MANIFESTATIONS OF THE MARTINIST ORDER
by Milko Bogaard
© Milko Bogaard February 2005
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THE FOLLOWING is a listing of the different Martinist Orders which were founded after the death of Papus in 1916. "It makes no claim to be exhaustive nor to be perfect, the contents will most certainly contain mistakes". … The source of this listing can be found on Fr. Marcel Roggeman's excellent site "Geschiedenis van de occulte en mystieke broederschappen", richly supplemented with material owned by the writer.
• 1916 Ordre Martiniste-Martinéziste/ L’Ordre Martiniste de Lyon
• 1918 (1921) Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique
• 1931 Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel
• 1943 Ordre Martiniste des Elus Cohens
• Ordre Martiniste Rectifié
• 1952 Ordre Martiniste de Papus
• 1958 Fédération des Ordres Martinistes
• 1960 Ordre Martiniste (L’Ordre Martinist de Paris)
• 1968 Ordre Martiniste de Belgique
• 1968 (1975) Martinisten Orde der Nederlanden / O*M* des Pays-Bas
• 1968 Ordre Martiniste Initiatique
• 1971 Ordre Martiniste des Chevaliers du Christ O*M*C*C*
• 1975-1980 Hermetic Order of Martinists (U.K.)
• 1977 De Martinisten Orde der Nederlanden in België / O*M* des Pay-Bas in Belgium
• Ordre des Chevaliers Martinistes
• 1982 Rose+Croix Martinist Order (Ontario, Canada)
• 1989 Ordre Martiniste Hermétique de Belgique
• 1990 Traditional Martinist Order of the U.S.A. Inc.
• 1991 British Martinist Order
• Rose+Croix Martinist Order (Colorado, U.S.A.)
• Cadre Vert (Belgium)
• Martinist Order of the Temple +M*O*T+
• 1996 (?) Ordre Martiniste S:::I::: / O*M* de Luxembourg
• Ancient Martinist Order
• Theurgical Martinist Order
• Ordre Reaux Croix
• Grand Chapitre Martiniste (Grand Prieuré des Gaules)
• ?? Ordre des chevaliers Francs-maçons Elus Coens de l'Universelle Fraternité 2004 Martinist Order of New Zealand
• 2005 Ordre Chevaleresque De Martinist
French independent Martinist Schools and Institutes
• L'Institut Eléazar
• 1992 C.I.R.E.M. Centre International de Recherches et d'Etudes Martiniste
• Ordine Martinista Napolitano
• Ordine Martinista
• Ordine Martinista Antico
• Ordine Martinista Universali
• Ordre Souverain des Chevaliers Martinistes et Elus Cohen de L’Univers
• Ordine Martinista Ermetico
• Ordine Martinista Kremmerziano
• Ordine Martinista Operativo Tradizionale
• Orden Martinista
• Antigua Orden Martinista (Jurisdicción Española)
Martinism in South-America (Brazil, Chile, Argentina)
• O*M* & S, OM Brasileira, A M*O*, O*M*CC (Brazil)
• Orden Martinista Inicíata de Chile
• Orden Martinista / Orden de Templos Operativos
1916 Ordre Martiniste-Martinéziste/ L’Ordre Martiniste de Lyon
Charles Détré (Téder) succeeded Papus as Grand Master of the 'original' Martinist Order. Téder wanted to restrict membership into the order strictly for Master-Masons (3rd Degree of Blue Masonry), preferably masons which belonged to the ‘Antient & Primitive Rite of Memphis-Mizraim’ (occult & hermetic Masonry). One of the consequences of Téder's decision would be that women were excluded from the order, a decision which was in violation with a fundamental precept of original Martinism (according to the teachings of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin). One has to understand that the O*M* at the time of Papus' death included a system of High Degrees, were the basic Martinist Degrees (up to S.I and S.I. Initiator) acted as a portal to the organization. The Order Téder --supposedly being an initiate of the Elus-Cohen himself -- had in mind was much more focused upon the Theurgy of Martinez de Pasqually and High Degree Masonry. In 1917 Téder and Bricaud authorized members of the R.E.R. (Régime Écossais Rectifié" or "Rectified Scottish Rite") to attend Martinist Lodges (Chapters of High Degrees). A Masonic Lodge was founded under the obedience of the 'Grande Loge Nationale Indépendante et Régulière' of 1913, and properly installed in 1917 with the help of Martinists of the Rite National Espagnol (Spanish Rite). Apparently the lodge disappeared one year later. When Téder died in 1918, he was succeeded by Jean Bricaud. Jean (Joanny) Bricaud met Papus in 1899 and received his S.I. in 1903. Bricaud moved the headquarters from Paris to Lyon, Bricaud's residence. The Ordre Martiniste was renamed in ‘L’ORDRE MARTINISTE DE LYON’. Bricaud (1881-1934) took the order even closer to a Masonic basis. Female Martinists suddenly found themselves cut off from Martinist activity, as they once knew it… In 1919 Bricaud revived the ‘Humanidad-Lodge’ at Lyons in accordance with the 1908 -Reuss- Warrant (M.M. charter). Bricaud also activated the French Foundation of a ‘Supreme Grand Council of Confederated Rites’ (M.M. etc.) Many Martinists, including several members of the original Supreme Council from 1891, left the Order. According to some sources, Victor Blanchard (1878-1953) was to have become the successor of Charles Détre (Téder) but he refused because of the Masonic requirement. It is known that Blanchard was the deputy of Téder. But as stated before, it's impossible to say who was the regular Grand Master, simply because there were no "well established rules regarding the nomination or succession" of a Grand Master within the O*M*. According to Robert Ambelain's book "Le Martinisme", published in 1946, Téder actually made fun of Bricaud. Furthermore, Ambelain (who re-founded the "Ordre Martiniste des Elus-Cohen" during the Second World War) stated that he had received information from witnesses at the time, claiming that Blanchard was the rightful Grand Master of the Martinists. Ambelain refers to an old Russian Martinist named Nicholas Choumitsky, a pupil of Charles Barlet at the time, from whom he had received the information. Choumitsky apparently had attended a meeting in (or about) 1919 at a café in Paris, between Bricaud and Blanchard. Bricaud showed a document which claimed that Téder had named him as his successor. "Blanchard became violently angry, and after examination of the document, the unanimous opinion was that it was not authentic. Bricaud left the impression on those attending of being superficial and lacking any depth" and "Afterwards Madame Detre (Teder's wife) told me that her husband could not have designated a successor since he wasn't at all intending to die!" ("Le Martinisme", Ambelain 1946). According to Robert Ambelain in his book, Bricaud merely referred to himself as Grand Master General of the Order …
The story on Téder’s succession has already been told in "Addendum 6- Victor Blanchard" of the series "1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I." and is derived from the article "VICTOR BLANCHARD: A Brief Summary of his life and work" by Elias Ibrahim from the website of the "Ancient Martinist Order"
As stated before, whatever the truth was, many Martinists left the O.M de Lyons, some of them joining Blanchard's order (which would become known as "Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique" in 1934), others went on as "Free Martinists" (without belonging to any organization), others would later join Augustin Chaboseau, Lucien Chamuel, and Victor-Emile Michelet, who would found ‘L’Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel’ in 1931 (many of the so-called "Free Martinists" would join this order). The successors of Charles Détre and Bricaud (G.M. from 1919-1934) were:
• Constant Chevillon (1934 - 1944) -- shot by the Vichyregime (Claus Barbi)
• Charles-Henry Dupont (1944-1958) -- Dupont disbanded the Order officially on December 14, 1958. The order of Lyons would merge into the "L'Ordre Martiniste (L’Ordre Martinist de Paris)", which was founded by Papus' son, Philippe Encausse, in 1960.
As we've seen before, Téder and Bricaud both took up the idea of reforming the O*M* . This "reformation" resulted in the O.M. de LYON. Bricaud's "Ordre Martiniste de Lyon" was an organization which divided the O*M* of Papus into two organizations, the "Ordre Martiniste-Martineziste de Lyon" with its Degrees of the ELUS COHEN, reserved to Masons of High Grades -- and the "S.O.I." (the "International Occultist Society"). The S.O.I. corresponded with the O*M* of Papus, where Bricaud regrouped all the "profane", as it is stated. The Martinist Order was reserved for Freemasons of the 18th Degree, the Rose+Croix degree. Bricaud allegedly rewrote the complete Martinist rituals to which he added elements taken from the catechisms of the Elus Cohen which Papus had published in the appendix of his book "Martinès de Pasqually" (Chamuel, 1895). According to Robert Ambelain Bricaud "reproduced" the rituals of Edouard Blitz. The first degree Martinist, the "Associate" degree, received the title "Associé de l’Ordre Martiniste et Apprenti Cohen, Maître Secret de la Suprême Maçonnerie initiatique et Illuminée " Under Bricaud a hybrid form of Martinism was developed which included Martinism, Elus Cohen, the Gnostic Church, and the Egyptian Rite of Freemasonry. At first the movement was only active in Lyon, but thanks to the journal "les Annales initiatiques", the official bulletin of 'la Société Occultiste Internationale', S.O.I., the Order became somewhat known in France.
"At the death of Jean Bricaud, C. Chevillon took up the torch and definitively cut the relation between the Rite of Memphis Misraim and the Elus Cohen from a part, and the S.O.I. from the other part, of which he named Mme Bricaud as president".
"The True face of French Masonry" by Tau Renatus
That women were accepted by the Lyon organization, certainly at the time when Constant Chevillon (1880-1944) was Grand Master, is proved by the following statement taken from the "True Face of French Masonry":
"An important thing to note, in imitation of the great masons such as Cagliostro, Martinez de Pasqually, J.B. Willermoz; Constant Chevillon considered that women, an integral part of humanity, should have access to initiation. He then created a ritual for the first three degrees, perfectly adapted to femininity" and "The first three degrees of the feminine rite naturally allow the possibility that women will accede to the highest grades …." (Memphis-Misraim). The following information on the "Structure of Degrees" of the O. M. de Lyons at the time of Chevillon is derived from Robert Ambelain’s "History & Doctrine of the Martinist Order"(1946):
"The Ordre Martiniste de Lyons had an outer circle in the "Collège d’Occultisme" in Paris, and an anti-chamber to the Order, the 2 lodges of Memphis-Mizraim, "La Jerusalem Egyptienne" and "L’Age Nouveau", provided the Masonic qualifications required for Martinist membership who had to progressively take degrees in Memphis-Mizraim as successive prerequisites to admittance to the Martinist degrees of Initiate and then Superior Unknown. Between 1936 and 1939, L’Ordre Martiniste de Lyon kept its lodge "Papus" open in Paris". The organization in Lyon under the leadership of Chevillon headed several Initiatic orders, i.e.:
• L'ORDRE MARTINISTE-MARTINEZISTE de LYON divided into the S.O.I. and ELUS COHEN
• L’EGLISE GNOSTIQUE UNIVERSELLE
• THE ANTIENT AND PRIMITIVE RITE OF MEMPHIS MIZRAIM
• GNOSTIC KABBALISTIC ORDER OF THE ROSE+CROSS (from Bricaud) OKR+C GNOSTIQUE
• RITE ECOSSAIS RECTIFICÉ (Camille Savoir)
• O.T.O. for France (only on paper – not active)
• ORDRE DE SAINT GRAAL
The O.M. DE LYON was also involved in the foundation of the F.U.D.O.F.S.I., a federation of Initiatic Orders established in 1939. For information on this federation, see "1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I.", Chapter(s) 6,7, and 8.
The O.M. DE LYON was also involved in the foundation of the F.U.D.O.F.S.I., a federation of Initiatic Orders established in 1939. For information on this federation, see "1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I.", Chapter(s) 6,7, and 8.
1921 Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique
The OM&S was 'officially' founded on January 3, 1921 by Victor Blanchard (Sar Yésir, 1878-1953), although the Order was not yet known at the time of it's foundation as the OM&S (Although he already mentions the addition "Synarchique" in 1921, as we'll see later on in this text). The Order was "officially" proclaimed as the 'Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique' at the first convention of the F.U.D.O.S.I., held in Brussels, Belgium in August 1934 (Blanchard was elected at the convention as "OM&S Universal Sovereign Grand Master"). The addition of Synarchique to the title of Blanchard's Martinist Order referred to the ideals of Synarchy, as developed by Saint-Yves d'Alveydre (see Addendum 7, "1934-1951-FUDOSI", Saint-Yves & Synarchy) Blanchard (member of Papus' Supreme Counsil and venerable member of Lodge Melchisech no 208, a lodge which conferred the higher Degrees), who was the rightful successor of Téder according to many sources, left the original Martinist Order because he, like many other Martinists, did not agree with the Masonic requirement. Therefore Blanchard gathered together several of the former Supreme Council Martinists "and the independent Martinists who did not adhere to or belong to the Masonic Martinist branch, forming a Martinist branch under the original constitution which had no Masonic qualifications and which Initiated men and women" ("A Martinist Treasury" by Trophimus, S.I.I.). In a way, Blanchard's OM&S was a continuation of Papus' O*M*, with its focus on the mystical side of Martinism, a method otherwise known within Martinism as "the way of the Heart". As stated in the previous chapter, both Blanchard and Jean Bricaud claimed to be sole and legal successor of Papus/Téder. Both men allegedly published several communiqués declaring that they were the legal successor of Papus in the review 'Le Voile d’Isis'. For example, the following text is an extract from a communiqué presented by Blanchard in the February-issue of 'Le Voile d’Isis' of 1921: "l’Ordre Martiniste ancien et primitif, dénommé légalement Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique, a repris officiellement ses travaux le 3 janvier 1921, et que sa première tenue a été consacrée à l’inauguration solennelle et rituelique du Suprême Collège de Synthèse Initiatique d’Occident."
Blanchard claims in this communiqué that "the ancient and primitif Martinist Order" (the Order of Papus) officially carried the name of 'The Martinist Order and Synarchy'. At the meeting concerned, Blanchard claimed that he'd presented the Charter that was granted to him by Papus and Téder to the attending Martinists. Blanchard stated that all Martinists were given the time until may 1, 1921 to recognize Blanchard as the Grand Master of the O*M*. Despite the bold claims of Blanchard, many Martinists choosed to stay independent as 'Free Martinists'. The OM&S initiated their members into the 4 "traditional" degrees (incl. S.I. IV*) of Papus. The Order adopted the Martinist rituals that were written by D. P. Sémélas (see 'History of the Martinist Order') and accepted by Papus in 1912. As a matter of fact, D. P. Sémélas and Eugène Dupré united with Victor Blanchard after the first World-War. Dupré allegedly founded in 1911 'LE TEMPLE d'ESSENIE', the Martinist Lodge in Cairo, Egypt. During the war both Sémélas and Dupré left Egypt for France. After the war D. P. Sémélas dedicated all of his time to the development of his order, 'L'Ordre du Lys et de l’Aigle'. He also continued his Martinist activities, together with Eugène Dupré, with the foundation of 'Groupe Indépendant d’Etudes Martinistes'. It was this group, G.I.E.M., that allegedly united forces with Blanchard. In January 1919 a Treaty of Alliance between 'L'Ordre du Lys et de l’Aigle' and Blanchard's Martinist Order was signed. But somehow the co-operation did not last long "due to Victor Blanchard's instability", thus the French sources. Whatever the truth, D. P. Sémélas and Eugène Dupré founded 'l’association Les Amis de Claude de Saint-Martin', a group which also included Papus' old associates Michelet, Chamuel, Béliard and Chaboseau. This association gave birth to the group ATHANOR, a group which was led by Michelet. Group Athanor was the forerunner of the Traitional Martinist Order/ 'Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel', officially founded in 1931. (see "1931 Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel')
As mentioned before, Victor Blanchard continued the activities of his own Martinist Order, which allegedly received some sort of official character in 1921. Blanchard's Order was not exactly succesful during the twenties, as a matter of fact, it seems that at the end of the 1920's Blanchard left his responsibilities as a Grand Master of the Order. Blanchard allegedly participated in the activities of 'La Fraternité des Polaires', the Polaire Brotherhood, that was 'officially re-constituted' in 1929. The Order was founded by Italian Cesare Accomani (Zam Bhotiva), although the 'official history' of the Order started some 20 years before, after the meeting between Mario Fille and a certain 'Father Julian' (see "1908 - La Fraternité des Polaires"). The Polaire Brotherhood had a temple at 36 Junot Avenue in Montmartre, Paris. This temple was later also used by Blanchard's Martinist Order. The OM & S did not have its own temple in Paris and Blanchard initiated its Martinist members in the temple of the Polaires. Blanchard was the Sovereign Grand Master of the Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique until his death in 1953 (March 14, 1953). Unlike many other Initiatic and fraternal organizations the OM&S could continue its esoteric activities during the Second World War because the order directed its activities to Switzerland (a "neutral" country), were the order was represented by the Senior Grand Master, Edouard Bertholet (Sar Alkmaion) and, before 1936, August Reichel. Blanchard was also one of the leading advocates of a federation of initiatic orders, which resulted, with Blanchard acting as one of the three imperators, in the foundation of the F.U.D.O.S.I. in Brussels, Belgium, in 1934. A couple of months before the first convention of the F.U.D.O.S.I. took place, Blanchard had installed a new Martinist lodge in Brussels. The installation of Lodge URIEL was the result of a meeting between Blanchard and Armand Rombauts (Rombauts had been chartered by Papus in 1912 to establish a Martinist Lodge, Lodge I.N.R.I.). In fact, the foundation of Lodge URIEL was a re-introduction of Martinism in Belgium.
More information on the subject can be found in the essay: "F.U.D.O.S.I. 1934-1951: Addendum, Chapter VI"
Blanchard attended the 'Martinist-convention" (May, 1934) together with Lydie Martin and George Lagrèze. In August 1934, Blanchard would initiate Emile Dantinne, Harvey Spencer Lewis and other dignitaries of the F.U.D.O.S.I. into the OM & S. (see also "1931- O.M.T.*). The OM & S became a success through the foundation of the F.U.D.O.S.I. But in 1939 Blanchard was forced by the federation's Supreme Council to send in his resignation as Co-Imperator of the F.U.D.O.S.I., and he was also replaced in all of the other high offices he held within the federation (see Chapter 9 "1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I." and, in this series, see also "1931 Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel"). Blanchard had autoconsecrated himself as 'Universal Grand Master' of the Rose+Croix and all initiatic Orders due to the oracle he consulted within the 'Fraternité des Polaires', of which he was its President since 1933. Blanchard's autoconsecration was, naturally, the reason for his expulsion. The small membership of the OM & S diminished; Jeanne Guesdon and Georges Lagrèze, dignitaries of Blanchard's Martinist Order, both left and joined the Traditional Martinist Order of Chaboseau. The Traditional Martinist Order replaced the O.M. & S within the F.U.D.O.S.I. In 1946 the O.M. & S returned within the ranks of the F.U.D.O.S.I. until 1951 when the federation was officially dissolved by the Supreme Council. Around the years of the Second World War there existed another Martinist & Synarchy order which was a member of the F.U.D.O.S.I., the UNION SYNARCHIQUE DE POLOGNE, founded by Dr.Tarlo Mazinski in 1937. Not much is known to me about this 'side-branch', except that it was an independent organization. After the Second World War the F.U.D.O.S.I. wanted to merge the T.M.O, O.M.&S, and the two minor Martinist organizations which were affiliated to the federation, the SOCIÉTÉ d'ETUDES MARTINISTES and the UNION SYNARCHIQUE DE POLOGNE, into one united Martinist Order. This idea failed, except for the two minor organizations. Therefore it is very likely that i.a. the ‘Union Synarchique de Pologne’ (Synarchy Union of Poland) was included within the ranks of the Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique "on paper"(of course, this is just an assumption, not a 'historical fact' !). In reality, the 'Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique' did not resume organized activity in France. Unlike France, the O.M. & S allegedly continued its activities in Switzerland during and after the war. When Blanchard died in 1953, Bertholet was regognized as Souverain Grand-Maître of the O.M.&S. The Martinist Order and Synarchy has an official church, the ‘Église Gnostique Universelle’, also known as ‘L’Église Gnostique Apostolique’. Blanchard (Tau Targelius) had been ordained by Jean Bricaud on May 15, 1918.
Information on Bertholet and Reichel (and other characters) can be found in various Chapters of the series "1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I."
1958 - THE FOUNDATION OF THE BRITISH GRAND LODGE
In 1958 Bertholet chartered Sar Sorath, who's later known as Sar Gulion (Louis Bentin), to establish a Grand Lodge for Great Britain and the overseas British territories, otherwise known as the Commonwealth. Counters Mike Restivo:
"Sar Gulion's charter clearly states that his Jurisdiction and authority is over "Angleterre" or England alone, not the Commonwealth. Later, Sar Alkmaion offered to charter the Canadian O.M.&S., but loyalty to Bro. Bentin, who furnished the Canadian Jurisdiction with all necessary rituals and conventicle lessons, persuaded the Canadian Officers to decline Dr. Bertholet's offer. The decline would have been a sentimental move that might have been regretted if the O.M.&S. under Sar Alkmaion did not die out after Dr. Bertholet's death."
The Grand Inspector of the British Grand Lodge was Lawrence Ewels (..-1995), Sar Ra Bennu. The order in England was led by an inner committee known as the Sovereign Tribunal. Another famous member of the Order was Philip Ross Nichols, who acted as recorder of the London Grand Lodge and who was also one of the key figures in the revival of interest in Celtic Spirituality and Druidry. Ross Nichols (..-1990) was co-founder of the ‘Order of Bards,Ovates and Druids’ of which he became its Chief in 1964 (under the mystical nomen ‘Nuinn’). Another key-figure of the Order was Desmond Bourke, who founded the masonic ‘Universal Druidic Order’ in 1966. It seems that Druidism blends well with Martinism on the British Isles. Another famous O.M.& S member was the late Derek Bell, the Celtic Harpist of the famous Irish trad. band ‘The Chieftains’. The British Grand Lodge represents the main Jurisdiction of the O.M.&S. Despite the status of this Grand Lodge, all foreign jurisdictions are autonomous.
In that same year, 1958, Sar Sendivogious became the ‘Provincial Délégate for Canada' (Sar Sendigovius was the former Archivist of the English Grand Lodge).
In 1960 the Continental Jurisdictions reunited with the "Ordre Martiniste" of Papus' son, Gerard Encausse (in which we find also many former members of the T.M.O. who left after Ralph M. Lewis became Grand Master). The O.M.&S. still exists today, under its original name under different obediences in countries like Canada, U.S.A., Barbados, and England (England being the main jurisdiction under the leadership of Louis Bentin, Sar Gulion). Bentin died on June 30, 2003. In the 1990's Sar Gulion allegedly named his successor, a certain Mr. John Fitzpatrick. The following comment on the present-day situation of the O.M.& S /Britannic Grand Lodge stems from a message placed by Clive Culbertson on a Martinist E-group in 2003: "As Martinism has changed much in Britain and Ireland,I'm not sure if Sar Gulion's named successor (Fitzpatrick) will be automatically given the job, even though he did single handedly keep Martinism alive in these islands through the 80s and much of the 90s.I think now there are almost none of the original members in the recently reformed London Lodge. Will be interesting." (Clive Culbertson, O.M.& S)
There is a Grand Lodge of Quebec and Nigeria, The Province of The West Indies (Barbados) -which is not recognized by the British- nor the Canadian Grand lodge (more on this later) - and a district of France. Several members of The Ordre Martiniste Et Synarchique in Barbados, West Indies, formed in 1985 The International College of Esoteric Studies, known today as ICES. This organization is not an Initiatic Order but a college (as in "school") which provides material translated in English derived from the original French material from several European- continental Rosicrucian, Martinist, and M.M. -organizations. The Lines of succession of the different Jurisdictions:
Papus and Augustin Chaboseau, Charles Détré, Georges Bogé de Lagrèze (Mikael), August Reichel (Amertis), V. Churchill (Sar Vernita), Sar Gulion - or Sar Sorath
(Louis Bentin). The order was led until 2003 by Grand Master Sar Gulion, Louis Bentin.
The Grand Masters were: Charles Détré, Victor Blanchard, Dr. Edouard Bertholet (Sar Alkmaion), Louis Bentin (Sar Gulion), John Fitzpatrick (?)
Canada had two parallel lines of succession:
Papus and Augustin Chaboseau, Charles Détré, Georges Bogé de Lagrèze
(Mikael), August Reichel (Amertis), V. Churchill (Sar Vernita), Sar Sendivogius
Papus and Augustin Chaboseau, Charles Détré, Georges Bogé de Lagrèze (Mikael), August Reichel (Armetis), V. Churchill (Sar Vernita), Sar Gulion/Sorath (Grand Master of GB), William Pendleton and Sar Parsifal / Sar Petrus (Peter Maydan, who died in 1994). Peter Maydan was succeeded by Gordon H. Stuart.
The Canadian branch proclaimed its independence in 1960 with Sar Ressurectus as its Grand Master and Sar Petrus as his Deputy G.M. (the continental Jurisdictions reunited with the "Ordre Martiniste" of Philippe Encausse in 1960). Sar Sendivogius specialized in the teachings of the Elus Cohen. The Elus Cohen became the ‘inner order’ of the O.M.&S. In 1965 the Canadian Grand Lodge was led by:
Sar Resurrectus (Gordon Stuart) - Chairman (initiated by Pendleton), Sar Sendivogius -- Deputy Chairman/Inspector, Sar Petrus - Secretary/Archivist.
The Canadian branch was considered clandestine by the O.M.&S in England, "event though they are properly in possession of Initiatic authority" (fr.Melchior "Survey on modern Martinist Orders"). "The Canadians Brethren sent back their Provincial Charter to Louis Bentin before they received full Grand Lodge status and then went to France and received charters from other Martinist Bodies but they still continued to use the name Order Martinist et Synarchique. Peter Maydan who passed away some years ago also confirmed this to me. "He said Louis used to take ages to respond to letters and didn't send the rituals." (Martinism YahooGroups)
The Canadian branch made an alliance in 1973 with Roger Caro's ENA / EGLISE UNIVERSELLE DE LA NOUVELLE ALLIANCE of France, which was the 'outer' order for the FAR+C / FRERES AINES DE LA ROSE+CROIX, an Alchemical Order.
The Canadian branch of the O.M.&S, through its initiations into the S.I.I or S.I.IV Degree, the grade of Initiatèur Libre, enabled Mike Restivo (Sar Ignatius) to found the Rose†Croix Martinist Order (R.+C.M.O.) in 1982. It is claimed by some North-American sources that Restivo's organization is a 'one-man operation'. Counters Restivo:
"Such claims are false and uninformed because personal information about membership is not revealed. The R+CMO is a private lay Order incorporated in the Province of Ontario, Canada. I created this Order faithful to the traditional principles of Martinism and Christian Mysticism, which Order does not infringe upon any other Martinist Order's teachings.
Proprietary material deposited to me and pledges/oaths made by myself have been conserved with respect to all of the Martinist Orders with which I have been and still am associated or a member." - Mike Restivo, Sar Ignatius, Grand Master, R+CMO
The O.M.&S (post 1960) maintained a close relationship with the other Martinist orders (with the exception of the T.M.O. under the jurisdiction of AMORC), especially with the O.M. in France. For example, the O.M.&S from England (the Lodge of London, "E*O*L*) organized a "tenue Initiatique" in Paris on October 23, 1971, were Maria Lorenzo is designated as an intermediary between the O.M. of Paris and the O.M.&S to maintain a close relationship between the two organizations. A conflict arose wiithin the Canadian branch, when the order found out that one of their Grand Masters was a member of the Traditional Martinist Order (AMORC). After Maydan was dismissed by the T*M*O* in 1973 he returned as GM of the Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique from Canada. "In the earlier 90's this Order still continues. A few years back Louis issued a new charter for Canada to brethren not happy with the old system and they continue to work in silence." (Martinism -YahooGroups).
In December 2003 the long standing Deputy Grand Master of the O.M. & S of Canada, Mr. Marcel Lafrenière (Sâr Marcus), passed away at the age of 84. "Our dear Brother Marcel Lafrenière (Sâr Marcus), was a well known and respected Martinist, Rosicrucian and Mason in Canada and throughout the world." (R.Capello, Sâr Marcus)
The M*O*& S was chartered in 1990 in the United States under the sponsorship of the M*O*& S Grand Lodge of Britain. "The head of this Martinist body is Sar Eliakim of New York City. " ("a Martinist Treasury" by Trophimus, S.I.I.) The O.M.&S returned to France in 1975 and was led in 1995 by Grand Master Sar Gabriel.
'L’ORDRE MARTINISTE ET SYNARCHIQUE' IN THE WEST-INDIES
In September 1982 "a Brother, journeying from Barbados, West Indies" (source: I.C.E.S.) was initiated by Louis Bentin / Sar Gulion and he also received a charter to install " on the Ilse of Barbados in the West Indies, Lodges and Heptads of the Martinist Order that have been regularly authorized and warranted by the Sovereign Tribunal of the Britannic Grand Lodge." On November 12, 1982, Lodge Empress was inaugurated on the island. "Returning to London in September 1985, Sar Inspirator Lucis was again received by Sar Gulion who conferred upon him the Ordinations of the Elus-Cohen which he had himself received (on October 6, 1960 Louis Bentin was ordained by Robert Ambelain into the Ordre Martiniste des Elus-Cohen *). To mark this occasion Sar Inspirator Lucis changed his Nomen Mysticum to Sar Savitar, on September 25, 1985. At this time discussions were held about the erection of the present Provincial Lodge of Barbados to the status of Sovereing Grand Lodge. This date has been fixed for Easter, 1986. [This has since come to pass.] (Source ; lecture from Liber two, Plane one of the ICES)
*Sar Gulion received from Ambelain the following Elus Cohen degrees:
• Grand-Master Cohen, Ap:: Reau +
• Chevalier d'Orient, C:: Reau +
• Commandeur d'Orient, M:: Reau +
The O.M.&S in the West-Indies also carries a lineage of Willermoz' C.B.C.S.
The following information on the "foundation of the Barbasos-group" is derived from the Masonic E-group "alt.freemasonry" and was posted by one of its members, a certain ‘Sar Draconis’ : "Martinist Order and Synarchy, Barbados. This group was formed by Bishop Guittans originally under Charter from the Brittanic Grand Lodge. According to the Brittanic Grand Lodge, Bishop Guittans was entrusted with many arcane manuscripts by the Brittanic Grand Lodge, with the explicit proviso and promise that he should keep them completely andunreservedly private, for his own use only. However, once in possession of these documents, he began to publish them publically incorrespondance courses. This remarkable Knowledge can still be obtained from ICOMS (Internation College of Martinist Studies) in Barbados. In additon, Barbados has Initiates in the U.S. Following his betrayal by publicizing previously unknown and private arcane material, Bishop Guitons was expelled from the Brittanic GrandLodge and he is no longer recognized by the parent group. His group, the Martinist Order and Synarchy, is now one of the major Martinist Groups in North America, including many sincere and devoted Christian mystical students who have been initiated therein. The legacy of Bishop Guitons will no doubt last many generations.The Barbados Order is not in fraternal relations with, nor is it recognized by, either the Brittanic Grand Lodge, or the Cadadian Grand Lodge, of the Martinist Order and Synarchy."
Source: Sar Draconis, alt.freemasonry ; posted on Oct.15, 2000
The statements made above were confirmed to me in a private communication with a high dignitary of the British Grand Lodge of the Martinist Order and Synarchy:
"I have seen Canadian, American and Barbados documents which claim to be OMS documents and it was us who issued them in the first place and I could hardly recognise them, they had changed so much. Barbados was part of the OMS with Sar Gulion withdrew the Charter because its Grand Master wanted to turn it into another AMORC. He added all types of rubbish and he spent weeks copying documents and papers in my home when I lived in England. Access to the real R+C documents was never given. Only the outer material was issued. Not until I received the into R+C of the Orient did the jigsaw puzzle make sense. The same can be said about the R+C of the Orient members (which are very small in numbers) they would not have access to the OMS material."
(email sent on June 13, 2002)
'Grande Loja Nacional Brasileira'- In Brazil also works a Grand Lodge of OM&S. Louis Bentin gave a charter to a Brother in Brazil who had previously received a Charter from Barbados when Louis withdrew their charter on the grounds of commercialism. Recently (2003) the Grand Lodge of Brazil granted a work permission to a Lodge in Greece and other in Spain.
1931 Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel
The Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel was founded on July 24, 1931. The order consisted of members who had revolted against Téder and Joanny (Jean) Bricaud and their blend of Masonic Martinism, and who did not recognize Victor Blanchard as a Grand Master of the Martinist order. It was Augustin Chaboseau's candidate for the Universal Sovereign Grand Master, Victor-Emile Michelet (1861-1938), who could not accept the election of Blanchard (1). Therefore Michelet founded the O.M.T.* in 1931, with Michelet as Grand Master and Augustin Chaboseau (1868-1946) as Deputy Grand Master. Together with Lucien Mauchel (Chamuel,…- 1936) they proclaimed that the O.M.T. was the one and only true heir of the original 'Ordre des S.I. / Ordre Martiniste' of 1891.
The text here is derived from several sources which speak about an important "Martinist Convention" which, supposedly, was held at the time (1930's). For instance, Trophimus in his book "a Martinist Treasury" refers to the first convention of the F.U.D.O.S.I., held in August 1934 in Brussels (??) being this Martinist Convention; "In 1934, a convention of Martinists was called by Victor Blanchard who had been the head of a Martinist Order he founded after the original Martinist Order restricted its membership to Masons",… and … "However, Pierre Augustine Chaboseau had offered his own candidate for Universal Sovereign Grand Master, V.E. Michelet. When Michelet was not elected, Chaboseau withdrew and founded the Traditional Martinist Order, with Michelet as Grand Master and with Chaboseau as deputy Grand Master". Of course, the O.M. T was already established in 1931.
After the First World War (1914-1918) Chaboseau, Michelet and Chamuel allegedly joined the Martinist association founded by D. P. Sémélas and Eugène Dupré, 'l’Association Les Amis de Claude de Saint-Martin'. This association gave birth to the group Athanor, a Martinist group led by V.-E. Michelet. This group was the precursor of the Traditional Martinist Order. It was Jean Chaboseau, Augustin Chaboseau's son, who apparently suggested the idea to his father to -"officially"- unite the survivors (Chaboseau, Michelet, Chamuel) of the original 'Suprême Conseil' of 1891 and to reconstitute the original 'traditional' Order. Chaboseau was the co-founder of the Martinist Order, Michelet had been an important member of the 'faculty of Hermetic Sciences' and Master of Lodge 'Velléda', and Chamuel was the 'organisateur matériel' of the original Order (Chamuel co-established and managed the bookstore 'librairie du Merveilleux' during the 1890's). The Traditional Martinist Order pretended to represent the original Martinist Order, as established by Papus and Chaboseau. In the early years, the Order chose to 'work in silence' as a (relatively) discreet organization. The Order held its meetings at the (masonic) seat of the 'Grand Prieuré des Gaules' of Dr. Camille Savoire (Rite Ecossais Rectifié). Once in a while, the Order manifested itself through a group named Tau (groupe Tau), which published a bulletin of psychological and metaphysical studies and organized conventions at the Palais de la Mutualité in Paris. The O.M.T. also associated itself in the 1930's with the famous French review Atlantis, founded by Paul le Cour in 1926. It is claimed that Chaboseau was in reality the Occult Director of the original Martinist Order. Chamuel (Lucien Mauchel) was also the Grand Master of the OKR+C, as successor to Charles Détre / Téder (there existed a parallel line of succession with Bricaud acting as G.M., the OKR+C -OKR+C GNOSTIQUE- affiliated to the Ordre Martiniste de Lyon. Victor Blanchar represented up to 1939 the OKR+C within the F.U.D.O.S.I.). The masonic requirement of the Order under Téder and Bricaud was not the only objection Chaboseau had. Chaboseau also objected to the religious orientation of both Téder and Bricaud. The 'Eglisé Gnostique Universelle' (Gnostic Church) had become the 'official Martinist church in 1911, Chaboseau did not accept this decision. During his life, Chaboseau would never stop fighting for religious freedom. "Directly or indirectly, he initiated Martinists who would continue the fight for religious freedom; Jules Boucher (1948, Ordre Martiniste Rectifié), Gustave Lambert-Brahy (1968, O*M* Belge), Maurice Warnon (1975, O*M* de Pays-Bas)".
On January 12, 1938 (or 1939) Michelet dies. Chaboseau succeeded Michelet as Grand Master of the O.M.T.. The Supreme Council of the OTM/TMO (Conseil Suprême Traditionnel) in 1939 consisted of Pierre-Augustin Chaboseau, Jean Chaboseau
(Galaad, son of Augustin Chaboseau), Octave Beliard and Georges Lagrèze. Both Beliard and Lagrèze (2) were initiated in a direct line to Papus (Lagrèze was initiated by Tedér on June 30, 1906 and had been a member of the Supreme Council under Papus since October 8, 1908) . In 1939 the OTM had developed into a fertile organization.
Georges Lagrèze was one of the prominent and leading characters of the 'occult community' at the time. He was the general Director of the Strasbourg Theatre. A Martinist S.I., initiated by Téder on June 30, 1906, a member of the SUPRÊME CONSEIL DE L'ORDRE MARTINISTE and Inspecteur principal of the M*O* from 1908 onwards (August 10, 1908). Lagrèze was a member of the OKR+C, Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose+Croix (Charter signed by Téder), Chevalier du Temple et Préfet of the Stricte Observance and Swedish Rite. He was a Mason (33th degree) of the 'Grand-Orient de France', as a 33* of the Antient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Lagrèze was also a honorary member of the Grand-Lodge of Denmark. In 1909 (Sept.9) he also received a Charter from John Yarker, Grand Hierophant of the Antient & Primitive Rite (Memphis-Misraim), from whom Lagrèze received the 33* / 95* Degree of the M.'.M.'. Rite, which was "confirmed" by Joanny Bricaud. A member of the C.B.C.S. (founded in 1778 by Willermoz) . His 'mystical nomen' was EQUES A ROSAE CARITATIS. He was Grand Master of the Perfect Square in France of Dantinne's O::H::T:: & M:: (Hermes Order). In 1937 Lagrèze was appointed "Grand Profès" of the C.B.C.S. , 'Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte', by several dignitaries of the Grand Prieure d'Helvetia (Grand Lodge of Switzerland), such as the 'Grand Chancelier" Amez-Droz and a certain 'brother' named Lesieus. Lagrèze was also the Grand Master of the Elus Cohen (re-established by Ambelain in 1943) and of the Rose+Croix d'Orient (1879-1946)
Source: G.Galtier "Maçonnerie Egyptienne, Rose-Croix et Neo-Chevalerie" 1994
Gerard Galtier on Lagrèze and Martinism : " After the First World War Lagréze seems to have accepted the direction of Jean Bricaud at the head of the french occult Societies originating from Papus, seeing that he therefore possessed the title of Principal Inspector and Member of the Supreme Council of the Martinist Order of Lyons. Around 1933 he separated himself from Bricaud in order to ally himself with the Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique of Victor Blanchard where he became deputy Grand Master. In the same period he united with Rombauts and the other dissident Belgians who had also freed themselves from the supervision of Bricaud " . This text was kindly translated by Elias Ibrahim who further states ; "Bro. Lagréze was one of the great lights of Martinism and helped the tradition to survive into our times by eventually conveying his knowledge and wisdom to Bro Ambelain and Jeanne Guesdon and I believe also to some extent to Ralph Lewis" . I can personally add to his information that Lagréze indeed, together with Chaboseau, were in close contact at the time with first Harvey Spencer Lewis, and later Ralph Maxwell Lewis.
On July 14, 1938 Victor Blanchard of the OM & S had auto-consecrated himself as the Universal Grand Master of the Rose-Croix and of all the Initiatic Orders of the world. He sent a proclamation to each Grand Master of the F.U.D.O.S.I., which requested allegiance and recognition of his new dignity. One of the consequences of Blanchard's conviction was that he was expelled from the F.U.D.O.S.I. in 1939. The Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique was replaced at the 4th convention of the federation by the Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel. Many members, including such high dignitaries as George Lagrèze and Jeanne Guesdon (Grand Secrétaire of AMORC-France), left the O.M. & S and went over to Chaboseau's Martinist Order. Two other high dignitaries of the federation, Imperators Emille Dantinne and Ralph Maxwell Lewis of AMORC, also left Blanchard's OM& S. In September 1939 Ralph Maxwell Lewis was initiated (subject to the approval of Chaboseau) by Lagrèze into the O.M.T. (S.I.and S.I.IV, the "Initiator-degree")) Harvey Spencer Lewis (A.M.O.R.C.), Ralph's father, had received a charter from Blanchard for the OM & S in the United States. The first Martinist temple which was established in California by Lewis was called "Louis Claude de Saint-Martin". Ralph had been initiated into the OM & S by Blanchard in 1936 (S.I.IV). In October 1939 Ralph Maxwell Lewis was appointed "Sovereign delegate and Regional Grand Master" of the O.T.M. by Lagrèze, for California and the United States. This way the Conseil Suprême Régional des Etats-Unis' was founded. The council consisted of 5 members: Ralph Maxwell Lewis, Cecil A. Poole, Orlando T. Perrotta, James R. Whitcomb and J. Duane Freeman. The Charter was requested by Ralph Maxwell Lewis and the request was addressed to Lagrèze, together with an application for the "regularization of Martinist Initiation" intended for the brothers Whitcomb, K.Brower, and the sisters Whitcomb, G. Lewis and M. Lewis. They all received the S.I. degree, except for Ralph M.Lewis, who also received the Degree of Initiator, S:::I:::IV. Under the umbrella of the Rosicrucian Order A.M.O.R.C. the Martinist Order (OMT/TMO) was introduced in America. During the Second World War the O.M.T. is officially put to sleep but two of its lodges, Athanor and Brocéliande, continued in secrecy (the other Parisian lodges at the time were Velleda and Hermanubis). The French Order maintained its contact with the Order in America. Ralph M.Lewis corresponded with Jeanne Guesdon, 'Grand Secrétaire' of both AMORC-France as well as the Traditional Martinist Order (she replaced Jean Chaboseau -who was mobilized- during the war). Guesdon forewarded the correspondences to Georges Lagrèze, who had been forced to hide in Normandy and later in Angers, as she acted as a mediator between Lewis and Lagrèze. In June 1945, Augustin Chaboseau organized a 'reunion' to discuss the possibilities of the continuation of the 'Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel'. Part of the members are against an obediental structure of the organization and put their point of view to discussion. It is Georges Lagrèze who convinces the majority of the necessity of having an Obedience after which Chaboseau resurrects the French Obedience of the O.M.T.. Those who did not wish to work under the obedience reunited under the Martinists Robert Amadou, Paul Laugénie and Edouard Gesta (September 1945, foundation of the association 'Friends of Saint-Martin'). 'L’Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel' resumed work in France and abroad the Order is represented by Ralph M. Lewis, who is maintained by Chaboseau as a member of the 'Suprême Conseil International' and as 'Grand Maître Régional' for the United States of America. But problems within the Order were eventually inevitable, or so it seemed. Augustin Chaboseau died on January 2, 1946. In my essay, "F.U.D.O.S.I. 1934-1951", I've stated that Chaboseau was succeeded by Georges Lagrèze. Lagrèze died only three months later, on April 24th ,1946. "Lagrèze died shortly after Chaboseau in April of that same year, and Jean Chaboseau succeeded Lagrèze as Grand Master of the TMO. Under normal circumstances he would have been chosen as his father's successor and as co-Imperator of the FUDOSI by the Supreme Council. But the 'Supreme Council' decided otherwise" as it is stated in Chapter 11 of the F.U.D.O.S.I.-series ("The 5th Convention -1946"). When Augustin Chaboseau died in 1946 (and shortly after him Lagrèze) it was Jean Chaboseau, his son, who normally would have succeed his father as Grand Master of the O.M.T. It is noteworthy to know that Augustin Chaboseau was also one of the three Imperators of the F.U.D.O.S.I. In other words, Jean Chaboseau would also succeed his father as imperator, or not. The sources do not mention the issue at all.
According to the French O.M.T., Chaboseau was not succeeded by Lagrèze but by Jean Chaboseau, in accordance to the wishes of his father, Augustin Chaboseau. The following text is partly a translation of - and partly derived from - the original French text of "L'Après Guerre" (‘Le Martinisme Moderne’) as presented by the 'Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel - Grande Heptade de la Juridiction Francaise':
"A few days after his death [Augustin Chaboseau] an election is held in which - in accordance to the wishes of Augstin Chaboseau - Jean Chaboseau is chosen as Grand Master. Jules Boucher, Grand Secretary of the Order, is of opinion that the latter is too young and simply not the right person for the office of Grand Master " - L'Après Guerre -
Besides, Boucher suspected that Jeanne Canudo (3), whom Jean Chaboseau wanted to appoint as a member of the Supreme Council, had been a member of the ‘Mouvement Synarchique d’Empire’, M.S.E.:
Jeanne Canudo was a member of the O.M.T. and of the pre-war 'La Fraternité des Polaires'. It is known that various members of the Polaire Brotherhood were interested in Synarchy. A central figure of the Synarchic movement was Vivian Postel du Mas, a member of i.a. the Polaires and the French Theosophical Society. Around 1936 Vivian Postel du Mas founded the Theosophical branch ‘Kurukshétra’. It is this branch that supposedly gave birth in 1937 to the Synarchist Empire Movement. Canudo denied the accusations made against her, in a letter addressed to Jean Chaboseau she wrote (freely transl.): [Jeanne Canudo]"I am acquainted with the philosophical aspect and the social philosophy of the subject [synarchy]. I’m ignorant to the conspiracy aspect, which "Conspiracy" is this?? Letter to Jean Chaboseau, dated January 9, 1946
Due to all the opposition he was faced with, Jean Chaboseau supposedly chose to stand down from the position of Grand Master. Because of their disapproval of Jean Chaboseau’s Grandmastership the Supreme Council decided to install a temporary Council of Regency to lead the Martinist Order. There's a rumour within esoteric private circles this was because Jean Chaboseau was homosexual - however there is no written documentation to support that. As stated in the first series, the members of the F.U.D.O.S.I. originally wanted to establish a Supreme Martinist Council which would be heading the two main orders (OM&S -Blanchard had returned within the ranks of the federation - and TMO) and the other participating Martinist Orders, "SOCIÉTÉ d'ÉTUDES MARTINISTES" and " UNION SYNARCHIQUE DE POLOGNE".
The following details are taken from Chapter 11 of the 1st series:
"The minutes of the Conclave on July, 22 , which were published by A.M.O.R.C, on this issue: "The Convention, after hearing the reports of the Delegates, the Messages of the absent Delegates and their reports, after taking opinions and after regular discussions, decided : 1) to keep in vacancy the seat of the third Imperator of the F.U.D.O.S.I. , which was held by the V.'. ILL.'. SAR AUGUSTINUS, Grand Master of the Traditional Martinist Order, until the election of a new Grand Master of this Order. In the meantime all the regular powers of the Grand Mastership will be carried on by a COUNCIL OF REGENCY, composed of :
• SAR PURITIA (France) - Jeanne Guesdon (A.M.O.R.C.), Secretary
• SAR LEUKOS (America) - President
• SAR RENATUS (Belgium) - René Rosart ('Head' of the Belgian Martinists), Treasurer
They alone will be qualified to validate or deliver charts or documents for the Order during the vacancy of this post of Grand Master. Thus is decreed without appeal and confirmed by us, Imperators and Members of the Supreme Council of the F.U.D.O.S.I., in our sittings of this 22nd day of July, 1946. The above constitutes our official declaration". To cut a long story short, the COUNCIL OF REGENCY headed the Ordre Martiniste traditionnel from 1946 onwards.
"Jean Chaboseau sended in his resignation on the 6th Convention. Augustin Chaboseau's son tried to disband the "Suprême Conseil de l'Ordre Martiniste", but his "motion" (as a ' vote of no confidence') did not get the approval from the F.U.D.O.S.I. Because of the disapproval Jean Chaboseau left the "Traditional Martinist Order", of which he was, during his father's reign, a member of the Supreme Counsil (together with Lagreze and Beliard)"