The Pakistan Connection, by Michael Meacher

What you are allowed to think and what you do think are two different things, aren't they? That's another way of saying that this forum may be NSFW, if your boss is a Republican. A liberal won't fire you for it, but they'll laugh at you in the break room and you may not get promoted. Unless you're an engineer, of course, in which your obsession with facing reality is not actually a career-disabling disability.

Re: The Pakistan Connection, by Michael Meacher

Postby admin » Tue Apr 12, 2016 5:49 am

Shaukat Aziz
by Wikipedia

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Aziz at the 2007 World Economic Forum Annual Meeting.

Shaukat Aziz (Urdu: شوکت عزیز), (born March 6, 1949 in Karachi, Pakistan) was the Prime Minister of Pakistan from 2004 to 2007. He became Finance Minister in November 1999 and was named by the Pakistan Muslim League for the position of Prime Minister after the resignation of Zafarullah Khan Jamali on June 6, 2004. He became Prime Minister on August 28, 2004 and served until November 15 2007. He became the first Prime Minister of Pakistan to complete a full term in office. He is a rare high-level government leader of a major power with a strong background as a successful businessman and financier.

Education

Aziz attended Saint Patrick's High School, Karachi and Abbottabad Public School, Abbottabad. He passed his Intermediate from Saint Patrick's College, Karachi. He graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree from Gordon College, Rawalpindi, in 1967. He obtained an MBA Degree in 1969 from Institute of Business Administration (IBA) in Karachi, one of the premier business schools in Pakistan. It was during his studies at the IBA that he secured an internship at Citibank and began his banking career.

Pre-politics

In 1969 he joined Citibank, serving in various countries, including Pakistan, Greece, the United States, the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Philippines, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Singapore. He served as Citibank's head of Global Wealth Management & Private Banking, Corporate and Investment Banking for the Asia Pacific region and the CEEMEA region (Central & Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa); as Corporate Planning Officer, Citicorp; as Managing Director, Saudi America Bank; as Citibank's Chief Country Officer in Malaysia and, later, in Jordan. He has been a board member of Citibank subsidiaries, including Saudi American Bank, Citicorp Islamic Bank, and of several non-profit organizations[1].

Finance Minister

On 26 November 1999, while addressing a gathering of PakPAC, a political lobbying sub-body of the Association of Pakistani Physicians of North America (APPNA), Musharraf stated that Shaukat Aziz has come to Pakistan with forty other financial experts who have offered free service to revive the Pakistani economy. Then he asked Shaukat Aziz to stand up and introduce himself to the audience.

In November 1999 Aziz became the government's Finance Minister with responsibility for Finance, Economic Affairs, Statistics, Planning and Development, and Revenue Divisions. As Minister of Finance Aziz also headed the Economic Coordination Committee of the Cabinet, the Cabinet Committee on Investment, the Executive Committee of the National Economic Council, and the Cabinet Committee on Privatization.

In 2001 Aziz was declared 'Finance Minister of the Year' by Euromoney and Banker's Magazine.

By October 2007, at the end of Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz’s tenure, Pakistan raised back its Foreign Reserves to $16.4 billion. Pakistan's trade deficit was at $13 billion, exports were $18 billion, revenue generation was $13 billion and attracted foreign investment was $8.4 billion. [2]

Pakistan's fiscal performance was praised by IMF and World Bank.[3] The World Bank further reiterated that Pakistan's Economic growth bolstered International confidence.[4]

World Bank Praises: World Bank President Mr Wolfensohn said, ""The progress has been terrific. Now Pakistan must stay the course until the benefits of its achievements reach the vulnerable sections of the society including the very poor, women, children and the disabled,".[5]

IMF Praises: IMF's new Middle East director Mr. George Abed, said he was "very pleased with the record of Pakistan in the past three years of continued macroeconomic and financial stabilisation and we have begun to think of Pakistan as a country of promise and a country of potentially high rate of growth."[6]

Asian Development Bank also praised Pakistan's Micro-Finance [7]

Media Recognition: In 2001, Mr. Aziz was also named "Finance Minister of the Year" by the prestigious Euromoney and Bankers Magazines.

Prime Minister

Image
Shaukat Aziz at the White House with US president George W. Bush, 24th January, 2006.

Aziz was named by the Pakistan Muslim League (Q) as the next Prime Minister after Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali resigned on June 6, 2004.

The post was held by Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain while Aziz fulfilled the constitutional requirement of securing a seat in the lower house of parliament. Aziz ran from two constituencies, Tharparkar-I in Sindh, and Attock District.[8] While campaigning on July 29, 2004 Aziz survived an assassination attempt in the small town of Fateh Jang in Attock District. A suicide bomber blew himself up next to a car in which Aziz was travelling, killing his chauffeur and eight others. However, Aziz continued campaigning and won from both constituencies. Since he could retain only one seat, he immediately vacated his Tharparkar seat, preferring to represent Attock, where he had won by 76,156 votes to 29,497.

Aziz was elected Prime Minister by parliament on August 27, 2004, by a vote of 191 to 151 in the National Assembly of Pakistan, and was sworn in on August 28, 2004. He retained his position as Minister of Finance, and he presided over an unprecedented boom in the Pakistani economy as well as broad based structural reforms.

Aziz left office on November 16, 2007, at the end of the parliamentary term and became the first Prime Minister of Pakistan who left seat after completion of parliamentary term of five years.[9]

Assassination attempts

While campaigning on July 29, 2004 Aziz survived an assassination attempt in the small town of Fateh Jang in Attock District. A suicide bomber blew himself up next to a car in which Aziz was travelling, killing his chauffeur and eight others.

Nuclear Policy and Energy Policy

Shaukat Aziz, as Prime Minister of Pakistan, played an important role in establishing of both military and civilian purpose nuclear power plants within Pakistan. Aziz launched work on the 325-megawatt plant in Chashma, which is the second to be built at the site with Chinese help. He also met with then-PAEC Chairman Mr. Parvez Butt, who, together with fellow scientists and engineers, submitted a long-term nuclear power plants and nuclear technology plan. On December, 28, 2005, Aziz inaugurated Chasma nuclear power plant along with PAEC Chairman Parvez Butt, where both Chinese and Pakistani nuclear scientists attended. In an inauguration, Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz said "a milestone" in the history of nuclear technology in Pakistan"[10]. He also allowed PAEC to upgrade its nuclear laboratories and Karachi nuclear power plant. He also sat up funds of PAEC to established more nuclear power plants within the country. Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz allowed PAEC to designed another heavy water power plant in Khushab district of Punjab.

Aziz played a pivotal role in hydroelectric power plants project in Pakistan. He also assisted President of Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf in the Diamer-Basha Dam project. On January, 17,2006, he announced the decision of Government to construct 5 multi-purpose storages in the country during next 10 -12 years. Diamer Basha Dam Project will be undertaken in the first phase. His efforts were heavily involved in launching of wind power plants in Pakistan. Aziz also set up Solar Power plants in different cities of Pakistan]. Heis also credited with establishing particle accelerators in the universities of Pakistan. He, along with known Pakistani chemist and research scientist, Atta ur Rahman, worked closely to establish particle accelerators at Quaid-i-Azam University and many other universities of Pakistan. He also alloted funds of Riazuddin National Center for Physics, also at Qau.

Aziz chaired a meeting of WAPDA's and KESC scientists on 2006. He was briefed by the Deputy Chairman Planning Commission Dr. Muhammad Akram. He issued directions to the concerned ministries and departments to focus on energy requirements of the country with a view to sustaining the tempo of development. He would also convene a meeting soon to draw up a plan for the purpose[11]. Dr. Akram said in the Press Conference that the "Prime Minister has given special directives to meet the energy demand in the country. He said that Prime Minister will be convening a meeting of WAPDA, its transmission and distribution departments and petroleum sector in next two weeks to discuss with officials the energy issues to ensure future requirements and not to affect industrial and agricultural growth in the country.

Involvement in Pakistan's Astronautics and Aerospace Program

On March 2007, Aziz met with PAF Chief of Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Tanvir Mahmood Ahmed, where he discussed him about the Pakistan's JF-17 Thunder program. He also set up an separate fund for JF-17 Thunder program. On April of 2007, Aziz visited the People's Republic of China, where he met with high government and military officials. Aziz signed a deal with Chinese to deliver Chengdu J-10 fifth-generation aircrafts.

On August 2006, Aziz visited People's Republic of China. He sought Chinese cooperation in rocket science and space technology. China can help Pakistan in developing and launching satellites[12]. In a joint statement of Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz and Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao said that "both countries are determined to elevate their friendship and strategic partnership".

In 2007, after a visit to China, the Prime Minister said in a press conference held in Islamabad that serial production of JF-17 Thunder would soon start in 2008 and Pakistan would like to sell fourth generation JF-17 Thunder multirole combat aircraft to those interested. The Prime Minister also confirmed that the JF-17s in Pakistan had completed 500 combat missions/sorties.

The same year, he met with chairman of SUPARCO, the leading Pakistani space agency, where he was briefed by the chairman on the status of Pakistan's Space Program. Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz gave green signal SUPARCO to developed PAKSAT-IR and Satellite Launch Vehicle to be developed. However, the status of SLV are remained unclear.

Shaukat Aziz's credentials and Economic Policy

Shaukat Aziz is a banker by training and extensive experience in New York. His credentials are similar to those of the successful US treasury secretaries such as Bob Rubin and Nick Brady who did well under Clinton and Reagan administrations. He understands the role of banking, finance, investment and consumer credit in economic growth of a nation. He focused on building strong banking, investment and finance sectors in Pakistan to underpin its economy. He strengthened capital availability, an essential and increasingly important economic input, in addition to labor and land improvements. With higher education budget up 15-fold and overall education spending up 36% in two years, he focused on education to improve the availability of skilled labor to fill new jobs. He pushed land development and public and private construction spending to improve infrastructure and facilities to attract greater business investment. Aziz was largely successful in his efforts. He was regarded as a reformer, with Pakistan's structural reforms ranking high amongst emerging economies. Aziz co-chaired the Secretary-General's High Level Panel on the United Nations System-wide Coherence in the areas of development, humanitarian assistance and the environment.[13]

• Pakistan’s economy grew by 100% — to become $ 160 billion[14][15]
• Revenue grew by 100% — to become $ 11.4 billion
• Per Capita Income grew by 100% — to become $ 925
• Foreign Reserves grew by 500% — to become $ 17 billion
• Exports grew by 100% — to become $ 18.5 billion
• Textile exports grew by 100% — to become $ 11.2 billion
• Karachi Stock Exchange grew by 500% — to become $ 75 billion
• Foreign Direct Investment grew by 500% — to become $ 8.4 billion[16]
• Annual Debt servicing decreased by 35% — to become 26%
• Poverty decreased by 10% — to become 24%
• literacy rate grew by 10% — to become 54%
• Public development Funds grew by 100% — to become Rs 520 billion.[17]

In 2008, Aziz participated in the Global Creative Leadership Summit, organized by the Louise Blouin Foundation. As a delegate, he delivered a keynote speech for the panel entitled “Economic Crisis, Economics of Change: Credit, Commodities, and Trade.”

References

1. Profile: Shaukat Aziz - BBC NEWS
2. Foreign Reserves Phenomenon
3. [1]
4. Pak economic growth has bolstered int’l confidence: WB
5. World Bank President praises Pakistan's recent economic achievements
6. IMF praise for Pakistan - BBC News
7. ADB praises micro-finance in Pakistan
8. Shaukat takes oath as MNA, Retains Attock Seat - Pakistan Times
9. "Soomro takes oath as Pakistan's caretaker PM", Xinhua News Agency, November 16, 2007.
10. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4565212.stm
11. http://www.pakdef.info/forum/showthread.php?t=7131
12. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/ID26Df01.html
13. Economic Indicators
14. http://economicpakistan.wordpress.com/2 ... 007-beyond Economic Indicators
15. http://www.pakboi.gov.pk/eco-ind.htm
16. http://dailymailnews.com/200903/28/news ... age10.html
17. [2]
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Re: The Pakistan Connection , by Michael Meacher

Postby admin » Tue Apr 12, 2016 5:51 am

Walter B. Wriston
by Answers.com

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Walter Wriston (August 3, 1919 – January 19, 2005) was a banker and former chairman of Citicorp. As chief executive of Citibank / Citicorp (later Citigroup) from 1967-1984, Wriston was widely regarded as the single most influential commercial banker of his time.

Personal information

Walter Bigelow Wriston was born in Middletown, Connecticut to Ruth Bigelow Wriston, a chemistry teacher, and Henry Merritt Wriston, a history professor at Wesleyan University who was later president of Lawrence College and Brown University.

Reared as a traditional Methodist in Appleton, Wisconsin, Wriston was not allowed to listen to the radio or go to the movie theater on Sundays.

He received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Wesleyan University in 1941 where he was a member of the Eclectic Society and received the "Parker Prize" (awarded to the Wesleyan sophomore or junior who excels in public speaking). He also received a Master's Degree from Tufts University's Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy in 1942.

After graduate school, Wriston became a junior Foreign Service officer at the State Department in which position he helped negotiate the exchange of Japanese interned in the United States for Americans held prisoner in Japan. Drafted into the U.S. Army in 1942, he served in the U.S. Army for four years, being with the Signal Corps on Cebu in the Philippines during his service.

In 1942, Walter Wriston married his first wife, Barbara Brengle Wriston, with whom he had one daughter. Two years after Barbara’s death in 1966, he married lawyer and businesswoman Kathryn Dineen.

He kept himself trim, playing tennis regularly and acting as a carpenter, electrician, plumber, backhoe operator, front-end loader operator and chain-saw-wielding tree farmer on his Connecticut retreat. During the July 1977 New York City blackout, he walked down 23 flights from his high-rise apartment, hiked to corporate headquarters, then climbed 15 flights up to his office.

Wriston was an Eagle Scout and recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award.[1]

Wriston died in January 2005, aged 85. Wriston's papers, including the text of hundreds of speeches and articles spanning his lengthy career, are at Tufts University's Digital Collections and Archives.

Politics

From 1982 to 1989, Wriston was chairman of President Ronald Reagan's Economic Policy Advisory Board, and in June 2004 awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civil honor, by President George W. Bush.

Wriston admitted he was twice offered the job of Secretary of the Treasury, in the administrations of Presidents Nixon and Ford. He turned down the offers, but said it was not because of the public scrutiny he was sure to face. "I've been living in Macy's window for 20 years," he said. One report is that Wriston declined the offers because these were not made to him personally by the-then President. Wriston also would have had to take a substantial pay cut had he accepted the government position.

In 1987, the Manhattan Institute of Policy Research initiated a lecture series [1] in honor of Mr. Wriston, and in 2004, the Idea Channel organized a seven-part series of interviews with him as well.

Quotes

• Capital goes where it's welcome and stays where it's well treated. (Discovery)--Walter B. Wriston
• Information about money has become almost as important as money itself
• Countries don't go bust

Books

• The Twilight of Sovereignty (1992)
• Risk and Other Four-Letter Words (1986)
• Bits, Bytes and Balance Sheets (2007)

References

1. "Wriston, Walter B.". Paid Notices: Deaths. The New York Times. 2005-01-25. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.h ... A9639C8B63. Retrieved on 2006-09-08.
2. Washington Post Obituary
3. Forbes obituary
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Re: The Pakistan Connection , by Michael Meacher

Postby admin » Tue Apr 12, 2016 5:52 am

John S. Reed
by Answers.com

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John Shepard Reed (born 1939) is the former Chairman of the New York Stock Exchange. He previously served as Chairman and CEO of Citicorp, Citibank, and post-merger, Citigroup.

He was born in Chicago, Illinois, and raised in Argentina and Brazil. Reed earned his undergraduate degrees in a 3-2 program from Washington and Jefferson College and MIT, earning an B.S. from the MIT Sloan School of Management in 1961. He was also a member of Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity while at W&J and MIT. He served two years in the U.S. Army before returning to get his master's degree in management from the MIT Sloan School of Management in 1965. [1]

Reed was heavily responsible for pushing for the adoption of the ATM around the USA, and led Citicorp through a perilous period in the early 1990s. He was approached by Sandy Weill to merge with Travelers Group after the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 (repealing the Glass-Steagall Act of 1932), allowing banking and insurance companies to merge. The result was Citigroup, where Reed was later ousted in a management shakeup with Weill. Reed's departure was announced in a February 28, 2000 press release. In the aftermath of the November 2008 federal bailout of Citigroup, Reed was described as deeply skeptical of the "Wall Street financial engineering" that led to its collapse and "committed to consumer banking and sound commercial underwriting."[1]

Reed was asked to be interim CEO of the New York Stock Exchange after the Richard Grasso over-compensation scandal. He accepted the job for a $1 salary and set up new governance rules as the NYSE became a public corporation.

Reed is on the board of directors at Altria Group.

References

1. Pearlstein, Steven (2008-11-24). "Too Big to Succeed?". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/co ... id=topnews. Retrieved on 2008-11-24.
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Re: The Pakistan Connection , by Michael Meacher

Postby admin » Tue Apr 12, 2016 5:54 am

Citigroup CEO Charles Prince Named Co-Chair of the Parternship for New York City
by Partnership for New York City
February 10, 2005

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Prince Joins Martin Lipton at the Helm of New York City's Leading Business Organization

The Partnership for New York City announced today that Charles Prince, Chief Executive Officer of Citigroup Inc., has been elected to serve as Co-Chair of the Partnership. Mr. Prince joins Martin Lipton, Senior Partner at Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen & Katz, at the helm of New York City’s business leadership organization.

“I am extremely pleased that Chuck Prince will be serving as Co-Chair with me,” said Mr. Lipton. “This is a critical time for the private sector and for the future of New York City. I look forward to working with him on important issues such as public education, five borough economic development, mass transit and the other priorities of the business community.”

“The Partnership is grateful that Chuck Prince has undertaken this leadership role within the business community,” said Partnership President and C.E.O. Kathryn S. Wylde. “Chuck is a highly respected New Yorker who will ensure that the Partnership continues to be an effective champion of the City and a promoter of its economic growth.”

Prior to being named Chief Executive Officer of Citigroup, Mr. Prince was Chairman and CEO of Citigroup's Corporate and Investment Banking Group, which provides corporations, governments and institutional investors in more than 100 countries with corporate and investment banking, sales and trading and transaction services.

Mr. Prince began his career as an attorney at U.S. Steel Corporation in 1975 and in 1979 joined Commercial Credit Company (a predecessor company to Citigroup).

Mr. Prince was promoted to Senior Vice President and General Counsel of Commercial Credit Company in 1983, a post he held through its initial public offering in 1986. He assumed additional administrative responsibilities in 1995 and was named Executive Vice President in early 1996. He was made Chief Administrative Officer in early 2000 and Chief

Operating Officer in early 2001. He was named Chairman and CEO of the Global Corporate and Investment Bank in 2002. He became CEO of Citigroup in 2003.

Born in 1950, Mr. Prince is a graduate of the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. He also holds a Master's Degree in International Relations and a law degree from the University of Southern California as well as a Master of Laws degree from Georgetown University.

Mr. Prince is a member of various bar associations and other professional associations as well as a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He is a past member of the Board of Directors of the New York Urban League and is a member of the Board of Directors of Citigroup, the United Negro College Fund and Teachers College, Columbia University.
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Re: The Pakistan Connection , by Michael Meacher

Postby admin » Tue Apr 12, 2016 5:56 am

William Rockefeller
by Answers.com

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William Avery Rockefeller, Jr. (May 31, 1841-June 24, 1922), American financier, was a co-founder with his older brother John D. Rockefeller of the prominent United States Rockefeller family. He was the son of William Avery Rockefeller, Sr. and Eliza (Davison) Rockefeller.

Youth, education

Rockefeller was born in Richford, New York, and in 1853 his family moved to Strongsville, Ohio. As a young pupil in public school, he was inspired and motivated by his teacher-mentor, Rufus Osgood Mason, whom Rockefeller later named "A Rockefeller Patron".

Business career

In 1865, he entered the oil business by starting a refinery. In 1867, his older brother (John D. Rockefeller)'s partnership of Rockefeller & Andrews absorbed this refinery. In 1870, that company became Standard Oil.

William was considered far more personable and receptive man to work with than his more conservative older brother. However, he was very adept in business matters. Rockefeller served as the company's New York representative until 1911 when Standard Oil of New Jersey was split up by the United States Supreme Court. He also had interests in copper, railways, and public utilities, and built up the National City Bank of New York, now part of Citigroup.

In the late 1890s, Rockefeller joined fellow Standard Oil principal Henry H. Rogers in forming the Amalgamated Copper Mining Company, a holding company that intended to control the copper industry. Rockefeller, along with Henry Rogers, devised a deceptive scheme which made them a profit of $36 million. First, they purchased Anaconda Properties from Marcus Daly for $39 million, with the understanding that the check was to be deposited in the bank and remain there for a definite time (National City Bank was run by Rockefeller's friends). Rogers and Rockefeller then set up a paper organization known as the Amalgamated Copper Mining Company, with their own clerks as dummy directors, saying the company was worth $75 million.

They then had the Amalgamated Copper Company buy Anaconda from them for $75 million in capital stock, which was conveniently printed for the purpose. Then, they borrowed $39 million from the bank using Amalgamated Copper as collateral. They paid back Daly for Anaconda and sold $75 million worth of stock in Amalgamated Copper to the public. They paid back the bank's $39 million and had a profit of $36 million in cash. So, by deceiving Daly, the bank, and the public, Rockefeller and Rogers had made Amalgamated Copper a $36 million profit before the company was even operating.

With help from banker John D. Ryan, Amalgamated acquired two large competitors, and soon controlled all the mines of Butte, Montana, later becoming Anaconda Copper Company, fourth largest company in the world by the late 1920s.

Home, family

In 1886, Rockefeller bought property along the Hudson River from General Lloyd Aspinwall, and turned it into an ostentatious mansion named "Rockwood Hall". The property was subsequently located within the Rockefeller family estate of "Pocantico", in Westchester County, New York (see Kykuit).

He married Almira Geraldine Goodsell in 1864. Her sister, Esther Judson Goodsell, was married to Oliver Burr Jennings, who became one of the original stockholders of Standard Oil. Their son William Goodsell Rockefeller married Elsie Stillman, daughter of National City Bank president James Stillman, and they were the parents of James Stillman Rockefeller.

He died in 1922 in Tarrytown, New York, and was interred in the Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Sleepy Hollow, New York.

The New York Times, in discussing a trust he set up for his born and yet-to-be born great-grandchildren, states that "The original William left a gross estate of $102,000,000, which was reduced to $50,000,000 principally by $30,000,000 of debts and $18,600,000 of inheritance and estate taxes." (New York Times, Aug 5, 1937, page 1 "Estate of William Rockefeller Increasing $1,000,000 a Year")

Children

1. Lewis Edward Rockefeller (1865–1866)
2. Emma Rockefeller McAlpin (1868–1934) married Dr. David Hunter McAlpin
3. William Goodsell Rockefeller (1870–1922)
4. John Davison Rockefeller (1872–1877)
5. Percy Avery Rockefeller (1878–1934)
6. Geraldine Rockefeller Dodge (1882–1973) married Marcellus Dodge
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Re: The Pakistan Connection , by Michael Meacher

Postby admin » Tue Apr 12, 2016 5:58 am

James Stillman Rockefeller
by Answers.com

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James Stillman Rockefeller (June 8, 1902 - August 10, 2004) was a member of the prominent U.S. Rockefeller family.

Personal life

A paternal grandson of William Rockefeller, his maternal grandfather James Stillman and uncle James Alexander Stillman served as president of the National City Bank of New York, now Citibank. His father was William Goodsell Rockefeller and his mother Sarah Elizabeth Stillman.

He graduated from Yale University in 1924, where he was elected to the secret society Scroll and Key. That same year Rockefeller captained a crew of Yale teammates, winning a gold medal in rowing at the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris, France and appeared on the cover of Time magazine on July 7, 1924. (Dr. Benjamin Spock, who would later become a famous expert on child-care, was a member of the crew.)

On April 15, 1925, he married Nancy Carnegie, grand-niece of Andrew Carnegie. During World War II, Rockefeller served in the Airborne Command. He had four children: James Stillman Rockefeller, Jr., Nancy Sherlock Carnegie Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie Rockefeller, and Georgia Stillman Rockefeller.

On August 5, 2004, Rockefeller suffered a stroke. His advance directives for medical care specified that he not be put on life support. He died at 4am on August 10, 2004, at the age of 102. Rockefeller was survived by four children, fourteen grandchildren, thirty-seven great-grandchildren, and one great-great granddaughter.

Business career

Rockefeller joined the National City Bank in 1930 after working at Brown Brothers Harriman and served as president from 1952 to 1959 and chairman from 1959 to 1967. It was during his tenure that the bank merged with the smaller First National Bank and took the name The First National City Bank of New York.

(Under each of his successors, the bank's name has changed: George Moore shortened it to "First National City Bank" and formed a holding company, First National City Corp.; under Walter Wriston these became "Citibank" and "Citicorp"; under John Reed the firm merged with Travelers Group to become Citigroup.

James Stillman Rockefeller also concerned himself with other family investments, and prior to his death was America's oldest living Olympic champion, and the earliest living cover subject of Time magazine.
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Re: The Pakistan Connection , by Michael Meacher

Postby admin » Tue Apr 12, 2016 5:59 am

Feeding the deals at Davos
Buzz up!
By Dateline D.C.
February 4, 2007

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WASHINGTON

For the readers of the financial pages it would seem that the world's movers and shakers moved from around the world to the small town of Davos, Switzerland. And for those who believe that our world is motivated by conspiracies -- starting with Yale's Skull & Bones Club, through the Bilderberg meetings, to the raucous gatherings at Bohemian Grove -- Davos, in January, has become the 21st century's conspiracy epicenter.

Davos is either famous or notorious for hosting the World Economic Forum, which has met every year since 1972. There, the self-styled elite and leadership of the world's politicians and the richest corporations that fund them meet, discuss and plan our future.

Davos was not always like that. It still is known as an exclusive winter sports area with a wonderful climate that for more than 100 years was a treatment center for the wealthy with lung diseases. The city reinvented itself in the 1990s to become the forum's near-permanent meeting place under the supervision of the Swiss government.

Prior meetings had taken place in London, New York and Washington. The cities were disrupted by demonstrations and it was very apparent to those attending that the sessions were controversial and unwelcome.

Inevitably, using the word "security" as the magic wand, Davos was shown to be ideal: a remote mountain town accessible only by one road and one railway line. During a forum, which makes an enormous profit for Switzerland, the meeting site is further isolated by the Swiss army, which for a few days ensures the safety of the world's elite.

Perhaps the respiratory cripples of the past have been replaced by the mental cripples of 2007 or maybe they are only wearing blinders to the real needs and problems of the people that they claim to represent.

On the second day of Davos, Pakistani Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz told the group that the United States' very own Carlyle Group, which "manages $46.9 billion worldwide," is planning to invest several billion dollars in the Middle East.

Naturally, Aziz did not know where these investments would be, what their return would be to Carlyle and what benefits they might bring to Americans. After all, we don't need to be told again that trade with China brings wonderful profits: "CHINA: Communists High Investment in North America."

The Mercedes limousines trailed the private helicopters carrying a near 2,500 of the world's elite into Davos for more than 200 workshops on the "shifting power equation" -- by which they mean from the West to Asia, a quiet nudge to show China that the elite believe that they are ahead in the power struggle.

It was an amazing attendance list, at a mere $25,000 per person. The first man listed was Palestinian territory President Mahmoud Abbas, followed by the chairman of Deutsche Bank, Josef Ackerman. Then there was the president of Venezuela's oil companies, Enrique Garcia, and Bill Gates of Microsoft. And let's not forget Saudi Minister of State Abdullah Zainal and DaimlerChrysler Chairman Dieter Zetsche.

Eight hundred of the most powerful chairmen of the largest companies met privately to polish and change their images. They made and consolidated deals with two dozen heads of state and Cabinet members from Tony Blair and Angela Merkel, most of George Bush's Cabinet and their opposite numbers in China, Russia, India and Japan.

Because of complaints that everyone's democratic institutions were being overridden, this year the World Economic Forum became "transparent." Fifty percent of the meetings were open to journalists, who were allowed to take notes and watch videos.

The wheeling and dealing at Davos was remarkable; rules of ethics have to be revised and enforced to separate persuasion from corruption -- a near impossible task. So, it was a minor relief to read about our own Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff heading a panel on the possible use by terrorists of nuclear weapons.

Poor Chertoff was supported on his panel by David Cameron, a new head of Britain's conservatives, who admits to a "pre-political" drug use, and a Dutchman, Gijs de Vries, the European Union's anti-terrorism coordinator, who didn't appear to admit that terrorism even existed.

The fourth member was Pakistan's Aziz, who said his country was "wildly successful" in fighting terrorism.

Aziz did not mention the decade of deals negotiated by A.Q. Khan, head of the Pakistan nuclear agency, in selling -- for his personal bank accounts -- nuclear equipment and technology to Iran, Iraq, Libya and North Korea.

And no one asked why Pakistan was protecting Khan from the FBI and Western law enforcement.

Secretary Chertoff faced a battery of hostile questions about use of secret CIA prisons, relaxing the rules on torture and America degrading basic human rights. Unprepared for so much antagonism from a very select audience, Chertoff did not improve his position by saying, "We have to be precise about what truly is fundamental and what isn't fundamental."

But who will tell the secret organizers that the World Economic Forum is not fundamental to anyone's needs.

Dateline D.C. is written by a Washington-based British journalist and political observer.
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Re: The Pakistan Connection , by Michael Meacher

Postby admin » Tue Apr 12, 2016 6:02 am

Moeenuddin Ahmad Qureshi
by Wikipedia
4/11/16

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Moeenuddin Ahmad Qureshi, usually referred to as Moeen Qureshi, (born 26 June 1930) is a Pakistani economist and political figure. A former Vice President of the World Bank, he was the Interim Prime Minister of Pakistan from July 18, 1993 until 19 October 1993.

Education

Qureshi was born in Kot Radha Kishan tehsil of District Kasur. Dr. Qureshi holds a B.A. (Hons.) and M.A. (Economics) from the University of Punjab and a Ph.D. (Economics) from Indiana University. He received his initial education at Islamia College Lahore and Government College, Lahore.

Experience at the World Bank

From 1980 to 1991 he was at the World Bank, first as Senior Vice President for Finance and Chief Financial Officer of the Bank from 1980-1987, and then as Senior Vice President for Operations, in charge of all Bank operations during 1987-1991. Prior to that, Mr. Qureshi was at the International Finance Corporation as Vice President and second in command between 1974-1977, and as Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer from 1977-1981. He served with the International Monetary Fund from 1958 to 1970 and served both at headquarters and in the field in a variety of senior economic and operations assignments before joining the IFC.[1]

As Interim Prime Minister of Pakistan

The continuing political crisis of 1993 in Pakistan came to an abrupt halt when the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and President Ghulam Ishaq Khan both resigned after two weeks of intense negotiations between the Nawaz Sharif government, Benazir Bhutto and the army. The resolution of the crisis was unique because for the first time in the nation's history, a government had voluntarily stepped down in order to avoid a possible military intervention. The negotiations were mediated by General Abdul Waheed Kakar, the Army Chief of Staff. The resultant agreement and its implementation followed strict constitutional procedure. Ghulam Ishaq Khan was replaced by the chairman of the Senate, Wasim Sajjad, who functioned as Acting President until the elections. More importantly, Moeen Qureshi, a former civil servant and senior World Bank official, agreed to serve as caretaker Prime Minister. During his brief tenure, Qureshi undertaook a series of economic and political reforms that were supported by an IMF standby arrangement and significant World Bank lending. He appointed several highly regarded technocrats and businessmen to his cabinet: Syed Babar Ali as Finance Minister, and Hafiz Pasha as Commerce Minister. He also appointed a number of experienced civil servants to senior positions on his staff including his younger brother Salman Qureshi (Inspector General of Punjab Police Retd), a well known and respected figure in the civil service and political community of Pakistan. Qureshi, a Pakistani national, had left the World Bank in 1992, obtaining permanent residence status in the United States where he founded Emerging Markets Partners, a private equity firm focusing on emerging markets investment. He is currently Chairman and Managing Partner. He is also known as Imported Prime Minister of Pakistan.

EMP Global

Following his return to the United States, Qureshi led EMP Global, an Asia-focused fund manager, establishing a series of funds.
Qureshi was involved in forging an affiliation with the international insurance company, American International Group ("AIG"), for a number of years. AIG held a minority stake in EMP and served as sponsor of, as well as a major investor in, a number of funds bearing its name for which EMP served as Principal Adviser. EMP bought out AIG's stake and became an independent company in 2005.[2]

References

Biography on EMP Global's webpage
History on EMP Global Website
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Re: The Pakistan Connection , by Michael Meacher

Postby admin » Tue Apr 12, 2016 6:10 am

Turkmen-Afghan-Pakistani Gas Pipeline Accord Published
by Alexander's Gas & Oil Connections
August 6, 2002

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The leaders of Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Pakistan signed an agreement in Islamabad on 30 May 2002 on a gas pipeline project to transport Turkmen natural gas to Pakistan through Afghanistan. The agreement says that such a pipeline is "vital" to the interests of the peoples of these countries.

It also says that work on a preliminary feasibility study of the project will be carried out and that it will be financed by international financial institutions. The parties to the agreement will choose an international consortium that has experience of carrying out such projects, and the pipeline will be built by, belong to and be used by that consortium.

The following is the text of the agreement as published on 31 May:

Agreement between the government of Turkmenistan, the government of Afghanistan and the government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan on Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan oil and gas pipeline projects

The government of Turkmenistan (referred to below as the Turkmen side), the government of Afghanistan (referred to below as the Afghan side) and the government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (referred to below as the Pakistani side), which are hereinafter referred to as the Parties, acknowledging their cultural ties and common interests; genuinely desiring to strengthen fraternal relations and cooperation between the Parties on oil and gas pipeline projects; considering that the Parties are interested:

-- in the construction and use of a gas pipeline by a corporate body (hereinafter referred to as the Consortium) for the transportation of natural gas from Turkmenistan to Pakistan via the territory of Afghanistan, and

-- in carrying out a preliminary feasibility study (PFS) of the construction of the gas pipeline by a corporate body (hereinafter referred to as the Consultant), have agreed on the following:

Article 1

The Parties support the construction of a Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan gas pipeline, viewing it as vital to the interests of the peoples of the countries of the region, and will coordinate the joint activities necessary for carrying out the supply, transportation and use of Turkmen natural gas.

Article 2

At the initial stage, the PFS will determine the economic practicability of a Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan gas pipeline project and form a basis for it (phase 1). Then, the possibility of extending the gas pipeline to the third country or countries will be considered (phase 2).

In that case Pakistan will act as a link ensuring the uninterrupted transportation of gas to the third countries and will receive payment for the transportation of gas under an agreement between the Turkmen and Pakistan sides. Pakistan will have the right to purchase gas for domestic use or to pump its [local] gas into the pipeline if there is spare capacity.

The Afghan side is to ensure to the uninterrupted delivery of Turkmen natural gas from Turkmenistan to Pakistan and receive payment for gas transportation under an agreement between the Turkmen andAfghan sides or under other agreements concluded between the Parties.

Article 3

The sides have agreed to set up a supervisory committee to be headed by the minister of mines and industries from the Afghan side, by the minister of petroleum and natural resources of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan from the Pakistani side, and the minister of oil and gas and mineral resources of Turkmenistan from the Turkmen side.

The committee will consist of three representatives from each side to supervise the drawing up of PFS and consultations with each other about the first and second phases of the project. During the making of PFS, the members of the supervisory committee will hold consultations and meetings on a regular basis. The supervisory committee is to present a progress report on the pipeline project at a meeting of the heads of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Turkmenistan in [the Turkmen capital] city of Ashgabat in October 2002.

Article 4

The supervisory committee is to study the possibility of building a road and a railway line and also a power transmission line and fibre optic communication between the three countries.

Article 5

The Parties have agreed to choose a Consultant for the drawing up of PFS through an international tender. The work will be financed by international financial institutions.

Article 6

The Parties will help and present to the Consultant all available data and technical information necessary for PFS; The Turkmen side will play a leading role and inform the Parties about all stages of the [feasibility] study and to hold consultations with the Pakistani and Afghan sides until the Consultant finally defines the main terms of PFS.

Article 7

As part of this study, the Consultant may also study the possibility of implementing the oil pipeline project from Turkmenistan to Gwadar (Pakistan) via the territory of Afghanistan.

Article 8

The PFS will be a basis for a feasibility study and ensuing intergovernmental agreements such as: - an agreement on the saleand purchase of gas; - an agreement with the transit countries; - an agreement on the gas pipeline; and other relevant accords.

Article 9

The Parties declare their support for and will make joint efforts to attract an international Consortium that has experience of carrying out such projects. The gas pipeline will be built by, belong to and be used by the international Consortium.

Article 10

The Parties have agreed that Afghanistan enjoys a right of access to the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan gas pipeline to export its [local] natural gas as well as to take gas from this system for domestic use in Afghanistan. The amounts of gas to be exported and received by Afghanistan are to be agreed by the Parties in accordance with the results of PFS.

Article 11

The Parties guarantee the safety of the gas pipeline running through their territories. The Parties acknowledge the importance of the adoption of an international Convention and other relevant international legal documents under UN aegisto guarantee the security and development of pipeline systems.

The Afghan side is to make the necessary research on the basis of the results of PFS in those parts of the area on its territory where it is planned to carry out construction work on the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan gas pipeline -- to detect mines, unexploded rockets or other explosives, booby traps and other devices and to safely remove and (or) blow them up.
The Parties will take all the necessary measures to ensure the security of all foreign personnel who will be present in their territories to carry out work to implement the gas pipeline project.

Article 12

Any changes or addenda to this agreement on the gas pipeline will be made through separate tripartite protocols signed up by the Parties and these will be integral part of this agreement.

Article 13

Disagreements concerning the interpretation and use of this agreement are to be settled through talks and consultations between the Parties.

Article 14 This agreement comes into force after internal procedures are completed and it is approved by the Parties. This agreement is valid for three years and can be prolonged with the written consent of the Parties six months before the expiry of the agreement.

This agreement, done in Turkmen, Dari, English and Russian in the city of Islamabad on 30 May 2002 in three originals in each of these languages, with one for each side. In the event of any different interpretation, the text in English will prevail.

[Signed by] On behalf of the government of Turkmenistan, Saparmurat Niyazov, the president of Turkmenistan. On behalf of the government of Afghanistan, Hamed Karzai, the leader of the interim administration of Afghanistan. On behalf of the government of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf, the president of Pakistan.

Source: Neytralnyy Turkmenistan
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