Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

This is a broad, catch-all category of works that fit best here and not elsewhere. If you haven't found it someplace else, you might want to look here.

Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Nov 14, 2018 10:09 pm

Max I. Bodenheimer
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/14/18

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
Max I. Bodenheimer (1st from left). Pictured is the delegation of the Zionists, who had come to Palestine at the end of October 1898 to meet with Kaiser Wilhelm II . From left to right: Bodenheimer, Wolffsohn, Herzl, Moses Schnirer, Joseph Seidener

Max Isidor Bodenheimer (born March 12, 1865 in Stuttgart , † July 19, 1940 in Jerusalem) was a German jurist of Jewish religion, pioneer of the Zionist movement in Germany and subsequently influential official of the Zionist World Organization. Herzl's nickname for Bodenheimer was occasionally Hajoll (Heb. Chajal = soldier, also code designation in telegrams, etc.).

Life

Bodenheimer studied law until 1889 in Berlin, Strasbourg, Freiburg im Breisgau and Tübingen, settled in 1890 in Cologne and opened there in 1893 a law firm, which he operated until 1933.

In 1896, Max Bodenheimer married Rosa Dalberg (born December 7, 1876, died March 24, 1938) at the Zionist Congress in The Hague in 1907 to found the Association of Jewish Women for Cultural Work in Palestine, the predecessor of the WIZO. The marriage came from the three children Fritz Simon (1897-1959, Professor of Zoology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem), Henrietta Hannah (1898-1992, biographer of her father) and Ruth (1900-1941, lawyer).

The seizure of power by the National Socialists forced Bodenheimer 1933 to emigrate to Amsterdam. After retreating from the Zionist movement in 1934, the family moved to Jerusalem in 1935, where Bodenheimer devoted himself to writing his autobiography, but was otherwise active in journalism. There he died on July 20, 1940.

Political career

For a long time Bodenheimer had dealt with the situation of the Jews. From 1889 onward, too, the realization that Judaism represented a nation matured, and he began to engage in the Zionist movement. His first article appeared in 1891. Are the Russian Jews a nation? in the Hamburg weekly The Menorah, the others followed, especially (also 1891) his booklet Where to go with the Russian Jews or Syria, a refuge of the Russian Jews (a part of the former administrative unit Syria was Palestine).

He gradually contacted various Zionist organizations and worked closely with David Wolffsohn since his first meeting in February 1892. Together with him Bodenheimer founded in 1893 the Cologne Association for the Promotion of Agriculture and Crafts in Palestine. In 1894 he participated with Gustav cloth in Hamburg at the founding of the Free Israelite Association. Also in 1894 was under Bodenheimer leadership the first National Jewish Association in Cologne (later "ZVfD"), whose president he was (and remained until 1910).

Image
Max Bodenheimer memorial plaque, Cologne Richmodstr. 6

From May 1896 Bodenheimer was in close correspondence with Theodor Herzl. Before the two met for the first time, the "National Jewish Association of Germany" was founded in Bingen on July 11, 1897, and Bodenheimer was elected its chairman. Herzl and Bodenheimer met at the first Zionist World Congress, which began on 29 August 1897 in Basel and participated in the Bodenheimer as a delegate of the German movement. There he was elected to the Action Committee, to which he belonged until 1921. From 1901 to 1922 Bodenheimer was the Congress Attorney of the Zionist World Congress.

On Herzl's travels to Constantinople and Jerusalem, Bodenheimer accompanied him in October and November 1898, when Herzl, in talks with, among others, Kaiser Wilhelm II and Sultan Abdulhamid II, strove to found his own state, "Israel."

In May 1899, Bodenheimer initiated together with others the Jewish National Fund. In addition to his involvement in the German Zionist movement, he was mainly responsible for a concept on the organizational statutes of the World Association. This concept was adopted at the 5th World Congress, 1901, and the founding of an International Fund, the Jewish National Fund (JNF), whose second president =- after Kremenetzky =- Bodenheimer from 1907 to 1914 was.

Bodenheimer also became a member of the Organizing Committee, in 1910 he took over his chairmanship with the aim of reforming the organizational structures. The reform became necessary due to the emergence of party formations within the organization, which Bodenheimer had initially criticized. The reforms were intended to regulate the positions of these parties within the World Federation and were implemented at the 10th Congress in August 1911 in Basel.

As a result, Bodenheimer's influence increased internationally, while in Germany, with the change of the headquarters of the German Zionists from Cologne to Berlin, decreased. Especially between 1912 and 1914 Bodenheimer openly opposed the more radical sentiment of the German movement, which was now dominated by Kurt Blumenfeld. This meant that Bodenheimer 1912 for the first time not participated in the German Zionist Congress. Bodenheimer spent the March and April of the year on behalf of the JNF in Palestine.

At the beginning of the First World War, 1914, moved on the initiative Bodenheimer, the headquarters of the JNF from Cologne to The Hague. Subsequently, he (together with Franz Oppenheimer, Adolf Friedemann and other Zionists) initiated the "Committee for the Liberation of the Russian Jews", later renamed the "Committee for the East", whose goal was to improve the situation of Jews in Germany and Austria. Hungary occupied Russian territories. So as not to question the neutrality of the World Association, Bodenheimer was not appointed Chairman of the Committee. Franz Oppenheimer took over the chairmanship instead. In November of that year he resigned from the chairmanship of the JNF, but remained a member of the Board of Directors.

1921 became the fateful year for Bodenheimer: in April he voted, with the majority of the JNF Board of Directors, to try to buy land in Palestine and passionately defended this decision at the 12th World Congress in September 1922 in Karlovy Vary. This appearance should also be his last intervention at a Zionist World Congress. The new leaders in the World Association, among them the newly elected President Chaim Weizmann in 1920 , slowly broke away from the era of Theodor Herzl. This led in December to the fact that many of Herzl's companions were not re-elected to the board of the JNF, among them Bodenheimer.

Bodenheimer had one last major appearance in Germany in 1928, when the Cologne Jewish Community gave him the organization and presentation of the Jewish exhibition as part of the International Press Exhibition "Pressa".

In 1929 Bodenheimer finally broke with Weizmann's policy and joined the revisionists around Zeev Jabotinsky. As its delegate, he participated in 1931 in Basel at its last World Congress. With his resignation from the Revisionist Party, 1934, Bodenheimer withdrew into private life.

Little is known that in 1933 he had written a drama about the life of Jesus (In the matter of Jesus, under the pseudonym M. Bodmer).

Fonts

• That's how Israel became. From the history of the Zionist movement. Memories of Dr. Max Isidor Bodenheimer (edited by Henriette Hannah Bodenheimer on the basis of the Hebrew unfinished biography of 1952), Europäische Verlagsanstalt, Frankfurt a. M., 1958

Literature

• Bodenheimer, Max. In: Encyclopedia of German-Jewish authors . Volume 3: Birk-Braun. Published by the Archives Bibliographia Judaica. Saur, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-598-22683-7 , p 250-255.
• Henriette Hannah Bodenheimer (ed.): In the beginning of the Zionist movement . Frankfurt am Main 1965.
• Dies .: The Zionists and Imperial Germany . Bensberg 1972.
• Dies .: The breakthrough of political Zionism in Cologne 1890-1900 . Cologne 1978.
• This .: Max Isidor Bodenheimer (1865-1940). In: Rhenish Life Pictures, Volume 12. Edited by Franz-Josef Heyen. Rheinland Verlag, Cologne 1991, pp. 233-256.
• Wilhelm Sternfeld , Eva Tiedemann: German exile literature 1933-1945. An organic bibliography . Vorw. By Hanns Wilhelm Eppelsheimer , Schneider, Heidelberg / Darmstadt, 1962.
• Zitron , Lexicon Zioni, column 57
• Herzl's diaries, passim
• Roland Geiger: On the edge of knowledge . In: Yesterday 5th ed. By Roland Geiger, St. Wendel 2004, pp. 94-101.

Web links

• Literature by and about Max I. Bodenheimer in the catalog of the German National Library
• Biography of Bodenheimer (German)
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 24666
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Nov 14, 2018 10:12 pm

Fabius Schach
by Encyclopaedia Judaica
COPYRIGHT 2007 Thomson Gale

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


SCHACH, FABIUS (1868–1930), one of the first members of the Zionist movement in Germany. Born in Wexna, Lithuania, Schach studied at yeshivot and went to Riga and then Berlin, where he studied at the university. There he made the acquaintance of Max *Bodenheimer, who brought him to Cologne as a Hebrew teacher (1893). Together with Bodenheimer and David Wolffsohn, he founded a Jewish national society that formed the nucleus of the German Zionist Federation. Schach participated in the First Zionist Congress and helped to draw up the *Basle Program. Afterward he fell out with Theodor *Herzl and his associates and spent the following years in Karlsruhe and Berlin. During World War I he worked in Hamburg as the editor of newspapers and journals, including those which opposed Zionism. During his Zionist period he was one of the foremost propagandists of the Zionist cause and a prolific writer, especially in German (but also in Hebrew) on Zionism, Judaism, and the Hebrew and Yiddish languages. Among his works is Volk-oder Salonjudentum (1893). His sister Miriam (1867–1956) was a pioneer of political Zionism in France. She left her home in Lithuania in 1879, completed her studies at the Sorbonne in Paris, and taught the liberal arts and languages at various high schools in France. She played an important role, together with Max *Nordau, Alexander *Marmorek, and Bernard *Lazar, in putting Zionist ideas across to the French. She also helped to found the French Zionist newspaper, L'Echo Sioniste (published from 1900). During the last years of her life, she lived in Haifa. A Hebrew version by K.A. Bertini of her memoirs of the beginnings of the Zionist movement in France, titled Asher Ittam Hithallakhti, was published in 1951.

bibliography:

L. Jaffe (ed.), Sefer ha-Congress (19502), 201, 391–2; R. Lichtheim, Toledot ha-Ẓiyyonut be-Germanyah (1951), index.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 24666
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Nov 14, 2018 10:21 pm

Max Nordau
by Encyclopaedia Judaica
COPYRIGHT 2007 Thomson Gale

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


NORDAU, MAX (Simon Maximilian Suedfeld ; 1849–1923), co-founder of the World Zionist Organization, philosopher, writer, orator, and physician. Born in Pest, the son of Rabbi Gabriel Suedfeld, Nordau received a traditional Jewish education and remained an observant Jew until his eighteenth year, when he became a militant naturalist and evolutionist. In 1875 he earned an M.D. degree at the University of Pest, and he settled in Paris in 1880 as a practicing physician. Nordau's career in journalism dates back to his childhood. In 1867 he joined the staff of the Pester Lloyd, and in time he became a correspondent for leading newspapers in the Western world, including the Vossische Zeitung in Berlin, the Neue Freie Presse in Vienna, and La Nación in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Nordau achieved fame as a thinker and social critic with the publication of Die Conventionellen Luegen der Kulturmenschheit (1883; The Conventional Lies of Our Civilization, 1884). He sharply criticized "the religious lie," the corruption and oppression of monarchical and aristocratic regimes, the deceptions of political and economic establishments, and the hypocritical adherence to outworn sex mores. He set forth as an alternative what has been called his "philosophy of human solidarity." Nordau's "solidaritarianism" signifies the unity of mind and love. It insists on the intimate connection between free institutions and free inquiry in all areas of human concern. The Lies was translated into fifteen languages, including Chinese and Japanese. It raised a storm of controversy and was banned in Austria and Russia. It was followed by Paradoxe der Conventionellen Luegen (18853; Paradoxes, 1896), which discussed such topics as optimism and pessimism, passion and prejudice, social pressure and the power of love, sham and genuine success. This work also went through several editions and translations.

Even more controversial was Entartung (1892; Degeneration, 1895), in which Nordau subjected major figures and trends in European art and literature to scathing denunciation. Applying Cesare Lombroso's term "degeneracy" to the works of such men as Nietzsche, Tolstoy, Wagner, Zola, Ibsen, and such phenomena as symbolism, spiritualism, egomania, mysticism, Parnassianism, and diabolism, Nordau predicted the coming of a human catastrophe of unprecedented proportions. An entire literature developed over Degeneration, including a rebuttal in book form by George Bernard Shaw. More than 60 years after its first publication, Degeneration continued to be the subject of doctoral dissertations accepted by American universities; the book was republished in New York in 1968. Three other works merit perhaps even greater attention than Lies and Degeneration. The first is Der Sinn der Geschichte (1909; The Interpretation of History, 1910), which examines man's advance from parasitism through supernaturalist illusion to knowledge and human solidarity. To Nordau, the purpose of man's history was to achieve a lessening of human suffering and to actualize "the ideal of goodness and selfless love." The second, Biologie der Ethik (1921; Morals and the Evolution of Man, 1922), is a treatise on the natural roots of ethics, the relations between the legal and the moral, and the meaning of "scientific ethics," which aims at the improvement of human life through the cultivation of the twin "solidaritarian" powers of intelligence and compassion. The third, Der Sinn der Gesittung; "The Essence of Civilization" (written in 1920), was published in 1932 in an unsatisfactory Spanish version. In this last, fragmentary work, Nordau advocated "the elevation of the independent local community, the free city-republic, to the general type of community" as the best means of redeeming the individual from his bondage. Nordau argued the case of "solidaritarian socialism," which assigns to private property its proper limits without, however, abolishing it. Nordau regarded Communism as entirely unacceptable and, in its Bolshevik form, as "socialism gone mad."

In the field of belles lettres, Nordau's major works are Der Krieg der Millionen (1882), Die Krankheit des Jahrhunderts (1888; The Malady of the Century, 1896), Seelenanalysen (1892), Das Recht zu Lieben (1894; The Right to Love, 1895), Drohnenschlacht (1898; The Drones Must Die, 1899); Doktor Kohn (1899; A Question of Honor, 1907); Morganatisch (1904; Morganatic, 1904), The Dwarf's Spectacles, and Other Fairy Tales (1905), and an unpublished biblical tragedy in four acts, Rahab (c. 1922).

The Jewish problem was never foreign to Nordau's thoughts. His revulsion against antisemitism is reflected in his essay on Jacques Offenbach entitled "The Political Hep! Hep!" included in Aus dem wahren Milliardenlande (an abridged translation entitled Paris Sketches appeared in 1884). In the Lies Nordau condemned hatred of the Jew as a symptom of the malady of the age. Nordau's upbringing, his piety toward his Orthodox parents (his observant mother lived in his house in Paris until her death in 1900), and the references to Jewish destiny in his general writings all show that the frequent charge of Nordau's alienation from Judaism in his pre-Zionist period is exaggerated.

Nordau met Theodor *Herzl in 1892. As Paris correspondents for German-language newspapers, they witnessed the manifestations of antisemitism in the French capital. In November 1895 Herzl discussed his idea of a Jewish state with Nordau, after Emil Schiff, a friend concerned over his mental condition, advised him to see a psychiatrist. Far from declaring Herzl insane, however, Nordau concluded the consultation by saying: "If you are insane, we are insane together. Count on me!" To Nordau, the idea of a Jewish state appeared as a most welcome means for the implementation of his "solidaritarian" philosophy by Jews in the land of the Jews.

At the First Zionist Congress (1897), Nordau drafted the famed Basle *Program. He served as vice president of the First to the Sixth Zionist Congresses and as president of the Seventh to the Tenth Congresses. In his famed addresses to these Congresses he surveyed the Jewish situation in the world and described and analyzed the physical and material plight of the Jews in Eastern Europe, as well as the moral plight of the emancipated and assimilated Western Jew, who had lost his contact with his fellow-Jews and faced political and social antisemitism, which excluded him from non-Jewish society. These addresses, together with his other Zionist pronouncements, became classics of Zionist literature. At the Congress of 1911 he warned that if current political trends persisted, six million Jews, i.e., those living in the Russian Empire and other East-European countries, were doomed to perish. He was convinced that only political Zionism could forestall the tragedy. Nordau passionately defended Herzl's political Zionism against *Aḥad Ha-Am's cultural Zionism, which he regarded as being pre-Zionist. He believed that his opponent's idea of a "spiritual center" would only obstruct the Zionist effort to rescue large masses of Jews in Ereẓ Israel. Citing a statement of the "cultural Zionists" – that "we are not concerned with Jews but with Judaism" – Nordau told the Sixth Zionist Congress, "'Judaism without Jews' – we know you, beautiful mask! Go with this phrase and join a meeting of spiritualists!"

In loyalty to Herzl, Nordau supported the *Uganda Scheme and coined the phrase Nachtasyl (night asylum) to stress the temporary nature of the proposal. He himself was convinced that the idea of a charter for Uganda was a grave error, because Jews who could not go to Palestine would prefer America or Australia. An assassination attempt in Paris, by a young anti-Ugandist, Chaim Selig Luban, who held Nordau responsible for the scheme, failed. Nordau himself defended Luban before the investigating judge.

In his last conversation with Nissan *Katzenelson, Herzl stated that Nordau should be his successor as president of the Zionist Organization, adding, "I can assure you that he will lead the cause at least as well as I did or better." Nordau, however, declined to serve as president when he was offered the post after Herzl's death; he chose to remain outside the organizational hierarchy. His opposition to the cultural Zionism espoused by Aḥad Ha-Am was only matched by his opposition to the practical Zionists led by Chaim *Weizmann. Nordau believed in political action rather than in small-scale, gradual agricultural colonization.

Nordau spent World War I in exile and in relative isolation in neutral Spain. He favored Vladimir *Jabotinsky's idea of a *Jewish Legion, but felt that the Zionist movement should remain neutral, since Zionists lived in countries on both sides of the international conflict. In 1920 he delivered his celebrated Albert Hall address in London, in which he told British statesmen and Zionist leaders that if the *Balfour Declaration of 1917 was to have meaning, that meaning must be made manifest by the swift creation of a Jewish majority and ensuing Jewish political independence in Palestine. In 1919, when a wave of pogroms swept the Ukraine and other parts of Russia, he began advocating the speedy transfer of 600,000 Jews to Palestine within a matter of months. The Zionist leadership rejected his proposal as unrealistic, and in 1921 Nordau retired from active Zionist work. He died in Paris in 1923 and was interred in the Old Cemetery in Tel Aviv in 1926. In the late 1930s, Jabotinsky was to name his own program for the speedy creation of a Jewish majority in Palestine by the mass transfer of Jews from the Diaspora "The Max Nordau Plan."


[Meir Ben-Horin]

His daughter Maxa Nordau (1897–1991) was a French painter. She was born in Paris, where she studied under Jules Adler. In 1937 she painted mural decorations in the Palestine pavilion at the Paris international exhibition, and during World War II lived in the U.S. A conservative representational artist, her subjects included Israeli landscapes, urban scenes, workyards, nudes, and portraits. Among her portraits are Max Nordau, The Young David, and The Pioneers. She illustrated books, including Contes pour Maxa by her father, and collaborated with her mother in writing Max Nordau, a Biography (1943).

bibliography:

N. Sokolow, History of Zionism, 2 vols. (1919), index; A. and M. Nordau, Max Nordau (Eng., 1943); S. Schwartz, Max Nordau be-Iggerotav (1944); Ch. Weizmann, Trial and Error, (1949), index; M.P. Foster, "Reception of Max Nordau's 'Degeneration' in England and America" (Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1954); M. Ben Horin, Max Nordau, Philosopher of Human Solidarity (1956); idem, Common Faith – Uncommon People (1970); M. Gold, "Nordau on Degeneration; A Study of the Book and Its Cultural Significance" (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1957); T. Herzl, Complete Diaries, ed. and tr. by R. Patai, 5 (1960), index; M. Heyman, The Minutes of the Zionist Council, The Uganda Controversy, 1 (1970).
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 24666
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Nov 14, 2018 10:25 pm

Alexander Marmorek
by Encyclopaedia Judaica
COPYRIGHT 2007 Thomson Gale

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


MARMOREK, ALEXANDER (1865–1923), bacteriologist and Zionist leader. He was born in Mielnice, Galicia, and studied in Vienna and at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, where he became assistant and subsequently chef de travaux. Early in his studies, he discovered an antidote (antistreptococcus) against puerperal fever. In 1903 he addressed the Paris Académie de Médecine and claimed the discovery of the toxin of the tubercle-bacillus and of the antituberculosis vaccine. This discovery was hotly debated in expert circles and was finally accepted as an invariably successful cure if prescribed up to a certain stage of the disease. With this discovery, Marmorek also initiated the serum study that led to the modern treatment of typhus and diabetes. Marmorek was also an ardent Zionist. In Vienna he belonged to *Kadimah, the first students' society to join *Herzl after the publication of Der Judenstaat. With his brothers Oscar and Isidor, he belonged to the circle of Herzl's closest friends and was repeatedly consulted on political steps contemplated by the Zionist leader. He was elected member of the Zionist General Council at the first 11 Zionist congresses (1897–1913). After Herzl's death Marmorek remained an adherent of Herzl's political Zionism and, next to Max *Nordau, became the foremost spokesman of the opposition, when "practical" Zionists assumed the movement's leadership in 1911. After World War I he strongly opposed *Weizmann's policies and refused to participate at the 12th Zionist Congress (1921). In his articles and speeches he emphasized that the Palestine Mandate was not the fulfillment of Herzl's idea of a Jewish state. Marmorek was chairman of the French Zionist Federation and one of the co-founders of L'Echo Sioniste, the Zionist monthly published in Paris. He founded the Jewish Popular University in Paris, chiefly for the benefit of foreign Jews who settled there. As a foreign national he was unable to remain in Paris during World War I and served as a doctor with the Allied armies in Eastern Europe.

His brother Oscar (1863–1909) was an architect and Zionist leader. Born in Skala, Galicia, he studied in Vienna and Paris. He built a great number of important buildings in Vienna and Austria and also some synagogues, in which he attempted a style based on his studies of old Jewish architecture. He attained fame through his pavilion "Venice in Vienna" at the world exhibition of 1900 in Vienna.

Oscar Marmorek joined Herzl after the publication of Der Judenstaat and was elected to the Zionist Executive at the first six Zionist congresses. He was a co-founder of Die *Welt. Herzl depicted him in Altneuland as Architect Steineck. He died by his own hand.


Bibliography:

D. Jacobson, A. Marmorek (Fr., 1923); jc (July 20, 1923); Die Welt (April 16, 1909); L. Jaffe, Sefer ha-Congress (1950), 339–40; M.I. Bodenheimer, Prelude to Israel (1963), index; M. Schach, Asher Ittam Hithalakhti (1951), 123–42.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 24666
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Nov 14, 2018 10:29 pm

Bernard Lazare
by Encyclopaedia Judaica
COPYRIGHT 2007 Thomson Gale

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


LAZARE, BERNARD (1865–1903), French writer. Lazare was born and educated in Nimes, then went to Paris, where he began to make his way as a writer (publishing several volumes of verse) and also took part in Jewish affairs. He was attracted by the anarchist and socialist movements and worked on a number of periodicals, writing articles which later formed the basis of his book, L'antisémitisme, son histoire et ses causes (1894; Antisemitism, its History and Causes, 1903). In it he maintained that antisemitism could be of some use in bringing about the advent of socialism by teaching hatred of Jewish capitalism; this would inevitably turn into hatred of capitalism in all its forms. His book contains violent expressions against some sectors of the Jewish community, often quoted later by professional antisemites. However, the *Dreyfus Affair shook Lazare's views to their roots and completely changed his attitude on the Jewish problem. He was one of Dreyfus' first supporters and published several books in an attempt to demonstrate his innocence; these include Une erreur judiciaire; la vérité sur l'affaire Dreyfus (1896) and Comment on condamne un innocent (1898). From then on Lazare declared that antisemitism did not help to combat capitalism but, on the contrary, provided it with a safety valve. Assimilation was no more an answer to the Jewish problem than emancipation had been. Lazare therefore came out in favor of a nationalist solution to the Jewish problem, though he had not yet any particular place in view. This development in his ideas led to his participation in the Second Zionist Congress in 1898. However, his intransigence soon brought him into conflict with Theodor Herzl, particularly over the creation of the *Jewish Colonial Trust which Lazare opposed.

Lazare was a close friend of Charles *Péguy, who published his study on the Jews of Romania in Cahiers de la Quinzaine (1902). Péguy included an essay on Lazare in Notre Jeunesse (1910) in which he credited him with a leading role in the Dreyfus Affair: "In this great crisis, the prophet of both Israel and the world was Bernard Lazare," he wrote. Lazare died already practically forgotten.

Bibliography:

B. Hagani, Bernard Lazare (Fr., 1919), incl. bibl.; Fontainas, in: Mercure de France (July 1933), 45–71; idem, in: B. Lazare, L'antisémitisme, son histoire et ses causes (1934), preface; Muslak, in: rej, 106 (1941/45), 34–63; Silberner, in: hj, 16 (1954), 30–35; A. Hertzberg, The Zionist Idea (1960), 468–76.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 24666
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Nov 14, 2018 10:57 pm

David Wolffsohn
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/14/18

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
David Wolffsohn

David Wolffsohn (born October 9, 1855 in Dorbiany, Kowno Governorate, died September 15, 1914 in Homburg vd H.) was a leading figure in the early days of political Zionism and the successor to Theodor Herzl, president of the World Zionist Organization.

Life

David Wolffsohn was born in Dorbiany, Kowno Governorate, the son of a teacher and received religious education. As a thirteen-year-old he came across the Russian border to Memel, then border town of the German Reich, and entered, without previous education and with minimal knowledge of German, in a wood business. In Memel, Rabbi Isaac Rülf, a Zionist rabbi, took care of the bright boy and gained control over him.

Wolffsohn moved to Lyck in East Prussia in 1872 for a commercial apprenticeship and lived in the house of the writer David Gordon, the publisher of the Ha-Magid, who inspired Wolffsohn for national Jewish ideas. In 1873 he was sent to his brother to avoid being drafted into the Tsarist army. After a few years of great material misery, he moved to Papenburg in Friesland, where he was for the first time successful in entrepreneurial activity and became co-owner of the flourishing timber trading company Bernstein (A. Bernstein, who then became the Bernstein & Wolffsohn firmierte); There he also donated a synagogue.

In 1888 Woffsohn relocated the company headquarters to Cologne, settled there himself and became very wealthy through his restless work. In Cologne he joined the Chowewe Zion movement and founded in 1893 together with Max I. Bodenheimer the "Cologne Association for the Promotion of Agriculture and Crafts in Palestine" and in 1894 the Jewish National Association. Wolffsohn's inclination to Zionism grew with the appearance of Theodor Herzl's book Der Judenstaat. In 1896 he met Herzl, immediately promised his support and became his companion and friend. Their relationship was so strong that he even became the guardian of Herzl's children.

Already at the organization of the first Zionist Congress in 1897, he took lively part and since then counted among the most active champions of the Zionist idea. He became particularly useful to Herzl with his commercial skills in setting up the Jewish Colonial Trust in London
, and Wolffsohn's psychologically not always skilful heart helped to take the lead of his leadership and to act as a balancing act among the national and international Zionist leaders. Wolffsohn then became chairman and supervisory board member of the bank during Herzl's lifetime.

He accompanied Herzl on his travels to London, Constantinople and Palestine and also attended the reception by Wilhelm II in 1898 before Jerusalem. Wolffsohn Herzl's companion and advisor was also on further journeys. Herzl's early death plunged Wolffsohn into a deep depression, which he sought to balance by all the stronger, tireless activity for the Zionist cause. At the grave Herzls Wolffsohn spoke the words:

"You did not want to talk on your grave. Your will is sacred to us. We want to swear, however, that we will continue the work you have begun with all our powers, we swear that we will always keep your name holy and never forget you while a Jew lives on earth. "


- and then he swore with a raised hand:

"May my rights wither if I forget yours, Jerusalem."


Image
David Wolffsohn (2nd from left). Pictured is the delegation of the Zionists, who had come to Palestine at the end of October 1898 to meet with Kaiser Wilhelm II. From left to right: Bodenheimer, Wolffsohn, Herzl, Moses Schnirer, Joseph Seidener

Wolffsohn soon afterwards -- initiated and prepared by Herzl -- issued an appeal to the Jewish people, who appealed to all Jews, and especially to all Zionists, with the request "to give the children of Herzl what their fathers gave us to deprive of love and benefit". The result was pathetic, only after many admonitions came together smaller sums. Wolffsohn took over Herzl's legacy and arranged the estate with Leon Kellner and Johann Kremenezky, arranged the first edition of the Collected Writings of Herzl, became its executor, guardian of his children and provided for them.

After Herzl's death there was a vacuum in the leadership of the movement. Several candidates were in the discussion as Herzl's successor, and finally, at the seventh Zionist Congress in 1905, three agreed to be nominated as presidential candidates of the World Zionist Organization: Wolffsohn (who vehemently opposed it), Nordau and Otto Warburg. At the eighth Congress in 1907 Wolffsohn was elected President of the Zionist Organization, and Wolffsohn tried from then on, a "position of the middle" between purely political Zionism (obtaining the "charter" according to Herzl specifications) and the camp of the "practical", led above all from Ussischkin, to protect. However, the opposition to this path became increasingly stronger, apart from Ussischkin, also by Weizmann, not to mention the "territorialistic" special path Zangwill and his followers were aiming for.

Wolffsohn worked restlessly at home and abroad, several trips to Constantinople (where negotiations with the Sultan were promising, but the Young Turks revolution again thwarted all plans) were the propaganda and political mediation of the Zionist idea.

In 1907 he also traveled to Russia, where he was received among others by the Prime Minister Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin and the Foreign Minister Alexander Petrovich Isvolsky in longer audiences. Afterwards he visited Hungary and had an audience with the Minister of the Interior, Count Andrassy. Wolffsohn's efforts in Russia and Hungary helped secure the continuation of the movement in both countries.

In 1909 Wolffsohn traveled again to Constantinople, this time accompanied by Sokolov, contacted the new political leadership and promoted the Zionist public relations by succeeding in buying a newspaper (Curier d'Orient), which could be used for propaganda purposes.

Wolffsohn was confirmed as President at the Ninth Congress, December 1909, although he faced a strong opposition that accepted only a "provisional" (reelection of the old leadership), after which he lost many powerful supporters to the opposition and at the tenth Congress In 1911, physically broken and nervously torn, resigned. Although he was able to win the majority again and could have remained President, but waived his health condition, so that the leadership passed to Otto Warburg. Wolffsohn remained active on the financial and economic side of the movement.

At the eleventh congress in Vienna in September 1913, Wolffsohn again presided and successfully fought over not delivering the Zionist financial organizations to the "non-commercial cultural Zionist direction".

Wolffsohn then had the intention to emigrate to Eretz Israel, bought a few months after the congress, a large property near Jaffa, but could not fulfill this desire: On the return journey from a spa stay in Switzerland died of heart disease Wolffsohn on September 15, 1914 in Bad Homburg before the height and was buried on September 18, 1914 at the Jewish cemetery in Cologne-Deutz in addition to his deceased in 1912 wife Fanny. In 1952, his remains were transferred with those of his wife to Jerusalem and in addition to those Theodor Herzls, on the Herzlberg, buried.

Even during his lifetime Herzls made Wolffsohn's religious background the suggestion that the flag of the movement should be blue on white, like a tallit. It was first shown to the public on 21 July 1891 at the inauguration of the Zion Hall in Boston. On May 14, 1948, it was first hoisted in Palestine and officially confirmed on 12 September 1948 as the flag of the Jewish state. Von Wolffsohn also suggested that the members of the movement should undertake to pay the shekel.

At the seventh congress in 1905, the Ugandan Plan was rejected and the Basel program, which agreed to increase settlement activity, was taken over. At this point, Wolffsohn was already trying to bridge the gap between "political" and "practical" Zionists. After the seventh congress Wolffsohn transferred all Zionist offices to Cologne. This also encouraged the Jewish National Fund to relocate its headquarters to Cologne. Wolffsohn asked Nachum Sokolov to become secretary-general of the organization. In 1907 Wolffsohn (with Sokolov) founded HaOlam, the official newspaper of the movement.

Although the debate at the Eighth Zionist Congress was partly heated, Wolffsohn proved to be a perfect mediator and insisted that all practical programs of the organization (including the activities of the Jewish National Fund and the new settlements) should be carried out in the spirit of Herzl. Although his health had already been attacked in 1906, he traveled to South Africa. This trip was a milestone in the history of Zionism as it resulted in the founding of the South African Zionist Federation. After his return Wolffsohn was confronted with a serious opposition. He agreed to a JNF bond for the first settlers in Ahuzat Bayit, the later center of Tel Aviv.

Wolffsohn's personality and work were really appreciated posthumously. His opponents also later admitted that he had been "a man of the people who had risen socially through decades of hard work." He was "a symbol of the synthesis of Eastern and Western Europe and unite in themselves the best qualities of both communities". Through Wolffsohn's considerable legacy, which he had designated for Zionist purposes (Wolffsohn Foundation, Chairman JH Kann), the financial resources for the construction of the Jewish National Library on the Skopus could be raised (Bet David Wolffsohn, inaugurated in 1930).

Herzl's pet name for Wolffsohn was Daade; one of Wolffsohn's nephews was the musician Juliusz Wolfsohn.

Literature

• Abraham Robinson: David Wolffsohn. Berlin 1921.
• EB Cohn: David Wolffsohn. 1989th
• Ursula Reuter: Mediator between East and West. David Wolfssohn 1856-1914 . In: Kalonymos , 17th Gen 2014, H. 3, pp. 1-3. Online (PFD) .
• Ivonne Meybohm: David Wolffsohn. Rising star, frontier worker, mediator. A Biographical Approach to the History of the Early Zionist Organization (1897-1914) . Göttingen 2013.

Individual Proofs

1. Hochspringen Ursula Reuter: Mediator between East and West - David Wolffsohn (1856-1914) , Kalonymos 17 (2014), Issue 3, p. 1-3.

Web links

• Literature by and about David Wolffsohn in the catalog of the German National Library
• Wolffsohn's biography in the jewish virtual library (partially incorrect information!)
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 24666
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Nov 14, 2018 11:13 pm

Nachum Sokolov
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/14/18

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
Nachum Sokolov around 1922

Nachum ben Josef Samuel Sokolov (also Nahum and Sokolof, Hebrew נחום סוקולוב; born 10 January 1859 in Wyszogród near Plozk, Russian Empire; died May 17, 1936 in London) was president of the World Zionist Organization, pioneer of modern Hebrew journalism and Hebrew writer.

Life

Sokolov was born into a rabbi family in Wyszogród in Poland (then Russian Empire). He was an accomplished language expert and spoke German, French, English, Italian, Spanish, Hebrew, Yiddish, Polish and Russian. As a 17-year-old he began writing for the Hebrew newspaper HaTzefirah ("The Alarm") in Warsaw. He managed the unique feat to inspire followers from different camps of secular intellectuals to anti-Haskalah - Orthodox. He received his own column and later became editor-in-chief and co-owner of the newspaper.

Although Sokolov wrote almost all articles for Ha-Tzefirah himself, he still had time and energy to devote himself to other projects. He contributed to various journals, published for a while a Polish newspaper (Izraelita) for the Jewish community in Warsaw and a Yiddish periodical. He wrote poems, stories and essays. Between 1885 and 1894 appeared six volumes of his Hebrew annual HeAsif, which had great influence on the revival of Hebrew. 1900 to 1906 he published another yearbook, Sefer HaSchana (Warsaw).

Although initially an opponent of "political" Zionism, since 1897 for Zionism, Sokolov was involved in the first Zionist Congress of the Hebrew Literary Commission (together with Eliezer Ben Yehuda, Marcus Ehrenpreis, Achad Ha'am, Armand Kaminka), became Herzls Death 1905 General Secretary of the Zionist Organization in Cologne, edited temporarily the world, beyond that he founded together with David Wolffsohn Hebrew central organ of the movement Haolam("The World") and became Secretary General of the WZC in 1906. In the following years he toured Europe and North America (eg, 1908 Constantinople with Wolffsohn) to argue for the Zionist cause. In 1911 he was elected at the 10th Zionist Congress in Basel in the "Narrow Actions Comité" (together with Otto Warburg, Schemarjahu Levin and Arthur Hantke). He then moved to Berlin and stayed there until the beginning of the World War. As one of the main fighters for the rebirth of the Hebrew language, Sokolov was the first to speak Hebrew at a Zionist conference. On the basis of his application, the Hebrew language was also recognized as the official language of the organization.

At the outbreak of the First World War, he had left Germany and finally came to London via Copenhagen, The Hague, Paris. After talks with Chaim Weizmann and Sokolov, British Foreign Minister Balfour declared in the Balfour Declaration in 1917 that Britain was in favor of establishing a "national homeland" for the Jewish people in Palestine.

Sokolov negotiated with many leading political figures and succeeded in gaining approval from the governments of France and Italy for the Balfour Declaration. Sokolov has also repeatedly negotiated with the Vatican and was in 1917 by Pope Benedict XV. to whom he could explain in detail the aims of the Zionist movement. During the peace negotiations, Sokolov became president of the Comité des Délégations Juives and participated in the recognition of minority Jewish rights in the various peace treaties. Statements of approval from many governments (Poland, Romania, South Africa, even the US Parliament) on the establishment of the Jewish homeland in Palestine are directly attributable to Sokolov's work.

1920-1931 Sokolov was president of the Zionist executive (forerunner of the Jewish Agency, ha-sochnut ha-jehudit, founded August 11, 1929), since 1921 president of all Zionist congresses, from 1931 (Weizmann's resignation at the 17th Zionist Congress in Basel because of the Passfield-Weissbuchs) until 1935 President of the World Zionist Organization (WCO); his predecessor and successor in this post was Chaim Weizmann. When Weizmann returned to office in 1935, Sokolov was appointed Honorary President of the WCO. He became chairman of the newly formed Cultural Department, but did not receive enough financial resources to run his programs. So he returned to writing and raised money for the Keren Hajessod.

Sokolov was a prolific author and translator. His literary work is so extensive and covers so many different topics that his fellow writer Chaim Nachman Bialik once found that three hundred camels were needed to transport everything that Sokolov had ever written to a place. His works include a three-volume history Baruch Spinoza and his time (Baruch Spinoza usemanno, London 1929) and numerous other biographies. He translated Theodor Herzl's Zionist novel "Altneuland" under the title "Tel Aviv"(Spring Hill) into Hebrew, and was thus to some extent the eponym of the Israeli city, the first Jewish city in modern Eretz Israel. In 1918, Nachum Sokolov published his "History of Zionism", a two-volume English study on the Western roots of the Zionist idea (with words of welcome from the then French Foreign Minister Pichon and Lord Balfours, complete translation of the first volume by Stefan Hofer, the second volume by Lothar Hofmann).

In 1956, Sokolov's bones were transferred to Jerusalem. The Israeli Sokolov Prize for Literature and the Kibbutz Sde Nahum are named after him.

Other works by Sokolov (selection)

• mekuze erez ("Fundamentals of the Earth", Textbook of Physical Geography), Warsaw 1878
• sin'at olam le'am olam (History of Anti-Semitism), Warsaw 1882
• zaddik wenissgaw (historical novel about Jomtow Lipmann Heller ), Warsaw 1882
• thorath sefath anglith , Warsaw 1882
• erez chemda (on the geography of Palestine), Warsaw 1885
• sefer sikkaron (bio-bibliographic dictionary of contemporary Jewish writers), Warsaw 1889
• Textbook of the English language (in Yiddish, 16th edition 1904)
• Selected Writings , Warsaw 1912
• ha'ani hakibuzzi ("The collective ego"), New York 1930

Web links

Commons: Nachum Sokolow - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
• Literature by and about Nachum Sokolow in the catalog of the German National Library

Sources / Literature

• Jewish Encyclopedia , 1901-1906, XI, 429
• Sefer hajowel. Festschrift for the 25th anniversary of the writer Sokolov , Warsaw 1904
• Travel , Encyclopedia ... , 1st edition 1914, II., 608 ff.
• Ozar Yisrael , Bd. VII., Vienna 1924
• Jewish lexicon , Berlin 1927, Bd. IV./2, columns 485-487
• Archive for journalistic work , July 8, 1928
• Jewish Rundschau , January 23, 1931
• Salomon Wininger , Great Jewish National Biography, Chernivtsi 1925-1936, Volume V., p. 559 ff.
• John F. Oppenheimer (Red.): Encyclopedia of Judaism . Bertelsmann-Lexikon-Verlag, Gütersloh, Berlin, Munich, Vienna. 1971, ISBN 3-570-05964-2 , Sp. 756.
• Julius H. Schoeps , ed., New Lexicon of Judaism , Gütersloh / Munich 1992, p. 426
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 24666
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Nov 15, 2018 12:17 am

German Youth Movement
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/14/18

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


The German Youth Movement (German: Die deutsche Jugendbewegung) is a collective term for a cultural and educational movement that started in 1896. It consists of numerous associations of young people that focus on outdoor activities. The movement included German Scouting and the Wandervogel. By 1938, 8 million children had joined associations that identified with the movement.

Both the kibbutz and Bruderhof Communities can trace their origins to the German Youth Movement.[1][2] The influence of Friedrich Nietzsche on the movement was substantial, with the philosopher described as the "Prophet of the German Youth Movement".[3]

Wandervogel

In 1896 the Wandervogel was founded in Berlin, and soon they crystallized many vital concepts from the ideas of earlier social critics and Romantics that came to reach great and extensive influence on many fields at the onset of the 20th century.

To escape the repressive and authoritarian society of the end of the 19th century and the adult values of a new modern German society increasingly transformed by industrialism, imperial militarism, and British and Victorian influence, groups of young people searched for free space to develop some healthy life of their own away from the increasingly contaminated cities growing all around and from where most of them came to be disappointed. Also a romantic longing for a pristine state of things and older cultural diverse traditions played a part. They turned to nature, confraternity and adventure. Soon the groups split and there originated ever more organisations, which still all called themselves Wandervogel, but were organisationally independent. Nonetheless, the feeling was still of being a common movement but split into several branches.

Bündische Jugend

After the First World War, the leaders returned disillusioned from the war. The same was true for leaders of German Scouting. So both movements started to influence each other heavily in Germany. From the Wandervogel came a stronger culture of hiking, adventure, bigger tours to farther places, romanticism and a younger leadership structure. Scouting brought uniforms, flags, more organisation, more camps and a clearer, more rational ideology. There was also an educationalist influence from Gustav Wyneken.

Together, this led to the emergence of the Bündische Jugend, a movement of many different youth associations. There were Wandervogel groups, Scouting associations and others, all of which mixed the elements described above with new ingredients. New styles and groups developed. A new tent form, the kohte, was invented, which are still the typical black tents of German scouts on international scout camps. The Deutsche Freischar and then the Jungenschaft was founded.

Nazi Germany

In the German Youth Movement one can find all the different reactions of German society as a whole to the rise of the Nazis. Many welcomed it as a freedom movement to break free of the perceived injustice of the Treaty of Versailles and make Germany strong again. The notion of a 'Volksgemeinschaft', a people's community, was also popular. On the other hand, there were also many in the German Youth Movement who saw their associations as an elite superior to the more primitive Nazis. Some groups were genuinely democratic, or even left wing. Many more, even some of those who tended to the right, still wanted to carry on their independent work and existence as organisations. This led inescapably to a confrontation with the Nazi state, since the Nazi state did not allow any youth groups separate from the Hitler Youth, which itself adopted many of the outer forms of the Bündische Jugend after 1933. The groups remaining outside the Hitler Youth were outlawed and pursued, while some of them (e.g., the Edelweiss Pirates) tried to carry on.

One thing which might have been different from other sections of German society is the following: The Youth Movement was very idealistic, romantic and moral. Therefore, its members tended to take greater risks in following and acting upon their beliefs and persuasions. This might be the reason why one can find significant members of the Youth Movement on both sides, among the Nazis and among the Widerstand.

Examples for this are the following: Adolf Eichmann was one of their members from 1930 to 1931. Hans Scholl was a member of the Jungenschaft, an especially independent-minded association of the Bündische Jugend. Claus von Stauffenberg was a member of the Scout association of the Neupfadfinder, also an association of the Bündische Jugend.

After the war

After the war many associations were refounded in West Germany, when the allies allowed it. In East Germany the Communist government did not allow it but instead outlawed all independent youth organisations. On the other hand, there were some connections between the German Youth Movement and the Free German Youth.

In West Germany the Youth Movement became strongly dominated by Scouting, although Wandervogel, Jungenschaft and other groups were also refounded. In contrast to the situation before the war, all groups tried to have a more rational ideology and declared their support of the new Basic Law. German Scouting also approached world Scouting (the World Organization of the Scout Movement and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts) and was admitted to the world organisations for the first time.

Today

Today there are still many groups and organisations which see themselves as part of this movement. German Scouting is still heavily influenced by this history, although the historical influence varies from group to group. The most distinctive features of German Scouting trace from this history.

Notes

1. Bruderhof (2012-06-06), Bruderhof History Series - 2 - The German Youth Movement's Influence on the Bruderhof, retrieved 2017-05-25
2. Mike Tyldesley (2003). No Heavenly Delusion?: A Comparative Study of Three Communal Movements. Liverpool University Press. doi:10.5949/UPO9781846313677. ISBN 978-0-85323-608-5.
3. Steven E. Aschheim (25 February 1994). The Nietzsche Legacy in Germany: 1890 - 1990. University of California Press. pp. 113–114. ISBN 978-0-520-91480-3.

References

• Howard Paul Becker. German Youth: Bond or Free. New York: Oxford University Press, 1946. Detailed history and sociology of the various aspects of the youth movement. Remarkable for the times, the discussion of homoeroticism and homosexuality within some of these groups is non-judgmental. OCLC 2083809 In 1998, Routledge reprinted this work as Volume 8 of its International Library of Sociology and The Sociology of Youth and Adolescence series. OCLC 761549797 ISBN 978-0-415-86351-3
• Peter D. Stachura, The German Youth Movement, 1900-1945: An Interpretive and Documentary History (London: Macmillan, 1981).
• Barbara Stambolis: Jugendbewegung, European History Online, Institute for European History, 2011, last retrieved: 21 February 2013.
• Walter Laqueur: Young Germany: A History of the German Youth Movement, Transaction Pub, 1984, ISBN 0-87855-960-4
• There are many articles in the German Wikipedia about these topics. Start with de:Jugendbewegung or the category de:Kategorie:Jugendbewegung.

External links

• Documents and clippings about German Youth Movement in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW)
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 24666
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Previous

Return to Articles & Essays

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 4 guests