The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

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Part 1 of 2

Robert R. Taylor: First Black Student at MIT
by MIT Black History
Accessed: 7/20/18

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MIT's first black graduate, nation's first accredited African-American architect, designer of Tuskegee Institute campus buildings prior to 1932, great-grandfather of Valerie Jarrett, and more...

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Courtesy MIT Museum

In September 1888, a young African American traveled from Wilmington, North Carolina to Boston, Massachusetts to sit the examination for entrance to MIT. Robert Robinson Taylor was brimming with enthusiasm, despite skepticism on the part of friends and relatives back home.

When it was known that I was to leave my home to study at the [MIT], many of the home people asked, 'What is the use?' And a question of similar nature was asked by many in other places. "After graduation, what? Where is the field?"

Robert R. Taylor, "The Scientific Development of the Negro," 50th Anniversary of the Charter of MIT, 10 April 1911


EARLY YEARS: ROOTS AND FOUNDATIONS

Born on June 8, 1868 in Wilmington, North Carolina, Robert Taylor came from a relatively privileged family background. His father, Henry Taylor, was the son of a white slave owner and a black mother, and as such had been allowed enough freedom before the Civil War to go into business for himself. He moved to Wilmington, NC in 1850, where he worked as a carpenter.

Henry Taylor developed a prosperous career as a contractor and builder, constructing cargo ships that plied trade routes between the United States and South America via the Caribbean. Also active in building construction, he erected a number of commercial and residential edifices in the Wilmington area and elsewhere. According to family tradition, Taylor the elder worked on the Bellamy Mansion Museum and other antebellum buildings. He also operated a grocery story and was active in many of the civic and religious affairs of the city. Taylor the elder was a member of Giblem Masonic Lodge, and a founding member of the local Republican Party.



Taylor's early schooling took place in Wilmington at the Williston School and later at the Gregory Normal Institute, a school for blacks operated and maintained by the American Missionary Association. After graduating, he worked in his father's business and learned the rudiments of the building trade.

Both father and son soon agreed that the younger Taylor should formalize his technical training. Though as a boy Taylor had hoped to attend the elite Lincoln University near Philadelphia (which would grant him an honorary doctorate in later years), they set their sights on MIT, arguably the institution with the best program in architecture available. Founded in 1865, MIT's School of Architecture offered the first formal architectural curriculum in the United States, and the first architecture program in the world, operating within the establishment of a University.

AT THE INSTITUTE: ABOVE AVERAGE

Academic Performance


The class of 1892 was the largest on record since the Institute's founding 328 registered for the fall semester of 1888. Having worked in his father's business for a period, Taylor entered MIT a couple of years older than the average freshman coming straight out of high school. Also, he was one of a mere handful of students from the South; most MIT students at the time were New Englanders, with a smattering from other parts of the country and from overseas.

In fact, there was a prejudice of sorts against Southerners, even against those white and black--whose families hailed originally from the South. An 1887 article in the student newspaper The Tech, for example, referred to a region of southern Ohio as "the lazy belt," so named because of "certain characteristics of its inhabitants" who" in past time have wandered westward from the 'Old Dominion'.”

Taylor nevertheless appears to have adjusted quite well to his new environment, at least academically. His record at MIT during the four years he attended, 1888-1892, was above the class average. He earned honors in trigonometry, architectural history, differential calculus, and applied mechanics, never failing a course. Taylor held a Loring Scholarship for two consecutive academic years and may have been the first recipient. The Loring Scholarship was one of the several stipends available to MIT students who had proven their potential through hard work and superior performance.

Thesis Work

In addition to his overall academic record, Taylor's "promise of future usefulness" was evident in the subject he chose as a final project for his major in architecture (Course IV). The project, entitled "Design for a Soldiers' Home," involved creating plans for a nursing or convalescent home for aged, infirm Civil War veterans.

This segment of the population had been rapidly increasing in number and was still the source of considerable social concern almost thirty years after the end of the war. The federal government had already begun to tackle the problem of long-term care for veterans facilities, a development Taylor's thesis introduction addresses. Taylor would use many of the ideas developed in his thesis to professional advantage later in his career.

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First page of Robert R. Taylor's senior thesis, "A Soldiers Home," which includes eight handwritten pages and two architectural drawings, 1892. Courtesy Institute Archives/MIT Libraries

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Taylor's architectural drawing (front view) for "A Soldiers Home," 1892. Courtesy MIT Museum

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Taylor's architectural drawing (top view) for "A Soldiers Home," 1892. Courtesy MIT Museum

In view of the number of soldiers who fought in the late war now suffering from the infirmities of old age and thereby incapable of supporting themselves, the government purposes erecting a home where about two hundred may be cared for comfortably.

This home must have, at least, the following rooms, viz, parlors, libraries, dormitories, dining rooms, a large play-room, an entertainment hall and chapel, a dispensary, an operating room, an examining room, a convalescent room, laundries, and toilet-rooms.

In a building of this kind, the designer should keep several things prominently in his mind. He should have the different parts of his building well connected in order to allow free circulation; still, he ought not connect too intimately the hospital with parts of the building designed for other uses. Then, as the inmates of the home are infirm, he should use the greatest allowable area and as few stories as possible in order to avoid climbing several flights of stairs. For whatever purpose intended, he should have his rooms large, well lighted, and well ventilated.

Robert R. Taylor, "A Soldiers' Home," 1892

Taylor's was an ambitious plan, undoubtedly more elaborate than anything the federal government would have been willing to adopt for this purpose. The overall scheme reflected both the style of large French institutions and the problems studied and taught at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, where many members of the architecture faculty at MIT had been trained.

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MIT Class of 1892, the largest on record since the Institute opened its doors in 1865

TUSKEGEE RECRUITMENT: BOOKER T. WASHINGTON AND HIS EDUCATIONAL VISION

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Booker T. Washington at Tuskegee Institute near his 25th year of leadership, ca. 1905.

Booker T. Washington and Tuskegee Institute

During Taylor's course of study at MIT, he had talked in person on more than one occasion with Booker T. Washington, the prominent black educator and race leader from Tuskegee, Alabama. In 1881, about a decade earlier, Washington had founded Tuskegee Institute--a black school that had started as a normal (teacher-training) school with a few ramshackle buildings and a small grant from the state of Alabama.

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Postcard depicting the structures on the grounds when the site for the Tuskegee Institute was purchased and which served as the first school buildings. Photo: Acme Photo, reproduced from Up From Slavery: An Autobiography by Booker T. Washington (Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1901)

Within a couple of decades, Tuskegee became one of the best-known African-American schools in the nation, with substantial funding from Northern philanthropists, industrialists, and businessmen such as Andrew Carnegie and Julius Rosenwald.

In contrast with the emphasis placed on intellectual pursuits by W. E. B. Du Bois and some other contemporary black leaders, the curriculum at Tuskegee stressed manual training, industrial education, and useful crafts that would prepare students for jobs. Washington advocated a gradualist rather than a radical approach to improving conditions for blacks in the post-Emancipation period, with hard work and self-help as the primary channels to economic and social advancement. This philosophy found ready acceptance among whites, both north and south, and among many blacks.

It is not certain exactly how or when Washington got wind of Taylor's excellent record at MIT, but he was often on the lookout for qualified black students to recruit for leadership roles at Tuskegee. He had made a fundraising tour through New England as early as 1882 and quickly developed contacts within a number of organizations interested in educational work in the South. Among them were the Woman's Home Missionary Association in Boston and the Women's New England Club. His trips were intended, in part, to establish a close relationship with wealthy, influential Bostonians who might contribute to the Tuskegee cause.

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The MIT campus was originally located on Boylston and Clarendon Streets in Boston's Back Bay and was moved across the Charles River to Cambridge in 1916. Courtesy MIT Museum

While in Boston, Washington lodged near the old MIT campus at Boylston, Clarendon, and Exeter Streets. It was during one or more of these excursions that he and Taylor discussed the possibility of a role for Taylor at Tuskegee. What Washington had in mind was for Taylor to develop the nascent industrial program at Tuskegee and to plan and direct the construction of new buildings for the campus.

Taylor seemed like an ideal recruit for several reasons: he was black, a Southerner, bright, a hard worker, and Iast but not least--the recipient of a sound education at the premier technical institute in the country. The emphasis placed at MIT on applied, practical aspects of science and engineering was more in line with the Tuskegee mission than, say, the focus on a classical, liberal arts education at Harvard. Ironically, W.E.B DuBois was beginning his doctoral studies in history at Harvard around the time that Washington and Taylor were discussing Taylor's possible move to Tuskegee.

Recruitment

Taylor did not head directly to Tuskegee immediately after graduation. He may have worked during the summer of 1892 for an architectural firm in Cleveland, Ohio. By his own testimony, he "took up the practice of architecture and designed several private and public buildings." The encounters with Booker T. Washington in Boston, however, had inspired an interest in somehow combining architecture with a career in the field of education. Taylor had also received offers from four other schools to organize and direct industrial programs. But Taylor had "some hesitancy". He was more interested in going into business for himself than in teaching. Finally, after a visit to the campus in Alabama, Taylor accepted the Tuskegee offer.

MIT-TUSKEGEE CONNECTION: MODELING EXCELLENCE

To develop a sound curriculum at Tuskegee, both Washington and Taylor would look to MIT as a model. In 1894, Washington sought the advice of Ellen Swallow Richards '73 on the matter of staff recruitment. Richards was MIT's first woman graduate (Class of 1873), who became a member of the MIT faculty in 1878 and created the first sanitary engineering laboratory in the United States.

Just as in Massachusetts they have the Institute of Technology and the Simmons Industrial School, so in the South there should be the Atlanta University, the Tuskegee Institute and others. There is a place for all these institutions to do their work. I do not believe in placing any limitation upon the mental development of the black man.

Booker T. Washington to journalist Oswald G. Villard, 1904


Near 1888, Richards joined other women (including the wife of a Harvard professor and Stella Houghton Scott Gilman, a pioneer in women's education at Harvard) in urging Washington to establish at Tuskegee a department for the training of domestic servants.

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Women students in the lab of Ellen Swallow Richards (far left, rear) holding scientific instruments, 1888. Courtesy MIT Museum

Taylor's own admiration for MIT as a model for Tuskegee's development would later be conveyed in a speech he would deliver at MIT in 1911 to celebrate the Institute's 50th birthday.

THE INSTITUTE HAS STEADILY ADVANCED IN POWER AND INFLUENCE...ITS EDUCATIONAL POLICY HAS SERVED AS A MODEL FOR NUMEROUS SIMILAR INSTITUTIONS IN THIS COUNTRY AND ABROAD...

- Robert R. Taylor, "The Scientific Development of the Negro", 10 April 1911


BUILDING TUSKEGEE: 1892-1932

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The Chapel at Tuskegee Institute, designed by Robert R. Taylor and completed in 1898.

AND I REMEMBER THE CHAPEL WITH ITS SWEEPING EAVES, LONG AND LOW AS THOUGH RISEN BLOODY FROM THE EARTH LIKE THE RISING MOON; VINE-COVERED AND EARTH-COLORED AS THOUGH MORE EARTH-SPRUNG THAN MAN-SPRUNG.

- Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man, 1952


Robert Taylor was the architect who "earth-sprung" many of Tuskegee Institute's campus buildings before 1930, including The Chapel so vividly described by Tuskegee alum Ralph Ellison in Invisible Man. Both The Chapel and the literary work it inspired would be considered masterpieces of their respective creators.

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Ralph Ellison upon his arrival to Tuskegee as a student, 1933

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1st-edition book cover of Ellison's first and only novel, Invisible Man (Random House, 1952)

After a brilliant 40-year career as a professor and architect at Tuskegee, Taylor would collapse in the very Chapel he designed and built, later to pass away in the hospital he also designed and built. By then he would be known as a hard, productive worker and devoted advocate of Booker T. Washington's educational and social vision. Taylor's reputation as the individual primarily responsible for Tuskegee's architectural beauty and coherence long survived him; his "blending of art and science," according to Frederick D. Patterson (Tuskegee president, 1935-1953), was recognized in the eventual designation of the campus as a National Historic Site.

Arrival to Tuskegee

Taylor arrived at the Tuskegee Institute in the fall or winter of 1892. He would serve as an instructor in architectural drawing and architect until 1899. His entire career would be spent at Tuskegee--with the exception of a brief leave of absence from 1899 to 1902.

When he first took up his position as architect and instructor in architectural and mechanical drawing at Tuskegee, Taylor found that

the mechanical work was largely in the hands of men trained in the old way, who did their work usually without definite plans or drawings. Introducing plans, blue-prints and specifications as a part of every mechanical job, however small, and instructing the students in making and using drawings, led to changes which inevitably follow newer and better ways of doing things.

Robert R. Taylor, The Scientific Development of the Negro, 1911


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Mechanical-drawing students at Tuskegee Institute, shown with instructor Robert R. Taylor (far right), ca. 1897.

Other notable hires at Tuskegee after Taylor included scientist and inventor George Washington Carver, who joined the faculty to head of the agricultural department in 1896 after earning bachelor's and master's degrees at Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts.

I remember my father telling me about this great man George Washington Carver and taking me to the Institute to his laboratory...[he had] a model, miniature house that children could play in...I have some sense of "there are such people in this world"...Tuskegee was a very important kind of anchor for me.

MIT political science professor Willard R. Johnson in Technology and the Dream, 1996


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George Washington Carver at work in his laboratory, located at Tuskegee Institute's Milbank Agriculture Building, designed by Robert R. Taylor. Photo: Erick Butler, AP Photo/Courtesy Tuskegee University

Taylor's value to Tuskegee would go beyond diligence and selfless devotion to Washington's cause. He managed to exert a healthy influence over Washington himself, demonstrating by personal example the danger of focusing on "manual arts" at the expense of all else.

In 1907, for example, when Washington remarked that "We must not only have carpenters but architects; we must not only have persons who can do the work with the hand but persons at the same time who can plan the work with the brain," he was expressing an outlook that was less rigid, more expansive than it had been a decade earlier.

This outlook was certainly modified, at least in part, by his relationship with Taylor. Taylor's outlook, in turn, had been shaped to a considerable extent by his experience at MIT, whose motto mens et manus (mind and hand) captured the very duality that Taylor--and, under his influence, Washington--came to espouse at Tuskegee.

TAYLOR'S BUILDINGS [AT TUSKEGEE] CREATED AN INSTITUTIONAL PRESENCE BY GIVING A SENSE OF PLACE AND OWNERSHIP FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS WHO HAD TOO LITTLE OF EVERYTHING.

-- Biographer Ellen Weiss, Tulane University, 2012


Science Hall / Thrasher Hall (1893)

Taylor's first building on campus was completed in 1893. Science Hall housed science classrooms and laboratories. The proportions and parts of the design hearkened back to Taylor's MIT thesis, completed just a year earlier.

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Science Hall was the first Tuskegee building designed by Taylor and completed in 1893, later renamed Thrasher Hall.

Science Hall was constructed entirely by students, using bricks made also by students under Taylor's supervision. The project epitomized Washington's philosophy of instilling in Tuskegee students, the descendants of former slaves, the value and dignity of physical labor. Their efforts provided an example to the world--and especially to potential donors--of the capabilities of blacks in the building trades, underscoring the larger potential of the manual training curricula being developed at Tuskegee.

In 1903, Science Hall was renamed Thrasher Hall in honor of Max Bennett Thrasher, who authored Tuskegee: Its Story and Its Work (Boston, Small, Maynard & Company, 1900), with an introduction by Washington. A number of other campus buildings followed. Not all were completed by Taylor, who was away from Tuskegee (except for short visits) from 1899 to 1902.

The Chapel (1898)

Erected between 1895 and 1898, The Butler Chapel featured a 105-foot tower, dual entrances for boys and girls, seating capacity for 2,400--and the high-arched hammer-beam trusses that ultimately made their way into one of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century.

Booker T. Washington referred to the Chapel as the "most imposing building" at Tuskegee. Funded by the Phelps Stokes Family (New York philanthropists), the Chapel was a graceful, round-arch structure and the first electrified building in Macon County, Alabama. The interior electrical lights were installed by the instructor and students of the school's electrical division.

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Interior of The Chapel, shown during a conference in session. Source: Thrasher, M.B. "Tuskegee Institute and Its President." Popular Science Monthly, Vol. 55 (September 1899).

At the Chapel's dedication, black journalist Timothy Thomas Fortune wrote a piece in the New York Sun (3 April 1898) urging every southerner to make at least one pilgrimage to view this “cathedral in the Black Belt”. Such a pilgrimage would unfortunately not be possible after the night of January 23, 1957, when The Chapel was destroyed by a fire. Another chapel was completed on the same site in 1969, with funding from alumni.

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Beatrice Rochon Taylor, first wife of Robert R. Taylor, 1906. Photo: Frances B. Johnston, Courtesy Library of Congress (Frances Benjamin Johnston Collection)
In 1898, Taylor married Tuskegee English schoolteacher Beatrice Rochon Taylor in Louisiana. They would have four children: Helen, Robert Rochon, Helen, Edward, and Beatrice.

The Oaks (1899)

The Oaks is a handsome brick president's house. While living there, Washington dispensed “a generous hospitality to the school's guests and to the teachers of the Institute". The building is a contributing property to the Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site and National Landmark.

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The Oaks, designed by Robert R. Taylor, was completed in 1899 and served as the president's house at Tuskegee Institute.

Huntington Hall (1899)

Collis P. Huntington, "one of Tuskegee's stanchest supporters," had made his fortune in the railroad business and was the president of the Cheasapeake and Ohio Railroad. Completed in 1899 with funds donated by Huntington's widow, Huntington Hall served as a women’s dormitory. The building would later be used as the residence of staff members and also house classrooms and faculty offices.

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Huntington Hall at Tuskegee Institute, completed in 1899, shown ca. 1906.

CLEVELAND BREAK: 1899-1902

Tired of teaching and wanting to learn new methods of building, Taylor took a leave of absence from 1899 to 1902. He returned to Cleveland, Ohio, where he had been employed the summer of 1892 after graduating from MIT--in the days when he nearly rejected the Tuskegee offer in favor of private practice. As if impelled by a seven-year itch after his time at Tuskegee, Taylor now looked forward to pursuing personal projects and to work as a draughtsman for the Charles W. Hopkinson architectural firm.

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Robert R. Taylor, shown four years after his return to Tuskegee Institute, 1906. Courtesy Library of Congress
Robert R. Taylor to Booker T. Washington, July 1900: "It is not an easy matter to leave off suddenly the effect of seven years continuous work in any line..."

Despite his workload in Cleveland, Taylor's mind remained in Alabama, dreaming up student curricula and keeping track of campus projects. In fact, he continued to work in absentia on various Tuskegee projects, designing and sending down drawings of new campus structures. In Cleveland, Taylor continued to work with the Hopkinson firm and on his independent practice. He and his family lived in a more ethnically diverse neighborhood than they had in segregated Alabama.

Alta Settlement House

According to historic preservationist Eric Johannesen, Taylor likely contributed to the design of the Alta Settlement House, which was located in Cleveland's Little Italy neighborhood and served recent Italian immigrants. Completed in 1901, the landmark building was one of the oldest settlement houses in the city. Funding was provided by John D. Rockefeller Sr., who named the building for his daughter Alta Rockefeller Prentice.

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Courtesy Cleveland State University (Michael Schwartz Library, Division of Special Collections, The Cleveland Memory Project
Alta Settlement House for Italian immigrants, likely designed by Robert R. Taylor and completed in 1901.


Slater-Armstrong Memorial Trades' Building (1900)

While still in Cleveland, Taylor sent down plans and specifications to Tuskegee for the Slater-Armstrong Memorial Trades Building. It was completed at a cost of $36,000 and was the largest building on the Institute grounds at the time.

The 27-room building housed the mechanical department. The structure was shaped like a double Greek cross that formed an inner courtyard so that each shop received natural light from two sides. "Better lighted rooms could scarcely be found in any building," wrote Washington in The Story of My Life (1901).

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Photo: frances B. Johnston, Courtesy Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Transfer from the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Social Museum Collection
The Slater-Armstrong Memorial Trades' Building at Tuskegee Institute was designed by Robert R. Taylor and completed in 1900, shown in 1902.


Dorothy Hall (1901)

Dorothy Hall was completed in 1901 and named in memory of Dorothy Lamb Woodridge of the Phelps-Stokes family, one of Tuskegee's earliest major contributors. The building served as the women's trades building, accommodating the Girls' Industrial Department. Classes held in the building included sewing, dressmaking, millinery, laundering, cooking, housekeeping, mattress-making, upholstering, broom-making, and basketry.

In 1938, faculty member George Washington Carver moved from Rockefeller Hall to reside in Dorothy Hall. Also known as the Kellogg Center, today the building serves as a hotel, restaurant, and conference center available for weddings and other events.

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Source: Detroit Publishing Company, Library of Congress
Dorothy Hall was designed by Robert R. Taylor for Tuskegee Institute and completed in 1901.


Carnegie Library Building (1901)

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Source: Detroit Publishing Company, Library of Congress
The Carnegie Library Building at Tuskegee Institute was designed by Robert R. Taylor and completed in 1901.


Scottish-American industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie was a major supporter of Tuskegee, as well as of the National Negro Business League, also founded by Washington. Carnegie donated $20,000 for the building and furnishings of the Carnegie Library, Tuskegee Institute's first library. Between 1883 and 1929, he contributed to the building of over two thousand other "Carnegie Libraries" worldwide, including some belonging to public and university library systems. Taylor himself would later design such Carnegie libraries at black colleges in Marshall, Texas and in Salisbury, North Carolina.

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Photo: Frances B. Johnson, reproduced from the collections of the Library of Congress
Tuskegee Institute faculty members, including Booker T. Washington (seated front row, third from left), Andrew Carnegie (seated front row, second from right), and Robert R. Taylor (standing second from right), 1906.


Taylor's Carnegie building at Tuskegee was a two-story, colonial-style building who facade boasts four Ionic columns. Besides the library and librarian offices, the building housed a large assembly-room, an historical room, and study-rooms. The library was intended to be a repository of information regarding African-American literature; black authors were asked to contribute their works and other papers to the collection.

Taylor's design earned praise from various parts of the country. He later designed Carnegie Libraries at two other black colleges: Livingstone College in Salisbury, North Carolina (1908) and Wiley University in Marshall, Texas (1910).

Carnegie Library would serve as the library until 1932, when the Hollis Burke Frissell Library was built. In 1931, the music department moved in, and the building was renamed Carnegie Music Hall. Today the building houses Financial Aid and other services.

RETURN TO TUSKEGEE: 1903

Though Taylor had been traveling between Cleveland and Tuskegee, he finally returned to the Institute in 1903. This time he served as both architect and administrator, heading the Department of Mechanical Industries and overseeing buildings and grounds until his retirement in the mid-1930s.

Taylor's value to Tuskegee was such that Washington had made efforts to attract him back. For every professional offer that came Taylor's way thereafter, Washington made certain that Tuskegee would match or better it. In 1906, he wrote to Tuskegee board member Robert Curtis Ogden:

... in order to be absolutely sure of retaining Mr. Taylor's services, in my opinion I am sure we will have to add four or five hundred dollars to his present salary. The Oklahoma people are very insistent and very tempting in their offers. As I have told Mr. Peabody [George Foster Peabody, wealthy white banker and benefactor of Tuskegee], I should consider it a far-reaching calamity for us to lose Mr. Taylor at Tuskegee.

-- Booker T. Washington to Robert Curtis Ogden, 28 May 1906, Booker T. Washington Papers, vol. 9 (1906-08), pp. 13-14.


Even though later in his career he was offered a number of more lucrative positions, including a presidency at Langston University in Oklahoma, Tayor preferred to remain at Tuskegee believing that he "could be of more service to the race in helping to develop this institution in its industrial side than in other places” [Clement Richardson, National Cyclopedia of the Colored Race (Montgomery, Ala.: National Publishing Company, 1919), vol. 1, p. 494].

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Robert R. Taylor, ca. 1906. Courtesy Tuskegee University

Administration / Office Building (1902-03)

Opened in 1902, the Administration or Office Building would serve as the main school office building for the next 75 years. The building also housed Tuskegee's first post office and bank.

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The Administration Building in the process of erection by student carpenters. Source: TUSKEGEE & ITS PEOPLE: Their Ideals and Achievements edited by Booker T. Washington (D. Appleton & Co., 1906)

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Source: Detroit Publishing Company, Library of Congress
The Administration Building at Tuskegee Institute was designed by Robert R. Taylor and completed between 1902 and 1903, shown ca. 1906.
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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

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Part 2 of 2

Rockefeller Hall (1903)

A gift from millionaire and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller helped to alleviate the school's ongoing struggle to provide students with adequate student housing. Completed in 1903, Rockefeller Hall served as the men’s dormitory. The three-story brick building had accommodations for 150 students, and also housed a library and a museum.

In Taylor fashion, the design includes large windows that illuminate staircase landings. This dormitory is historically significant to the school, for the ground floor rooms served as the residence of faculty member George Washington Carver for thirty-five years, until his move to Dorothy Hall in 1938. Today the Rockefeller Hall dormitory is an "honors hall" reserved for upperclassmen whose GPAs are 3.2 or higher.

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Courtesy Tuskegee University
Rockefeller Hall at Tuskegees Institute, designed by Robert R. Taylor and completed in 1903.


The Emerys (1903-1909)

Located near the main gate of Tuskegee’s campus are the four Emery buildings, which served as men's dormitories. Three were gifts of wealthy American philanthropist Elizabeth Julia Emery, who moved to Europe after having spent the first 20 years of her life in Cincinnati, Ohio. Profoundly impacted by childhood memories of injustice towards blacks she decided at the age of 70 to contribute her wealth to African-American causes.

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Courtesy Tuskegee University
The Emerys men's dorms at Tuskegee Institute, designed by Robert R. Taylor and completed between 1903 and 1909.


The Emery buildings were designed by Taylor and built by students between 1903 and 1909. All four of the two-story brick cottages featured a hall running through the middle and 40 ample rooms. Today Tuskegee University has embarked on a major renovation project to bring all of the Emery residence halls online.

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Source: Tuskegee & Its People: Their Ideals and Achievements edited by Bookert T. Washington" (D. Appleton & Co., 1906)
Tuskegee Institute students laying the foundation for one of the four Emery boys' dormitories, designed by Robert R. Taylor.


The Lincoln Gates (c. 1904)

In 1906, Frances Benjamin Johnston photographed the [Lincoln] gates from an angle so that the central piers framed Dorothy Hall's rear and the Chapel, nesting at least these three Stokes [family] donations...[The Stokes Sisters had] suggested the name "Lincoln" because he had opened opportunities for the race...

-- Ellen Weiss, Robert R. Taylor and Tuskegee (NewSouth Books, 2012)


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Photo: Frances B. Johnston, courtesy Detroit Publishing Company, Library of Congress
The Lincoln Gates at Tuskegee Institute, designed by Robert R. Taylor and completed around 1904, shown in 1906.


Douglass Hall (1904)

Completed in 1904, Douglass Hall was named after social reformer and statesman Frederick Douglass. The anonymous donor was later discovered to be Quaker-born William Jackson Palmer, a railroad baron and founder of Colorado Springs. The building served as a woman’s dormitory, also housing a large auditorium, and was rebuilt after it burned down in 1934.

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Courtesy Tuskegee University
Frederick Douglass at Tuskegee Institute, ca. 1892.


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Courtesy Tuskegee University
Douglass Hall at Tuskegee Institute, named after Frederick Douglass, designed by Robert R. Taylor, and completed in 1904.


Collis P. Huntington Memorial Building (1906)

The Collis P. Huntington Memorial Building was a gift from Arabella W. Huntington in memory of her husband. Emmett J. Scott, a Tuskegee administrator, referred to Taylor's architectural contributions as epitomes of the institution's overall commitment to standards of excellence:

The most pretentious building owned by the Institute is the Collis P. Huntington Memorial Building, the new home of the Academic Department...There is everything about the exterior and interior that must awaken a sense of pride in every pupil who enters its portals. Its facilities are sensible and unostentatious, yet they meet every requirement of the department.

-- Emmett J. Scott, Tuskegee and Its People, 1906


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Courtesy Homewood Press and MIT Museum
Emmett Jay Scott was the private secretary of Booker T. Washington, later to serve as Howard University secretary-treasurer, co-founder of the National Negro Business League, and special adviser to President Woodrow Wilson.

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His son Emmett “Scottie” Jay Scott, Jr. '21 (right) would attend MIT as a civil-engineering major and graduate with the Class of 1921.

Scott also highlights the importance of students' direct involvement in the construction of this and other buildings on campus as a special source of pride at Tuskegee:

[T]he idea that only the best is worth having and striving for is emphasized as an object-lesson and principle with such insistence that it becomes an actual part of a student's training and life.


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Students digging the foundations for the C.P. Huntington Building at Tuskegee Institute, ca. 1906. Courtesy Library of Congress

As Taylor's administrative responsibilities grew, he counted on the collaboration of local black architects Leo Persley and Sidney Pittman. Persley was originally from Macon, Georgia; Pittman, who married Washington's daughter Portia, had been a student of Taylor's at Tuskegee and his assistant beginning in 1906 or earlier. Taylor was active in a number of projects outside Tuskegee as well, including design and construction of:

• schools and houses in North Carolina, Arkansas, Mississippi, Virginia, and Tennessee;
• Carnegie Libraries at black colleges in Texas and North Carolina;
• the "Negro Building" at the Alabama Agricultural Association Fair in Montgomery, 1906;
• possibly four buildings at Voorhees College, a black school in Denmark, South Carolina;
• in collaboration with Persley, the Masonic Lodge in Birmingham, Alabama, and the Dinkins Memorial Building at Selma University, both in the 1920s.

Image
Courtesy Tuskegee University
Tuskegee Executive Council, ca. 1906.
Left to right, top row: Robert R. Taylor, R. M. Attwell, Julius Ramsey, Edgar J. Penney, Matthew T. Driver, Henry G. Maberry, George Washington Carver. Left to Right, bottom row: Jane E. Clark, Emmett J. Scott, Booker T. Washington, Warren Logan, John H. Washington.


Death of Beatrice Rochon Taylor (1906)

In addition to the great pressures of duties as acting principal and acting Supervisor of Industries, as well as serving on Tuskegee's Executive Council, Taylor lost his wife Beatrice in 1906 (possibly due to complications after a miscarriage). He was now a single father of four children. In spite of his bereavement and with the help of his sister-in-law, Taylor went back to work within a week. Biographer Ellen Weiss offers a possible explanation for the reason Taylor's loss is barely mentioned in the Tuskegee Student and in his letters to Washington:

Even with habitual inattention to this quiet man's labors, the sparse coverage given his tragedy...surprises...[T]hese laconic snippets suggest a man not only willing to remain in the background but actively bent on doing so.

-- Ellen Weiss, Robert Taylor and Tuskegee (NewSouth Books, 2011)


Image
The Taylor Children near the time of their mother's death, 1906. Pictured left to right: Robert Rochon, Helen, Beatrice, and Edward Taylor
Photo: Frances B. Johnston, Courtesy Library of Congress (Frances Benjamin Johnston Collection)


Image
Source: New Hanover County Public Library, Josephine Cooper Collection
Robert R. Taylor (far right) and his family in Wilmington, NC, 1905-07. Also pictured: Taylor's two eldest children (front), Robert Robert Rochon and Helen; Taylor's brother John E. Taylor (second from left), and members of John's family.


Tantum Hall (1907)

Built in 1907, Tantum Hall was used as the women’s dormitory. It has also served as the residence for female faculty members, and as a guesthouse for student and faculty family and friends. Today the Tantum Hall dormitory is an "honors hall" reserved for upperclassmen whose GPAs are 3.2 or higher.

Image
Courtesy Tuskeege University
Tantum Hall at Tuskegee Institute, 1907


Milbank Agriculture Building (1909)

In addition to the Agricultural Department’s classrooms, the Milbank Agriculture Building housed George Washington Carver’s personal laboratory.

Image
Photo: Erin Harney/Alabama NewsCenter
The Milbank Agriculture Building at Tuskegee Institute, completed in 1909.


I remember my father telling me about this great man George Washington Carver and taking me to the Institute to his laboratory...[he had] a model, miniature house that children could play in...I have some sense of "there are such people in this world"...Tuskegee was a very important kind of anchor for me.

-- Willard R. Johnson, MIT Political Science Professor in Technology and the Dream, 1996


Image
Photo: Erick Butler, Courtesy Tuskegee University
George Washington Carver at work in his laboratory, located in the Milbank Agriculture Building at Tuskegee Institute.


Tompkins Hall (1910)

Tompkins Hall was completed in 1910 as Tuskegee's main dining facility. Located on the ground floor was a 2,500-seat audience hall. The top level housed two dining halls, one for students (1,500 seating capacity) and the other for faculty (180 seating capacity).

At the dedication of Tompkins Hall, Tuskegee trustee Robert C. Ogden called Taylor up to the platform for a display of special appreciation for Taylor's other architectural achievements on campus.

Already serving as a central point on campus, the building was later transformed into the Student Union.

MR. [ROBERT] TAYLOR OCCUPIES IN THE NEGRO RACE IN ARCHITECTURE THE POSITION WHICH [HENRY OSSAWA] TANNER HOLDS IN PAINTING AND [PAUL LAURENCE] DUNBAR ATTAINED UNTO IN POETRY.

-- "Real Builders of Tuskegee," Tuskegee Alumni Bulletin 2 (Jan.-March 1915)


White Hall (1910)

The children of Alexander Moss White--Harvard graduate, New York investment banker, and museum executive--donated funds for White Hall. Tuskegee students, faculty and staff completed the Taylor-designed building, which opened in 1909 and was dedicated in 1910. The stately clock tower was added three years later. It had a manual winding system, but was converted to electric in 1951 and still chimes today. The 104-room building continues to serve as the premiere female residence hall, housing students with a GPA of 3.2 or higher.

Image
Photo: Carol M. Highsmith, Courtesy Library of Congress
White Hall at Tuskegee Institute, completed in 1910.


MIT CONGRESS ANNIVERSARY SPEECH: THE SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEGRO, 1911

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Technology and Industrial Efficiency cover

In 1911, MIT invited Taylor to speak at its 50th anniversary celebration. The Congress of Technology, as the occasion was billed, provided an opportunity to lay MIT's accomplishments before a gathering of MIT graduates, students, faculty, and friends.

Over two days, speakers reflected on the MIT experience and its relationship to a number of contemporary issues in science and technology. As one of the fifty invited alumni and faculty, Taylor was the lone black speaker at the Congress, delivering a paper entitled The Scientific Development of the Negro.

A lone female voice was also included: Ellen Swallow Richards had been scheduled to deliver a paper entitled "The Elevation of Applied Science to an Equal Rank with the So-Called Learned Professions." (The paper was printed in the proceedings, but Richards did not appear at the Congress. She died unexpectedly in March of 1911.)

Taylor began his paper by reflecting on the overall history of the black experience from slavery up to the present, almost half a century since the end of the Civil War. He laid out an insightful analysis of problems and prospects--the challenges and responsibilities facing blacks within the new social order:

[After slavery he] began to think of his old way of living and to hope for a new order. The ability to reach out and develop new lines of work, to study the things by which he was surrounded and to make the most of them...(in other words, the secrets of chemistry, of physics, of mathematics, of the principles of mechanics), all this was to him a closed book...Constantly under the will of another...there was no place for that highest of opportunities...


Taylor's ideas about the evolving framework of educational and professional opportunities for blacks appear to have marked an important middle ground in the polarized debate carried on at the time by Booker T. Washington (industrial emphasis) and W. E. B. Du Bois (intellectual emphasis). He drew from both leaders' philosophies, which he viewed as complementary rather than as conflicting.



CONTINUING TO BUILD TUSKEGEE: 1912-1928

Marriage to Nellie G. Chestnutt (1912)

Six years after the sudden loss of his wife Beatrice, Taylor remarried in 1912. Nellie Green Chestnutt of Wilmington was also a schoolteacher. The couple would have one child, Henry Chestnut Taylor.

John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital (1913)

In 1892, as Taylor was just graduating from MIT, Tuskegee opened the first hospital for African Americans in Alabama. It provided medical facilities for black physicians, who often had little or no access to such in segregated, white-operated institutions, including the public hospitals that catered to black patients. The Tuskegee Institute Hospital and Nurse Training School also provided care for the school’s faculty and students, along with training for black nurses (later expanding to serve the local community). It was renamed in honor of the John A. Andrew, the governor of Massachusetts whose granddaughter made the gift (she was the wife of Charles Mason of Boston, a Tuskegee Institute trustee).

Image
Courtesy Tuskegee University
The John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital at Tuskegee Institute.


Image
Aerial view of the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital at Tuskegee Institute. Courtesy Tuskegee University
In 1987, the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital was closed. Its complex now houses Tuskegee University's National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care, as well as the Tuskegee University Legacy Museum.




Image
Page From the Negro Farmer

The Negro Farmer (1914)

In 1913, Taylor was handpicked by Washington as one of five directors of a new periodical, Negro Farmer, slated to begin publication in February 1914. Taylor was the lone faculty member on the board; the others were top Tuskegee administrators: Washington, president; Emmett J. Scott, vice president; Charles H. Gibson, secretary; and Warren Logan, treasurer. The journal was linked to Tuskegee's Agricultural Extension School programs carried out to black farmers throughout Alabama.

New Laundry / George Washington Carver Museum (1915)

Constructed in 1915 as a laundry facility, the New Laundry building was remodeled to a large extent in the same year. In 1938, the Institute designated the building as the George Washington Carver Museum. Beginning in 1938, Carver himself oversaw the conversion of the building into a combined museum and laboratory. The building was officially dedicated in his name in 1941, two years before his death. In 1947, a fire originating in a basement student laboratory heavily damaged the building's interior, which was later remodeled. In 1974 the National Park Service acquired Carver Museum as a part of the Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site.

Image
Courtesy Library of Congress
The New Laundry was constructed at Tuskegee Institute in 1915 (later designated as the George Washington Carver Museum), shown here after 1933.


Agricultural Campus and James Hall (1921)

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Courtesy Tuskegee University
The Agricultural Campus at Tuskegee Institute, completed in 1921.


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Tuskegee University
Ellen Curtis James Hall, completed in 1921, was a nursing student dormitory located near the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital.


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The Colored Masonic Temple in Birmingham, Alabama. Courtesy Library of Congress
This Renaissance-Revival-style building was completed in 1922 and designed by Robert R. Taylor in collaboration with his former Tuskegee student, Leo Persley--both were the state's only two professional black architects at the time. A symbol of black prosperity in the segregated South, the project was both funded and constructed by members of the black community. Throughout its history, the National Register-listed building provided shelter to activists, politicians, and common citizens. It housed the Booker T. Washington Library (now Smithfield Library) for about 30 years.


VICE-PRINCIPAL OF TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE: 1925

In 1925, Taylor became Vice-Principal of Tuskegee Institute. In addition to carrying out teaching and administrative duties, he continued to design buildings on campus.

Sage Hall (1926)

Image
Courtesy Tuskegee University
Sage Hall at Tuskegee Institute, completed in 1926.


Chambliss Children's House (1928)

Constructed in 1928, the brick structure replaced the Children’s House originally built in 1901 (during the period Taylor was away in Cleveland). The new building was a gift from wealthy Tuskegee alum William V. Chambliss. In 1930, it housed a public elementary school, as well as a practice facility for students in the Department of Education. Many children of black professionals in the area were enrolled here. The building later served as the home of the College of Business.

Image
Courtesy Tuskegee University
Chambliss Children's House at Tuskegee Institute, completed in 1928.


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Young students at the Chambliss Children's House, where many black professionals in the Tuskegee Institute area enrolled their children. Courtesy Tuskegee University

Wilcox Trade Buildings (1928)

The Wilcox Trade Buildings were the last set of structures constructed by Tuskegee Institute students.

LIBERIA: 1929

Image
Courtesy Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division
The Booker Washington Agricultural & Industrial Institute campus in Kakata, Liberia, ca. 1940.


[American Philanthropist] Olivia Phelps-Stokes expressed her desire to finance an educational institution somewhere in Africa...embracing the educational philosophy of Booker T. Washington, that of educating the mind, heart and hands...Liberia was the first country targeted for the establishment of a Tuskegee-type institution

-- History of BWI, Booker Washington Institute Alumni Association of North America


During the 1920s, Liberian President Charles D. B. King visited the United States and toured the Tuskegee Institute. Upon his return to Liberia, he hired Taylor, to design a campus for a similar school in Kakata. The Liberian government donated 1,000 acres for the proposed Booker Washington Agricultural & Industrial Institute (BWI). This "Tuskegee of Africa" was under the joint sponsorship of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, the Liberian government, and the Firestone Rubber Corporation (which had opened the world's largest rubber plantation in Liberia in 1926). Other supporters included the American Colonization Society, missionary boards, and individuals.

In 1929, Taylor and his wife Nellie traveled to Liberia, where he was to lay out architectural plans and to devise a program in industrial training for the school. They would stay in Liberia for only 39 days. Established in 1822 by freed American slaves, the Liberia the Taylors arrived to was a politically unstable country with very little working infrastructure and in the grip of a mild yellow-fever epidemic (it flared up again after their departure, claiming the lives of some of his new friends).



Taylor's recommendations for initial construction of the school included academic and agricultural buildings and staff housing, followed by a hospital, shops, and a dormitory.

BWI was Liberia's first agricultural and vocational school. It was also the largest secondary school in the country during the first part of the 21st century and has been transitioning to a community college curriculum as of 2014.

The Liberia project cemented Taylor's reputation among African Americans in the U.S., earning him an honorary doctorate from Lincoln University.



SWEET HOME ALABAMA: 1931-1932

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Photo: Frances B. Johnston, Courtesy Tuskegee University

Logan Hall (1931)

Logan Hall was named after Warren Logan, then the retired treasurer of Tuskegee Institute. The building served as a gymnasium and auditorium with a seating capacity of 3,500, and was the second home of the Tuskegee Basketball Golden Tigers and Tigerettes from 1931 until 1987.

Image
Courtesy Alabama Department of Archives and History
Logan Hall at Tuskegee Institute, completed in 1931.


Armstrong Science Building (1932)

The Armstrong Science Building, a boys' dormitory, is a three-story brick building with multiple chimneys and a double front porch. Samuel C. Armstrong

Hollis Burke Frissell Library (1932)

Today the Frissell Library serves as Tuskegee University's main library. Constructed in 1932, the building was named after Hollis Burke Frissell, the second principal of Hampton Institute. In 2001, after a 4.5-million-dollar renovation, the facility was officially renamed the Ford Motor Company Library/Learning Resource Center.

Image
Courtesy Tuskegee University
The Hollis Burke Frissell Library at Tuskegee Institute is known today as the Ford Motor Company Library.


LATER YEARS: 1929-1942

After the Mississippi Valley flood of 1927, Taylor served on the Mississippi Valley Flood Relief Commission appointed by President Herbert Hoover. Taylor also served as chairman of the Tuskegee chapter of the American Red Cross. In 1929, he was awarded an honorary doctorate by Lincoln University in Pennsylvania for his work in Liberia.

After suffering a heart attack in 1932, Taylor retired from Tuskegee. He moved back to his native Wilmington, North Carolina. He began to devote more of his time to civic work, publishing pieces on social justice issues in various newspapers. In 1935, the governor of North Carolina appointed him to the board of trustees of Fayetteville State Teachers College. Taylor was also a trustee of Chestnut Street Presbyterian Church in Wilmington and treasurer of the local "colored" library board. He was a mason, as well as a member of the Phi Gamma Mu and Phi Beta Sigma fraternities, the Society of Arts in Boston, the American Economic Society, and the Business League of Tuskegee.

Throughout his life, he had retained a deep respect for MIT. In 1942, less than a decade after his retirement from Tuskegee, he wrote to the secretary of his MIT class indicating that he had just been released from treatment for an unspecified illness at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. "Thanks to a kind Providence and skillful physicians," he said, "I am much better now.”

Not long afterwards--on December 13, 1942--Taylor collapsed while attending services at the Tuskegee Chapel, the building that he considered his outstanding achievement as an architect. He died that same day at the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital, also designed by his own hand.

Image
Robert R. Taylor in his later years. Courtesy MIT Museum

[TAYLOR] HAD HOPED TO ATTEND THE FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF HIS GRADUATION THIS YEAR BUT ILL HEALTH PREVENTED. HE HAS ALWAYS MET HIS ALUMNI OBLIGATIONS AND LOVED HIS ALMA MATER.

-- Nellie C. Taylor to MIT president Karl Taylor Compton, 1942


Taylor's widow Neliie wrote to MIT president Karl Taylor Compton from the Taylor home in Wilmington. She enclosed some clippings from the local press, including one from the Cape-Fear Journal that read:

In the passing of Dr. Robert R. Taylor, an honored and highly regarded member of the colored race, both the white and Negro citizens lose one whose place will hardly be filled. Dr. Taylor was a man of fine character, strict integrity, progressive, of quiet mien, and one who held a fine sense of civic obligation and responsibility...He was always sane and sensible in his viewpoint and ever actuated by a spirit always to cement friendly and cordial relations between the races.

-- Quoted in "Class Notes," Technology Review 45 (March 1943): VI


THE ROBERT TAYLOR HOMES: 1957-2005

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Photo: Walter Kale/Chicago Tribune
The Robert Taylor Homes in Chicago, IL


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Robert Rochon Taylor

In 1942, the year of Taylor’s death, his son Robert Rochon Taylor became the first African-American Chairman of the Chicago Housing Authority. Rochon was an architect and civic leader in Chicago, Illinois. He resigned in 1950, when the city council refused to endorse potential building locations throughout the city of Chicago that would induce racially integrated housing.

Two years after his death in 1957, the Robert Taylor Homes were initiated despite protests from the Chicago Defender and the Welfare Council of Metropolitan Chicago. Given his support for scattered-site public housing, Robert Rochon Taylor would also have opposed what became the largest federal public housing project in the world named in his and his father's honor. Built to house 11,000, the Robert Taylor Homes were occupied by 27,000 tenants at its height in 1965. By 2007 the last of the development's buildings were finally demolished. The Robert Taylor Homes had once been home to a number of public figures, including former Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick, MIT's 2009 Commencement keynote speaker.

LEGACY: MIT AND TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY

The Robert R. Taylor Endowed Chair at MIT

In 1994, MIT endowed a chair for minority faculty in Robert R. Taylor’s name. It is the first chair at the Institute named in honor of an African-American. The inaugural holder of the position was Julliard-trained Marcus Aurelius Thompson, an internationally acclaimed violist and chamber music player. Thompson founded performance programs in private studies and chamber music at MIT, and is presently an Institute Professor.

AS A FELLOW AFRICAN-AMERICAN I FEEL PRIDE IN USING [ROBERT R. TAYLOR'S] NAME UNDER MY SIGNATURE.

-- Marcus A. Thompson, inaugural MIT Robert R. Taylor Professor of Music, 2011


Image
Photo: Bryce Vickmark/MIT News Office
Marcus A. Thompson, Institute Professor


The Robert R. Taylor (1892) Fellowship at MIT

In 2011, MIT also established the Robert R. Taylor (1892) Fellowship in the School of Architecture + Planning, appointing then visiting professor Walter J. Hood, Jr. as its inaugural fellow. Hood, Jr. advocates the art of "improvisation" as a design process for making urban landscapes and architecture. Philip Ewing, an architecture graduate student in Design Computation, was the fellow for 2014.

Image
Walter J. Hood, Jr., inaugural Robert R. Taylor (1892) Fellow. He is Professor and former Chair of Landscape Architecture at the University of California, Berkeley, and principal of Hood Design Studio in Oakland, CA.
Photo: Hood Design




The Robert R. Taylor School of Architecture & Construction Science at Tuskegee University

In 2010, Tuskegee University elevated its departments of architecture and construction science from the College of Engineering, Architecture and Physical Sciences (CEAPS) to the Robert R. Taylor School of Architecture and Construction Science (TSACS). The school is located in the Taylor-designed Wilcox A, C and partially in E former trades buildings, originally built in 1928. It is home to one of only two NAAB-accredited, architecture professional degree programs in the state of Alabama, as well as to one of the top Construction Science and Management degree programs in the nation.

[TSACS] is founded on a belief in the power of architecture and construction science to uplift the human condition and give form to society‘s highest aspirations. Students are prepared to become citizen architects and builders - community leaders who provide a vision of a better-built environment...Our mission is to develop skilled professionals who are capable of playing active roles in shaping communities through the building of meaningful places for all people.

-- Tuskegee University


Image
Courtesy Tuskegee University
The Taylor School of Architecture and Construction Science (TSACS) at Tuskegee University


Robert R. Taylor USPS Forever® Stamp

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MIT News Office
"Something to write home about": MIT Spotlight homepage featuring the Robert R. Taylor commemorative U.S. postal stamp, 14 February 2015. Courtesy MIT News


The limited-edition Forever® U.S. Postal Stamp commemorating Robert R. Taylor is the 38th addition to the postal service’s Black Heritage Series. The stamp was officially introduced on February 12, 2015 at the Smithsonian National Postal Museum in Washington, D.C. Among the ceremony attendees were MIT president L. Rafael Reif and Tuskegee University president Dr. Brian L. Johnson. Another attendee of note was Valerie Jarrett, Taylor's great granddaughter and senior advisor to President Barack Obama. At a second inauguration on the evening of the 2015 stamp launch, Jarrett initiated the ribbon cutting to open the Smithsonian National Postal Museum’s “Freedom Just Around the Corner” gallery exhibit.

Image
Courtesy Tuskegee University
Official unveiling of the Robert Taylor postage stamp at the Smithsonian National Postal Museum in Washington, D.C., 12 February 2015. Pictured: L. Rafael Reif, MIT President (far left); Valerie Jarrett, great-granddaughter of Robert R. Taylor and then Senior Advisor to the U.S. President (4th from right); Eric Holder, 83rd U.S. Attorney General (far right).


ROBERT R. TAYLOR'S HISTORIC AND STELLAR LEGACY AND ASSOCIATION WITH TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY IS ALREADY ETCHED IN THE ANNALS OF AMERICAN HISTORY...WITH THIS STAMP, IT WILL BE PERMANENTLY ETCHED IN ALL OF WORLD HISTORY.

-- Brian L. Johnson, Tuskegee University president, 2015


On May 13, 2015, MIT also hosted an event at the Stratton Student Center, featuring remarks by Hashim Sarkis, dean of the MIT School of Architecture and Planning; E. Denise Simmons, Cambridge city councillor; and Katherine Lydon, postmaster for the City of Cambridge. Lydon proposed renaming the post office at the MIT Stratton Student Center after Taylor.

Moments like this are important, because in order to shape America’s future you need to have a thorough understanding of the past...That’s why the Postal Service takes stamps so seriously. To us, stamps are much more than postage. They are the nation’s calling cards. They celebrate our culture, remind us of our history and help us appreciate our heritage. Stamps reflect America and that’s what our Black Heritage stamps are all about.

-- Katherine Lydon, Postmaster for the City of Cambridge


When you think of the history of our nation, how people have been marginalized and pushed to the edges, this is our opportunity to put some of our prominent citizens right in front, so we rewrite history by putting them right in the center of history.

-- E. Denise Simmons, Cambridge City Councillor


I believe this would be among the greatest contributions that we could make towards racial problems...The Robert Robinson Taylor stamp is being issued as a Forever stamp reflecting the universality, timelessness and values of his ideas.

-- Hashim Sarkis, Dean of the MIT School of Architecture and Planning


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Robert R. Taylor stamp unveiling at MIT, 13 May 2015. Photo: John Blanding/The Boston Globe
Pictured left to right: E. Denise Simmons, Cambridge City Councillor; Edmund Bertschinger, MIT Institute Community and Equity Officer; and Katherine Lydon, Postmaster for the City of Cambridge.


AS WE HONOR THE LEGACY OF ROBERT TAYLOR, TODAY’S CEREMONY [AT THE SMITHSONIAN MUSEUM] REMINDS US THAT HE WAS A BUILDER…NOT ONLY OF STRUCTURES, BUT OF COMMUNITIES…AND AN ARCHITECT WHO DESIGNED NOT ONLY A CAMPUS OF NATIONAL IMPORTANCE…BUT A MORE PROMISING FUTURE FOR GENERATIONS TO COME. ROBERT ROBINSON TAYLOR TRULY REPRESENTS THE BEST OF MIT, AND THE BEST OF OUR NATION.
-- L. Rafael Reif, MIT President, 2015


In Popular Culture

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Rufus Carlin in "Timeless"
Source: NBC


In the NBC series Timeless, MIT alum Rufus Carlin (played by Malcolm Barrett) is the pilot of a time machine. Born in Chicago in 1983, Rufus is often not enthusiastic about traveling back in time as a black man, as he has to succumb to racism. In Season I, Episode 11- "The World’s Columbian Exposition" (aired January 16 2017), Rufus goes back to the 1800s. When another character mistakens Rufus for Robert Robinson Taylor, Rufus responds by saying: "No, I'm the other black guy".

EPILOGUE: VALERIE JARRETT

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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

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John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/20/18

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

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John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital (1913) [Architect Robert Robinson Taylor]

-- Robert Robinson Taylor, by Wikipedia


Image
John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital
John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital, Tuskegee Institute, with caption.jpg
Geography
Location Tuskegee, Alabama, United States
Organization
Hospital type Teaching
Services
Beds 180[1]
History
Founded 1892
Closed 1987

The John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital was a teaching hospital on the campus of the Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama, open from 1892 to 1987.

History

The John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital was originally established in 1892 as the Tuskegee Institute Hospital and Nurse Training School. Its original purpose was to train nursing students and provide care for faculty members at the Tuskegee Institute. When it was founded, it was the first black hospital in Alabama.[2] When it was founded, it did not have an outpatient clinic, and instead only provided emergency services within its Tuskegee building. Unlike most other American hospitals of the day, it practiced outreach to surrounding communities through decentralized clinics in rural areas, and most patients received care at these clinics rather than at the hospital itself.[3] In 1902, John A. Kenney Sr. was appointed its director, after which the hospital increased in size and expanded its reach to the entire surrounding community.[2]

After being given to the Tuskegee Institute in 1911,[4] it was dedicated on February 21, 1913, as a result of which it was renamed. It was rebuilt using money donated by the wife of Charles E. Mason, a trustee of the Tuskegee Institute. It was named after Mrs. Mason's grandfather, former Massachusetts governor John Albion Andrew.[5] In a 1919 article in the Nation's Health, Kinney described the hospital as "a modern, up-to-date, well-appointed, two-story brick building, with accommodations for sixty patients with no crowding, and for a good many more when it is necessary."[6] The Tuskegee Syphilis Study took place at the hospital, thanks to the approval of both Eugene Dibble (then the hospital's medical director) and Robert R. Moton (then the president of the Tuskegee Institute).[7][8]

The hospital closed in 1987, after its resources were exhausted by an excess of charity cases.[1] When it closed, it was the last black hospital in Alabama.[2] It was later reopened as the National Center for Bioethics in Research and Healthcare in January 1999.[4][9]

Influence

During the pre-civil rights era, John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital served as a center for black physicians in the Deep South to receive postgraduate training, and for black patients to receive care.[2] According to Montague Cobb, it was one of only five first-rate hospitals in the pre-1940s South that treated black patients.[10] Because so few other nearby hospitals would accept black patients, it "became the medical center for Alabama blacks", as a 1995 Baltimore Sun article noted.[1]

References

1. "In Tuskegee, Foster is remembered as anything but an 'abortion doctor'". Baltimore Sun. 1995-02-20. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
2. Ward Jr., Thomas (2009-08-24). "Black Hospital Movement in Alabama". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
3. Watson, Wilbur H. (1999). Against the Odds: Blacks in the Profession of Medicine in the United States. Transaction Publishers. p. 69. ISBN 9781412816656.
4. "TU's Legacy Museum preparing exhibit on John A. Andrew Hospital". The Tuskegee News. 2011-03-17. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
5. "John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital. Tuskegee Institute, Alabama". digital.archives.alabama.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
6. Kenney Sr., John A. (November 1919). "How Tuskegee Institute Is Promoting Better Health Conditions In The South". The Nation's Health. Modern Hospital Publishing Company, Incorporated. p. 629. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
7. Anekwe, Obiora N. "Artist's Statement". Academic Medicine. 88 (12). doi:10.1097/01.acm.0000437633.94494.c8.
8. Gray, Fred D. (April 2013). The Tuskegee Syphilis Study: An Insiders' Account of the Shocking Medical Experiment Conducted by Government Doctors Against African American Men. NewSouth Books. p. 46. ISBN 9781603063098.
9. "History". Tuskegee Bioethics Center. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
10. Beardsley, Edward H. (1990). A History of Neglect: Health Care for Blacks and Mill Workers in the Twentieth-Century South. Univ. of Tennessee Press. p. 37. ISBN 9780870496356.

External links

• Dibble, E. H.; Rabb, L. A.; Ballard, R. B. (March 1961). "John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital". Journal of the National Medical Association. 53: 103–118. ISSN 0027-9684. PMC 2641895  . PMID 13722655.
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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

Postby admin » Sat Jul 21, 2018 6:10 am

James E. Bowman
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/20/18

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
James E. Bowman
Born James Edward Bowman Jr.
February 5, 1923
Washington, D.C.
Died September 28, 2011 (aged 88)
Chicago, Illinois
Nationality American
Alma mater Howard University
Scientific career
Fields Pathology and Genetics
Institutions University of Chicago Medical School
MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics

James Edward Bowman Jr. (February 5, 1923 – September 28, 2011) was an American physician and specialist in pathology, hematology, and genetics.[1][2] He was a professor of pathology and genetics at the Pritzker School of Medicine at the University of Chicago.

Early life and education

James Edward Bowman was born on February 5, 1923, in Washington, D.C., the eldest of five children[3] of Dorothy Bowman (née Peterson), a homemaker, and James Edward Bowman Sr., a dentist.[4] His parents were African-American.[5] He attended Dunbar High School before earning his undergraduate and medical degrees from Howard University in 1943 and 1946. He did medical internships at Freedmen's Hospital in Washington, D.C. and at Provident Hospital in Chicago. His residency in pathology was at St. Luke's Hospital in Chicago where he was the first African American resident.[4]

Career

Following residency, Bowman served as chair of pathology at Provident Hospital. He was drafted again and spent 1953 to 1955 as chief of pathology for the Medical Nutrition Laboratory at Fitzsimons Army Hospital in Aurora, Colorado. After leaving the military Bowman decided to move overseas. "My wife and I decided that we were not going to go back to anything that smacked of segregation," he recalled. He became chair of pathology at Nemazee Hospital in Shiraz, Iran. "We were recently married, so we took a chance," he said. "It changed our lives completely." Their daughter, Valerie, was born in Iran.[6]

In Iran Bowman saw many diseases for the first time. "I saw smallpox, brucellosis, rabies, all sorts of things," he said. One of the most common diseases among certain ethnic groups in Iran was favism, a metabolic disease caused by an enzyme deficiency in red blood cells. The mutation, which is the most common human enzyme defect, renders those who have it unable to break down a toxin found in fava beans. Favism fit with Bowman's lifelong focus on inherited blood diseases and led to a series of important discoveries about the genetics of these diseases and the populations they affect, especially in the Middle East, Africa and America. It enabled him to travel all over the world collecting blood samples for DNA testing. It also led to frequent contacts and collaborations with University of Chicago researchers, who had first described the enzyme deficiency (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, or G6PD) and its connection with antimalarial medications.[6]

Bowman joined the faculty of the University of Chicago in 1962 as an assistant professor of medicine and pathology and director of the hospital's blood bank. He was promoted to full professor and director of laboratories in 1971. From 1973 to 1984, he directed the Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center of the University of Chicago, funded by the National Institutes of Health. He was a member of the national advisory group that urged the Nixon administration to initiate the inception of the Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center, which served as a model of patient-centered disease management and research. He also served as assistant dean of students for minority affairs for the Pritzker School of Medicine from 1986 to 1990.[4]

In 1972 Bowman declared that mandatory sickle cell screening laws were "more harmful than beneficial." These laws could "revive many of the past misadventures and racism of eugenics movements," he argued at the time, adding that adult screening programs create "inaccurate, misleading, politically motivated propaganda which has left mothers frantic." In 1973, he was named to two federal review committees designed to oversee sickle cell screening and education and to evaluate laboratory diagnostic techniques.[4]

Bowman was certified by the American Board of Pathology in pathologic anatomy (1951) and clinical pathology (1952).[4]

He was the first tenured African-American professor in the University of Chicago's Biological Sciences Division.[7] He served as the medical school's Assistant Dean of Students for Minority Affairs from 1986 to 1990.[2] He was a fellow of the Hastings Center, a bioethics research institution.

Personal life

Bowman was married to educator Barbara Bowman and they had one daughter, Valerie Bowman Jarrett,[4] who was a Senior Advisor to President Barack Obama.

Bowman died of cancer on September 28, 2011, at the University of Chicago Medical Center, at the age of 88.[3]

Selected publications

Bowman published numerous articles and books, including:

Books

• James E. Bowman; Robert F. Murray (1998). Genetic Variation and Disorders in Peoples of African Origin. Hopkins. ISBN 978-0-8018-5884-0.
• James E. Bowman (1983). Distribution and Evolution of Hemoglobin and Globin Loci. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center Symposium on the Distribution and Evolution of Hemoglobin and Globin Loci at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A., October 10–12, 1982. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-444-00793-3.

Journal articles

• James E. Bowman; Robert R. Brubaker; Henri Frischer; Paul E. Carson (September 1967). "Characterization of Enterobacteria by Starch-Gel Electrophoresis of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase". Journal of Bacteriology. American Society for Microbiology. 94 (3): 544–551. PMC 251920  . PMID 5340676.
• Shaw, Richard F.; Ruth Winter Bloom; James E. Bowman (September 1977). "Hemoglobin and the genetic code: Evolution of Protection against Somatic Mutation". Journal of Molecular Evolution. Springer New York. 9 (3): 225–230. doi:10.1007/BF01796111. PMID 864725.
• James E. Bowman (May 1989). "Legal and Ethical Issues in Newborn Screening". Pediatrics. 83 (5): 894–896.
• James E. Bowman (March 1991). "Prenatal screening for hemoglobinopathies". American Journal of Human Genetics. 48 (3): 433–438. PMC 1682982  . PMID 1998329.
• James E. Bowman (1998). "Minority Health Issues and Genetics" (Proceedings of the National Dialogue on Genetics, College Park, Maryland, March 21–22, 1998). Community Genetics — Public Health Genomics. 1 (3): 142–144. doi:10.1159/000016152. PMID 11657303.
• James E. Bowman; Giselle Corbie-Smith; Peter Lurie; Sidney M. Wolfe; Arthur L. Caplan; George J. Annas; Amy L. Fairchild; Ronald Bayer (2 July 1999). "Tuskegee as a Metaphor". Science. 285 (5424): 47–8; author reply 49–50. doi:10.1126/science.285.5424.47b. PMID 10428701.
• James E. Bowman (June 2000). "Technical, Genetic, and Ethical Issues in Screening and Testing of African-Americans for Hemochromatosis". Genetic Testing. 4 (2): 207–212. doi:10.1089/10906570050114920. PMID 10953961.
• James E. Bowman (Autumn 2001). "Genetic Medicine: A Logic of Disease (review)". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 44 (4): 617–618. doi:10.1353/pbm.2001.0061.

See also

• List of African American inventors and scientists

Notes

1. Terry, Don (July 27, 2008). "Insider has Obama's ear: What's she telling him?". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on August 11, 2008. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
2. "The Bowman Society". Pritzker Pulse. Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago. Spring 2005. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
3. "The Longest Way Round Is the Shortest Way Home". Medicine on the Midway. University of Chicago. 65 (1): 24–30. Summer 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
4. "Dr. James Bowman Biography". MedicalMakers. The HistoryMakers. September 27, 2002. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
5. Stated on Finding Your Roots, Season 2: The Official Companion to the PBS Series, by Henry Louis Gates Jr., 2015
6. Easton, John (September 29, 2011). "James Bowman, expert on pathology and blood diseases, 1923-2011". UChicagoNews. University of Chicago.
7. "A Legacy of Diversity & Inclusion". Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago. Retrieved December 25, 2016.
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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

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Barbara T. Bowman
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/21/18

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Barbara T. Bowman
Born Barbara Taylor
October 30, 1928 (age 89)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Nationality American
Education B.A., Sarah Lawrence College
M.A., University of Chicago
Occupation Early childhood education advocate
Years active 50+
Known for Co-founder of Erikson Institute
Board member of Business People in the Public Interest,
Chicago Public Library Foundation,
Great Books Foundation,
High Scope Educational Foundation,
Institute for Psychoanalysis,
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards
Spouse(s) James E. Bowman, M.D.
Children Valerie Jarrett
Parent(s) Robert Robinson Taylor, grandfather

Barbara Taylor Bowman (born October 30, 1928) is an American early childhood education expert/advocate, professor, and author. Her areas of expertise include early childhood care/education, educational equity for minority and low-income children, as well as intergenerational family support and roles.[1] She has served on several boards and was the co-founder of Erikson Institute, where she pioneered the teaching of early childhood education and administration.[2]

Early years

Bowman was born and raised on the south side of Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of Laura Dorothy Vaughn (née Jennings) and Robert Rochon Taylor, who was on the board of the Chicago Housing Authority. Her grandfather was architect Robert Robinson Taylor.[3] Her parents were African-American.[4] After receiving a B.A. degree from Sarah Lawrence College, she began teaching at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools' nursery school, while simultaneously earning her M.A. degree in education from the University of Chicago in 1952.[5] She went on to teach at preschools and elementary schools.

Career

Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty and the 1965 creation of Head Start inspired Bowman.[6] The next year, with the support of businessman and philanthropist Irving B. Harris, Bowman cofounded the Chicago School for Early Childhood Education (now known as the Erikson Institute) with child psychologist Maria Piers and social worker Lorraine Wallach.[7] Bowman went on to serve as its president during the period of 1994 to 2001, and maintains a professorship at the institute, where she is the Irving B. Harris Professor of Child Development. The institute's Barbara T. Bowman Professor of Child Development professorship is named in her honor.[2][8]

Bowman is the Chicago Public Schools' Chief Early Childhood Education Officer. She is the past president (1980–1982) of the National Association for the Education of Young Children.[5] Her Board memberships are many including: Business People in the Public Interest, Chicago Public Library Foundation, Great Books Foundation, High Scope Educational Foundation, Institute for Psychoanalysis, and National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. Among the many honorary degrees awarded to Bowman are those from Bank Street College, Dominican University, Governors State University, Roosevelt University, and Wheelock College.[1]

During her career, she has also served on the Editorial Board of Early Childhood Research Quarterly, and chaired the National Academy of Science, National Research Council's Committee on Early Childhood Pedagogy.

Personal life

Bowman was married to the late James E. Bowman, renowned pathologist and geneticist of African American descent, and the first black resident at St. Luke’s Hospital. They have one daughter, Valerie Jarrett, who was Senior Advisor and Assistant to the President for Intergovernmental Affairs and Public Liaison in the Obama administration.[9] Their granddaughter, Laura Jarrett, graduated from Harvard Law School in 2010 and married Tony Balkissoon, who is also a lawyer and the son of Ontario MP Bas Balkissoon, in June of 2012.[10]

Awards

• Chicago Association for the Education of Young Children Outstanding Service to Children Award
• Chicago League of Women Voters' Civic Contribution Award
• Harold W. McGraw, Jr. Prize in Education, 2005[6]
• Mercedes Award
• National Black Child Development Institute Leadership Award
• Voices for Illinois' Children Start Early Award[1]
• Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis Human Spirit Award

Partial bibliography

Books


• -, & Attinasi, J. (1994). Cultural diversity and academic achievement Urban education program. (Oak Brook, IL]): NCREL. OCLC 34512344
• -, Bredekamp, S., Dodge, D. T., Epstein, A. S., & Borgia, E. (2000). Ensuring Quality and Accountability Through Leadership Tape 1, Curriculum and Assessment. Washington, D.C.: Head Start Bureau, The National Head Start Child Development Institute. OCLC 174103343
• -, Donovan, S., & Burns, M. S. (2001). Eager to learn: Educating our preschoolers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ISBN 0-309-06836-3
• - (2002). Love to read: Essays in developing and enhancing early literacy skills of African American children. [Washington, D.C.]: National Black Child Development Institute. OCLC 52332653
• -, & Moore, E. K. (2006). School readiness and social-emotional development: Perspectives on cultural diversity. Washington, DC: National Black Child Development Institute. OCLC 123438767

Articles

• - (1973). "Role-Models and Social Change". Childhood Education. 49 (4), 180-3. OCLC 92283737
• - (1983). "Do Computers Have a Place in Preschools". OCLC 92833821
• - (1989). "Educating Language-Minority Children: Challenges and Opportunities". Phi Delta Kappan. 71 (2), 118-20. OCLC 93612997
• - (1989). "Self-Reflection as an Element of Professionalism". Teachers College Record. 90 (3), 444-51. OCLC 93619328
• - (1992). "Who Is at Risk for What and Why". Journal of Early Intervention. 16 (2), 101-08. OCLC 93183459
• - (1994). "The Challenge of Diversity". Phi Delta Kappan. 76 (3), 218-24. OCLC 93677959
• - (1995). "The Professional Development Challenge: Supporting Young Children and Families". National Institute for Early Childhood Professional Development. Young Children. 51 (1), 30-34. OCLC 93892515

References

1. "Barbara T. Bowman, M.A." erikson.edu. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
2. "Barbara Bowman Biography". The HistoryMakers. 2002-05-20. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
3. [1]
4. Stated in Finding Your Roots, Season 2: The Official Companion to the PBS Series, by Henry Louis Gates Jr., 2015, pages 244-259
5. "Barbara T. Bowman". mailman.org. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
6. "Harold W. McGraw, Jr. Prize » Past Winners » 2005". mcgraw-hill.com. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
7. "History of Erikson Institute". erikson.edu. Archived from the original on 25 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
8. "Frances Stott, Ph.D." erikson.edu. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
9. "Senior Advisor Valerie Jarrett". The Administration: White House Staff. WhiteHouse.gov. Archived from the original on April 9, 2009. Retrieved April 9, 2009. Valerie B. Jarrett is Senior Advisor and Assistant to the President for Intergovernmental Affairs and Public Liaison
10. Obama attends wedding of Toronto Liberal MPP's son

External links

• Photo of Barbara T. Bowman, 2006
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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

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Obama attends wedding of Toronto Liberal MPP’s son
by Robert Benzie
Queen's Park Bureau Chief
The Star
Wed., June 20, 2012

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How does a Toronto Liberal MPP get some face time with U.S. President Barack Obama?

Easy — invite him to your son’s wedding.

Image
Laura Jarrett, daughter of Barack Obama adviser Valerie Jarrett, and Tony Balkisson, son of Toronto MPP Bas Balkissoon, were married in Chicago on Sunday.

Obama was only one of many high-profile guests at the weekend wedding of Scarborough-Rouge River MPP Bas Balkissoon’s son Tony in Chicago.

Tony Balkissoon, 29, a lawyer in the Windy City, married Laura Jarrett, also a lawyer, whom he met while they were students at Harvard Law School.

She is the daughter of Valerie Jarrett, one of Obama’s most influential advisers and a long-time friend of president who heads the White House office of public engagement.

“It was kind of cool,” Bas Balkissoon told the Star on Wednesday, declining to get into details, citing his son and daughter-in-law’s privacy.

Indeed, the 280 guests at the wedding were asked not to take any photos with cameras or smart phones.

Also in attendance were Obama’s Attorney General Eric Holder, who arrived in a four-SUV motorcade and Vernon Jordan, a key adviser to former president Bill Clinton, among other Democratic luminaries.

It was held at Valerie Jarrett’s mother’s home, which is so close to the president’s private residence that he, First Lady Michelle Obama, and their daughters Sasha and Malia walked.


Guests said the reception was held in the backyard under a large white marquee tent.

Several streets in the posh Hyde Park neighbourhood were cordoned off by hundreds of Chicago police officers and Secret Service agents. Even children attending the wedding were frisked for weapons.

The Chicago Sun-Times reported that on the morning of the wedding an F-15 fighter jet chased away a single-engine airplane that had wandered into the restricted airspace over the neighbourhood.


Such measures are often taken by the North American Aerospace Defense Command for events involving a U.S. president.

While Bas Balkissoon was understandably coy about the event, another Liberal confided that the MPP was seen in deep conversation with both Obama and Holder.

Balkissoon is no slouch at politics. Prior to coming to Queen’s Park in a 2005 by-election he was a prominent Toronto councillor and was credited for blowing the whistle and exposing the MFP computer-leasing scandal.

The Balkissoon-Jarrett marriage is one of several links between Premier Dalton McGuinty’s Liberals and Obama. From 2000 until 2002, David Axelrod, another key adviser to the president, was a paid McGuinty strategist.

As well, Toronto Liberal Jean-Michel Picher, who helped the premier in the run-up to last year’s provincial election, was an early Obama insider who worked on the then-Illinois senator’s historic presidential primary campaign in 2007 and 2008.
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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

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Henry Taylor (1823-1891)
by Catherine W. Bishir
Contributors: Beverly Tetterton and Ellen Weiss.
Published 2010
North Carolina Architects & Builders
A Biographical Dictionary

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Henry Taylor (1823-1891), a slave carpenter, was among the black artisans who built the Bellamy Mansion. Photo courtesy of New Hanover County Museum, Wright Collection.



Birthplace: Cumberland County, North Carolina, USA
Residences: Wilmington, North Carolina
Trades: Carpenter/Joiner
NC Work Locations: Wilmington, New Hanover County
Building Types: Educational; Residential
Styles & Forms: Greek Revival; Italianate

Image
Bellamy Mansion
Citation: Tim Buchman, Bellamy Mansion, Wilmington, New Hanover County, Built Heritage of North Carolina: Historic Architecture in the Old North State, North Carolina State University, Libraries, Special Collections Research Center, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Source: The Built Heritage of North Carolina: Historic Architecture in the Old North State, Special Collections Research Center, North Carolina State University Libraries


Henry Taylor (1823-1891), born a slave, was a prominent carpenter and citizen in Wilmington during the mid and late 19th century. Although few specific projects have been attributed to him, Taylor family tradition associates him with the construction of the immense Bellamy Mansion. He is best known as the father of Tuskegee architect Robert R. Taylor.

Booker T. Washington, a close associate of Robert Taylor, cited Henry Taylor in The Story of the Negro as exemplifying the numerous individuals who "though nominally slaves, were practically free." Drawing upon information from Robert, Washington stated that Henry Taylor was "the son of a white man who was at the same time his master. Although he was nominally a slave, he was early given liberty to do about as he pleased." According to Robert, Henry was born near Fayetteville, the son of his white owner, Angus Taylor, and an enslaved woman who probably belonged to Angus as well. Angus may have had Henry trained as a carpenter to assure that he could support himself. Henry moved to Wilmington, where he became a carpenter-builder as well as forming a mercantile business with a white ship owner.

Henry Taylor developed a prosperous career as a contractor and builder, constructing cargo ships that plied trade routes between the United States and South America via the Caribbean.

-- Robert R. Taylor: First Black Student at MIT, by MIT Black History


Henry Taylor was one of many free and enslaved men of color who participated in Wilmington's city-wide building boom. Family tradition states that he was one of the carpenters who erected and finished the large Bellamy Mansion in 1859-1861. The elaborated, columned mansion, designed by James F. Post and his assistant architect Rufus Bunnell, was widely noted as having been constructed by black artisans. Taylor's role was carried through family memories, and in 1999 his granddaughter Gladys Whiteman Baskerville and her extended family held her hundredth birthday celebration there.

After the war, Taylor operated a grocery business on Nutt Street while continuing in the building business. In 1868 he received $1,800 for constructing the Hemenway School and improving the schoolyard. Active in civic life, Taylor was a member of Giblem Masonic Lodge, the second black Masonic lodge in the state; he served on the finance committee to erect the lodge building in 1871, and it is probable that he was involved in construction of the building, which still stands. He was a founding member of Chestnut Street Presbyterian Church and was active in the Republican Party. He was buried in Pine Forest Cemetery.

Image
The Colored Masonic Temple in Birmingham, Alabama. Courtesy Library of Congress
This Renaissance-Revival-style building was completed in 1922 and designed by Robert R. Taylor in collaboration with his former Tuskegee student, Leo Persley--both were the state's only two professional black architects at the time. A symbol of black prosperity in the segregated South, the project was both funded and constructed by members of the black community. Throughout its history, the National Register-listed building provided shelter to activists, politicians, and common citizens. It housed the Booker T. Washington Library (now Smithfield Library) for about 30 years.

-- Robert R. Taylor: First Black Student at MIT, by MIT Black History


Taylor married Emily Still, a native of Fayetteville, and he built the family's home, the Henry and Emily Taylor House, which stood at 112 North 8th Street, and he also built the John E. Taylor House next door for his son and family. Henry and Emily Taylor raised a family of four children—John Edward, Anna Maria (Whiteman), Sarah Louise (Shober), and Robert Robinson—all of whom distinguished themselves. John Edward Taylor remained in Wilmington and became a prosperous businessman and the first black man appointed Deputy Collector of Customs in the city, a position he held for twenty-five years. Anna Maria attended Howard University, as did her future husband, Dr. James Francis Shober, the first black physician with an M. D. degree to practice in North Carolina; a native of Winston-Salem, he spent his career in Wilmington. Sarah Louise Taylor likewise attended Howard University and married John Henry Whiteman, a prominent Wilmington businessman.

Especially noteworthy on the national scene was Robert Robinson Taylor (1868-1942), the first African American to graduate from MIT and one of the first professionally trained black architects in the United States. As described by architectural historian Ellen Weiss, he forged a long career as an architect at Tuskegee, where he became a close friend of Booker T. Washington. In 1943, shortly after his sudden death, a Wilmington public housing complex formerly called New Brooklyn Homes was renamed for Robert Robinson Taylor.

Robert Robinson Taylor's son Robert Rochon Taylor became an important corporate and civic figure in Chicago, for whom the large Chicago public housing complex, Robert Taylor Homes (completed in 1962), was named. Among Henry Taylor's descendants through this branch of the family is his great-great-great granddaughter Valerie Jarrett, a civic and political leader in Chicago who in 2009 became White House Senior Advisor to President Barack Obama.
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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

Postby admin » Sat Jul 21, 2018 8:18 pm

Finding Your Roots, Season 2: The Official Companion to the PBS Series [EXCERPT]
by Henry Louis Gates, Jr.
Copyright 2016 Henry Louis Gates Jr.

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Valerie's great-grandfather Robert Robinson Taylor had written of "my grandfather Angus Taylor" who appeared to be both owner and father of Valerie's great-great-grandfather Henry Taylor. We tested the Y-DNA of one of Valerie's male cousins, Edward Taylor, on her direct maternal line. Because Angus Taylor was from Scotland, we would expect to find Edward's Y-DNA carrying a European Y-chromosome, ideally one that was Scottish. When we ran Edward's Y-DNA, we found two matches in particular that provided the results we needed to help prove paternity. Valerie's cousin's two closest matches were Martyn Taylor from Skipness, Scotland, Angus Taylor's ancestral home, and John Creed Taylor from Bladen County, North Carolina, Angus Taylor's American home. Furthermore, both men had identified Angus Taylor's grandfather Archibald Taylor as a direct paternal ancestor. That was all the proof we needed , but we went further anyway. When we tested Valerie's autosomal DNA, which an individual inherits from both parents and all of his or her ancestral lines, and compared it to that of a woman named Pat Matthews, a descendant of Angus Taylor's sister Catherine, we discovered that they shared a tremendous amount of DNA. There was no question that Angus Taylor was Henry Taylor's father. Valerie's third great-grandfather was her ancestor's father and master.

On Valerie's father's side, there was an often-repeated rumor of a Jewish ancestor. If that rumor were true, we would know from Valerie's DNA. Did some of her European ancestry come from her paternal great-grandfather, her grandmother Dorothy Bowman's father, who was purportedly Jewish? Askhenazi Jewish DNA was present in Valerie's admixture, but at only 2 percent of her European total, it was too small a figure to indicate a Jewish great-grandparent. One Jewish great-grandparent would have contributed an eighth, or 12.5 percent, of her European DNA. In other words, Valerie's great-grandfather could not have had primarily Jewish ancestry. A reading of 2 percent indicates that Valerie's Jewish ancestor entered her family tree somewhere between five and nine generations ago, or at the level of her third to seventh great-grandparents. Valerie laughed. "Maybe the story started, and they just kept saying 'great-grandfather' generation after generation, and they forgot to add a 'great-great-great-great' after each one," she said. "It looks like folklore."

Valerie admitted that she had never given equal weight to the many lines on her family tree. "I always focused on my great-grandfather, not so much on my great-grandmother," she said, referring to her Rochon ancestors. "I gave her short shrift, and I shouldn't have."

Our exploration of Valerie's roots had leveled the field. Her great-grandfather, Robert Robinson Taylor, was a great man, deserving of the place of honor he occupied in Valerie's family as well as in history books.
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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

Postby admin » Sat Jul 21, 2018 8:29 pm

Skipness
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/21/18

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Skipness Bay

Image
Skipness castle

Skipness (Scottish Gaelic: Sgibinis, pronounced [sɡ̊ʲib̊ɪnɪʃ]) is a village on the east coast of Kintyre in Scotland, a few miles south of Tarbert and facing the Isle of Arran.

There is Skipness Castle (a ruined castle) and Kilbrannan Chapel, which contains some rare grave slabs. There is a nearby cafe that serves fresh fish from the area, and beer brewed on Arran, which can be seen from anywhere in Skipness. Also in the area, there is an organic tannery. There are cottages available to rent in Port na Chrò near the village that are situated by a beach. Both the castle and the chapel date from the 13th century, and are maintained by Historic Scotland.

Many of the cottages which can be rented have their own boats and, during the summer months, mackerel and pollack can be caught from them as well as a whole host of other species. There are plenty of walks running from and through skipness and many shorter ones are located in the picturesque Skipness Estate (which rents out cottages and serves the seafood). Although Skipness is a tiny village with only one shop, it serves the basics, and there are other communities nearby such as Tarbert and Campbeltown from which you can buy your groceries.

External links

• Skipness Official tourist website
• Skipness
• Skipness Castle
• Historic Scotland: Skipness Castle
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Skipness & Claonaig
by http://www.Skipness.info
November 9, 2007

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Arran's Kilbrannan Sound from Skipness Castle
Photography by Net Visuals


Welcome to Skipness

Skipness overlooks the Isle of Arran and is situated on the north westerley most point of Skipness, only 13 miles from Tarbert, the gateway to Kintyre. The Kintyre Way walk also passes through Skipness with a good walk from Tarbert to Skipness which then passes on through Claonaig on its way to Clachan, Carradale, Campbeltown, Machrihanish and finally to Southend.

Skipness is about as far from urban living as you can get with stunning countryside and amazing views across to Arran on clear bright days, the village of Skipness is small and picturesque, ideal for amateur and professional artists and photographers.

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Skipness Stores, Kintyre

There is a small local shop which sells the daily requirements of most families including milk, bread and newspapers plus groceries and soft drinks.

The village of Skipness also has a small school and small parish church.

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Skipness Castle, Kintyre

Skipness Castle

The largely 13th Century Skipness Castle is a magnificent asset to Kintyre and remains in superb condition, free from scaffolding and free entry ensures good photographing and open access all year round.

Castle

Skipness Castle is a stunning 13th Century enclosure castle mostly built in around the 12th Century but modifed and added to at later dates.

The castle itself does not have a huge embankment or defensive moat but the sheer scope of view meant that it would be possible to see incoming vessels from long distances. It would be possible to see small ships for many miles and no doubt ones that would leave the coast of Arran.

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The land which the castle is built on is very flat and embanked with large areas of grazing field afore. This would have been ideal for farming during these times and would have served the inhabitants well.

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The curtain wall here is very thick, roughly around 4 feet and protects the tower. The castle by many examples is not the largest but it is in fantastic condition and you can climb the stairs up on to the roof of the castle, with the hall house below and marvel at the stunning views available from this fantastic location.

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The castle, originally built by the MacSweens was soon claimed by the Lords of the Isles in around 1325 until foreiture somewhere between 1476 and 1493. Shortly after the castle was placed in the hands of the Earl of Argyll who in turn granted responsibility to his son Archibald in around 1511. The castle remained in the Campbell family through several generations until around 1867.

Despite owning an estate of a considerable size, maybe 15,000 acres, the Campbells were unable to maintain the financial upkeep of their assets including the wonderful Castle it was abandoned shortly after and in 1933 the castle was taken into State care and is now protected by Historic Scotland.

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Like most of the castles in Kintyre and Argyll where public access is permitted there is no entry charge and it is open all year round for visitors.

Biliography.

The Argyll Book by Donald Omand
Clan Campbell Society of North America Website

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St Brendan's Chapel, Kintyre

St Brendan's Chapel

The 13th Century Chapel presumably built around the same time as Skipness Castle nestles among farm fields and only several hundred yards from the castle. Some interesting headstones are here in superb condition.

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St Brendan's Chapel

Located a short distance from the foot of Skipness Castle and along towards the stunning coast line and beach is the well maintained historical Chapel that overlooks Arran and has views both northwards and southwards, the view of the castle from here is also stunning.

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The chapel is thought to have been built roughly at the same time as the castle itself, in around the early 1300's.

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The curtain wall surrounds the inner chapel and cemetary within, access is through a small gate.

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There are some interesting headstones and ancient burial stones here in this wonderful tranquil and stunning location.

There is no charge to enter the cemetary and it is maintained to a good standard.

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Skipness Beach, Kintyre

Beaches & Coastline

Skipness has some stunning clear water and wonderful sandy beach with great views across to Arran. With the wind in a westerly direction and the sun high in the sky, Skipness is a perfect and often deserted location ideal for sunbathing and taking your children.

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Beaches

Skipness is located on the most north west coast of Kintyre, with some small shingly beaches and one long stretch of stunning coastline that overlooks the Isle of Arran.

Kintyre is renowned for wonderful coves and sections of coastline with sandy beaches and is very much underused by natives and tourists alike. Skipness is of course no exception to this.

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Of particular interest is a wonderful golden sandy section of beach that is popular with local's for summer afternoons when the temperature permits sunbathing, although it must be said the beach rarely has more than a handful of people at any one time.

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The best time for using the beach is during the summer months where there is a whole host of sealife and wildlife around rock pools and it is best to visit when the wind is from the west or south west as this give plenty of cover.

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It is a grave misconception that Scotland's temperatures in summer are ill compared to the southmost coasts of England however it is quite possible that fair skinned people will get burnt easily especially in the hottest days here.

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Claonaig Ferry

If you would like to visit the Isle of Arran whilst staying in Skipness or in Kintyre then the ferry from Claonaig just outside Skipness takes cars, bicycles and passengers on a very short ferry crossing.

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Ferry

The ferry that connects mainland Kintyre to Arran leaves from Claonaig by Skipness and goes across to Lochranza.

The ferry journey takes only 30 minutes and runs throughout the week even on Sunday with the last departure at 7pm from Claonaig during the summer time.

The ferry allows pedestrians, bicycles, cars, caravans, trailers and motorhomes. Please visit the website of Caledonian MacBrayne here for timetable information for the Claonaig (Kintyre) to Lochranza (Arran) ferry service.

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