The Future of Reputation: Gossip, Rumor, and Privacy on the

Gathered together in one place, for easy access, an agglomeration of writings and images relevant to the Rapeutation phenomenon.

Re: The Future of Reputation: Gossip, Rumor, and Privacy on

Postby admin » Mon Oct 21, 2013 10:54 pm

Index

Note: Boldface page numbers refer to illustrations.

Abortion doctors, 100–101
Above the Law, 139
Absolutism, 127–28, 191
Accessibility of information, and privacy,
169–70, 191
Accountability: and reputation, 31–
32; and norm violations, 33; and
anonymity, 139, 140–42, 143,
146, 148–49
Acquisti, Alessandro, 26–27, 197
Actual malice, 126
Adams, John, 30, 118
AIDS, 70, 141
Allegheny Energy Service, 148–49
Allen, Anita, 74, 85, 197
Alternative dispute resolution, 124,
192
American Coalition of Life Activists
(ACLA), 100
Anderson, Pamela, 132, 183
Anonymity: and sexual assault victims,
36, 59, 195; in blogs, 59,
139, 141, 147, 149–50; and
shaming, 92, 101; and authoritarian
approach to privacy law, 113;
in lawsuits, 120, 121, 148; and
privacy/free speech balance, 136–
46, 191; and accountability, 139,
140–42, 143, 146, 148–49;
virtues of, 139–40; and openness,
142–46; law of, 146–49; traceable
anonymity, 146–47, 149; expectations
of, 165
AOL, 150–53
Apple Story Lady, 83–84
Appropriation tort, 119, 162, 186–
87
Arbitration, 124, 192
Arendt, Hannah, 68
Armstrong, Heather, 39
Article III Groupie, 136–39, 137
Australia, 188
Autonomy, 130, 132, 134, 160
Azar, Ofer, 99

Ballance, Bill, 183–84
Barabási, Albert-László, 62
Barlow, John Perry, 110–11
Barron, Jerome, 122
Barrymore, Michael, 175
Battelle, John, 204–5
Batzel, Ellen, 157–59
Beecher, Henry Ward, 107, 212n91
Ben Ze’ev, Aaron, 63
Berstein, Carl, 134
BitterWaitress, 87–88, 90
Black, Hugo, 127–28
Blackstone, William, 114
Blogger (website), 20, 21
Blogosphere: as norm-enforcing tool,
6; norms of, 9, 194–96; size of, 21;
error-correction machinery of, 37,
195; democratizing nature of, 48–
49; and ethics, 59, 195; and linking,
62; and customer complaints,
93; and defamation law, 121
Blogs (Web logs): and privacy, 1–2,
191, 198–99; circulation of, 2; instant
gratification of blogging, 5;
dissemination of information on,
11; mainstream media distinguished
from, 19–20, 23–24, 194–
96, 199–200; and self-expression,
19, 49; interactive nature of, 20–
21, 149–50; requirements for, 20–
21; increase in posts, 21, 22; types
of, 21–23; and journalism, 23–24;
as diaries, 24, 59, 198–99; employers’
monitoring of, 38; and
sex, 50–54; and gossip, 51, 52,
59, 181; anonymity in, 59, 139,
141, 147, 149–50; and linking,
61–62, 78; and ethics, 69; immunity
for bloggers, 153–54, 159,
160, 191; variations of, 164
Boone, Keith, 228n38
Borges, Jorge Luis, 204
Boston University, 55–56
boyd, danah, 27, 202
Boyden, Bruce, 144
Brandeis, Louis: and privacy, 108–
9, 190; and privacy law, 109–10,
113, 119–20; and tort remedies,
110, 113; and public disclosure,
128, 129, 162; and appropriation,
162; and confidentiality law,
176
Branding, 91, 95
Brandt, Daniel, 144, 147
Brazil, 28
Breach-of-confidentiality tort, 175–
76, 188, 234n85
Brin, David, 105
Brin, Sergey, 9
Brison, Karen, 64, 65
Bryant, Kobe, 36–37, 195
Burning Man Festival, 161–62, 167–
68, 231n2
Burr, Aaron, 115, 115
Bush, George W., 195, 235n11
Büyükkökten, Orkut, 28

Canada, 28, 188
Capek, Karel, 67
Carafano, Christianne, 155–57
Cardozo, Benjamin, 33
Carpool Cheats, 99–100
Cate, Fred, 72
Cell phone cameras, 33, 80, 164,
166, 168
Cell phone thief, 80–83, 82, 94
Cell phone use, norms of, 85, 86,
166
Censorship: and authoritarian approach
to privacy law, 112–13;
and privacy/free speech balance,
131; and blogs, 199
Children, 24, 197, 200, 204
China, 28–29, 43–44, 101–2
Citizen journalism, 8, 9
Cleveland, Grover, 107, 194
Clinton, Bill, 194–95
Clinton, Chelsea, 195, 235n9
Cohen, Julie, 130
College life, and blogs, 54–58
Commercial speech, 128
Communications Decency Act
(CDA), Section 230, 152–54, 155,
156–59, 191
Concurring Opinions, 61–62, 62
Confidentiality: and privacy law,
170–83, 187, 191, 193; and risk
of betrayal, 173–76; breach-ofconfidentiality
tort, 175–76, 188,
234n85; and social networks,
176–81; extension of liability for
breach of, 181–82; dangers of too
much confidentiality, 182–83; and
control, 184
Consumer Action, 93–94
Context: and personal information,
66–67; and complicated self, 68–
70; and privacy, 72, 165; and reputation,
74
Control: Internet’s potential for, 4–
5; social control, 6, 32, 65, 72; of
reputation, 11, 33–35, 189; of
personal information, 29, 170,
184–86, 188; of gossip, 65; of Internet
shaming, 94, 96, 101–2;
and privacy law, 183–87, 188,
191; and appropriation tort, 186–
87
Cooley, C. F., 30–31
Cooter, Robert, 98
Copyright Act, 185
Copyright law, 155, 184, 185–86,
188, 234n76
Corporations, shaming of, 93–94,
95
Coudal, Jim, 86
Cox, Ana Marie, 52, 53–54
Cremers, Tom, 157–58
Customer service, and shaming, 93–
94
Cutler, Jessica, 50–54, 74, 124,
130–31, 134–36, 139, 173,
214n13
Cyworld, 28–29

Daily Rotten, 21
Damages, limits to, 122, 124, 154,
155, 192
Day, Benjamin, 106
DealBook, 171–72
Declaration of Independence of Cyberspace,
110–11
Defamation. See Reputation
Defamation law: and personal information,
113; history of, 116; and
reputation, 116, 117, 118, 120,
121, 122; and rumors, 118, 158–
59; false light compared to, 119;
and blogs, 120–21, 191; and
threat of lawsuits, 123; limitation
in scope of, 125, 126; and Section
230 immunity, 152, 154, 155,
156, 157, 158, 191
Democracy, and privacy/free speech
balance, 130–31, 132, 160,
228n38
Democratic National Convention
(2004), 24, 53–54
Dewey, John, 73
Diaries, blogs as, 24, 59, 198–99
Dickens, Charles, 106
Disclosure, 74. See also Public disclosure
Discrimination, 70
Doctors Know Us, 98
Dog poop girl, 1–2, 3, 5–8, 49, 78,
92, 94, 168
Donath, Judith, 27, 202
Don’t Date Him Girl, 89–90, 121
Dooced, 39–40
DotMoms, 23
Douglas, Michael, 175
Draplin, Aaron, 86
Drezner, Daniel, 19–20
Dueling, 114–17, 115, 190, 224–
25n55
Due process, and shaming, 96–98
Dürrenmatt, Friedrich, 73

EarthCam, 164, 164
Eastman Kodak Company, 107–8,
108
Edison, Thomas, 107
Electronic Frontier Foundation, 199,
230n89
Eliot, George, 140
Ellickson, Robert, 193–94
Emerson, Thomas, 127
Emler, Nicholas, 63
Employment: and information on Internet,
38–40, 190, 203; and disease,
70–71
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 145
England, 174–76, 188
Epstein, Richard, 35
Escobar, Pablo, 178, 180
Etiquette, 84–85, 92
Etzioni, Amitai, 71
Europe, 28, 87, 114, 120

Facebook, 24, 27, 38, 169–70, 197,
198, 201, 204, 205
Fairbanks, Eve, 49
False light, 119
Farrell, Henry, 19–20
First Amendment: and censorship,
113; and defamation law, 118,
125, 126; and privacy law, 119–
20; and absolutism, 127–28; balancing
approach, 128–29; and
Seigenthaler, 143; and anonymous
speech, 148; and copyright laws,
186
Fiss, Owen, 131
Flickr, 87, 164
Fourth Amendment, 233n48
Fox News, 97
France, 114
Franklin, Benjamin, 131, 140, 176
Freedom: effect of free flow of information
on, 4, 17, 65–66; of Internet,
4–5, 6, 17; and privacy/free
speech balance, 12; and reputation,
30
Freeman, Joanne, 181
Free speech: and defamation law,
118, 119; and privacy law, 119;
good versus bad speech, 125–29,
227n24; threats to, 125; private
versus public concern, 128–29,
227n27; value of, 129–30; and individual
autonomy, 130; and
anonymity, 140. See also First
Amendment; Privacy/free speech
balance
Friedman, Lawrence, 72–73, 91
Friend Space, 26
Friendster, 24, 38, 202
Fukuyama, Francis, 31

Garrett, Laurie, 111–12
Gass, William, 67
Gawker, 22, 172
Gay, Peter, 72
Gays, outing gays, 216n45
General Motors, 174
George Washington University, 54–
55
Georgia, 113
Germany, 28
Gladwell, Malcolm, 60–61, 63, 89
Global village, 33, 37
Godkin, E. L., 107–8, 109, 110
Goffman, Erving, 68, 69, 70
Google: unforgiving memory of, 8;
as search engine, 9–13, 48, 204–5;
search prompt of, 10; and information
fragments preserved on Internet,
17, 33; and social network
site profiles, 27; and YouTube, 40;
and background checks, 41, 190,
203; and Wikipedia, 145; and
gossip, 181; cache of old versions
of websites, 234n1
Gossip: on Internet, 4, 11–12, 33,
59–60, 62–63, 74, 75, 113, 124,
176, 181–82, 190; history of, 11,
13, 33, 60, 65, 74, 105, 108,
216n49; and reputation, 32, 63–
64, 181, 189, 190; and blogs, 51,
52, 59, 181; good/bad qualities of,
63–65, 74, 205; and rumors, 64;
and truth, 64–65; and privacy,
109; and privacy law, 112, 127;
and dueling, 114, 116; newsworthiness
of, 132; and speaking
about one’s life, 134; and Section
230 immunity, 159; and social
networks, 179, 180; written versus
oral gossip, 181; and mainstream
media, 194; and selfexposure
problem, 196
Gould, Judge Ronald, 158–59
Greif, Avner, 31
Grimmelmann, James, 112
Gross, Ralph, 26–27, 197
Guare, John, 25
Gutenberg, Johann, 18, 208n1

Hamilton, Alexander, 115, 115,
116, 140, 224n47
Harrison, Benjamin, 194
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 11, 91
Hearst, William Randolph, 106
Heidegger, Martin, 64
Henry, O. (pseud. William Sydney
Porter), 140
Henry IV, king of France, 114
Hilfiger, Tommy, 36
Hippocratic Oath, 173, 232n40
Holla Back NYC, 89
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr., 131
Hoofnagle, Chris, 203
Horsley, Neal, 100–101
“How’s My Driving?” programs, 94,
101
Hurricane Katrina, 23, 122

Identifying information, and newsworthiness,
133–34
Identity: and reputation, 31, 33; and
second chances, 73; shame’s effect
on, 94–95
India, 28
Individual autonomy, 130, 132,
134, 160
Information: permanence and
searchability of, 4, 7–8, 17, 33,
42, 165; dissemination of, 11;
consequences of information fragments,
17, 38, 67, 96; and privacy
law, 17, 112–13, 125, 161; and
forms of media, 18; control of, 35,
184–86; quality of, 35–38, 41;
less versus more information, 65–
73; and defamation law, 117; and
First Amendment, 127; identifying
information, 133–34; accessibility
of, 169–70, 191. See also Personal
information
Instapundit, 23
Internet: and privacy, 1–2, 110; free
dimensions of, 4–5, 6, 17; gossip
on, 4, 11–12, 33, 59–60, 62–63,
74, 75, 113, 124, 176, 181–82,
190; permanence and searchability
of information on, 4, 7–8, 11, 33,
42, 165; rumors on, 4, 11, 118,
124; shaming on, 4, 6, 11, 78–83,
92–99, 101–2, 168, 190, 195; details
about lives on, 9–10; and
reputation, 30, 74; and global village,
33; quality of information
on, 35–38, 41, 48; and error correction,
37, 123, 124, 192; linking
function of, 61–62, 78; legal approaches
to privacy law, 110–13,
196; and defamation law, 118;
and traceable anonymity, 146; interactivity
of, 149; consequences
of exposure, 198, 199–200; architecture
of, 200–204; extent of,
204–5. See also Blogosphere;
Blogs (Web logs)
Internet Entertainment Group, 183–
84
Internet protocol, 143, 144, 147,
148
Intrusion upon seclusion, 119
Italy, 28, 114

Jackson, Andrew, 114
James, Henry, 106
James, William, 68–70
Japan, 28
Jay, John, 140
Jefferson, Thomas, 181
JenniCam, 71
“John Doe” lawsuits, 120, 121, 148
Johnson, David, 111
Johnson, Samuel, 115
Journalism: citizen journalism, 8, 9;
and blogs, 23–24; ethics of, 36,
59, 78, 194, 195; yellow journalism,
106–7, 108, 109. See also
Mainstream media
Judgments: and context, 66–67; rational
and irrational judgment,
70–71
Juvenile records, expungement of,
73

Kahn, Jonathan, 186
Kansas City, Missouri, 92
Kaysen, Susanna, 135–36
Kennedy, John F., 142, 194, 235n8
Kennedy, Robert, 142–43
Kerr, Orin, 54–55, 145
Kierner, Cynthia, 115, 116, 216n49
Kirk, Rita, 58
Kodak camera, 107–8, 108, 109
Kozinski, Alex, 137–38
Kundera, Milan, 68
Kushner, Nate, 76–78

LaCroix, Alison, 116
Lat, David, 138–39
Law: role in privacy/free speech balance,
12, 13, 120–23, 125, 190–
96; and reputation, 34; and
norms, 84, 196, 205; and shaming,
92, 94, 96, 98; of anonymity,
146–49; and confidentiality, 174–
76; limits of, 193–94, 196; norms
compared to, 193–94; and self-exposure
problem, 196–200. See
also Defamation law; Privacy law
Lawsuits: and role of law, 113, 120–
23, 190, 191; and reputation disputes,
115, 116, 117, 122; “John
Doe” lawsuits, 120, 121, 148;
threat of, 120, 123, 152, 190; and
exhausting informal mechanisms,
123–24, 154, 190, 191–92. See
also Tort remedies
Le Bon, Gustave, 101
Lessig, Lawrence, 4, 185, 200, 224–
25n55, 234n76
Letterman, David, 71
Libel, 118, 122, 126
Lidsky, Lyrissa, 122
Liner, Elaine, 57–58
Literacy, 18
Little Fatty, 43–44, 44
LiveJournal, 24
Local government, and shaming, 78–
79
Looking glass self, 31, 211n79
Love, Courtney, 39
Lucas, George, 48, 186
Ludwig, Arnold, 69
Luttig, J. Michael, 141

Madison, James, 140
Maghribi traders, 31–32
Mainstream media: and blog stories,
2; size and scope of, 18–19; blogs
distinguished from, 19–20, 23–24,
194–96, 199–200; journalistic
ethics of, 36, 59, 78, 194, 195;
error-correction machinery of, 37,
78; and Star Wars Kid, 46–47;
and Washingtonienne, 53; blogs as
rivals to, 61; and JenniCam, 71;
limits of expression within, 91;
and norm enforcement, 97; and
Article III Groupie, 138; norms of,
194–96
Malkin, Michelle, 52
Marital communication, 174
Marketplace of ideas, and
privacy/free speech balance, 131–
32
Massachusetts, 92
Masterson, Chase, 155–57
Matchmaker.com, 156–57
McClurg, Andrew, 165
McKinley, William, 194
McLuhan, Marshall, 33
McNealy, Scott, 105
Meares, Tracey, 194
Media. See Mainstream media
Mediation, 124, 192
Medical malpractice, 98
Meehan, Martin, 144–45
Meiklejohn, Alexander, 130–31
Men, women’s websites for shaming,
89–90
Merry, Sally Engle, 74
MetaFilter, 111–12
Michaels, Bret, 132, 183
Miers, Harriet, 141
Milgram, Stanley, 25
Mill, John Stuart, 131, 196
Miller, Arthur, 30
Milton, John, 125
Minnesota, 223n27, 225n71
Mitchell, Lawrence, 99
Moblogs (mobile weblogs), 164
Modell, Arnold, 72
Moon hoax, 106
Movable type, 18–19, 18, 19, 19
Murdock, Rupert, 26
Museum Security Network, 157–58
MySpace, 24, 26–27, 28, 38, 39,
141, 200, 201, 204

Nader, Ralph, 174
Nagel, Thomas, 69
Newspapers, history of, 18, 106–7,
108, 109
Newsworthiness test, 129, 132–36
New York City subway flasher, 80,
83, 92, 94, 168
New Yorker, 30, 138
New York Post, 171
New York Times, 144, 147, 171, 195
New York Times v. Sullivan (1964),
126
New Zealand, 188
Nissenbaum, Helen, 165
Nock, Steven, 30, 32
Norms: and privacy, 2, 49, 71, 72,
167, 169, 193; enforcement of, 6–
7, 9, 12, 64, 85–87, 95, 97, 98–
99, 189; of blogosphere, 9, 194–
96; history of, 13, 85; and reputation,
31, 116; changing of, 32, 65,
85; and shaming, 32, 83–90, 92,
94, 102; and gossip, 63–64, 65;
and public versus private self, 69;
and law, 84, 196, 205; internalization
of, 98–99; and Internet users,
110–11; and middle-ground approach
to privacy law, 113; development
of, 122; and context, 165;
of confidentiality, 179; law compared
to, 193–94; and outing
gays, 216n45
North Dakota, 223n27
Nuremberg Files, 100–101
Nussbaum, Martha, 94–95, 96

Oakland, California, 92
Openness: of Internet, 111; and
anonymity, 142–46; and default
settings, 201

Page, Larry, 9
Park, Don, 1, 2, 6, 8, 11
Parker, David, 117
Patient-physician confidentiality,
173, 174
Peoria Crack House, 79–80, 83
Personal email, exposure of, 2, 29–
30
Personal information: exposure of,
2, 29; on social network websites,
24, 26, 27; control of, 29, 170,
184–86, 188; and reputation, 30,
189; less versus more of, 65–73;
Personal information (continued)
and shaming, 79; and defamation
law, 113; speaking about one’s
life, 134–36; suppression of, 182;
and self-exposure problem, 196–
200, 203–4
Phantom Professor, The, 56–58, 56
Pharyngula, 77
Planned Parenthood, 101
PlateWire, 86–87
Politics, 20, 24, 59, 130–31, 144–
45
Porter, William Sydney (Henry, O.),
140
Posner, Richard, 35, 37, 66, 120,
138
Post, David, 111
Post, Robert, 34, 65, 72
Poulson, Kevin, 81
Prisons, and shaming, 92
Privacy: and blogs, 1–2, 191, 198–
99; and Internet, 1–2, 110; and
norms, 2, 49, 71, 72, 167, 169,
193; conception of, 4, 7–8, 11; expectations
of, 7–8, 49, 165, 166,
167, 168, 169, 177, 178, 180,
197, 233n48; and public places,
7–8, 12–13, 161–70; and Google
searches, 9–11; and reputation,
35, 72, 114–20; and ethics of
mainstream media, 36, 59; posting
of private information online, 37–
38; and establishment of trust, 66;
public versus private self, 68–70;
and societal scrutiny, 71–72; and
context, 72, 165; and second
chances, 72–73, 218n87; threats
to, 105–8; and yellow journalism,
106–7, 108, 109; and gossip, 109;
and accessibility of information,
169–70, 191; self-exposure problem,
196–200; nuanced view of,
198–99. See also Privacy law
Privacy/free speech balance: conception
of, 4; and Internet’s rapid
spread of information, 11; role of
law in, 12, 13, 120–23, 125, 190–
96; tension in, 12, 142, 190, 205;
history of, 13; and control of reputation,
35; blogs’ role in, 58; and
authoritarian approach to privacy
law, 113, 120; and privacy invasion,
119–20; and absolutism,
127–28, 191; and newsworthiness
test, 129, 132–36; and publicdisclosure
test, 129–32; and democracy,
130–31, 132, 160,
228n38; and individual autonomy,
130, 132, 160; and marketplace
of ideas, 131–32; and
anonymity, 136–46, 191; and
harmful speech, 149–59
Privacy law: role for, 12, 13, 120–
24, 125, 190–96; and information,
17, 112–13, 125, 161; history
of, 108–10; and new technology,
109, 110, 163–66, 169, 205;
authoritarian approach to, 110,
112–13, 190, 196, 200, 203; libertarian
approach to, 110–12,
154, 190; middle-ground approach
to, 110, 113, 120, 154,
190; and reputation, 117, 119–20;
public disclosure of private facts,
119, 126–27, 128, 129, 132–36,
162–63; and strict scrutiny, 128,
227n27; and Section 230 immunity,
155, 156, 191; and public
places, 161–70, 187, 188, 193; binary
understanding of privacy,
162–63, 166, 167, 169, 170, 184,
190; and video voyeurism, 166–
68; and confidentiality, 170–83,
187, 191, 193; and control, 183–
87, 188, 191
Private citizens, and defamation law,
126
Prosser, William, 109, 127, 187
Prostitution solicitation, 92
Pseudonymous speech, 146
Public debate, 20, 126, 131
Public disclosure, of private facts,
119, 126–27, 128, 129, 132–36,
162–63
Public figures, 126, 194
Public places: and privacy, 7–8, 12–
13, 161–70; social network websites
as, 26, 27; and public roles,
68; and privacy law, 161–70, 187,
188, 193
Public versus private self, 68–70
Pulitzer, Joseph, 106
Putnam, Robert, 32, 141

Randolph, John, 115
Randolph, Richard, 115–16
Randolph, William, 116
Rehabilitation, 73, 95
Reidenberg, Joel, 200
Reingold, Howard, 8–9
Reputation: threat to control of, 4;
control of, 11, 33–35, 189; and
personal information on Internet,
30, 189; and accountability, 31–
32; and trust, 31–32, 66, 116; and
gossip, 32, 63–64, 181, 189, 190;
fragility of, 34, 36–37, 49; and rumors,
34, 36–37, 74, 189, 190;
and privacy, 35, 72, 114–20; and
shaming, 94, 95–96; and dueling,
114, 115–17; and defamation law,
116, 117, 118, 120, 121, 122; and
privacy law, 117, 119–20; and
public disclosure of private facts,
135; and anonymity, 140, 141,
144, 145–46, 150; and privacy/free
speech balance, 160; and confidentiality,
182; and public figures, 194
ReputationDefender, 192
Responsibility: and shaming, 6–7;
and role of law, 124; for harmful
speech, 149–59
Restatement of Torts, 132, 163
Revenge World, 98
Revere, Paul, 61
Reynolds, Glenn, 23–24
Rhode Island, 92
Ringley, Jennifer, 71
Rosen, Jeffrey, 66–67
Rudeness, 32, 94
Rude People, 86
Rumors: on Internet, 4, 11, 118,
124; history of, 11, 105; and reputation,
34, 36–37, 74, 189, 190;
and gossip, 64; and libertarian approach
to privacy law, 112; and
dueling, 114, 116; and defamation
law, 118, 158–59; and anonymity,
140, 141, 144; and Section 230
immunity, 159; and privacy/free
speech balance, 193
Russinovich, Mark, 93

Sand, George, 140
Sanger, Larry, 145
Scalia, Antonin, 140–41
Schlessinger, Dr. Laura, 183–84
Schneider, Carl, 218n87
Schneier, Bruce, 170
Schwartz, Paul, 65
Scott, Sean, 130
Screaming Pickle, The, 47–48
Secrecy, 173, 177, 178, 179
Section 230 immunity, 152–54, 155,
156–59, 191
Seigenthaler, John, 142–44, 145,
146, 147
Seigenthaler, John (son), 143
Self-conception, and reputation, 31,
211n79
Self-exposure problem, 196–200,
203–4
Selfhood, 68–70, 73, 217n59
Sex: and blogs, 50–54; and norms,
85; and reputation, 116; and individual
autonomy, 130; and speaking about one’s life, 135, 136; and
mainstream media, 194
Sexual assault, and journalistic
ethics, 36, 59, 195
Shakespeare, William, 30, 34
Shaming: on Internet, 4, 6, 11, 78–
83, 92–99, 101–2, 168, 190, 195;
and extent of punishment, 7, 95–
96; history of, 11, 13, 78, 90–92,
105; function of, 12, 205; and
norm enforcement, 12, 85–87, 90;
and norms, 32, 83–90, 92, 94,
102; and alienation, 94–95; and
reputation, 94, 95–96; and lack of
due process, 96–98; and vigilantism,
99–101, 102; and privacy
law, 123; and Section 230 immunity,
159; and privacy/free speech
balance, 193
Shannon, Mark, 151
SHHH card, 86, 86
Six degrees of separation, 25–26
Slander, 118, 126
Slashdot, 62
Small village, global village compared
to, 32, 33, 37
Smith, Adam, 140
Smith, Bob, 157–58
Smith, Robert Ellis, 107
Smolla, Rodney, 119–20
Snap camera, 107–8, 109
Social control, 6, 32, 65, 72
Social epidemics, 60–61
Social networks, 25, 26, 60–61, 63,
176–81, 180, 202
Social network websites: dissemination
of information on, 11, 193;
personal information shared on,
24, 26, 27; concept of, 25–26;
and social ties, 26–28; as worldwide
phenomenon, 28–29; employers’
use of, 38; and selfexpression,
49; and authoritarian
approach to privacy law, 113;
and confidentiality requirements,
192; architecture of, 200–204; default
settings of, 200–201, 201;
and socialization, 200; concept of
“friend,” 202–3
Sontag, Susan, 70
Sony BMG, 93
Sorkin, Andrew, 171–72
South, dueling in, 114, 116–17
Southern Methodist University, 56–
58
South Korea, 28
Spacks, Patricia Meyer, 65
Spain, 28
Star Wars Kid, 44–48, 45, 49, 98,
124, 213–14n134
Stigma, 70
Strahilevitz, Lior, 94, 178–80,
221n64
Strict scrutiny, 128, 227n27
Summers, John, 194
Sunstein, Cass, 6, 227n24
Superficial, 22
Surveillance cameras, 163–64

Tabloids, 106, 195
Taft, William Howard, 194
Taiwan, 28
Tanenbaum, Leora, 74
Teacher, Jim, 24
Technorati, 21, 22
Teenagers, 21, 24, 39, 42, 196–97,
198, 204
Telephone, 107. See also Cell phone
use
Thomas, Clarence, 172
Thoreau, Henry David, 85
Tice, Dianne M., 211n79
Tilton, Elizabeth, 107, 212n91
Tilton, Theodore, 107, 212n91
Tipping, norms of, 87–89, 99
Tipping point, and gossip, 60–61,
62
Toobin, Jeff, 138
Tort remedies: for privacy invasion,
110, 113, 119–20, 127, 129–30,
132, 225n71; for defamation,
118, 126; appropriation tort, 119,
162, 186–87; breach-ofconfidentiality
tort, 175–76, 188,
234n85. See also Lawsuits
Traceable anonymity, 146–47, 149
Trust: and reputation, 31–32, 66,
116; decline in, 32; and quality of
information, 35; and background
checks, 41; establishment of, 66;
and second chances, 73; and
anonymity, 141, 145; and confidentiality,
175, 176
Truth: and gossip, 64–65; determination
of, 66; and public versus
private self, 68–69; and defamation
law, 118, 126, 127; and public
disclosure of private facts, 119,
126–27; and privacy/free speech
balance, 131, 132
Twain, Mark, 140, 173–74
UBS, 170–73

Underground Newspaper, 59–60
Underneath Their Robes, 136–39
United Kingdom, 28
University of Colorado, 96–97
Upskirt photos, 166, 167
U.S. Constitution, 113. See also First
Amendment; Fourth Amendment
U.S. Supreme Court, 34, 118, 126,
127–29, 139, 148, 227n27,
233n48

Vengeance, and shaming, 98
Video voyeurism, 166–68
Video Voyeurism Prevention Act,
167, 231n2
Vigilantism, and shaming, 99–101,
102
Vlogs (video blogs), 164
Volokh, Eugene, 93, 127, 128
Volokh Conspiracy, The, 54–55, 93
Voltaire, 140
Voyeur Video, 162, 231n2

Wales, Jimmy, 142, 145
Warren, Samuel: and privacy, 108–
9, 190; and privacy law, 109–10,
113, 119–20; and tort remedies,
110, 113; and public disclosure,
128, 129, 162; and appropriation,
162; and confidentiality law, 176
Warshavsky, Seth, 184
Washington, 167
Washingtonienne, 50–53, 124, 130–
31, 136, 139, 173, 214n3
Waxy.org, 46, 48
Westin, Alan, 71
Wikipedia, 47, 142–46, 143
Wilson, John Lyde, 117
Wilson, Woodrow, 194
Winfrey, Oprah, 36
Witchcraft, 34
Wonkette, 22, 52–54, 139, 214nn3,
5
Woodhull, Victoria, 107, 223n11
Woodward, Bob, 134
Woolf, Virginia, 217n59
Wyoming, 223n27

Xanga, 24

Yahoo! chat rooms, 154–55
Yahoo! message boards, 148–49
Yellow journalism, and privacy,
106–7, 108, 109
YouTube, 39–40, 164, 171,
213n134

Zeran, Kenneth, 150–53
Zeta-Jones, Catherine, 175
Zimmerman, Diane, 64, 129
Zittrain, Jonathan, 185
Zuckerberg, Mark, 27, 169
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Re: The Future of Reputation: Gossip, Rumor, and Privacy on

Postby admin » Mon Oct 21, 2013 10:56 pm

About the Author

Daniel J. Solove is associate professor, George Washington University Law School, and an internationally known expert in privacy law. He is frequently interviewed and featured in media broadcasts and articles, and he is the author of The Digital Person: Technology and Privacy in the Information Age. He lives in Washington, D.C., and blogs at the popular law blog http://www.concurringopinions.com.
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