were prepared and analyzed in s manner which would have isolated chemical weapons, their precursors, or hydrolysis products. However, from all the GC-MS data generated, no chemical warfre agents were detected. In particular none of the nerve agent hydrolysis products or methylphosphonic acid, a key nerve agent marker compound, were detected. No thiodigiycol, a hydrolysis product of mustard, was detected in any of the samples. Phosphoric acid was detected on all exposed materials. A large number of industrial compounds were also detected, as well as rubber and antioxidant compounds. Triphenylphosphate, an industrial antioxidant, was identified on many samples. Phenol was detected on the U.S. gas mask filters. Interestingly, pentachlorophenol was detected on the Iraqi mask in a complex mixture of over 100 other organic compounds. Pentachlorophenol is a strong acid, insecticide, and antifungal agent used for a variety of wood preservative applications.

C. Biological Analyses

1. Sample Preparation

Specimen samples were taken from a variety of locations within a biological safety hood. Sterile tubes, water, and swabs were used to obtain organisms and fugitive DNA fragments. Nutrient agar plates were exposed to swabbed samples and incubated at 37°C and examined at 24 and 48 hours for growth. Growth was noted for some samples and pictures were taken of the cultures. These cultures have been archived in a secure refrigerator for further analysis if needed.

A second swab sampling of each specimen was utilized for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses and screening. These swabs were extracted with chloroform/buffer to isolate cells and any water soluble compounds. Cells were lysed with enzymes to liberate DNA, which was then isolated and purified. The purified DNA was subjected to PCR analysis with designated DNA primer pairs. The PCR products were then analyzed and compared to standards utilizing electrophoretic gels.

Our laboratory has developed many DNA primer pairs which can clearly identify a suite of pathogenic organisms through DNA isolation and amplification. A single representative set of each primer pair was selected to initially screen for any potential threat organisms which may have been on the surface of the mask or filters. If any of these initial analyses registered positive, four more primer pairs were then selected to verify the suspect organism.

2. Biological Results

Based on our preliminary testing we do not believe that pathogens were present on the samples. From the initial screening a tentative indication of unique DNA sequences was detected using a single DNA primer pair. Coxiella burnetti and brucella species were first indicated from the inside of the Iraqi carrying bag, the top of one its gas mask filters, and under the rubber seal of the Iraqi filter. However, when additional primer pairs were used for testing the findings were negative. Because of the experimental nature of PCR testing, false-positive results can occur with only a single PCR primer pair analysis. It is essential to utilize additional and unique DNA sequences for confirmation testing.

Future Study and Research Needs

Biological studies need further attention. Cultures should be investigated more closely. Experiments to amplify the whole genome and allow for the manipulation of increased concentrations of DNA by PCR would likely be more precise in identifying threat organisms in the figure. In addition, false-negative DNA results can be obtained with certain DNA primer pairs when environmental contaminants and inhibitors impede the PCR reaction. Therefore, some initial chemical pretreatment of the samples might prove effective. Research to remove PCR inhibitors, as well as sample concentration studies, may allow the whole genome to be amplified for unambiguous characterization of unknown organisms in the future.

Finally, many organic compounds were present and identified in the samples. Additional analyses of more samples may isolate and characterize either CW or pathogens on the surface of collected items. Continued study is warranted. PCR primer pairs could also be developed to detect certain DNA or plasmids associated with genetic engineering.
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Re: United States Dual-Use Exports to Iraq and Their Impact

Postby admin » Mon Dec 21, 2015 2:24 am


Ch. 12: Rickettsial Diseases


An acute disease characterized by sudden onset of fever, headache, malaise, and interstitial pneumonitis, caused by Coxiella burnetii (Rickettsia burnetii). Unlike other ricketsial diseases, Q fever is not associated with a cutaneous exanthem or agglutinins for Proteus strains (Weil-Felix reaction).

Etioiogy and Epidemiology

Worldwide in its distribution. Q fever is maintained as an inapparent infection in domes tic animals; sheep, cattle, and goats are the principal reservoirs for human infections. C. burnetii persists in feces, urine, milk, and tissues (especially the placenta), so that fomitec and infective aerosols form easily. Cases occur among workers whose occupations bring them in close contact with domestic animals or their products. Transmission is usually by inhalation of infected aerosols, but the disease can also be contracted by ingesting infective raw milk.

C burnetii is also maintained in nature through an animal-tick cycle. In the USA, Q. fever was first recognized in persons bitten by Dermacentor andersoni. Various arthropods, rodents, other mammals, and birds are naturally infected and may play a role in human infection.

Symptoms and Signs

The incubation period varies from 9 to 22 days (average. 18 to 21 days). Onset is abrupt, with fever, severe headache, chilliness, severe malaise, myalgia, and often, chest pains. Fever may rise to 40° C (104° F) and persist for 1 to > 3 wk. Rash is absent. A nonproductive cough and x-ray evidence of pneumonitis often develop during the 2nd wk of illness. Mortality is < 1% in untreated patients and even lower with antibiotic therapy.

In fatal Q fever, lobar consolidation usually occurs, and the gross appearance of the lungs may resemble that of bacterial pneumonia. However, histologic changes in Q fever pneumonia resemble those of psittacosis and some viral pneumonias. An intense interstitial infiltrate about the bronchioles and blood vessels extends into the adjacent alveolar walls. Plasma cells are numerous. The bronchiolar lumina may contain polymorphonuclear leu kocytes. The alveolar lining cells are swollen, and the alveoli contain desquamated lining cells and large mononuclear cells.

Hepatitis is present in about 1/3 of patients with the protracted type of Q fever and may be acute. This hepatitis is characterized by fever, malaise. hepatomegaly with right upper abdominal pain, and possibly jaundice. Headache or respiratory signs are frequently ab sent. Liver biopsy specimens show diffuse granulomatous changes, and C. burnetii may be identified by immunofluorescence. Lobar pneumonia may be particularly severe in aged or debilitated patients. There are also several forms of chronic Q fever (eg. chronic hepatitis, endocarditis). Chronic Q fever hepatitis must be differentiated from other liver granulomas (eg. TB, sarcoidosis, histoplasmosis, brucellosis, tularemia, and syphilis). Endocarditis caused by C. burnetii is serious but uncommon. Clinically, it simulates SBE, with aortic valve involvement more common. Routine blood cultures are persistently negative.


Diagnosis is made by clinical suspicion and by demonstration of phase 1 antibodies in the patient's serum. Clinically during early stages, Q fever simulates many infections (eg. influenza, other viral infections, salmonellosis, malaria, hepatitis, brucellosis) and later on, many forms of bacterial, viral, and mycoplasmal pneumonias. Contact with animals, animal products, or ticks is an important clue.  

C. burnetii may be isolated from the blood. The Weil-Felix reaction is negative. Specific CF and agglutinating antibodies appear during convalescence. Agglutination tests are more sensitive than CF tests; fluorescent antibody tests are helpful. C. burnetii exists in 2 phases; antibodies against phase I organisms are rarely produced in infected human serum but when present, they indicate chronic Q fever.


Animal-to-man transmission must be prevented: milk should be pasteurized; dust control in pertinent industries is essential; and animal placentas, feces, and urine should be incinerated. Sputum and urine from a Q fever patient should be autoclaved and the patient isolated. Vaccines made from phase I rickettsiae are effective and should be used to protect slaughterhouse and dairy workers, rendering-plant workers, herders, woolsorters, farmers, and others at risk. These vaccines are not available commercially but may be obtained from special laboratories— eg. the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases in Frederick, Maryland.

Treatment (See also Treatment of Rickettsial Diseases, below)

Tetracycline and chloramphenicol are effective. In acute disease, treatment should be continued until the patient has been afebrile for about 5 days. The course of illness may be shortened by giving tetracycline 250 mg orally q 4 or 6 h. Chloramphenicol may be used in young children.

In endocarditis, treatment needs to be prolonged and tetracycline is preferred. When antibiotic treatment is only partially effective, damaged valves must be replaced surgically. Some cures without surgical intervention have been reported. Clear-cut regimens for chronic hepatitis have not been determined.
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Re: United States Dual-Use Exports to Iraq and Their Impact

Postby admin » Wed Dec 23, 2015 1:41 am



(Undulant, Malta, Mediterranean, or Gibraltar Fever)

An infectious disease characterized by an acute febrile stage with few or no localizing signs and by a chronic stage with relapses of fever, weakness, sweats, and vague aches and pains.

Etiology and Epidemiology

The causative microorganisms of human brucellosis are Brucella abortus (cattle), B. suis (hogs), B. melitensis (sheep and goats), and B. rangiferi (B. suis biotype 4 — Alaskan and Siberian caribou); B. canis (dogs) has caused sporadic infections. Brucella infections of deer, horses, moose, hares, chickens, and desert rats have also been reported. Brucellosis is acquired by direct contact with secretions and excretions of infected animals and by ingesting the milk of cows, sheep, or goats or the products of their milk (eg, butter and cheese) containing viable Brucella organisms. It is rarely transmitted from person to per son. Most prevalent in rural areas, brucellosis is an occupational disease of meat-packers, veterinarians, farmers, and livestock producers; children are less susceptible. Distribution is worldwide.

Clinical Course

The incubation period varies from 5 days to several months (average, 2 wk). Symptoms vary, especially in the early stages. Onset may be sudden and acute, with chills and fever, severe headache, pains, malaise, and occasionally diarrhea; or it may be insidious, with mild prodromal malaise, muscular pain, headache, and pain in the back of the neck, followed by a rise in evening temperature. The total WBC count usually is normal or reduced, with a relative or absolute lymphocytosis. As the disease progresses, the temperature in creases to 40 or 4r C (104 or 105° F), then subsides gradually to normal or near-normal in the morning, when profuse sweating occurs.

Typically, the intermittent fever persists for 1 to 5 wk, followed by a 2to 14-day remission with symptoms greatly diminished or absent; the febrile phase then recurs. Sometimes this pattern occurs only once; occasionally, however, subacute or chronic brucellosis ensues, with repeated febrile waves (undulations) and remissions recurring over months or years. In some patients, fever may be only transient.

After the initial phase, constipation usually is pronounced; anorexia, weight loss, abdominal pain, joint pain, headache, backache, weakness, irritability, insomnia, mental depression, and emotional instability occur. Splenomegaly appears, and lymph nodes may be slightly or moderately enlarged; hepatomegaly may be present in up to 50% of patients.

Patients with acute, uncomplicated brucellosis usually recover in 2 to 3 wk. Complications are rare but include SBE, meningitis, encephalitis, neuritis, orchitis, cholecystitis, hepatic suppuration, and bone lesions. Chronic disease usually results in prolonged ill health, but the disease is rarely fatal.


A definitive diagnosis is based on recovery of the organism, usually from the blood or less often from CSF, urine, or tissues. However, serologic results are of major importance also, and agglutination tests arc particularly valuable when a titer is 1:160 or higher. Brucella agglutination tests should include the simple procedure of identifying the titers of IgG and IgM antibodies. IgG antibodies indicate active disease. Therefore, when the agglutination test is positive with no bacteriologic evidence, diagnosis is based on a history of exposure to infected animals or animal products (eg, ingestion of unpasteurized milk), epidemiologic data, and the characteristic clinical findings and course. Intradermal tests with Brucella antigens are of little value in diagnosing active brucellosis.


Pasteurizing milk and eating only aged cheese will help prevent human Brucella infections. Persons handling animals or carcasses likely to be infected should wear goggles (or glasses) and rubber gloves and should protect skin breaks from bacterial invasion. Every effort should be made to detect the infection in animals and eliminate infected animals and to vaccinate young sero-negative cattle and swine.


Since treatment with single agents has been associated with a high incidence of relapses, combination therapy is used whenever possible. Doxycycline 100 mg orally bid (or tetracycline 500 mg orally qid) for 3 to 6 wk plus streptomycin 1 gm IM q 12 to 24 h for 14 days lowers the rate of relapses. In children < 8 yr, tnmethoprim/sulfaroethoxazole and either IM streptomycin or oral rifampin for 3 to 5 wk have been used. Prednisone 20 mg orally tid for S to 7 days can be given concurrently with the antibiotics if toxemia is present. Severe musculoskeletal pains, especially over the spine, may require codeine 15 to 60 mg orally or s.c. q 4 to 6 h.

Activity should be restricted in acute cases, with bed rest recommended during febrile periods.  
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