Shiva Ayyadurai suing TechDirt over Stories Saying He Didn’t

Gathered together in one place, for easy access, an agglomeration of writings and images relevant to the Rapeutation phenomenon.

Re: Shiva Ayyadurai suing TechDirt over Stories Saying He Di

Postby admin » Thu Feb 23, 2017 5:29 am

Shiva Ayyadurai, inventor of a program named "EMAIL"
By Rob Beschizza
Boingboing
Mar 6, 2012

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At Gizmodo, Sam Biddle takes a long look at Shiva Ayyadurai, the MIT lecturer who snookered Time, the Smithsonian Museum and The Washington Post into believing he invented email. Ayyadurai appears to be a brilliant, paranoid huckster.

He's generally described by his colleagues as a nut and fraud—the terms "asshole," and "loon" were tossed around freely by professors who were happy to talk about their coworker but prefer to remain anonymous. "Don't know him, but [he] didn't invent email. If he claims to have done so he's a dick," said one MIT brain. [Ayyadurai] claims that [The Indian government] hired a team of "bloggers" and PR hatchet men to smear him across the internet. Target number one? His claim to be the father of email.


Ayyadurai registered a program called "email" with the copyright office in 1978, but email itself is older. While he details specific aspects of email that his program introduced, Biddle finds these claims just as suspect. Moreover, in the video of Ayyadurai below, he talks of "my inventing the email system." In other words, he's willing to fill whatever container is put before him.

The Post's fixed its story, but Time hasn't.
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Re: Shiva Ayyadurai suing TechDirt over Stories Saying He Di

Postby admin » Thu Feb 23, 2017 5:37 am

Internet Hall of Fame Recognizes Internet Leaders and Luminaries
by Internet Hall of Fame
March 8, 2012

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INTERNET HALL OF FAME TO RECOGNIZE LANDMARK ACHIEVEMENTS OF INTERNET PIONEERS, INNOVATORS, AND GLOBAL LEADERS

Internet Society convenes distinguished international panel to select inaugural inductees

[Washington, D.C. and Geneva, Switzerland – 08 March 2012] – The Internet Society today announced that in conjunction with its 20th anniversary celebration, it is establishing an annual Internet Hall of Fame program to honor leaders and luminaries who have made significant contributions to the development and advancement of the global Internet. Inaugural inductees will be announced at an Awards Gala during the Internet Society’s Global INET 2012 conference in Geneva, Switzerland, 22-24 April 2012, http://www.internetsociety.org/globalinet.

There are extraordinary people around the world who have helped to make the Internet a global platform for innovation and communication, spurring economic development and social progress. This program will honor individuals who have pushed the boundaries to bring the benefits of a global Internet to life and to make it an essential resource used by billions of people. We look forward to recognizing the achievements of these outstanding leaders.

-- Internet Society CEO Lynn St. Amour


The Internet Society has convened an Advisory Board to vote on the inductees for the 2012 Internet Hall of Fame inauguration. The Advisory Board is a highly-qualified, diverse, international committee that spans multiple industry segments and backgrounds. This year’s Advisory Board members include:

• Dr. Lishan Adam, ICT Development Researcher, Ethiopia
• Chris Anderson, Editor-in-Chief, WIRED
• Alex Corenthin, Directeur des Systemes d'Information, University Cheikh Anta Diop of Dakar; Chair, Internet Society Senegal Chapter
• William Dutton, Professor of Internet Studies, Oxford Internet Institute
• Joichi Ito, Director, MIT Media Lab
• Mike Jensen, Independent ICT Consultant, South Africa
• Aleks Krotoski, Technology Academic/Journalist/Author
• Loic Le Meur, Founder & CEO, LeWeb
• Mark Mahaney, Internet Analyst, Citigroup
• Dr. Alejandro Pisanty, Professor at National University of Mexico; Chair of Internet Society Mexico Chapter
• Lee Rainie, Director, Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project
Jimmy Wales, Co-founder, Wikipedia

We are extremely grateful to our distinguished Advisory Board members who have donated their time, energy, and expertise to this program. The breadth of their experiences and the diversity of their perspectives are invaluable, and we truly appreciate their participation.

-- Internet Society CEO Lynn St. Amour


ABOUT THE INTERNET SOCIETY

The Internet Society is the trusted independent source for Internet information and thought leadership from around the world. With its principled vision and substantial technological foundation, the Internet Society promotes open dialogue on Internet policy, technology, and future development among users, companies, governments, and foundations. Working with its members and Chapters around the world, the Internet Society enables the continued evolution and growth of the Internet for everyone.

For more information, see: http://www.internetsociety.org
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Re: Shiva Ayyadurai suing TechDirt over Stories Saying He Di

Postby admin » Thu Feb 23, 2017 5:55 am

Email creator, Ray Tomlinson, inducted into Internet Hall of Fame. Tomlinson, honored in first class of inductees, fundamentally changed global communication and secured the '@' symbol's place in history as a digital icon
by Raytheon Company
Apr 23, 2012, 13:45 ET

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CAMBRIDGE, Mass., April 23, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Ray Tomlinson, a principal engineer at Raytheon BBN Technologies who sent the first network email in 1971 and saved the "@" symbol from probable extinction, is being honored among the first inductees into the Internet Hall of Fame for his invention of email. It was Tomlinson who made the historic choice to separate the name of his message's recipient from the name of the host computer using the "@" symbol, now one of the most universally recognized digital icons on the planet. His induction into the Hall of Fame was announced April 23 at the Internet Society's Global INET 2012 meeting in Geneva, Switzerland. Raytheon BBN Technologies is a wholly owned subsidiary of Raytheon Company (NYSE: RTN).

Sometime after Shiva’s invention of email in 1978, a group of industry insiders, public relations experts and “historians” loyal to Raytheon/BBN, a multi-billion dollar company which had predicated its entire brand on the claim it had “invented email”, began purposely misusing the term “email” to refer to its developments in text messaging, done prior to 1978 as “email”, in order to hijack credit for the invention from the 14-year-old boy.

-- The Five Myths About Email’s History, by Deborah J. Nightingale, Ph.D.


"I am honored to be selected to the Internet Hall of Fame and have my name mentioned among such an elite and accomplished group," said Tomlinson. "The invention of email came out of a personal desire for a more convenient and functional way to communicate. Basically, I was looking for a method that did not require the person to be there when the message was sent and enabled the receiver to read and answer communications at their convenience. I still use email every day. In fact, it is my preferred form of communication."

In 1971, Tomlinson developed ARPANET's first application for network email by combining the SNDMSG and CPYNET programs, allowing messages to be sent to users on other computers. He chose the "@" sign to separate local from global emails in the mailing address. Person-to-person network email was born and "user@host" became the standard for email addresses -- and remains so to this day.

Tomlinson's email program revolutionized communications, fundamentally changing the way people and organizations interact and altering the cadence of every day life. Businesses, from global companies to tiny shops, transformed the way they communicated. People changed their ways of doing everything from shopping to banking to staying in touch with friends and family -- whether across town or on the other side of the world. Today, an estimated 1.9 billion people worldwide use email to communicate. They are sending 300 billion emails a day, eliminating traditional barriers of time and space.

This is the most recent of Tomlinson's many prestigious honors. In 2000, Tomlinson received the George R. Stibitz Computer Pioneer Award from the American Computer Museum. In 2001, he was honored with a Webby Award from the International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences and was inducted into the Rensselaer Alumni Hall of Fame. In 2002, Discover Magazine awarded him its Innovation Award. In 2004, he earned the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Award. In 2009, he was named the Prince of Asturias Award Laureate for Technical and Scientific Research. In 2011, he was honored with the Eduard Rhein Kulturpreis Cultural Award. Ray Tomlinson is ranked No. 4 on the list of the top 150 MIT-related "ideas, inventions and innovators," compiled by The Boston Globe.

About The Internet Society and Its Internet Hall of Fame

The Internet Society is the world's trusted independent source of Internet leadership. The organization promotes open dialogue on Internet policy, technology, and future development among users, companies, governments, and other organizations. Working with its members and Chapters around the world, the Internet Society enables the continued evolution and growth of the Internet for everyone.

The Internet Society established the Internet Hall of Fame this year to mark its 20th birthday and to acknowledge the Internet's profound impact. An Advisory Board of computer scientists, software engineers, Internet developers, historians, executives, venture capitalists, authors, researchers, futurists, academics, analysts, and journalists selected Internet Hall of Fame honorees from an open nomination process.

About Raytheon

Raytheon Company, with 2011 sales of $25 billion, is a technology and innovation leader specializing in defense, homeland security and other government markets throughout the world. With a history of innovation spanning 90 years, Raytheon provides state-of-the-art electronics, mission systems integration and other capabilities in the areas of sensing; effects; and command, control, communications and intelligence systems, as well as a broad range of mission support services. With headquarters in Waltham, Mass., Raytheon employs 71,000 people worldwide. For more about Raytheon, visit us at http://www.raytheon.com and follow us on Twitter at @raytheon.

Media Contacts
Joyce Kuzmin
617.873.8120

Mark Gauthier
617.873.8130

pr@bbn.com

SOURCE Raytheon Company
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Re: Shiva Ayyadurai suing TechDirt over Stories Saying He Di

Postby admin » Thu Feb 23, 2017 6:03 am

He turned @ symbol into a mainstay of our electronic lives
by Hiawatha Bray
March 7, 2016

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He transformed the once-obscure “@” symbol into one that has become instantly familiar around the world. Ray Tomlinson, who with his engineering colleagues gave the world electronic mail, died on Saturday.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Tomlinson helped Bolt, Beranek and Newman lay the groundwork for ARPANET, the federally-funded data network that would eventually morph into the Internet.

He and many of his colleagues at the Cambridge company worked on minicomputers — refrigerator-sized machines that could be used by several people working at video terminals. Such computers had long allowed users to send electronic messages to different users. But these messages were contained within a single computer.

In 1971, Tomlinson was working on a program to transfer data files between two or more computers. He realized that he could modify this program to transmit messages from one computer to another. “It remained to provide a way to distinguish local mail from network mail,” Tomlinson later wrote.

Tomlinson needed, however, to decide how to label the destination address. “The @ sign seemed to make sense,” he decided, because it implied that the recipient of the message was “at” a remote computer rather than a local one.

Tomlinson, who lived in Lincoln, was 74. He worked for Raytheon, which bought BBN in 2009.

“A true technology pioneer, Ray was the man who brought us e-mail in the early days of networked computers,” said a statement issued by Raytheon. “His work changed the way the world communicates and yet, for all his accomplishments, he remained humble, kind, and generous with his time and talents.”

MYTH #2: RAY TOMLINSON INVENTED "EMAIL" AND SENT THE FIRST "EMAIL" MESSAGE

This statement is a misuse of the term “email” since Ray Tomlinson did not invent email - the electronic replication of the interoffice, inter-organizational paper mail system. The invention referenced in such statements and attributed to Mr. Tomlinson is the simple exchange of text messages between computers.

This statement is a misuse of the term “email” since Ray Tomlinson did not invent email - the electronic replication of of the interoffice, inter-organizational paper mail system. The invention referenced in such statements and attributed to Mr. Tomlinson is the simple exchange of text messages between computers.

In fact, what Mr. Tomlinson did was to simply modify a pre-existing program called SNDMSG, which he himself did not write. The minor modifications he made enabled the exchange of simple text messages across computers. The resulting SNDMSG however, was unusable by ordinary people, and required a set of highly technical computer codes that the sender had to type to transfer a message from one computer to another. Such cryptic codes were far too technical, and could not be used by a secretary or office worker.

As historical references demonstrate, SNDMSG, far from being email, was at best, a very rudimentary form of text messaging. As John Vittal, an early leading pioneer in electronic messaging researcher, observed:


“The very simple systems (SNDMSG, RD, and READMAIL) did not integrate the reading and creation functions, had different user interfaces, and did not provide sufficient functionality for simple message processing.”—Vittal, John. MSG: A Simple Message System. Cambridge, MA: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1981.


Moreover, Mr. Tomlinson, to his own admission said that what he created was a “no-brainer” and a minor contribution.

“I was making improvements to the local inter-user mail program called SNDMSG. The missing piece was that the experimental CPYNET protocol had no provision for appending to a file; it could just send and receive files. Adding the missing piece was a no-brainer—just a minor addition to the protocol.”—Tomlinson, Ray, retrieved April 7, 2012.
http://openmap.bbn.com/~tomlinso/ray/fi ... frame.html


SNDMSG was less than a rudimentary form of text messging, and a far cry from email, the system created by Shiva which consisted of 50,000 lines of code that was the full-scale emulation of the entire interoffice mail system, by definition.

MYTH #3: THE “@” SYMBOL EQUALS THE INVENTION OF "EMAIL"

This is a misuse of the term “email” since it implies that the “@” symbol is equivalent to inventing email - the electronic replication of the interoffice, inter-organizational paper mail system.

The “@” symbol is used in an email address to separate the user name from the domain name. The invention referenced in the above statement is the use of the “@” symbol to distinguish two computers when sending a text message. The “@” symbol is not a necessary component to distinguish two computers, in some cases “-at” was used, as verified by Tom Van Vleck:


“Because the ‘@’ was a line kill character in Multics, sending mail from Multics to other hosts used the control argument -at instead.”—Van Vleck, Tom. History of Electronic Mail, http://www.multicians.org/thvv/mail-history.html, April 7, 2012.


In the first email system developed by Shiva, the symbol “.” was used to distinguish different computers. Equating the “@” symbol with the invention of email was a major branding and public relations effort of Raytheon/BBN. The “@” symbol is not email.

As M.A. Padlipsky, the eminent electronic messaging pioneer, an MIT graduate, a member of the ARPANET team, and a close contemporary of Mr. Tomlinson, observed of Raytheon/BNN’s long history of self-promotional activities:


“[T ]he BBN guys - who always seemed to get to write the histories and hence always seemed to have claimed to have invented everything, anyway, perhaps because BBN was the only "for-profit" to furnish key members of the original Network Working Group.”—Padlipsky, M.A., ARPANET contributor and author of more than 20 RFC specifications), “And they argued all night….”, http://archive.is/dx2TK


To conclude, the creation of the “@” symbol to distinguish computers, does not in any way equate to the invention of email.

-- The Five Myths About Email’s History, by Deborah J. Nightingale, Ph.D.


Hiawatha Bray can be reached at hiawatha.bray@globe.com. Follow him on Twitter @GlobeTechLab.
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Re: Shiva Ayyadurai suing TechDirt over Stories Saying He Di

Postby admin » Thu Feb 23, 2017 9:34 pm

Curriculum Vitae
VA Shiva Ayyadurai, Ph.D.
Chairman & CEO, CytoSolve, Inc.
Founder & Chairman, EchoMail, Inc.
Executive Director, International Center for Integrative Systems
Managing Director, General Interactive, LLC
Lecturer, MIT Comparative Media Studies
2012

Education

DEGREE / INSTITUTION AND LOCATION / YEAR(s) / FIELD

Ph.D. / MIT, Department of Biological Engineering / 2004- 2007 / Systems Biology
S.M. / MIT, Department of Mechanical Engineering / 1988-1990 / Applied Mechanics
S.M. / MIT Media Laboratory, Department of Architecture / 1987-1989 / Scientific Visualization
S.B. / MIT, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science / 1986 / Operating Systems

Research Experience

2009-Present / Director, International Center for Integrative Systems

2011-Present / Research Manager, Comparative Media Studies, MIT

2008-2009 / Fulbright Research Scholar, Systems Biology and Traditional Medicines, US Fulbright Program

2004-2008 / Research Fellow, Computational Systems Biology, MIT Biological Engineering

1996-2004 / Chief Scientist, Large Scale Architectures for Message Analysis, EchoMail, Inc.

1992-1996 / Chief Technology Officer, Document Analysis & Modeling, Information Cybernetics, Inc.

1990-1992 / Research Team Leader, Handwriting Recognition, MIT Sloan School of Management

1988-1990 / Graduate Research Assistant, Wave Propagation Analysis and Modeling, MIT NDE Lab

1986-1988 / Graduate Research Fellow, Automated Graphic Design System, MIT Media Laboratory

1984-1986 / UROP Research, Particle Analysis in Fluidized Bed Reactors, MIT Langer Laboratory

1983-1984 / UROP Research, Cryogenic Embryo Preservation, MIT Health Sciences and Tech.

1981-1983 / UROP Research, Tadoma and Speech Recognition, MIT Research Lab for Electronics

1979-1981 / Research Associate, Sleep Pattern Analysis, UMDNJ Biomedical Engineering

1977-1980 / Research Associate, EMAIL System, UMDNJ Laboratory for Computer Science

Inventions

2009 – 2010 / KnowThyFace

2008 – 2009 / eMedics

2007 – 2008 / LogoCat

2003 – 2007 / CytoSolve

1999 – 2002 / Interactive.com

1994 – 1999 / EchoMail

1993 – 1994 / Arts-Online

2004 / U.S Patent: Filter for Modeling System and Method for Handling and Routing of Text Based Aynchronous Commmunications

2004 / U.S Patent: System and Method for Content-Sensitive Automatic Reply Message Generationy

2003 / U.S Patent: Relationship Management System and Method using Asynchronous Electronic Messaging

1992 – 1993 / Integrated Architecture for Handwriting Recognition

1990 – 1993 / Information Cybernetics: Generalized System for Pattern Recognition

1988 – 1990 / System for Classifying Fiber Composite Analysis

1986 – 1988 / Intelligent Design System for Graphics and Layout

1985 – 1987 / Workstation for Visualization of Fluid and Particle Motion

1983 – 1984 / Controller for CryoMicroscope System

1982 / First Copyright for EMAIL Issued by United States Copyright Office

1978 – 1981 / World's First EMAIL System

Industry & Entrepreneurial Experience

2011-Present / Chairman & CEO, CytoSolve, Inc.

2004-Present / Board Member, EchoMail, Inc.

2004-Present / Founder and Managing Director, General Interactive, LLC

1998-2004 / Founder, President & CEO, EchoMail, Inc.

1996-1998 / Founder, President & CEO, Media Production, Millennium Productions, Inc.

1994-1996 / Founder, President & CEO, Arts-Online, the first online arts community

1990-1994 / Director of Advanced Products, Dataware Technologies, Inc., CD-ROM Search Software

1986-1990 / Senior Engineer, IBM/Lotus Development Corporation, Graphics Software

1984-1986 / Senior Engineer, Information Resources, Inc., Marketing Analysis Software

1983-1984 / Consulting Software Engineer, Chase, Inc., Hydrodynamics Software

1982-1984 / Research Engineer, HP Medical Systems, Operating System for Cardiologist Workstation

1982-1983 / Consulting Software Engineer, MIT Civil Engineering, Intelligent Signal Processing

1981-1982 / Consulting Software Engineer, Number Nine, Inc., Advanced Graphics Hardware

Teaching Experience

2011 – Present / Lecturer, Systems Visualization, MIT Comparative Media Studies

2008 – 2011 / Lecturer, Systems Biology and Traditional Medicine, MIT Biological Engineering Department

2007 / Instructor, Biological Pathway Design and Implementation, MIT SMA Boot Camp

2006 / Instructor, Biological Pathway Design and Implementation, MIT SMA Boot Camp

2006 / Teaching Assistant, Control Systems and Dynamics, 2.14, MIT Mechanical Engineering

1994-2004 / Industry Expert, Dr. EMAIL Industry Lectures Worldwide, Global 2000 Companies

1992-1994 / Instructor, Information Technology I, MIT Sloan School of Management

1990 / Senior Engineer, Graphics Software, IBM/Lotus Development Corporation

1988 / Instructor, Physics, MITES Program

1987 / Teaching Assistant, Computer Graphics, 4.971, MIT Media Laboratory

1986 / Teaching Assistant, Measurements Laboratory, 2.671, MIT Mechanical Engineering

1985 / Teaching Assistant, Being There, MIT Humanities Department

1984 / Tutor, Circuits and Electronics, 6.002, MIT Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

1983 / Tutor, Structures & Programming, 6.001, MIT Electrical Engineering & Computer Science

1982 / Instructor, IAP Course on Indian Art History, MIT Humanities Department

Selected Publications

1. S. Ayyadurai, D. A. Nordsletten, B. Yankama, R. Umeton, C. F. Dewey Jr., Multi-scale Mathematical Modeling to Support Drug Development, Proceedings of Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES), Hartford, CT, October 12-15, 2011.

2. S. Ayyadurai, C.F. Dewey, Jr., CytoSolve: A Scalable Computational Method for Dynamic Integration of Multiple Molecular Pathway Models, Biological Engineering Division, MIT, Cambridge, MA, June 28, 2011.

3. S. Ayyadurai, Biomimetics of Communication and Media, 12th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management,, Ithaca, NY, June 2-5, 2011.

4. S. Ayyadurai, C.F. Dewey, Jr., A Distributed Computational Architecture for Integrating Multiple Biomolecular Pathways, Biological Engineering Division, MIT, Cambridge, MA, March 9, 2011.

5. S. Ayyadurai, Services-Based Systems Architecture for Modeling the Whole Cell: A Distributed Collaborative Engineering Systems Approach, Communications in Medical and Care Compunetics, Springer Publications, 16 November 2010.

6. S. Ayyadurai, B. Yankama, R. Umeton, C. F. Dewey Jr., Editing and Aligning Complex Molecular Pathways Using 3D Models, Proceedings of Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES), Austin, TX, October 6-9, 2010.

7. S. Ayyadurai, Commentary: Innovation Demands Freedom, Nature 7. India, December, 2009.

8. S. Ayyadurai, A Scalable Computational Architecture for Integrating an Ensemble of Biological Pathway Models, (in submission to Annals of Biomedical Engineering), November 2009.

9. S. Ayyadurai, Modeling the Cell, Proceedings of BIO-IT Conference, In Silicon Modeling Section, Boston. MA, April 2009.

10. S. Ayyadurai, Integration of Siddha with Systems Biology, Proceedings of Fullbright Conference 2009, Kolkata, India, March 2009.

11. S. Ayyadurai, Eva Sciacca, C. Forbes Dewey, Jr., A Web Based Tool for Integration of Molecular Pathway Models, Proceedings of BioInformatics and BioEngineering, 8th IEEE International Conference, 8-10 Oct. 2008.

12. S. Ayyadurai, Mission of Systems Biology, Bio-IT Beyond Genome Conference Proceedings, June 2008.

13. S. Ayyadurai, C.F. Dewey, Jr., Scaleable methods for large molecular pathway calculations: application to EGFR, In Biomedical Engineering Society Annual Fall Meeting, Los Angeles, September 2007.

14. K. R. Stiehl, K. Dang, S. Ayyadurai, B.-S Seah, S. S. Bhowmick, C. Forbes Dewey, Jr., A New Approach to Database Creation Using Ontologies: OWLdb. K. Dang, K. R. Stiehl , S. Ayyadurai, B.-S Seah, S. S. Bhowmick, C. F. Dewey, Jr., An Information Architecture to Support Molecular Pathway

15. Models., In Biomedical Engineering Society Annual Fall Meeting, Los Angeles, September 2007. S. Ayyadurai, C.F. Dewey, Jr., Integrating an Ensemble of Biochemical Network Models, In International Society of Computational Biology (ISCB 2007), Vienna, July 2007.

16. S. Ayyadurai, Cytosolve, In proceedings of the Singapore MIT Symposium for Computational and Systems Biology, January 2007.

17. S. Ayyadurai, Integrating Biological Pathway Models, In MIT CSBi Oktoberfest Proceedings, Cambridge, October, 2006

18. S. Ayyadurai, C. Forbes Dewey, Jr., C. Tan, Distributed Computing of Complex Collections of Biological Pathways, In World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering (WC 2006), Seoul, August-September 2006.

19. S. Ayyadurai, C. F. Dewey, Jr., J. Bassingthwaighte, J. Butterworth, P. Villiger, P. Hunter, Normalization of Biological Pathways, In World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering (WC 2006), Seoul, August-September 2006.

20. S. Ayyadurai, C.F. Dewey, Jr., Cytosolve: A Distributed Computational Architecture for the Integration of Biomolecular Pathways, In Biomedical Engineering Society Annual Meeting, Chicago, September 2006.

21. C. F. Dewey, Jr., S. Ayyadurai, V. Rouilly, C. L. Poh, S. S. Bhowmick, J. Evans, R. I. Kitney, Footprints in the Sand: Supporting External Analysis of Medical and Biological Databases, In World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomecal Engineering (WC 2006), Seoul, August-Sept 2006.

22. S. Ayyadurai, Modeling Actin Polymerization as a System of Integrated Biomolecular Pathways, In Proceedings of the Annual MIT CSBi Oktoberfest, October 2005.

23. S. Ayyadurai, C.F. Dewey, Jr., Computing unsteady phenomenon across multiple molecular pathways, In Biomedical Engineering Society Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., September 2005.

24. S. Ayyadurai, S. A. Cimaszewski, J. H. Williams, Jr.: Unsupervised Classification of Fiber Composite Interphases, In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Acusto-Electronics, The American Society of Nondestructive Testing, June 24-25, 1993.

25. A. Gupta, M. V. Nagendraprasad, A. Liu, Patrick Shen-Pei Wang, S. Ayyadurai: An Integrated Architecture for Recognition of Totally Unconstrained Handwritten Numerals, In International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 757-773, 1993.

26. G. V. Novakovic, L. E. Freed, S. Ayyadurai, H. Bernstein, Robert S. Langer and C. L. Cooney, Fluid-Dynamic Study of the Enzymatic Fluidized Bed Reactor for Blood Dehparinization, Fluidization VI, In Proceedings of the International Fluidization Conference, Banff, Canada, May 1989.

27. S. Laxminarayan, O. Mills, L. Rajaram, S. Ayyadurai, L.P. Michelson, Sleep Stage and Apnea Pattern Analysis, In Proceedings of the International Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering, Espoo, Finland, August 1985.

Patents

Patent No. 6,668,281, V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai, "Relationship management system and method using asynchronous electronic messaging", April 6, 2004.

Patent No. 6,718,368, V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai, "System and method for content-sensitive automatic reply message generation for text-based asynchronous communications", April 6, 2004.

Patent No. 6,718,367, V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai, "Filter for modeling system and method for handling and routing of text-based asynchronous communications", April 6, 2004.

Research Advisor & Thesis Support and Supervision

Ceryen Tan
MIT UROP Project, Biological Engineering,
Title: SBML API Programming for Biological Systems Integration, 2005-2007

Steven A. Cimaszewksi
MIT Masters Thesis, Mechanical Engineering,
Title: Statistical Analysis of Fiber Composite Interphase Inverse Problem, 1994.

Peter L. Sparks
MIT Bachelors Thesis, Electrical Engineering,
Title: A Hybrid Method for Segmenting Numeric Character Strings, 1991.

Matthew J. Labrador
MIT Bachelors Thesis, Electrical Engineering,
Title: The Generalized Mass-Spring Lattice Model with Damping : A Lagrangian Dynamics Approach, 1990.

Honors and Awards

The Smithsonian's National Museum of American History accepts artefacts, papers and records of invention of EMAIL from V A Shiva Ayyadurai
National Museum of American History, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C, February 16, 2012

First Outstanding Scientist and Technologist of Indian Origin (STIO/H)
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India, 2009

Fulbright Scholar:
US Fulbright, Washington, DC, 2008-2009

ISMB Travel Fellowship Award
ISMB 2007, Vienna, Austria, 2007

Graduate Research Fellowship
SMA Graduate Research Fellowship, 2004-2007

Communications SolutionsTM Product of the Year Award
EchoMail RMOS Product Suite, November, 2003

Customer Interactive Solutions, TMC Labs Innovation Award
EchoMail Customer Care, September, 2002

Massachusetts Interactive Media Council Award (MIMC)
Customer Support Applications, EchoMail CC/BI (Finalist) 2002

Silver Pencil Award, Integrated Branding
Wieden &Kennedy/EchoMail, cK one EMAIL Campaign, 2001

Lotus Beacon Award
EchoMail RMOS Product Suite, 2000

Best of Class Internet Commerce Expo
Customer Service & Fulfillment, EchoMail CC, 1999

Massachusetts Interactive Media Council Award (MIMC)
Groupware/Collaborative Website (Finalist) World Music, 1998

Massachusetts Interactive Media Council Award (MIMC)
Non-Profit/Public Service Online, AccessExpressed.org Online Community (Finalist), 1998

Who's Who in America
Accepted in 1997

Lotus Beacon Award
Best Messaging Solution, EchoMail Suite, 1997

Massachusetts Interactive Media Council Award
Best EMAIL/ Fax Application, EchoMail suite, 1997

Discover Magazine Award for Technical Innovation
XIVATM Core Technology, 1996

Finalist, Lemelson-MIT Award for Innovation
XIVATM Core Technology, 1996

Verizon (formerly GTE/BBN) Technologies Award
ProVision Award, Interactive Marketing Creative Direction, 1996

PCWeek's Web Site of the Week
Harvard-Square.com Online Community, 1996

Best of Europe Online
Arts-Online.com Online Community, 1996

Yahoo! #1 What's Cool
Harvard-Square.com Online Community, 1996

IBM Best Online Community
Harvard-Square.com Online Community, 1996

DISNEY EPCOT Center Award for Exhibit
Selected to be in Innoventions Exhibit, 1996

First Place, Competition for Automatic Categorization of Electronic Mail
Office of the President, White House, Washington, DC, November, 1994.

Winner, Automatic Categorization of SGML Tagged Documents
Information Handling Services (IHS), Boulder, CO, 1993

International Fellowship Research Grant, Research in the Cross-Language Translators
Sloan School of Management and Industrial Liaison Program and the Italian Trade Commission, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1992.

Elected Session Chairman, Session on Scientific Visualization
International IEEE EMBS Conference, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Philadelphia, PA, 1991.

Founder and Organizer, Session on Scientific Visualization
International IEEE EMBS Conference, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Seattle, WA, 1990.

Full Member, SIGMA XI
Since 1989

SIGMA XI UROP Award for Outstanding Undergraduate Research
1985

MIT Mennen Scholar
1982-1986

Tau Beta Pi
1984.

ETA KAPPA NU
1984.

VI-A Hewlett-Packard COOP Assignment
Biomedical Division, Andover, MA 1983

MIT Varsity Soccer
1982

Awarded Westinghouse Science Talent Search Award
1981

Thomas Alva Edison/Max McGraw Finalist
1981

Accepted to American Legion Jersey Boys State Program
1981

Outstanding Statesman Award, American Legion Jersey Boys State
1981

All-County Soccer Champions
All-County Soccer Champions

Individual First Place in Advanced Mathematics at New Jersey State Mathematics Competition
1981

Accepted to Gifted Students Program
New York University Program in Computer Science at Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences for gifted students in Eighth Grade of Junior High School, 1977

Skills

Programming Languages: C++, C, Java, HTML, ASP

Foreign Languages: Spanish, Italian, Tamil

General Skills: Problem Solving, Writing, Teaching and Lecturing, Fundraising, Research, Proposal Development, Software Architecture, Design and Development, User Interface Design, Mathematical Modeling, Organizational and Business Development, Crisis Management, Mentoring and Career Development, Negotiations.

Invited Lectures & Talks

MIT Lecture Series
Address: EAST MEETS WEST: Traditional Medicines + Modern Systems Biology
MIT, Cambridge, MA September 9, 2010 to December 9, 2010

Customer Response Summit
Address: PREDICTING THE FUTURE: Are You REALLY Ready to Listen?
Westin Kierland Resort & Spa, Scottsdale, AZ November 3rd & 4th, 2010

Visual Interpretations Conference
Address: Collaborative Cave Drawings of Social Interactions: Simple Visualizations of Complex Phenomena
humanities + digital Visual Interpretations Conference @ MIT, Cambridge, MA May 2010

BIO-IT Conference In Silico Biology
Address: Modeling the Cell
BIO-IT Conference, Boston, MA April 2009

Sri Ramachandra University
Address: Integration of Yogic Science and Systems Biology
Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, IN, March 2009

SIAM Conference on Multi-Scale Systems
Address: Scalable Architecture for Integrating Multiple Biological Pathway Models
Montreal, CANADA August 2008

Genome Biology Conference - KEYNOTE SPEAKER
Address: The Mission of Systems Biology
Genome Biology Conference, San Francisco, CA June 2007

MIT UROP Panel
Address: Opportunities for Research at MIT
MIT UROP, Cambridge, MA February 2007

MIT Singapore Symposium
Address: Cytosolve
SMA Alliance Symposium, Singapore, January 2007

MIT GAME Seminar
Address: Modeling the Cell
Graduate Mechanical Engineering Students Seminar, Cambridge, MA 2005

Effective EMAIL Marketing Campaigns
Address: Measure your Success: New Metrics for EMAIL Marketing
The Institute for International Research, San Francisco, CA, February 2002

Excellence in E-CRM Conference
Address: The Big Lie of CRM
Allstate Corporation Conference Center, Northbrook, Ill. November 2001

E-Marketing / E-Service Seminar Series
Address: EMAIL Project Solutions
Cambridge Education Center, Cambridge, MA December 2001

EU Conference: Artificial Intelligence
How to Increase Banking Business and Open New Dialogue with On-line Customers
Address: E-Business Strategies for CRM
Realvision Vicenza e NTI UK Italia, Vicenza, Italy, June 2001

Pre-Conference Lecture, EMAIL2001 @ MIT Conference
Keynote Address: The Pulse of the Industry
Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, May 2001

Nothing But New Forum at Fidelity Center for Applied Technology
Keynote Address: EMAIL Marketing Strategies
Fidelity Center for Applied Technologies, Boston, MA, April 2001

EMAIL2001@MIT Conference: Intelligent Life
Keynote Address: The Corporate Nervous System
MIT University Park Hotel, Cambridge, MA, January 2001

Southern India E-Commerce Conference 2000
Keynote Address: EMAIL = E-Commerce
Advertising Club of Madras, Chennai, India, December 2000

Le Potenzialita del Marketing On-line in Italy
Keynote Address: Marketing On-line in Italy: How It Can Be Done
Brodeur Image Time, Milan, Italy, December 2000

2000 General Motors Dealer Summit
Keynote Address: eCRM - How EMAIL Helps Your Business
Maritz Performance Improvement Company, Scottsdale, AZ, October 2000

Producing Sales in Call Centers
Keynote Address: Implementing Interactive Web
Institute of International Research, Washington, D.C., June 2000

Measuring and Managing the Quality of EMAIL Response
Keynote Address: Using Automated Systems to Improve EMAIL Response
InfoCast, San Francisco, CA, May 2000

JCPenney Internet Day
Keynote Address: EMAIL - The Ultimate Relationship Builder
JCPenney, Huston, TX, May 2000

Annual Investment Conference for Private Companies
Keynote Address: Electronic Customer Relationship Management
Massachusetts Software and Internet Council, World Trade Center, Boston, MA, April 2000

Innovators Breakfast Series
Open Discussion: The eCRM Problem
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, NY, April 2000

Innovators Breakfast Series
Open Discussion: The Power of EMAIL - Brand Loyalty in Real Time
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, National Press Club, Washington, D.C., April 2000

American Express, Naples Conference
Keynote Address: Electronic Customer Relationship Management
American Express, Naples, FL, March 2000

American Express, Bermuda Conference
Keynote Address: Electronic Customer Relationship Management
American Express Delivery Group, South Hampton, Bermuda, March 2000

Customer EMAIL Management
Keynote Address: Using Automated Systems to Improve EMAIL Response
International Quality & Production Center, London, England, February 2000

GM e-Wow Speaker Series: Building Customer Relationships Online
Keynote Address: Electronic Customer Relationship Management
General Motors Global Brand Management College, Detroit, Michigan, February 2000

Innovators Breakfast Series
Open Discussion: Is software That Answers EMAIL Automatically the Future of On-line Marketing?
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, February 2000

Internet Customer Relationship Management
Keynote Address: Electronic Customer Relationship Management
The Institute for International Research, San Diego, CA, January 2000

Electronic Commerce World 1999 Conference
Educational Track: EMAIL--The Ultimate Relationship Builder
EC World 2001 Conference, Orlando, FL, October 1999

Technology Based Customer Care ICM Conference
Keynote Address: EMAIL = E-Commerce
ICM Conferences, Atlanta, Georgia, February 1999

DISNEY INSTITUTE/ OOPS Conference
Address: Object Oriented Programming, 1998
Other Seminar Leaders: Alan Kay

Industry RFP Awards

Allstate Corporation, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($1,500,000.00)

AT&T, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($120,000.00)

American Express, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($4,120,000.00)

BancOne Services Corporation, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($920,000.00)

BThree (Warner), Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($520,000.00)

Bausch & Lomb, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($25,000.00)

Becton Dickinson, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($1,110,000.00)

Bush for President, Inc., Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($820,000.00)

Cendant, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($20,000.00)

Citigroup, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($3,150,000.00)

Calvin Klein Cosmetics Company, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($830,000.00)

Classified Ventures, Inc., Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($710,000.00)

Dial Corporation, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($110,000.00)

Entertainment Media Services, Inc., Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($150,000.00)

Fireman's Fund Insurance Company, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($80,000.00)

Gateway, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($1,170,000.00)

GEICO, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($2,250,000.00)

Hasbro Interactive, Inc., Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($510,000.00)

Hershey Foods Corporation, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($9,500.00)

Hilton Hotel, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($1,050,000.00)

HomePortfolio, Inc., Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($315,000.00)

The IT Group, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($25,000.00)

John Hancock Financial Services, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($660,000.00)

JCPenney, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($5,230,000.00)

LA Times, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($20,000.00)

Lycos, Inc., Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($670,000.00)

Kimberly Clark Corporation, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($130,000.00)

People, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($120,000.00)

Procter & Gamble Company, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($340,000.00)

Purina, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($280,000.00)

QVC, EMAIL Management: Inbound and Outbound EMAIL ($890,000.00)

Rx.com, Inc., Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($70,000.00)

Salomon Smith Barney, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($120,000.00)

Silicon Graphics, Inc., Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($310,000.00)

Sprint Spectrum, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($850,000.00)

TELUS Corporation, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($90,000.00)

Time Incorporated, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($45,000.00)

Turner Entertainment, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($9,500.00)

United States Senate, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($890,000.00)

Unilever Consumer Services, Business Intelligence and Customer Care Technology ($780,000.00)

Professional Art RFP Awards

Aaron Concert Management, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

American Indian Contemporary Arts, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

Allworth Press, Art Promotional Support Online Branding ($15,000.00)

Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($80,000.00)

Art Complex Museum, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

Boston Ballet, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($40,000.00)

Boston Casting Company, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

Cambridge Art Cooperative, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

Cambridge Multi-Cultural Art Center, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

Dance Umbrella, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

Fashion Cafe, Art Promotional Support Online Branding ($15,000.00)

Green Linnet/Xeonphile, Art Promotional Support Online Branding ($15,000.00)

Handel & Haydn Society, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

Honolulu Academy of Arts, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

International Arts Manager, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

Houston Ballet, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

Lyric Stage, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

MMC Recordings, Art Promotional Support Online Branding ($15,000.00)

MUSICIAN Magazine, Art Promotional Support Online Branding ($40,000.00)

National Association Performing Artists Managers of America (NAPAMA), Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

New Age Voice, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

Poetry Alive! Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

Sedia Furniture Design, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

Sculpture Review, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

Strand Theater, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

Very Special Art, National, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($70,000.00)

Very Special Art, Massachusetts, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($30,000.00)

World Music, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

Young Concert Artists, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

ZIMA, Art Promotional Support Online Branding Grant ($15,000.00)

Books and Chapters in Books

EMAIL: The Ultimate Relationship Builder, Volume (In Progress)
Volume I, Volume II, Volume II
Author: V.A. Shiva

The Internet Publicity Guide: How to Maximize your Marketing and Promotion in Cyberspace
Author: V.A. Shiva
Publisher: Allworth Press, New York, 1997

Arts and The Internet: A Guide to the Revolution,
Author: V.A. Shiva
Publisher: Allworth Press, 1996, New York

Chapter on Electrodynamics, Dynamics,
Chapter in Book by Prof. Williams

Chapter in Communications Arts

Computer Assisted Automatic Indexing
Document Analysis Conference, October, 1994
Author: V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai, Submitted for Publication

Unsupervised Hierarchical Clustering of Fiber Interphases for Materials Classification
American Society of Non-Destructive Testing (ASNT) Conference, April, 1993
Authors: V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai, S. Cimaszewski, J.H. Williams. Jr.

Neural Network Based Hybrid System for Handwritten Character Recognition
Sloan School of Management Technical Report Fall, 1991
Author: Shiva Ayyadurai

Visualization of Wave Propogation in Anisotropic Media
Master of Science Thesis, MIT Media Laboratory February, 1990
Author: S. Ayyadurai

A Workstation for Particle Motion and Flow Analysis
IEEE Computers in Medicine, New Orleans, LA, November, 1988
Authors: Ayyadurai, Novakovic, Gordana, Langer, Bob

Blood Deheparinization in a Fluidized Bed Reactor
Proceedings of the Canadian Conference on Fluid Dynamics, 1987
Author: Novakovic, G., Ayyadurai, S., Michelson, L.

Prototype Expert System for Bridge Deck Deteriorization
Project Report to NSF, September, 1986
Authors: Maser, Ken, Schott, Jean-Pierre, Ayyadurai, Shiva

Sleep Stage and Apnea Pattern Analysis, pp. 505-506
Journal of the International Federation of Medical and Biological Engineering, Espoo Finland, August, 1985
Authors: Laximinarayan, S. Ayyadurai, S., Michelson, L.,

Ayyadurai's Four Point Theorem
The Mathematics Teacher, Spring, 1981
Author: Shiva Ayyadurai

Media Appearances

The Hindu: Fulbright-Nehru Fellowship Announcement, March, 2009

Times of India: Fulbright-Nehru Fellowship Announcement, March, 2009

MIT Tech Talk: Fulbright Scholar on New Adventure, September, 2007

Wall Street Journal: EchoMail Can Sort, Answer Deluge of EMAIL, 2001

Wall Street Journal: Amid Anthrax, Businesses Sour On U.S. Mail, 2001

Boston Business Journal: EMAIL Marketing Looks Past Spam to Viral Affection, 2001

Wall Street Journal: Mail Scare Could be Lethal for Businesses, 2001

B2B Magazine: Technology Leads Prospects to Sales, 2001

Customer Interactive Solutions: TMC Labs 2nd Annual Innovation Award, 2001

Mass High Tech's On the Move with Dyke Hendrickson, 2001

Forrester Research: "Effective Email Marketing" by Shar VanBoskirk with Charlene Li and Jennifer Parr, 2001

Customer Interactive Solutions: Solutions for EMAIL and Speech Interfaces, 2001

CFO Magazine: The Customers Always Write, by Alix Nyberg, 2001

Summit Strategies: On the Radar column by Associate Analyst Kate Claus, 2001

Business 2.0 with John Tomasic: 2001

Summit Strategies: UpFront column by Associate Analyst Kate Claus, 2001

Congress Online Project: EMAIL Overload in Congress Managing a Communications Crisis, 2001

Read Across America: Daniel Haggerty Elementary School and EchoMail, 2001

ZD Net: During a Recent Visit to India EchoMail CEO, V.A. Shiva, Meets The Press, 2001

MIT Technology Review: Dr. EMAIL Will See You Now, Cover Story by Deborah Shapley, 2000

CIO Magazine: Electronic Electorate, 2000

Tech Republic, The EMAIL Doctor is In, 2000

The Boston Globe: As far as the Senate is concerned, 'Dr. EMAIL' is in, 1999

Fast Company: The EMAIL Prescription, 1999

Internet World, Sites Invest Big in Technology to Improve Service, 1999

Fortune Magazine, Handling Customer Service on the Web, 1999

Adweek: Dr. EMAIL, 1999

Silicon India: Antidote for the EMAIL Ills, 1998

ComputerWorld: EMAIL Adds Aura to Calvin Klein Campaign, 1998

Mass High Tech: General Interactive May Rule the World of EMAIL, 1998

Continental Magazine: EchoMail's V.A. Shiva Has A Vision For The Internet That Begins With EMAIL, 1998

Exhibitor Magazine: IBM's Lead Retrieval System, 1998

Internet World: Companies Seek Solutions to EMAIL Flood, 1998

Electronic Messaging News: EchoMail® Executive Briefing, 1998

The Forrester Report: Commerce Technology Strategies, 1998

Times Union (Albany, NY) : The Web as a Black Hole, 1998

The Ann Arbor News: EMAIL Isn't Quite Down to Business, 1998

The Journal Record: Poor Response to EMAIL, 1998

The Press Democrat: Black Hole of EMAIL, 1998

The Houston Chronicle: Customer EMAIL, 1998

Integrated Marketing & Promotion: The Ultimate Relationship Builder, 1998

The New York Times: We Got Your EMAIL; Just Don't Expect a Response, 1998

Star Tribune: For Much Customer EMAIL the Web Can Be a Black Hole, 1998

Fort Worth Star Telegram: Much Internet Customer Slow as Snail Mail, 1998

Portland Press Herald: Many Companies Falter in Fielding Consumer EMAIL, 1998

Tallahassee Democrat: Companies Respond Poorly to Customer EMAIL, 1998

Mass High Tech: Millennium Clinches Olympic-Sized Deal, 1997

Andrew Ross Sorkin: Nike Ads Point Consumers to the Internet, 1997

Telephony Magazine: An E-Explosion, 1997

E-Business & Communications: IBM Solutions Strengthen Internet Service Providers for Success in "Second Wave" of the Internet, 1997

PC Week: Return to Sender , 1997

Communication Arts: The Internet Publicity Guide, 1997

Reseller Magazine: N.E. VAR Builds Very Special Intranet, 1997

Mass High Tech: Web Site Transforms the Hub into Surf City, 1996

The New York Times: Lotus Gears Up to Get a Slice of Internet Pie, 1996

Boston Business Journal: Marrying High Art with High Tech, 1996

Computer Reseller Magazine: VAR Bridges Arts, Technology Gap in Web Site Design, 1996
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Re: Shiva Ayyadurai suing TechDirt over Stories Saying He Di

Postby admin » Fri Feb 24, 2017 3:56 am

Fran Drescher: Defeating Cancer with Hard Work and Humor
by Jon Finkel
April 2013

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image

The first thing you recognize about Fran Drescher, obviously, is her voice. It’s as distinct as your own mother’s.

It’s the voice that carried her to two Emmy Award nominations for her work on the hit sitcom, The Nanny. It’s the voice that has been featured on The Simpsons and Law & Order: Criminal Intent, but lately, Drescher is putting her extraordinary vocals to use as an activist for her anti-cancer group, Cancer Schmancer, whose mission is to end cancer mortality due to late stage diagnosis by preventing it from occurring and catching it early.

For Drescher, the genesis of this project comes from her personal experience as a uterine cancer survivor who was misdiagnosed and mistreated by doctors for several years.

“It took me two years of seeing doctors to get a diagnosis after being misdiagnosed for a peri-menopausal condition I didn’t have,” she says. “It motivated me to write the book Cancer Schmancer, which became a New York Times bestseller because I didn’t want what happened to me to happen to other people. When I went on my book tour, I realized that what happened to me actually happens to millions of people! Missed diagnosis, late diagnosis, it’s far too common. Thank God I was only stage one when I was finally diagnosed.”

When Drescher looks back on her early years as a patient she recognizes that she didn’t know what questions to even ask of her doctors. Being the comedian that she is, she naturally puts a comedic spin on the entire experience.

“It took me two years and eight doctors before finally being told I had gynecologic cancer,” she says. “I got in the stirrups more times than Roy Rogers!”

Formulating a Vision

While Drescher was on her lecture tour for the book, the personal stories of frustration that people were telling her about their own cancer experience caused a light bulb to go off in her head.

“I just had a vision that everyone should be diagnosed at stage one,” Drescher says. “I think that’s where our healthcare needs to go. I started creating the Cancer Schmancer movement as an early detection organization. The cornerstone of the movement now involves prevention as well because I think that the nation is too focused on the cure without thinking about what the causes are and eliminating them.”

To that end, the Cancer Schmancer movement promotes the Trash Cancer prevention program, which is dedicated to shifting the trajectory of disease. The program challenges consumers to question what they put in, on and around them while they’re at home.

“The home is the most constant place we spend the most time,” she says. “It’s the one place we have the most control over.”

When Drescher mentions the word ‘control,’ she’s talking about controlling or eliminating our exposure to carcinogens through environmental toxins that we sometimes willingly assault our bodies with on a daily basis. To back this up, she says that before a woman walks out the door in the morning, on average, she has used at least 12 personal care items. Men, on average, use eight.

While many of the items on the ingredient list that may have toxic properties are said to only be detected in trace elements, there’s really no data on the effect of assaulting your body every day with your particular combination of chemicals. Whether your toiletries contain small amounts of formaldehyde or lead, you may be putting yourself at risk.


Practical Ways to Eliminate Toxic Exposure

Image

As an example, Drescher talks about the use of aluminum in most anti-perspirant deodorants.

“Many people that end up with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other neurological problems are often found to have high levels of aluminum in their bodies,” she explains. “When people use aluminum-based deodorant, they are sealing up one of the most effective ways the body has to detox itself through perspiration. So not only are you sealing toxins in your body, you’re doing it with a toxin: aluminum.”

Life Extension® mentioned the cancer-causing dangers of cooking at high heat
in a recent issue, but compounding the problem of cooking at high temperatures is the problem of scorching food in aluminum containers. When you use aluminum baking pans or aluminum foil on the barbecue, it makes it easy for dangerous chemicals that we can’t see or smell to seep into our food.

“People really need to educate themselves and question everything about how they prepare their food,” Drescher says. “Even our most trusted brands that we grew up with, that our mothers and grandmothers used, may be bringing harmful substances into your house.”

In addition to health and beauty products, Drescher says that dangerous chemicals are lurking in cleaning products, laundry products, dishwashing detergent, kitchen cleansers, and even baby products.


Beyond the Household

Ten years ago, Cancer Schmancer was just a book; now it’s a full-fledged movement with Fortune 500 company affiliations and an advisory board that includes doctors from such prestigious institutions as the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, the Woman’s Cancer Research Institute at Cedars-Sinai Outpatient Cancer Clinic, and even the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Yet the movement is just getting started.

“It’s a work in progress,” Drescher says. “There were times when it was hard, when there was just me and two other women. It was so much work I thought it was going to kill me. I thought I’d get cancer from trying to help people not get cancer! We fortunately now have a staff where we can get by, but we’re a lean, mean organization.”

Lean, mean, and effective. Drescher and her organization are responsible for the unanimous passage of Johanna’s Law by all 100 senators. Officially known as the Gynecologic Cancer Education and Awareness Act, the bill is named for Johanna Silver Gordon, who died from ovarian cancer in 2000. President George W. Bush signed the bill into law on January 12, 2007, which allocated millions of dollars to the US Department of Health and Human Services to launch a national campaign in 2008 to educate American women and health professionals about the signs and symptoms of gynecologic cancers.


“We’re very proud that we successfully passed that act,” Drescher says. “All 100 senators said yes! We are now very excited about our next policy initiative, which is to come up with a full, deceit-free label for products. It’s a bipartisan bill that will offer manufacturers a government seal of approval that they are selling a carcinogen-free product.”

The way this program would work is that companies would agree to submit their product to a third party lab at their own expense to determine if the ingredients in their product are harmful or not.

“The goal is to force companies to put out a label that the average consumer can understand,” she says. “Customers shouldn’t have to have a degree from MIT to figure out what’s in the product they’re buying.”


CANCER SCHMANCER’S GYNECOLOGIC CANCER CHEAT SHEET

In the United States, more than 83,000 patients are diagnosed with a gynecologic cancer annually.* The three most common gynecologic cancers are uterine, ovarian, and cervical cancer. Each cancer may have a variety of symptoms and associated risk factors that may include:

Risk Factors:

• I am not getting screened regularly with a Pap test
• I am at high-risk for human papillomaviruses (HPV)
• I smoke
• I am very overweight
• I eat a diet high in fat
• I am a woman older than age 60
• I started menstruating at an early age—before age 12
• I take hormone replacement therapy (HRT) drugs

Warning Symptoms:

• Indigestion, heartburn, nausea, or gas
• Abdominal swelling or discomfort
• Pelvic pain or cramping
• Bloating or a sense of fullness, even after small meals
• Backache
• Painful, frequent, or burning urination with no infection
• Diarrhea or constipation
• Loss of appetite or unintentional weight loss or gain
• Vaginal bleeding or irregular periods
• Unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge after menopause
• Pain during intercourse

These symptoms can often be similar to other diseases and conditions. However, if you are experiencing any of the above symptoms, make an appointment with your doctor right away. You should discuss which of the following screening and diagnostic tools may be appropriate for you: PAP Test, CA 125 Blood Test, Trans-vaginal Ultrasound, Biopsy.

* Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/gynecologic/. Accessed December 20, 2012


Changing the Healthcare Landscape

Image

Cancer Schmancer also recently partnered with Humana Inc., one of the nation’s leading health and well-being companies, to promote its Trash Cancer initiative.

“I applaud Humana with what they’re doing with their own vitality program,” Drescher says. “They’re trying to shift from a health insurance company to being a company that helps prevent disease and encourages people not to get sick in the first place. They do this by creating incentive programs for people to stay healthy. It’s a philosophy that I hope other companies will follow. Hopefully, the dinosaurs who resist this change, the elected officials and doctors still subscribing to 20th century ideas about healthcare will fall by the wayside.”

In this regard, Cancer Schmancer and Life Extension share the common philosophy that the best way to battle disease and increase longevity is to avoid getting a disease in the first place.

“Nobody goes through life unscathed,” Drescher says. “For me, turning pain into purpose is very healing. I really feel like I got famous, I got cancer, and now this is my life’s mission.”

To complete her mission, Drescher says that she takes care of herself now more than ever. She eats more organic, more vegan, and is more natural in her lifestyle.


“You really need to think of your health first and factor in as many stress-reducing, health-boosting strategies as you can,” she says. “When you have a compromised immune system your body can’t battle the way it needs to. The more you deplete your body, the more you’re setting yourself up for failure.”

For Drescher, failure, either with her own health, or concerning her mission with the Cancer Schmancer movement, is not an option.

“I’m just an average person who didn’t even finish college, but I’m a US citizen and I’m very patriotic and I care about the health of the people in our country,” she explains, the passion coming through in her voice. “The United States is still the beacon of light on this planet. What we’re doing to raise awareness with cancer prevention, through our website, through our organization, and through articles like this with Life Extension is hopefully shifting the course of the health of the American people and having a domino effect on the rest of the world when it comes to battling cancer.

For more information on Fran Drescher or the Cancer Schmancer organization, visit: http://www.cancerschmancer.org
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Re: Shiva Ayyadurai suing TechDirt over Stories Saying He Di

Postby admin » Sun Feb 26, 2017 2:42 am

The Internet Society and Internet History
by Internet Society
Accessed: 2/25/17
http://www.internetsociety.org/history

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The Internet Society was formed in 1992 by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn, two of the “Fathers of the Internet”. The Internet Society’s history and values reflect this founding lineage. Among its leadership and membership one can find many of the Internet’s technical pioneers, innovators, and global connectors. Its mission—to promote the open development, evolution, and use of the Internet for the benefit of all people throughout the world—mirrors the guiding principles that gave rise to and enabled the propagation of our era’s defining technology.

For more than 20 years, the Internet Society has also played an important role in informing and creating the history of the Internet. The Internet Society’s foundational pillars—Outreach, Technology, and Policy—have found expression in initiatives that have helped to connect the world, supported the development of fundamental Internet technology, and promoted transparency and a multistakeholder, bottom-up approach in addressing global Internet governance issues.

Believing that “the Internet is for Everyone,” the Internet Society has worked since its founding to make that goal a reality.
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Re: Shiva Ayyadurai suing TechDirt over Stories Saying He Di

Postby admin » Sun Feb 26, 2017 2:59 am

Bob Kahn
by Wikipedia
February 25, 2017

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Image
Bob Kahn in Geneva, May 2013
Born: Robert Elliott Kahn
December 23, 1938 (age 78)
Brooklyn, New York
Nationality: American
Alma mater: City College of New York (B.E.E., 1960)
Princeton University (M.A., 1962; Ph.D., 1964)
Organization: Bell Labs
MIT
BBN
DARPA

Corporation for National Research Initiatives
Known for: TCP/IP
Style: Telecommunications, networking
Spouse(s): Patrice Ann Lyons
Awards:
Marconi Prize (1994) National Medal of Technology (1997) National Medal of Technology and Innovation (1997) IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal (1997) Charles Stark Draper Prize (2001) Prince of Asturias Award (2002) Turing Award (2004) Presidential Medal of Freedom (2005) Computer History Museum Fellow (2006) Japan Prize (2008) Harold Pender Award (2010) Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering (2013)
Robert Elliot "Bob" Kahn (born December 23, 1938) is an American electrical engineer, who, along with Vint Cerf, invented the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet.

Background information

Kahn was born in New York to parents Beatrice Pauline (née Tashker) and Lawrence Kahn, a high school administrator.[1][2][3] Through his father, he is related to futurist Herman Kahn.[1] After receiving a B.E.E. degree in electrical engineering from the City College of New York in 1960, Kahn earned M.A. In 1972, he began work at the Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) within DARPA. In the fall of 1972, he demonstrated the ARPANET by connecting 20 different computers at the International Computer Communication Conference, "the watershed event that made people suddenly realize that packet switching was a real technology."[4] He then helped develop the TCP/IP protocols for connecting diverse computer networks. After he became Director of IPTO, he started the United States government's billion dollar Strategic Computing Initiative, the largest computer research and development program ever undertaken by the U.S. federal government.

After thirteen years with DARPA, he left to found the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI) in 1986, and as of 2015 is the Chairman, CEO and President.[5]

The Internet

While working on a satellite packet network project, he came up with the initial ideas for what later became the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which was intended as a replacement for an earlier network protocol, NCP, used in the ARPANET. While working on this, he played a major role in forming the basis of open-architecture networking, which would allow computers and networks all over the world to communicate with each other, regardless of what hardware or software the computers on each network used. To reach this goal, TCP was designed to have the following features:

• Small sub-sections of the whole network would be able to talk to each other through a specialized computer that only forwarded packets (first called a gateway, and now called a router).
• No portion of the network would be the single point of failure, or would be able to control the whole network.
• Each piece of information sent through the network would be given a sequence number, to ensure that they were dealt with in the right order at the destination computer, and to detect the loss of any of them.
• A computer which sent information to another computer would know that it was successfully received when the destination computer sent back a special packet, called an acknowledgement (ACK), for that particular piece of information.
• If information sent from one computer to another was lost, the information would be retransmitted, after the loss was detected by a timeout, which would recognize that the expected acknowledgement had not been received.
• Each piece of information sent through the network would be accompanied by a checksum, calculated by the original sender, and checked by the ultimate receiver, to ensure that it was not damaged in any way en route.

Vint Cerf joined him on the project in the spring of 1973, and together they completed an early version of TCP. Later, it was separated into two separate layers, with the more basic functions being moved to the Internet Protocol (IP). The two together are usually referred to as TCP/IP, and form part of the basis for the modern Internet.

In 1992 he co-founded with Vint Cerf the Internet Society, to provide leadership in Internet related standards, education, and policy.

Awards

He was awarded the SIGCOMM Award in 1993 for "visionary technical contributions and leadership in the development of information systems technology", and shared the 2004 Turing Award with Vint Cerf, for "pioneering work on internetworking, including .. the Internet's basic communications protocols .. and for inspired leadership in networking."

Image
Vint Cerf and Robert Kahn being awarded the Presidential Medal Of Freedom by President Bush

He is a recipient of the AFIPS Harry Goode Memorial Award, the Marconi Award, the ACM SIGCOMM Award, the President's Award from ACM, the IEEE Koji Kobayashi Computer and Communications Award, the IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal, the IEEE Third Millennium Medal, the ACM Software Systems Award, the Computerworld/Smithsonian Award, the ASIS Special Award and the Public Service Award from the Computing Research Board. He has twice received the Secretary of Defense Civilian Service Award.

He was awarded an honorary degree by the University of Pavia in 1998.

He is a recipient of the 1997 National Medal of Technology, the 2001 Charles Stark Draper Prize from the National Academy of Engineering, the 2002 Prince of Asturias Award, and the 2004 A. M. Turing Award from the Association for Computing Machinery.[6] Kahn received the 2003 Digital ID World award for the Digital Object Architecture as a significant contribution (technology, policy or social) to the digital identity industry.

In 2005 he was awarded the Townsend Harris Medal from the Alumni Association of the City College of New York, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the C & C Prize in Tokyo, Japan.

He was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in May 2006.

He was inducted as a Fellow of the Computer History Museum in 2006 "for pioneering technical contributions to internetworking and for leadership in the application of networks to scientific research."[7]

He was awarded the 2008 Japan Prize for his work in "Information Communication Theory and Technology" (together with Vinton Cerf).

• In 2001 he was inducted as a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery.[8]
• Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf were each inducted as an Honorary Fellow of the Society for Technical Communication (STC) in May 2006.

The duo were also awarded with the Harold Pender Award, the highest honor awarded by the University of Pennsylvania School Engineering and Applied Sciences, in February 2010.

He has also served on the board of directors for Qualcomm.

In 2012, Kahn was inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame by the Internet Society.[9]

In 2013 Kahn was one of five Internet and Web pioneers awarded the inaugural Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering.[10]

Honorary degrees

Kahn has received honorary degrees from Princeton University, University of Pavia, ETH Zurich, University of Maryland, George Mason University, the University of Central Florida and the University of Pisa, and an honorary fellowship from University College, London.

In 2012 he was also recognized as honorary doctor of Saint Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics.[11]

Articles

Vint Cerf & Bob Kahn, Al Gore and the Internet, 2000-09-28[12]

See also

Paul Baran co-inventor of packet-switched networks with Donald Davies

References

1. Oral History of Robert KahnArchived July 7, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
2. Who's who in Frontiers of Science and Technology
3. Paid Notice: Deaths KAHN, LAWRENCE - New York Times. Nytimes.com (1999-04-30). Retrieved on 2013-07-24.
4. CBI oral history interview with Robert E. Kahn
5. "CNRI Officers and Directors". CNRI. Retrieved 2009-02-25.
6. "Robert E Kahn". A. M. Turing Award. ACM. 2004. Retrieved 2010-01-23. For pioneering work on internetworking, including the design and implementation of the Internet's basic communications protocols, TCP/IP, and for inspired leadership in networking.
7. CHM. "Robert Kahn — CHM Fellow Award Winner". Retrieved March 30, 2015.[1]
8. "Robert E Kahn". ACM Fellows. ACM. 2001. Retrieved 2010-01-23. For leadership in the design of the Internet, strategic computing, digital libraries, digital object infrastructure and digital intellectual property protection technology.
9. 2012 Inductees, Internet Hall of Fame website. Last accessed April 24, 2012
10. "2013 Winners Announced" Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering
11. Robert Kahn will receive a degree and a mantle of Honorary Doctor of Science in the University ITMO
12. Robert Kahn; Vinton Cerf (October 2, 2000). "Al Gore and the Internet". The Register. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
• "Directors & Officers: Robert E. Kahn". CNRI. Retrieved 2010-01-24.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bob Kahn.

• Robert E. Kahn at DBLP Bibliography Server
• Biography of Kahn from IEEE
• Oral history interview with Robert E. Kahn, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Focuses on Kahn's role in the development of computer networking from 1967 through the early 1980s. Beginning with his work at Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN), Kahn discusses his involvement as the ARPANET proposal was being written, his decision to become active in its implementation, and his role in the public demonstration of the ARPANET. The interview continues into Kahn's involvement with networking when he moves to IPTO in 1972, where he was responsible for the administrative and technical evolution of the ARPANET, including programs in packet radio, the development of a new network protocol (TCP/IP), and the switch to TCP/IP to connect multiple networks.
• Bio of Robert E. Kahn from the Living Internet.
• "Morning Edition" interview (NPR)
• "Nerd TV" interview (with Robert X. Cringley) - Requires QuickTime (transcript)
• Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing, documentary ca. 1972 about the ARPANET. Includes footage of Robert E. Kahn.
• A short history of Bob (story/slideshow) in computing, from Bob Kahn to Bob Metcalfe to Microsoft Bob and Alice & Bob
• "An Evening with Robert Kahn in conversation with Ed Feigenbaum" - Requires WMV player
• C-SPAN Q&A interview with Kahn, August 14, 2005
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Re: Shiva Ayyadurai suing TechDirt over Stories Saying He Di

Postby admin » Sun Feb 26, 2017 3:03 am

Vint Cerf
by Wikipedia
February 25, 2017

Image
Vint Cerf at the Royal Society admissions day in 2016
Born: Vinton Gray Cerf
June 23, 1943 (age 73)
New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.
Citizenship: American
Fields: Telecommunications
Institutions: IBM,[1] UCLA,[1] Stanford University,[1] DARPA,[1] MCI,[1][2] CNRI,[1] Google,[3]
Alma mater: Stanford University
UCLA
Thesis: Multiprocessors, Semaphores, and a Graph Model of Computation (1972)
Doctoral advisor: Gerald Estrin[4]
Known for: TCP/IP
Internet Society

Notable awards:
ACM Fellow (1994)
IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal (1997)
National Medal of Technology (1997)
Marconi Prize (1998)
Prince of Asturias Award (2002)
Turing Award (2004)
Presidential Medal of Freedom (2005)
Japan Prize (2008)
Harold Pender Award (2010)
Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering (2013)
ForMemRS (2016)[5]
Signature

Vinton Gray Cerf[1] ForMemRS,[5] (/ˈsɜːrf/; born June 23, 1943) is an American Internet pioneer, who is recognized as one of[6] "the fathers of the Internet",[7] sharing this title with TCP/IP co-inventor Bob Kahn.[8][9] His contributions have been acknowledged and lauded, repeatedly, with honorary degrees and awards that include the National Medal of Technology,[1] the Turing Award,[10] the Presidential Medal of Freedom,[11] the Marconi Prize and membership in the National Academy of Engineering.

In the early days, Cerf was a manager for the United States' Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funding various groups to develop TCP/IP technology. When the Internet began to transition to a commercial opportunity during the late 1980s, Cerf moved to MCI where he was instrumental in the development of the first commercial email system (MCI Mail) connected to the Internet.

Cerf was instrumental in the funding and formation of ICANN from the start. He waited in the wings for a year before he stepped forward to join the ICANN Board, eventually becoming chairman.
He was elected as the president of the Association for Computing Machinery in May 2012,[12] and in August 2013 he joined the Council on CyberSecurity's Board of Advisors.[13]

Cerf is active in many organizations that are working to help the Internet deliver humanitarian value in our world today. He is supportive of innovative projects that are experimenting with new approaches to global problems, including the digital divide, the gender gap, and the changing nature of jobs. Cerf is also known for his sartorial style, typically appearing in three-piece suit—a rarity in an industry known for its casual dress norms.[14][15]

Life and career

Image
Vinton Cerf in Vilnius, September 2010

Cerf was born in New Haven, Connecticut, the son of Muriel (née Gray), a housewife, and Vinton Thruston Cerf, an aerospace executive.[16][17] Cerf went to Van Nuys High School in California along with Jon Postel and Steve Crocker; he wrote the former's obituary. Both were also instrumental in the creation of the Internet. Whilst in high school, Cerf worked at Rocketdyne on the Apollo program, including helping to write statistical analysis software for the non-destructive tests of the F-1 engines.[18] Cerf's first job after obtaining his B.S. degree in mathematics from Stanford University was at IBM, where he worked for two years as a systems engineer supporting QUIKTRAN.[1] He left IBM to attend graduate school at UCLA where he earned his M.S. degree in 1970 and his PhD degree in 1972.[4][19] During his graduate student years, he studied under Professor Gerald Estrin, worked in Professor Leonard Kleinrock's data packet networking group that connected the first two nodes of the ARPANet,[20] the predecessor[20] to the Internet, and "contributed to a host-to-host protocol" for the ARPANet.[21] While at UCLA, he also met Bob Kahn, who was working on the ARPANet hardware architecture.[21] After receiving his doctorate, Cerf became an assistant professor at Stanford University from 1972–1976, where he conducted research on packet network interconnection protocols and co-designed the DoD TCP/IP protocol suite with Kahn.[21] Cerf then moved to DARPA in 1976, where he stayed until 1982.

Image
Cerf playing Spacewar! on the Computer History Museum's PDP-1, ICANN meeting, 2007

As vice president of MCI Digital Information Services from 1982 to 1986, Cerf led the engineering of MCI Mail, the first commercial email service to be connected to the Internet. In 1986, he joined Bob Kahn at the Corporation for National Research Initiatives as its vice president, working with Kahn on Digital Libraries, Knowledge Robots, and gigabit speed networks. It was during this time, in 1992, that he and Kahn, among others, founded the Internet Society (ISOC) to provide leadership in education, policy and standards related to the Internet. Cerf served as the first president of ISOC. Cerf rejoined MCI during 1994 and served as Senior Vice President of Technology Strategy. In this role, he helped to guide corporate strategy development from a technical perspective. Previously, he served as MCI's senior vice president of Architecture and Technology, leading a team of architects and engineers to design advanced networking frameworks, including Internet-based solutions for delivering a combination of data, information, voice and video services for business and consumer use.

During 1997, Cerf joined the Board of Trustees of Gallaudet University, a university for the education of the deaf and hard-of-hearing.[22] Cerf himself is hard of hearing.[23] He has also served on the university's Board of Associates.[24]

Cerf, as leader of MCI's internet business, was criticized due to MCI's role in providing the IP addresses used by Send-Safe.com, a vendor of spamware that uses a botnet in order to send spam. MCI refused to terminate the spamware vendor.[25][26] At the time, Spamhaus also listed MCI as the ISP with the most Spamhaus Block List listings.[27]

Cerf has worked for Google as a Vice President and Chief Internet Evangelist since October 2005.[3] In this function he has become well known for his predictions on how technology will affect future society, encompassing such areas as artificial intelligence, environmentalism, the advent of IPv6 and the transformation of the television industry and its delivery model.[28]

Since 2010, Cerf has served as a Commissioner for the Broadband Commission for Digital Development, a UN body which aims to make broadband internet technologies more widely available.

Cerf joined the board of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) in 1999, and served until November 2007.[29] He was chairman from November 2000 to his departure from the Board.

Cerf was a member of Bulgarian President Georgi Parvanov's IT Advisory Council (from March 2002 – January 2012). He is also a member of the Advisory Board of Eurasia Group, the political risk consultancy.[30]

Cerf is also working on the Interplanetary Internet, together with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and other NASA laboratories. It will be a new standard to communicate from planet to planet, using radio/laser communications that are tolerant of signal degradations including variable delay and disruption caused, for example, by celestial motion.[31]

On February 7, 2006, Cerf testified before the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation's hearing on network neutrality. Speaking as Google's Chief Internet Evangelist, Cerf noted that nearly half of all consumers lacked meaningful choice in broadband providers and expressed concerns that without network neutrality government regulation, broadband providers would be able to use their dominance to limit options for consumers and charge companies like Google for their use of bandwidth.[32]

Cerf currently serves on the board of advisors of Scientists and Engineers for America, an organization focused on promoting sound science in American government.[33] He also serves on the advisory council of CRDF Global (Civilian Research and Development Foundation) and was on the International Multilateral Partnership Against Cyber Threats (IMPACT) International Advisory Board.[34]

Cerf is chairman of the board of trustees of ARIN, the Regional Internet Registry (RIR) of IP addresses for United States, Canada, and part of the Caribbean.[35] Until Fall 2015, Cerf chaired the board of directors of StopBadware, a non-profit anti-malware organization that started as a project at Harvard University's Berkman Center for Internet & Society.[36][37] Cerf is on the board of advisors to The Liquid Information Company Ltd of the UK, which works to make the web more usefully interactive and which has produced the Mac OS X utility called ‘Liquid'.[38] Vint Cerf is a member of the CuriosityStream Advisory Board.[39]

During 2008 Cerf chaired the Internationalized domain name (IDNAbis) working group of the IETF.[40] In 2008 Cerf was a major contender to be designated the US's first Chief Technology Officer by President Barack Obama.[41] Cerf is the co-chair of Campus Party Silicon Valley, the US edition of one of the largest technology festivals in the world, along with Al Gore and Tim Berners-Lee.[42] From 2009–2011, Cerf was an elected member of the Governing Board of the Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP). SGIP is a public-private consortium established by NIST in 2009 and provides a forum for businesses and other stakeholder groups to participate in coordinating and accelerating development of standards for the evolving Smart Grid.[43] Cerf was elected to a two-year term as President of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) beginning July 1, 2012.[44] On January 16, 2013, US President Barack Obama announced his intent to appoint Cerf to the National Science Board.[45]

Cerf is also among the 15 members of governing council of International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad.[46]

In June 2016 his work with NASA lead to Delay-tolerant networking being installed on the International Space station with an aim towards Interplanetary Internet.[47]

Awards and honors

Image
Cerf and Bob E. Kahn being awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush

Image
Cerf and Bulgarian President Parvanov being awarded the St. Cyril and Methodius in the Coat of Arms Order

Cerf has received a number of honorary degrees, including doctorates, from the University of the Balearic Islands, ETHZ in Zurich, Switzerland, Capitol College, Gettysburg College, Yale University, George Mason University, Marymount University, Bethany College (Kansas), University of Pisa, University of Rovira and Virgili (Tarragona, Spain), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Luleå University of Technology (Sweden), University of Twente (Netherlands), Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Tsinghua University (Beijing), Brooklyn Polytechnic, UPCT (University of Cartagena, Spain), Zaragoza University (Spain), University of Reading (United Kingdom), Royal Roads University (Canada), MGIMO (Moscow State University of International Relations), Buenos Aires Institute of Technology (Argentina), Polytechnic University of Madrid, Keio University (Japan), University of South Australia (Australia), University of St Andrews (Scotland), University of Pittsburgh and [48] Gallaudet University (United States). Other awards include:

• ACM Fellow (1994)
• Edward A. Dickson Alumnus of the Year Award from UCLA[49]
Prince of Asturias award for science and technology
• Fellow of the IEEE, 1988, "for contributions and leadership in the design, development, and application of internet protocols"
• Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery, 1994, for "vision and leadership in the design, implementation, evolution, and dissemination of the TCP/IP computer communication protocol suite"
• Yuri Rubinsky Memorial Award, 1996
• SIGCOMM Award for "contributions to the Internet [spanning] more than 25 years, from development of the fundamental TCP/IP protocols".[50]
• Certificate of Merit from The Franklin Institute, in 1996.
In December 1997 he, along with his partner Robert E. Kahn, was presented with the National Medal of Technology by President Bill Clinton, "for creating and sustaining development of Internet Protocols and continuing to provide leadership in the emerging industry of internetworking."[51][52]
He received the Living Legend Medal from the Library of Congress in April 2000
• In 2000, he was made a Fellow of the Computer History Museum "for his contributions to computer architecture, operating systems, and software engineering."[53]
• Cerf was selected as a Fellow of the Association for Women in Science (AWIS) in 2000.
• Cerf was awarded the Award of Technology from the Telluride Tech Festival in 2002, also known as the Tesla Festival since the world's first AC hydro-power power plant was built in Telluride in 1891 by L.L. Nunn who purchased the generator and plans from George Westinghouse and Tesla.
Cerf and Kahn were the winners of the Turing Award for 2004,[10] for their "pioneering work on internetworking, including .. the Internet's basic communications protocols .. and for inspired leadership in networking."[54]
In November 2005, Vinton Cerf and Kahn were awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush for their contributions to the creation of the Internet.[11]
He and Robert Kahn were inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in May 2006
Vinton Cerf was awarded the St. Cyril and Methodius in the Coat of Arms Order in July 2006[55]
• Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn were each inducted as an Honorary Fellow of the Society for Technical Communication (STC) in May 2006
• He and Robert Kahn were awarded the Japan Prize in January 2008.[56]
Cerf was inducted into the Worshipful Company of Information Technologists and given the Freedom of the City of London in April 2008.
Cerf was awarded an honorary membership in the Yale Political Union after keynoting a lively debate on the subject "Resolved: Online Communities are Real Communities." The motion passed.[57]
• In celebration of the five year-anniversary of YouTube he was selected as a guest curator by the site, and chose the six videos on YouTube he found most memorable.[58]
• In May 2011, he was awarded an HPI Fellowship as “[...]a tribute to his work for a new medium which influenced the everyday life of our society like no other one.”[59]
• In September 2011 he was made a distinguished fellow of British Computer Society, in recognition of his outstanding contribution and service to the advancement of computing.[60]
In 2012 he was inducted as a Pioneer into the Internet Hall of Fame[61]
In 2013, Cerf was one of five Internet and Web pioneers awarded the inaugural Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering.[62]
• In 2013, Cerf presented the Bernard Price Memorial Lecture[63]
In 2014, Cerf was awarded the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana, 1st class for his role in invention of TCP/IP by president of Estonia Toomas Hendrik Ilves[64]
• In 2014, Cerf was awarded Officer of the French Légion d'honneur[citation needed][65]
• Cerf was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 2016[5]

See also

List of pioneers in computer science

Partial bibliography

Image
Cerf speaking at the National Library of New Zealand

Image
Cerf at 2007 Los Angeles ICANN meeting

Image
Cerf at the 2016 Saving the Web event at the Library of Congress.

Image
Vint Cerf, before his talk in memory of Dr. John Niparko at the 2017 MidWinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology in Baltimore

Author

• Zero Text Length EOF Message (RFC 13, August 1969)
• IMP-IMP and HOST-HOST Control Links (RFC 18, September 1969)
• ASCII format for network interchange (RFC 20, October 1969)
• Host-host control message formats (RFC 22, October 1969)
• Data transfer protocols (RFC 163, May 1971)
• PARRY encounters the DOCTOR (RFC 439, January 1973)
• 'Twas the night before start-up (RFC 968, December 1985)
• Report of the second Ad Hoc Network Management Review Group, RFC 1109, August 1989
• Internet Activities Board, RFC 1120, September 1989
• Thoughts on the National Research and Education Network, RFC 1167, July 1990
• Networks, Scientific American Special Issue on Communications, Computers, and Networks, September 1991
• Guidelines for Internet Measurement Activities, October 1991
• A VIEW FROM THE 21ST CENTURY, RFC 1607, April 1, 1994
• An Agreement between the Internet Society and Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the Matter of ONC RPC and XDR Protocols, RFC 1790, April 1995
• I REMEMBER IANA, RFC 2468, October 17, 1998
• Memo from the Consortium for Slow Commotion Research (CSCR, RFC 1217, April 1, 1999
• The Internet is for Everyone, RFC 3271, April 2002

Co-author

• Vinton Cerf, Robert Kahn, A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication(IEEE Transactions on Communications, May 1974)
• Vinton Cerf, Y. Dalal, C. Sunshine, Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program (RFC 675, December 1974)
• Vinton Cerf, Jon Postel, Mail transition plan (RFC 771, September 1980)
• Vinton Cerf, K.L. Mills Explaining the role of GOSIP, RFC 1169, August 1990
• Clark, Chapin, Cerf, Braden, Hobby, Towards the Future Internet Architecture, RFC 1287, December 1991
• Vinton Cerf et al., A Strategic Plan for Deploying an Internet X.500 Directory Service, RFC 1430, February 1993
• Vinton Cerf & Bob Kahn, Al Gore and the Internet, 2000-09-28[66]
• Vinton Cerf et al., Internet Radio Communication System July 9, 2002, U.S. Patent 6,418,138
• Vinton Cerf et al., System for Distributed Task Execution June 3, 2003, U.S. Patent 6,574,628
• Vinton Cerf et al., Delay-Tolerant Networking Architecture (Informational Status), RFC 4838, April 2007

References

1. Cerf's curriculum vitae as of February 2001, attached to a transcript of his testimony that month before the United States House Energy Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet, from ICANN's website
2. Gore Deserves Internet Credit, Some Say, a March 1999 Washington Post article
3. Cerf's up at Google, from the Google Press Center
4. Cerf, Vinton (1972). Multiprocessors, Semaphores, and a Graph Model of Computation (PhD thesis). University of California, Los Angeles. OCLC 4433713032.
5. Anon (2016). "Dr Vint Cerf ForMemRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2016-04-29. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where:
“All text published under the heading 'Biography' on Fellow profile pages is available under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.” --Royal Society Terms, conditions and policies at the Wayback Machine (archived September 25, 2015)
6. (see Interview with Vinton Cerf, from a January 2006 article in Government Computer News), Cerf is willing to call himself one of the internet fathers, citing Bob Kahn and Leonard Kleinrock in particular as being others with whom he should share that title.
7. Cerf, V. G. (2009). "The day the Internet age began". Nature. 461 (7268): 1202–1203. doi:10.1038/4611202a. PMID 19865146.
8. "ACM Turing Award, list of recipients". Awards.acm.org. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
9. "IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal". Ieee.org. July 7, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
10. Cerf wins Turing Award February 16, 2005
11. 2005 Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients from the White House website
12. ACM Elects Vint Cerf as President from the ACM website
13. "Advisory Board", Council on CyberSecurity website. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
14. "Internet pioneer Vint Cerf looks to the future", Todd Bishop, Seattle P-I, July 23, 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
15. Ghosh, Pallab. "Google's Vint Cerf warns of 'digital Dark Age'". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
16. Jerome, Richard (September 18, 2000). "Lending An Ear – Health, Real People Stories". People. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
17. "Vinton Gray Cerf Biography". BookRags.com. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
18. Wientjes, Greg (2011). Creative Genius in Technology : Mentor Principles from Life Stories of Geniuses and Visionaries of the Singularity. p. 93. ISBN 978-1463727505.
19. "UCLA School of Engineering Alumnus Chosen for Prestigious Turing Award". UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science. Spring 2005.
20. "Internet predecessor turns 30". CNN. 1999-09-02. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008.
21. "INTERNET PIONEERS CERF AND KAHN TO RECEIVE ACM TURING AWARD". ACM. 2005-02-16.
22. Dr. Vinton G. Cerf Appointed to Gallaudet University's Board of Trustees, from that university's website
23. "Vinton Cerf – Father of the Internet, Vinton Cerf". Deafness.about.com. August 28, 2010. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
24. "Board of Associates". Gallaudet University. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
25. Socks the Whitehouse Cat (February 19, 2005). "Re: ACM ethics complaint against Cerf – first draft". Newsgroup: comp.org.acm. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
26. McWilliams, Brian (February 16, 2005). "Protest brewing against Internet pioneer". Spam Kings Blog. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
27. Socks the Whitehouse Cat (February 25, 2005). "ACM ethics complaint against Cerf – first draft". Newsgroup: comp.org.acm. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
28. The Daily Telegraph, August 2007
29. "ICANN Board of Directors – Vinton G. Cerf". Icann.org. February 14, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
30. "Eurasia Group". Eurasia Group. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
31. "The InterPlaNetary Internet Project IPN Special Interest Group". Ipnsig.org. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
32. "Testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce" (PDF). Retrieved December 2, 2011.
33. SEA’s Board of Advisors. sefora.org
34. "Govt red tape adds to security threats", Vivian Yeo, ZDNet, October 12, 2009
35. "ARIN Announces Newly Elected Board of Trustees". Arin.net. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
36. "Board of Directors". StopBadware. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
37. "Harvard's Berkman Center and the Oxford Internet Institute Unveil StopBadware.org Backed by Google, Lenovo, Sun; Consumer Reports WebWatch Takes Unpaid Special Advisor Role". StopBadware. January 23, 2006. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
38. "The Liquid Information Company". Liquid.info. Retrieved July 1, 2013.
39. "CuriosityStream Advisory Board". Retrieved 31 August 2015.
40. "IDNAbis WG". Tools.ietf.org. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
41. "The 5 best jobs Obama has yet to fill – Craig Gordon and Ben Smith". Politico.Com. December 4, 2008. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
42. Daniel Ben-Horin (November 21, 2011). "The Kids Are Alright: Campus Party, Silicon Valley Tech Festival Rocks NASA". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
43. "Smart Grid Interoperability Panel Launched; Governing Board Elected". Retrieved November 19, 2009.
44. "ACM Elects Vint Cerf as President". ACM. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
45. "President Obama Announces More Key Administration Posts". Retrieved January 20, 2013.
46. "Governing Council". International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad. Retrieved April 18, 2016.
47. Mahoney, Erin (21 June 2016). "Space Internet Technology Debuts on the International Space Station".
48. [1], website news archive, last accessed June 24, 2015
49. "Vinton Cerf M.S. '70, PhD '72 | UCLA Alumni". Alumni.ucla.edu. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
50. "SIGCOMM Awards". Sigcomm.org. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
51. "Office of Science and Technology Policy | The White House". Ostp.gov. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
52. "National Medals of Science and Technology Foundation".
53. "Vinton Cerf". Computer History Museum. Retrieved 2013-05-23.
54. "ACM: Fellows Award / Vinton G. Cerf". amturing.acm.org. June 4, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
55. "ISOC-Bulgaria: IT-delegation in Sofia". Isoc.bg. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
56. 2008 (24th) Japan Prize Laureate[dead link]
57. MINUTES OF THE FLOOR MEETING OF THE YALE POLITICAL UNION. Yale.edu, April 15, 2009
58. FiveYear. "Vint Cerf's Top YouTube Videos". Youtube. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
59. “Vinton G. Cerf, who developed together with Robert E. Kahn the TCP/IP protocol was awarded as a HPI Fellow on May 25th 2011. The HPI award is a tribute to his work for a new medium which influenced the everyday life of our society like no other one.” "HPI Fellows & Guests". Retrieved 2011-05-27.
60. British Computer Society. "Vint Cerf named BCS Distinguished Fellow". Retrieved September 28, 2011.
61. 2012 Inductees, Internet Hall of Fame website. Last accessed April 24, 2012
62. "2013 Winners Announced" Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering
63. "62nd Bernard Price Memorial Lecture". South African Institute of Electrical Engineers (SAIEE). September 5, 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
64. "Bearers of decorations – Vinton Gray Cerf". Retrieved 25 September 2015.
65. "Vinton Cerf Appointed an Officer of the Legion of Honor".
66. Thomas C Greene (2000-10-02). "Net builders Kahn, Cerf recognise Al Gore: Grateful for the inventor's genius". The Register (UK). Archived from the original on 2013-12-13. Retrieved December 2, 2011.

Further reading

• Cerf, Vinton G. (April 24, 1990), Oral history interview with Vinton G. Cerf, Minnesota, Minneapolis: Charles Babbage Institute
• Cerf, Vinton (May 17, 1999), Dr. Vinton Cerf: An Interview Conducted by David Hochfelder, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vint Cerf.
Bio at Google
Vint Cerf on the ICANN wiki
Dr. Vint Cerf on "Reinventing the Internet" (YouTube). Internet Society. (May 13, 2013)
Vint Cerf at TED Edit this at Wikidata
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Saints Cyril and Methodius
by Wikipedia
February 25, 2017

Image
"Saints Cyril and Methodius holding the Cyrillic alphabet," a mural by Bulgarian iconographer Z. Zograf, 1848, Troyan Monastery
Bishops and Confessors; Equals to the Apostles; Patrons of Europe; Apostles to the Slavs
Born: 826 or 827 and 815
Thessalonica, Byzantine Empire (present-day Greece)
Died: 14 February 869 and 6 April 885
Rome and Velehrad, Moravia
Venerated in: Orthodox Church
Roman Catholic Church
Anglican Communion
Lutheran Church

Feast: 11 and 24 May[1] (Orthodox Church)
14 February (present Roman Catholic calendar); 5 July (Roman Catholic calendar 1880–1886); 7 July (Roman Catholic calendar 1887–1969)
5 July (Roman Catholic Czech Republic and Slovakia)
Attributes: brothers depicted together; Eastern bishops holding up a church; Eastern bishops holding an icon of the Last Judgment.[2] Often, Cyril is depicted wearing a monastic habit and Methodius vested as a bishop with omophorion.
Patronage: Unity between Orthodox and Roman Catholics
Bulgaria, Republic of Macedonia, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Transnistria, Archdiocese of Ljubljana, Europe,[2] Slovak Eparchy of Toronto, Eparchy of Košice[3]

Saints Cyril and Methodius (826-869, 815-885; Greek: Κύριλλος καὶ Μεθόδιος; Old Church Slavonic: Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи[more]) were two brothers who were Byzantine Christian theologians and Christian missionaries. Through their work they influenced the cultural development of all Slavs, for which they received the title "Apostles to the Slavs". They are credited with devising the Glagolitic alphabet, the first alphabet used to transcribe Old Church Slavonic.[4] After their deaths, their pupils continued their missionary work among other Slavs. Both brothers are venerated in the Orthodox Church as saints with the title of "equal-to-apostles". In 1880, Pope Leo XIII introduced their feast into the calendar of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1980, Pope John Paul II declared them co-patron saints of Europe, together with Benedict of Nursia.[5]

[B]elievers in Nazi racial theories held every "Asian" or "Slav" to be racially inferior ...

-- A Mosque in Munich: Nazis, the CIA, and the Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood in the West, by Ian Johnson


Early career

Early life


The two brothers were born in Thessalonica, in present-day Greece – Cyril in about 827–828 and Methodius about 815–820. Cyril was reputedly the youngest of seven brothers; he was born Constantine,[6] but took the name Cyril upon becoming a monk in Rome shortly before his death,[7][8][9] according to the "Vita Cyrilli" ("The Life of Cyril"). Methodius was born Michael and took the name Methodius upon becoming a monk at Mysian Olympus (present-day Uludağ), in northwest Turkey.[10] Their father was Leo, a droungarios of the Byzantine theme of Thessalonica, and their mother was Maria.

The exact ethnic origins of the brothers are unknown, there is controversy as to whether Cyril and Methodius were of Slavic[11] or Byzantine Greek[12] origin, or both.[13] The two brothers lost their father when Cyril was fourteen, and the powerful minister Theoktistos, who was logothetes tou dromou, one of the chief ministers of the Empire, became their protector. He was also responsible, along with the regent Bardas, for initiating a far-reaching educational program within the Empire which culminated in the establishment of the University of Magnaura, where Cyril was to teach. Cyril was ordained as priest some time after his education, while his brother Methodius remained only a deacon until 867/868.[14]

Missions in the Middle East

Cyril's mastery of theology and command of both Arabic and Hebrew made him eligible for his first state mission. He was sent to the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mutawakkil to discuss the principle of the Holy Trinity with the Arab theologians, and to improve relations between the Caliphate and the Empire.

The second mission (860), requested by the Byzantine Emperor Michael III and the Patriarch of Constantinople Photius (a professor of Cyril's at the University and his guiding light in earlier years), was a missionary expedition to the Khazar Khaganate in order to prevent the expansion of Judaism there. This mission was unsuccessful, as later the Khagan imposed Judaism on his people as the national religion.
It has been claimed that Methodius accompanied Cyril on the mission to the Khazars, but this is probably a later invention. The account of his life presented in the Latin "Legenda" claims that he learned the Khazar language while in Chersonesos, in Taurica (today Crimea).

After his return to Constantinople, Cyril assumed the role of professor of philosophy at the University while his brother had by this time become a significant player in Byzantine political and administrative affairs, and an abbot of his monastery.

Mission to the Slavs

Great Moravia


Image
Cyril and Methodius, painting by Jan Matejko, 1885

Image
Basilica of St.Cyril and Methodius in Moravian Velehrad, Czech Republic

Whereas Jung considered the English an extension of Germanic blood, his tolerance did not extend to Slavs such as Ouspensky. The English were Aryans, they could be redeemed with his methods. Slavs, although originally Aryan, had too much Asian blood mixed in; they would have a difficult time. Jews could not be redeemed.

-- The Aryan Christ: The Secret Life of Carl Jung, by Richard Noll


In 862, the brothers began the work which would give them their historical importance. That year Prince Rastislav of Great Moravia requested that Emperor Michael III and the Patriarch Photius send missionaries to evangelize his Slavic subjects. His motives in doing so were probably more political than religious. Rastislav had become king with the support of the Frankish ruler Louis the German, but subsequently sought to assert his independence from the Franks. It is a common misconception that Cyril and Methodius were the first to bring Christianity to Moravia, but the letter from Rastislav to Michael III states clearly that Rastislav's people "had already rejected paganism and adhere to the Christian law."[15] Rastislav is said to have expelled missionaries of the Roman Church and instead turned to Constantinople for ecclesiastical assistance and, presumably, a degree of political support.[16] The Emperor quickly chose to send Cyril, accompanied by his brother Methodius. The request provided a convenient opportunity to expand Byzantine influence. Their first work seems to have been the training of assistants. In 863, they began the task of translating the Bible into the language now known as Old Church Slavonic and travelled to Great Moravia to promote it. They enjoyed considerable success in this endeavour. However, they came into conflict with German ecclesiastics who opposed their efforts to create a specifically Slavic liturgy.

For the purpose of this mission, they devised the Glagolitic alphabet, the first alphabet to be used for Slavonic manuscripts. The Glagolitic alphabet was suited to match the specific features of the Slavic language. Its descendant script, the Cyrillic, is still used by many languages today.[16]

They wrote the first Slavic Civil Code, which was used in Great Moravia. The language derived from Old Church Slavonic, known as Church Slavonic, is still used in liturgy by several Orthodox Churches and also in some Eastern Catholic churches.

It is impossible to determine with certainty what portions of the Bible the brothers translated. The New Testament and the Psalms seem to have been the first, followed by other lessons from the Old Testament. The "Translatio" speaks only of a version of the Gospels by Cyril, and the "Vita Methodii" only of the "evangelium Slovenicum," though other liturgical selections may also have been translated.

Nor is it known for sure which liturgy, that of Rome or that of Constantinople, they took as a source. They may well have used the Roman alphabet, as suggested by liturgical fragments which adhere closely to the Latin type. This view is confirmed by the "Prague Fragments" and by certain Old Glagolitic liturgical fragments brought from Jerusalem to Kiev and discovered there by Saresnewsky—probably the oldest document for the Slavonic tongue; these adhere closely to the Latin type, as is shown by the words "Mass," "Preface," and the name of one Felicitas. In any case, the circumstances were such that the brothers could hope for no permanent success without obtaining the authorization of Rome.

Journey to Rome

Image
Saints Cyril and Methodius in Rome. Fresco in San Clemente

In 867, Pope Nicholas I invited the brothers to Rome. Their evangelizing mission in Moravia had by this time become the focus of a dispute with Theotmar, the Archbishop of Salzburg and bishop of Passau, who claimed ecclesiastical control of the same territory and wished to see it use the Latin liturgy exclusively. Travelling with the relics of Saint Clement and a retinue of disciples, and passing through Pannonia (the Balaton Principality), where they were well received by Prince Koceľ (Kocelj, Kozel), they arrived in Rome in 868, where they were warmly received. This was partly due to their bringing with them the relics of Saint Clement; the rivalry with Constantinople as to the jurisdiction over the territory of the Slavs would incline Rome to value the brothers and their influence.[16]

The brothers were praised for their learning and cultivated for their influence in Constantinople. Anastasius Bibliothecarius would later call Cyril "a man of apostolic life" and "a man of great wisdom".[17] Their project in Moravia found support from Pope Adrian II, who formally authorized the use of the new Slavic liturgy. Subsequently Methodius was ordained as priest by the pope himself, and five Slavic disciples were ordained as priests (Saint Gorazd, Saint Clement of Ohrid and Saint Naum) and as deacons (Saint Angelar and Saint Sava) by the prominent bishops Formosus and Gauderic.[18] The newly made priests officiated in their own languages at the altars of some of the principal churches. Feeling his end approaching, Cyril became a monk, was given the new name Cyril,[19] and died in Rome fifty days later (14 February 869). There is some question as to assertion of the Translatio (ix.) that he was made a bishop.

Methodius alone

Methodius now continued the work among the Slavs alone; not at first in Great Moravia, but in Pannonia (in the Balaton Principality), owing to the political circumstances of the former country, where Rastislav had been taken captive by his nephew Svatopluk, then delivered over to Carloman, and condemned in a diet of the empire at the end of 870.

Friendly relations had been established with Koceľ on the journey to Rome. This activity in Pannonia made a conflict inevitable with the German episcopate, and especially with the bishop of Salzburg, to whose jurisdiction Pannonia had belonged for seventy-five years. In 865 Bishop Adalwin is found exercising all Episcopal rights there, and the administration under him was in the hands of the archpriest Riehbald. The latter was obliged to retire to Salzburg, but his superior was naturally disinclined to abandon his claims. Methodius sought support from Rome; the Vita asserts that Koceľ sent him thither with an honorable escort to receive Episcopal consecration.

The letter given as Adrian's in chap. viii., with its approval of the Slavonic mass, is a pure invention. The pope named Methodius archbishop of Sirmium with jurisdiction over Great Moravia and Pannonia, thus superseding the claims of Salzburg by an older title. The statement of the "Vita" that Methodius was made bishop in 870 and not raised to the dignity of an archbishop until 873 is contradicted by the brief of Pope John VIII, written in June 879, according to which Adrian consecrated him archbishop; John includes in his jurisdiction not only Great Moravia and Pannonia, but Serbia as well.

Methodius' final years

The archiepiscopal claims of Methodius were considered such an injury to the rights of Salzburg that he was forced to answer for them at a synod held at Regensburg in the presence of King Louis. The assembly, after a heated discussion, declared the deposition of the intruder, and ordered him to be sent to Germany, where he was kept prisoner in Ellwangen for two and a half years. In spite of the strong representations of the Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum, written in 871 to influence the pope, though not avowing this purpose, Rome declared emphatically for Methodius, and sent a bishop, Paul of Ancons, to reinstate him and punish his enemies, after which both parties were commanded to appear in Rome with the legate.

Image
Saint Cyril and Methodius by Stanislav Dospevski, Bulgarian painter

The papal will prevailed, and Methodius secured his freedom and his archiepiscopal authority over both Great Moravia and Pannonia, though the use of Slavonic for the mass was still denied to him. His authority was restricted in Pannonia when after Koceľ's death the principality was administered by German nobles; but Svatopluk now ruled with practical independence in Great Moravia, and expelled the German clergy. This apparently secured an undisturbed field of operation for Methodius, and the Vita (x.) depicts the next few years (873–879) as a period of fruitful progress. Methodius seems to have disregarded, wholly or in part, the prohibition of the Slavonic liturgy; and when Frankish clerics again found their way into the country, and the archbishop's strictness had displeased the licentious Svatopluk, this was made a cause of complaint against him at Rome, coupled with charges regarding the Filioque.

Methodius vindicated his orthodoxy at Rome, the more easily as the creed was still recited there without the Filioque, and promised to obey in regard to the liturgy. The other party was conciliated by giving him a Swabian, Wiching, as his coadjutor. When relations were strained between the two, John VIII steadfastly supported Methodius; but after his death (December 882) the archbishop's position became insecure, and his need of support induced Goetz to accept the statement of the Vita (xiii.) that he went to visit the Eastern emperor.

It was not until after Methodius' death, which is placed on 6 April 885,[20] that the animosity erupted into an open conflict. Gorazd, whom Methodius had designated as his successor, was not recognised by Pope Stephen V. The same Pope forbade the use of the Slavic liturgy[21] and placed the infamous Wiching as Methodius' successor. The latter exiled the disciples of the two brothers from Great Moravia in 885. They fled to the First Bulgarian Empire, where they were welcomed and commissioned to establish theological schools. There they devised the Cyrillic script on the basis of the Glagolitic. Cyrillic gradually replaced Glagolitic as the alphabet of the Old Church Slavonic language, which became the official language of the Bulgarian Empire and later spread to the Eastern Slav lands of Kievan Rus'. Cyrillic eventually spread throughout most of the Slavic world to become the standard alphabet in the Eastern Orthodox Slavic countries. Hence, Cyril and Methodius' efforts also paved the way for the spread of Christianity throughout Eastern Europe.

Methodius' body was buried in the main cathedral church of Great Moravia. Until today remains an open question which city was capital of Great Moravia and therefore the place of Methodius' eternal rest remains unknown.[22]

Invention of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic alphabets

Image
The Baška tablet is an early example of the Glagolitic from Croatia.

The Glagolitic and Cyrillic alphabets are the oldest known Slavic alphabets, and were created by the two brothers and their students, to translate the Bible and other texts into the Slavic languages.[23] The early Glagolitic alphabet was used in Great Moravia between 863 (the arrival of Cyril and Methodius) and 885 (the expulsion of their students) for government and religious documents and books, and at the Great Moravian Academy (Veľkomoravské učilište) founded by Cyril, where followers of Cyril and Methodius were educated, by Methodius himself among others. The alphabet has been traditionally attributed to Cyril. That attribution has been confirmed explicitly by the papal letter Industriae tuae (880) approving the use of Old Church Slavonic, which says that the alphabet was "invented by Constantine the Philosopher". The term invention need not exclude the possibility of the brothers having made use of earlier letters, but implies only that before that time the Slavic languages had no distinct script of their own.

The early Cyrillic alphabet was developed in the First Bulgarian Empire[24] and later finalized and spread by disciples Kliment and Naum in the Ohrid and Preslav schools of Tsar Boris' Bulgaria[25] as a simplification of the Glagolitic alphabet which more closely resembled the Greek alphabet. It was developed by the disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th century.

It was an ideology of the survival of the fittest, and the enslavement and destruction of the weakest, from Jews to women, from the mentally and physically handicapped to the aged, from Slavs and Gypsies to Communists. Gradually, the distinction between race and ideology became so blurred that the Soviets were viewed as race enemies as much as political enemies. This explains the ferocity with which Russian Communists were slaughtered by roving bands of Einsatzgruppen during the war, notably under such racist ideologues as Dr. Franz Six and onetime Theosophist Otto Ohlendorf. To support this program, they enlisted the aid of history, of romance, of legend, and of the occult significance of alphabets, geometry, ancient architecture, ritual magic ... and the Knights Templar.

-- Unholy Alliance: A History of Nazi Involvement with the Occult, by Peter Levenda


After the death of Cyril, Clement of Ohrid accompanied Methodius from Rome to Pannonia and Great Moravia. After the death of Methodius in 885, Clement headed the struggle against the German clergy in Great Moravia along with Gorazd. After spending some time in jail, he was expelled from Great Moravia, and in 885 or 886 reached the borders of the Bulgarian Empire together with Naum of Preslav, Angelarius, and possibly Gorazd (according to other sources, Gorazd was already dead by that time). The four of them were afterwards sent to the Bulgarian capital of Pliska, where they were commissioned by Tsar Boris I of Bulgaria to instruct the future clergy of the state in the Slavonic language.

After the adoption of Christianity in 865, religious ceremonies in Bulgaria were conducted in Greek by clergy sent from the Byzantine Empire. Fearing growing Byzantine influence and weakening of the state, Boris viewed the adoption of the Old Slavonic language as a way to preserve the political independence and stability of Bulgaria, so he established two literary schools (academies), in Pliska and Ohrid, where theology was to be taught in the Slavonic language. While Naum of Preslav stayed in Pliska working on the foundation of the Pliska Literary School, Clement was commissioned by Boris I to organise the teaching of theology to future clergymen in Old Church Slavonic at the Ohrid Literary School. For seven years (886-893) Clement taught some 3,500 students in the Slavonic language and the Glagolitic alphabet.

Commemoration

Saints Cyril and Methodius' Day


Image
Saints Cyril and Methodius procession

The canonization process was much more relaxed in the decades following Cyril's death than today. Cyril was regarded by his disciples as a saint soon after his death. His following spread among the nations he evangelized and subsequently to the wider Christian Church, and he was famous as a holy man, along with his brother Methodius. There were calls for Cyril's canonization from the crowds lining the Roman streets during his funeral procession. The brothers' first appearance in a papal document is in Grande Munus of Leo XIII in 1880. They are known as the "Apostles of the Slavs", and are still highly regarded by both Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christians. Their feast day is currently celebrated on 14 February in the Roman Catholic Church (to coincide with the date of St Cyril's death); on 11 May in the Eastern Orthodox Church (though for Eastern Orthodox Churches which use the Julian Calendar this is 24 May according to the Gregorian calendar); and on 7 July according to the old sanctoral calendar that existed before the revisions of the Second Vatican Council. The celebration also commemorates the introduction of literacy and the preaching of the gospels in the Slavonic language by the brothers. The brothers were declared "Patrons of Europe" in 1980.[26]

According to old Bulgarian chronicles, the day of the holy brothers was celebrated ecclesiastically as early as the 11th century. The first recorded secular celebration of Saints Cyril and Methodius' Day as the "Day of the Bulgarian script", as traditionally accepted by Bulgarian history, was held in the town of Plovdiv on 11 May 1851, when a local Bulgarian school was named "Saints Cyril and Methodius": both acts on the initiative of the prominent Bulgarian educator Nayden Gerov,[27] although an Armenian traveller mentioned his visit to the "celebration of the Bulgarian script" in the town of Shumen on 22 May 1803.[28]

The day is now celebrated as a public holiday in the following countries:

• In Bulgaria it is celebrated on 24 May and is known as the "Bulgarian Education and Culture, and Slavonic Literature Day" (Bulgarian: Ден на българската просвета и култура и на славянската писменост), a national holiday celebrating Bulgarian culture and literature as well as the alphabet. It is also known as "Alphabet, Culture, and Education Day" (Bulgarian: Ден на азбуката, културата и просвещението). Saints Cyril and Methodius are patrons of the National Library of Bulgaria. There is a monument to them in front of the library. Saints Cyril and Methodius are the most celebrated saints in the Bulgarian Orthodox church, and icons of the two brothers can be found in every church.
• In the Republic of Macedonia, it is celebrated on 24 May and is known as the "Saints Cyril and Methodius, Slavonic Enlighteners' Day" (Macedonian: Св. Кирил и Методиј, Ден на словенските просветители), a national holiday. The Government of the Republic of Macedonia enacted a statute of the national holiday in October 2006 and the Parliament of the Republic of Macedonia passed a corresponding law at the beginning of 2007.[29] Previously it had only been celebrated in the schools. It is also known as the day of the "Solun Brothers" (Macedonian: Солунските браќа).
• In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, the two brothers were originally commemorated on 9 March, but Pope Pius IX changed this date to 5 July for several reasons.[30] Today, Saints Cyril and Methodius are revered there as national saints and their name day (5 July), "Sts Cyril and Methodius Day" is a national holiday in Czech Republic and Slovakia. In the Czech Republic it is celebrated as "Slavic Missionaries Cyril and Methodius Day" (Czech: Den slovanských věrozvěstů Cyrila a Metoděje); in Slovakia it is celebrated as "St. Cyril and Metod Day" (Slovak: Sviatok svätého Cyrila a Metoda).[30]
• In Russia, it is celebrated on 24 May and is known as the "Slavonic Literature and Culture Day" (Russian: День славянской письменности и культуры), celebrating Slavonic culture and literature as well as the alphabet. Its celebration is ecclesiastical (11 May in the Church's Julian calendar). It is not a public holiday in Russia.

The saints' feast day is celebrated by the Eastern Orthodox Church on 11 May and by the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion on 14 February as "Saints Cyril and Methodius Day". The Lutheran Churches commemorate the two saints either on 14 February or 11 May.

Other commemoration

The national library of Bulgaria in Sofia, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje in the Republic of Macedonia, and St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo in Bulgaria and in Trnava, Slovakia, bear the name of the two saints. Faculty of Theology at Palacký University in Olomouc (Czech Republic), bears the name "Saints Cyril and Methodius Faculty of Theology". In the United States, SS. Cyril and Methodius Seminary in Orchard Lake, Michigan, bears their name.

Saints Cyril and Methodius are the main patron saints of the Archdiocese of Ljubljana. Ljubljana Cathedral stands at Cyril and Methodius Square (Slovene: Ciril–Metodov trg).[31] They are also patron saints of the Byzantine Catholic Eparchy of Košice (Slovakia)[3] and the Slovak Greek Catholic Eparchy of Toronto.

St. Cyril Peak and St. Methodius Peak in the Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, in Antarctica are named for the brothers.

Saint Cyril's remains are interred in a shrine-chapel within the Basilica di San Clemente in Rome. The chapel holds a Madonna by Sassoferrato.

The Basilica of SS. Cyril and Methodius in Danville, Pennsylvania, (the only Roman Catholic basilica dedicated to SS. Cyril and Methodius in the world) is the motherhouse chapel of the Sisters of SS. Cyril and Methodius, a Roman Catholic women's religious community of pontifical rite dedicated to apostolic works of ecumenism, education, evangelization, and elder care.[32]

See also

• Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius
• Byzantine Empire
• Glagolitic alphabet
• SS. Cyril and Methodius Seminary
• SS. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje
• SS. Cyril and Methodius National Library in Sofia
• St. Cyril and Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo
• Saints Cyril and Methodius Faculty of Theology, Palacký University of Olomouc

Notes

a. New Church Slavonic: Кѷрі́ллъ и҆ Меѳо́дїй (Kỳrill" i Methodij)
• Belarusian: Кірыла і Мяфодзій (Kiryła i Miafodzij) or Кірыла і Мятода (Kiryła i Miatoda)
• Bulgarian: Кирил и Методий (Kiril i Metodiy)
• Czech: Cyril a Metoděj
• Croatian: Ćiril i Metod
• Macedonian: Кирил и Методиј (Kiril i Metodij)
• Russian: Кири́лл и Мефодий (Kirill i Mefodij), pre-1918 spelling: Кириллъ и Меѳодій (Kirill" i Methodij)
• Serbian: Ћирило и Методије / Ćirilo i Metodije
• Slovene: Ciril in Metod
• Slovak: Cyril a Metod
• Ukrainian: Кирило і Мефодій (Kyrylo i Mefodij)

References

1. In the 21st century this date in the Julian Calendar corresponds to 24 May in the Gregorian Calendar
2. Jones, Terry. "Methodius". Patron Saints Index. Retrieved 18 February 2007.
3. History of the Eparchy of Košice (Slovak)
4. Liturgy of the Hours, Volume III, 14 February.
5. "Egregiae Virtutis". Retrieved 26 April 2009. Apostolic letter of Pope John Paul II, 31 December 1980 (Latin)
6. Cyril and Methodius, Encyclopedia Britannica 2005
7. Vita Constantini slavica, Cap. 18: Denkschriften der kaiserl. Akademie der Wissenschaften 19, Wien 1870, p. 246
8. Chapter 18 of the Slavonic Life of Constantine, an English translation
9. English Translation of the 18th Chapter of the Vita Constantini, Liturgy of the Hours, Proper of Saints, 14 February
10. http://www.carpatho-rusyn.org/spirit/cyril.htm
11.
• 1. Mortimer Chambers, Barbara Hanawalt, Theodore Rabb, Isser Woloch, Raymond Grew. The Western Experience with Powerweb. Eighth Edition. McGraw-Hill Higher Education 2002. University of Michigan. p. 214. ISBN 9780072565447
... Two Christian brothers of Slavic descent, Cyril and Methodius, set out in about 862 as missionaries from the Byzantine ...
• 2. Balkan Studies, Volume 22. Hidryma Meletōn Chersonēsou tou Haimou (Thessalonikē, Greece). The Institute, 1981. Original from the University of Michigan. p. 381
... Being of Slavic descent, both of them spoke the old Slavic language fluently ...
• 3. Loring M. Danforth. The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World. Princeton University Press, 1995. p. 49 ISBN 9780691043562.
... In the ninth century two brothers Cyril and Methodius, Macedonian educators of Slavic origin from Solun, brought literacy and Christianity to the Slavs...
• 4. Ihor Ševčenko. Byzantium and the Slavs: In Letters and Culture'. Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, 1991. p. 481. ISBN 9780916458126
... 63-68 (Cyril and Methodius were Slavs) ... There remains that argument for Cyril's and Methodius' Slavic origin which has to do with the Slavic translation of the Gospels and ...
• 5. Roland Herbert Bainton. Christianity: An American Heritage Book Series. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2000. p. 156. ISBN 9780618056873
... Two missionaries of Slavic origin, Cyril (baptized Constantine) and Methodius, adapted the Greek alphabet and translated both the Bible and the liturgy into the Slavic tongue...
• 6. John Shea. Macedonia and Greece: The Struggle to Define a New Balkan Nation. McFarland, 1997. p. 56 . ISBN 9780786437672
..Byzantine emperor Michael, on the request of the Moravian prince Ratislav, decided to send Slav priests as educators, he chose the Salonika brothers Cyril and Methodius...
• 7. UNESCO Features: A Fortnightly Press Service. UNESCO. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1984. University of Michigan
... They may have been of wholly Slavic descent or of mixed Greco-Slav origin...
• 8. The Pakistan Review, Volume 19. Ferozsons Limited, 1971. University of California. p. 41
... century in Salonika, then one of the largest towns in the Byzantine Empire. The brothers were of Slav origin ...
• 9. Balkania, Volume 7. Balkania Publishing Company, 1973. Indiana University. p. 10
... Cyril and Methodius not only lived among Slavs. ... of Slavonic, which the not only spoke and understood, but in which they also wrote — translated and composed — and for which they invented an alphabet, is proof of their Slav origin ...
• 10. Bryce Dale Lyon, Herbert Harvey Rowen, Theodore S. Hamerow. A history of the Western World, Volume 1. Rand McNally College Pub. Co., 1974. Northwestern University. p. 239
... brothers of Slavic origin, Cyril and Methodius, who, after being ordained at Constantinople, preached the Gospel to the Slavs...
• 11. Roland Herbert Bainton. The history of Christianity. Nelson, 1964. p. 169
...Two missionaries of Slavic origin, Cyril (baptized Constantine) and Methodius, adapted the Greek alphabet and translated both the Bible and the liturgy into the Slavic tongue...
• 12. Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason. Encyclopedia of European Peoples: Facts on File library of world history. Infobase Publishing, 2006. p. 752. ISBN 9781438129181
... There is disagreement as to whether Cyril and his brother Methodius were Greek or Slavic, but they knew the Slavic dialect spoken in Macedonia...
• 13. Frank Andrews. Ancient Slavs'. Worzalla Publishing Company, 1976. University of Wisconsin - Madison. p. 163.
... Cyril and Methodius derived from a rich family of Salonica, perhaps of Slavic origin, but Grecized in those times. Methodius (815-885) ...
• 14. Johann Heinrich Kurtz, John Macpherson. Church History. Hodder and Stoughton, 1891. University of California. p. 431
.. Born at Thessalonica, and so probably of Slavic descent, at least acquainted with the language of the Slavs, ...
• 15. William Leslie King. Investment and Achievement: A Study in Christian Progress. Jennings and Graham, 1913. Columbia University.
.. This man and his brother Cyril became the and Cyril apostles of the Slavic people. These two brothers seemed to have been raised up for such a mission. They were probably of Slavic descent ...
12.
• Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–05, s.v. "Cyril and Methodius, Saints" "Greek missionaries, brothers, called Apostles to the Slavs and fathers of Slavonic literature."
• Encyclopædia Britannica, Major alphabets of the world, Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets, 2008, O.Ed. "The two early Slavic alphabets, the Cyrillic and the Glagolitic, were invented by St. Cyril, or Constantine (c. 827–869), and St. Methodius (c. 825–884). These men were Greeks from Thessalonica who became apostles to the southern Slavs, whom they converted to Christianity.
• Encyclopedia of World Cultures, David H. Levinson, 1991, p.239, s.v., "Social Science"
• Eric M. Meyers, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, p.151, 1997
• Lunt, Slavic Review, June 1964, p. 216; Roman Jakobson, Crucial problems of Cyrillo-Methodian Studies; Leonid Ivan Strakhovsky, A Handbook of Slavic Studies, p.98
• V.Bogdanovich, History of the ancient Serbian literature, Belgrade, 1980, p.119
• Hastings, Adrian (1997). The construction of nationhood: ethnicity, religion, and nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 126. ISBN 0-521-62544-0. The activity of the brothers Constantine (later renamed Cyril) and Methodius, aristocratic Greek priests who were sent from Constantinople.
• Fletcher, R. A. (1999). The barbarian conversion: from paganism to Christianity. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 327. ISBN 0-520-21859-0.
• Cizevskij, Dmitrij; Zenkovsky, Serge A.; Porter, Richard E. Comparative History of Slavic Literatures. Vanderbilt University Press. pp. vi. ISBN 0-8265-1371-9. Two Greek brothers from Salonika, Constantine who later became a monk and took the name Cyril and Methodius.
• The illustrated guide to the Bible. New York: Oxford University Press. 1998. p. 14. ISBN 0-19-521462-5. In Eastern Europe, the first translations of the Bible into the Slavoruic languages were made by the Greek missionaries Cyril and Methodius in the 860s
• Smalley, William Allen (1991). Translation as mission: Bible translation in the modern missionary movement. Macon, Ga.: Mercer. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-86554-389-8. The most important instance where translation and the beginning church did coincide closely was in Slavonic under the brothers Cyril and Methodius, with the Bible completed by A.D. 880. This was a missionary translation but unusual again (from a modern point of view) because not a translation into the dialect spoken where the missionaries were. The brothers were Greeks who had been brought up in Macedonia.
13.
• 1. Philip Lief Group. Saintly Support: A Prayer For Every Problem. Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2003. p. 37. ISBN 9780740733369
.. Cyril was born of Greek nobility connected with the senat of Thessalonica, although his mother may have been of Slavic descent ...
• 2. UNESCO Features: A Fortnightly Press Service. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization., 1984. University of Michigan
... They may have been of wholly Slavic descent or of mixed Greco-Slav origin...
14. The Lives of the Ninth-Century Popes (Liber Pontificalis)– Google Knihy. Books.google.cz. January 1, 1995. ISBN 0-85323-479-5. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
15. Vizantiiskoe missionerstvo, Ivanov S. A., Iazyki slavianskoi kul'tury, Moskva 2003, p. 147
16. Encyclopædia Britannica, Cyril and Methodius, Saints, O.Ed., 2008
17. "Vir apostolicae vitae... sapientissimus vir" MGH Epist., 7/2, 1928, p. 436
18. "Sv. Gorazd a spoločníci" [St. Gorazd and his colleagues]. Franciscan Friars of Slovakia (in Slovak). Retrieved 27 August 2015.
19. As is customary, when one becomes a monk in the Eastern Orthodox tradition, one receives a new name.
20. Житїе Меөодїя (Life of Methodius), title & chap. XVIII - available on-line
21. Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, (HarperCollins, 2000), 144.
22. Short Life of Cyril & Methodius. Translated by Ján STANISLAV: Životy slovanských apoštolov Cyrila a Metoda v legendách a listoch. Turčiansky Sv. Martin: Matica slovenská, 1950, p. 88. (Slovak)
23. Encyclopædia Britannica, Major alphabets of the world, Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets, 2008, O.Ed. "The two early Slavic alphabets, the Cyrillic and the Glagolitic, were invented by St. Cyril, or Constantine (c. 827–869), and St. Methodius (c. 825–884). These men were Greeks from Thessalonica who became apostles to the southern Slavs, whom they converted to Christianity.
24. Paul Cubberley (1996) "The Slavic Alphabets"
25. Daniels and Bright, eds. The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507993-0.
26. Egregiae Virtutis
27. "История на България", Том 6 Българско Възраждане 1856–1878, Издателство на Българската академия на науките, София, 1987, стр. 106 (in Bulgarian; in English: "History of Bulgaria", Volume 6 Bulgarian Revival 1856–1878, Publishing house of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, 1987, page 106).
28. Jubilee speech of the Academician Ivan Yuhnovski, Head of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, held on 23 May 2003, published in Information Bulletin of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 3(62), Sofia, 27 June 2003 (in Bulgarian).
29. Announcement about the eleventh session of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia on 24 October 2006 from the official site of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia (in Macedonian).
30. Votruba, Martin. "Holiday date". Slovak Studies Program. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 11 March 2009.
31. "The Ljubljana Metropolitan Province". 5 March 2014.
32. "Sisters of Saints Cyril and Methodius". Sscm.org. 2002-03-04. Retrieved 2013-06-14.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saints Cyril and Methodius.
Slavorum Apostoli by Pope John Paul II
Cyril and Methodius – Encyclical letter (Epistola Enciclica), 31 December 1980 by Pope John Paul II
Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Sts. Cyril and Methodius". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
"Equal to Apostles SS. Cyril and Methodius Teachers of Slavs", by Prof. Nicolai D. Talberg
Catholic Culture
Cyril and Methodius at orthodoxwiki
Bulgarian Official Holidays, National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria: in English, in Bulgarian
Bank holidays in the Czech Republic, Czech National Bank: in English, in Czech
24 May – The Day Of Slavonic Alphabet, Bulgarian Enlightenment and Culture
Lettera Apostolica
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