AIRFORCE MANUAL 10-100, by Department of the Air Force

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AIRFORCE MANUAL 10-100, by Department of the Air Force

Postby admin » Mon Sep 07, 2015 5:32 am

AIRFORCE MANUAL 10-100
AIRMAN'S MANUAL
1 AUGUST 1999
DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

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PDF HERE

An Introduction for Airmen

The world is changing fast. New threats, new
technologies, and new tools are changing the way
we prepare for conflict. The 21st century Air Force
must to be ready for the challenges. This manual will help you
get there.

The Expeditionary Aerospace Force (EAF) defines our
structure, culture, and operations. We need to be a light, lean,
and lethal fighting machine, prepared to make and keep the
peace.
Built in this concept is a mindset that we are ready to
go anywhere, anytime to carry out our mission. This manual is
how we'll do it.

Get into this manual and learn it. The skills and knowledge it
contains are designed to keep you safe and make you effective
wherever your Air Force mission sends you. Your Air Force
is depending on you to be ready.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION 1 - INTRODUCTION 1
Code of Conduct 2
Scope 3
Responsibilities 3
Evaluation Guide 5

SECTION 2 - DEPLOY 7
Personal Concerns 8
Mobility Bags 8
Legal Assistance 11
Family Care Plan 13
Pre-Deployment Medical Reqmts 15
Team Integrity/Accountability 16
Rules of Engagement (ROE) 17
Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC) 18
Host Nation 19
Sensitivities 19
Contacts 19
Overseas Legal Concerns 20
Pallet Construction 21
Section Review 23

SECTION 3 - SET UP 25
Your Concerns When Deployed 26
Major Health Hazards 29
Ground Safety 30
Tent Construction 32
Temper Tents 32
GP Medium Tents 34
Other Shelters 36
Field Sanitation and Hygiene 37
Personal Hygiene 37
Trash & Garbage Disposal 39
Pest Control 39
Mess Kit Laundry 40
Human Waste Disposal 41
Passive Defense 42
Hardening 42
Camouflage, Concealment,
Deception 43
Dispersal 45
Blackout 46
Contamination Avoidance 47
Noise, Light, Litter Discipline 48
Sandbagging 49
Defensive Fighting Positions 50
Fire Prevention 51
Field Command & Control 52
Field Communications 54
Telephone 54
COMSEC 55
Section Review 56

SECTION 4 - FIGHT 59
Before the Fight 60
Cordons 60
Entry Control Points 61
Challenging Intruders 63
Threat Conditions 65
Alarm Signals 67
Anti-Terrorism Measures 68
Be Suspicious 69
Radio Procedures 70
Reading a Grid Map 72
Convoy Procedures 73
During the Flight 76
Reporting an Attack 76
Actions During an Attack 77
Seeking Shelter 79
Weapons Skills—Rifles 80
Weapons Skills—Pistols 89
Perimeter Defenses 95
Expedient Fire Fighting 97
Tent City Fire Fighting 98
After the Fight 99
Base Recovery after Attack 99
BRAAT Kit 99
Recovery from Attack 100
Post Attack Reporting 101
Area Decontamination 103
Unexploded Ordnance 105
Handling Prisoners/Defectors 106
Handling Human Remains 108
Section Review 109

SECTION 5 - SURVIVE 111
Basic Life Saving Steps 112
Immediate Steps 112
Shock 112
Common Injuries 113
Heat Injuries 115
Cold Injuries 117
Nuclear, Biological, Chemical 118
Protection
Nuclear Concerns 118
Biological Agent Injuries 119
Chemical Choking Agents 120
Auto-Injector Use 124
Performing Tests 126
Protecting Yourself 128
Ground Crew Ensemble 128
Mask, MCU-2A/P 129
Mask, M17A2 129
Overgarments 130
Aircrew Protective Equip 133
Mission-Oriented Protective
Postures (MOPP) 134
Performing Expedient 140
Personal Decontamination
Contamination Control 142
Casualty Collection 144
Rights as a POW 145
Survival Reminders 147
Section Review 148

SECTION 6 - NOTES 151
Glossary of Terms 152
References 163
Publication Series 163
Specific Publications 164
Index 167
Notes 173
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Re: AIRFORCE MANUAL 10-100, by Department of the Air Force

Postby admin » Mon Sep 07, 2015 5:40 am

Section 1 -- Introduction

If we should have to fight, we should be prepared to do so from the neck up instead of from the neck down.
  -- Jimmy Doolittle


Code of Conduct

ARTICLE I

I am an American, fighting in the forces which guard my
country and our way of life. I am prepared to give up
my life in their defense.

ARTICLE II

I will never surrender of my own free will. If in command, I
will never surrender the members of my command while they
still have the means to resist.

ARTICLE III

If I am captured I will continue to resist by all means
available. I will make every effort to escape and aid others to
escape. I will accept neither parole nor special favors from
the enemy.

ARTICLE IV

If I become a prisoner of war, I will keep faith with my fellow
prisoners. I will give no information or take part in any action
which might be harmful to my comrades. If I am senior, I will
take command. If not, I will obey the lawful order of those
appointed over me and will back them up in every way.

ARTICLE V

When questioned, should I become a prisoner of war, I am
required to give name, rank, service number, and date of
birth. I will evade answering further questions to the utmost
of my ability. I will make no oral or written statements
disloyal to my country and its allies or harmful to their cause.

ARTICLE VI

I will never forget that I am an American, fighting for
freedom, responsible for my actions, and dedicated to the
principles which made my country free. I will trust in my God
and in the United States of America.


   Scope

Every Air Force member is an "expeditionary airman." That means you must be
prepared to deploy anywhere in the world on short notice. This manual doesn't
contain everything you need to know. It doesn't tell you how to deal with members
of our sister services
or the multinational nature of combat operations we see today.
It does cover basic skills and knowledge. The manual doesn't replace regulations or
local procedures you will be expected to follow. Our intent here is to help you and
your family through a deployment. Keep this manual close-you'll need it.

Responsibilities

Commander

This manual contains generalized "blocking and tackling" skills that are applicable
worldwide. However, these skills are just a starting point. Many sections of this
manual refer to other sources for valuable information. We encourage you to take
time to track down as many of these additional sources as practical and ensure
your people know the material in this book. Always seek to enhance combat
readiness and mission accomplishment in every aspect . Make sure your key training
folks are up to speed and capable of supporting your deployment goals and
capabilities. We urge you to build an accountability system to ensure all the members
of your deployment are knowledgeable and capable of performing to the high level
expected.
  
Supervisor/Trainer

Ever since the military was first organized, the first-line supervisor has been the
key link in the training chain. Although basic military training, technical schools,
and specialized training classes help, you are the final authority. As you prepare
your troops for deployment, remember that most lessons are more "caught" than
"taught." Make sure your team sees you doing as well as teaching these skills. Take
the time to become completely conversant in not only the "what" but the "how" of
these lessons. Make the chapters of this book part of each of your subordinates
official training records and ensure they keep up. Periodic refreshers and "pop
quizzes" at shop meetings also go a long way. You owe it to your team to make sure
they are ready. Also, create an environment free from unlawful discrimination and
sexual harassment that could undermine unit cohesiveness and mission capability.


Airman

Although your organization may set up some kind of training and/or evaluation
system based on this manual, the bottom-line responsibility for your professional
well being-especially deployed-rests with you. We hope you will refer to this manual
frequently, not for details on the regulations for any one of the subjects printed
here, but for reminders, hints, and references on the specifics of your demanding
job or situation. Our intent is to provide you those things you may have forgotten
in formal training or reminders of areas we think are important and worth pointing
out again. To assist you with this goal, we have included some review questions at
the end of each section.

You have already seen what your commander and supervisor owe you. But,
ultimately, training comes down to you. Whether you're a Colonel or an Airman,
success or failure depends on your personal commitment to mastering the skills in
this material, which is only a summation of training you have already received.
Remember, the skills in this book are presented to protect YOU! Take the time to
learn and practice them, and they will, in-turn, make you a more effective warrior
in our Expeditionary Aerospace Force.


All

Throughout the manual you will notice a variety of methods used to draw your
attention to important information. The “attention grabbers” may be in the form of
colored text boxes, or highlighted, italicized and/or bold text. Whatever the method,
pay particular attention to them - they may save your life.
 
Evaluation Guidance

This manual is set up on a "learn, practice, evaluate" basis. The primary
responsibility for accomplishing that rests with the individual. We encourage you
to read it, refer to it frequently, and review the section questions. Don't hesitate to
ask questions of your leadership. Find better ways to do some of the things suggested
in the manual based on your current or planned mission or location. Most of the
material has been referenced so you can find more detailed information if necessary.

If you are responsible for training or evaluating, here are some suggestions on
how to get members of your unit to use this manual.

 Assign members of your unit a short block of material to read
 In small group sessions, have those short blocks summarized by your people
 Go over the main points in the sections verbally
 Quiz your people, using the review questions after each section
 Repeat sections as necessary with different people; you may get a different
perspective that will help the team as a whole
 Where appropriate, stage a demonstration of a skill or task

In short, we urge you to use your imagination for the circumstances you find
yourself in, and use this manual to help ensure your people can accomplish their
jobs in a deployed environment safely and smartly.

Good luck!
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Re: AIRFORCE MANUAL 10-100, by Department of the Air Force

Postby admin » Mon Sep 07, 2015 5:45 am

Section 2 -- Deploy

Teamwork allows us to be an effective fighting force -- a rapid expeditionary force capable of deploying anywhere in the world in minimum time and in austere conditions -- not operations from where we are stationed, but from where we are needed, not when we can, but when we must.    
-- General Michael E. Ryan, USAF

    
Personal Concerns

Ref AFH 32-4014, Vol 4

Mobility Bags

There are four mobility bags that are maintained by you or your unit and issued
depending on the type and/or location for your deployment. A fifth bag that contains
your personal effects is also described here.

A Bag—General Purpose

This bag is issued to all deploying personnel. It consists of sleeping bag, insect
repellent, ammo pouch, poncho, mess pan, utensils, first aid kit, individual
equipment belt, helmet, canteen, canteen cup, canteen cap, and canteen cover.


B Bag—Cold Weather

This bag is issued to personnel deploying
into cold-weather climates. It consists of
mittens, lined field cap, extreme cold weather
parka, extreme cold weather boots, and cold
weather socks.

C Bag—Chemical Defense

Ref AFI 32-4001

This bag is issued to personnel deploying
into nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC)
medium and high threat areas. A full issue
consists of four complete chemical warfare
defense ensembles (CWDE).


 CONUS forces will deploy with the first
and second ensembles maintained by
their home station

 Third and forth ensembles will be
deployed from the Consolidated Mobility
Bag Control Center (CMBCC)

D Bag—Aircrew Protection

This bag contains aircrew protective equipment. Upon deployment, aircrew members
should have checked or hand-carried a D-1 bag (containing one complete aircrew
ensemble) on to the aircraft. The remaining D bag items should have been palletized
and shipped as cargo.

Personal Bag—Content requirements are usually developed by units and based
on a most probable deployment scenario, and usually consisting of the following
minimum items to support a limited length of deployment:

 Uniform sets
 Undershirts, undergarments, socks
 Cold/Wet weather protection
 Athletic gear
 Civilian clothing
 Towels, washcloths, and baby wipes
 Coat hangers
 Battery operated radio/CD player/alarm clock
 Extra batteries
 Flash light
 Insect repellant
 Sun-block and sun glasses
 Toiletries (toothpaste & brush, shampoo, soap,
razor, lotions, and tissues)
 Ziploc bag with laundry detergent (depending on the deployment location,
laundry facilities may not be immediately available)

Keep in mind it may take some time for the Tactical Field Exchange to be established
-take at least a 30 to 45 day supply of consumable items. Also, you should take
along some cash and a credit card. Planes can be diverted or break down, leaving
you at an interim location for extended periods of time. Be prepared!

Besides the items mentioned in the mobility bags above, you should have these
items with you as you deploy:

 Mobility equipment if issued (flak vest, Kevlar helmet, web belt, gas mask)
 Current ID card
 Current Leave and Earnings Statement (LES)
 Dog tags
 Deployment folder (shot records, locator card, training records)
 Restricted area badge if issued (base badge is usually used at the deploying
location for access and identification)
 Weapon (if issued)

Don't forget glasses/gas mask inserts/contact lenses, hearing aids, ear protection,
and required medications for the planned duration of the deployment plus 30 days.

Legal Assistance

Ref 10 USC, Sec 1044, AFI 51-504

Yours is a dangerous profession. Consequently, you must have your personal affairs
in order at all times. A deployment line or a hospital bed is no place to make some
of the biggest personal decisions in life. By giving plenty of thought to these
matters before you deploy, you can avoid problems later. Consider these documents:

Will—Legal instrument everyone should have that allows you to:

 Dispose of your property after death
 Name guardians to raise your minor children and manage property left to them
 Declare who should carry out (or "execute") provisions of your will

Life Insurance—Contract between you and an insurance company (SGLI is a form
of life insurance) that:

 Pays upon your death
 Is a contract separate and apart from a will


Review your policy periodically to ensure it's the correct type and amount
needed and you still want the beneficiaries designated.

Power of Attorney (POA)—Allows you to designate another individual to perform
one or more legal acts on your behalf for a set period of time. POAs are powerful
documents-the individual you select to execute your POA must be trustworthy and
have good common sense. Three types are:

 General—allows POA specified individual to do virtually anything you could
legally do. This is an extremely powerful document.
 Special—grants a specified individual the legal authority to only do a
specific thing for you, such as sell a car, buy real estate, or ship/store
household goods.
 Health Care—allows you to designate another individual to make health
care decisions in the event you are unable to do so due to injury, illness, or
the effects of medication.

Review all legal documents periodically to be sure they are current
and accurate. Marriage, births, divorces, deaths, and changes in wealth
are principal reasons to update these legal documents.
.
Other Considerations

Living Wills

Consider this option before you deploy, while you are calm and clearly thinking. A
living will states your desire on how you will be medically treated when you cannot
communicate yourself. You should clearly state whether you should be kept on life
support equipment if proper medical expertise has determined that you are not
mentally or physically able to make your own health care decisions, death is imminent,
and the only thing keeping you alive is life support equipment.


Emergency Data Card

Ref AFI 36-3002

All active duty Air Force, Air Force
Reserve, and Air National Guard
personnel must complete an
Emergency Data Card (DD Form 93) to
provide essential information on
primary and secondary next-of-kin in
the case of death, injury, or other
emergency.


 Law requires the Emergency
Data Card be used to designate
beneficiaries for death gratuity
and unpaid pay and allowances


 Entitlements may be paid to
wrong beneficiaries if DD Form
93 is not current

Incorrect next-of-kin addresses may delay notification in case of an emergency.

Emergency Contact Information

Prior to your departure, ensure that your spouse and/or immediate family members
are aware of how they can contact you in the case of emergency. Some bases may
have squadron procedures in place to notify the First Sergeant, Commander, or
Family Support Center. However, the primary emergency contact agency is the
American Red Cross (ARC). When your family member calls the ARC they will
need to provide the following information: your name, rank, and location. The ARC
will verify the emergency and contact you and the family member as soon as possible.


Family Care Plan

Ref AFI 36-2908

A Family Care Plan (FCP) is required
if you are a single service member or
part of a dual-service couple and
you are responsible for the care of
family members. This applies to both
Active and Reserve forces. A FCP
can be helpful for other service
members too. An up-to-date and
thorough Family Care Plan is
essential to you and your family's
peace of mind and welfare. The Family Support Center and your squadron can help
you prepare your plan, but only you can ensure that it is ready to execute when you
deploy.

How it helps

A Family Care Plan ensures that members of your family get the care they need
while you're away. Whether it's a financial or legal matter, or a medical need, your
plan will provide specific details on how you want it handled.

What's in it

AF Form 357, Family Care Certification
Instructions for care; you can give any
special instruction not covered elsewhere
Financial arrangements, such as allotment
information or special bank accounts
Family papers, such as birth certificates
and custody agreements
Legal documents, such as wills and powers
of attorney for dependent medical care and
child care
Medical documents, such as immunization
records and prescriptions
Contact information for all people
involved, such as health-care
professionals and other family members
Identification cards for eligible dependents
Authorization letters for appropriate base
agencies (AAFES, DeCA, hospital)

Support Agencies

Financial Services

Don't leave your dependent's caregiver with a financial burden. Prior to your
departure ensure changes to LES allotments and direct deposits are completed, if
needed. Allotments can be made for almost any financial commitment. Do it now, it
will be harder once deployed.

MPF Customer Service

Before you leave, review your Servicemen's Group Life Insurance and Emergency
Data Card forms to ensure they are correct.

Legal Services

They will assist you in the drawing of wills, notary public, and powers of attorney.
Don't wait until the last minute to complete these important legal documents.

Family Support Center

They provide numerous programs and services to support the deployed member
and your spouse or caregiver.

Child Care Center

Make sure they know you are leaving and support will continue for your children in
your absence.

Medical Services

Make sure the clinic or doctor who treats your children knows you are leaving and
who will be responsible for care during your absence.

Chaplain

Always a good source for support and comfort during stressful times. Make sure
your family knows how to contact your chaplain or religious counselor.

Pre-deployment Medical Requirements

Ref AFI 44-117, AFI 48-110, PHA Implementation Guide

DNA—A blood sample is taken for identification in the
event of your death. This procedure usually occurs
during basic training or at your first permanent duty
location.


Immunizations—To reduce your
susceptibility to disease, you are immunized
on a routine basis. Certain overseas locations
require additional shots. The base
immunization clinic can provide information
on the type and frequency of shots needed.

Preventive Health Assessment (PHA)—You
receive a PHA annually to assess your health
and determine if you are medically ready for
worldwide duty.

Pre- and Post-Deployment Health Assessment
and Blood Sample—You are required to complete
a health survey before and after each deployment
to monitor health trends. Additionally, an HIV
screening sample is required and can be taken up
to 12 months prior to deployment.

Corrective Lenses—If you wear eyeglasses,
you are required to have two sets (4 for aircrews:
2 clear and 2 sunglasses) and a special type for
your gas mask. See the eye clinic to order the
lenses.

Medications—If you are taking medications, notify
your health-care provider to obtain enough for the
duration of the deployment plus 30 days.

Your local hospital will assist you with all your deployment health needs.

   Team Integrity/Accountability

Ref AFI 10-403, AFI 10-215

Most every member of the Air Force is deployable. In the majority of cases you will
deploy as a group, usually from your home installation, and be processed by the
procedures below. However, there will be instances when you deploy by yourself
or in a small group and do not follow these procedures. In those cases contact your
Personal Readiness Unit for specific deployment details.

Deployment positions are identified to support all
types of contingency operations. These positions
form into chalks when they arrive at the Personnel
Deployment Function

Troop commanders (officers or enlisted) are assigned
to each chalk. Keeping track of personnel on their
chalk during the deployment process is their
responsibility

Each chalk will process through finance, legal, family
support, medical, personnel, and the base chaplain

After processing, a Personnel Accountability Kit is given
to the troop commander. This kit contains necessary
personal information about your chalk

At the deployed location, a PERSCO team will collect
the Personnel Accountability Kit and in-brief your
chalk

Lodging representatives will make tent and bed
assignments based on security, team integrity, and
gender. Do not switch beds or tents without approval

Rules of Engagement

Ref DOD 5100.7, CJCSI 3121.01

Rules of Engagement (ROE) are issued by command authorities and describe the
circumstances and limitations under which we can start or continue military
operations. They are normally incorporated into every operations plan (OPLAN)
and operational order (OPORD). ROE are the way our commanders ensure all our
operations are carried out in accordance with national policy goals, mission
requirements, and the rule of law. ROE help ensure your respect for the law of armed
conflict. Each of us has a duty to understand, remember, and apply ROE.

In armed conflict, the law of armed
conflict and ROE specifically tailored
for each mission of Area of
Responsibility (AOR) provide
guidance on the use of force.


In peacetime, the CJCS Standing ROE
give direction on the use of force in
self-defense against a hostile act or
hostile intent against you, your unit,
other friendly forces, and other
persons or property you are ordered
to protect.

ROE do not limit your inherent right to use all means necessary and appropriate for personal or unit self defense!

 The use of force in self-defense must be necessary and limited to the amount needed to eliminate the threat and control the situation
 Deadly force should only be used in response to a hostile act or a demonstration of hostile intent
 Deadly force is defined as force that causes or that you know has a substantial risk of causing death or serious bodily harm

 ROE questions and concerns should be promptly elevated up the chain of command for resolution
 Failure to comply with ROE may be punishable under the Uniform Code of Military Justice

Law of Armed Conflict

Ref CJSI 3121.01, DOD 5100.7, AFI 51-401

To prevent unnecessary suffering, destruction, and death during armed conflicts,
countries have agreed to place some limits on the actions of military forces. This
law-Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)-includes the Geneva and Hague Conventions,
other treaties, and international customs. Although LOAC is intended to apply
only during armed conflict, it is the policy of the U.S. that our forces operate in
compliance with LOAC in all operations. Failure to comply may be punishable
under the Uniform Code of Military Justice.


Do…

 Use the amount of force required to complete your mission and counter hostile acts or hostile intent
 Fight those combatants declared hostile
 Combatants are all persons participating in military operations or activities, or that pose an immediate threat to you, your unit, or other friendly forces
 Noncombatants include civilians, sick and wounded, medical personnel, POWs, and chaplains


Do Not…

 Harm enemy personnel who surrender
 Kill or torture enemy prisoners of war
 Attack medical personnel, facilities or equipment
 Attack persons, vehicles, or buildings marked with a Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Star of David, or other protected symbols
 Misuse a protected symbol, such as wearing a medical armband when not performing medical duties


Always…

 Collect and care for all wounded
 Treat civilians and POWs humanely and with respect
 Respect private property and possessions
 Report actual or suspected LOAC violations to your commander, JAG, IG, or chaplain


It is every military member’s legal responsibility to adhere to LOAC

   Host Nation

Sensitivities

Prior to departing your home base you must consider where you are going. Keep in
mind that it may not be even remotely similar to the United States. Many people
deploy and are surprised to find several of their rights, freedoms, and customs are
not accepted or recognized. It will be to your benefit to know as much as possible
about your host nation. It would be virtually impossible to list all the potential
countries and their laws and customs in this manual. So, consider the following
topics as a starting point.

 Religion-not all countries guarantee religious freedom

 Dress and Appearance-what may be acceptable in the
U.S. may be offensive or possibly illegal somewhere else

 Literature-be very careful of material that might be
considered pornographic

 Food Items-many countries have restrictions as to what
can and cannot be brought in, especially tobacco and
alcohol

 Gender Specific Laws and Customs-women and men may
not have the same rights

 Social Customs-do's and don'ts if you find yourself in a social environment

 Good information sources include the State Department, your local legal office,
the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI), and Public Affairs.

Remember you are a guest of your host nation and your actions could reflect directly upon the Air Force and the United States.

Contacts

Ref AFI 71-101, Vol 1

If you have contact with a host nation local or
third country national and they attempt to extract
information concerning base operations and
organization, you must report them to the AFOSI.
If you do not have a local AFOSI detachment
assigned report it up your chain of command.

Media

Make sure you are briefed to what you can say
and who to refer media to.

Overseas Legal Concerns

Ref UCMJ

As a U.S. military member, you must be a good ambassador while serving in foreign
countries. You must understand the pertinent laws and customs in host countries
to properly accomplish the mission.

The Uniform Code of Military Justice
(UCMJ) applies wherever U.S. military
members are serving in the world.

Many government regulations and U.S. laws apply
overseas, such as LOAC, fiscal and tax laws, and
some criminal laws.

Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) are negotiated between the U.S. government
and foreign governments regarding U.S. military forces present in the foreign
country.

 If the U.S. has no SOFA or other agreement, host nation laws apply for local matters
 Host nation laws may be very different from U.S. laws and customs
 Host nation laws include everything from tax to criminal laws and more
Even when a SOFA exists, some host nation laws still apply to U.S. military members

Information about applicable SOFA arrangements, host nation
laws, and local customs is available at your legal office.

Pallet Construction

Ref DOD 4500.9R

   The 463L pallet is used for palletizing material for deployments and redeployments.
You may be tasked to help in pallet construction during any time during these
phases. Be prepared for safe pallet building and know what to look for. The 463L is
the standard C-141 pallet, other aircraft will require different pallet
configurations.

Safety Considerations

Be sure to remove all jewelry, wear work gloves, steeltoed
boots, and use proper lifting techniques. See page
30 for details on lifting

Pallet Inspection

Serviceable Tie Downs

Damage Free

Cargo Inspection

Required Markings Visible

Packing Lists Visible

Hazardous material must be processed IAW AFJMAN 24-204

If you have to build a pallet, it must meet proper safety and flight rules or the
loadmaster won’t accept it. Here’s what it should look like.

Top net
Lighter, more
fragile items
on top
Serviceable
pallet
Side nets
Heavier items
on bottom
Dunnage

Pallet Dimensions ....................................................... 108 x 88 inches
Maximum Cargo Dimensions ..................................... 104 x 84 inches
Maximum Load ............................................................ 10,000 pounds
Maximum Height .................................................................. 96 inches

SHIP AND HANDLE CLASSIFIED MATERIAL LAW DOD 5200.IR and AFI 31-401.

  Section Review

 Which mobility bag contains your chemical defense gear? [page 9]
 How many mobility bags are there and what are their purposes? [page 8-9]
 Regarding your personal bag, what type of items should you carry? [page 10]
 As a minimum, what legal documents should you have prepared before you
deploy? [page 11]
 What is the purpose for a Health Care Power of Attorney? [page 11]
 What is the purpose for DD Form 93? [page 12]
 What is the purpose of a Family Care Plan? [page 13]
 Who must prepare a Family Care Plan? [page 13]
 What documents should be a Family Care Plan? [page 13]
 What is a PHA, and how often are you required to get one? [page 15]
 What purpose does the DNA blood sample serve? [page 15]
 Where do you go to get information about pre-deployment immunizations?
[page 15]
 How much extra prescription medication must you obtain for deployment?
[page 15]
 What does the acronym JFC mean? [page 157]
 What does ROE mean and who issues them? [page 17]
 What is the purpose of ROE during armed conflict? [page 17]
 How much armed force can you use in self-defense? [page 17]
 What is a 463L pallet used for? [page 21]
 If called upon to help build pallets, what two items of equipment do you
personally need? [page 21]
 What should a completed pallet look like? [page 22]
 What manual covers processing of hazardous material? [page 21] Do you
know where to find that manual?
 What is the maximum pallet weight allowed? [page 22]
 When should deadly force be used? [page 16]
 What is a chalk? [page 16]
 Who is responsible for the chalk throughout the deployment? [page 16]
 Who makes tent/bed assignments? [page 16]
 Can I find my own living space? [page 16]
 What does LOAC stand for? And what does it mean to me? [page 18]
 What sensitivities should you consider while deployed in a foreign nation, if
any? [page 19]
 If a foreign employee in your work area is a really nice person and has become
quite friendly, is there any reason for concern if he asks questions about you,
your family, and your job? [page 19]
 To what organization do you report breaches of security? [page 19]
 True or False: It is every military member's legal responsibility to adhere to
LOAC? [page 18]
 True or False: Since the UCMJ already binds me, I am not subject to host
nation laws? [page 20]
 What is a SOFA? And what does it mean to me? [page 20]
 Where do you get information about legal requirements in a foreign country
during a deployment? [page 20]
 What does the acronym CTF mean? [page 154] (If you want to know more, ask
your OIC)   

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Re: AIRFORCE MANUAL 10-100, by Department of the Air Force

Postby admin » Mon Sep 07, 2015 5:47 am

 Section 3 -- Set Up

 In the development of air power, one has to look ahead and not backward and figure out what is going to happen, not too much what has happened.
        -- Brigadier General William 'Billy' Mitchell


Your Concerns When Deployed

If nothing else, your deployment is going to be a great adventure. And despite the
thrill and exhilaration you may feel about going to a foreign location to perform a
mission for your country, there are some concerns you should keep in mind while
deployed. Medical threats from water, food, disease, poor sanitation and pollutants
are all just as big a threat as being wounded. First and foremost, safety...Yours!

Major Health Hazards and Precautions

Heat

Can be incapacitating or deadly

 Drink water frequently... before you get thirsty 1-2 quarts per hour during moderate work in temperatures over 82 °F
 Avoid caffeine (cola, coffee) as it increases water loss and promotes dehydration
 Take appropriate rest breaks
 The Chemical/Biological protective overgarment increases the need for drinking water

Cold

Can cause serious injury or death
 Wear proper cold weather gear and remember to layer clothing for added warmth
 Limit amount of time spent outdoors
 Watch for signs of frostnip, frostbite and hypothermia

Local Food

Can cause serious illness and may contain parasites
 Do NOT eat local foods unless approved by U.S. military medical authorities
 Wash your hands before eating and after using the latrine

Insects

May transmit life-threatening diseases
 Use insect repellent, such as DEET on exposed skin
 Pretreat flight suits/BDUs with permethrine spray; one can per uniform (clothes retain permethrine even after several washings)
 Sleep under a bed net treated with permethrine-tuck bed netting under the mattress all around
 DEET and permethrine replacements can be obtained through your deployed supply channels
 Obtain anti-malarials, if required, from the flight surgeons clinic


   Do NOT wear flea collars -- they can cause severe chemical burns!

  Water Purification

Ref AFI 48-119

Take drinking water only from approved sources

Should've listened!

RIP

All water must be approved by the
bioenvironmental engineer or public
health officer prior to use, including
bottled water.


Not not Drink UNTIL APPROVED

DANGER
NOT POTABLE

Other Health Concerns

Animals

 Avoid contact with ALL animals-they may transmit rabies or other life
threatening diseases


Do NOT keep local animals as pets or mascots.

 If bitten or scratched by any animal, wash wound with soap and water and
seek medical attention immediately!

Rivers, Lakes, Swamps, Canals

 May contain parasites that can
penetrate unprotected skin and
cause serious illness. Or may contain
obstacles, natural or man-made, that
could be just as dangerous

 Avoid standing stagnant water and
open sewers. These attract
mosquitoes and other disease
vectors

 Do NOT swim or bathe in rivers, lakes, swamps, or canals

 If you must wade, avoid direct contact between your skin and the water if possible

Malaria

 If you are going to a malaria risk area, take malaria pills as issued

Malaria is a killer-follow prescriptions!

Be Domestic

How you live when you are deployed has a direct effect on your physical and
mental well being.

Keep yourself well groomed. Aside from presenting a professional appearance,
personal grooming is healthy. It'll make you feel good in what may be an otherwise
miserable environment. Also, good grooming standards discourage health problems
that may occur if your attitude is less than what is expected.


Keep your family and friends back home informed. Naturally, you won't be able to
tell them everything, especially facts about the operation you are on or details of
your location. But you can reassure them that things are going well and you have
a good attitude about what you are doing. This effort will not only make you feel
better, but will help minimize the worry and concern your family and friends back
home have for you.


Participate in camp activities. Your unit is going to do everything they can to help
you during your deployment, including provide entertainment and other distractions
to keep you busy during non-duty hours. It's not only good for your morale, but
also the morale of the entire organization. Get involved with camp life. You may
enjoy the experience and be able to significantly contribute to everyone else's well
being.


Ground Safety

Lifting

Although there are a variety of methods for lifting objects, the kinetic method is the
most widely accepted and taught because it provides more stability, while reducing
load on the back muscles and intervertebral disks.

 Position feet correctly-Place feet far enough
apart for balance with one foot to the rear of
the object and the other foot slightly ahead
of the other and to the side of the object

 Crouch close to the load-Stay close to the
load to minimize strain on the lower back. Before
beginning the lift, be sure the back is straight
as possible and back muscles are tightened.
These steps prepare the body to accept the
load

 Pick up materials with a full palm grip-Do not attempt to
pick up weights with a fingertip grip. Ensure the load is
free of grease or sharp points that could cause injury. Use
suitable gloves at all times

 Always keep the back as straight as possible-It may
not be possible to keep the back in the vertical plane but
avoid arching the back. Keep the back muscles tightened
throughout the duration of the lift. Do not relax the back
until the load is released. Bend from the hips and not from
the middle of the back

 Start movement-With the arms, slide the object toward
the body to give it some motion (kinetic energy). At the
same time, use the legs to lift the object and bring the
back to a vertical position. Keep the object close to the
body while lifting

   Team Lifting is required to move heavy or unusually shaped items. When two or
more people are required to move or carry an object, adjust the load so each person
carries an equal part. Test lifts should be made before proceeding. The key to lifts
using two or more personnel is to make every move in unison. The supervisor and
workers are responsible for assessing all available methods to safely handle materials
and use mechanical assistance whenever possible.

Carrying methods are determined based upon the type of material, distance, and
number of workers. Workers should be instructed during initial training in each
procedure-for example: neck, shoulder, side, tray, two-person, and under-arm carry
methods.

 Use gloves, safety shoes/boots, hard hat, and any other available safety equipment when appropriate
 Inspect objects for slivers, sharp edges, and rough or slippery surfaces
 Keep fingers away from pinch and shear points
 Do not carry a load that obstructs the view of the direction of travel. Make sure that the path of travel is clear
 Do not turn at the waist to change direction or to put an object down. Turn the whole body and crouch down to lower the object

 When carrying items up or down stairways:

 Adhere to the guidance provided by the supervisor
 Reduce the size of the object carried to allow for maximum visibility
 Use assistance when required and available

…Always… Think Safety!

Combat Environment

You may be going into an environment that will be totally foreign to you. The
normal safety guidelines you would follow at home may not apply in the field.
Consequently, you must be very careful at all times. Flammables, cables everywhere,
exposed wires, containers, open light sources (like burning bulbs), ditches, engines,
and a lot of other potential hazards will become second nature to you. But don't
ever underestimate their potential to hurt you. Safety is everyone's business, and
your number one responsibility.

Tent Construction

Ref AFH 10-222, Vol 2

Your tent site should be in a level area, free of rocks and underbrush, be sheltered
from high winds, have good drainage, and provide natural cover.

CAUTION

 Avoid stepping on tent components during assembly
 Raise the tent uniformly to avoid damage due to twisting
 Wear gloves
 Use proper lifting techniques

Temper Tents

Extendible, modular, metal-frame-supported shelter consisting of collapsible
aluminum frame covered with a coated polyester fabric. Typical configuration
provides 32'X20' (640 square feet, four
sections) of covered space for billeting,
dining hall, chapel, recreation, offices, and
other uses.

This is not a one-person job. In fact, you
will probably be part of a team of 10 people
and under the supervision of someone
who knows how to build this tent.
Everyone has to work together or it won't
go up and stay up. Read the assembly directions found on the inside of the tent
packing cover.

To start, the frame will be assembled on the ground with the legs extended outward.
Each arch has to be attached to each of the others as they are assembled.

Place the tent covering over the frame while it is still on the ground. Exercise great
care so you don't tear the cover. At least four people should place the covering on
the frame.

Next, it's time to raise the tent, one side at a time. Prior to staking the tent sides, push
the base of the sidewalls towards each other to relieve pressure on the tent door
flap zippers. Then, you stake the tent down straight out from the side. In loose soil
or sand, the stakes should be angled towards the tent; in hard soil, the stakes
should be angled away from the tent.


   General Purpose (GP) Medium Tents

Ref AFH 10-222, Vol 2

Canvas-fabric-covered structure
with wooden support poles.
Typical configuration provides
32' x 16' (512 square feet) of
covered space for billeting,
dining hall, chapel, recreation,
offices, and other uses.
Temporary installations are
typically soft-backed. Semipermanent
installations may be
hard-backed (provided with
constructed wooden interior
frame).

This project is designed for eight people and you will have to work closely with
your team to ensure a smooth and safe construction. Read the assembly directions
found on the inside of the tent packing cover.

To start, connect the ridgepoles for the roof and support together on the ground.
Then, place the canvas over the top of the poles.

As you are attaching the roof canvas to the ridgepoles, you will also be attaching
the side support poles to complete the roof. At the same time, you will attach the
sidewall canvas.

Before raising the tent, place the side poles straight out from their positions and
stake them where the poles will be lashed using strong rope. It will take all four
people to raise each side of the tent, and each side needs to be secured tightly as
you complete the process.

Lastly, raise the ridgepole by positioning two people on each center support pole
(two poles). Lift the poles simultaneously into the upright position. Once the center
poles are up, stabilize the tent by having the four people on the outside tension the
guy ropes on each side pole.

   Other Shelters

You may use and enjoy other types of shelters and facilities during your deployment.
You may have an opportunity to stay in fixed facilities on and off military installations
and from regular hotels to hangar space on the flightline. Also, some mobile assets
the Air Force uses are sophisticated hard-shell structures that require experts to
raise and maintain. You won't be asked to raise these facilities. The pictures and
descriptions below give you an idea of what you might see in the field.

Mobile Field Kitchen
Expandable Shelter Container
General Purpose Shelter
Expedient Latrine/Laundry
Shower/Shave Unit

   Field Sanitation and Hygiene

Ref AFH 48-107

In the field, diseases are a major concern. Maintaining good personal hygiene will
prevent illnesses and help morale. Good general health also supports your body in
fighting off infections and other illnesses better than if your health is already
compromised.

Good field hygiene requires your personal and constant attention.

Personal Hygiene

The first line of defense is YOU. To help prevent disease...

Frequently wash your hands
Change your socks daily
Practice proper dental care
   Maintain clean, dry clothing
Use foot powder to prevent fungal infections
Bathe in approved, safe water as often as practical
If a shower is not available, wash where you perspire

   Trash and Garbage Disposal

A large amount of solid waste is generated at a
deployment site. Because this waste provides an
excellent breeding ground for insects and rodents, it
must be disposed of properly.

 Dry combustible waste can be burned when there
are no landfills or landfills are too far for timely
disposal. However, ensure the smoke will not
interfere with base operations. You can burn in an
open pit or metal container such as a 55-gallon
drum

 The host nation or your civil engineer disposes of
most garbage in a common sanitary landfill. This landfill should be located
some distance from your encampment and covered with dirt to prevent
infestation by rodents and insects

 Trash should never be allowed to accumulate within the camp area

All trash should be placed in sturdy
containers, preferably with a lid that can be
secured

Pest Control

 If not identified and contained quickly, pests in the encampment area or your
personal living area can make you sick—or worse

 If you see rodents, wild dogs, other animals, or a large number of insects, tell
the civil engineer or commander through your chain of command

Mess Kit Laundry

Ref AFI 48-116

   While deployed, Meals Ready to Eat will be your primary food source until
arrangements can be made to provide Hot A-Rations.
Once Hot A-Rations are
available, the mess kit will be your primary eating utensil. The mess kit must be
properly cleaned before and after you eat. A clean mess kit will help prevent foodborne
illnesses, and it's your responsibility.

Before You Eat

Submerge your mess kit in the pre-dip can provided at the entrance to the dining facility for a minimum of 30 seconds

After You Eat

Scrape food particles into trash can

Remove remaining large
particles in first can filled with
soapy water

T h o r o u g h l y
wash in second
can of soapy
water

Rinse in third can of clear water

Sanitize in fourth can by
submerging for a minimum of
30 seconds

Allow mess kit to air dry before packing it up

Human Waste Disposal

Ref AFI 32-7080

Human waste must be properly disposed to prevent the spread of disease and
presence of insects/rodents in the camp area.

 Ventilated improved pit latrine-"out-house"
 Pail latrine
 Harvest Falcon latrine
Harvest Falcon Latrine

   Passive Defense

Passive defense includes any measure you take to lessen damage from enemy
attack to your installation. Most such measures should be quickly executed,
inexpensive, and require minimum manpower and material.

Ref AFH 32-4014, Vol 4

Hardening

Hardening refers to reinforcing measures taken to reduce the loss of critical resources
due to the destructive effects of conventional weapons.

Facilities may already
exist that are hardened,
such as concrete
reinforced buildings or
aircraft hangars

Hardening could mean
sandbagging or building earth
berms to provide splinter
protection to facilities

See page 49 for sandbag construction.

   Camouflage, Concealment, Deception

Ref AFI 32-4007,
AFPAM 10-219, Vol 2

Camouflage, Concealment, Deception (CCD) means hiding critical assets from enemy
aircraft or ground forces and/or deceiving the enemy into attacking less valuable
targets.

Camouflage-Net for Effect

Camouflage nets are used to break up outlines of what you're trying to conceal.


Concealment-Tone Down Colors

Paint can tone down an object to help it blend into the surroundings. Paint the top of buildings to mask patterns and distinct contours.


   Deception-Decoys

Decoys are used to deceive the enemy and are employed to achieve a variety of
objectives. Decoys can give the perception that forces and structures are there that
really are not, or can divert attacking forces away from the real assets. Additionally,
decoys are great force multipliers. Decoys can be as simple as outlines painted on
the ground or as sophisticated as inflatable mockups that emit heat and radar
signatures.


Inflatable aircraft mock-ups
False operating strips
Inflatable vehical mock-ups

Dispersal

Ref AFPAM 10-219, Vol 2

Your commander will be very concerned about your safety and the survivability of
other critical assets, especially from terrorists or larger scale attacks. Consequently,
your deployed unit may be widely dispersed, with work centers, support
organizations, and living quarters not conveniently located.

 Protecting Critical Assets-

Spreading out equipment and people

 Coordinating Dispersal Plans-

Not collocating units with target potential and not using such areas

 Avoiding key facilities

Blackout

Ref AFH 32-4014, Vol 4

Be "invisible" at night-cut down or
eliminate light from facilities and vehicles
to hide from enemy aircraft/forces.


Cover windows with anything opaque-plywood,
blankets, dark plastic, or other
available material.

Extinguish outside lights and use light
sticks versus flashlights, if possible.

Cover shiny objects and make cutouts on vehicle lights that allow enough light to
drive but not enough to be seen from a distance.


Side-view mirror
Headlight
Tail light

Contamination Avoidance

Ref AFMAN 32-4005

Before an attack, do as much as you can to avoid possible consequences of
contamination in your work or living area. After you have survived an attack and
ensured that you and your comrades are safe, you need to be aware of any
contamination-all kinds and in any form. Any material or condition that could
adversely effect your environment is contamination and should be avoided-for
example: smoke, lingering sand or soil in the air, pools of water or flammables,
downed electrical lines, and obnoxious smells.


 Keep vehicle windows rolled up and doors locked

 Close facility windows and tape up cracks

 Ensure hatches on unsheltered aircraft are closed and sealed when possible

 Place as much equipment as possible indoors or under cover. If the equipment cannot be placed under cover, wrap or cover it with plastic sheets, canvas, or tarpaulins. Double up coverings so the top cover-along with any contamination can be easily removed and replaced

 During an attack, stay under cover to avoid contamination

 Do not kneel or sit on the ground. If you have to perform low-level work, squat down versus kneeling

 If you see or enter an area that is obviously contaminated with some foreign substance-like a white powdery material after a bomb blast, or smoke-avoid contact, especially inhaling. Any unfamiliar material can kill you

 Report possible contamination immediately to your unit control center

Noise, Light, Litter Discipline

Noise

The enemy is listening for you-Keep it down

 Talking, coughing, sneezing, sniffing, may not seem loud, but these sounds are very distinctive and catch attention easily especially at night

 It's each and everyone's responsibility to practice noise discipline continuously

 Any time of the day-in darkness or light-noise can enhance friendly or enemy forces in their movement in an attempt to maneuver into a position of advantage

 The sound of aircraft flying or engine run-ups can be used as an advantage to the enemy but a disadvantage to the Air Force

Light

The smallest bit of light targets you at night

 Do not smoke except when concealed from enemy forces. Keep in mind, if enemy forces are using night vision devices, you may think you are concealed, but the enemy can still see you smoking

 Conceal flashlights or other sources of light during blackout conditions

 Use all available concealment-Cover anything that may reflect light (i.e. glass, mirrors, metal)

 Camouflage your self, equipment, and vehicles

   Litter

You may attract more than the enemy if you litter

 Eliminate litter-it's a nuisance and it can also signal your presence

 Banish food leftovers and trash from your work areas or defensive fighting positions-they invite rodents and insects

 Establish a litter plan and use/secure collection points

 Dispose of litter properly to minimize the chance of disease and bacteria in your areas of operation

Sandbagging

Ref AFPAM 10-219, Vol 2

Sandbags provide expedient hardening of
resources to protect them against the effects
of conventional weapons. Sandbag walls can
be laid against buildings or can be freestanding.
The sandbag wall should have a side slope of
1:4 or 1:5 to prevent collapse. You may be called
upon to help build a sandbag revetment.

Stretchers
Headers

CROSS SECTION
ELEVATION

 Fill bags three-fourths full with earth or a dry soil-cement mixture. If too full, the bags stay rounded and do not flatten

 Tuck in the bottom corners after they are filled

 Lay the first course as a header (long direction of the bags perpendicular to the wall)

 Build the wall with alternating courses laid as stretchers (long direction parallel to the wall) and headers with the joints broken between courses. The top row should be placed as a header

 Position sandbags so the layers have the same pitch as the base

 Place bag so the tied-off end and side seams are turned inward away from the threat

    Build a side slope of 1:4 or 1:5 to prevent collapse.

   Defensive Fighting Positions

Two categories of defensive fighting positions (DFP) are constructed to provide
all-around cover from enemy fire but allow the defender to observe and fire upon
enemy forces. DFPs are positioned laterally and in-depth and around base perimeters,
flightlines, communication sites, or any Air Force resources requiring security during
high-threat situations.

Hasty DFPs

 Temporary-Provides partial protection from enemy fire

 Select position that provides ample frontal coverage

 Should be a small depression or hole that is at least 18 inches deep

Fighting DFPs

 Construction-Provide all-around coverage for two people and allow you to observe and engage enemy forces

 Position should provide frontal cover so you can engage the enemy without exposing yourself

 DFP should be 6 feet long (1.82 m), 3 feet wide (.91 m), and arm-pit deep

 Should be equipped with grenade sumps at both ends of the DFP

 Grenade sumps should be one entrenching tool wide and deep

 Overhead cover should be at least 18 inches (.45 m) of dirt

 The position should be camouflaged with natural and artificial foliage in order to conceal the position from enemy observation

 Check camouflage daily-moving 38 yards (35 m) in front of the position to view it, if you can't spot it easily, it's good

Defensive Fighting Position

Frontal Protection

18 inches overhead cover

3 Ft Wide
6 Ft Length

Floor slopes at both ends

Grenade Sump
Entrenching-tool

Fire Prevention

Ref AFMAN 10-219, AFI 32-2001

Unfamiliar environments, crowded accommodations, high operational tempo, and
an increased urgency to accomplish the mission can adversely affect fire safety.
The key to fire-safe mission execution is a well-informed individual willing to make
fire prevention a part of his or her daily routine.

General Concerns

 Test smoke detectors, where available

 Have a personal fire escape plan, participate in unit drills, and know your assembly location

 Practice good housekeeping in personal and storage areas

 Keep travel routes to exits clear

 Ensure all fire extinguishers are operational and installed near exits and hazardous operations areas

 Smoke in approved locations, only, and always properly dispose of smoking materials

 Use approved undamaged electrical cords and appliances

 Clear self-help projects through Civil Engineering and the Fire Department

Additional Tent City Concerns

 Use approved tent lighting and electrical kits

 Separate combustible materials from heat sources

 Ensure all exits from tents are not blocked or tied shut

 Blankets, tarps, sheets of wood, and other items used as tent space partitions increase fire loads and fire intensity

No Smoking Inside Tents....All Tents

   Field Command and Control

Ref AFH 32-4014, vol 4

An effective Command and Control structure is essential to mission effectiveness
and base survivability. At your deployed location you may notice some differences
in the command and control environment compared to your home station. Below is
an example of a typical deployed Command and Control organization.

Command Post

The installation's primary command
and control hub. With the Survival
Recovery Center (SRC) it controls and
implements operational plans and
priorities; controls and monitors
mission generation capabilities; and
ensures installation survivability.

The Survival Recovery Center

Coordinates and conducts tactical
planning and contingency responsive
activities, and major accident and
natural disaster response/recovery
actions. Collects and analyzes status
reports from unit control centers
(UCC) and reports to the senior
commander through the Command
Post.

Unit Control Centers

Dispatches and controls their
resources and provides status reports
to the SRC. The control centers work
priorities, disseminates information,
and interacts with other installation
control elements to ensure mission
accomplishment.

   Some key UCCs that will be in effect throughout the deployed environment and
one's you may deal with are these:

Operations Control Center

Controls aircrew, tactics, mission
planning, and other aspects of the
flying mission

Maintenance Control Center

Responsible for launch, recovery,
service, parking, and maintenance of
aircraft. Coordinates fuel and supply
functions

Damage Control Center

Controls damage assessment and
recovery teams. Coordinates and
monitors base repairs

Air Terminal Operations Center

Controls aerial port functions, cargo and
passenger processing and loading

Personnel Control Center

Responsible for personnel
accountability and manpower
replacements

Medical Control Center

Reports status of hospital/clinics,
supports medical requirements and
supply requisition

Base Defense Ops Center

Acts as the focal point for air base
defense and all security measures

Services Control Center

Responsible for all service functions:
food, billeting, laundry, recreation and
fitness, mortuary affairs

Transportation Control Center

Controls the distribution of
transportation assets and prioritizes
vehicle maintenance

NBC Control Center

Manages NBC reconnaissance teams,
reports NBC contamination,
coordinates with unit shelter
management and contamination control
teams

   Field Communications

A reliable deployed communications system is essential to mission accomplishment
and maintaining high moral. Depending on your location your primary means of
voice communication will be standard western-style phones, cellular phones, and
two-way radios (see page 69 for radio use). If you encounter non western-style
phones, your communications support agency should be able to provide instructions
on their use. Another form of communication at your disposal will be e-mail. Make
sure you follow established guidelines on the use of e-mail.

Local Calling

 Upon arrival you will be briefed on the available phone system and its use 

If not, contact your local communications support team for assistance

Long Distance Calling

 Your deployed location will most likely be connected to the Defense Switched Network (DSN)

 Use the DSN for official business or in the interest of the government calls only

 At the discretion of your commander, the DSN may be used for morale calls

 You should deploy with a calling card or credit card for making personal long distant calls


Video Phones

 Your location may have video phones and or desktop Video Teleconferences (VTC) available

 Most home bases and even some units have their own VTC facilities available so that your family members can contact you

 Contact your First Sergeant for the location and use of these facilities
  
Communications Security (COMSEC)

 One weakness of the telephone and radio is that anybody with basic monitoring equipment can listen to your calls

 Never discuss sensitive or classified information over a non-secure phone

 Never attempt to talk around, paraphrase, or use code words to disguise sensitive or classified information

 Always use a STU III system when discussing sensitive or classified information

 With the exception of bomb threat calls, you may not monitor or record a phone call without the consent of the other party

Telephone Etiquette

 Always use proper phone etiquette when using a government phone. You never know who might be on the other end

 It is unlawful for you to make a telephone call during which obscene, lewd, or immoral language is used with the intent to offend

 If you receive a nuisance call, contact your Security Forces

Bomb Threats

 If you receive a bomb threat call, obtain and retain as much information about the call and caller as possible. Refer to a Bomb Threat Checklist if available

 Immediately after the caller hangs up, notify the Security Forces and follow their instructions

   Section Review

 What four steps should you take to reduce the hazards of heat? [page 26]
 How can local water sources be dangerous to you? [page 28]
 Under what conditions are you allowed to keep a pet? [page 28]
 What three precautions should you take with local food? [page 26]
 Name two steps to prevent health hazards from insects. [page 26]
 How much permethrine spray is required to treat a BDU? [page 26]
 What are the rules regarding the maintenance of pets in your tent? [page 28]
 If the boss says it okay, what considerations should you have about bathing
or swimming in a river? [page 28]
 True-False: Taking security into consideration, you should never contact your
family while deployed? [page 29]
 True-False: One of the ways of maintaining good health is by keeping yourself
well-groomed? [page 29]
 What does "ECP" mean and how do you think applies to you? [page 155]
 Describe the proper technique for lifting heavy objects. [page 30]
 What should determine the carrying method you use to move a heavy object?
[page 31]
 What should be your most important consideration on a team detail? [page 31]
 What is a temper tent? [page 32]
 Name six attributes a good tent site should have. [page 32]
 In raising a tent, what cautions should you always remember? [page 32]
 Describe how to assemble a temper tent. [pages 32-33]
 Describe how to assemble a GP medium tent. [pages 34-35]
 What is the first line of defense against field diseases? [page 37]
 What kind of waste can be disposed of by burning? [page 39]
 What is the minimum time required for pre-meal cleaning of a mess kit?
[page 40]
 Under what conditions is it acceptable to allow trash to accumulate in an
encampment area? [page 39 ]
 When can you consume uninspected/unapproved water? [page 27]
 What is passive defense? [page 42]
 Name the different types of passive defense? [page 42-46]
 What does CCD stand for and mean to you? [pages 43]
 What is the difference between camouflage and concealment? [page 43]
 Name three types of decoys and how you think decoys could be used in the current
operation you are involved with, if you are? [page 44]
 What is the most important point to remember about dispersal? [page 45]
 Describe a blackout technique for a building entrance. [page 46]
 Describe methods of avoiding contamination. [page 47]
 What three things could indicate your presence to the enemy? [page 48]
 True-False: At night, camp noise isn't as loud and doesn't have the same impact on
position awareness as during the day? [page 48]
 What is the purpose of sandbagging? [page 49]
 What are the steps to ensure your revetment does not collapse? [page 49]
 Why must sandbags be filled no more than three-quarters full? [page 49]
 What are "headers" and "stretchers" in a revetment? [page 49]
 What are the two categories of defensive fighting positions and what are their functions?
[page 50]
 What depth, width, and length should a fighting position for two people be? [page 49]
 What does "LMR" mean? [page 158]
 What general concerns should you have for fire prevention/safety no matter where you
live? [page 50]
 What specific concerns should you have about living in a tent? [page 51]
 What types of command and control centers might you expect to see in a deployed
environment? [page 52-53]
 What organization is responsible for overall control and responses to emergency
situations? [page 52] (Do you know how to contact them?)
 What should you never do when using a telephone? [page 55]
 What is the first thing you do after you receive a bomb threat via phone? [page 55]
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Re: AIRFORCE MANUAL 10-100, by Department of the Air Force

Postby admin » Mon Sep 07, 2015 5:48 am

Section 4 -- Fight

Offense is the essence of air power.
-- General H. H. 'Hap' Arnold, USAAF

 
  Before the Fight

Ref AFMAN 10-219, Vol 2

Cordons

Ref AFI 10-403

A cordon is defined as 360° controlled access of an area where an accident/incident
has occurred and is used to keep innocent bystanders out and clear of possible
hazards associated with the cordon. Cordons are established to protect personnel,
equipment, and classified matter.

Some situations that may warrant establishment of a cordon are:

 Bomb threat
 Discovery of unexploded ordnance
 Natural disaster
 Aircraft accident/crash
 Major accidents involving nuclear or conventional weapons, biological or toxic chemicals, or missile propellants

Cordons are usually marked with rope, tape, and appropriate signs. The size varies
with the type of incident involved and environmental concerns, such as crosswinds;
typical cordon sizes are as follows:

Nuclear, conventional weapons or radioactive material

Chemical weapons

Biological agents, toxic industrial chemicals and missile propellants

Where no toxic or explosive materials are involved, size is dictated by the area affected and the work area needed by the disaster response force.

1 Mile Upwind and Crosswind
2 Miles Downwind
2000 feet in all Directions
2000 feet Upwind and Crosswind
Downwind determined by on-scene Commander

Cordon size can be adjusted only at the discretion of the on-scene commander

Accident cordons are established and controlled by senior fire fighters and Security
Forces. However, assistance from other military organizations and personnel may
be required to work as cordon guards and aid in establishing entry control points.

Cordon Guards…

 Are posted at all entry and exit routes that lead to the accident site

 Assist evacuating personnel with departing the accident site using the most direct route

 Direct personnel to the established entry control point

 Direct responsibility for evacuation rests with each individual and supervisor within the cordon

 Prevent access to the accident site

 Direct mission essential personnel who require entry into the cordon to the established entry control point

 Refer all media requests to the public affairs representative usually located near the entry control point

The installation commander or public affairs officer is responsible for releasing all information to the news media

Entry Control Points

Ref AFPAM 10-219, Vol 2-3

Entry Control Points (ECP) are used to control entry into installations, controlled
areas, or restricted areas. All Air Force personnel are subject to processing through
an ECP.

ECPs…

 Are established upwind on the perimeter of the cordon

 Are located within a 90° arc on either side of the current surface wind

 Are marked with signs and/or flags for easy visibility
 
  What to expect when processing through an ECP

 Be prepared to show an identification card

 You and your belongings may be searched

 Your vehicle may be searched

Visual
Dogs

 Entry Authority Lists are checked when gaining access to controlled and restricted areas
 
Challenging Intruders

Ref AFMAN 32-4005

Intruders can be aggressive or passive, male or female, adult or child, and can show
up at any location, at any time. It is your responsibility to be vigilant at all times and
to challenge all intruders.
Whether you are armed or not, you can challenge an
individual, but always ensure you maintain proper cover and concealment while
doing so. Challenges are divided into two areas: individuals or groups.

Individual Challenge Steps

 On hearing or seeing someone approach, command the person to "Halt!"

 When the intruder stops, command "Who goes there?"

 The challenged person should respond with Rank, Name, and Unit.

 If not, notify your control center immediately

 After the challenged person identifies him or herself, command "Advance to be recognized!"

 When the individual comes to within 10 ft (3 m) of you, command "Halt!" and then issue the Challenge Word or Sign

 The individual should then respond with the correct Password or Countersign

 If you still are uncertain of the challenged person's identity, ask for an ID card for further verification

 If the person is authorized, release and proceed with your normal duties

 If not, detain and notify your control center or security forces personnel immediately

 
  Group Challenge Steps

 On hearing or seeing a group approaching, command them to "Halt!"

 When the challenged personnel stop, command "Who goes there?"

 The leader of the group should respond with Rank, Name, and Unit, plus the Number of Personnel accompanying them

 If not, notify your control center immediately

 After the challenged person identifies him or herself, command "Advance one person to be recognized!"

 When the challenged person comes within 10 ft (3 m), command "Halt!" and then issue the Challenge Word or Sign

 The individual should respond with the correct Password or Countersign

 If you still are uncertain of their identity, ask for their ID card for further verification

 If the person is authorized, have them identify the rest of the group one at a time, ensure the leader identifies each person

 Detain those who cannot be identified and notify your control center or security forces personnel immediately

Challenge and Password (Sign/Countersign)

 Words or numbers can be used as the sign and countersign. Odd numbers are best; they are less easy to defeat

 For example, if the words for the day are Blue Cards, the challenge word or sign is Blue and the response is Cards
 
  Threat Conditions

Ref AFI 31-210

Threat conditions (THREATCONS) are used to describe progressive levels of
terrorist threats to U.S. military facilities and personnel. The selection of the
appropriate response to terrorist threats is the responsibility of the commander
having jurisdiction or control over the threatened facilities or personnel.

Normal-Applies when a general threat of possible terrorist activity exists
Warrants only a routine security posture

ALPHA-Applies when there is a general threat of possible activity against personnel
and facilities, the nature and extent of which is unpredictable

 Secure unoccupied buildings, rooms, and storage areas

 Increase spot checks of entering personnel

 Review plans for implementing higher THREATCONS

BRAVO-Applies when an increased and more predictable threat of terrorist activity exists

 Inspect interior and exterior of buildings for suspicious packages

 Increase spot checks of entering personnel

 Move vehicles, crates, and trash containers at least 82 ft (25 m) from buildings
 
  CHARLIE-Applies when an incident has occurred or intelligence is received
indicating some form of terrorist action against personnel and facilities is imminent

 Complete ALPHA and BRAVO checklist items

 Check ID of all personnel entering work centers

DELTA-Applies in the immediate area where a terrorist attack has occurred or when
intelligence has been received that terrorist action against a specific location or
person is likely

 Complete ALPHA, BRAVO, and CHARLIE checklist items

 Ensure 24-hour-a-day security for controlled areas

 Conduct security checks every 6 hours

 Provide armed escort for all high-value items

 Suspend all nonessential commercial deliveries
 
Alarm Signals

Ref AFH 32-4014, AFVA 32-4011

Alarm signals and conditions are transmitted by the Survival Recovery Center
(SRC) using voice, public address systems, radios, flags, lights, and/or sirens. Be
aware of your location's method of transmission and color usage.

When you hear ALARM YELLOW-no siren sound-or see a yellow flag, an
attack is probable

In a conventional environment-

  Don your helmet

 Don available body armor

Seek shelter when directed

In a chemical/biological environment-

Don your helmet and any available body armor

 Seek shelter or overhead protection when directed

 Assume MOPP 1 (see page 134 for MOPP descriptions) unless otherwise directed

When you hear ALARM RED (Alarm Blue in Korea) - or a 1 minute warbling
tone (3 seconds on, 1 second off)-or see a red flag, an attack is imminent or in
progress.

In a conventional environment-take cover

In a chemical/biological environment-take cover and assume MOPP 4

When you hear ALARM BLACK -"Gas-Gas-Gas", or a broken warbling
tone (1 second on, 1 second off)-or see a black flag, the attack is over

In a conventional environment-Stay in your shelter unless otherwise directed, and
initiate post-attack reconnaissance

In a chemical/biological environment-contamination is expected or present; stay
in shelter unless otherwise directed, initiate post-attack reconnaissance, and remain
in MOPP 4 until directed

When you hear ALL CLEAR, an attack is not probable nor is NBC contamination
present. Resume normal operations or initiate recovery if applicable

Anti-Terrorism Measures

Ref AFMAN 32-4005

Terrorists do not discriminate! The mere fact that you are an American makes you a
potential target for terrorists.
Here are a few key steps you can take to lessen your
threat.

Keep a Low Profile

 Your dress, conduct, and mannerisms should not attract attention

 Make an effort to blend in

 Avoid publicity, large crowds, demonstrations, and civil disturbances


Be Unpredictable

 Vary your route, time, and mode of travel

 Vary where and when you go

 Vary your appearance


 Let others know where you're going and when you plan to return

Be Alert

 Watch for anything suspicious

 Do not release personal information

 If you believe you're being followed, go to a predetermined safe area

 Immediately report any suspicious incidents to security forces

Taken Hostage

The chances of you being taken hostage are very remote. But should it happen,
remember your personal conduct can influence your treatment. If you are taken
hostage there are three important rules to follow:

 Analyze the problem so as to not aggravate the situation

 Make educated decision to keep the situation from worsening

 Maintain discipline to remain on the best terms with your captors

Be Suspicious

Ref AFMAN 32-4005

Hostile governments and terrorist organizations may use improvised explosive
devices (IED) to reach their objectives. The construction of an IED is limited only
by the imagination of the builder. Therefore, standard identification features do not
exist. Like unexploded ordnance (UXO), IEDs come in various shapes and sizes, but
the lethality of an IED is not always determined by its size.

When you discover a suspected IED, react very much as you would to discovering
a UXO:

 Be Vigilant

 Be familiar with work center surroundings

 Challenge or report unknown personnel around your work center

 Be suspicious of anything out of the ordinary (protruding wires, abandoned vehicles)

 Protect yourself and others

 Identify, mark, evacuate, and report the device just as you would any UXO. See page 105 for UXO handling.

Don't risk your life by moving or opening a suspect device!
 
  Radio Procedures

Whether you work in civil engineering, communications, medical emergencies, fire
department, security forces, transportation, or flightline operations, the land mobile
radio (LMR) will be your communication lifeline. Several LMR types - hand-held,
mobile, base station, and repeater models exist, but they basically operate the same.
The most commonly used is the hand-held.

Do you know your Phonetic Alphabet? Use it when you can.

Antenna
Channel Select
On/Off/Volume
Security
Channel Battery Security Readout
Push to Talk
Microphone
Keypad
Battery

Basic Land Mobile Radio Features
 
  Basic Radio Operating Procedures

 Speak clearly into the microphone and use proper call signs

 Protect your radio

 Conduct radio checks

 Always be aware of OPSEC for radios, phones, discussions and computers

 Periodically check physical condition and battery connections

 Know your unit radio manager

DO NOT...

Use Ranks and Names of Supervisors or Commanders

Discuss Classified Information

Use Profanity

Hang Anything from Antenna

Disclose Specific Locations

Broadcast SSNs, phone or credit card numbers

OPSEC is Everyones Job...

Reading a Grid Map

Ref AFJMAN 24-306

A grid map is used to identify locations using alphanumeric symbols rather than
descriptions, which would take too long to relay even if passed accurately or
clearly

Base or operating location maps are standardized
so that everyone sees the facility within a series
of squares that are labeled for easy reference

Along the bottom of the map, each square is labeled with a
number running consecutively (i.e., 4, 5, and 6)

Along the side of the map, each square is labeled
with a letter or letters that are in familiar order (i.e., D,
E, F, and G)

Each square is further subdivided into 10 evenly spaced blocks across the top and
side for clarity. These sub-blocks may or may not be marked. If not marked, use your
best judgment in determining where in the block you are trying to identify a location.

The coordinates of a location are determined by reading
across the map from left to right for the number, and
reading from the bottom to the top for the letter.

The number/letter combination is known as the grid
coordinate.

Topographic maps use color and contour lines-refer to
map legend.

Grid coordinate for the "X" is 2.2-C.3
 
  Convoy Procedures

Ref AFJMAN 24-306

At some time during your deployment, you may be required to operate or ride in a
vehicle that is part of a convoy. Critical information on convoy procedures will be
given during the convoy briefing—pay attention. You must ensure that as a driver:

 You are qualified to drive that specific vehicle

 Your vehicle is inspected every 24 hours

 Your vehicle has some form of communication equipment

 Your vehicle is equipped with a fire extinguisher, first aid kit, and AF Form 1800, Operator's Inspection Guide and Trouble
Report

 As a driver or rider, you must know:

 That day's call signs and frequencies

 The primary and alternate route of travel, to include checkpoints and timelines

 The location of the convoy commander

 The order of movement

 What to do during attacks, road blocks, and breakdowns

 Maps if needed (make sure you can read them)

Speed Limits

10 mph (16 kph) on trails

 15 mph (24 kph) on unimproved (dirt) roads

 30 mph (48 kph) on improved roads

 45 mph (72 kph) on high-speed roads

When using blackout markers, lead vehicle will not exceed 15 mph (24 kph) on open roads and 10 mph through built-up areas

Distance/Intervals

 328 ft (100 m) minimum on high-speed roads

 164 ft (50 m) on all other roads

 Inclement weather or enemy activity will increase vehicle intervals

 Vehicle intervals while stopped are 33 ft (10 m) except in build-up areas, cities, and at traffic lights
 
  What to do when a Convoy…

Is Under an Air Attack

 If you see an enemy aircraft, sound the alarm-a series of short blasts on the vehicle horn

 Pull vehicles off the road, maintain intervals

 Dismount and seek cover away from the vehicles

 Radio operators should notify control centers-at a minimum, give time, location, and activity using SALUTE (see page 76)

 Remain under cover until the convoy commander or senior available person sounds "All Clear"-a continuous blast of the vehicle horn

Encounters an Ambush
 
   If you suspect you're about to enter an ambush, halt the convoy

Immediately take an alternate route

 Notify your control center using SALUTE

 If your vehicle enters the "kill zone"

 If possible, speed up and drive out of the kill zone (directed by convoy commander)

 Dismount and return fire as a last resort

 Assemble and move out of the area

 If your vehicle is out of the "kill zone"

 Assemble at a safe distance

 Senior person must contact the remainder of the convoy and provide help

Vehicle Breaks Down

 Repair the vehicle, if possible

 If the vehicle can't be repaired, tow it if possible

 If towing is not possible, call for a wrecker

 If the convoy must leave, a minimum of two personnel must remain in a defensive posture

 Senior leader must ensure personnel left behind have needed equipment, food, water, communications, and currency if it
becomes necessary

 If you think the vehicle may fall into enemy hands, destroy or disable it

Encounters a Roadblock

 If you are the lead vehicle, notify the rest of the convoy

 All vehicles must stop

 Personnel must disperse in a defensive posture

 The convoy commander or senior person must assess the road block

 If it can be moved or breached, do so immediately

 Watch for booby-traps or an ambush

 If the roadblock can't be moved or breached, switch to your alternate route

 Always report the location and nature of the roadblock to your control center

The above information on convoying is only recommended guidance and subject to change due to mission, guidance, and procedures set forth by the convoy commanders.
 
  During the Fight

Ref STP 21-1 SMCT, AFH 32-4014

Reporting an Attack

Use the S-A-L-U-T-E report as a
quick and effective way to
communicate enemy information
up the chain of command.

SALUTE:

Size: The number of personnel/vehicles seen or size of an object

Activity: Enemy activity (assaulting, fleeing, observing)

Location: Where the enemy was sighted-use a grid coordinate or readily identifiable reference point

Unit/Uniform: Distinctive signs, symbols, or identification on people, vehicles, or weapons (numbers, patches, or clothing type)

Time: Time the activity was observed

Equipment: All equipment/vehicles associated with the activity

Example of a S-A-L-U-T-E report

"Six enemy soldiers, running away from the command post, heading
towards the flightline. Uniforms solid green fatigues-possibly
Republic Guards. Time was 0230 hours. Equipment-AK-47 rifles,
backpacks and gas mask being carried."

Remember COMSEC-Use the most expedient means necessary/possible for the
urgency you place on the information you have to upchannel. If your report needs
to get to the commander NOW, use any means available!

 Messenger-most secure-most time consuming

 Wire/telephone-more secure than radio-not mobile & may be monitored

 Radio-fast and mobile-least secure. However, a secure radio lessens the possibility of being monitored and should always be used over an open net

Actions During an Attack

Air Attacks (aircraft, helicopters, and mortar fire)

 If in a vehicle, dismount and take cover away from the vehicle

 If in the clear, take cover in low lying ground (ditches or ravines)

 If in a fortified position, stay low and covered

 ALWAYS ensure you are wearing your helmet and flak vest

 ALWAYS try to cover your face and ears

Ground Attack (Enemy infiltrations, terrorist violence, armored vehicles)

 If in a vehicle, dismount with engine keys and take cover away from the vehicle return fire if possible

 If in the clear, take cover in low lying ground (ditches or ravines) and return fire if possible

 If in a fortified position and armed, return fire-attempt to defend, delay or destroy the enemy force

 Notify control centers and leadership using the SALUTE format

After the Attack

 Conduct battle damage assessment

 Initiate sweep for Unexploded Ordnance (UXO)

 Initiate Self-Aid/Buddy Care

 Notify control centers and leadership immediately of damage, casualties, wounded, and mission impacting damage
 
  Reactions to Flares

Aerial Flares

 Seek cover and concealment and assume the prone position immediately

 Protect your night vision by closing or covering one eye while observing with the other. If you don't need to observe, close both eyes

 Don't ever look at the burning flare

 Don't move until the flare is completely burned out

 Be aware eyes take 30 minutes to adjust to darkness after exposure to light

 Report the flare activity to your control center

Ground Flares

 Ground flares are usually set up as booby-traps and can be manually triggered

 Immediately move out of the illuminated area

 Seek cover and concealment and assume the prone position immediately

 Wait until flare is finished burning and light extinguished before moving

 Be aware eyes take 30 minutes to adjust to darkness after exposure to light

 Report flare activity to your control center
 
  Seeking Shelter

One of the best and easiest ways to protect yourself from injury during an attack is
to take shelter. Most attack related injuries are due to shrapnel, flying debris, and
fallout, all of which are avoidable with good sheltering. Your best defense is to put
as much distance and mass as possible between you and the detonation.

What to consider when the attack warning is sounded:

Find the best shelter immediately

If overhead protection is not close by, lie flat, face down on the ground

Only remain in low-lying areas as long as necessary-chemical agent vapors migrate to and remain in low-lying areas

Any building, bunker, or tent is better than the open ground

Below ground-level shelters (ditches or foxholes) provide still better shelter

The center of the lowest floor provides the best protection inside a building

[No] Aircraft/Vehicles:

Avoid using potential targets as shelters
 
  Weapons Skills-Rifles

Ref AFMAN 36-2227, Vol 2

The security of Air Force bases and the survival of personnel may be dependent
upon individual proficiency with assigned firearms. All Air Force personnel have
defense responsibilities against overt and covert enemy action. To discharge these
responsibilities, the fundamental military concept of competency with firearms is a
requirement. The weapon handling skills you receive from your base combat arms
instructors, along with this manual, will ensure you are ready and able to fulfill your
force protection role.

Weapon Safety

 Consider all weapons as loaded

 Clear all weapons each time you handle them

Never point your weapon at anyone or anything you are not willing to shoot, injure, or damage

 Keep your finger off the trigger until your weapon is pointed down range and your sights are on your target

 Don't shoot anything if you can't positively identify it or know what's behind it

Clearing Procedures

1. Place the selector lever to safe (if possible)

2. Push the magazine release button and remove magazine

3. Check the receiver and chamber and ensure they are clear

4. Ensure the selector lever is on safe

5. Press the bolt release button and allow bolt to go forward

M16 Characteristics

 Muzzle velocity-3250 ft per second (fps)

 Maximum rates of fire:

 Semiautomatic-45 to 65 rounds per minute (rpm)

 Automatic-150 to 200 rpm

 Sustained-12 to 15 rpm

 Cyclic-700 to 800 rpm (not considered an effective rate for target
engagement)

 Maximum range-2901 yards (2653 m)

 Maximum effective range-503 yards (460 m)

M16A2 Characteristics

 Muzzle velocity-3100 fps

 Maximum rates of fire:

 Semiautomatic-45 rpm

 Automatic (3-round burst)-90 rpm

 Sustained-12 to 15 rpm

 Cyclic-700 to 800 rpm

 Maximum range-3938 yards (3600 m)

 Maximum effective ranges:

 Point target-602 yards (550 m)

 Area target-875 yards (800 m)
 
  Nomenclature

The three main groups of the M16 and M16A2 rifles are:

 Upper Receiver Group-flash suppressor, front sight assembly, handguards, carrying handle, ejection port and cover, rear sight windage drum, and rear sight

 Lower Receiver Group-buttstock, trigger, magazine release button, selector lever, bolt catch, pivot pin, takedown pin, and pistol grip

 Bolt Carrier Group-charging handle, firing pin retaining pin, firing pin, cam pin, bolt assembly, extractor, extractor pin and spring, and bolt carrier

M16 Ammunition

 M193 Ball-55-grain full metal jacket round-standard round for the M16 rifle

 M196 Tracer-M193 with red tip

M16A2 Ammunition

 M855 Ball-62-grain full metal jacket round-lead alloy core with a steel penetrator and a green tip

 M856 Tracer- M855 with orange tip but no steel penetrator

 This is the standard round for the M16A2 and M249 Automatic Rifle (AR)

Note:

According to Field Manual 23-9, M16A1 and M16A2 Rifle Marksmanship:

"The M855 NATO round is designed to fire in the M16A2. While it is safe to fire
this cartridge in the M16 rifle, it should only be used in a combat emergency, and
then for close ranges of 91.4 m or less. The M193 ball round can be safely fired in
both the M16 and M16A2 rifles."

Loading, Charging, Reloading, and Unloading

1. To load, let the bolt go forward, place selector on SAFE, and insert the magazine.

2. To charge, pull the charging handle fully to the rear and release.

DO NOT ride the charging handle forward. If you do, the round will not fully seat in the chamber.

3. To reload, remove the empty magazine, insert a loaded magazine, and hit the bolt catch to release the bolt.

4. To unload, place the selector lever on SAFE if possible, remove the magazine, ensure the bolt is to the rear and chamber empty, and place on SAFE.

Disassembly (Fieldstrip)

1. Clear the weapon.

2. Once you have cleared the weapon, remove the sling from the sling swivels.

3. Remove the handguards from the upper receiver and then separate the upper and lower receivers.

4. Remove the bolt carrier group from the upper receiver and disassemble it.

5. Remove the buffer and action spring from the buttstock. This completes the fieldstrip.

Do NOT disassemble any other part of the weapon.
 
  Care and Cleaning

Equipment

 The ideal cleaning kit consists of:

 Handle section, three-rod sections, swab holder, and swabs

 Bore, chamber, small arms cleaning brush (nylon bristle toothbrush), and pipe cleaners

 Cleaner, Lubricate Preservative (CLP), ½-oz bottle


 Other authorized cleaning equipment:

 Cleaning compound, rifle bore, (RBC)

 Dry cleaning solvent, (SD).

 Lubricating oil weapons (semi-fluid LSA)

 Lubricating oil, arctic weapons (LAW)

 Under all but the coldest arctic conditions, LSA and CLP are the lubricants to use in temperatures above -10° F (-23° C)

 LAW is used when temperatures range below -10° F (-23° C)

 Do not use any two lubricants at the same time. When changing types of lubricant, clean the weapon thoroughly

Cleaning the Weapon
 
  1. First clean, inspect, and lubricate the upper receiver and barrel assembly.

2. Next clean, inspect, and lubricate the charging handle and bolt carrier group.

3. Clean, inspect, and lubricate the lower receiver and extension assembly.

4. Finally clean, inspect, and lubricate the magazine.

5. Now that the weapon is clean it can be assembled in the reverse order of disassembly.

Field Expedient Cleaning

1. Clear weapon

2. Clean bolt carrier

3. Clean barrel

Note: Required daily when in a field environment.

Function Check

 Start with a CLEARED WEAPON, bolt forward, on SAFE. Pull the trigger. Weapon should not dry fire (hammer should not fall)

 Place on SEMI and pull the trigger. Weapon should dry fire (hammer falls)

 Hold the trigger to the rear and charge the weapon. Release trigger slowly and you should hear an audible click. Repeat semi test five times

 Place the weapon on AUTO and pull the trigger. Weapon should dry fire (hammer falls)

 Hold the trigger to the rear and charge the weapon. Release the trigger. Weapon should not dry fire. Attempt to place on SAFE. It should not go to SAFE

Destruction of Weapons

 Weapons may be destroyed to prevent enemy use. The order and means to destroy your weapons will come from the commanding officer

 The five methods used to destroy weapons are:

 Mechanical-axe, pick, sledgehammer, or crowbar. Do not use this method to destroy munitions

 Burning-gasoline, diesel, JP-4, oil, incendiary grenades, cutting torches, other

 Gunfire-artillery, machine-guns or rifles

 Demolition-requires suitable explosives or ammunition

 Disposal-bury in the ground or dump weapons in streams or marshes. You can also disassemble and scatter the parts over a wide area

 Destroy the same part on all weapons


Whatever method you choose, make sure your weapon is no longer useable
 
  Fundamentals of Rifle Shooting

 Position and Technique-steady position and proper techniques for holding the rifle in all positions are the first fundamentals of shooting

 Aiming-sight alignment (aligning the front and rear sight) and sight picture (aiming point)

 Breath Control-it is important to know when and how long you need to hold your breath while firing

 Trigger Control-allows you to apply enough pressure on the trigger to fire the weapon without disturbing the sights

M16 Sight Adjustment

 Front sight adjustments are used to make elevation changes.

 One click = 1/4 inch (0.7cm) at 82 ft (25m) or 1 1/8 in (2.8cm) at 328 ft (100m)

 To adjust the front sight, depress the detent and rotate-clockwise (CW) to
move the strike of the bullet up or counterclockwise (CCW) to move the
strike of the bullet down-with the tip of the round

 Rear sight adjustments are used to make changes in the windage-right and
left movement-of the bullet. To adjust the rear sight, depress the detent and
rotate-CW will move the strike of the bullet to the right and CCW will move the
strike to the left-with the tip of the round. The same calibration is used for both
rear and front sights
 
  M16A2 Sight Adjustment

Front sight adjustments are used to make elevation changes.

 One click = 3/8 inch (0.9cm) at 82 ft (25m) or 1 3/8 in (3.5cm) at 328 ft (100m)

To adjust the front sight depress the detent and rotate-CW to move the
strike of the bullet up or CCW to move the strike of the bullet down-using
the tip of a round

 Rear sight adjustments are used to make changes in the windage-right and left
movement-of the bullet and elevation or range distance corrections

 Windage correction is one click = 1/8 inch (0.3cm) at 82 ft (25m) or 1/2 inch
(1.25cm) at 328 ft (100m)

 Elevation correction is one click = 1/4 inch (0.7cm) at 82 ft (25m) or 1 inch
(2.8cm) at 328 ft (100m). Elevation adjustment on the rear sight is to adjust
for proper target distance

M16 Mechanical and Battlesight Zeroing

 Mechanical zero is making adjustments to the sights of the rifle to give the
shooter a good starting point. It should only be applied to weapons not
previously zeroed or to newly assigned weapons

 Adjust the front sight up or down until the top of the sight post is 5 mm above
the machine surface of the front sight frame. Use cardstock with five lines
apart, to conduct mechanical zero

 Adjust the rear sight windage drum right or left until the short range sight
(unmarked aperture) is centered

 Battlesight zero begins with a mechanically zeroed rifle using 5.56 mm ball
ammunition. Adjust the sights for elevation and windage as needed. On your
mechanical zero cardstock, write down your battlesight zero for future reference

 M16A2 Mechanical and Battlesight Zeroing

 Mechanical zero is making adjustments to the sights of the rifle to give the
shooter a good starting point. It should only be applied to weapons not
previously zeroed or to newly assigned weapons

 Adjust the front sight up or down until the top of the sight post is 5mm above
the machine surface of the front sight frame. Use cardstock with five lines, 1mm
apart, to conduct mechanical zero

 Adjust the rear sight windage knob left or right until the normal range sight
(unmarked aperture) is centered

 Turn the elevation knob down (CCW) until the rear sight is down to the last
whole click. Before it bottoms out, turn it up (CW) until it is on the 8/3 mark on
the range scale

 Battlesight zero starts out with a mechanically zeroed rifle using 5.56 mm ball
ammunition. Adjust the sights for elevation and windage as needed

 For zeroing on a 25-meter range, turn the elevation knob one click past 8/3 on
the range scale. After zero, set the elevation knob back to the 8/3 mark for
actual target distances

 Once zero is complete, for target distance greater than 328 yd (300 m), place the
correct range setting on the elevation knob to obtain the proper point of aim.
On your mechanical zero cardstock, write down your battlesight zero for future
reference
 
  Weapons Skills-Pistol

Ref AFMAN 36-2227, Vol 2

The security of Air Force bases and the survival of personnel may be dependent
upon individual proficiency with assigned firearms. All Air Force personnel have
defense responsibilities against overt and covert enemy action. To discharge these
responsibilities, the fundamental military concept of competency with firearms is a
requirement. The weapon handling skills you receive from your base combat arms
instructors, along with this manual, will ensure you are ready and able to fulfill your
force protection role.

Weapon Safety

 Consider all weapons are loaded

 Clear all weapons each time you handle them

 Keep your finger off the trigger until your weapon is pointed downrange and your sights are on your target

 Don't shoot anything if you can't positively identify it and know what's behind it

Never point your weapon at anyone or anything you are not willing to shoot, injure, or damage

Clearing Procedures

1. Holding the pistol in the right hand, move the decocking lever DOWN to the SAFE position

2. Press the magazine release button and remove the magazine

3. Grasp the slide with the left hand, cupping the left hand over the ejection port

4. Next, rotate the weapon slightly to the right while pushing the slide to the rear

5. Catch the ejected round in the left palm and lock the slide to the rear

6. Visually inspect the chamber and receiver area to ensure there is no ammunition present
 
  Characteristics

 Weapon will fire both single and double action. Safety feature includes a manual decocking lever and firing pin block

 Maximum effective range is 55 yd (50m) with a maximum range of 1.1 miles (1800m)

 Muzzle velocity of the M9 is 1230 fps

Nomenclature

 Slide assembly consists of the decocking lever, firing pin, extractor, barrel, firing pin block, locking block, and sights

 Receiver assembly consists of disassembly button and lever, slide stop, trigger, magazine catch assembly/release button, grips, hammer, and lanyard loop

 Magazine assembly consists of the floor plate, magazine spring, follower, and magazine tube

Types of Ammunition

 M882 Ball-124-grain jacketed bullet-basic cartridge for field use

 No tracer round is authorized for use in the M9

Loading

1. Clear the weapon and insert a loaded magazine.

2. Depress the slide stop. Slide moves forward and chambers a round. Extractor will protrude, indicating a round in the chamber.

3. Place the decocking lever in the UP/FIRE position.

4. Weapon is now ready for firing the first round double-action.

Unloading

Unload the weapon using the clearing procedures above.
 
  Disassembly (Fieldstrip)

1. Clear the weapon and then allow the slide to go forward.

2. Hold pistol in right hand with muzzle slightly elevated.

3. Press in on the disassembly button and hold. Rotate the disassembly button down until it stops.

4. Pull slide and barrel assembly forward and remove from the receiver.

5. Remove and separate the recoil spring and guide.

6. Lift and remove the barrel and locking block assembly from the slide.

Magazine Disassembly

1. Release the floorplate by pushing down on the floorplate retainer stud in the center of the floorplate with the locking lock plunger.

2. At the same time, slide the floorplate forward a short distance using the thumb. The magazine spring is under spring tension. Use CAUTION when removing the floorplate.

3. While maintaining the magazine spring pressure with the thumb, remove the floorplate from the magazine.

4. Remove the floorplate retainer and magazine spring and follower from the magazine tube. Remove floorplate retainer from the magazine spring. This completes the field strip.

This is as far you can disassemble the weapon.
 
  Care and Cleaning

 Ideal cleaning kit consists of the following materials:

 Cleaning rod and swabs

 Bore brush, small arms cleaning brush (nylon bristle toothbrush), and pipe cleaners

 Cleaner, Lubricate Preservative (CLP) ½ oz bottle

 Other authorized cleaning equipment:

 Cleaning compound, rifle bore, (RBC)

 Dry cleaning solvent, (SD)

 Lubricating oil, weapons (semi-fluid LSA)

 Lubricating oil, arctic weapons (LAW)

 Under all but the coldest arctic conditions, LSA and CLP are the lubricants to use in temperatures above minus 10 degrees Fahrenheit

 LAW is used when temperatures range below 10 degrees Fahrenheit

 Do not use any two lubricants at the same time. When changing types of
lubricant, clean the weapon thoroughly

Cleaning the Weapon

1. Clean, inspect, and lubricate the slide and barrel assembly.

2. Clean, inspect, and lubricate the receiver assembly.

3. Clean, inspect, and lubricate the magazine.

Now that the weapon is clean, it can be reassembled in the reverse order of
disassembly.
 
  Function Check

 Clear the weapon

 Release the slide and insert an empty magazine

 Retract the slide. The slide should lock to the rear

 Remove the magazine

 Ensure the decocking lever is down, release the slide forward, hammer should fall fully forward

 Press/release the trigger. Firing pin block should move up and down

 Move decocking lever UP to FIRE position

 Press the trigger. Weapon should dry fire double action

 Press the trigger and hold to rear

 Retract and release slide

 Release the trigger. You should hear a click and the hammer should not fall forward

 Press trigger to check single action. Hammer should fall

Destruction of Weapons

 Weapons may be destroyed to prevent enemy use. The order and means to destroy your weapons will come from the commanding officer

 The five methods used to destroy weapons are the same for all weapons (refer to page 85)

Whatever method you choose, make sure your weapon is no longer useable
 
  Fundamentals of Pistol Shooting

 Aiming-sight alignment (aligning the front and rear sight) and sight picture (aiming point)

 Breath Control-when and how long you need to hold your breath while firing is important

 Trigger Control-allows you to apply enough pressure on the trigger to fire the weapon without disturbing the sights

 Sight Adjustment-the M9 pistol does not have adjustable sights. To adjust your fire, you adjust your aiming point. In other words, you must aim and fire based on where the bullet last struck. For example, if the last round hit lower left, you would aim upper right
 
  Perimeter Defenses

Ref AFMAN 32-4005

Base defense operations, regardless of where conducted, are governed by several
key fundamentals and procedures. These fundamentals and procedures are critical
in sustaining and defending Air Force operations around the globe. As an Air
Force member, you could be detailed to augment base defense operations or could
be placed in a situation that would require you to defend your area of responsibility.

Theaters of Operation-Air Force personnel are called to perform a variety of tasks
in diverse theaters, under joint or combined command, with or without host nation
support, and under adverse conditions. Typical theaters of operations are:

 Major Theater War (MTW)-a regionally centered crisis based on
significant threats to U.S. vital interests in a region that warrants the deployment
of significant forces. Example: Desert Shield/Storm


 Small Scale Contingency (SSC)-regionally centered crisis, but with less
compelling threat than an MRC. Example: The U.S. invasion of Grenada

 Military Operations Other than War (MOOTW)-missions outside the purview
of war are considered MOOTW. Example: The UN peacekeeping mission in
Bosnia

Fundamentals of Defense

Five fundamentals must be considered while conducting Air Force operations in a
base defense posture: aggressive, in depth, all-around, integrated, and terrain/
critical resources

Aggressive Defense

 Enemy has the option as to when, where, and what forces to use. Base defense
commanders must seize and hold the initiative early

 Detect enemy from as far away as possible to begin the attrition of his force at
the earliest opportunity before they place direct/indirect fire on an objective

 Accomplished using active patrols, sensors, listening posts (LP), and
observation posts (OP)
 
  Defense in Depth

 Units are deployed in depth to prevent an attacker from exploiting a penetration
and positioned to protect key terrain so enemy cannot observe or bring fire
upon our operations

 Establish blocking positions along likely avenues of approach

 Achieved by patrols, listening posts, observation posts, sensors, and static
positions to deny locations for stand-off weapon systems

All-Around Defense

 Generally, a defense is organized around the idea of stopping an attack from a
principal direction

 Threat may come from any direction including direct assault on the base by
airborne/air landed forces or internal threat from local nationals and civilians

 This defense is achieved by positioning forces purposefully to include
supplementary positions and dedicated aerial denial weapons (anti-aircraft)

Integrated Defense

 Forces are positioned laterally to provide mutual support

 Gaps present a particular problem and can be controlled by sensors, obstacles,
planned direct/indirect forces, random patrolling, or physically occupying if
enemy forces threaten

Defense Organized Around Key Terrain/Critical Resources

 Key terrain is any objective that, when occupied, provides a marked advantage
over the opponent

 Holding key terrain is vital to your defense; failure to secure key terrain will
allow the enemy a position of advantage over your forces

 Defense plan should incorporate all known/potential key terrain into the
defensive scheme to the extent your forces are capable of protecting it
 
  Expedient Fire Fighting

Ref AFMAN 10-219, AFI 32-2001

Professional firefighters may be engaged in crash rescue or fire suppression tasks
involving aircraft and weapons systems and will not always be available to fight
fires. If you are faced with a fire, efficient reporting, evacuation, and quick
extinguishing will significantly reduce mission impact. You must be familiar with fire
reporting procedures and be ready to perform basic firefighting tasks as an auxiliary
firefighter.

Fire Reporting

 Sound the alarm

 Fire alarm

 Triangle

 Air horn

 Voice-Yell "Fire, Fire, Fire"

 Notify the fire department and report

 Name and rank

 Location of fire

 Nature of emergency

 Status of personnel

 Evacuate the area and account for personnel

 Extinguish small fires (trash can size), if possible

 Direct firefighters to the fire

General Firefighting Guidance

 Know the location and operation of fire extinguishers

 Fight small fires within the limitations of available firefighting resources

 Always maintain an escape route

 CW masks will not provide protection in smoke filled environments

Separate fuel sources from ignition sources

 Shut off fuel and gas valves

 De-energize electrical equipment

 Munitions involved in a fire are unpredictable

 Wildland fires can generate intense heat and move rapidly
 
  Tent City Firefighting Guidance

Ref AFPD 32-20, AFI 32-2001

Depending on camp layout and weather conditions, fires will spread rapidly if initial
attempts to extinguish them fail. In many locations, adequate firefighting water
supplies do not exist. Timely alerting and evacuation are critical.

Before a Fire

 Keep access roads to tents clear for fire vehicles

 Pre-position emergency water supplies and firefighting equipment

 Set up a fire alerting system

 Develop and practice fire alerting and firefighting plans

During a Fire

 Life safety and evacuation of all tents is a prime concern

 A tent will burn completely in only 2-3 minutes

 Never enter a burning tent

 Cut power to the tent city

 Focus on preventing the spread of fire

 Get well ahead of the fire to make a stand

 Wet tents down

 Drop tents, cut supports and let tent collapse

 Designate a fire-safe zone for emergency withdrawal

Firefighting Agent Resources

 Dry Chemical Extinguisher: ABC rating (all fires except metals)

 Dry Powder Extinguisher: D rating (metal and metal-alloy fires)

 Halon Flightline Extinguisher: BC rating (petroleum fuels and electrical)-used for aircraft and related equipment only
 Water

 Sand
 
  After the Fight

Ref AFPAM 10-219, Vol 3

Base Recovery after Attack (BRAAT)

A determining factor in your ability to quickly return to mission-related duties is
your unit's ability to recover after an attack. But before you rush outside to start the
recovery process you must ensure it is safe. You must determine the Alarm Condition,
MOPP level, and THREATCON before leaving your shelter.

If the condition is:

 All Clear or Alarm Yellow, you may cautiously venture out to gather information and start recovery

 Alarm Red, stay in your protective area unless you have critical mission essential duties or directed to do so by an appropriate authority

 Alarm Black, only mission-essential personnel and those assigned to reconnaissance duties should go outside

If your are unsure of the Alarm Condition, stay put!

BRAAT Kit

Every occupied work center and shelter should have a BRAAT kit available to
those individuals who will perform the initial post-attack reconnaissance. At a
minimum the kit should contain:

Basic first aid supplies

Standard UXO and NBC contamination markers

Items to mark damage, UXOs, and NBC contamination at night, such as flashlights and "chem sticks"

Chemical detection equipment, such as M8 paper, M9 paper, a M256 kit, or some otherdetection device

Reconnaissance checklists detailing where to look and what to look for
 
  Recovery from an Attack

Ref AFPAM 10-219, Vol 3, AFH 32-4014, Vol 4

Your unit's expedient recovery and reconstitution will take considerable teamwork.
Immediate actions are necessary to treat casualties, assess damage, and contain
contamination.

Treat Casualties

 Practice self-aid and buddy care

 Use chemical agent antidotes if appropriate

 Perform skin decontamination if appropriate

 Transport the injured as soon as possible

Damage

 Assess the extend of damage to buildings, aircraft, vehicles, and equipment

 Immediately report any fires

 Be prepared to start limited fire fighting procedures

 Relocation may be necessary

Contamination

 Avoid contact with objects and areas that may be contaminated

 Decontaminate any object you must touch to perform mission related tasks
 
  Post-Attack Reporting

Ref AFH 32-4014, Vol 4

Following any attack, it is essential to report casualty and facility damage information to proper authorities

 All reports should be forwarded to YOUR unit control center or the Survival Recovery Center

 Use the fastest available means to report up the chain (telephones, radios, or runners)

 Use grid coordinates to report incident location

Reporting the absence of damage is just as important as reporting damage; this informs control centers what has already been checked. Your report should reflect:

 Observations of the attack

 Type of weapons used-small arms, bomb, missile, mortar, other

 Tactics used-direction, origin, strength, ground forces

 Damage-to mission essential equipment, aircraft, facilities, airfield pavements, other

 Casualties-especially mission personnel

 Contamination-M8/M9 paper results

 UXOs-locations and types
 
  POST ATTACK DAMAGE & CASUALTY CHECKLIST ITEMS

1. Call your unit control center or survival recovery center to report

Name & Rank

Unit

Phone Number/Radio Net

Date/Time

2. Report the location of the incident

Facility or Grid Coordinates

Other pertinent information

3. Report any damage

Condition of area

Condition of Facilities

Condition of Equipment

4. Report the status of casualties

Number Dead

Number Injured

Number Missing

Disposition of Casualties

Evacuated to CCP

Awaiting transportation

Applied First-Aid

Any other pertinent information

Remember: What you see and report is often all the commander has to base decisions on.
 
  Area Decontamination

Ref AFH 32-4014, Vol 4

If chemical and/or biological agents are used during an attack, immediate
decontamination may be required. As long as you and your equipment are well
protected, such as inside an undamaged building, decontamination is not needed.
However, if skin contact occurs with agents in liquid or solid form, instantaneous
decontamination is necessary. Decontamination is performed at four levels:
immediate, operational, thorough, and reconstitution.

Immediate-To minimize casualties, save lives, and limit the spread of contamination

Who: You-use the buddy system

What: Skin, personal clothing, and personal equipment

How: Use M291, or M258A1 kits (may expire from inventory 1 Jul 99) (see pages 140 and 141) for skin and M295 for equipment. If your eyes are exposed, flush with clean water

When: As soon as contamination occurs

Operational-To minimize contact, stop the transfer, and sustain operations

Who: Individuals, crews, teams, and units

What: Only those parts or areas that you must come in contact with to perform your mission

How: Use M291, M295 or M258A1 kits, or soap and water. Weathering and aeration are viable decontamination alternatives

When: When operations require

You will primarily participate in immediate and operational decontamination procedures 
 
Thorough-To reduce contamination to the lowest possible level

Who: Units or wings with or without external support and specially trained teams.

What: Personnel, equipment, material, and work areas.

When: As soon as operations, manning, and resources permit.

Reconstitution-To eliminate contamination in an effort to allow unrestricted use of mission-critical resources

Who: Units or wings with external support and specially trained teams.

What: Mission critical aircraft, equipment, material, work areas, and terrain.

When: After hostile actions have terminated or directed by higher authority.
 
  Unexploded Ordnance

Ref AFH 32-4014, Vol 4, AFI 32-3001

Unexploded ordnance (UXO) are hazards! They can be conventional, chemical,
biological, or any combination thereof. They pose a risk of injury or death to all
personnel. They can be missiles, bombs, rockets, mines, or other devices and can
range in size from very small to large. If you to discover a UXO or suspect an object
is one, there are four important steps to take: identify, mark, evacuate, and report


Identify

 Recognize the UXO as a hazard

 Remember features; size, shape, color, and condition (intact or leaking)

Mark

 Mark it from where you are

 Do not move closer

 Use whatever material available

 Ensure markings are visible in all directions and at night

Do not attempt to remove anything that is on or near a UXO.

Evacuate

 Evacuate all personnel from the area

 If evacuation is impossible, isolate or barricade the area

Report

 Reporting by radio must be done from at least 82 ft (25 m) away

 Provide all pertinent details: size, shape, color, condition, landmarks, grid
coordinates

 Use USAF ATSO Handbook AFH 32-4014 Volume 4. Tables 4.2 and 4.3 require
reporting information and UXO classification

  Handling Prisoners and Defectors

Ref Geneva Convention

Although it is more likely to happen after the fight, the taking of enemy prisoners of
war (EPW) and defectors can happen at any time. When it does, immediately notify
your Unit Control Center (UCC). They will dispatch Security Forces to your location
to take custody of the EPWs or defectors. In the meantime, you should search,
segregate, silence, speed to the rear, safeguard, and tag your detainees.


Search

 Immediately search the EPW with an armed colleague monitoring

 Be conscious to any items that could be used as a weapon or an escape aid

 Thoroughly search for items of potential intelligence value

 Allow prisoner to keep uniforms and any protective clothing (e.g., bad weather and NBC gear)

Segregate

 Separate defectors, deserters, and EPWs

 Separate military and civilians

 Separate military into subgroups

 Officers

 NCOs

 Airmen

 Separate male and female

Silence

 Limit communication between EPWs as much as possible

 If you don't understand the language, don't allow it

 Record anything the EPW says and send it up the chain of command

NO TALKING

Speed to the Rear

 Speed is essential. Contact your UCC as soon as possible

 Much of the intelligence received from the EPW is time-sensitive

Safeguard

 Protect EPWs from local nationals

 Protect EPWs from friendly and allied forces

 Protect yourself and others from EPWs

Tagging

 You must complete an EPW tag if available for each detainee, weapon, and piece of equipment

 If not, use any source available

 At a minimum you should include:

 Date/Time of capture

 Capturing unit/branch

 Place of capture

 Circumstances surrounding capture
 
  Handling Human Remains

Ensure that you treat human remains with dignity and that they are returned to
CONUS by the most expedient means available without destroying any identifying
information.


Use the buddy system to transport human remains to a point identified by Services
and Mortuary Affairs, which are normally located near site medical facilities.

Protect Yourself First

 Wear gloves when handling remains

 DO NOT endanger yourself to retrieve remains

 Wear NBC protective gear if you suspect/confirm the remains are contaminated

Secure Available Identification Information

 DO NOT remove any identification information from remains (dog tags, ID cards)

 DO NOT remove any personal effects from remains (pictures, jewelry, money)

Transport to the CCP ASAP

 Use available transportation and pass information up your chain of command
 
  Section Review

 What are cordons used for? [page 60]
 Name some situations where cordons would be used? [page 61]
 True or False: Cordons may be adjusted to accommodate the number of
ersonnel on-scene by the most knowledgeable person present [page 61]
 Who is authorized to release information to news media about an accident or
situation? [page 61]
 What can you expect to happen when you try to process through an ECP?
[page 62]
 What steps should you take to challenge an intruder? [page 63]
 What does the term "NBC" mean? [page 159]
 How does the "sign/countersign" procedure work? [page 64]
 Name the five THREATCON conditions and general actions for each
[pages 65-66]
 Aside from actually being bombed or physically attacked, what methods are
used to indicate your operating location is under imminent attack? [page 67]
 What does an unfurled red flag mean? [page 67]
 In a non-chemical/biological environment or threat, what actions are required
in ALARM YELLOW? [page 67]
 What actions would you take if you saw an unfurled black flag while you are
wearing your chemical protection? [page 67]
 What actions would you take if you recognized an individual explosive device
laying on the ground? [page 69]
 What key steps can you take to lessen your threat to terrorists? [page 68]
 What is an LMR? [page 70]
 List four things you should remember or do in operating a hand-held radio.
[page 71]
 List four things you should not do in operating a hand-held radio. [page 71]
 What is the purpose for the grids on a map? How is it set up? [page 72]
 How do you read or report a specific location on a grid map? [page 72]
 What should you do if a convoy you are in is attacked? [page 74]
 What does "FOL" mean? [page 155]
  What is the best method of reporting details of an attack over a radio?
[page 76]
 What actions should you take if a ground attack occurs? [page 77]
 What actions should you take if a flare is detonated over you? [page 78]
 What are some considerations choosing a shelter for protection? [page 79]
 What are the basic steps for clearing a jam in an M16 rifle? [page 80]
 What ammunition is authorized for the M16? [page 82]
 What are the basic disassembly procedures for the M16? [page 83]
 What are the basic care and cleaning procedures for the M16? [page 84]
 What are the basic procedures for a function check on an M16? [page 85]
 How do you make sight adjustments for a rifle? [pages 86-87]
 What are the basic procedures for clearing a jam in an M9 pistol? [page 89]
 What are the basic procedures for loading an M9 pistol? [page 90]
 What three actions must you take to clean a pistol? [page 92]
 Describe the four basic fundamental of firing an M9. [page 94]
 Describe the five fundamentals of base perimeter defense? [page 95-96]
 What does "SA" mean? [page 160]
 What should you do if you see a fire in your encampment area? [page 97]
 What information should a post-terrorist attack report contain? [page 101]
 In a post attack chemical environment, what is operational decontamination?
[page 103]
 What steps do you take if you discover unexploded ordnance? [page 105]
 How do you report a found unexploded ordnance? [page 105]
 What actions should you take and/or be aware of in handling prisoners.
[page 106]
 What do you think is the most important consideration when searching a
prisoner [page 106]
 What three steps should you take when handling human remains? [page 108]
 True-False: Handling human remains is one situation where you do not need to
follow the buddy care system? [page 108]
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Re: AIRFORCE MANUAL 10-100, by Department of the Air Force

Postby admin » Mon Sep 07, 2015 5:50 am

Section 5 -- Survive

Success flourishes only in perseverance -- ceaseless, restless perseverance.
-- Baron Manfred von Richthofen


Basic Lifesaving Steps

Ref AFH 36-2218, Vol 1 & 2

Immediate Steps

When a person is injured:

 Establish an open Airway

 Ensure Breathing

 Stop bleeding to support Circulation

 Prevent further Disability

 Place dressing over open wounds

 Immobilize neck injuries

 Splint obvious limb deformities

 Minimize further Exposure to adverse weather


Shock

Symptoms: 

Confusion

 Cold, clammy skin

 Sweating

 Breathing shallow, labored, and rapid

 Rapid pulse

Treatment: 

Keep airway open

 If unconscious, place on side and monitor airway

 Keep the person calm, warm, and comfortable

 Elevate lower extremities

 Seek medical attention immediately

Common Injuries

Always observe and treat for Shock

Abdominal Wound

Treatment: 

If organs are outside body… Do NOT replace organs into the body

 Cover exposed organs with moist clean dressing

 Secure with bandages


Bleeding

Symptom: 

Obvious External Bleeding

Treatment: 

Apply direct pressure with hand; use a dressing if available

 Elevate the extremity if no fractures are suspected

 Use pressure points to control bleeding

 Do NOT remove dressing

 Add more dressing over old if needed


TOURNIQUET

The last resort to stop bleeding. Use to save life at possible loss of limb

1. Place 1" wide constricting band around arm or leg to stop severe bleeding

2. DO NOT use wire or shoe strings

3. Place band 2-4 inches above injury if possible

4. Tighten band enough to stop bleeding and no more

5. Once in place do not loosen or remove

6. Leave tourniquet area exposed for quick visual reference

7. Mark time and letter "T" on casualty's forehead (ink or blood)


Remember-Never use a tourniquet unless there is danger to life

Eye Injury

Symptom: 

Obvious pain or injury

Treatment: 

Do NOT remove any impaled objects

 Dress around object to secure it

 Apply bandage lightly to BOTH eyes

 Do not leave patient unattended


Always observe and treat for Shock

Chest Wound

Symptoms: 

Sucking noise from chest

 Frothy red blood from wound

Treatment: 

Look for entry and exit wound

 Cover holes with airtight seal (tin foil, ID card)

 Tape down 3 sides, leave bottom uncovered

 Allow victim to assume position for easiest breathing


Fractures

Symptoms: 

Deformity, bruising

 Tenderness over a specific part of body

 Swelling and discoloration

Treatment: 

DO NOT straighten limb

 If in doubt, splint injury-where they lie if possible

 Splint joints above and below injury

 Remove clothing from injured area -- Not in a Chemical Environment

 Remove rings from fingers, if possible

 Check pulse below injury-away from heart to determine if blood flow is restricted


Spinal/Neck/Head Injury

Symptom:  Lack of feeling and/or control anywhere below neck

Treatment: 

If conscious, caution victim not to move

 Check airway without turning head

 Immobilize the head and neck

If Victim Must Be Moved:

 Use hard surface for litter (door, cut lumber, other)

 Use as many people as needed to place victim on litter

 One person must immobilize the head and neck

 Turn whole body together, as a unit

Do NOT Bend Spinal Cord or Rotate Head and Neck


Heat Injuries

Heat Cramps

Symptoms: 

Spasms, usually in muscles or arms

 Results from strenuous work or exercise

 Loss of salt in the body

 Normal body temperature

Heat Exhaustion

Symptoms: 

Cramps in abdomen or limbs

 Pale face

 Dizziness/faintness/weakness

 Nausea or vomiting

 Profuse sweating or moist, cool skin

 Weak pulse

 Normal body temperature

Treatment: 

Treat for shock

 Lay person down in cool area

 Loosen/open clothing

 Cool body by sprinkling with cool water or fanning (not to point of shivering)

 Give victim cool water to drink if conscious

 Seek medical attention

Heat Stroke

Symptoms: 

Headache

 Dizziness

 Red face/skin

 Hot, dry skin (no sweating)

 Strong, rapid pulse

 High body temperature (hot to touch)

Treatment: 

Lay person in cool area

 Loosen/open clothing

 Cool body by sprinkling with cool water or fanning (not to point of shivering)

 Give cool water to drink if conscious-Add two teaspoons of salt to one canteen if available

 Seek immediate medical attention

 Treat for shock

Drink lots of water!

Life Threatening

Burns

Burns may be from heat (thermal), electrical, chemical, or radiation. Treatment is
based on depth, size, and severity (termed degree of burn).

ALWAYS TREAT FOR SHOCK AND SEEK MEDICAL ADVICE

Thermal/First Degree

Symptoms: 

Skin reddens (sunburn-like) - Painful

Treatment: 

Stop the burning process

 Apply cool water to affected area

Thermal/Second Degree

Symptoms:  Skin reddens with blisters - Very painful

Treatment: 

Stop the burning process

 Apply cool water to affected area

 DO NOT break blisters

 Apply dry dressing to affected area

Thermal/Third Degree

Symptoms: 

Charred or whitish looking skin

 May burn clear to the bone

 Burned area not painful but area around burn very painful

Treatment: 

Stop the burning process

 Do not remove clothing adhered to burned area

 Cover with a dry dressing

Electrical Burns

 Ensure power is off

 Look for entry and exit wound

 Treat burned area

Chemical Burns

 Flush with large amount of water

 Flush eyes for at least 20 minutes

 Brush off visible contaminates

 Keep phosphorous burns covered with a wet dressing (prevents air from activating the phosphorous)

Cold Injuries

Hypothermia

Symptoms: 

Body is cold under clothing

 May appear confused

 May appear dead

Treatment: 

Move to a warm place

 Remove wet clothing

 Put on warm clothes or wrap with dry blanket

 Do NOT rub body parts

 Do NOT give or consume alcohol

Frostbite

Symptoms: 

Skin has white or waxy appearance

 Skin hard to touch

Treatment: 

Move to warm place

 Rewarm affected area in warm water 104-108° F (40° C) for 15-30 minutes (NOT hot water)

 Cover with several layers of clothing

 Do NOT rub affected area

 Seek medical attention immediately

Emergency Life-Saving Equipment

The key to self-aid and buddy care is improvising when you don't have the
equipment you need.

Shirts = Dressings/Bandages
Belts, Ties = Tourniquets, Bandages
Towels, Sheets = Dressings/Bandages
Socks, Panty Hose, Flight cap = Dressings/Bandages
Sticks or Tree Limbs = Splints
Blankets = Litters, Splints
Field Jackets = Litters
BDU Shirts = Litters/Splints
Ponchos = Litters/Bandages
Rifle Sling = Bandages
M-16 Heat Guards = Splints

Nuclear, Biological, Chemical Protection

Ref AFMAN 32-4017, AFH 32-4014, Vol 4

Nuclear Concerns

Detonation Effects:

Blast effects occur very quickly and can cause significant
damage and personal injury. You could be seriously injured by
flying debris or by being blown into other objects

 Thermal or heat injuries occur from direct thermal absorption and
from indirect causes such as flash fires or flame

 Fallout is composed of radioactive particles from the bomb and
material from the surface of the earth carried into the air by the
explosion

Protective Measures 

Shelters provide protection from blast and thermal effects.
Take cover immediately. If outside, take cover in a ditch

 Time, distance, and shielding are your best overall protection
against radiation hazards


 Limit your time outside the shelter and exposure to radiation.
Wear gloves, field jacket and hood. Blouse your pants and tape
openings in your uniform

Radiation Sickness Symptoms :

When fallout occurs, radioactive material may enter the body
through breathing, ingesting, or absorbing. Early symptoms of
radiation sickness are nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and
illness

 Indications of high levels of radiation poisoning are severe body
fluid loss, internal hemorrhaging, and diarrhea

Biological Agent Injuries

Classification 

Biological agents are classified as pathogens or toxins

 Pathogens are disease-producing microorganisms that are
either naturally occurring or altered by random mutation


 Toxins are poisons naturally produced through the activities
of living organisms


Characteristics 

Pathogens are living organisms that can reproduce and
multiply in the host. It may take several days before
symptoms appear

 Biological agents lend themselves to covert use because
only small amounts are needed and they are easily concealed
and transported


Delivery and Dissemination 

Biological agents may be disseminated as aerosols, liquid
droplets, or dry powders

 Microorganisms are usually disseminated in an aerosol

 Toxins are likely to be disseminated in a powder form or by
contaminating water


Protective Measures 

Maintaining good health, good hygiene, proper sanitation,
and keeping up your immunizations will increase your
protective measures

 Thoroughly wash fruit and vegetables before you eat them
and drink only from approved water sources

 Wear your chemical protective equipment as required

Chemical-Choking Agent

Characteristics 

Smells like new mown hay or green corn

 Time taken to produce casualties can vary

 Damages respiratory tract

 Inhalation hazard does not absorb through skin

 Choking agents are employed only in vapor form

 Persistency can range from minutes to hours, depending on winds at your location


Symptoms 

Coughing

 Tightness of chest

 Nausea

 Headache

 Watering eyes

 Breathing discomfort

 Lungs fill with fluid

 Fatigue

Protection 

Wear your protective mask as directed

 Seek medical attention as soon as possible after any exposure
or as soon as symptoms appear


Chemical-Blood Agent

Characteristics 

Rapid-acting

 Interferes with use of oxygen by body tissues

 Damages blood, liver, and kidneys

 Vapor or aerosol form

 Persistency generally only seconds to minutes


Symptoms: 

Dizziness, giddiness, confusion

 Headache

 Convulsions

 Nausea

 Rapid breathing rate or difficulty in breathing

 Cramps

 Loss of consciousness

 Skin blue

Protection 

Mask immediately and evacuate to medics

 Damages CB protective filters; change filters after agent
has dissipated (as directed)

 Seek medical attention as soon as possible after any exposure
or as soon as symptoms appear

Chemical-Blister Agent

Characteristics 

May smell like garlic or have a fishy/musty odor

 Employed as vapors, liquids, or solids

 Causes blisters, destroys tissues, injures blood vessels


 Some may violently irritate mucous membranes of eyes and nose

 Affects eyes, respiratory system, skin

 May be lethal if inhaled or ingested

 Skin contact can be lethal


 Persistency for heavily splashed liquid agent can range from
hours under average weather conditions to a week or months
under very cold conditions

 Incapacitation may last for days or weeks; aircrews will
probably be unable to fly for even longer periods

Symptoms: 

Symptoms may be immediate or take up to 4 hours to appear

 May cause stinging sensation upon contact

 Burns or blisters any tissue it contacts

 Red, watering eyes, blurred vision, or blindness

 Light sensitivity

 Groin and armpits, which tend to be sweaty, are more susceptible to blister agents

 Coughing or burning in throat

 Vomiting

Protection 

Mask immediately

 Decontaminate skin with M291 or M258A1 Skin

Decontamination Kits

 Avoid contaminated surfaces

 Practice contamination avoidance and expedient decontamination

 Flush eyes and open wounds with water and protect from further contamination

 Seek medical attention as soon as possible after any exposure or as soon as symptoms appear

Chemical-Nerve Agent

Mild Symptoms: 

Difficulty seeing

 Unexplained runny nose

 Tightness in chest

 Sudden drooling or headache

 Localized sweating and muscular twitching

 Stomach cramps

 Nausea

Severe Symptoms: 

Muscle twitching and weakness

 Difficulty breathing, wheezing, and coughing

 Pinpoint pupils, red eyes, and tearing

 Strange, confused behavior

 Vomiting, Urination, Defecation

 Convulsions

 Respiratory failure

 Unconsciousness

 Death

Treatment: 

Mask Immediately

 Remove external contamination with M291 or M258A1 Skin Decontamination Kits

 Administer antidote as directed on the next page

 Evacuate to the medics

See page 124 for details on injection procedures

Always use the casualty's own Autoinjectors, bandages, and Decon kits!

Save your own Individual Protection Kits-you may need them!

Atropine Auto-Injector Use

Ref 36-2218

Use Auto-Injectors for Nerve Agents ONLY!

Ensure gas mask is on

Remove one Mark 1 Kit from Ground Crew Ensemble (GCE) pocket

Remove the Atropine injector (smaller injector) and remove safety cap

Position needle against injection site, apply firm even pressure until needle is triggered. Hold the injector firmly
in place for 10 seconds

Carefully remove injector and bend needle, attach to the GCE pocket

Remove the 2 PAM Chloride injector (large injector), remove safety cap, and repeat the steps above

Seek Medical Attention

 If mild symptoms persist after 10 to 15 minutes, have a buddy administer a
second Mark 1 kit

 With severe symptoms, administer all three Mark 1 kits. Do not wait between
kits

WARNING

If within 5-10 minutes after administration of the first set of injectors, your heart beats very quickly and your mouth becomes very dry,do not inject a second Mark 1 Kit


Do NOT use more than three Mark 1 kits

* Injection Sites

Main Nerve

Use caution when injecting in buttocks area, hitting main nerve could cause paralysis

Hip Bone

Lateral

Thigh

Muscle

Performing Tests for Chemical Agents

Ref AFH 32-4014, Vol 4

Testing for the presence of chemical agents is a critical step in your personal
decontamination process. If you do it correctly, it can save your life. The Air Force
fields a variety of chemical-agent-detection equipment, from the basic M8 and M9
paper to the highly sophisticated M22 Automatic Chemical Agent Detector Alarm.
Most likely, you will only use the M8 and M9 paper.

M8 Paper

This paper provides a simple way of checking exposed surfaces for the presence of
chemical-agent contamination. It is supplied in booklets of 25 4x2-inch pages of
paper containing chemical agent sensitive dyes. The cover has a color comparison
chart and describes general use instructions.

Always inspect the M8 paper prior to use:

 Discard any paper that shows
signs of wetness, wrinkling, dirt,
damage, or discoloration

 Discard any paper that is out of its
original plastic package if you
didn't just remove it

How to Use

 Remove one sheet of paper from
the booklet

 Blot the paper over surfaces
suspected of contamination; do
not rub

 If an agent is present, colored
blotches will appear on the paper

 Nerve agents produce yellow, brown, blue-green, or orange discoloration

 Blister agents produce red discoloration


 Color changes typically occur within seconds at 70-80° F (21-26° C), but may
take as long as 3 minutes to develop at 32° F (0° C)

M9 Paper

Ref AFH 32-4014, Vol 4

M9 paper, like M8 paper, contains agent-sensitive dyes that change color in the
presence of liquid chemical agents. M9 paper provides a rapid detection of traditional
nerve and mustard agents. It is issued in 30-foot rolls of 2-inch wide paper that is
green when issued. It may or may not be backed with adhesive.

M9 tape inspection is your responsibility. Discard the roll if:

 The shipping bag is torn or open

 The tape has discoloration, tears, creases, or dirt

 The backing separates from the paper

 The dispenser is crushed, wet, or cutting edge is missing

 The expiration date has passed (once removed from shipping bag, 1 year in temperate, tropic, and desert regions; 2
years in frigid zones)

How to Use

 M9 paper is worn on clothing or attached to vehicles and equipment

 Liquid agent droplets can produce red, pink, red-brown, red-purple, blue, yellow, green, gray, or black spots


 M9 tape's operational range is 32° F (0° C) to 125° F (51° C); extreme climatic zones give different reactions-slower in
cool conditions and false-positive readings above 160° F (71° C)


 Do not open bag until ready to use—operational life will be shortened

 Never use the results from M8/M9 paper as the sole indicator that liquid nerve or blister agents are present. Call your unit control center for verification.

 Color change is used to only make an initial assessment of the presence of liquid nerve or blister agent

 A number of chemical compounds produce false-positive responses

 M9 paper only indicates a presence, NOT the type

Protecting Yourself

Ground Crew Ensemble

Ref AFH 32-4014, Vol 4

Your Ground Crew Ensemble (GCE) is designed to
protect you from direct exposure to chemical, biological,
and nuclear (NBC) agents. Your GCE consists of a
protective mask, an impermeable hood, a protective
overgarment, gloves and glove inserts, and footwear
covers.


Protective Mask

A key feature of your mask is to filter NBC agents,
preventing them from entering your body through your
mouth, nose, eyes, cuts, and abrasions. It is also an
overgarment, which prohibits NBC agents from direct
skin contact and absorption through the skin.


Proper fit and expedient donning of a protective mask is paramount

 Ensure you have a proper fit

 A leaking mask will not protect you

 Don't overtighten-that may actually cause leaks

 Check the mask for leaks every time you put it on

 Don the mask quickly-It should be on and sealed before your next breath, about 9 seconds


0 seconds
3 seconds
6 seconds
9 seconds
15 seconds

MCU-2A/P

This mask is the primary USAF eye/respiratory protection device. The MCU-2AP is
a filter respirator; it does not supply or produce oxygen.

Mask Features

 Large single viewing lens

 Drinking tube

 Voicemitter

 Single screw-on/off canister filter

 Intercom adapter

 Microphone adapter

M17A2

The M17 series masks were standard issue in the USAF from the early 1960s until
the introduction of the MCU-2A/P. A few M17A2s remain in the USAF inventory
for use by those for whom a small MCU-2A/P is too large.

Mask Features

 Two lenses

 Twin M13A2 cheek-mounted filters

 Voicemitter

 Self-contained drinking system

Your mask can save your life. Wear it properly, clean it after every use, inspect it regularly, and perform maintenance as needed.

Protective Hoods

Your hood will provide additional head,
neck, and face protection from gaseous
agent and from falling droplets


For detailed instruction on fit, donning/doffing, inspection, and maintenance of
your mask and hood refer to AFH 32-4014, Vol 4

Overgarments

You will be issued either the Battle Dress Overgarment (BDO) or the Joint
Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology (JLIST) overgarment. When worn properly
they will protect you from both liquid and vapor chemical agents.

BDO

A two-piece heavy, air-permeable overgarment worn over the duty uniform

 Available in woodland or desert camouflage patterns

 May be worn up to 22 days after removed from factory bag

 Depending on its condition, may be extended up to 30 days


 Heavily worn or soiled should not be extended

 Should be changed within 24 hours after contact with a liquid contaminate

 Protective capabilities are reduced if wet

 BDO is designed to be worn with mask, hood, gloves, and overboots

 Can be decontaminated by aeration and/or M295 kit

JLIST

A two-piece heavy, air-permeable overgarment worn over the duty uniform

 Available in woodland camouflage pattern only

 May be worn up to 45 days after removed from factory bag, if uncontaminated

 Has a 10-year shelf life

 Should be changed within 24 hours after contact with any contaminate

 Protective capabilities are reduced if wet

 Can be laundered up to six times

 Launder only for hygiene purposes

 Use standard laundry detergent and water

 Designed to be worn with mask, hood, gloves, and overboots

 Can be decontaminated by aeration and/or M295 kit

Identification Markings

Remember to add identifying information,
abbreviated rank and full last name, to strips of tape
placed...

 On front and rear of helmet

 Above the mask and middle of the back of head on the protective hood

 On right breast pocket flap on the overgarment

For complete donning/doffing procedures and inspection criteria for your overgarment refer to AFH 32-4014, Vol 4

Footwear Covers

 Available in three types

 Four eyelet style

 Five eyelet style

 Green or black vinyl overboots (GVO/BVO)

 Eyelet style covers…

 Available in only small and large sizes

 Are adjustable to fit foot

 No distinction between left and right

 Fit over combat footwear


 Fastened with laces

 GVO/BVO style covers…

 Available in 12 full sizes, 3-14

 Fit over combat footwear

 Fastened with buckles

Gloves

 Consist of two layers:

 Butyl rubber, chemical-protective outer glove

 Cotton liner for perspiration absorption
 Both layers must be worn for complete protection

 Available in two thickness:

 14 mil-the standard issue, provides 24 hours of protection

 7 mil-provides better feel and facilitates execution of tasks requiring greater dexterity; should be replaced every 6 hours


Aircrew Protective Equipment

MBU-13/P

 A full face silicon mask

 Worn under the flight helmet

 Used both on the ground and in flight

 One size only


CP Undercoverall

 One-piece garment made of a non-woven fabric lined with active charcoal
 Worn over cotton long sleeve undershirt and underwear

Aircrew Cape

 Disposable plastic bag worn over the flight gear between the shelter and aircraft

 Must be removed before entering shelter or aircraft


Disposable Footwear Covers

 Made of light weight plastic

 Worn over flyer's boots

 Designed for protection between the shelter and aircraft

 Must be removed before entering a shelter or aircraft

 One size only


Mission-Oriented Protective Postures

Ref AFVA 32-4012

Your GCE can be used in a variety of ways through Mission-Oriented Protective
Posture (MOPP) options. The variations are dependent on levels of protection,
grades of inconvenience, tactile loss, visual loss, communication loss, and heat
stress. There are five MOPP levels in addition to MOPP Level Alpha. The decision
as to which MOPP level to be in will come from the Command Post or the Survival
Recovery Center. Do not come out of any MOPP level until directed!

MOPP Level 0

Worn during periods of increased alert when the enemy has an ability to employ
chemical and/or biological agents. However, they have not, and there are no
indications of their immediate use.

Wear:

 Mask carrier

 Field gear

 Web belt w/canteen

 Helmet

Individual Protection Equipment
must be prepared and accessible
within 5 minutes of notification. If
there is any doubt, carry your bag
with you everywhere you go


Take care of your equipment. You'll never know when you'll need it

MOPP Level 1

Worn when a chemical and/or biological attack is possible

Wear:

 Overgarment

 Mask carrier

 Field gear

Carry:

 Footwear covers

 Mask and hood

 Gloves

Drink plenty of water, and take frequent
breaks. You don't know how long you'll
be in MOPP

Notice identification markings

MOPP Level 2

Worn when a chemical and/or biological attack is probable

Wear:

 Overgarment

 Mask carrier

 Field gear

 Footwear cover

Carry:

 Mask and hood

 Gloves

Depending on your climate, consider donning your GCE directly over your underwear

Drink plenty of water

MOPP Level 3

Worn when you are in an area where contact with chemical and/or biological agents is negligible

Wear:

 Overgarment

 Mask carrier

 Mask and hood

 Field gear

 Footwear covers

Carry:

 Gloves

Keep a close eye on your
co-workers. It doesn't take long
to become overheated


Know your equipment. It will save your life

MOPP Level 4

Worn when the highest degree of protection is required. Chemical and/or biological
agents are present.

Wear:

 Overgarment

 Mask carrier

 Mask and hood

 Field gear

 Footwear covers

 Gloves

Ensure you use the buddy system
when donning your IPE. Make
frequent equipment checks

By now you know the attack is real.
Stay calm and continue doing your
job. The IPE works

MOPP Level ALPHA

Provides flexibility for accomplishing the mission by performing mission critical
tasks in a post-attack environment while wearing the mask/hood and gloves only.
This level of protection is a realistic possibility only after confirmation of agent
type, persistency, and actual hazard location. Some likely uses for MOPP ALPHA
in a CB environment may be outdoors with a downwind hazard of a negligible
chemical vapor hazard agent; when biological weapons are deployed; or for
personnel that remain inside vehicles, buildings, or aircraft
.

Only the Commander can determine whether you are under MOPP ALPHA conditions

Wear:

 Mask and hood

 Field gear

 Gloves

Carry:

 Overgarment

 Footwear covers

Performing Expedient Personal Decontamination

Ref AFH 32-4014 Vol 4

Personal decontamination is your responsibility. Don't rely on a decon team or a
Contamination Control Area to do it. If you have been, or suspect you have been
exposed to chemical agents your first action should be to quickly start
decontamination. But before you start, if you are not in a shelter, find one. Do not
attempt to decontaminate in the open. Additionally, if you don't have your mask on,
put it on! There are three types of personal decontamination kits: The two you'll
most likely use are the M291 and M258A1 kits.


Decontaminate all exposed skin, including neck and face as quickly as possible
(3 minutes or less)


M291

 Very effective against liquid nerve and blister agents

 Kit consists of a wallet-like carrying case with six individual packets

 Each packet has an applicator pad filled with decontamination powder

 If the packet is leaking or been opened by someone other than you, discard it

 Immediately replace used kits

Use the M291

Remove packet

Tear open at notch

Remove applicator

Slip fingers into handle

Thoroughly scrub skin until covered with powder-discard applicator

M258A1

Very effective against nerve and blister agents

 Consists of a plastic waterproof carrying case with six decontamination packets

 Three number 1s and three number 2s

 Discard any packets that:

 Have holes or are leaking

 Have crushed glass ampoules

 Are deformed or deteriorated

Use the M258A1 kit

 Open and remove a #1 packet

 Fold on dotted line

 Tear at notches

 Remove pad and unfold completely

 Wipe skin for 1 minute

 Discard pad

 Remove a #2 packet

 Crush glass ampoules

 Fold on dotted line

 Tear at notches

 Remove pad, let screen fall

 Unfold completely

 Wipe skin 2-3 minutes

 Discard pad

Contamination Control

Ref AFMAN 32-4005

Contamination control is essential to sustained operations in a chemical and/or
biological environment. If at any time you suspect your protective clothing has
been contaminated, proceed to a Contamination Control Area (CCA) as soon as
possible. Your contaminated clothing must be removed and replaced as soon as
possible, but absolutely within 24 hours.


The CCA…

 Provides controlled entry

 Limits the spread of contamination into toxic-free areas

 Offers you a rest and relief shelter

 Allows you to practice effective contamination avoidance procedures

The exchange of contaminated clothing for clean protective clothing will take place
at the CCA. A small delay before processing into the CCA allows the suits to aerate
and reduce cross-contamination hazards in the CCA.

Each CCA has…

Drop-Off Point

This area offers the first active efforts to reduce both
contact and vapor hazards

Entrance and Holding Area

 Here you will be briefed on the sequence of events and any emergency response procedures

 Provides you a covered area to rest while waiting to process

Contact Hazard Area (CHA)

 You will remove the majority of your individual protective equipment in this area which will reduce the amount of contamination and increase the containment of all contact hazards

 Sub-areas of the CHA are:

 Overgarment Aeration/Laundry Area

 Contaminated Waste Disposal Area

Vapor Hazard Area (VHA)

The VHA provides the last chance for
the CCA staff to verify you are free of
any type of contamination before
proceeding to a toxic free area.

Airlock

In an open-air configuration, the airlock is a designated transition area between the
VHA and a toxic free area

Mask Decontamination and Refurbishment Area.

In this area your protective mask will
be decontaminated, refurbished and
stored for reissue.

Transition Buffer Zone

This area provides a buffer zone to prevent vapors form reaching the toxic free area

Toxic-Free Area

 A clean environment where you can rest and recuperate without wearing your GCE

 Can be on or off the base proper

Casualty Collection

Ref 36-2218

Casualties are usually moved to a centralized, safe point for emergency treatment
and forwarding, if necessary.

The Casualty Collection Point (CCP) is
staffed by medical and base personnel
who are close to operational forces,
evaluate wounds for return to duty,
reinforce Self-Aid & Buddy Care (SA/
BC) as needed to stabilize casualties,
and/or transport wounded to a
deployed medical facility for further
care

The CCP may be an Air Transportable Hospital (ATH),
tent, building, an ambulance at a disaster site, or simply
a spot on the ground

Shelter is preferable, but not essential

CCP location and use depend on the contingency operation, threat situation, and
available medical and line (base) personnel

Base personnel-you perhaps-may be tasked to assist the medical staff at the CCP in
casualty care management

Upon arrival at your deployed location, familiarize yourself with the local casualty
care protocols and locations

Rights as a Prisoner of War

Ref Geneva Conventions

As a member of a military force, you must be prepared to participate in armed
conflicts anywhere in the world, and you must understand that you might be
captured by a hostile force and held captive as a POW. However, the Third Geneva
Convention provides special protections for you in the event you are captured.
Your ID card is your Geneva Convention card.


The Convention states:

 If captured, you may be disarmed, searched,
and guarded but you must be humanely treated
without distinction based upon race, color,
gender, religious belief or other arbitrary reason

 As a prisoner, you must not be humiliated or
degraded and must be protected against all acts
of violence, insults, public curiosity, and reprisals of all kind


 All prisoners must be treated alike with privileges only extended because of:

 Poor health, advanced age, military rank, or professional qualifications
medical personnel and chaplains are not considered POWs and should be
allowed to tend to fellow prisoners

 Gender-female POWs must be provided any special care required by their
gender

 POWs should be promptly, safely, and humanely evacuated from battle area


 When questioned, you must give your name, age, rank, and service number
but you do not have to give any other information. Although you may be
questioned, you may not be harmed, tortured, or
threatened in any way

 As soon as possible, but not later than a week after
reaching a POW camp, you must be allowed to send a
"Capture Card"

 This Geneva Convention postcard informs your next-of-kin of your\whereabouts and state of health

 Completion of this card does not violate the Code of Conduct

 POWs, with the exception of officers, may be forced to work

 You may never be forced to do military work or work that is dangerous, unhealthy, or degrading

 You must be paid for all work performed

 Officers may voluntarily work

 NCOs can only be required to perform supervisory work


Complaints

 The text of the Geneva Convention must be posted in
each camp in a language you and all other POWs
understand


 You have the right to complain to representatives of a
Protecting Power (the neutral State responsible for
safeguarding your interests) or to delegates of the
International Committee of the Red Cross


Discipline

 Military discipline continues in a POW camp and
includes saluting high ranking enemy officers and
the camp commander, regardless of rank

 The Uniform Code of Military Justice applies to
you while a prisoner

 You must obey the senior U.S. POW regardless
of service

 You are subject to the laws of the Detaining Power
(enemy) for offenses committed during captivity or
before capture but not for having fought against the
enemy before capture


 If tried by the Detaining Power, you must be given notice of the charges,
provided counsel and an interpreter, and be allowed to call witnesses in
your defense


 If convicted, you still retain your rights as a POW

Survival Reminders

 Remember, if personnel above you are wounded or killed, you must step up to
your responsibilities and continue the mission. Survivability and mission
success often depends on redundancy; not only of resources but leaders too.

 Always drink plenty of water from a medically approved source

 Shake out clothing and boots before wearing them to remove spiders, scorpions,
fire ants, or snakes

 Look out for your co-workers

 Transport the wounded before the dead

 For burns, do not apply antiseptic other than those approved

 Do not break or drain blisters

 Do not remove or change dressings


 Seek medical attention immediately for burns if blistering or charring is present

Section Review

 Identify steps you should take immediately for an injured person. [page 112]
 What handbook should you refer to for first aid information? [page 112]
 List symptoms for shock. [page 112]
 How should you treat a person in shock? [page 112]
 How do you give first aid for an abdominal wound? [page 113]
 What five steps do you take to stop or slow bleeding? [page 113]
 Describe the purpose for a tourniquet and how you would apply one.
[page 113]
 List four steps for treating a chest wound. [page 114]
 What is the first aid treatment for an eye injury? [page 113]
 What does "TC4I" mean? [page 161]
 What six steps should you take if you suspect a fracture? [page 114]
 What treatment should you give a person with spine, neck or head injury?
[page 114]
 If a person with a suspected spine, neck or head injury MUST be moved, what
four things should you do? [page 114]
 Which heat injury type can kill you and what should you do to treat it?
[page 115]
 List three types of thermal burns and how should you treat them? [page 116]
 List two symptoms for first-degree burn and treatment. [page 116]
 What are the two most injurious cold-related situations and how do you treat
them? [page 117]
 Describe a biological agent. [page 119]
 How do you know if someone is suffering from radiation sickness? [page 118]
 What symptoms would lead you to suspect chemical/choking contamination?
[page 120]
 What actions would you take if you suspected a nerve agent on a comrade?
[page 123]
 What steps should you take to inject atropine into your own body, and why
would you? [page 124]
 What is the purpose for a contamination control area? [page 142]
 What support can you expect at a casualty collection point? [page 144]
 How many Mark 1 kits are you authorized to use for a single treatment? [page
125]
 What two indications tell you NOT to use a second Mark 1 kit? [page 125]
 What is the difference between M8 and M9 paper? [pages 126]
 What indications would you see on M8 and M9 paper if contamination were
present? [page 126]
 What is the purpose of Ground Crew Ensemble (GCE)? [page 128 ]
 What are the two most important things to remember about a protective mask?
[page 128]
 What are physical differences between the new (MCU-2A/P) and old (M17A2)
masks? [page 129]
 Describe the elements of the Ground Crew Ensemble and each of their functions.
[pages 129-132]
 How often should you check your mask for leaks? [page 128]
 What is the life cycle for the GCE overgarment? [page 130]
 What identification markings should you be wearing on your GCE uniform and
where? [page 131]
 What does "ISR" mean? [page 157]
 What is the purpose for the different thickness of GCE gloves? [page 132]
 If you suspect a chemical agent has contaminated you, what is your first
course of action? [page 140]
 What are the general procedures for using an M291 kit? [page 140]
 What are the Mission-Oriented Protective Postures (MOPP) you must know at
all times? [pages134-139]
 What conditions dictate MOPP 1 and how are you dressed? [page 135]
 What conditions dictate MOPP 3 and how are you dressed? [page 137]
 What conditions dictate MOPP 4 and how are you dressed? [page 138]
 What rights do you have under the Geneva Convention if you become a
POW? [page 146]

MICHAEL E. RYAN, General, USAF
Chief of Staff
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 17805
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: AIRFORCE MANUAL 10-100, by Department of the Air Force

Postby admin » Mon Sep 07, 2015 5:52 am

Section 6 -- Notes

This profession takes special people -- dedicated to their teammates and committed to their nation -- and brave enough to face the uncertainties associated with being first in and last out of global crisis.
-- General Michael E. Ryan, USAF


Glossary of Terms

These are terms Air Force people may hear or need for their duties:

A2 Air Chief of Intelligence
AAFES Army and Air Force Exchange Service
AATO Automated Air Tasking Order
ABCCC Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center
ABD Air Base Defense
ABN Airborne
ACC Air Combat Command
ACO Airspace Control Order
ACS Agile Combat Support
ADA Air Defense Artillery
ADOCS Automated Deep Operations Control System
AEF Aerospace Expeditionary Force
AEG Air Expeditionary Group
AEW Air Expeditionary Wing
AFB Air Force Base
AFCA Air Force Communications Agency
AFCIC Air Force Communications Information Center
AFFOR Air Force Forces
AFGWC Air Force Global Weather Central
AFH Air Force Handbook
AFI Air Force Instruction
AFISA Air Force intelligence Support Agency
AFIWC Air Force Information Warfare Center
AFMC Air Force Materiel Command
AFMSS Air Force Mission Support System
AFOSI Air Force Office of Special Investigation
AFPAM Air Force Pamphlet
AFSC Air Force Systems Center
AFSFC Air Force Space Forecast Center
AFSOC Air Force Special Operations Command
AFSPC Air Force Space Command
AFSST Air Force Space Support Team
AFTFS Air Force Tactical Forecast System
AFTRC Air Force Technical Reference Codes
AIA Air Intelligence Agency
ALCM Air-Launched Cruise Missile
ALO Air Liaison Officer
AMC Air Mobility Command
AMD Air Mobility Division
AMRAAM Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile
AO Area of Operations
AOR Area of Responsibility
AR Automatic Rifle
ARC American Red Cross
ARF ASEAN Regional Forum
ASAP As Soon As Possible
ASAS All Source Analysis System
ASC Aircraft Systems Center
ASETF Air and Space Expeditionary Task Force
ASOC Air Support Operations Centers
ATH Air Transportable Hospital
ATM Asynchronous Transmission Mode
ATO Air Tasking Order
ATR Automatic Target Recognition
ATSO Ability to Survive and Operate
AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System (E-3A)
AWSIM Air Warfare Simulation Model
BB Bare Base
BCAT Beddown Capability Assessment Tool
BCD Battlefield Coordination Detachment
BD Battle Drill
BDA Battle Damage Assessment
BDO Battledress Overgarnment
BDOC Base Defense Operations Center
BDU Battledress Uniform
BLOS Beyond Line-of-Sight
BNCC Base Network Control Center
BP Battle Position
BRAAT Base Recovery After Attack
BVO Black Vinyl Overboots
C2 Command and Control
C2IPS Command and Control Information Processing System
C2MC Command and Control Mobile Capability
C2TIC Command and Control Training and Innovation Center
C4 Command, Control, Communications and Computer
C4I Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence
CA Combat Assessment
CAFMSX Computer Automated Force Management System - X Windows
CARS Contingency Airborne Reconnaissance System
CAS Close Air Support
CATM Combat Arms Training and Maintenance
CBU Cluster Bomb Unit
CCA Contamination Control Area
CCD Camouflage, Concealment, and Deception
CCP Casualty Collection Point
CCT Combat Control Team
CCW Counterclockwise
CDRL Contract Data Requirements List
CED Captured Enemy Document
CEE Captured Enemy Equipment
CFE Coalition Force Enhancement
CHA Contact Hazard Area
CHAMPUS Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services
CI Combat Information or Counter Intelligence
CINC Commander In Chief
CIS Combat Intelligence System
CJCS Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff
CJTF Combined Joint Task Force
CLAWS Carrier, Light Auxiliary Weapons System
CLP Cleaner, Lubricate Preservative
CMBCC Consolidated Mobility Bag Control Center
COA Course of Action
COB Collocated Operating Base
CODB Combat Operations Database
COE Common Operating Environment
COEA Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis
COMACC Commander, Air Combat Command
COMAFFOR Commander of Air Force Forces
COMSEC Communications Security
COMMZ Communications Zone
CONOPS Concept of Operations
CONUS Continental United States
COP Common Operating Picture
CORONA Meeting of Air Force 4 Star Generals
COTS Commercial Off-the-Shelf
CP Command Post
CRA Continuing Resolution Authority (budget)
CRC Control and Reporting Centers
CRE Control and Reporting Elements
CSAF Chief of Staff of the Air Force
CTAPS Contingency Theater Automated Planning System
CTBT Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
CTF Combined Task Force
CVW Collaborative Virtual Workspace
CW Clockwise
CWDE Chemical Warfare Defense Ensemble
dAPE dynamic Assessment, Planning and Execution
DCI Defensive Counter Information
DeCA Defense Commissary Agency
DEERS Defense Enrollment Eligibility Reporting System
DFC Defense Force Commander
DFP Defensive Fighting Position
DGSS Deployable Ground Support System (associated with Joint
STARS)
DIGMAS Dynamic Information Gateway Management System
DII COE Defense Information Interchange Common Operating
Environment
DII Defense Information Infrastructure
DIRMOBFOR Director of Mobility Forces
DISA Defense Information Systems Agency
DISN Defense Information Systems Network
DIV Division
DIW Defensive Information Warfare
DMRA Distributed Mission Rehearsal and Analysis
DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid
DSN Defense Switched Network
DTG Date-Time Group
EA Executive Agent
EAF Expeditionary Aerospace Force
ECM Electronic Countermeasures
ECP Entry Control Point
EEI Essential Elements of Information
EELV Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle
EFX Expeditionary Force Experiment
E-mail Electronic Mail
EOB Enemy Order of Battle
EOC Expeditionary Operations Center
EP Electronic Protection
EPLRS Enhanced Position Location Reporting System
EPW Enemy Prisoner of War
ESAR Enhanced Resolution SAR
ESC Electronic Systems Center
EW Electronic Warfare
FAC Forward Air Controller
FAMS Fuels Automated Management System
FCP Family Care Plan
FDC Fire Direction Center
FEBA Forward Edge of the Battle Area
FL Flight Leader
FLEX Force Level Execution
FLIR Forward Looking Infrared
FLOT Forward Line of Own Troops
FM Field Manual
FMC Fully Mission Capable
FOA Field Operating Agency
FOL Forward Operating Location
FPF Final Protective Fire
FPL Final Protective Line
FPS Feet Per Second
FRAGO Fragmentary Order
FS Flight Sergeant
GA Global Awareness
GAT Guidance, Apportionment, and Targeting
GBS Global Broadcast Service
GCCS Global Command and Control System
GCE Ground Crew Ensemble
GCSS Global Combat Support System
GG Global Grid
GO General Officer
GOTS Government Off-the-Shelf
GP General Purpose
GPS Global Positioning System
GR-GP Global Reach - Global Power
GSM Ground Station Module (associated with Joint STARS)
GTWAPS Global Theater Weather Analysis and Prediction System
GVO Green Vinyl Overboots
GZ Ground Zero
HARM High-Explosive Anti-Radiation Missile
HE High Explosive
HEAT High Explosive Antitank
HF High Frequency
HIV Human Immuno Deficiency Virus
HMMWV Highly Mobile Multi-Wheeled Vehicle (Humvee)
HNS Host Nation Support
HQ Headquarters
HSUS High-speed UHF SATCOM
HTS HARM Targeting System
I&W Indications and Warning
IAD Infiltrate, Attack and Defend (Information Warfare term)
IAW in accordance with
IBIS Interactive Battlefield Intelligence System
ICBM Intercontinental Ballistic Missile
ID Identification
IDM Improved Data Modem
IDS Intrusion Detection System
IED Improvised Explosive Device
IFE Inflight Emergency
IFF Identification, Friend or Foe
IFOR Implementation Force
IG Inspector General
ILC2 Agile Combat Support Improved Logistic C2
ILLUM Illumination
IMETS Integrated Meteorological Tactical System
INTSUM Intelligence Summary
IO Information Operations
IOC Initial Operational Capability
IOT Information Operations Tools
IPB Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace
IPEC Integrated Planning and Execution Concepts
IPE Individual Protective Equipment
IR Infrared
ISR Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance
IW Information Warfare
J2 Joint Chief of Intelligence
JAG Judge Advocate General
JAOC Joint Air Operations Center
JAOC-F Joint Air Operations Center - Forward
JAOC-R Joint Air Operations Center - Rear
JAOP Joint Air Operations Plan
JASOP Joint Air and Space Operations Plan
JAST Joint Advanced Strike Technology
JBS Joint Broadcast Service
JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff
JDAM Joint Direct Attack Munitions
JDISS Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System
JDP Joint Defense Planner
JFACC Joint Force Air Component Commander
JFC Joint Force Commander
JLIST Joint Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology
Joint STARS Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System
JP4 Jet Petroleum 4
JPATS Joint Primary Aircraft Training System
JRA Joint Rear Area
JRAC Joint Rear Area Coordinator
JPITL Joint Prioritized Integrated Targeting List
JROC Joint Requirements and Oversight Council
JSAS JFACC Situational Awareness System
JSF Joint Strike Fighter
JSIMS Joint Simulation System
JSMB Joint Space Management Board
JSOAC Joint Special Operations Air Component
JSOTF Joint Special Operations Task Force
JSOW Joint Standoff Weapons
JSS Joint Surveillance Squadron (Joint Stars)
JSTARS Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System
JTAV Joint Total Asset Visibility
JTENS Joint Tactical Exploitation of National Systems
JTIDS Joint Tactical Information Distribution System
JTTP Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures
JTW Joint Targeting Workstation
JULLS Joint Uniform Lessons Learned System
JV 2010 Joint Vision 2010
JWCA Joint Warfighting Capability Assessment
JWICS Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System
JWID Joint Warrior Interoperability Demonstrations
Kph kilometers per hour
kbps kilobits per second
kHz kiloHertz
KRA Key Result Area
LALPS Laser Aiming Light Pointing System
LAN Local Area Network
LANTIRN Low Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night
LASTE Low Altitude Safety and Targeting Enhancement
LAW Light Antitank Weapon
LD Line of Departure
LDHD Low Density High Demand
LES Leave and Earnings Statement
LLRICS Lightweight Long-Range Information and Communications System
LMR Land Mobile Radio
LOAC Laws of Armed Conflict
LOG Logistics (or LG)
LOS line-of-sight
LP Listening Posts
LRC Lesser Regional Conflict
LSA Lubricating, Semi-fluid, Arctic
LSD Large Screen Display
M16 .223 Caliber (5.56 mm) Assault Rifle
M&S Modeling and Simulation
MAAP Master Air Attack Plan
MAJCOM Major Air Command
MAP Mission Area Plan
MASINT Measurement and Signatures Intelligence
MATT Multi-mission Advanced Tactical Terminal
MBP Master Battle Planner
Mbps megabits per second
MCEB Military Communications-Electronics Board
MEADS Medium Extended Air Defense System
MEZ Military Exclusion Zone
MILSPEC Military specification
MILSTAR (not an acronym--satellite communications system)
MOOTW Military Operations Other Than War
MOPP Mission-Oriented Protective Postures
MP Military Police
mph miles per hour
MR Mobile Reserve
MRC Major Regional Conflict
MTI Moving Target Indicator
MWD Military Working Dog
NAF Numbered Air Force
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NB Narrow-band
NBC Nuclear, Biological, Chemical
NCA National Command Authorities
NCO Noncommissioned Officer
NCOIC Noncommissioned Officer-in-Charge
NDAA Non-Developmental Airlift Aircraft
NEO Noncombatant Evacuation Operation
NITF National Imagery Text Format
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NOSC Network Operations Support Center
NOTAMS Notices to Airmen
NPOESS National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite
System
NRO National Reconnaissance Office
NRT Near-Real-Time
NVD Night Vision Device
NVG Night Vision Goggles
NWS National Weather Service
OCI Offensive Counter Information
OIC Officer-in-Charge
OPLAN Operations Plan
OP Observation Posts
OPCON Operational Control
OPORDER Operational Order
OPSEC Operations security
OPTEMPO Operations Tempo
ORP Objective Rally Point
OSS Operations Support Squadron
OTH Over-The-Horizon
PA Public Affairs
PAA Phased Array Antenna
PAD Point Air Defense
PDW Personal Weapon Defense
PERSCO Personnel Support for Contingency Operations
PERSTEMPO Personnel Tempo
PGM Precision-Guided Munitions
PHA Preventive Health Assessment
PIST Point-in-Space and Time
PMPS Portable Mission Planning System
POA Power of Attorney
POL Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants
POL/MIL Political/Military
POM Program Objectives Memorandum
POW Prisoner of War
Prime BEEF Prime Base Engineering Emergency Force
Prime RIBS Prime Readiness in Base Services
R&S Reconnaissance and Surveillance
RAOC Rear Area Operations Center
RBC Rifle Bore Compound
RED HORSE Rapid Engineer Deployable-Heavy Operational Repair Squadron,
Engineer
RF Response Force
RFL Restricted Fire Line
RFP Request For Proposal
RIF Reduction in Force
RJ Rivet Joint (RC-135)
RM Resource Management
ROE Rules of Engagement
ROSC Rear Operations Support Center
RPM rounds per minute
RTIC Real-Time Information in the Cockpit
RTOC Rear Tactical Operations Center
RTS Rapid Targeting System
S1 Administration and Personnel Staff Function
S2 Combat Information Section (Intelligence) Staff Function
S3 Operations Staff Function
S4 Logistics Staff Function
SA Situational Awareness
SA/BC Self-Aid & Buddy Care
SAB Scientific Advisory Board
SADL Situational Awareness Data Link
SALUTE Size, Activity, Location, Unit/Uniform, Time, Equipment
SAM Surface-to-Air Missiles
SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar
SATCOM Satellite Communications
SB Sensor Box
SBIRS Space Based Infra Red System
SBL Space Battle Lab
SCDL Surveillance Control Data Link
SCI Sensitive Compartmented Information
SCIF Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility
SD Solvent, Dry
SDO Squadron Duty Officer
SDS Sensor-Decision Maker-Shooter
SEAD Suppression of Enemy Defenses
SECDEF Secretary of Defense
sf square feet
SFG Security Forces Group
SFW Sensor-Fused Weapon
SGLI Servicemen's Group Life Insurance
SIAP Single Integrated Air Picture
SIGINT Signals Intelligence
SIOP Single Integrated Operational Plan
SIPRNET Secret Internet Protocol Router Network
SITMAP Situation Map
SITREP Situation Report
SMA Strategic Missile Alert
SOA Special Operations Agency
SOF Special Operations Forces
SOFA Status of Forces Agreement
SOI Statement of Intent
SOLE Special Operations Liaison Element
SPAIF Space Application and Integration Facility
SPINS Special Instructions
SPO Systems Program Office
SRC Survival Recovery Center
SROE Standing Rules of Engagement
SSG Senior Steering Group
SSM Surface-to-Surface Missile
STATREP Status Report
STO Special Technical Operations
STU Secure Telephone Unit
SWC Space Warfare Center
T-1 High capacity telephone lines linking sites
TA Table of Allowances
TACC Tactical Air Control Center
TACP Tactical Air Control Party
TACS Theater Air Control System
TADIXS-B Tactical Data Information Exchange System-B
TAOR Tactical Area of Responsibility
TAP Theater Air Planning
TASS Tactical Automatic Security System
TBMCS Theater Battle Management Core System
TC4I Tactical C4I
TCF Tactical Combat Force
TCS Theater Air Defense Counter-Air System
TCT Time Critical Target
TCTA Time Critical Targeting Aid
TDDS TRAP Data Dissemination System
TELS Transporter Erector Launchers
TENCAP Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities
TFP Tactical Fusion Prototype
TFR Terrain-Following Radar
THREATCON Threat Conditions
TIBS Tactical Information Broadcast Service
TLAM Tomahawk Land Attack Missile
TMD Theater Missile Defense
TOC Tactical Operations Center
TOT Time on Target
TPFDD Time Phased Force Deployment Data
TRAP Tactical Receive Equipment and Related Applications
TRP Target Reference Point
TSOC Theater Support Operations Cell
TSSAM Tri-Service Standoff Attack Missile
TSTT Talon Shield Tactical Terminal
TTP Tactics, Techniques and Procedures
TTW Transition to War
TWM Targeting and Weaponeering Module
UA-HMMWV Up Armored-High Mobility, Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle
UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
UCC Unit Control Center
UCMJ Uniform Code of Military Justice
UHF Ultra-High Frequency
UN United Nations
USA United States Army
USAF United States Air Force
USMC United States Marine Corp
USN United States Navy
UTA Unit Training Assembly
UTC Unit Type Code
UXO Unexploded Ordnance
VHA Vapor Hazard Area
VHSIC Very High-Speed Integrated Circuit
VSI Voluntary Separation Incentive
VTC Video Tele-Conference
WARNORD Warning Order
WBS Wireless Broadband System
WMD Weapons of Mass Destruction
WOC Wing Operations Center
WP White Phosphorous
Y2K Year 2000

References

Publication Series

Series / Title

10 Operations
11 Flying Operations
13 Space, Missile, Command and Control
14 Intelligence
15 Weather
16 Operations Support
20 Logistics
21 Maintenance
23 Supply
24 Transportation
25 Logistics Staff
31 Security
32 Civil Engineering
33 Communications and Information
34 Services
35 Public Affairs
36 Personnel
37 Information Management
38 Manpower and Organization
40 Medical Command
41 Health Services
44 Medical
46 Nursing
47 Dental
48 Aerospace Medicine
51 Law
52 Chaplain
60 Standardization
61 Scientific/Research and Development
62 Developmental Engineering
63 Acquisition
64 Contracting
65 Financial Management
71 Special Investigations
84 History
90 Command Policy
91 Safety
99 Test and Evaluation

Publications and Documents of Specific Interest

 AFI 10-215 Personnel Support for Contingency Operations
 AFI 10-403 Deployment Planning
 AFI 31-101, Vol 1 USAF Physical Security Program
 AFI 31-207 Arming and Use of Force by AF Personnel
 AFI 31-210 AF Antiterrorism Program
 AFI 31-301 Air Base Defense
 AFI 31-401 Information Security Program Management
 AFI 32-2001 Fire Protection Operations and Fire Prevention Program
 AFI 32-3001 Explosive Ordnance Disposal
 AFI 32-4001 Disaster Preparedness Planning and Operations
 AFI 32-4005 Personal Protection & Attack Actions
 AFI 32-4007 Camouflage, Concealment & Deception
 AFI 32-7042 Solid and Hazardous Waste Compliance
 AFI 32-7080 Pollution Prevention
 AFI 32-7086 Hazardous Materials Management
 AFI 36-2218, Vol 1 Self-Aid and Buddy Care Training
 AFI 36-2908 Family Care Plans
 AFI 36-3002 Casualty Services
 AFI 44-117 Opthalmic Services
 AFI 48-110 Immunizations & Chemoprophylaxis
 AFI 48-116 Food Safety Program
 AFI 48-119 Medical Service Environmental Quality
 AFI 51-401 Training & Reporting to Ensure Compliance with the
Law of Armed Conflict
 AFI 51-504 Legal Assistance, Notary, and Preventive
 AFI 71-101, Vol 1 Counterintelligence Awareness Program
 PHA Implementation Guide Physical Health Assessment
 AFMAN 10-219, Vol 2 Revetment Construction
 AFPAM 10-219, Vol 2 Preattack and Predisaster Preparations
 AFPAM 10-219, Vol 3 Postattack and postdisaster Procedures
 AFMAN 10-219, Vol 3 Essentials of Firefighting
 AFMAN 32-4005 Personnel Protection and Attack Actions
 AFPAM 32-4019 Commanders Guide
 AFMAN 32-4017 NBCC Commander's Guide
 AFMAN 36-2227, Vol 2 Combat Arms Training and Maintenance Rifle,
Handgun, Shotgun, Grenade Launcher, M-72
Light Antitank Weapon, Submachine Gun, and
M-249 Squad Automatic Weapon Training
Programs
 AFH 10-222, Vol 2 Guide to Bare Base Assets
 AFH 32-4014, Vol 4 USAF Operations in a Chemical and Biological
Warfare Environment (series of four volumes)
 AFH 32-4014, Vol 4 ATSO Handbook
 AFH 36-2218, Vol 2 Self-Aid and Buddy Care Guidance
 AFH 48-116 Food Safety Program
 AFVA 32-4011 Standardized Alarm Signals
 AFVA 32- 4012 Mission-Oriented Protective Postures
 AFPD 32-20 Fire Protection
 AFPD 51-4 Compliance with the Law of Armed Conflict
 AFJMAN 24-204 Preparing Hazardous Materials for Military
Air Shipment
 AFJMAN 24-306 Manual for Wheeled Vehicle Driver Convoy
 CJCSI 3121.01 JCS Standing Rules of Engagement
 DOD 2000.12 DOD Combating Terrorism Program
 DOD 2000.12-H Protection of DOD Personnel and Activities
Against Acts of Terrorism and Political
Turbulence
 DOD 4500.9R Defense Transportation Regulation, Part 3 -
Mobility
 DOD 5100.7 DOD Law of War Program
 DOD 5200.1R Information Security Program Regulation
 JS Guide 5260 Service Member’s Personal Protection Guide:
A Self-Help Handbook to Combating Terrorism
 JS Pamphlet 5260 Coping With Violence: Personal Protection
Pamphlet
 Personal Wallet Card Antiterrorism Individual Protective Measures
 10 USC Section 401 Humanitarian & Other Assistance
 10 USC Section 2805 Unspecified Minor Construction
 10 USC Section 1044 Legal Assistance
 STP 21-1 SMCT Procedures for SALUTE Report
 Geneva Conventions of 1949 Section VI Relations between Prisoners of War and the Authorities

Index

A Bag 8
Abdominal wound 113
Accountability 17
AF Form 357 13
Alarm
Black 67
Red 67
Yellow 67
Signals 67
Ammunition
M16 82
M16A2 82
Animals 28
Attack
Actions during 77
Reporting 76
Air 77
Ground 77
Authorization letters 13
Auto-injector use 124
B Bag 8
Battledress overgarnment 130
BDO 130
Be Domestic 29
Bed assignment 17
Beneficiary 12
Beneficiary designation 12
Biological agents 119
Blackout 46
Bleeding 113
Bomb threat 60
BRAAT 99
Area decontamination 103
Attack recovery 100
Post-attack checklist 102
Post-attack reporting 101
Breathing 112
Burns 116
Chemical 116
Electrical 116
C Bag 9
Camouflage Concealment Deception (CCD) 43
Canals 28
Casualties 144
Casualty Collection Point 144
CCA 142
CCD 43
CCP 144
Chalk 16
Challenge
Group 64
Individual 63
Password sign/countersign 64
Chemical
Blister agents 122
Blood agents 121
Nerve agents 123
Chemical agent tests 126
Chemical characteristics & symptoms 120
Chest wound 114
Code of Conduct 2
Cold-related injuries 117
Contamination Control 142
Convoy
Ambush 74
Breakdown 74
Distance/intervals 73
Roadblock 75
Speed limits 73
Under air attack 74
Convoy Procedures 73
Cordon 60
Cordon Guards 61
Corrective lenses 15
D Bag 9
DD Form 93 12
Deadly force 16
Deception 44
Decontamination 140
Decoys 44
DEET 26
Defense Fundamentals 95
Defensive Fighting Positions 50
Dependent ID cards 13
Dispersal 45
DNA blood sample 15
Emergency Data Card 12
Entry authority 62
Entry Control Point 61
Evaluation Guide 5
Exposure 112
Eye injury 113
Field Sanitation and Hygiene 37
Fieldstrip 83
Fighting DFPs 50
Flare procedures 78
Flea collars 26
Footwear covers 132
Footwear covers disposable 133
Force required 18
Fracture 114
Frostbite 117
Geneva Convention 18
Glasses 15
Glossary of Terms 152
Gloves 132
GP Medium Tents 34
Grid Map 72
Ground Safety 30
Hague Convention 18
Hardening 42
Harvest Falcon latrine 41
Hasty DFPs 50
Hazardous material 21
Head injury 114
Health precautions 26
Health survey 15
Heat 26
Heat injuries 115
Heat stroke 115
HIV screening 15
Hood protective 129
Host Nation
Laws 20
Legal concerns 20
Sensitivities 19
Human remains procedures 108
Human waste disposal 41
Hypothermia 117
IED procedures 69
Immunization 15
Individual protective equipment 128
Insect repellent 26
Intruders 63
IPE 128
JLIST 131
Lakes 28
Legal Assistance 11
Life Insurance 11
Lifesaving 112
Life-saving equipment 117
Lifting techniques 30
Light 48
Litter 48
LOAC 18
Local Food 2
M16 81
Mechanical & battlesight zeroing 87
Sight adjustment 86
M16A2 81
Mechanical & battlesight zeroing 88
M8 paper 126
M9 paper 127
Major health hazards 26
Malaria 28
Map grid 72
Mask 128
M17A2 129
MCU-2A/P 129
Medical records 13
Medical requirements 15
Medications 15
Mess kit laundry 40
After you eat 40
Before you eat 40
MOPP
Level 0 134
Level 1 135
Level 2 136
Level 3 137
Level 4 138
Level ALPHA 139
Moving a victim 114
Neck injury 114
Next-of-kin address 12
Noise 48
Nuclear characteristics & symptoms 118
Other Health Concerns 28
Other Shelters 36
Overgarments 130
Pail latrine 41
Pallet construction 21
Parental duties 13
Passive Defense 42
Perimeter Defense 95
Permethrine 26
PERSCO 17
Personal Bag 10
Personal Hygiene 37
Personnel Accountability Kit 17
Pest Control 39
PHA 15
Pistol 89
Ammunition 90
Care & cleaning 92
Characteristics nomenclature 90
Clearing 89
Destruction 93
Disassembly 91
Function check 93
Loading 90
Magazine disassembly 91
Safety 89
Shooting fundamentals 94
Unloading 90
Pit latrine 41
POA 11
POW 18
Power of Attorney 11
General 11
Health Care 11
Special 11
Radio procedures 71
Radioactive material 60
References-Regulations Series 163
References-Specific 164
Responsibilities
Airman 4
Commander 3
Supervisor/Trainer 4
Rifle 80
Care and cleaning 84
Clearing 80
Function check 85
Loading 83
Nomenclature 82
Safety 80
Shooting fundamentals 86
Rivers 28
ROE 16
Safety 31
S-A-L-U-T-E report 76
Sandbagging 49
Scope of manual 3
Self-defense 16
SGLI 11
Shelter seeking 79
Shock symptoms & treatment 112
M16A2 87
SOFA 20
Spinal injury 114
SROE 16
Status of Forces Agreement 20
Survival Reminders 147
Swamps 28
Team Integrity 17
Temper Tents 32
Tent assignment 17
Tent Construction 32
Theaters of Operation 95
THREATCON
ALPHA 65
BRAVO 65
CHARLIE 66
Normal 65
Tourniquet 113
Toxic chemicals 60
Trash and Garbage Disposal 39
UCMJ 20
Unexploded ordnance 60,105
Uniform Code of Military Justice 20
Water 27
Weapon Destruction 85
Weapons nuclear conventional 60
Wills 11
Your Concerns Deployed 26
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