The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

Gathered together in one place, for easy access, an agglomeration of writings and images relevant to the Rapeutation phenomenon.

Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

Postby admin » Sat Jul 21, 2018 3:55 am

Part 2 of 2

Rockefeller Hall (1903)

A gift from millionaire and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller helped to alleviate the school's ongoing struggle to provide students with adequate student housing. Completed in 1903, Rockefeller Hall served as the men’s dormitory. The three-story brick building had accommodations for 150 students, and also housed a library and a museum.

In Taylor fashion, the design includes large windows that illuminate staircase landings. This dormitory is historically significant to the school, for the ground floor rooms served as the residence of faculty member George Washington Carver for thirty-five years, until his move to Dorothy Hall in 1938. Today the Rockefeller Hall dormitory is an "honors hall" reserved for upperclassmen whose GPAs are 3.2 or higher.

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Courtesy Tuskegee University
Rockefeller Hall at Tuskegees Institute, designed by Robert R. Taylor and completed in 1903.


The Emerys (1903-1909)

Located near the main gate of Tuskegee’s campus are the four Emery buildings, which served as men's dormitories. Three were gifts of wealthy American philanthropist Elizabeth Julia Emery, who moved to Europe after having spent the first 20 years of her life in Cincinnati, Ohio. Profoundly impacted by childhood memories of injustice towards blacks she decided at the age of 70 to contribute her wealth to African-American causes.

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Courtesy Tuskegee University
The Emerys men's dorms at Tuskegee Institute, designed by Robert R. Taylor and completed between 1903 and 1909.


The Emery buildings were designed by Taylor and built by students between 1903 and 1909. All four of the two-story brick cottages featured a hall running through the middle and 40 ample rooms. Today Tuskegee University has embarked on a major renovation project to bring all of the Emery residence halls online.

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Source: Tuskegee & Its People: Their Ideals and Achievements edited by Bookert T. Washington" (D. Appleton & Co., 1906)
Tuskegee Institute students laying the foundation for one of the four Emery boys' dormitories, designed by Robert R. Taylor.


The Lincoln Gates (c. 1904)

In 1906, Frances Benjamin Johnston photographed the [Lincoln] gates from an angle so that the central piers framed Dorothy Hall's rear and the Chapel, nesting at least these three Stokes [family] donations...[The Stokes Sisters had] suggested the name "Lincoln" because he had opened opportunities for the race...

-- Ellen Weiss, Robert R. Taylor and Tuskegee (NewSouth Books, 2012)


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Photo: Frances B. Johnston, courtesy Detroit Publishing Company, Library of Congress
The Lincoln Gates at Tuskegee Institute, designed by Robert R. Taylor and completed around 1904, shown in 1906.


Douglass Hall (1904)

Completed in 1904, Douglass Hall was named after social reformer and statesman Frederick Douglass. The anonymous donor was later discovered to be Quaker-born William Jackson Palmer, a railroad baron and founder of Colorado Springs. The building served as a woman’s dormitory, also housing a large auditorium, and was rebuilt after it burned down in 1934.

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Courtesy Tuskegee University
Frederick Douglass at Tuskegee Institute, ca. 1892.


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Courtesy Tuskegee University
Douglass Hall at Tuskegee Institute, named after Frederick Douglass, designed by Robert R. Taylor, and completed in 1904.


Collis P. Huntington Memorial Building (1906)

The Collis P. Huntington Memorial Building was a gift from Arabella W. Huntington in memory of her husband. Emmett J. Scott, a Tuskegee administrator, referred to Taylor's architectural contributions as epitomes of the institution's overall commitment to standards of excellence:

The most pretentious building owned by the Institute is the Collis P. Huntington Memorial Building, the new home of the Academic Department...There is everything about the exterior and interior that must awaken a sense of pride in every pupil who enters its portals. Its facilities are sensible and unostentatious, yet they meet every requirement of the department.

-- Emmett J. Scott, Tuskegee and Its People, 1906


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Courtesy Homewood Press and MIT Museum
Emmett Jay Scott was the private secretary of Booker T. Washington, later to serve as Howard University secretary-treasurer, co-founder of the National Negro Business League, and special adviser to President Woodrow Wilson.

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His son Emmett “Scottie” Jay Scott, Jr. '21 (right) would attend MIT as a civil-engineering major and graduate with the Class of 1921.

Scott also highlights the importance of students' direct involvement in the construction of this and other buildings on campus as a special source of pride at Tuskegee:

[T]he idea that only the best is worth having and striving for is emphasized as an object-lesson and principle with such insistence that it becomes an actual part of a student's training and life.


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Students digging the foundations for the C.P. Huntington Building at Tuskegee Institute, ca. 1906. Courtesy Library of Congress

As Taylor's administrative responsibilities grew, he counted on the collaboration of local black architects Leo Persley and Sidney Pittman. Persley was originally from Macon, Georgia; Pittman, who married Washington's daughter Portia, had been a student of Taylor's at Tuskegee and his assistant beginning in 1906 or earlier. Taylor was active in a number of projects outside Tuskegee as well, including design and construction of:

• schools and houses in North Carolina, Arkansas, Mississippi, Virginia, and Tennessee;
• Carnegie Libraries at black colleges in Texas and North Carolina;
• the "Negro Building" at the Alabama Agricultural Association Fair in Montgomery, 1906;
• possibly four buildings at Voorhees College, a black school in Denmark, South Carolina;
• in collaboration with Persley, the Masonic Lodge in Birmingham, Alabama, and the Dinkins Memorial Building at Selma University, both in the 1920s.

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Courtesy Tuskegee University
Tuskegee Executive Council, ca. 1906.
Left to right, top row: Robert R. Taylor, R. M. Attwell, Julius Ramsey, Edgar J. Penney, Matthew T. Driver, Henry G. Maberry, George Washington Carver. Left to Right, bottom row: Jane E. Clark, Emmett J. Scott, Booker T. Washington, Warren Logan, John H. Washington.


Death of Beatrice Rochon Taylor (1906)

In addition to the great pressures of duties as acting principal and acting Supervisor of Industries, as well as serving on Tuskegee's Executive Council, Taylor lost his wife Beatrice in 1906 (possibly due to complications after a miscarriage). He was now a single father of four children. In spite of his bereavement and with the help of his sister-in-law, Taylor went back to work within a week. Biographer Ellen Weiss offers a possible explanation for the reason Taylor's loss is barely mentioned in the Tuskegee Student and in his letters to Washington:

Even with habitual inattention to this quiet man's labors, the sparse coverage given his tragedy...surprises...[T]hese laconic snippets suggest a man not only willing to remain in the background but actively bent on doing so.

-- Ellen Weiss, Robert Taylor and Tuskegee (NewSouth Books, 2011)


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The Taylor Children near the time of their mother's death, 1906. Pictured left to right: Robert Rochon, Helen, Beatrice, and Edward Taylor
Photo: Frances B. Johnston, Courtesy Library of Congress (Frances Benjamin Johnston Collection)


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Source: New Hanover County Public Library, Josephine Cooper Collection
Robert R. Taylor (far right) and his family in Wilmington, NC, 1905-07. Also pictured: Taylor's two eldest children (front), Robert Robert Rochon and Helen; Taylor's brother John E. Taylor (second from left), and members of John's family.


Tantum Hall (1907)

Built in 1907, Tantum Hall was used as the women’s dormitory. It has also served as the residence for female faculty members, and as a guesthouse for student and faculty family and friends. Today the Tantum Hall dormitory is an "honors hall" reserved for upperclassmen whose GPAs are 3.2 or higher.

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Courtesy Tuskeege University
Tantum Hall at Tuskegee Institute, 1907


Milbank Agriculture Building (1909)

In addition to the Agricultural Department’s classrooms, the Milbank Agriculture Building housed George Washington Carver’s personal laboratory.

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Photo: Erin Harney/Alabama NewsCenter
The Milbank Agriculture Building at Tuskegee Institute, completed in 1909.


I remember my father telling me about this great man George Washington Carver and taking me to the Institute to his laboratory...[he had] a model, miniature house that children could play in...I have some sense of "there are such people in this world"...Tuskegee was a very important kind of anchor for me.

-- Willard R. Johnson, MIT Political Science Professor in Technology and the Dream, 1996


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Photo: Erick Butler, Courtesy Tuskegee University
George Washington Carver at work in his laboratory, located in the Milbank Agriculture Building at Tuskegee Institute.


Tompkins Hall (1910)

Tompkins Hall was completed in 1910 as Tuskegee's main dining facility. Located on the ground floor was a 2,500-seat audience hall. The top level housed two dining halls, one for students (1,500 seating capacity) and the other for faculty (180 seating capacity).

At the dedication of Tompkins Hall, Tuskegee trustee Robert C. Ogden called Taylor up to the platform for a display of special appreciation for Taylor's other architectural achievements on campus.

Already serving as a central point on campus, the building was later transformed into the Student Union.

MR. [ROBERT] TAYLOR OCCUPIES IN THE NEGRO RACE IN ARCHITECTURE THE POSITION WHICH [HENRY OSSAWA] TANNER HOLDS IN PAINTING AND [PAUL LAURENCE] DUNBAR ATTAINED UNTO IN POETRY.

-- "Real Builders of Tuskegee," Tuskegee Alumni Bulletin 2 (Jan.-March 1915)


White Hall (1910)

The children of Alexander Moss White--Harvard graduate, New York investment banker, and museum executive--donated funds for White Hall. Tuskegee students, faculty and staff completed the Taylor-designed building, which opened in 1909 and was dedicated in 1910. The stately clock tower was added three years later. It had a manual winding system, but was converted to electric in 1951 and still chimes today. The 104-room building continues to serve as the premiere female residence hall, housing students with a GPA of 3.2 or higher.

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Photo: Carol M. Highsmith, Courtesy Library of Congress
White Hall at Tuskegee Institute, completed in 1910.


MIT CONGRESS ANNIVERSARY SPEECH: THE SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEGRO, 1911

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Technology and Industrial Efficiency cover

In 1911, MIT invited Taylor to speak at its 50th anniversary celebration. The Congress of Technology, as the occasion was billed, provided an opportunity to lay MIT's accomplishments before a gathering of MIT graduates, students, faculty, and friends.

Over two days, speakers reflected on the MIT experience and its relationship to a number of contemporary issues in science and technology. As one of the fifty invited alumni and faculty, Taylor was the lone black speaker at the Congress, delivering a paper entitled The Scientific Development of the Negro.

A lone female voice was also included: Ellen Swallow Richards had been scheduled to deliver a paper entitled "The Elevation of Applied Science to an Equal Rank with the So-Called Learned Professions." (The paper was printed in the proceedings, but Richards did not appear at the Congress. She died unexpectedly in March of 1911.)

Taylor began his paper by reflecting on the overall history of the black experience from slavery up to the present, almost half a century since the end of the Civil War. He laid out an insightful analysis of problems and prospects--the challenges and responsibilities facing blacks within the new social order:

[After slavery he] began to think of his old way of living and to hope for a new order. The ability to reach out and develop new lines of work, to study the things by which he was surrounded and to make the most of them...(in other words, the secrets of chemistry, of physics, of mathematics, of the principles of mechanics), all this was to him a closed book...Constantly under the will of another...there was no place for that highest of opportunities...


Taylor's ideas about the evolving framework of educational and professional opportunities for blacks appear to have marked an important middle ground in the polarized debate carried on at the time by Booker T. Washington (industrial emphasis) and W. E. B. Du Bois (intellectual emphasis). He drew from both leaders' philosophies, which he viewed as complementary rather than as conflicting.



CONTINUING TO BUILD TUSKEGEE: 1912-1928

Marriage to Nellie G. Chestnutt (1912)

Six years after the sudden loss of his wife Beatrice, Taylor remarried in 1912. Nellie Green Chestnutt of Wilmington was also a schoolteacher. The couple would have one child, Henry Chestnut Taylor.

John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital (1913)

In 1892, as Taylor was just graduating from MIT, Tuskegee opened the first hospital for African Americans in Alabama. It provided medical facilities for black physicians, who often had little or no access to such in segregated, white-operated institutions, including the public hospitals that catered to black patients. The Tuskegee Institute Hospital and Nurse Training School also provided care for the school’s faculty and students, along with training for black nurses (later expanding to serve the local community). It was renamed in honor of the John A. Andrew, the governor of Massachusetts whose granddaughter made the gift (she was the wife of Charles Mason of Boston, a Tuskegee Institute trustee).

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Courtesy Tuskegee University
The John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital at Tuskegee Institute.


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Aerial view of the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital at Tuskegee Institute. Courtesy Tuskegee University
In 1987, the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital was closed. Its complex now houses Tuskegee University's National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care, as well as the Tuskegee University Legacy Museum.




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Page From the Negro Farmer

The Negro Farmer (1914)

In 1913, Taylor was handpicked by Washington as one of five directors of a new periodical, Negro Farmer, slated to begin publication in February 1914. Taylor was the lone faculty member on the board; the others were top Tuskegee administrators: Washington, president; Emmett J. Scott, vice president; Charles H. Gibson, secretary; and Warren Logan, treasurer. The journal was linked to Tuskegee's Agricultural Extension School programs carried out to black farmers throughout Alabama.

New Laundry / George Washington Carver Museum (1915)

Constructed in 1915 as a laundry facility, the New Laundry building was remodeled to a large extent in the same year. In 1938, the Institute designated the building as the George Washington Carver Museum. Beginning in 1938, Carver himself oversaw the conversion of the building into a combined museum and laboratory. The building was officially dedicated in his name in 1941, two years before his death. In 1947, a fire originating in a basement student laboratory heavily damaged the building's interior, which was later remodeled. In 1974 the National Park Service acquired Carver Museum as a part of the Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site.

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Courtesy Library of Congress
The New Laundry was constructed at Tuskegee Institute in 1915 (later designated as the George Washington Carver Museum), shown here after 1933.


Agricultural Campus and James Hall (1921)

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Courtesy Tuskegee University
The Agricultural Campus at Tuskegee Institute, completed in 1921.


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Tuskegee University
Ellen Curtis James Hall, completed in 1921, was a nursing student dormitory located near the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital.


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The Colored Masonic Temple in Birmingham, Alabama. Courtesy Library of Congress
This Renaissance-Revival-style building was completed in 1922 and designed by Robert R. Taylor in collaboration with his former Tuskegee student, Leo Persley--both were the state's only two professional black architects at the time. A symbol of black prosperity in the segregated South, the project was both funded and constructed by members of the black community. Throughout its history, the National Register-listed building provided shelter to activists, politicians, and common citizens. It housed the Booker T. Washington Library (now Smithfield Library) for about 30 years.


VICE-PRINCIPAL OF TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE: 1925

In 1925, Taylor became Vice-Principal of Tuskegee Institute. In addition to carrying out teaching and administrative duties, he continued to design buildings on campus.

Sage Hall (1926)

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Courtesy Tuskegee University
Sage Hall at Tuskegee Institute, completed in 1926.


Chambliss Children's House (1928)

Constructed in 1928, the brick structure replaced the Children’s House originally built in 1901 (during the period Taylor was away in Cleveland). The new building was a gift from wealthy Tuskegee alum William V. Chambliss. In 1930, it housed a public elementary school, as well as a practice facility for students in the Department of Education. Many children of black professionals in the area were enrolled here. The building later served as the home of the College of Business.

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Courtesy Tuskegee University
Chambliss Children's House at Tuskegee Institute, completed in 1928.


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Young students at the Chambliss Children's House, where many black professionals in the Tuskegee Institute area enrolled their children. Courtesy Tuskegee University

Wilcox Trade Buildings (1928)

The Wilcox Trade Buildings were the last set of structures constructed by Tuskegee Institute students.

LIBERIA: 1929

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Courtesy Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division
The Booker Washington Agricultural & Industrial Institute campus in Kakata, Liberia, ca. 1940.


[American Philanthropist] Olivia Phelps-Stokes expressed her desire to finance an educational institution somewhere in Africa...embracing the educational philosophy of Booker T. Washington, that of educating the mind, heart and hands...Liberia was the first country targeted for the establishment of a Tuskegee-type institution

-- History of BWI, Booker Washington Institute Alumni Association of North America


During the 1920s, Liberian President Charles D. B. King visited the United States and toured the Tuskegee Institute. Upon his return to Liberia, he hired Taylor, to design a campus for a similar school in Kakata. The Liberian government donated 1,000 acres for the proposed Booker Washington Agricultural & Industrial Institute (BWI). This "Tuskegee of Africa" was under the joint sponsorship of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, the Liberian government, and the Firestone Rubber Corporation (which had opened the world's largest rubber plantation in Liberia in 1926). Other supporters included the American Colonization Society, missionary boards, and individuals.

In 1929, Taylor and his wife Nellie traveled to Liberia, where he was to lay out architectural plans and to devise a program in industrial training for the school. They would stay in Liberia for only 39 days. Established in 1822 by freed American slaves, the Liberia the Taylors arrived to was a politically unstable country with very little working infrastructure and in the grip of a mild yellow-fever epidemic (it flared up again after their departure, claiming the lives of some of his new friends).



Taylor's recommendations for initial construction of the school included academic and agricultural buildings and staff housing, followed by a hospital, shops, and a dormitory.

BWI was Liberia's first agricultural and vocational school. It was also the largest secondary school in the country during the first part of the 21st century and has been transitioning to a community college curriculum as of 2014.

The Liberia project cemented Taylor's reputation among African Americans in the U.S., earning him an honorary doctorate from Lincoln University.



SWEET HOME ALABAMA: 1931-1932

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Photo: Frances B. Johnston, Courtesy Tuskegee University

Logan Hall (1931)

Logan Hall was named after Warren Logan, then the retired treasurer of Tuskegee Institute. The building served as a gymnasium and auditorium with a seating capacity of 3,500, and was the second home of the Tuskegee Basketball Golden Tigers and Tigerettes from 1931 until 1987.

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Courtesy Alabama Department of Archives and History
Logan Hall at Tuskegee Institute, completed in 1931.


Armstrong Science Building (1932)

The Armstrong Science Building, a boys' dormitory, is a three-story brick building with multiple chimneys and a double front porch. Samuel C. Armstrong

Hollis Burke Frissell Library (1932)

Today the Frissell Library serves as Tuskegee University's main library. Constructed in 1932, the building was named after Hollis Burke Frissell, the second principal of Hampton Institute. In 2001, after a 4.5-million-dollar renovation, the facility was officially renamed the Ford Motor Company Library/Learning Resource Center.

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Courtesy Tuskegee University
The Hollis Burke Frissell Library at Tuskegee Institute is known today as the Ford Motor Company Library.


LATER YEARS: 1929-1942

After the Mississippi Valley flood of 1927, Taylor served on the Mississippi Valley Flood Relief Commission appointed by President Herbert Hoover. Taylor also served as chairman of the Tuskegee chapter of the American Red Cross. In 1929, he was awarded an honorary doctorate by Lincoln University in Pennsylvania for his work in Liberia.

After suffering a heart attack in 1932, Taylor retired from Tuskegee. He moved back to his native Wilmington, North Carolina. He began to devote more of his time to civic work, publishing pieces on social justice issues in various newspapers. In 1935, the governor of North Carolina appointed him to the board of trustees of Fayetteville State Teachers College. Taylor was also a trustee of Chestnut Street Presbyterian Church in Wilmington and treasurer of the local "colored" library board. He was a mason, as well as a member of the Phi Gamma Mu and Phi Beta Sigma fraternities, the Society of Arts in Boston, the American Economic Society, and the Business League of Tuskegee.

Throughout his life, he had retained a deep respect for MIT. In 1942, less than a decade after his retirement from Tuskegee, he wrote to the secretary of his MIT class indicating that he had just been released from treatment for an unspecified illness at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. "Thanks to a kind Providence and skillful physicians," he said, "I am much better now.”

Not long afterwards--on December 13, 1942--Taylor collapsed while attending services at the Tuskegee Chapel, the building that he considered his outstanding achievement as an architect. He died that same day at the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital, also designed by his own hand.

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Robert R. Taylor in his later years. Courtesy MIT Museum

[TAYLOR] HAD HOPED TO ATTEND THE FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF HIS GRADUATION THIS YEAR BUT ILL HEALTH PREVENTED. HE HAS ALWAYS MET HIS ALUMNI OBLIGATIONS AND LOVED HIS ALMA MATER.

-- Nellie C. Taylor to MIT president Karl Taylor Compton, 1942


Taylor's widow Neliie wrote to MIT president Karl Taylor Compton from the Taylor home in Wilmington. She enclosed some clippings from the local press, including one from the Cape-Fear Journal that read:

In the passing of Dr. Robert R. Taylor, an honored and highly regarded member of the colored race, both the white and Negro citizens lose one whose place will hardly be filled. Dr. Taylor was a man of fine character, strict integrity, progressive, of quiet mien, and one who held a fine sense of civic obligation and responsibility...He was always sane and sensible in his viewpoint and ever actuated by a spirit always to cement friendly and cordial relations between the races.

-- Quoted in "Class Notes," Technology Review 45 (March 1943): VI


THE ROBERT TAYLOR HOMES: 1957-2005

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Photo: Walter Kale/Chicago Tribune
The Robert Taylor Homes in Chicago, IL


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Robert Rochon Taylor

In 1942, the year of Taylor’s death, his son Robert Rochon Taylor became the first African-American Chairman of the Chicago Housing Authority. Rochon was an architect and civic leader in Chicago, Illinois. He resigned in 1950, when the city council refused to endorse potential building locations throughout the city of Chicago that would induce racially integrated housing.

Two years after his death in 1957, the Robert Taylor Homes were initiated despite protests from the Chicago Defender and the Welfare Council of Metropolitan Chicago. Given his support for scattered-site public housing, Robert Rochon Taylor would also have opposed what became the largest federal public housing project in the world named in his and his father's honor. Built to house 11,000, the Robert Taylor Homes were occupied by 27,000 tenants at its height in 1965. By 2007 the last of the development's buildings were finally demolished. The Robert Taylor Homes had once been home to a number of public figures, including former Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick, MIT's 2009 Commencement keynote speaker.

LEGACY: MIT AND TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY

The Robert R. Taylor Endowed Chair at MIT

In 1994, MIT endowed a chair for minority faculty in Robert R. Taylor’s name. It is the first chair at the Institute named in honor of an African-American. The inaugural holder of the position was Julliard-trained Marcus Aurelius Thompson, an internationally acclaimed violist and chamber music player. Thompson founded performance programs in private studies and chamber music at MIT, and is presently an Institute Professor.

AS A FELLOW AFRICAN-AMERICAN I FEEL PRIDE IN USING [ROBERT R. TAYLOR'S] NAME UNDER MY SIGNATURE.

-- Marcus A. Thompson, inaugural MIT Robert R. Taylor Professor of Music, 2011


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Photo: Bryce Vickmark/MIT News Office
Marcus A. Thompson, Institute Professor


The Robert R. Taylor (1892) Fellowship at MIT

In 2011, MIT also established the Robert R. Taylor (1892) Fellowship in the School of Architecture + Planning, appointing then visiting professor Walter J. Hood, Jr. as its inaugural fellow. Hood, Jr. advocates the art of "improvisation" as a design process for making urban landscapes and architecture. Philip Ewing, an architecture graduate student in Design Computation, was the fellow for 2014.

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Walter J. Hood, Jr., inaugural Robert R. Taylor (1892) Fellow. He is Professor and former Chair of Landscape Architecture at the University of California, Berkeley, and principal of Hood Design Studio in Oakland, CA.
Photo: Hood Design




The Robert R. Taylor School of Architecture & Construction Science at Tuskegee University

In 2010, Tuskegee University elevated its departments of architecture and construction science from the College of Engineering, Architecture and Physical Sciences (CEAPS) to the Robert R. Taylor School of Architecture and Construction Science (TSACS). The school is located in the Taylor-designed Wilcox A, C and partially in E former trades buildings, originally built in 1928. It is home to one of only two NAAB-accredited, architecture professional degree programs in the state of Alabama, as well as to one of the top Construction Science and Management degree programs in the nation.

[TSACS] is founded on a belief in the power of architecture and construction science to uplift the human condition and give form to society‘s highest aspirations. Students are prepared to become citizen architects and builders - community leaders who provide a vision of a better-built environment...Our mission is to develop skilled professionals who are capable of playing active roles in shaping communities through the building of meaningful places for all people.

-- Tuskegee University


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Courtesy Tuskegee University
The Taylor School of Architecture and Construction Science (TSACS) at Tuskegee University


Robert R. Taylor USPS Forever® Stamp

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MIT News Office
"Something to write home about": MIT Spotlight homepage featuring the Robert R. Taylor commemorative U.S. postal stamp, 14 February 2015. Courtesy MIT News


The limited-edition Forever® U.S. Postal Stamp commemorating Robert R. Taylor is the 38th addition to the postal service’s Black Heritage Series. The stamp was officially introduced on February 12, 2015 at the Smithsonian National Postal Museum in Washington, D.C. Among the ceremony attendees were MIT president L. Rafael Reif and Tuskegee University president Dr. Brian L. Johnson. Another attendee of note was Valerie Jarrett, Taylor's great granddaughter and senior advisor to President Barack Obama. At a second inauguration on the evening of the 2015 stamp launch, Jarrett initiated the ribbon cutting to open the Smithsonian National Postal Museum’s “Freedom Just Around the Corner” gallery exhibit.

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Courtesy Tuskegee University
Official unveiling of the Robert Taylor postage stamp at the Smithsonian National Postal Museum in Washington, D.C., 12 February 2015. Pictured: L. Rafael Reif, MIT President (far left); Valerie Jarrett, great-granddaughter of Robert R. Taylor and then Senior Advisor to the U.S. President (4th from right); Eric Holder, 83rd U.S. Attorney General (far right).


ROBERT R. TAYLOR'S HISTORIC AND STELLAR LEGACY AND ASSOCIATION WITH TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY IS ALREADY ETCHED IN THE ANNALS OF AMERICAN HISTORY...WITH THIS STAMP, IT WILL BE PERMANENTLY ETCHED IN ALL OF WORLD HISTORY.

-- Brian L. Johnson, Tuskegee University president, 2015


On May 13, 2015, MIT also hosted an event at the Stratton Student Center, featuring remarks by Hashim Sarkis, dean of the MIT School of Architecture and Planning; E. Denise Simmons, Cambridge city councillor; and Katherine Lydon, postmaster for the City of Cambridge. Lydon proposed renaming the post office at the MIT Stratton Student Center after Taylor.

Moments like this are important, because in order to shape America’s future you need to have a thorough understanding of the past...That’s why the Postal Service takes stamps so seriously. To us, stamps are much more than postage. They are the nation’s calling cards. They celebrate our culture, remind us of our history and help us appreciate our heritage. Stamps reflect America and that’s what our Black Heritage stamps are all about.

-- Katherine Lydon, Postmaster for the City of Cambridge


When you think of the history of our nation, how people have been marginalized and pushed to the edges, this is our opportunity to put some of our prominent citizens right in front, so we rewrite history by putting them right in the center of history.

-- E. Denise Simmons, Cambridge City Councillor


I believe this would be among the greatest contributions that we could make towards racial problems...The Robert Robinson Taylor stamp is being issued as a Forever stamp reflecting the universality, timelessness and values of his ideas.

-- Hashim Sarkis, Dean of the MIT School of Architecture and Planning


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Robert R. Taylor stamp unveiling at MIT, 13 May 2015. Photo: John Blanding/The Boston Globe
Pictured left to right: E. Denise Simmons, Cambridge City Councillor; Edmund Bertschinger, MIT Institute Community and Equity Officer; and Katherine Lydon, Postmaster for the City of Cambridge.


AS WE HONOR THE LEGACY OF ROBERT TAYLOR, TODAY’S CEREMONY [AT THE SMITHSONIAN MUSEUM] REMINDS US THAT HE WAS A BUILDER…NOT ONLY OF STRUCTURES, BUT OF COMMUNITIES…AND AN ARCHITECT WHO DESIGNED NOT ONLY A CAMPUS OF NATIONAL IMPORTANCE…BUT A MORE PROMISING FUTURE FOR GENERATIONS TO COME. ROBERT ROBINSON TAYLOR TRULY REPRESENTS THE BEST OF MIT, AND THE BEST OF OUR NATION.
-- L. Rafael Reif, MIT President, 2015


In Popular Culture

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Rufus Carlin in "Timeless"
Source: NBC


In the NBC series Timeless, MIT alum Rufus Carlin (played by Malcolm Barrett) is the pilot of a time machine. Born in Chicago in 1983, Rufus is often not enthusiastic about traveling back in time as a black man, as he has to succumb to racism. In Season I, Episode 11- "The World’s Columbian Exposition" (aired January 16 2017), Rufus goes back to the 1800s. When another character mistakens Rufus for Robert Robinson Taylor, Rufus responds by saying: "No, I'm the other black guy".

EPILOGUE: VALERIE JARRETT

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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

Postby admin » Sat Jul 21, 2018 5:24 am

John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/20/18

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John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital (1913) [Architect Robert Robinson Taylor]

-- Robert Robinson Taylor, by Wikipedia


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John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital
Geography
Location Tuskegee, Alabama, United States
Organization
Hospital type Teaching
Services
Beds 180[1]
History
Founded 1892
Closed 1987

The John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital was a teaching hospital on the campus of the Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama, open from 1892 to 1987.

History

The John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital was originally established in 1892 as the Tuskegee Institute Hospital and Nurse Training School. Its original purpose was to train nursing students and provide care for faculty members at the Tuskegee Institute. When it was founded, it was the first black hospital in Alabama.[2] When it was founded, it did not have an outpatient clinic, and instead only provided emergency services within its Tuskegee building. Unlike most other American hospitals of the day, it practiced outreach to surrounding communities through decentralized clinics in rural areas, and most patients received care at these clinics rather than at the hospital itself.[3] In 1902, John A. Kenney Sr. was appointed its director, after which the hospital increased in size and expanded its reach to the entire surrounding community.[2]

After being given to the Tuskegee Institute in 1911,[4] it was dedicated on February 21, 1913, as a result of which it was renamed. It was rebuilt using money donated by the wife of Charles E. Mason, a trustee of the Tuskegee Institute. It was named after Mrs. Mason's grandfather, former Massachusetts governor John Albion Andrew.[5] In a 1919 article in the Nation's Health, Kinney described the hospital as "a modern, up-to-date, well-appointed, two-story brick building, with accommodations for sixty patients with no crowding, and for a good many more when it is necessary."[6] The Tuskegee Syphilis Study took place at the hospital, thanks to the approval of both Eugene Dibble (then the hospital's medical director) and Robert R. Moton (then the president of the Tuskegee Institute).[7][8]

The hospital closed in 1987, after its resources were exhausted by an excess of charity cases.[1] When it closed, it was the last black hospital in Alabama.[2] It was later reopened as the National Center for Bioethics in Research and Healthcare in January 1999.[4][9]

Influence

During the pre-civil rights era, John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital served as a center for black physicians in the Deep South to receive postgraduate training, and for black patients to receive care.[2] According to Montague Cobb, it was one of only five first-rate hospitals in the pre-1940s South that treated black patients.[10] Because so few other nearby hospitals would accept black patients, it "became the medical center for Alabama blacks", as a 1995 Baltimore Sun article noted.[1]

References

1. "In Tuskegee, Foster is remembered as anything but an 'abortion doctor'". Baltimore Sun. 1995-02-20. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
2. Ward Jr., Thomas (2009-08-24). "Black Hospital Movement in Alabama". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
3. Watson, Wilbur H. (1999). Against the Odds: Blacks in the Profession of Medicine in the United States. Transaction Publishers. p. 69. ISBN 9781412816656.
4. "TU's Legacy Museum preparing exhibit on John A. Andrew Hospital". The Tuskegee News. 2011-03-17. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
5. "John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital. Tuskegee Institute, Alabama". digital.archives.alabama.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
6. Kenney Sr., John A. (November 1919). "How Tuskegee Institute Is Promoting Better Health Conditions In The South". The Nation's Health. Modern Hospital Publishing Company, Incorporated. p. 629. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
7. Anekwe, Obiora N. "Artist's Statement". Academic Medicine. 88 (12). doi:10.1097/01.acm.0000437633.94494.c8.
8. Gray, Fred D. (April 2013). The Tuskegee Syphilis Study: An Insiders' Account of the Shocking Medical Experiment Conducted by Government Doctors Against African American Men. NewSouth Books. p. 46. ISBN 9781603063098.
9. "History". Tuskegee Bioethics Center. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
10. Beardsley, Edward H. (1990). A History of Neglect: Health Care for Blacks and Mill Workers in the Twentieth-Century South. Univ. of Tennessee Press. p. 37. ISBN 9780870496356.

External links

• Dibble, E. H.; Rabb, L. A.; Ballard, R. B. (March 1961). "John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital". Journal of the National Medical Association. 53: 103–118. ISSN 0027-9684. PMC 2641895  . PMID 13722655.
k Obama.
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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

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James E. Bowman
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/20/18

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James E. Bowman
Born James Edward Bowman Jr.
February 5, 1923
Washington, D.C.
Died September 28, 2011 (aged 88)
Chicago, Illinois
Nationality American
Alma mater Howard University
Scientific career
Fields Pathology and Genetics
Institutions University of Chicago Medical School
MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics

James Edward Bowman Jr. (February 5, 1923 – September 28, 2011) was an American physician and specialist in pathology, hematology, and genetics.[1][2] He was a professor of pathology and genetics at the Pritzker School of Medicine at the University of Chicago.

Early life and education

James Edward Bowman was born on February 5, 1923, in Washington, D.C., the eldest of five children[3] of Dorothy Bowman (née Peterson), a homemaker, and James Edward Bowman Sr., a dentist.[4] His parents were African-American.[5] He attended Dunbar High School before earning his undergraduate and medical degrees from Howard University in 1943 and 1946. He did medical internships at Freedmen's Hospital in Washington, D.C. and at Provident Hospital in Chicago. His residency in pathology was at St. Luke's Hospital in Chicago where he was the first African American resident.[4]

Career

Following residency, Bowman served as chair of pathology at Provident Hospital. He was drafted again and spent 1953 to 1955 as chief of pathology for the Medical Nutrition Laboratory at Fitzsimons Army Hospital in Aurora, Colorado. After leaving the military Bowman decided to move overseas. "My wife and I decided that we were not going to go back to anything that smacked of segregation," he recalled. He became chair of pathology at Nemazee Hospital in Shiraz, Iran. "We were recently married, so we took a chance," he said. "It changed our lives completely." Their daughter, Valerie, was born in Iran.[6]

In Iran Bowman saw many diseases for the first time. "I saw smallpox, brucellosis, rabies, all sorts of things," he said. One of the most common diseases among certain ethnic groups in Iran was favism, a metabolic disease caused by an enzyme deficiency in red blood cells. The mutation, which is the most common human enzyme defect, renders those who have it unable to break down a toxin found in fava beans. Favism fit with Bowman's lifelong focus on inherited blood diseases and led to a series of important discoveries about the genetics of these diseases and the populations they affect, especially in the Middle East, Africa and America. It enabled him to travel all over the world collecting blood samples for DNA testing. It also led to frequent contacts and collaborations with University of Chicago researchers, who had first described the enzyme deficiency (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, or G6PD) and its connection with antimalarial medications.[6]

Bowman joined the faculty of the University of Chicago in 1962 as an assistant professor of medicine and pathology and director of the hospital's blood bank. He was promoted to full professor and director of laboratories in 1971. From 1973 to 1984, he directed the Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center of the University of Chicago, funded by the National Institutes of Health. He was a member of the national advisory group that urged the Nixon administration to initiate the inception of the Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center, which served as a model of patient-centered disease management and research. He also served as assistant dean of students for minority affairs for the Pritzker School of Medicine from 1986 to 1990.[4]

In 1972 Bowman declared that mandatory sickle cell screening laws were "more harmful than beneficial." These laws could "revive many of the past misadventures and racism of eugenics movements," he argued at the time, adding that adult screening programs create "inaccurate, misleading, politically motivated propaganda which has left mothers frantic." In 1973, he was named to two federal review committees designed to oversee sickle cell screening and education and to evaluate laboratory diagnostic techniques.[4]

Bowman was certified by the American Board of Pathology in pathologic anatomy (1951) and clinical pathology (1952).[4]

He was the first tenured African-American professor in the University of Chicago's Biological Sciences Division.[7] He served as the medical school's Assistant Dean of Students for Minority Affairs from 1986 to 1990.[2] He was a fellow of the Hastings Center, a bioethics research institution.

Personal life

Bowman was married to educator Barbara Bowman and they had one daughter, Valerie Bowman Jarrett,[4] who was a Senior Advisor to President Barack Obama.

Bowman died of cancer on September 28, 2011, at the University of Chicago Medical Center, at the age of 88.[3]

Selected publications

Bowman published numerous articles and books, including:

Books

• James E. Bowman; Robert F. Murray (1998). Genetic Variation and Disorders in Peoples of African Origin. Hopkins. ISBN 978-0-8018-5884-0.
• James E. Bowman (1983). Distribution and Evolution of Hemoglobin and Globin Loci. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center Symposium on the Distribution and Evolution of Hemoglobin and Globin Loci at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A., October 10–12, 1982. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-444-00793-3.

Journal articles

• James E. Bowman; Robert R. Brubaker; Henri Frischer; Paul E. Carson (September 1967). "Characterization of Enterobacteria by Starch-Gel Electrophoresis of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase". Journal of Bacteriology. American Society for Microbiology. 94 (3): 544–551. PMC 251920  . PMID 5340676.
• Shaw, Richard F.; Ruth Winter Bloom; James E. Bowman (September 1977). "Hemoglobin and the genetic code: Evolution of Protection against Somatic Mutation". Journal of Molecular Evolution. Springer New York. 9 (3): 225–230. doi:10.1007/BF01796111. PMID 864725.
• James E. Bowman (May 1989). "Legal and Ethical Issues in Newborn Screening". Pediatrics. 83 (5): 894–896.
• James E. Bowman (March 1991). "Prenatal screening for hemoglobinopathies". American Journal of Human Genetics. 48 (3): 433–438. PMC 1682982  . PMID 1998329.
• James E. Bowman (1998). "Minority Health Issues and Genetics" (Proceedings of the National Dialogue on Genetics, College Park, Maryland, March 21–22, 1998). Community Genetics — Public Health Genomics. 1 (3): 142–144. doi:10.1159/000016152. PMID 11657303.
• James E. Bowman; Giselle Corbie-Smith; Peter Lurie; Sidney M. Wolfe; Arthur L. Caplan; George J. Annas; Amy L. Fairchild; Ronald Bayer (2 July 1999). "Tuskegee as a Metaphor". Science. 285 (5424): 47–8; author reply 49–50. doi:10.1126/science.285.5424.47b. PMID 10428701.
• James E. Bowman (June 2000). "Technical, Genetic, and Ethical Issues in Screening and Testing of African-Americans for Hemochromatosis". Genetic Testing. 4 (2): 207–212. doi:10.1089/10906570050114920. PMID 10953961.
• James E. Bowman (Autumn 2001). "Genetic Medicine: A Logic of Disease (review)". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 44 (4): 617–618. doi:10.1353/pbm.2001.0061.

See also

• List of African American inventors and scientists

Notes

1. Terry, Don (July 27, 2008). "Insider has Obama's ear: What's she telling him?". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on August 11, 2008. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
2. "The Bowman Society". Pritzker Pulse. Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago. Spring 2005. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
3. "The Longest Way Round Is the Shortest Way Home". Medicine on the Midway. University of Chicago. 65 (1): 24–30. Summer 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
4. "Dr. James Bowman Biography". MedicalMakers. The HistoryMakers. September 27, 2002. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
5. Stated on Finding Your Roots, Season 2: The Official Companion to the PBS Series, by Henry Louis Gates Jr., 2015
6. Easton, John (September 29, 2011). "James Bowman, expert on pathology and blood diseases, 1923-2011". UChicagoNews. University of Chicago.
7. "A Legacy of Diversity & Inclusion". Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago. Retrieved December 25, 2016.
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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

Postby admin » Sat Jul 21, 2018 7:10 am

Barbara T. Bowman
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/21/18

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Barbara T. Bowman
Born Barbara Taylor
October 30, 1928 (age 89)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Nationality American
Education B.A., Sarah Lawrence College
M.A., University of Chicago
Occupation Early childhood education advocate
Years active 50+
Known for Co-founder of Erikson Institute
Board member of Business People in the Public Interest,
Chicago Public Library Foundation,
Great Books Foundation,
High Scope Educational Foundation,
Institute for Psychoanalysis,
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards
Spouse(s) James E. Bowman, M.D.
Children Valerie Jarrett
Parent(s) Robert Robinson Taylor, grandfather

Barbara Taylor Bowman (born October 30, 1928) is an American early childhood education expert/advocate, professor, and author. Her areas of expertise include early childhood care/education, educational equity for minority and low-income children, as well as intergenerational family support and roles.[1] She has served on several boards and was the co-founder of Erikson Institute, where she pioneered the teaching of early childhood education and administration.[2]

Early years

Bowman was born and raised on the south side of Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of Laura Dorothy Vaughn (née Jennings) and Robert Rochon Taylor, who was on the board of the Chicago Housing Authority. Her grandfather was architect Robert Robinson Taylor.[3] Her parents were African-American.[4] After receiving a B.A. degree from Sarah Lawrence College, she began teaching at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools' nursery school, while simultaneously earning her M.A. degree in education from the University of Chicago in 1952.[5] She went on to teach at preschools and elementary schools.

Career

Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty and the 1965 creation of Head Start inspired Bowman.[6] The next year, with the support of businessman and philanthropist Irving B. Harris, Bowman cofounded the Chicago School for Early Childhood Education (now known as the Erikson Institute) with child psychologist Maria Piers and social worker Lorraine Wallach.[7] Bowman went on to serve as its president during the period of 1994 to 2001, and maintains a professorship at the institute, where she is the Irving B. Harris Professor of Child Development. The institute's Barbara T. Bowman Professor of Child Development professorship is named in her honor.[2][8]

Bowman is the Chicago Public Schools' Chief Early Childhood Education Officer. She is the past president (1980–1982) of the National Association for the Education of Young Children.[5] Her Board memberships are many including: Business People in the Public Interest, Chicago Public Library Foundation, Great Books Foundation, High Scope Educational Foundation, Institute for Psychoanalysis, and National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. Among the many honorary degrees awarded to Bowman are those from Bank Street College, Dominican University, Governors State University, Roosevelt University, and Wheelock College.[1]

During her career, she has also served on the Editorial Board of Early Childhood Research Quarterly, and chaired the National Academy of Science, National Research Council's Committee on Early Childhood Pedagogy.

Personal life

Bowman was married to the late James E. Bowman, renowned pathologist and geneticist of African American descent, and the first black resident at St. Luke’s Hospital. They have one daughter, Valerie Jarrett, who was Senior Advisor and Assistant to the President for Intergovernmental Affairs and Public Liaison in the Obama administration.[9] Their granddaughter, Laura Jarrett, graduated from Harvard Law School in 2010 and married Tony Balkissoon, who is also a lawyer and the son of Ontario MP Bas Balkissoon, in June of 2012.[10]

Awards

• Chicago Association for the Education of Young Children Outstanding Service to Children Award
• Chicago League of Women Voters' Civic Contribution Award
• Harold W. McGraw, Jr. Prize in Education, 2005[6]
• Mercedes Award
• National Black Child Development Institute Leadership Award
• Voices for Illinois' Children Start Early Award[1]
• Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis Human Spirit Award

Partial bibliography

Books


• -, & Attinasi, J. (1994). Cultural diversity and academic achievement Urban education program. (Oak Brook, IL]): NCREL. OCLC 34512344
• -, Bredekamp, S., Dodge, D. T., Epstein, A. S., & Borgia, E. (2000). Ensuring Quality and Accountability Through Leadership Tape 1, Curriculum and Assessment. Washington, D.C.: Head Start Bureau, The National Head Start Child Development Institute. OCLC 174103343
• -, Donovan, S., & Burns, M. S. (2001). Eager to learn: Educating our preschoolers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ISBN 0-309-06836-3
• - (2002). Love to read: Essays in developing and enhancing early literacy skills of African American children. [Washington, D.C.]: National Black Child Development Institute. OCLC 52332653
• -, & Moore, E. K. (2006). School readiness and social-emotional development: Perspectives on cultural diversity. Washington, DC: National Black Child Development Institute. OCLC 123438767

Articles

• - (1973). "Role-Models and Social Change". Childhood Education. 49 (4), 180-3. OCLC 92283737
• - (1983). "Do Computers Have a Place in Preschools". OCLC 92833821
• - (1989). "Educating Language-Minority Children: Challenges and Opportunities". Phi Delta Kappan. 71 (2), 118-20. OCLC 93612997
• - (1989). "Self-Reflection as an Element of Professionalism". Teachers College Record. 90 (3), 444-51. OCLC 93619328
• - (1992). "Who Is at Risk for What and Why". Journal of Early Intervention. 16 (2), 101-08. OCLC 93183459
• - (1994). "The Challenge of Diversity". Phi Delta Kappan. 76 (3), 218-24. OCLC 93677959
• - (1995). "The Professional Development Challenge: Supporting Young Children and Families". National Institute for Early Childhood Professional Development. Young Children. 51 (1), 30-34. OCLC 93892515

References

1. "Barbara T. Bowman, M.A." erikson.edu. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
2. "Barbara Bowman Biography". The HistoryMakers. 2002-05-20. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
3. [1]
4. Stated in Finding Your Roots, Season 2: The Official Companion to the PBS Series, by Henry Louis Gates Jr., 2015, pages 244-259
5. "Barbara T. Bowman". mailman.org. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
6. "Harold W. McGraw, Jr. Prize » Past Winners » 2005". mcgraw-hill.com. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
7. "History of Erikson Institute". erikson.edu. Archived from the original on 25 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
8. "Frances Stott, Ph.D." erikson.edu. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
9. "Senior Advisor Valerie Jarrett". The Administration: White House Staff. WhiteHouse.gov. Archived from the original on April 9, 2009. Retrieved April 9, 2009. Valerie B. Jarrett is Senior Advisor and Assistant to the President for Intergovernmental Affairs and Public Liaison
10. Obama attends wedding of Toronto Liberal MPP's son

External links

• Photo of Barbara T. Bowman, 2006
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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

Postby admin » Sat Jul 21, 2018 7:26 am

Obama attends wedding of Toronto Liberal MPP’s son
by Robert Benzie
Queen's Park Bureau Chief
The Star
Wed., June 20, 2012

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How does a Toronto Liberal MPP get some face time with U.S. President Barack Obama?

Easy — invite him to your son’s wedding.

Image
Laura Jarrett, daughter of Barack Obama adviser Valerie Jarrett, and Tony Balkisson, son of Toronto MPP Bas Balkissoon, were married in Chicago on Sunday.

Obama was only one of many high-profile guests at the weekend wedding of Scarborough-Rouge River MPP Bas Balkissoon’s son Tony in Chicago.

Tony Balkissoon, 29, a lawyer in the Windy City, married Laura Jarrett, also a lawyer, whom he met while they were students at Harvard Law School.

She is the daughter of Valerie Jarrett, one of Obama’s most influential advisers and a long-time friend of president who heads the White House office of public engagement.

“It was kind of cool,” Bas Balkissoon told the Star on Wednesday, declining to get into details, citing his son and daughter-in-law’s privacy.

Indeed, the 280 guests at the wedding were asked not to take any photos with cameras or smart phones.

Also in attendance were Obama’s Attorney General Eric Holder, who arrived in a four-SUV motorcade and Vernon Jordan, a key adviser to former president Bill Clinton, among other Democratic luminaries.

It was held at Valerie Jarrett’s mother’s home, which is so close to the president’s private residence that he, First Lady Michelle Obama, and their daughters Sasha and Malia walked.


Guests said the reception was held in the backyard under a large white marquee tent.

Several streets in the posh Hyde Park neighbourhood were cordoned off by hundreds of Chicago police officers and Secret Service agents. Even children attending the wedding were frisked for weapons.

The Chicago Sun-Times reported that on the morning of the wedding an F-15 fighter jet chased away a single-engine airplane that had wandered into the restricted airspace over the neighbourhood.


Such measures are often taken by the North American Aerospace Defense Command for events involving a U.S. president.

While Bas Balkissoon was understandably coy about the event, another Liberal confided that the MPP was seen in deep conversation with both Obama and Holder.

Balkissoon is no slouch at politics. Prior to coming to Queen’s Park in a 2005 by-election he was a prominent Toronto councillor and was credited for blowing the whistle and exposing the MFP computer-leasing scandal.

The Balkissoon-Jarrett marriage is one of several links between Premier Dalton McGuinty’s Liberals and Obama. From 2000 until 2002, David Axelrod, another key adviser to the president, was a paid McGuinty strategist.

As well, Toronto Liberal Jean-Michel Picher, who helped the premier in the run-up to last year’s provincial election, was an early Obama insider who worked on the then-Illinois senator’s historic presidential primary campaign in 2007 and 2008.
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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

Postby admin » Sat Jul 21, 2018 7:29 pm

Henry Taylor (1823-1891)
by Catherine W. Bishir
Contributors: Beverly Tetterton and Ellen Weiss.
Published 2010
North Carolina Architects & Builders
A Biographical Dictionary

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Henry Taylor (1823-1891), a slave carpenter, was among the black artisans who built the Bellamy Mansion. Photo courtesy of New Hanover County Museum, Wright Collection.



Birthplace: Cumberland County, North Carolina, USA
Residences: Wilmington, North Carolina
Trades: Carpenter/Joiner
NC Work Locations: Wilmington, New Hanover County
Building Types: Educational; Residential
Styles & Forms: Greek Revival; Italianate

Image
Bellamy Mansion
Citation: Tim Buchman, Bellamy Mansion, Wilmington, New Hanover County, Built Heritage of North Carolina: Historic Architecture in the Old North State, North Carolina State University, Libraries, Special Collections Research Center, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Source: The Built Heritage of North Carolina: Historic Architecture in the Old North State, Special Collections Research Center, North Carolina State University Libraries


Henry Taylor (1823-1891), born a slave, was a prominent carpenter and citizen in Wilmington during the mid and late 19th century. Although few specific projects have been attributed to him, Taylor family tradition associates him with the construction of the immense Bellamy Mansion. He is best known as the father of Tuskegee architect Robert R. Taylor.

Booker T. Washington, a close associate of Robert Taylor, cited Henry Taylor in The Story of the Negro as exemplifying the numerous individuals who "though nominally slaves, were practically free." Drawing upon information from Robert, Washington stated that Henry Taylor was "the son of a white man who was at the same time his master. Although he was nominally a slave, he was early given liberty to do about as he pleased." According to Robert, Henry was born near Fayetteville, the son of his white owner, Angus Taylor, and an enslaved woman who probably belonged to Angus as well. Angus may have had Henry trained as a carpenter to assure that he could support himself. Henry moved to Wilmington, where he became a carpenter-builder as well as forming a mercantile business with a white ship owner.

Henry Taylor developed a prosperous career as a contractor and builder, constructing cargo ships that plied trade routes between the United States and South America via the Caribbean.

-- Robert R. Taylor: First Black Student at MIT, by MIT Black History


Henry Taylor was one of many free and enslaved men of color who participated in Wilmington's city-wide building boom. Family tradition states that he was one of the carpenters who erected and finished the large Bellamy Mansion in 1859-1861. The elaborated, columned mansion, designed by James F. Post and his assistant architect Rufus Bunnell, was widely noted as having been constructed by black artisans. Taylor's role was carried through family memories, and in 1999 his granddaughter Gladys Whiteman Baskerville and her extended family held her hundredth birthday celebration there.

After the war, Taylor operated a grocery business on Nutt Street while continuing in the building business. In 1868 he received $1,800 for constructing the Hemenway School and improving the schoolyard. Active in civic life, Taylor was a member of Giblem Masonic Lodge, the second black Masonic lodge in the state; he served on the finance committee to erect the lodge building in 1871, and it is probable that he was involved in construction of the building, which still stands. He was a founding member of Chestnut Street Presbyterian Church and was active in the Republican Party. He was buried in Pine Forest Cemetery.

Image
The Colored Masonic Temple in Birmingham, Alabama. Courtesy Library of Congress
This Renaissance-Revival-style building was completed in 1922 and designed by Robert R. Taylor in collaboration with his former Tuskegee student, Leo Persley--both were the state's only two professional black architects at the time. A symbol of black prosperity in the segregated South, the project was both funded and constructed by members of the black community. Throughout its history, the National Register-listed building provided shelter to activists, politicians, and common citizens. It housed the Booker T. Washington Library (now Smithfield Library) for about 30 years.

-- Robert R. Taylor: First Black Student at MIT, by MIT Black History


Taylor married Emily Still, a native of Fayetteville, and he built the family's home, the Henry and Emily Taylor House, which stood at 112 North 8th Street, and he also built the John E. Taylor House next door for his son and family. Henry and Emily Taylor raised a family of four children—John Edward, Anna Maria (Whiteman), Sarah Louise (Shober), and Robert Robinson—all of whom distinguished themselves. John Edward Taylor remained in Wilmington and became a prosperous businessman and the first black man appointed Deputy Collector of Customs in the city, a position he held for twenty-five years. Anna Maria attended Howard University, as did her future husband, Dr. James Francis Shober, the first black physician with an M. D. degree to practice in North Carolina; a native of Winston-Salem, he spent his career in Wilmington. Sarah Louise Taylor likewise attended Howard University and married John Henry Whiteman, a prominent Wilmington businessman.

Especially noteworthy on the national scene was Robert Robinson Taylor (1868-1942), the first African American to graduate from MIT and one of the first professionally trained black architects in the United States. As described by architectural historian Ellen Weiss, he forged a long career as an architect at Tuskegee, where he became a close friend of Booker T. Washington. In 1943, shortly after his sudden death, a Wilmington public housing complex formerly called New Brooklyn Homes was renamed for Robert Robinson Taylor.

Robert Robinson Taylor's son Robert Rochon Taylor became an important corporate and civic figure in Chicago, for whom the large Chicago public housing complex, Robert Taylor Homes (completed in 1962), was named. Among Henry Taylor's descendants through this branch of the family is his great-great-great granddaughter Valerie Jarrett, a civic and political leader in Chicago who in 2009 became White House Senior Advisor to President Barack Obama.
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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

Postby admin » Sat Jul 21, 2018 8:18 pm

Finding Your Roots, Season 2: The Official Companion to the PBS Series [EXCERPT]
by Henry Louis Gates, Jr.
Copyright 2016 Henry Louis Gates Jr.

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Valerie's great-grandfather Robert Robinson Taylor had written of "my grandfather Angus Taylor" who appeared to be both owner and father of Valerie's great-great-grandfather Henry Taylor. We tested the Y-DNA of one of Valerie's male cousins, Edward Taylor, on her direct maternal line. Because Angus Taylor was from Scotland, we would expect to find Edward's Y-DNA carrying a European Y-chromosome, ideally one that was Scottish. When we ran Edward's Y-DNA, we found two matches in particular that provided the results we needed to help prove paternity. Valerie's cousin's two closest matches were Martyn Taylor from Skipness, Scotland, Angus Taylor's ancestral home, and John Creed Taylor from Bladen County, North Carolina, Angus Taylor's American home. Furthermore, both men had identified Angus Taylor's grandfather Archibald Taylor as a direct paternal ancestor. That was all the proof we needed , but we went further anyway. When we tested Valerie's autosomal DNA, which an individual inherits from both parents and all of his or her ancestral lines, and compared it to that of a woman named Pat Matthews, a descendant of Angus Taylor's sister Catherine, we discovered that they shared a tremendous amount of DNA. There was no question that Angus Taylor was Henry Taylor's father. Valerie's third great-grandfather was her ancestor's father and master.

On Valerie's father's side, there was an often-repeated rumor of a Jewish ancestor. If that rumor were true, we would know from Valerie's DNA. Did some of her European ancestry come from her paternal great-grandfather, her grandmother Dorothy Bowman's father, who was purportedly Jewish? Askhenazi Jewish DNA was present in Valerie's admixture, but at only 2 percent of her European total, it was too small a figure to indicate a Jewish great-grandparent. One Jewish great-grandparent would have contributed an eighth, or 12.5 percent, of her European DNA. In other words, Valerie's great-grandfather could not have had primarily Jewish ancestry. A reading of 2 percent indicates that Valerie's Jewish ancestor entered her family tree somewhere between five and nine generations ago, or at the level of her third to seventh great-grandparents. Valerie laughed. "Maybe the story started, and they just kept saying 'great-grandfather' generation after generation, and they forgot to add a 'great-great-great-great' after each one," she said. "It looks like folklore."

Valerie admitted that she had never given equal weight to the many lines on her family tree. "I always focused on my great-grandfather, not so much on my great-grandmother," she said, referring to her Rochon ancestors. "I gave her short shrift, and I shouldn't have."

Our exploration of Valerie's roots had leveled the field. Her great-grandfather, Robert Robinson Taylor, was a great man, deserving of the place of honor he occupied in Valerie's family as well as in history books.
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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

Postby admin » Sat Jul 21, 2018 8:29 pm

Skipness
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/21/18

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Skipness Bay

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Skipness castle

Skipness (Scottish Gaelic: Sgibinis, pronounced [sɡ̊ʲib̊ɪnɪʃ]) is a village on the east coast of Kintyre in Scotland, a few miles south of Tarbert and facing the Isle of Arran.

There is Skipness Castle (a ruined castle) and Kilbrannan Chapel, which contains some rare grave slabs. There is a nearby cafe that serves fresh fish from the area, and beer brewed on Arran, which can be seen from anywhere in Skipness. Also in the area, there is an organic tannery. There are cottages available to rent in Port na Chrò near the village that are situated by a beach. Both the castle and the chapel date from the 13th century, and are maintained by Historic Scotland.

Many of the cottages which can be rented have their own boats and, during the summer months, mackerel and pollack can be caught from them as well as a whole host of other species. There are plenty of walks running from and through skipness and many shorter ones are located in the picturesque Skipness Estate (which rents out cottages and serves the seafood). Although Skipness is a tiny village with only one shop, it serves the basics, and there are other communities nearby such as Tarbert and Campbeltown from which you can buy your groceries.

External links

• Skipness Official tourist website
• Skipness
• Skipness Castle
• Historic Scotland: Skipness Castle
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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

Postby admin » Sat Jul 21, 2018 8:42 pm

Skipness & Claonaig
by http://www.Skipness.info
November 9, 2007

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Arran's Kilbrannan Sound from Skipness Castle
Photography by Net Visuals


Welcome to Skipness

Skipness overlooks the Isle of Arran and is situated on the north westerley most point of Skipness, only 13 miles from Tarbert, the gateway to Kintyre. The Kintyre Way walk also passes through Skipness with a good walk from Tarbert to Skipness which then passes on through Claonaig on its way to Clachan, Carradale, Campbeltown, Machrihanish and finally to Southend.

Skipness is about as far from urban living as you can get with stunning countryside and amazing views across to Arran on clear bright days, the village of Skipness is small and picturesque, ideal for amateur and professional artists and photographers.

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Skipness Stores, Kintyre

There is a small local shop which sells the daily requirements of most families including milk, bread and newspapers plus groceries and soft drinks.

The village of Skipness also has a small school and small parish church.

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Skipness Castle, Kintyre

Skipness Castle

The largely 13th Century Skipness Castle is a magnificent asset to Kintyre and remains in superb condition, free from scaffolding and free entry ensures good photographing and open access all year round.

Castle

Skipness Castle is a stunning 13th Century enclosure castle mostly built in around the 12th Century but modifed and added to at later dates.

The castle itself does not have a huge embankment or defensive moat but the sheer scope of view meant that it would be possible to see incoming vessels from long distances. It would be possible to see small ships for many miles and no doubt ones that would leave the coast of Arran.

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The land which the castle is built on is very flat and embanked with large areas of grazing field afore. This would have been ideal for farming during these times and would have served the inhabitants well.

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The curtain wall here is very thick, roughly around 4 feet and protects the tower. The castle by many examples is not the largest but it is in fantastic condition and you can climb the stairs up on to the roof of the castle, with the hall house below and marvel at the stunning views available from this fantastic location.

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The castle, originally built by the MacSweens was soon claimed by the Lords of the Isles in around 1325 until foreiture somewhere between 1476 and 1493. Shortly after the castle was placed in the hands of the Earl of Argyll who in turn granted responsibility to his son Archibald in around 1511. The castle remained in the Campbell family through several generations until around 1867.

Despite owning an estate of a considerable size, maybe 15,000 acres, the Campbells were unable to maintain the financial upkeep of their assets including the wonderful Castle it was abandoned shortly after and in 1933 the castle was taken into State care and is now protected by Historic Scotland.

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Like most of the castles in Kintyre and Argyll where public access is permitted there is no entry charge and it is open all year round for visitors.

Biliography.

The Argyll Book by Donald Omand
Clan Campbell Society of North America Website

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St Brendan's Chapel, Kintyre

St Brendan's Chapel

The 13th Century Chapel presumably built around the same time as Skipness Castle nestles among farm fields and only several hundred yards from the castle. Some interesting headstones are here in superb condition.

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St Brendan's Chapel

Located a short distance from the foot of Skipness Castle and along towards the stunning coast line and beach is the well maintained historical Chapel that overlooks Arran and has views both northwards and southwards, the view of the castle from here is also stunning.

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The chapel is thought to have been built roughly at the same time as the castle itself, in around the early 1300's.

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The curtain wall surrounds the inner chapel and cemetary within, access is through a small gate.

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There are some interesting headstones and ancient burial stones here in this wonderful tranquil and stunning location.

There is no charge to enter the cemetary and it is maintained to a good standard.

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Skipness Beach, Kintyre

Beaches & Coastline

Skipness has some stunning clear water and wonderful sandy beach with great views across to Arran. With the wind in a westerly direction and the sun high in the sky, Skipness is a perfect and often deserted location ideal for sunbathing and taking your children.

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Beaches

Skipness is located on the most north west coast of Kintyre, with some small shingly beaches and one long stretch of stunning coastline that overlooks the Isle of Arran.

Kintyre is renowned for wonderful coves and sections of coastline with sandy beaches and is very much underused by natives and tourists alike. Skipness is of course no exception to this.

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Of particular interest is a wonderful golden sandy section of beach that is popular with local's for summer afternoons when the temperature permits sunbathing, although it must be said the beach rarely has more than a handful of people at any one time.

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The best time for using the beach is during the summer months where there is a whole host of sealife and wildlife around rock pools and it is best to visit when the wind is from the west or south west as this give plenty of cover.

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It is a grave misconception that Scotland's temperatures in summer are ill compared to the southmost coasts of England however it is quite possible that fair skinned people will get burnt easily especially in the hottest days here.

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Claonaig Ferry

If you would like to visit the Isle of Arran whilst staying in Skipness or in Kintyre then the ferry from Claonaig just outside Skipness takes cars, bicycles and passengers on a very short ferry crossing.

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Ferry

The ferry that connects mainland Kintyre to Arran leaves from Claonaig by Skipness and goes across to Lochranza.

The ferry journey takes only 30 minutes and runs throughout the week even on Sunday with the last departure at 7pm from Claonaig during the summer time.

The ferry allows pedestrians, bicycles, cars, caravans, trailers and motorhomes. Please visit the website of Caledonian MacBrayne here for timetable information for the Claonaig (Kintyre) to Lochranza (Arran) ferry service.

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Re: The Global Epidemic of Online Hate: This Is Us?

Postby admin » Sat Jul 21, 2018 9:06 pm

Isle of Arran
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/21/18

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Image
Isle of Arran
Gaelic name About this sound Eilean Arainn (help·info)
Norse name Herrey[1]
Meaning of name Possibly Brythonic for "high place"
Location
Isle of Arran is located in Argyll and ButeIsle of ArranIsle of Arran
Arran shown within the Firth of Clyde
OS grid reference NR950359
Coordinates 55.57°N 5.25°W
Physical geography
Island group Firth of Clyde
Area 43,201 hectares (167 sq mi)
Area rank 7[2] [3]
Highest elevation Goat Fell 874 m (2,867 ft)
Administration
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Country Scotland
Council area North Ayrshire
Demographics
Population 4,629[4]
Population rank 6[4] [3]
Population density 10.72 people/km2[4][5]
Main settlement Brodick
Lymphad3.svg
References [6]

Arran (/ˈærən/; Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Arainn pronounced [elan ˈarɪɲ]) or the Isle of Arran is the largest island in the Firth of Clyde and the seventh largest Scottish island, at 432 square kilometres (167 sq mi). Historically part of Buteshire, it is in the unitary council area of North Ayrshire. In the 2011 census it had a resident population of 4,629. Though culturally and physically similar to the Hebrides, it is separated from them by the Kintyre peninsula. Often referred to as "Scotland in miniature", the island is divided into highland and lowland areas by the Highland Boundary Fault and has been described as a "geologist's paradise".[7]

Arran has been continuously inhabited since the early Neolithic period [10,200 BC]. Numerous prehistoric remains have been found. From the 6th century onwards, Goidelic-speaking peoples from Ireland colonised it and it became a centre of religious activity. In the troubled Viking Age, Arran became the property of the Norwegian crown, until formally absorbed by the kingdom of Scotland in the 13th century. The 19th-century "clearances" led to significant depopulation and the end of the Gaelic language and way of life. The economy and population have recovered in recent years, the main industry being tourism. There is a diversity of wildlife, including three species of tree endemic to the area.

The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaichean nan Gàidheal [ˈfuə̯t̪içən nəŋ gɛː.əl̪ˠ], the "eviction of the Gaels") were the evictions of a significant number of tenants in the Scottish Highlands mostly during the 18th and 19th centuries. They resulted from enclosures of common lands and a change from farming to sheep rearing, largely carried out by hereditary aristocratic landowners who previously had status as Scots Gaelic clan chiefs. The Clearances were a complex series of events occurring over more than a hundred years.[1] A Highland Clearance has been defined as "an enforced simultaneous eviction of all families living in a given area, such as an entire glen".[2]

The Clearances relied on the insecurity of tenure of most tenants under the Scottish legal system. There was no equivalent of the English system of copyhold, which provided a heritable tenancy for many English counterparts of the Scots who were cleared from their farms.[3] The cumulative effect of the Clearances and the large-scale emigrations over the same period devastated the cultural landscape of Scotland; in the end, they destroyed much of Gaelic culture.[4]

-- Highland Clearances, by Wikipedia


The island includes miles of coastal pathways, numerous hills and mountains, forested areas, rivers, small lochs and beaches. Its main beaches are at Brodick, Whiting Bay, Kildonan, Sannox and Blackwaterfoot.

Etymology

Most of the islands of Scotland have been occupied consecutively by speakers of at least four languages since the Iron Age. Many of the names of these islands have more than one possible meaning as a result. Arran is therefore not unusual in that the derivation of the name is far from clear. Mac an Tàilleir (2003) states that "it is said to be unrelated to the name Aran in Ireland" (which means "kidney-shaped", cf Irish ára "kidney").[8] Unusually for a Scottish island, Haswell-Smith (2004) offers a Brythonic derivation and a meaning of "high place" which at least corresponds with the geography — Arran is significantly loftier than all the land that immediately surrounds it along the shores of the Firth of Clyde.[7]

Any other Brythonic place-names that may have existed were later replaced on Arran as the Goidelic-speaking Gaels spread from Ireland, via their adjacent kingdom of Dál Riata. During the Viking Age it became, along with most Scottish islands, the property of the Norwegian crown, at which time it may have been known as "Herrey" or "Hersey". As a result of this Norse influence, many current place-names on Arran are of Viking origin.[9]

Geography

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Cìr Mhòr and Caisteal Abhail seen from North Goatfell

The island lies in the Firth of Clyde between Ayr and Ardrossan, and Kintyre. The profile of the north Arran hills as seen from the Ayrshire coast is referred to as the "Sleeping Warrior", due to its resemblance to a resting human figure.[10][11] The highest of these hills is Goat Fell at 873.5 metres (2,866 ft).[12] There are three other Corbetts, all in the north east: Caisteal Abhail, Cìr Mhòr and Beinn Tarsuinn. Beinn Bharrain is the highest peak in the north west at 721 metres (2,365 ft).[13]

The largest valley on the island is Glen Iorsa to the west, whilst narrow Glen Sannox (Gaelic: Gleann Shannaig) and Glen Rosa (Gaelic: Gleann Ròsa) to the east surround Goat Fell. The terrain to the south is less mountainous, although a considerable portion of the interior lies above 350 metres (1,150 ft), and A' Chruach reaches 512 metres (1,680 ft) at its summit.[14][15] There are two other Marilyns in the south, Tighvein and Beinn Bhreac.

Villages

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Lochranza village and castle

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Holy Isle as seen from Arran

Arran has several villages, mainly around the shoreline. Brodick (Old Norse: 'broad bay') is the site of the ferry terminal, several hotels, and the majority of shops. Brodick Castle is a seat of the Dukes of Hamilton.

The Duke of Hamilton and Brandon is Hereditary Keeper of the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the official royal residence in Scotland, where he maintains large private quarters. He is also, as Lord Abernethy and in this respect successor to the Gaelic Earls of Fife, the Hereditary Bearer of the Crown of Scotland, a role which the 15th Duke performed at the inauguration of the Scottish Parliament in 1999,[2][3][4] as did the 16th Duke at the State Opening of Parliament, 30 June 2011.[5] Traditionally, the Duke of Hamilton enjoys the exclusive right to remove the Scottish Crown Jewels from the City of Edinburgh.[6]

The Honours of Scotland, also known as the Scottish Regalia and the Scottish Crown Jewels, dating from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, are the oldest surviving set of crown jewels in the British Isles. They were used for the coronation of Scottish monarchs from 1543 (Mary I) until 1651 (Charles II). Since then, they have been used to represent Royal Assent to legislation in both the Estates of Parliament and the Scottish Parliament, and they have also been used at state occasions including the first visit to Scotland as sovereign by King George IV in 1822 and the first such visit by Queen Elizabeth II in 1953.

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The crown was carried as Queen Elizabeth II left the Chamber following the Opening of the Scottish Parliament in 2011.

-- Honours of Scotland, by Wikipedia


He also regularly attends sittings in the Court of Lord Lyon as an hereditary assessor, sitting on the bench beside Lord Lyon.

-- Duke of Hamilton, by Wikipedia


Lamlash, however, is the largest village on the island and in 2001 had a population of 1,010 compared to 621 for Brodick.[16] Other villages include Lochranza and Catacol in the north, Corrie in the north east, Blackwaterfoot in the south west, Kildonan in the south and Whiting Bay in the south east.

Surrounding islands

Arran has three smaller satellite islands: Holy Isle lies to the east opposite Lamlash, Pladda is located off Arran's south coast and tiny Hamilton Isle lies just off Clauchlands Point 1.2 kilometres (0.75 mi) north of Holy Isle. Eilean na h-Àirde Bàine off the south west of Arran at Corriecravie is a skerry connected to Arran at low tide.

Other islands in the Firth of Clyde include Bute, Great Cumbrae and Inchmarnock.

Geology

The division between the "Highland" and "Lowland" areas of Arran is marked by the Highland Boundary Fault which runs north east to south west across Scotland.[17] Arran is a popular destination for geologists, who come to see intrusive igneous landforms such as sills and dykes, and sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to Mesozoic.

Most of the interior of the northern half of the island is taken up by a large granite batholith that was created by substantial magmatic activity around 58 million years ago in the Paleogene period.[18] This comprises an outer ring of coarse granite and an inner core of finer grained granite, which was intruded later. This granite was intruded into the Late Proterozoic to Cambrian metasediments of the Dalradian Supergroup. Other Paleogene igneous rocks on Arran include extensive felsic and composite sills in the south of the island, and the central ring complex, an eroded caldera system surrounded by a near-continuous ring of granitic rocks.[19]

Sedimentary rocks dominate the southern half of the island, especially Old and New Red Sandstone. Some of these sandstones contain fulgurites – pitted marks that may have been created by Permian lightning strikes.[17] Large aeolian sand dunes are preserved in Permian sandstones near Brodick, showing the presence of an ancient desert. Within the central complex are subsided blocks of Triassic sandstone and marl, Jurassic shale, and even a rare example of Cretaceous chalk.[20][21] During the 19th century barytes was mined near Sannox. First discovered in 1840, nearly 5,000 tons were produced between 1853 and 1862. The mine was closed by the 11th Duke of Hamilton on the grounds that it "spoiled the solemn grandeur of the scene" but was reopened after the First World War and operated until 1938 when the vein ran out.[22]

Visiting in 1787, the geologist James Hutton found his first example of an unconformity to the north of Newton Point near Lochranza, which provided evidence for his Plutonist theories of uniformitarianism and about the age of the Earth. This spot is one of the most famous places in the study of geology.[23][24]

The Pleistocene glaciations almost entirely covered Scotland in ice, and Arran's highest peaks may have been nunataks at this time.[17] After the last retreat of the ice at the close of the Pleistocene epoch sea levels were up to 70 metres (230 ft) lower than at present and it is likely that circa 14,000 BP the island was connected to mainland Scotland.[25] Sea level changes and the isostatic rise of land makes charting post-glacial coastlines a complex task, but it is evident that the island is ringed by post glacial raised beaches.[26] King's Cave on the south west coast is an example of an emergent landform on such a raised beach. This cave, which is over 30.5 metres (100 ft) long and up to 15.3 metres (50 ft) high, lies well above the present day sea level.[27][28][29] There are tall sea cliffs to the north east including large rock slides under the heights of Torr Reamhar, Torr Meadhonach and at Scriden (An Scriodan) at the far north end of the island.[15][30][31]

Climate

The influence of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream create a mild oceanic climate. Temperatures are generally cool, averaging about 6 °C (43 °F) in January and 16 °C (61 °F) in July at sea level.[32] The southern half of the island, being less mountainous, has a more favourable climate than the north, and the east coast is more sheltered from the prevailing winds than the west and south.

Snow seldom lies at sea level and frosts are less frequent than on the mainland. As in most islands of the west coast of Scotland, annual rainfall is generally high at between 1,500 mm (59 in) in the south and west and 1,900 mm (75 in) in the north and east. The mountains are wetter still with the summits receiving over 2,550 mm (100 in) annually. May and June are the sunniest months, with upwards of 200 hours of bright sunshine being recorded on average.[32]

History

Prehistory


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Machrie Moor Standing Stone Circle 2

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Machrie Stone Circle 1

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Machrie Stone Circle 2

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Machrie Stone Circle 3

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Machrie Stone Circle 4

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Machrie Stone Circle 5

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Machrie Stone Circle 6

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Machrie Stone Circle 7

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Machrie Stone Circle 8

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Machrie Stone Circle 10

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Machrie Stone Circle 11

-- Machrie Moor Stone Circles, by Wikipedia


Arran has a particular concentration of early Neolithic Clyde Cairns, a form of Gallery grave. The typical style of these is a rectangular or trapezoidal stone and earth mound that encloses a chamber lined with larger stone slabs. Pottery and bone fragments found inside them suggest they were used for interment and some have forecourts, which may have been an area for public display or ritual. There are two good examples in Monamore Glen west of the village of Lamlash,[33] and similar structures called the Giants' Graves above Whiting Bay.

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Giant's Grave North


There are numerous standing stones dating from prehistoric times, including six stone circles on Machrie Moor (Gaelic: Am Machaire).[34]


Pitchstone deposits on the island were used locally for making various items in the Mesolithic era.[35] In the Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age pitchstone from the Isle of Arran or items made from it were transported around Britain.[35]

Several Bronze Age sites have been excavated, including Ossian's Mound near Clachaig and a cairn near Blackwaterfoot that produced a bronze dagger and a gold fillet.[36] Torr a' Chaisteal Dun in the south west near Sliddery is the ruin of an Iron Age fortified structure dating from about AD 200. The original walls would have been 3 metres (9.8 ft) or more thick and enclosed a circular area about 14 metres (46 ft) in diameter.[37]


Gaels, Vikings and Middle Ages

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Lochranza Castle

An ancient Irish poem called Agalllamh na Senorach, first recorded in the 13th century, describes the attractions of the island.

Arran of the many stags
The sea strikes against her shoulders,
Companies of men can feed there,
Blue spears are reddened among her boulders.

Merry hinds are on her hills,
Juicy berries are there for food,
Refreshing water in her streams,
Nuts in plenty in the wood.
[38]


The monastery of Aileach founded by St. Brendan in the 6th century may have been on Arran and St. Molaise was also active, with Holy Isle being a centre of Brendan's activities.[39] The caves below Keil Point (Gaelic: Rubha na Cille) contain a slab which may have been an ancient altar. This stone has two petrosomatoglyphs on it, the prints of two right feet, said to be of Saint Columba.[40]

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Cliffs at Blackwaterfoot

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The "King's Cave", reputedly a refuge of King Robert the Bruce

In the 11th century Arran became part of the Sodor (Old Norse: 'Suðr-eyjar'), or South Isles of the Kingdom of Mann and the Isles, but on the death of Godred Crovan in 1095 all the isles came under the direct rule of Magnus III of Norway. Lagman (1103–1104) restored local rule. After the death of Somerled in 1164, Arran and Bute were ruled by his son Angus.[41] In 1237, the Scottish isles broke away completely from the Isle of Man and became an independent kingdom. After the indecisive Battle of Largs between the kingdoms of Norway and Scotland in 1263, Haakon Haakonsson, King of Norway reclaimed Norwegian lordship over the "provinces" of the west. Arriving at Mull, he rewarded a number of his Norse-Gaelic vassals with grants of lands. Bute was given to Ruadhri and Arran to Murchad MacSween.[Note 1] Following Haakon's death later that year Norway ceded the islands of western Scotland to the Scottish crown in 1266 by the Treaty of Perth. A substantial Viking grave has been discovered near King's Cross south of Lamlash, containing whalebone, iron rivets and nails, fragments of bronze and a 9th-century bronze coin, and another grave of similar date nearby yielded a sword and shield.[43][44] Arran was also part of the medieval Bishopric of Sodor and Man.

On the opposite side of the island near Blackwaterfoot is the King's Cave (see above), where Robert the Bruce is said to have taken shelter in the 14th century.[45] Bruce returned to the island in 1326, having earlier granted lands to Fergus MacLouis for assistance rendered during his time of concealment there. Brodick Castle played a prominent part in the island's medieval history. Probably dating from the 13th century, it was captured by English forces during the Wars of Independence before being taken back by Scottish troops in 1307. It was badly damaged by action from English ships in 1406 and sustained an attack by John of Islay, the Lord of the Isles in 1455. Originally a seat of the Clan Stewart of Menteith it passed to the Boyd family in the 15th century.[46][47] For a short time during the reign of King James V in the 16th century, the Isle of Arran was under the regency of Robert Maxwell, 5th Lord Maxwell.[48]

Modern era

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"Hamilton Terrace" with the Clearances Monument, Lamlash

At the commencement of the Early modern period James, 2nd Lord Hamilton became a privy counsellor to his first cousin, James IV of Scotland and helped to arrange his marriage to Princess Margaret Tudor of England. As a reward he was created Earl of Arran in 1503. The local economy for much of this period was based on the run rig system, the basic crops being oats, barley and potatoes. The population slowly grew to about 6,500. In the early 19th century Alexander, 10th Duke of Hamilton (1767–1852) embarked on a programme of clearances that had a devastating effect on the island's population. These "improvements" typically led to land that had been rented out to as many as 27 families being converted into a single farm. In some cases, land was promised in Canada for each adult emigrant male. In April 1829, for example, 86 islanders boarded the brig Caledonia for the two-month journey, half their fares being paid for by the Duke. However, on arrival in Quebec only 41 hectares (100 acres) was made available to the heads of extended families. Whole villages were removed and the Gaelic culture of the island devastated. The writer James Hogg wrote, "Ah! Wae's [Woe is] me. I hear the Duke of Hamilton's crofters are a'gaun away, man and mother's son, frae the Isle o' Arran. Pity on us!".[49] A memorial to this has been constructed on the shore at Lamlash, paid for by a Canadian descendant of the emigrants.[50][51]

On 10 August 1941 a RAF Consolidated B-24 Liberator LB-30A AM261 was flying from RAF Heathfield in Ayrshire to Gander International Airport in Canada. However, the B-24 crashed into the hillside of Mullach Buidhe north of Goat Fell, killing all 22 passengers and crew.[52]

Image
Overview of population trends

Arran's resident population was 4,629 in 2011, a decline of just over 8 per cent from the 5,045 recorded in 2001,[54] against a background of Scottish island populations as a whole growing by 4 per cent to 103,702 over the same period.[55]

Gaelic

Gaelic was still spoken widely on Arran at the beginning of the 20th century. The 1901 Census reported 25–49 per cent Gaelic speakers on the eastern side of the island and 50–74 per cent on the western side of the island. By 1921 the proportion for the whole island had dropped to less than 25 per cent.[56] However, Nils Holmer quotes the Féillire (a Gaelic almanack) reporting 4,532 inhabitants on the island in 1931 with 605 Gaelic speakers, showing that Gaelic had declined to about 13 per cent of the population.[57] It continued to decline until the last native speakers of Arran Gaelic died in the 1990s. Current Gaelic speakers on Arran originate from other areas in Scotland.[58] In 2011, 2.0 per cent of Arran residents aged three and over could speak Gaelic.[59]

Arran Gaelic is reasonably well documented. Holmer carried out field work on the island in 1938, reporting Gaelic being spoken by "a fair number of old inhabitants". He interviewed 53 informants from various locations and his description of The Gaelic of Arran was published in 1957 and runs to 211 pages of phonological, grammatical and lexical information. The Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scotland, which collected Gaelic dialect data in Scotland between 1950 and 1963, also interviewed five native speakers of Arran Gaelic.[60]

The Arran dialect falls firmly into the southern group of Gaelic dialects (referred to as the "peripheral" dialects in Celtic studies) and thus shows:[57]

• a glottal stop replacing an Old Irish hiatus, e.g. rathad 'road' /rɛʔət̪/[57] (normally /rˠa.ət̪/)
• the dropping of /h/ between vowels e.g. athair 'father' /aəɾ/[57] (normally /ahəɾʲ/)
• the preservation of a long l, n and r, e.g. fann 'weak' /fan̪ˠː/[57] (normally /faun̪ˠ/ with diphthongisation).

The most unusual feature of Arran Gaelic is the /w/ glide after labials before a front vowel, e.g. maith 'good' /mwɛh/[57] (normally /mah/).

Mac an Tàilleir notes that the island has a poetic name Arainn nan Aighean Iomadh - "Arran of the many stags" and that a native of the island or Arainneach is also nicknamed a coinean mòr in Gaelic, meaning "big rabbit".[8] Locally, Arainn was pronounced /ɛɾɪɲ/.[57]

Local government

Image
Arran's location within Ayrshire

From the 17th to the late 20th century, Arran was part of the County of Bute.[61] After the 1975 reorganisation of local government Arran became part of the district of Cunninghame in Strathclyde Region.[62] This two-tier system of local government lasted until 1996 when the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994 came into effect, abolishing the regions and districts and replacing them with 32 council areas. Arran is now in the North Ayrshire council area, along with some of the other constituent islands of the County of Bute.

For some statistical purposes Arran is within the registration county of Bute,[63] and for ceremonial purposes it forms part of the lieutenancy area of Ayrshire and Arran.

In the House of Commons, since 2005 Arran has been part of the Ayrshire North and Arran constituency, represented since 2015 by Patricia Gibson of the SNP. It was previously part of the constituency of Cunninghame North from 1983 to 2005, and of Ayrshire North and Bute from 1918 to 1983.

In the Scottish Parliament, Arran is part of the constituency of Cunninghame North, currently represented by Kenneth Gibson of the Scottish National Party (SNP). The Labour Party held the seat until 2007, when the SNP gained it with a majority of just 48, making it the most marginal seat in Holyrood until 2011, when the SNP significantly increased its majority to 6117 over Labour.[64]

Health services

NHS Ayrshire and Arran is responsible for the provision of health services for the island. Arran War Memorial Hospital is a 17-bed acute hospital at Lamlash. The Arran Medical Group provides primary-care services and supports the hospital. The practice is based at Brodick Health Centre and has three base surgeries and four branch surgeries.[65]

Transport

Image
Map of Arran. The island to the east is Holy Isle and the tiny island to the south is Pladda.

Arran is connected to the Scottish mainland by two Caledonian MacBrayne ferries; MV Caledonian Isles from Brodick to Ardrossan, and MV Catriona (summer only) from Lochranza to Claonaig. The MV Isle of Arran provides additional summer sailings from Brodick to Ardrossan.[66] Summer day trips are also available on board the paddle steamer PS Waverley, and a summer service operated by a local resident connects Lamlash to the neighbouring Holy Isle.

Brodick Ferry Terminal underwent £22 million of work to improve connections to the island. The new terminal includes better passenger facilities, increased passenger and freight capacity, and a new pier, all of which were set to open in August 2017 but finally opened on 20 March 2018, due to various construction issues. Additionally the island was due to be served by a new £45-million dual-fuelled ferry from 2018 – the MV Glen Sannox – which will have a capacity of 1,000. This has also been delayed due to various construction issues and will not be available until late 2018 or early 2019.

There are three through roads on the island. The 90 kilometres (56 mi) coast road circumnavigates the island. In 2007, a 48 kilometres (30 mi) stretch of this road, previously designated as A841, was de-classified as a C road. Travelling south from Whiting Bay, the C147 goes round the south coast continuing north up the west coast of the island to Lochranza. At this point the road becomes the A841 down the east coast back to Whiting Bay.[67] At one point the coast road ventures inland to climb the 200 metres (660 ft) pass at the Boguillie between Creag Ghlas Laggan and Caisteal Abhail, located between Sannox and Lochranza.[15]

The other two roads run across from the east to the west side of the island. The main cross-island road is the 19 kilometres (12 mi) B880 from Brodick to Blackwaterfoot, called "The String", which climbs over Gleann an t-Suidhe. About 10 kilometres (6 mi) from Brodick, a minor road branches off to the right to Machrie. The single-track road "The Ross" runs 15 kilometres (9 mi) from Lamlash to Lagg and Sliddery via Glen Scorodale (Gaelic: Gleann Sgoradail).[68]

The island can be explored using a public bus service operated by Stagecoach.[69] The main bus terminal on the island is located in Brodick at the Ferry Terminal. The newly upgraded facility offers routes to all parts of the island.

Economy

Image
PS Waverley in front of Brodick Castle

The main industry on the island is tourism, one of the great attractions being Brodick Castle, owned by the National Trust for Scotland. However, Brodick Castle is undergoing fire-safety and other conservation works and will not be open until the summer of 2018. The Auchrannie Resort, which contains two hotels, three restaurants, two leisure complexes and an adventure company, is one of biggest employers on the island.[70] Local businesses include the Arran Distillery, which was opened in 1995 in Lochranza. This is open for tours and contains a shop and cafe. A second visitor centre has been announced for the south of the island, due to open in 2019.

The island has a number of golf courses including the 12 hole Shiskine links course which was founded in 1896.[71] The village of Lagg, at the southern tip of Arran, has a nudist beach. Known as Cleat's Shore, it has been described as one of the quietest nudist facilities in the world.[72]

Farming and forestry are other important industries. Plans for 2008 for a large salmon farm holding 800,000 or more fish in Lamlash Bay have been criticised by the Community of Arran Seabed Trust. They fear the facility could jeopardise Scotland's first marine No Take Zone, which was announced in September 2008.[73][74]

Image
The Brewery logo

The Arran Brewery is a microbrewery founded in March 2000 in Cladach, near Brodick. It makes eight regular cask and bottled beers. The wheat beer, Arran Blonde (5.0% abv) is the most popular; others include Arran Dark and Arran Sunset,[75] with a seasonal Fireside Ale brewed in winter. The brewery is open for tours and tastings.[76] The business went into liquidation in May 2008,[77] but was then sold to Marketing Management Services International Ltd in June 2008. It is now back in production and the beers widely available in Scotland, including certain Aldi stores. However, there were redundancies in 2017 and again in 2018. [78] Other businesses include Arran Aromatics, which produces a range of luxury toiletries, perfumes and candles, Arran Dairies, Arran Cheese Shop, James's Chocolates and Wooleys of Arran.

Culture

The Scottish Gaelic dialect of Arran died out when the last speaker Donald Craig died in the 1970s. However, there is now a Gaelic House in Brodick, set up at the end of the 1990s. Brodick Castle features on the Royal Bank of Scotland £20 note and Lochranza Castle was used as the model for the castle in The Adventures of Tintin adventure The Black Island.

Arran has one newspaper, The Arran Banner. It was listed in the Guinness Book of Records in November 1984 as the "local newspaper which achieves the closest to a saturation circulation in its area." The entry reads: "The Arran Banner, founded in 1974, has a readership of more than 97 per cent in Britain's seventh largest off-shore island."[79] There is also an online monthly publication called Voice for Arran, which mainly publishes articles contributed by community members.[80]

In 2010 an "Isle of Arran" version of the game Monopoly was launched.[81]

The knitting style used to create Aran sweaters is often mistakenly associated with the Isle of Arran rather than the Irish Aran Islands.[82]

Nature and conservation

Image
Sorbus arranensis in flower at Eglinton Country Park, Irvine.

The island has three endemic species of tree, the Arran whitebeams.[83] These trees are the Scottish or Arran whitebeam (Sorbus arranensis), the bastard mountain ash or cut-leaved whitebeam (Sorbus pseudofennica)[84] and the Catacol whitebeam (Sorbus pseudomeinichii). If rarity is measured by numbers alone they are amongst the most endangered tree species in the world. They are protected in Glen Diomhan off Glen Catacol, at the north end of the island by a partly fenced off national nature reserve, and are monitored by staff from Scottish Natural Heritage. Only 236 Sorbus pseudofennica and 283 Sorbus arranensis were recorded as mature trees in 1980.[85] They are typically trees of the mountain slopes, close to the tree line. However, they will grow at lower altitudes, and are being preserved within Brodick Country Park.

Over 200 species of bird have been recorded on Arran including black guillemot, eider, peregrine falcon and the golden eagle.[86] In 1981 there were 28 ptarmigan on Arran, but in 2009 it was reported that extensive surveys had been unable to record any.[87][88] Similarly, the red-billed chough no longer breeds on the island.[89] 108 km2 of Arran's upland areas is designated a Special Protection Area under the Natura 2000 programme due to its importance for breeding hen harriers.[90]

Red deer are numerous on the northern hills, and there are populations of red squirrel, badger, otter, adder and common lizard. Offshore there are harbour porpoises, basking sharks and various species of dolphin.[86]

The north of Lamlash Bay became a Marine Protected Area and No Take Zone under the Marine (Scotland) Act 2010, which means no fish or shellfish may be taken in the area.[91][92] In 2014 the Scottish Government created Scotland's first Marine Conservation Order in order to protect delicate maerl beds off south Arran after fishermen breached a voluntary agreement not to trawl in the vicinity.[93]


North Arran National Scenic Area

Image
Arran's Northern hills, viewed from the Ardrossan ferry, with Goat Fell the tallest peak.

The northern part of the island is designated a national scenic area (NSA),[94] one of 40 such areas in Scotland which are defined so as to identify areas of exceptional scenery and to ensure its protection by restricting certain forms of development.[95] The North Arran NSA covers 27,304 ha in total, consisting of 20,360 ha of land and a further 6,943 ha of the surrounding sea.[96] It covers all of the island north of Brodick and Machrie Bay, as well as the main group of hills surrounding Goat Fell.[94]

Notable residents

• Sir Kenneth Calman (born 1941) – Chancellor of Glasgow University, former Scottish and UK Chief Medical Officer and author of the Calman Commission on Scottish devolution[97]
• Flora Drummond (1878–1949) – suffragette
• Lieut. Col. James Fullarton, C. B., K. H. (1782–1834) – fought at the Battle of Waterloo.
• Daniel Macmillan (1813–1857) – He and his brother Alexander founded Macmillan Publishers in 1843. His grandson was Prime Minister Harold Macmillan.
• Jack McConnell (born 1960) – First Minister of Scotland (2001–2007)
• Robert McLellan (1907–1985) – playwright and poet in Scots
• Alison Prince (born 1931) – children's writer
• J. M. Robertson (1856–1933) – politician and journalist

See also

• Fauna of Scotland
• Flora of Scotland
• Geology of Scotland
• Hutton's Unconformity
• List of islands of Scotland

References

Notes


1. Murchad MacSween is called "Margad" in the original Norwegian text.[42] According to Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar, "In this expedition King Haco regained all those provinces which King Magnus Barefoot had acquired, and conquered from the Scotch and Hebrideans, as is here narrated."[43]

Footnotes

1. Downie (1933) p. 38. Downie also offers "Hersey".
2. Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004). The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh: Canongate. pp. 502–03. Modified to include bridged islands. ISBN 978-1-84195-454-7.
3. Area and population ranks: there are c. 300 islands over 20 ha in extent and 93 permanently inhabited islandswere listed in the 2011 census.
4. National Records of Scotland (15 August 2013) (pdf) Statistical Bulletin: 2011 Census: First Results on Population and Household Estimates for Scotland - Release 1C (Part Two). "Appendix 2: Population and households on Scotland’s inhabited islands". Retrieved 17 August 2013.
5. Haswell-Smith (2004) p.11.
6. Infobox reference is Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004). The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh: Canongate. pp. 11–17 unless otherwise stated. ISBN 978-1-84195-454-7.
7. Haswell-Smith (2004) pp. 11–17.
8. Mac an Tàilleir, Iain (2003) Ainmean-àite/Placenames. (pdf) Pàrlamaid na h-Alba. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
9. Downie (1933) pp. 38–39.
10. Keay and Keay (1994) p. 42 refers to "the profile of the 'Sleeping Warrior' of Arran as seen from the Clyde Coast". Various websites claim the phrase refers to single hills, none of which individually resemble a reclining human figure.
11. "Arran Page 1" hughspicer.fsnet.co.uk. Retrieved 22 February 2009.
12. Downie (1933) p. 2.
13. Johnstone et al. (1990) pp. 223-26.
14. Haswell-Smith (1994) p. 13.
15. "Get-a-map". Ordnance Survey. Retrieved 30 March 2008.
16. "Scrol Browser" Scotland's Census Results Online. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
17. McKirdy et al. (2007) pp. 297- 301.
18. Chambers (2000) PhD Thesis
19. King, Basil Charles (1954-01-01). "The Ard Bheinn Area of the Central Igneous Complex of Arran". Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. 110 (1-4): 323–355. doi:10.1144/GSL.JGS.1954.110.01-04.15. ISSN 0370-291X.
20. King (1955) pp. 326
21. The implications of this small chalk outcrop are considerable. It suggests that like much of southern England, Scotland once had considerable deposits of this material that have been subsequently eroded away, although there is no clear-cut evidence of this. See McKirdy et al. (2007) p. 298.
22. Hall (2001) p. 28
23. Keith Montgomery (2003). "Siccar Point and Teaching the History of Geology" (PDF). University of Wisconsin. Retrieved 26 March 2008.
24. "Hutton's Unconformity - Lochranza, Isle of Arran, UK - Places of Geologic Significance on Waymarking.com". Waymarking.com. Retrieved 20 October 2008. The site was not sufficiently convincing for him to publish his find until the discovery of a second site near Jedburgh.
25. Murray (1973) pp. 68-69.
26. McKirdy et al. (2007) p. 28.
27. Andrew Rogie. "Geology of Arran". Retrieved 9 November 2008.
28. Downie (1933) pp. 70-71.
29. This cave is one of several associated with the legend of Robert the Bruce and the spider. See McKirdy et al. (2007) p. 301.
30. "1:50000 map of Arran". Streetmap.co.uk. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
31. Downie (1933) p. 19 records that the Scriden rocks fell "it is said, some two hundred years ago, with a concussion that shook the earth and was heard in Bute and Argyllshire".
32. "Regional mapped climate averages" Met Office. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
33. Noble (2006) pp. 104–08.
34. "Machrie Moor Stone Circles". Undiscovered Scotland. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
35. Ballin, Torben Bjarke (2015). "Arran pitchstone (Scottish volcanic glass): New dating evidence". Journal of Lithic Studies. University of Edinburgh. 2 (1): 5–16. doi:10.2218/jls.v2i1.1166.
36. Downie (1933) pp. 29–30.
37. "Torr a' Chaisteal Dun". Undiscovered Scotland. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
38. Downie (1933) pp. 34–35.
39. Downie (1933) pp. 35–37.
40. Beare (1996) p. 26.
41. Murray (1973) p. 167–71.
42. W. D. H. Sellar, (October 1966) "The Origins and Ancestry of Somerled". The Scottish Historical Review/JSTOR. 45 No. 140, Part 2 pp. 131-32. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
43. Johnstone, Rev. James (1882) The Norwegian Account of Haco's Expedition Against Scotland; A.D. MCCLXIII. Chapter 20. William Brown, Edinburgh/Project Gutenberg. Originally printed 1782. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
44. Downie (1933) pp. 38–40.
45. "King's Cave: The cave at Drummadoon". showcaves.com. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
46. Downie (1933) pp.42–43. He states that the 1406 attack led by the Earl of Lennox "utterly destroyed" the structure.
47. Coventry (2008) pp. 53, 255 and 551.
48. Taylor (1887) vol. 2, p. 3.
49. Quoted by Haswell Smith (2004) p. 12.
50. Mackillop, Dugald "The History of the Highland Clearances: Buteshire - Arran" electricscotland.com. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
51. "Lagantuine - Isle of Arran, Ayrshire UK" waymarking.com. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
52. "Visits to Crash Sites in Scotland". Peak District Air Accident Research. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
53. Haswell Smith (2004) p. 11.
54. General Register Office for Scotland (28 November 2003) Scotland's Census 2001 – Occasional Paper No 10: Statistics for Inhabited Islands. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
55. "Scotland's 2011 census: Island living on the rise". BBC News. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
56. Mac an Tàilleir, Iain (2004) 1901-2001 Gaelic in the Census (PowerPoint ) Linguae Celticae. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
57. Holmer (1957) p. vii.
58. Fleming, D. (2003) Occasional Paper 10 (pdf) General Register Office for Scotland. Retrieved 27 February 2009.
59. Scotland Census 2011, Table QS211SC
60. Ó Dochartaigh (1997) p. 84-85.
61. Downie (1933), p. 1, confirms this status at the publication date.
62. "District: Cunninghame". ScotlandsPlaces. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
63. "Land Register Counties: Operational Dates and Alphabetical List of Places in Scotland" (PDF). Registers of Scotland. 2015. Retrieved 2018-05-14.
64. "2007 Election Results Analysis: Table 18" (pdf) scottish.parliament.uk. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
65. "Arran Medical Group". Arran Medical. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
66. "Arran: Getting there/around" Caledonian MacBrayne. Retrieved 17 July 2009.Archived 12 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
67. "Arran coast road reclassified" Arran Coast Road. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
68. Downie (1933) p. 5.
69. "Arran Bus Timetable 2009" (pdf) Stagecoach. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
70. "Auchrannie Resort on the Isle of Arran" http://www.auchrannie.co.uk. Retrieved 1 March 2008
71. "A wee history". Shiskine Golf and Tennis Club. Retrieved 28 Sept 2011.
72. "Where are Scotland's best nudist beaches?" (26 July 2016) Daily Record. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
73. Ross, John (27 February 2008). "Fish-farm plan sparks fears for marine reserve". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. Retrieved 22 February 2009.
74. "Sun sets on fishing in island bay". BBC News. 21 September 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2008.
75. "Cask Ales". Arran Brewery. Archived from the original on 21 September 2010. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
76. "Visitor Centre & Shop". Arran Brewery. Archived from the original on 14 October 2004. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
77. Pearce, Daniel (9 May 2008). "Arran Brewery Company goes into administration". The Publican. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2008.
78. "Arran Brewery admits strategy mistake as profits fall". HeraldScotland. Retrieved 2018-01-12.
79. "Banner goes from strength to strength." (13 April 2007) arranbanner.co.uk. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
80. "Voice for Arran" voiceforarran.com. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
81. "Monopoly - Isle of Arran Edition" arranmonopoly.com Retrieved 15 April 2010.
82. Morris, Johnny (17 March 2006). "Grail Trail". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 3 August 2007.
83. Johnston, Ian (15 June 2007). "Trees on Arran 'are a whole new species'". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. Retrieved 18 June 2007.[dead link]
84. Donald Rodger, John Stokes & James Ogilve (2006). Heritage Trees of Scotland. The tree Council. p. 58. ISBN 0-904853-03-9.
85. Eric Bignal (1980). "The endemic whitebeams of North Arran". The Glasgow Naturalist. 20 (1): 60–64.
86. "Arran Wildlife". arranwildlife.co.uk. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
87. "Iconic Birds at Risk". Sunday Herald. Glasgow. 1 February 2009. Available as Ptarmigan disappearing from southern Scotland
88. Downie (1933) p. 132 includes the ptarmigan in a list of birds no longer extant on the island at that time including the red kite, hobby, white-tailed sea eagle, hen harrier and capercaillie.
89. "A6.102a Chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (breeding)" (pdf) JNCC. Retrieved 1 August 2009.
90. "Site Details for Arran Moors SPA". Scottish Natural Heritage. 2018-05-02. Retrieved 2018-05-14.
91. "UK MPAs" UK MPA Centre. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
92. "Marine Conservation" Scottish Government. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
93. Weldon, Victoria (1 October 2014) "South Arran target for historic marine preservation order". The Herald. Glasgow. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
94. "Map: North Arran National Scenic Area" (PDF). Scottish Natural Heritage. December 2010. Retrieved 2018-05-14.
95. "National Scenic Areas". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 2018-01-17.
96. "National Scenic Areas - Maps". SNH. 2010-12-20. Retrieved 2018-05-14.
97. "Sir Kenneth Calman - biography"[dead link] BMA. Retrieved 20 June 2009.

General references

• Beare, Beryl (1996) Scotland. Myths & Legends. Avonmouth. Parragon. ISBN 0-7525-1694-9
• Coventry, Martin (2008) Castles of the Clans. Musselburgh. Goblinshead. ISBN 978-1-899874-36-1
• Downie, R. Angus (1933) All About Arran. Glasgow. Blackie and Son.
• Hall, Ken (2001) The Isle of Arran. Catrine. Stenlake Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84033-135-6
• Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004) The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh. Canongate. ISBN 1-84195-454-3
• Holmer, N. (1957) The Gaelic of Arran. Dublin. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
• Johnstone, Scott; Brown, Hamish; and Bennet, Donald (1990) The Corbetts and Other Scottish Hills. Edinburgh. Scottish Mountaineering Trust. ISBN 0-907521-29-0
• Keay, J., and Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-255082-2
• McKirdy, Alan Gordon, John & Crofts, Roger (2007) Land of Mountain and Flood: The Geology and Landforms of Scotland. Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 978-1-84158-357-0
• Murray, W.H. (1973) The Islands of Western Scotland. London. Eyre Methuen. SBN 413303802
• Noble, Gordon (2006) Neolithic Scotland: Timber, Stone, Earth and Fire. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-2338-8
• Ó Dochartaigh, C. (1997) Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scotland. Dublin. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
• Taylor, J. (1887) Great Historic Families of Scotland vol 2. London. J.S. Virtue & Co.

External links

• Map sources for Isle of Arran
• Information on the Arran Coastal Way long distance path
• Visitor's guide with news, events, transport and accommodation.
• Arran seen from space, NASA
• The Isle of Arran Heritage Museum
• The Arran Banner Arran's local newspaper
• The Sleeping Warrior on Flickr
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