The CIA and the Media: How America's Most Powerful News Medi

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Re: The CIA and the Media: How America's Most Powerful News

Postby admin » Thu Jun 04, 2020 3:49 am

CIA, State Department, American Committee for Liberation Discussion of Radio Liberty Broadcasting
CIA mandatory declassification review document number C01441011.
March 15, 1952

Summary: CIA, State Department, and American Committee for Liberation (AMCOMLIB) officials agree to expand AMCOMLIB activities, share funding with Radio Free Europe from the Crusade for Freedom, and delay Radio Liberty broadcasts until a sponsoring Russian Émigré Political Center is formed.

SECRET
SECURITY INFORMATION

15 March 1952

MEMORANDUM FOR THE RECORD

SUBJECT: Summary of Conclusions Reached at 14 March 1952 Meeting in Office of Mr. C.E. Bohlen on Questions Raised by Admiral Alan G. Kirk

Present:

C.E. Bohlen [Charles Eustis “Chip” Bohlen]
Admiral Alan G. Kirk [Admiral Alan Goodrich Kirk]
Allen W. Dulles [Allen Welsh Dulles]
Francis B. Stevens
Walworth R. Barbour [Walworth “Wally” Barbour]
Robert P. Joyce
John A. Bross

The meeting was called at the request of Admiral Kirk, who wished to discuss a few questions concerning the American Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia. The following conclusions were reached:

1. Continuing efforts to add to the membership of the Committee persons of prominent will be intensified.

a. Especial emphasis will be laid on adding members of such established wealth as to increase the plausibility of the Committee’s engaging in its contemplated psychological warfare activities.

b. Mr. Dulles undertook to expedite the customary security clearance of these persons, by waiving normal security procedures after a routine name check has revealed nothing unfavorable.

2. The Committee will initiate projects the value of which from a research standpoint should enable it to obtain grants from one or more Foundations (Carnegie, Rockefeller, etc.). To the extent that Foundation funds are thus obtained, added plausibility will be given to Committee operations from a financial aspect.

3. A third source of funds, for the Committee’s activities will be developed through the Crusade for Freedom. This Crusade now finances many of the activities of the National Committee for Free Europe [DELETE]. The policy objection was seen to the Crusade’s also financing Admiral Kirk’s Committee. Mr. Bohlen stated that he approved such use of the funds raised by the Crusade.

a. Mr. Dulles stressed the need for examining whether the Crusade can now contribute to the Committee, from the funds raised by it in the 1951? campaign. That campaign may have been so conducted that contributors might resent Crusade funds going to the American Committee.

b. It was agreed that in any event, the Crusade should announce as soon as possible that it has decided to accept funds for the American Committee. Arrangements will be made with Crusade officials to solicit funds during the 1952 campaign in such a way as to enable it to turn over a portion of these funds to the American Committee.

[DELETE]

4. With regard to the need of explaining the Committee’s principles and purposes to interested persons inside and outside the several branches of the Government, it was agreed that Admiral Kirk can and should regard such explanation as one of his more important tasks.

5. There was general agreement that Admiral Kirk should go slowly in his meetings with Russian and non-Russian émigrés. Mr. Bohlen urged that the Admiral first interview the American spokesmen for or supporters of these émigrés. Mr. Stevens stressed that the Admiral should, insofar as possible, keep the émigrés themselves at arm’s length.

6. Although no conclusions were reached, there was considerable discussion on the sort of [illegible] that will prevent the Committee’s proposed radio program from becoming just another American radio in Europe. Mr. Bohlen said there are three views with regard to the Political Center that the American Committee is trying to establish: (a) the Center is a political impossibility; (b) it would be preferable to organize an [illegible] on a purely cultural or individual basis – rather than the group approach that is now being pursued; (c) a purely Great Russian center would be relatively simple to establish and should be set up for relative ease of operations.

Generally speaking, the consensus of the meeting was that something less than an ideal Center as originally conceived would be acceptable to the State Department, but the importance of a genuine Russian auspices far outweighs the value of the radio program as such; it is preferable to wait a month or so before broadcasting in order to obtain a valid auspices, than it is to start broadcasting as seen as possible under a sponsorship that is transparently this.
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Re: The CIA and the Media: How America's Most Powerful News

Postby admin » Thu Jun 04, 2020 6:43 am

Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/3/20

Image
"We Fight for the Freedom of All" — OCIAA poster by Edward McKnight Kauffer, promoting inter-American solidarity

The Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, later known as the Office for Inter-American Affairs, was a United States agency promoting inter-American cooperation (Pan-Americanism) during the 1940s, especially in commercial and economic areas. It was started in August 1940 as OCCCRBAR (Office for Coordination of Commercial and Cultural Relations between the American Republics) with Nelson Rockefeller as its head, appointed by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.[1][2]

The Office of Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs in the Executive Office of the President was formally established and enacted by US Executive Order 8840 on July 30, 1941 by President Roosevelt[3][4] who named Nelson Rockefeller as the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (CIAA).

The agency's function was to distribute news, films and advertising, and to broadcast radio, in and to Latin America in order to counter Italian and German propaganda there.[5] The OCIAA grew to be a large Federal agency with a budget of $38 million by 1942[6] and 1,500 employees by 1943.

It was later renamed the Office of Inter-American Affairs (OIAA) with slightly changed powers by Executive order 9532 on March 23, 1945.[7]

Mission

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Nelson Rockefeller, Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (1940)

Image
As a goodwill ambassador in 1942, Orson Welles toured the Estudios San Miguel in Buenos Aires, meeting with Argentine film personalities including (center photograph) actress Libertad Lamarque.

The Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs was established in August 1940 by order of the U.S. Council of National Defense, and operated with funds from both the government and the private sector.[8]:10–11 By executive order July 30, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the OCIAA within the Office for Emergency Management of the Executive Office of the President, "to provide for the development of commercial and cultural relations between the American Republics and thereby increasing the solidarity of this hemisphere and furthering the spirit of cooperation between the Americas in the interest of hemisphere defense."[9]

The mission of the OCIAA was cultural diplomacy, promoting hemispheric solidarity and countering the growing influence of the Axis powers in Latin America. The OCIAA's Motion Picture Division played an important role in documenting history and shaping opinion toward the Allied nations, particularly after the U.S. entered World War II in December 1941. To support the war effort — and for their own audience development throughout Latin America — Hollywood studios partnered with the U.S. government on a nonprofit basis, making films and incorporating Latin American stars and content into their commercial releases.[8]:10–11

During the 1940s the CBS radio broadcasting network also contributed to the OCIAA's cultural initiatives by establishing the CBS Pan American Orchestra to showcase prominent musical artists from both North and South America on its Viva América program. Broadcasts to Latin America were coordinated by the OCIAA with CBS' "La Cadena de Las Américas" (Network of the Americas) shortwave radio and radiotelephone systems as envisioned by William S. Paley.[10] Included among the international contributors were: Alfredo Antonini (Italian-American conductor), Terig Tucci (Argentine composer), John Serry Sr. (Italian-American accordionist), Elsa Miranda (Puerto Rican vocalist), Eva Garza (Mexican-American vocalist), Nestor Mesa Chaires (Mexican tenor), Juan Arvizu (Mexican tenor) and Edmund A. Chester (American journalist). [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20] The OCIAA also supported cultural programming on the CBS radio network which included performances by such Hollywood luminaries as Edward G. Robinson and Rita Hayworth.[21]

Artists working in a variety of disciplines were appointed goodwill ambassadors to Latin America by the OCIAA, which also sponsored a variety of cultural tours. A select listing includes Misha Reznikoff and photojournalist Genevieve Naylor (October 1940–May 1943); Bing Crosby (August–October 1941); Walt Disney (August–October 1941); Aaron Copland (August–December 1941); George Balanchine and the American Ballet (1941); Orson Welles (1942); Rita Hayworth (1942); Grace Moore (1943); and John Ford and Gregg Toland (1943).[8]:245

Activities

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"As One Man" — OCIAA poster by Antonio Arias Bernal

In its early days, a particular concern of the OCIAA was the elimination of German influence in South America, and that of other Axis powers. Trade routes to Europe were disrupted following the fall of France in June 1940, presenting opportunities to both Germany and the U.S. At the same time, many agents or affiliates of U.S. firms operating in Latin America were sympathetic to European Axis powers. The office encouraged a voluntary program of non-cooperation with companies and individuals perceived to be anti-American. To this end it cooperated secretly with British Security Coordination in New York. Though isolated in Europe, Britain maintained an extensive intelligence network in Latin America, and was happy to undermine Germany's trade efforts overseas by identifying sympathisers and agents. Through these efforts, U.S. exporters were encouraged to drop over a thousand accounts in South America during the first half of 1941.[22]

The office was also concerned with public opinion in Latin America. It translated and disseminated relevant speeches by President Roosevelt, and distributed pro-U.S materials to features syndicates in the region. It carried out audience research surveys and encouraged radio broadcasters targeting these regions to improve the quality of their programming. In order to discourage opposing views it created a 'Proclaimed List', a black-list of newspapers and radio stations owned or influenced by Axis powers. Latin American firms wishing to do business with America were discouraged from dealing with these stations. Tax incentives were also used: spending by American firms on unprofitable longwave transmission to Latin America could be deducted from income tax payments. Likewise, spending on approved advertising in Latin America became deductible from corporate income taxes.[6]

Walt Disney and a group of animators had been sent to South America in 1941 by the U.S. State Department as part of its Good Neighbor policy, and guaranteed financing for the resulting movie, Saludos Amigos.[23] In 1944, William Benton, publisher of the Encyclopædia Britannica, had entered into unsuccessful negotiations with Disney to make six to twelve educational films annually. Disney was asked to make an educational film about the Amazon Basin and it resulted in the 1944 animated short, The Amazon Awakens.[24][25][26][27][28]

Postwar

By an Executive order of August 31, 1945, the informational activities of the Office of Inter-American Affairs were transferred to the Department of State. It became known as the Office for Inter-American Affairs. By an Executive order of April 10, 1946, the Office was abolished and its remaining functions and responsibilities were transferred to the State Department.

Personnel

• Nelson Rockefeller, Coordinator of the Office for Coordination of Commercial and Cultural Relations between the American Republics and Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (1940–44):
• Wallace Harrison, Director of the Office for Inter-American Affairs (1945–46)

Soviet penetration

The Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs was penetrated by Soviet intelligence during World War II. The agency's code name in Soviet intelligence and in the Venona project is "Cabaret".[29]:200 These American citizens were employees of the OCIAA and engaged in espionage on behalf of the Soviet Union:

• Marion Davis Berdecio[29]:201, 346
• Jack Fahy[29]:187
• Joseph Gregg[29]:111, 114
• Helen Grace Scott Keenan[29]:204
• Robert Talbott Miller[29]:111, 114
• Willard Park[29]:101

See also

• Hello Americans
• The Sea Hound
• It's All True
• Viva América
• Gracias Amigos

References

1. Thomson, Charles Alexander Holmes, Overseas information service of the United States Government, The Brookings Institution, 1948. Cf. p.4.
2. Dissonant Divas in Chicana Music: The Limits of La Onda Deborah R. Vargas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 2012 p. 152-155 ISBN 978-0-8166-7316-2 OCIAA (Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs), FDR's Good Neighbor Policy, CBS, Viva America, La Cadena de las Americas on google.books.com
3. "Executive Order 8840 Establishing the Office of Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs. | The American Presidency Project". http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
4. "1941: Executive Order 8840", Federal Register, 1941.
5. Anthony, Edwin D. Records of the Office of Inter-American Affairs. National Archives and Record Services- General Services Administration, Washington, D.C., 1973 p. 1-8 Library of Congress Catalog No. 73-600146 Records of the Office of Inter-American Affairs at The National Archive Online at http://www.archives.gov
6. Gerald K. Haines (1977). "Under the Eagle's Wing: The Franklin Roosevelt Administration Forges An American Hemisphere". Diplomatic History. 1 (4): 373–388. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1977.tb00248.x. JSTOR 24909904. Aided by United States tax laws that provided for expenditures made by the radio industry
7. "1945: Executive Order 9532", Federal Register, 1945.
8. Benamou, Catherine L., It's All True: Orson Welles's Pan-American Odyssey. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007 ISBN 978-0-520-24247-0
9. Roosevelt, Franklin D., "Executive Order 8840 Establishing the Office of Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs", July 30, 1941. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project, University of California, Santa Barbara
10. Dissonant Divas in Chicana Music: The Limits of La Onda Deborah R. Vargas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 2012 p. 152-153 ISBN 978-0-8166-7316-2 OCIAA and William S. Paley's Cadena De Las Americas on google.books.com
11. "Copyright 2019, J. David Goldin".
12. The New York Times, January 8, 1941, pg. 8
13. The New York Times, January 1, 1942, pg. 27
14. The New York Times, May 10, 1942, pg. SM10
15. The New York Times, February 28, 1943, pg. X9
16. The New York Times, January 18, 1942, pg. 27
17. A Pictorial History of Radio. Settel, Irving. Grosset & Dunlap, New York 1960 & 1967, pg. 146, Library of Congress #67-23789
18. Media Sound & Culture in Latin America & The Caribbean. Editors: Bronfman, Alejandra & Wood, Andrew Grant. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 2012, Pg. 49 ISBN 978-0-8229-6187-1 Books.Google.COm See Pg. 49
19. The Strachwitz Frontera collection of Mexican and Mexican American Recordings- Eva Garza Biography on frontera.library.ucla.edu
20. Dissonant Divas in Chicana Music: The Limits of La Onda Deborah R. Vargas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 2012 p. 155-157 ISBN 978-0-8166-7316-2 Eva Garza and Viva America on google.books.com
21. Dissonant Divas in Chicana Music: The Limits of La Onda Deborah R. Vargas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 2012 p. 153 ISBN 978-0-8166-7316-2 OCIAA, CBS radio and Edward G. Robinson and Rita Hayworth on google.books.com
22. Kramer, Paul (January 1, 1981). "Nelson Rockefeller and British Security Coordination". Journal of Contemporary History. 16(1): 73–88. doi:10.1177/002200948101600105. Immediately after the fall of France there was unanimity of feeling within the Roosevelt administration that something had to be done about Latin America...
23. Walt & El Grupo (documentary film, 2008).
24. Gabler, 2006, p.444
25. Cramer, Gisela; Prutsch, Ursula, "Nelson A. Rockefeller's Office of Inter-American Affairs (1940-1946) and Record Group 229", Hispanic American Historical Review 2006 86(4):785-806; doi:10.1215/00182168-2006-050. Cf. p.795 and note 28.
26. Bender, Pennee. "Hollywood Meets South American and Stages a Show" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association. 2009-05-24 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p114070_index.html>
27. Niblo, Stephen R., "Mexico in the 1940s: Modernity, Politics, and Corruption", Wilimington, Del. : Scholarly Resources, 1999. ISBN 0-8420-2794-7. Cf. "Nelson Rockefeller and the Office of Inter-American Affairs", p.333
28. Leonard, Thomas M.; Bratzel, John F., Latin America during World War II, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2007. ISBN 978-0-7425-3741-5. Cf. p.47.
29. Haynes, John Earl; Klehr, Harvey (2000) [1999]. Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. New Haven; London: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300084627.

Further reading

• Erb, Claude C. "Prelude to point four: the Institute of Inter-American Affairs." Diplomatic History 9.3 (1985): 249-269.
• Haines, Gerald K. "Under the Eagle's Wing: The Franklin Roosevelt Administration Forges an American Hemisphere." Diplomatic History 1.4 (1977): 373-388. online
• Maxwell, Allen Brewster, Evoking Latin American collaboration in the Second World War: A study of the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (1940–1946), PhD dissertation, Tufts University, Medford, MA., 1971.
• Reich, Cary. The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller: Worlds to Conquer, 1908-1958 (1996), pp 260-373; the standard scholarly biography
• Rowland, Donald W., History of the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, US Government Printing Office, 1947. (United States Office of Inter-American Affairs)
• Smith, Richard Norton. On his own terms: A life of Nelson Rockefeller (2014), pp 143-88 a standard scholarly biography.

External links

• Records of the Office of Inter-American Affairs at the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration
• Close-Up: Nelson A. Rockefeller; As Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, a celebrated young heir runs a much-discussed and increasingly important Washington bureau. Busch, Noel F., Life, April 27, 1942, pp. 80–90
• Rockefeller Family Archives, Record Group #04, Record Group Name: Nelson A. Rockefeller, Personal, Washington, D.C. Files - Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, Dates: August 1940-December 1944
Films at the Internet Archive
• The Grain That Built a Hemisphere (1942, Walt Disney Productions)
• Defense Against Invasion (1943, Walt Disney Productions)
• The Winged Scourge (1943, Walt Disney Productions]
o Spanish language version, in color
• Wooden Face of Tontonicapan (Guatemala Sketch Book)
• São Paulo, Brazil (1944)
• Health for the Americas series by Walt Disney Productions
o What Is Disease? (1944)
o Cleanliness Brings Health (1944)
o Infant Care and Feeding (1944)
o Insects as Carriers of Disease (1944)
o Planning for Good Eating (1945)
o Environmental Sanitation
• Julien Bryan Productions
o Young Uruguay (1943)
o Good Neighbor Family (1943)
o Housing in Chile: One Government's Plan to Provide Better Homes (1943)
o Fundo in Chile
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Re: The CIA and the Media: How America's Most Powerful News

Postby admin » Thu Jun 04, 2020 6:50 am

Hadley Cantril [Albert Hadley Cantril, Jr.]
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/3/20

Image
Albert Hadley Cantril, Jr.
Born: 16 June 1906, Hyrum, Utah, U.S.
Died: 28 May 1969 (aged 62)
Alma mater: Dartmouth College; Harvard University
Occupation: Psychologist, researcher
Spouse(s): Mavis L. Cantril

Albert Hadley Cantril, Jr. (16 June 1906 – 28 May 1969) was a Princeton University psychologist who expanded the scope of the field.

Cantril made "major contributions in psychology of propaganda; public opinion research; applications of psychology and psychological research to national policy, international understanding, and communication; developmental psychology; psychology of social movements; measurement and scaling; humanistic psychology; the psychology of perception; and, basic to all of them, the analysis of human behavior from the transactional point of view."[1] His influence is felt in education, law, philosophy, politics and psychiatry.[1]

"Hadley Cantril, Princeton psychologist, is representative of most quantitative scholars of social influence who, while holding their political commitments close to the vest, nevertheless saw themselves clearly in the ranks of reformers loosely attached to the progressive movement…. Focus on social process and a psychological view of people put the academic scientists of society in a frame of mind to assume the polis languished chiefly because of inaction on the part of enlightened administrators."[2]:74

Biography

Cantril was born in Hyrum, Utah in 1906 and first studied at Dartmouth College, graduating Bachelor of Science in 1928. He did graduate study in Munich and Berlin, then studied at Harvard graduating with Doctor of Philosophy in psychology in 1931. He was hired as an instructor by Dartmouth and joined the Princeton University faculty in 1936. The next year he became president of the Institute for Propaganda Analysis and one of the founding editors of Public Opinion Quarterly. Later he became chairman of the Princeton University Department of Psychology.[1]

Cantril was a member of the Princeton Radio Research Project. The Project looked at the reaction to Orson Welles' The War of the Worlds and published a study accenting the public's disturbance.[3]

In 1940 he served as a consultant to the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs.[4]

Cantril's later psychological work included collaboration with Adelbert Ames, Jr. developing a transactional method for studying human perception, as well as other research in humanistic psychology.[5]:389–90

Public opinion research

Though trained as a psychologist, Cantril's most important work concerned the then-new topic of public opinion research. Influenced initially by the success of George Gallup and Elmo Roper during the 1936 presidential election, Cantril sought to apply their systematic polling technique to academic social psychology.[5]:388 While Cantril was department chairman he became a presidential advisor:

Cantril's small-scale program at Princeton became more extensive in September 1940 when Nelson Rockefeller, FDR's Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, asked the Princeton psychologist to "set up mechanisms which would gauge public opinion in Latin America." In cooperation with Gallup, and with funds from the Office of Emergency Management, Cantril established an ostensibly independent research organization, American Social Surveys. He recruited his friend Leonard Doob, and another researcher Lloyd Free, to analyse Nazi propaganda coming into Latin America. Through Rockefeller's office, the results of Cantril's program were brought to the attention of FDR. The president asked Cantril to monitor public sentiment on avoiding war versus aiding Britain. Cantril duly kept tabs on views about aiding England and on the public's willingness to change U.S. neutrality laws in favor of Britain.[2]


In 1942 Cantril conducted a small-sample survey of Vichy officials in Morocco, prior to Operation Torch, that revealed the intensity of the anti-British sentiment of the French forces there. This information influenced the disposition of forces during the operation, with American troops landing near Casablanca and mixed forces at Oran and Algiers.[5]:389[6] According to George Gallup, "On the basis of his opinion studies, [Cantril] advised Presidents Roosevelt, Eisenhower, and Kennnedy at critical points in history. Judged by subsequent events his advice was exceptionally sound."[7]

In 1955 he and Lloyd Free founded the Institute for International Social Research (IISR).[8] The IISR was often asked by United States government agencies to conduct small-sample public opinion polls in foreign countries.[9] Notably, Cantril and Free conducted a poll of Cuba during 1960 demonstrating great support for Fidel Castro, which was overlooked during the presidential transition between Eisenhower and Kennedy and read only after the Bay of Pigs Invasion fiasco.[8]

Cantril's most-cited work is The Pattern of Human Concerns, notable for the development of the self-anchoring scale (also known as "Cantril's Ladder").[10] Cantril and Free also first discovered the paradox that American voters tend to oppose "big government" in general while supporting many specific liberal social programs.[8]

During the late 1950s, Cantril served on the International Objectives and Strategies panel of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund's Special Studies Project.[11]

Works

• 1934: Social Psychology of Everyday Life
• 1935:(with Gordon Allport) Psychology of Radio from Internet Archive
• 1939: Industrial Conflict: a Psychological Interpretation,
• 1940: The Invasion from Mars, a Study in the Psychology of Panic
• 1940: America Faces the War, a Study in Public Opinion
• 1941: Psychology of Social Movements from HathiTrust
• 1944: Gauging Public Opinion, Princeton University Press, via Internet Archive
• 1947: (with Muzafer Sherif) Psychology of ego-involvements : social attitudes & identifications via HathiTrust
• 1950: The "Why" of Man's Experience
• 1950: Tensions that cause wars (a report for UNESCO)
• 1951: (with Mildred Strunk) Public Opinion, 1935–1946, polls from the USA, Europe and Canada, via Internet Archive
• 1953: (with William Buchanan) How Nations See Each Other, a study in public opinion
• 1954: (with William H. Ittelson) Perception: a Transactional Approach
• 1956: On Understanding the French Left
• 1958: Faith, Hope, and Heresy: the Psychology of the Protest Voter via HathiTrust
• 1958: Politics of Despair via HathiTrust
• 1960: Reflections on the Human Venture
• 1960: Soviet Leaders and Mastery over Man
• 1961: Human Nature and Political Systems
• 1965: Pattern of Human Concerns
• 1967: (with L. A. Free) Political beliefs of Americans; a study of public opinion
• 1967: The Human Dimension: Experiences in Policy Research
• 1988: (Albert H. Cantril, editor) Psychology, Humanism, and Scientific Inquiry: the Selected Essays of Hadley Cantril

References

1. F. P. Kilpatrick (November 1969) "Hadley Cantril – The Transactional Point of View", Journal of Individual Psychology 25: 219–25, reprinted as Epilogue, pages 229–34, in Albert H. Cantril, editor (1988) Psychology, Humanism and Scientific Inquiry, Transaction Books ISBN 0-88738-176-6
2. J. Michael Sproule (1997) Propaganda and Democracy, page 184, Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-47022-6
3. Hadley Cantril, Hazel Gaudet, and Herta Herzog (1940) The Invasion from Mars: A Study in the Psychology of Panic: with the Complete Script of the Famous Orson Welles Broadcast, Princeton University Press
4. Investigation of un-American propaganda activities in the United States. United States Government Printing Office. 1940. p. 3244. and a special consultant for the Office of the Coordinator of Inter- American Affairs
5. John Gray Geer (2004) Public opinion and polling around the world: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1, ABC-CLIOISBN 9781576079119
6. Stuart Oskamp, P. Wesley Schultz (2005). Attitudes and Opinions. Routledge. p. 314. ISBN 0-8058-4769-3.
7. George Gallup (1969) "Hadley Cantril 1906 — 1969", Public Opinion Quarterly 33(3): 506 doi:10.1086/267731
8. "Lloyd A. Free, 88, is dead; Revealed Political Paradox", New York Times, November 14, 1996.
9. "Worldwide Propaganda Network Built by the C.I.A." New York Times, December 26, 1976
10. Understanding How Gallup uses the Cantril Scale from Gallup
11. Prospect for America: The Rockefeller Panel Reports. Doubleday. 1961.
• Hadley Cantril from Roper Center for Public Opinion Research
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