Alfred Schuler, by Wikipedia

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Re: Alfred Schuler, by Wikipedia

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Paul de Lagarde
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3/5/18

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Paul de Lagarde
Paul Anton de Lagarde.png
Paul Anton de Lagarde
Born 2 November 1827
Berlin, Germany
Died 22 December 1891 (aged 64)
Göttingen, Germany
Other names Paul Bötticher
Occupation Orientalist

Paul Anton de Lagarde (2 November 1827 – 22 December 1891) was a German biblical scholar and orientalist, sometimes regarded as one of the greatest orientalists of the 19th century.[1][better source needed] As a conservative political theorist, Lagarde's strong support of anti-Semitism, vocal opposition to Christianity, racial darwinism and anti-Slavism are viewed as having been among the most influential in supporting the ideology of fascism and Nazism.[2][3][4]

His great learning and gifts were curiously mixed with dogmatism and distrust in the activities of others.[5] In politics, he belonged to the Prussian Conservative party. He died in Göttingen on 22 December 1891.

Early life and education

De Lagarde was born in Berlin as Paul Bötticher; in early adulthood he legally adopted the family name of his maternal line out of respect for his great-aunt who raised him. At Humboldt University of Berlin (1844–1846) and University of Halle-Wittenberg (1846–1847) he studied theology, philosophy and Oriental languages.

In 1852 his studies took him to London and Paris.

Career

In 1854 he became a teacher at a Berlin public school, but this did not interrupt his biblical studies. In 1866 he received three years leave of absence to collect fresh materials, and in 1869 succeeded German orientalist and theologian Heinrich Ewald as professor of oriental languages at the University of Göttingen. Like Ewald, Lagarde was an active worker in a variety of subjects and languages; but his chief aim, the elucidation of the Bible, was almost always kept in view. Lagarde was easily the most renowned Septuagint scholar of the nineteenth century, and he devoted himself ardently to Oriental studies.

Political interests

Parallel to his academic work, he attempted to establish a German national religion whose most striking manifestations were an aggressive anti-Semitism and expansionism.[6] He held few concrete religious beliefs at the ready for his postulated national religion as his first political treatise Über das Verhältnis des deutschen Staates zu Theologie, Kirche und Religion. Ein Versuch Nicht-Theologen zu orientieren (On the Relationship between the German State to Theology, Church and Religion: A Non-Theological Essay) demonstrates. In regard to the state, he called for its initial and most important task to be to create a climate in which a national religion could flourish. Meanwhile, he obliged those who had faith in God to a radical morality wherein they distinguish solely between "duty or sin" in their every action. In addition, first a formal language must be developed for the religiosity of these newborn men.[7] In the second part of his 1875 book, Über die gegenwärtige Lage des deutschen Reichs. Ein Bericht (On the Current Situation of the German Reich: A Report), he connected thereto and specified as follows:[8]

Germany is the totality of all German-feeling, German-thinking, German-willing Germans: In this sense, every one of us is a traitor if he does not consider himself personally acountable in every moment of his life for the existence, fortune and future of the fatherland, and each is a hero and liberator if he does.


The historian Ulrich Sieg classifies his position as follows: "He despised the Christianity that he considered bland and lukewarm and hoped for a folkish religion of the future."[9] Lagarde was conversant with Adolf Stoecker, the founder of the anti-Semitic Berlin Movement. He also showed interest in folkish-anti-Semitic societies such as the Deutscher Volksverein of Bernhard Förster and Max Liebermann von Sonnenberg, as well as the Deutschsoziale Partei of Theodor Fritsch. To the latter, he established contact in 1886 by sending his treatise Die nächsten Pflichten deutscher Politik (The Coming Tasks of German Politics), at the core of which he considered to be a German policy of settlement in Eastern Europe.[10] In German Writings, in which he compiled his previously published political essays, there can be found numerous anti-Semitic passages in which we learn, among other things, that he considered Jews to be the greatest barrier to German unification, whereas he simultaneously avowed the concept of a German colonization of southeastern Europe and proposed that the Jewish population settled there at the time be resettled to Palestine or Madagascar.[11] The only alternatives for Lagarde were the total assimilation or emigration of the Jews.[12]

In his 1887 essay "Jews and Indo-Germanics", he wrote: “One would have to have a heart of steel to not feel sympathy for the poor Germans and, by the same token, to not hate the Jews, to not hate and despise those who – out of humanity! – advocate for the Jews or are too cowardly to crush these vermin. Trichinella and bacilli would not be negotiated with, trichinella and bacilli would also not be nurtured, they would be destroyed as quickly and as thoroughly as possible."[13]

In addition to his influence on anti-Semitism, Lagarde is also of importance to the formation of German imperialist thought. In this regard, he concentrated on German border colonization within Europe rather than the acquisition of overseas colonies. This bears a close resemblance to the later concept of German Lebensraum most notably espoused by Friedrich Ratzel. In 1875, Lagarde maintained that the primary objective of German politics was the "gradual Germanization of Poland." Since he was concerned about how many Germans emigrated in their search for land, he advocated a border colonizing land acquisition for the peasantry, which he considered the "true foundation of the state." This land acquisition aimed to create a Mitteleuropa under German leadership "that reaches from the Ems to the mouth of the Danube, from the Neman to Trieste, from Metz to about the Bug."[14]

In his 1918 book, The New Europe, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk regards Lagarde as one of the leading philosophical and theological spokesmen of Pan-Germanism, and furthermore describes Heinrich von Treitschke as its historian, Wilhelm II as its politician and Friedrich Ratzel as its geopolitical geographer. In all of them he saw the representatives of the imperialistic "German Drang nach Osten" that threatened the Slavic countries.[15]

Legacy

Lagarde's anti-Semitism laid the foundations for aspects of National Socialist ideology, in particular that of Alfred Rosenberg. He argued that Germany should create a "national" form of Christianity purged of Semitic elements and insisted that Jews were "pests and parasites" who should be destroyed "as speedily and thoroughly as possible".[16][17] His library now belongs to the New York University.[5]

Works

He edited the Didascalia apostolorum syriace (1854) and other Syriac texts collected in the British Museum and in Paris. He edited the Aramaic translation (known as the Targum) of the Prophets according to the Codex Reuchlinianus preserved at Karlsruhe, Prophetae chaldaice (1872), the Hagiographa chaldaice (1874), an Arabic translation of the Gospels, Die vier Evangelien, arabisch aus der Wiener Handschrift herausgegeben (1864), a Syriac translation of the Old Testament Apocrypha, Libri V. T. apocryphi syriace (1865), a Coptic translation of the Pentateuch, Der Pentateuch koptisch (1867), and a part of the Lucianic text of the Septuagint, which he was able to reconstruct from manuscripts for nearly half the Old Testament.

Of the Armenians he published Zur Urgeschichte der Armenier (1854) and Armenische Studien (1877). He was also a student of Persian, publishing Isaias persice (1883) and Persische Studien (1884). In 1880, de Lagarde attempted to reconstruct a Syriac version of Epiphanius' treatise, On Weights and Measures, which he entitled, Veteris Testamenti ab Origene recensiti fragmenta apud Syros servata quinque. Praemittitur Epiphanii de mensuris et ponderibus liber nunc primum integer et ipse syriacus (Gootingae 1880). He followed up his Coptic studies with Aegyptiaca (1883), and published many minor contributions to the study of oriental languages in Gesammelte Abhandlungen (1866), Symmicta (1. 1877, ii. 1880), Semitica (i. 1878, ii. 1879), Orientalia (1879–1880) and Mittheilungen (1884). Mention should also be made of the valuable Onomastica sacra (1870; 2nd ed., 1887).

He edited:


• Pedro de Alcalá (1883). Petri Hispani de lingua arabica libri duo. A. Hoyer. p. 440. ISBN 3-535-00798-4. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
• Pedro de Alcalá (1883). Petri Hispani (reprint ed.). O. Zeller. p. 436. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
• Pedro de Alcalá (1883). Petri Hispani (reprint ed.). O. Zeller. p. 436. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
• Pedro de Alcalá (1883). De lingua arabica libri duo: Pauli de Legarde studio et sumptibus repetiti. prostant in aedibus D.A. Hoyer. Retrieved 2011-07-06.

In Deutsche Schriften (1878–81; 4th ed., Göttingen, 1903), he attempted to involve himself in politics.[1] It deals with the position of the German state relative to theology, the church and religion.[5] It became a nationalist text.[citation needed]

Notes

1. Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Lagarde, Paul Anton de". New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
2. Fascism: Intellectual origins, Encyclopaedia Britannica
3. Paul de Lagarde on Liberalism, Education, and the Jews: German Writings (1886), German History in Documents and Images
4. Johnson, Paul (1983), “Modern Times”, Harper and Row: New York
5. Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Lagarde, Paul Anton". Encyclopedia Americana.
6. http://www.perlentaucher.de/buch/ulrich ... ophet.html
7. Deutsche Schriften; Göttingen, 19205, p. 81. Cf. Ulrich Sieg (2007), pp. 162–166.
8. Deutsche Schriften; Göttingen, 19205, p. 186.
9. Interview with Ulrich Sieg , accessed 4 Apr 2015.
10. Ulrich Sieg (2007), p. 253.
11. Magnus Brechtken, „Madagaskar für die Juden“. Antisemitische Idee und politische Praxis 1885 - 1945, Oldenbourg Wissenschaft, München 1998, S. 16f.
12. Vgl. Ulrich Sieg (2007), p. 62f.
13. Paul de Lagarde: "Juden und Indogermanen" 1887, nach A. Bein, Der moderne Antisemitismus, in Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, Jg. 6, 1958.
14. Cited by Ulrich Sieg (2007), p. 173f.
15. Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk: Das neue Europa. Der slawische Standpunkt; Berlin 1991, pp. 13–44.
16. Snyder, L. Encyclopedia of the Third Reich, Wordsworth, 1998, p.203
17. Stern, Fritz The Politics of Cultural Despair: a study in the Rise of the Germanic Ideology, 1961 (see Chapter I, "Paul de Lagarde and a Germanic Religion").

References

• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lagarde, Paul Anton de". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. This work in turn cites:
• Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopädie
• Anna de Lagarde, Paul de Lagarde (1894)
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Re: Alfred Schuler, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Mar 06, 2018 5:37 am

Ludwig Klages
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3/5/18

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Ludwig Klages
Born 10 December 1872
Hanover, Germany
Died 29 July 1956
Kilchberg, Zurich
Era 20th-century philosophy
Region Western Philosophy
School Lebensphilosophie (philosophy of life)[1]
Main interests: Psychology
Notable ideas: Theory of graphology

Ludwig Klages (10 December 1872 – 29 July 1956) was a German philosopher, psychologist and a theoretician in the field of handwriting analysis. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.[2]

Life

Klages was born in Hanover, Germany. In Munich he studied physics, philosophy and chemistry – however, after completing his doctorate in chemistry he resolved never to work as a chemist. He met the sculptor Hans Busse and with him and Georg Meyer he founded the Deutsche Graphologische Gesellschaft (German Graphology Association) in 1894.

In Munich Klages also encountered the writer Karl Wolfskehl and the mystic Alfred Schuler. He was a lover of Fanny zu Reventlow, the "Bohemian Countess" of Schwabing, and with Wolfskehl, Schuler and the writer Ludwig Derleth they formed a group known as the Munich Cosmic Circle, with which the poet Stefan George is sometimes associated. He wrote a book praising George's poetry in 1902. As a member of this group his philosophy contrasted the "degenerate" modern world with an ancient, and mystical, Germanic past, with a heroic role for the artist in forging a new future.[3][4] George distanced himself from Klages' mystical philosophy (which was shared by Schuler), but continued for a time to publish Klages' poems in his journal Blätter für die Kunst.[5] Wolfskehl acquainted Klages with the work of Johann Jakob Bachofen (1815–1887), a Swiss anthropologist and sociologist, and his research into matriarchal clans.[6]

In 1914 at the outbreak of war Klages moved to Switzerland and supported himself with his writing and income from lectures. He returned to Germany in the 1920s and in 1932 was awarded the Goethe medal for Art and Science. However by 1936 he was under attack from Nazi authorities for lack of support and on his 70th birthday in 1942 was denounced by many newspapers in Germany. After the war he was honoured by the new government, particularly on his 80th birthday in 1952.

Work

He created a complete theory of graphology and will be long associated with the concepts of form level, rhythm and bi-polar interpretation. Together with Friedrich Nietzsche and Henri Bergson he anticipated existential phenomenology. He also coined the term logocentrism in the 1920s.[7]

He was the author of 14 books and 60 articles (1910–1948). He was co-editor of the journals Berichte (1897–1898) and its successor Graphologische Monatshefte until 1908. His most important works are:

• Der Geist als Widersacher der Seele (1929)
• Die Grundlagen der Charakterkunde

As a philosopher, Klages took the Nietzschean premises of Lebensphilosophie "to their most extreme conclusions." He drew a distinction between life-affirming Seele (spirit) and life-destroying Geist (mind). Geist represented the forces of "modern, industrial, and intellectual rationalization", while Seele represented the possibility of overcoming "alienated intellectuality in favor of a new-found earthly rootedness."[8]

When Klages died, the German philosopher Jürgen Habermas urged that Klages' "realizations concerning anthropology and philosophy of language" should not be left "hidden behind the veil" of Klages' "anti-intellectualist metaphysics and apocalyptic philosophy of history". Habermas characterized these realizations as "not outdated" but ahead of the time.[9]

Klages is an important anti-semitic thinker.[10] He reportedly said, "To the Jew, everything human is a sham. One might even say that the Jewish face is nothing but a mask. The Jew is not a liar: he is the lie itself. From this vantage point, we can say that the Jew is not a man. … He lives the pseudo-life of a ghoul whose fortunes are linked to Yahweh-Moloch. He employs deception as the weapon with which he will exterminate mankind. The Jew is the very incarnation of the unearthly power of destruction."[11]

References

1. Lebovic, Nitzan (2013). The Philosophy of Life and Death: Ludwig Klages and the Rise of a Nazi Biopolitics. Palgrave Studies in Cultural and Intellectual History. AIAA. p. 9. ISBN 1137342056.
2. "Nomination Database". http://www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2017-04-19.
3. Noll, Richard. The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement. Touchstone. pp. 166–172. ISBN 0684834235.
4. Marchand, Suzanne L.; Lindenfeld, David F. (2004). Germany at the fin de siècle: culture, politics, and ideas. Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0807129798.
5. Furness, Raymond (1978). The twentieth century, 1890–1945. Barnes & Noble. p. 98. ISBN 006492310X.
6. Eller, Cynthia (2000). The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why An Invented Past Will Not Give Women a Future. Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-6792-5.
7. Josephson-Storm, Jason (2017). The Myth of Disenchantment : Magic, Modernity, and the Birth of the Human Sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 214, 221–222. ISBN 9780226403533. OCLC 958780609.
8. Aschheim, Steven E. (1992). The Nietzsche Legacy in Germany, 1890–1990. Uni. of California Press. pp. 80–81. ISBN 0520085558.
9. "Klages – Gewalten des Untergangs". Der Spiegel (in German) (37/1966). 5 September 1966. An article looking back ten years after his death.
10. Levy, Richard S. (2005). Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 257. ISBN 1851094393.
11. Ludwig Klages, Rhythmen und Runen (Rhythms and Runes) (1944), as cited in "Ludwig Klages on Judaism, Christianity and Paganism (Excerpts and Aphorisms)".

Further reading

• Gunnar Alksnis, Ludwig Klages and His Attack on Rationalism. Kansas State University, 1970. Also published under the title Chthonic Gnosis. Ludwig Klages and his Quest for the Pandaemonic All, Theion Publishing, 2015.
• Reinhard Falter, Ludwig Klages. Lebensphilosophie als Zivilisationskritik, Munich: Telesma, 2003, ISBN 978-3-8330-0678-4.
• Raymond Furness, Ludwig Klages, in: Zarathustra's Children: A Study of a Lost Generation of German Writers, Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2000, ISBN 1-57113-057-8, pp. 99–124.
• Michael Grossheim, Ludwig Klages und die Phaenomenologie, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 1993.
• Jason Ā. Josephson-Storm, The Myth of Disenchantment: Magic, Modernity and the Birth of the Human Sciences, University of Chicago Press, 2017.
• Nitzan Lebovic, The Terror and Beauty of Lebensphilosophie: Ludwig Klages, Walter Benjamin, and Alfred Bauemler, South Central Review 23:1 (Spring 2006), pp. 23–39.
• James Lewin, Geist und Seele: Ludwig Klages’ Philosophie, Berlin: Reuther & Reichard, 1931.
• Tobias Schneider, Ideological Trench Warfare. Ludwig Klages and National Socialism from 1933–1938. Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 2/2001.
• Tommaso Tuppini, Ludwig Klages. L'immagine e la questione della distanza, Milano: Franco Angeli, 2003.
• Chiara Gianni Ardic, La Fuga degli Dèi. Mito, matriarcato e immagine in Ludwig Klages, Milano: Jouvence, 2016.

External links

• The Science of Character
• The Biocentric Metaphysics of Ludwig Klages
• Cosmogonic Reflections by Ludwig Klages at the Internet Archive
• File of "On the Biocentric Metaphysics of Ludwig Klages" at the Internet Archive
• "Ludwig Klages on Judaism, Christianity and Paganism"
• "The Literary Criticism of Ludwig Klages and the Klages School" by Lydia Baer
• "Chthonic Gnosis. Ludwig Klages and his Quest for the Pandaemonic All" by Dr. Gunnar Alksnis
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Re: Alfred Schuler, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Mar 06, 2018 5:52 am

Karl Wolfskehl
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3/5/18

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Karl Wolfskehl (17 September 1869 – 30 June 1948) was a German Jewish author who wrote poetry, prose and drama in German. He also translated from French, English, Italian, Hebrew, Latin and Middle High German into German.

He was born in Darmstadt, Germany, the son of the banker and lawyer Otto Wolfskehl. He studied in Leipzig and Berlin. In 1898 he married Hanna de Haan, daughter of the Dutch Director of the Darmstadt Chamber Orchestra. They had two daughters: Judith (born 1899) and Renate (born 1901).

He was active in the Munich Cosmic Circle, a group of intellectuals in Munich led by Alfred Schuler. This group broke up in 1904 due to a rift between Wolfskehl, supported by Stefan George, and Ludwig Klages, supported by Schuler.

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He emigrated to Switzerland in (1933), then to Italy (1934) and ultimately, with his partner Margot Ruben (1908–1980), to New Zealand (1938). He died there in 1948.

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Karl Wolfskehl, UNDER NEW STARS: Poems of the New Zealand Exile. German and English.
Translations by Andrew Paul Wood, Margot Ruben, Dean and Renate Koch, edited by Friedrich Voit

Karl Wolfskehl (1869-1948) was probably the most prominent literary figure among the refugees from Nazi Germany who came to New Zealand in the 1930s. Aged 69 when he arrived in this country, Wolfskehl wrote his finest poetry here in the last decade of his life. Until now little work by this important poet has been available in English translation. Now Andrew Paul Wood of Christchurch has added many new translations to existing versions by Margot Ruben and Dean and Renate Koch to provide a substantial bi-lingual selection of the work of Wolfskehl’s New Zealand exile, including his masterpiece Job or The Four Mirrors. UNDER NEW STARS is edited by Dr Friedrich Voit (University of Auckland), an internationally acknowledged authority on Wolfskehl’s life and work.

In addition to the poems, presented on facing pages in both German and English, the book includes a substantial introduction by Friedrich Voit, a Note on Translation by Andrew Paul Wood, several tipped-in photographs (including two of Wolfskehl and one of his grave at Waikumete Cemetery), a facsimile of a handwritten poem, and a drawing by Leo Bensemann, alluded to in the poem To the Creator of “Fantastica”.

UNDER NEW STARS is typeset in 12pt Adobe Garamond Pro. Letterpress printed by Tara McLeod on a Littlejohn Cylinder proofing press from photopolymer plates made by Inline Graphics Ltd. The paper is 104gsm Sundance Felt natural white. Binding is by Design Bind Ltd. and includes silver blocking of Wolfskehl’s initials on the cover. Hard covers, 108 pages, 240 x 160mm, an edition of 90 copies. ISBN 978-0-864618-2-8.

Price $290. A pre-publication price of $240 is offered up to the end of October.

UNDER NEW STARS was launched at the Gus Fisher Gallery, 74 Shortland Street, Auckland, on Thursday 30 August, 2012 at 5.30pm. The speaker was Dr. Leonard Bell.

-- Karl Wolfskehl, by hollowaypress.auckland.ac.nz


Sources

• Elke-Vera Kotowski, Gert Mattenklott: "O dürft ich Stimme sein, das Volk zu rütteln!" Leben und Werk von Karl Wolfskehl Olms, Hildesheim 2007, ISBN 978-3-487-13303-4 (German)
• Briefwechsel aus Neuseeland 1938-1948 by Karl Wolfskehl, Cornelia Blasberg
• Karl Wolfskehl: Three Worlds / Drei Welten. Selected Poems. German and English. Translated and edited by Andrew Paul Wood and Friedrich Voit. Cold Hub Press, Lyttelton / Christchurch 2016, ISBN 978-0-47335867-9
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Re: Alfred Schuler, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Mar 06, 2018 6:23 am

Ludwig Derleth
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3/5/18

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Ludwig Derleth (3 November 1870 – 13 January 1948) was a German writer.

He was born in Gerolzhofen in Bavaria. After studying philosophy and literature Derleth worked as a college level teacher of ancient languages. While living in Munich he became part of the Stefan George entourage and also the Munich Cosmic Circle of Alfred Schuler and Ludwig Klages, which broke up in 1904.

In later years he made his living as a free-lance writer in Rome, Basel, Perchtolfsdorf outside Vienna and, from 1935, in Ticino, where he died in 1948.

Work

He published his first poems in George's Blättern für die Kunst and in the Jugend magazine Pan. In 1904 he published his "Proclamations" for a reformed and reorganized Catholicism. Derleth spent 40 years completing his major work Der fränkische Koran. He may have served as a model for Thomas Mann's 1904 novel At the Prophet's.

Other works: Seraphinische Hochzeit (1939) and Der Tod des Thanatos (1945).

*********************************

Ludwig Derleth
by http://www.literatisch.de/ludwig-derleth.html
Accessed: 3/5/18

Ludwig Derleth (born November 3, 1870 in Gerolzhofen, † January 13, 1948 in San Pietro de Stabio, Switzerland) was a German writer.

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After completing his studies in philosophy and literature, Derleth initially worked as a high school teacher for ancient languages. During his years in Munich he came into contact with the George circle and also belonged to the Cosmic circle around Alfred Schuler and Ludwig Klages. Later he lived as a freelance writer in Rome, Basel, Perchtoldsdorf near Vienna and from 1935 in Ticino, where he died in 1948. The Ludwig-Derleth-Realschule in his hometown Gerolzhofen is named after him.

As a lyricist, he first published in the Journal of the Arts and in the magazine Pan. His passionate effort was aimed at a new hierarchical order of purified Catholic Christianity, which he proclaimed in his 1904 proclamations with revolutionary pathos. His major work The Frankish Koran (1932) is a large-scale world song from the "Pilgrimage of the human soul from God to God", a powerful book of life and faith, in which he worked for almost 40 years.

Further publications: Seraphine Wedding (1939) and The Death of Thanatos (1945).

He may have served as a model for Thomas Mann's 1904 novel At the Prophet's.

Source: Wikipedia
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Re: Alfred Schuler, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Mar 06, 2018 6:38 am

Fanny zu Reventlow
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3/5/18

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Franziska Countess zu Reventlow, undated photo

Countess Fanny "Franziska" zu Reventlow (Fanny Liane Wilhelmine Sophie Auguste Adrienne) 18 May 1871 – 26 July 1918)[1] was a German writer, artist and translator, who became famous as the "Bohemian Countess" of Schwabing (an entertainment district in Munich) in the years leading up to World War I.[2]

Life

Fanny (or Franziska, as she was also called later) Reventlow was born in the family seat at Husum in the north of Germany, the fifth of six children of the Prussian aristocrat Ludwig, Count zu Reventlow (1825–1894) and his wife Emilie (1834–1905). The family were on friendly terms with the North German writer Theodor Storm. Her eldest brother Theodor died as a fifteen-year-old, her brother Ernst was an ultra-nationalist writer and eventually became a Nazi.

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The family Schloss at Husum

While young she was in constant conflict with her mother. She was thrown out of boarding school for misbehavior and lack of respect for the authorities. After being sent to stay with a family friend in 1893, she fled to Hamburg. Here she met Walter Lübke, who financed her art studies in Munich, and whom she married in 1894.[2]

The marriage broke up when she set off again in 1895 to Munich, to continue her studies. They were divorced in 1897. In September of that year her son Rolf was born; she never divulged the name of the father (although it is very likely to have been the Polish-born painter & engraver Adolf Eduard Herstein).]

In Munich she supported herself by translation work for the Albert Langen Publishing House and by writing short articles for magazines and newspapers such as Simplicissimus and the Frankfurter Zeitung. After taking some acting lessons in 1898 she had a short engagement at the Theater am Gärtnerplatz. Otherwise she took casual jobs as a secretary, assistant cook, insurance agent and so on to keep going. As usual in Bohemian circles she also received financial help from male friends and casual acquaintances.

She was a friend of Ludwig Klages and thus became part of the Munich Cosmic Circle based around the mystic Alfred Schuler, which also included Karl Wolfskehl. It broke up in acrimonious circumstances in 1904. She wrote about her experiences with the Circle in her Roman à clef Herrn Dames Aufzeichnungen (1913). She also got to know Theodor Lessing, Erich Mühsam, Oskar Panizza, Rainer Maria Rilke, Marianne von Werefkin, Alexej von Jawlensky, Frank Wedekind and many others of the "Munich Moderns". With her son she travelled to Samos (1900), Italy (1904, 1907) and Corfu (1906/1907).[3]

She left Munich for Ascona in Switzerland in 1910 (Monte Verità), where she wrote her "Schwabing" novels. In 1911 married Baron Alexander von Rechenberg-Linten, a marriage of convenience, which enabled him to inherit 20,000 Marks. However, he lost this in a bank collapse in 1914.

In 1916 she moved to Muralto on Lago Maggiore. She died in 1918 in a clinic in Locarno following a bicycle accident and was buried in the cemetery of the Santa Maria in Selva church in Locarno. Emil Ludwig spoke at her funeral.

Feminism

Reventlow is best known as one of the most unorthodox voices of the early women's movement in Europe. While many of her peers were pressing for improved social, political, and economic rights for women, Reventlow argued that ardent feminists, whom she labelled "viragoes," were actually harming women by attempting to erase or deny the natural differences between men and women. Reventlow maintained that sexual freedom, and the abolition of the institution of marriage, were the best means by which women could hope to achieve a more equal social standing with men.[2]

Works

• (with Otto Eugen Thossan) Klosterjungen. Humoresken (two stories), Wigand, Leipzig 1897
• Das Männerphantom der Frau (Essay), in: Zürcher Diskußionen 1898
• Was Frauen ziemt (Essay); under the title Viragines oder Hetären? in: Zürcher Diskußionen 1899
• Erziehung und Sittlichkeit (Essay), in: Otto Falckenberg, Das Buch von der Lex Heinze. Leipzig 1900
• Ellen Olestjerne, J. Marchlewski, Munich 1903
• Von Paul zu Pedro, Langen, Munich 1912
• Herrn Dames Aufzeichnungen oder Begenheiten aus einem merkwürdigen Stadtteil", Langen, Munich 1913
• Der Geldkomplex, Langen, Munich 1916
• Das Logierhaus zur Schwankenden Weltkugel und andere Novellen, Langen, Munich 1917
• Tagebücher (ed. Irene Weiser, Jürgen Gutsch), Stutz, Passau 2006

References

1. Church baptismal record, Husum
2. Katharina von Hammerstein (2006). "Franziska Gräfin zu Reventlow". Fembio.org. Retrieved 2009-02-02.
3. Stein, pp. 95–111

Sources

• Stein, Gerd (1982). Bohemien-Tramp-Sponti (in German). Fischer. ISBN 3-596-25035-8.
• Wendt, Gunna (2008). Franziska zu Reventlow. Die anmutige Rebellin. Biographie (in German). Aufbau-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-351-02660-8.
• Egbringhoff, Ulla (2000). Franziska zu Reventlow (in German). Reinbek (rm 614). ISBN 3-499-50614-9.

External links

• Biography
• Data on Fanny zu Reventlow und E-Texts of her diaries and books (in German)
• Works by Fanny zu Reventlow at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
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Re: Alfred Schuler, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Mar 06, 2018 8:08 pm

Johann Jakob Bachofen
by Wikipedia
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J. J. Bachofen
Born 22 December 1815
Basel, Switzerland
Died 25 November 1887 (aged 71)
Basel, Switzerland
Nationality Swiss
Scientific career
Fields Roman law, anthropology

Johann Jakob Bachofen (22 December 1815 – 25 November 1887) was a Swiss antiquarian, jurist, philologist, and anthropologist, professor for Roman law at the University of Basel from 1841[1] to 1845.

Bachofen is most often connected with his theories surrounding prehistoric matriarchy, or Das Mutterrecht, the title of his seminal 1861 book Mother Right: an investigation of the religious and juridical character of matriarchy in the Ancient World. Bachofen assembled documentation demonstrating that motherhood is the source of human society, religion, morality, and decorum. He postulated an archaic "mother-right" within the context of a primeval Matriarchal religion or Urreligion.

Bachofen became an important precursor of 20th-century theories of matriarchy, such as the Old European culture postulated by Marija Gimbutas from the 1950s, and the field of feminist theology and "Matriarchal Studies" in 1970s feminism.

Biography

Born into a wealthy Basel family active in the silk industry, Bachofen studied in Basel and in Berlin under August Boeckh, Karl Ferdinand Ranke and Friedrich Carl von Savigny, as well as in Göttingen. After completing his doctorate in Basel, he studied for another two years in Paris, London and Cambridge. He was called to the Basel chair for Roman law in 1841, but he retired early in 1845, and published most of his works as a private scholar. Bachofen is buried at the Wolfgottesacker cemetery in Basel.

Das Mutterrecht

Bachofen's 1861 Das Mutterrecht proposed four phases of cultural evolution which absorbed each other:

1. Hetaerism: a wild nomadic 'tellurian' [= chthonic or earth-centered] phase, characterised by him as communistic and polyamorous, whose dominant deity he believed to have been an earthy proto Aphrodite.

2. Das Mutterecht: a matriarchal 'lunar' phase based on agriculture, characterised by him by the emergence of chthonic mystery cults and law. Its dominant deity was an early Demeter according to Bachofen.

3. The Dionysian: a transitional phase when earlier traditions were masculinised as patriarchy began to emerge. Its dominant deity was the original Dionysos.

4. The Apollonian: the patriarchal 'solar' phase, in which all trace of the Matriarchal and Dionysian past was eradicated and modern civilisation emerged.

While based on an imaginative interpretation of the existing archaeological evidence of his time, this model tells us as much about Bachofen's own time as it does about the past.

Reception

There was little initial reaction to Bachofen’s theory of cultural evolution, largely because of his impenetrable literary style, but eventually, along with furious criticism, the book inspired several generations of ethnologists, social philosophers, and even writers: Lewis Henry Morgan; Friedrich Engels, who drew on Bachofen for The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State; Thomas Mann; Jane Ellen Harrison, who was inspired by Bachofen to devote her career to mythology; Walter Benjamin; Erich Fromm; Robert Graves; Rainer Maria Rilke; Joseph Campbell; Otto Gross; Erich Neumann and opponents such as Julius Evola.

Friedrich Engels analysed Bachofen's views as follows:[2]

"(1) That originally man lived in a state of sexual promiscuity, to describe which Bachofen uses the mistaken term "hetaerism";

(2) that such promiscuity excludes any certainty of paternity, and that descent could therefore be reckoned only in the female line, according to mother-right, and that this was originally the case amongst all the peoples of antiquity;

(3) that since women, as mothers, were the only parents of the younger generation that were known with certainty, they held a position of such high respect and honor that it became the foundation, in Bachofen's conception, of a regular rule of women (gynaecocracy);

(4) that the transition to monogamy, where the woman belonged to one man exclusively, involved a violation of a primitive religious law (that is, actually a violation of the traditional right of the other men to this woman), and that in order to expiate this violation or to purchase indulgence for it the woman had to surrender herself for a limited period." (Friedrich Engels, 1891: see link below)

A selection of Bachofen's writings was translated as Myth, Religion and Mother Right (1967). A fuller edited English edition in several volumes is being published.

As has been noted by Joseph Campbell in Occidental Mythology and others, Bachofen's theories stand in radical opposition to the Aryan origin theories of religion, culture and society, and both Campbell and writers such as Evola have suggested that Bachofen's theories only adequately explain the development of religion among the pre-Aryan cultures of the Mediterranean and the Levant, and possibly Southern Asia, but that a separate, patriarchal development existed among the Aryan tribes which conquered Europe and parts of Asia.

Works

• De legis actionibus de formulis et de condictione. Dissertation Basel. Dieterich, Göttingen 1840.
• Das Naturrecht und das geschichtliche Recht in ihren Gegensätzen. Basel 1841. reprint: Off. Librorum, Lauterbach 1995, ISBN 3-928406-19-1
• Römisches Pfandrecht. Schweighauser, Basel 1847. reprint: Keip, Goldbach 1997, ISBN 3-8051-0688-2
• Ausgewählte Lehren des römischen Civilrechts. Leipzig 1848. reprint: Keip, Goldbach 1997, ISBN 3-8051-0689-0
• Versuch über die Gräbersymbolik der Alten. Baasel 1859
• Oknos der Seilflechter : ein Grabbild : Erlösungsgedanken antiker Gräbersymbolik. Basel 1859. reprint: Beck, München 1923
• Das Mutterrecht: eine Untersuchung über die Gynaikokratie der alten Welt nach ihrer religiösen und rechtlichen Natur. Stuttgart: Verlag von Krais und Hoffmann, 1861 (google books link)
• abbreviated edition, ed. Hans-Jürgen Heinrichs. (Suhrkamp Taschenbücher Wissenschaft; Nr.135.) Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1975 ISBN 3-518-27735-9
• excerpts edited as Mutterrecht und Urreligion: eine Auswahl, ed. Rudolf Marx. (Kröners Taschenausgabe; Band 52) Leipzig: A. Kröner, 1927; Stuttgart, 1954; 6th ed. 1984 ISBN 978-3-520-05206-3.
• Antiquarische Briefe vornemlich zur Kenntniss der ältesten Verwandtschaftsbegriffe. 2 vols. Trübner, Strassburg 1880 & 1886.
• Römische Grablampen nebst einigen andern Grabdenkmälern vorzugsweise eigener Sammlung. Basel 1890
• Gesammelte Werke (collected works) ed. Karl Meuli. Basel: B. Schwabe, 1943–1967, in 8 volumes (I-IV, VI-VIII and X)
• I. Antrittsrede; politische Betrachtungen
• II. Das Mutterecht, erste Hälfte
• III. Das Mutterecht, zweite Hälfte
• IV. Die Sage von Tanaquil
• VII. Die Unsterblichkeitslehre der orphanischen Theologie: Römische Grablampen
• VIII. Antiquarische Briefe
• X. Briefe
• ′′Mother Right′′ by J. J. Bachofen. Vols. 1-5. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2003-2008

References

1. Eller, Cynthia (2011). Gentlemen and Amazons: The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory, 1861–1900. University of California Press. p. 38.
2. Engels, Friedrich (2010). The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State. Penguin UK. p. 49.
• Lullies, Reinhard & Schiering, Wolfgang (1988) Archäologenbildnisse: Porträts und Kurzbiographien von Klassischen Archäologen deutscher Sprache. Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zabern; pp. 41–42
• Gender-Killer, A. G. (ed.) (2005) Antisemitismus und Geschlecht: von „effeminierten Juden“, „maskulinisierten Jüdinnen“ und anderen Geschlechterbildern. Münster: Unrast-Verlag ISBN 3-89771-439-6
• Wesel, Uwe (1980) Der Mythos vom Matriarchat: über Bachofens Mutterrecht und die Stellung von Frauen in frühen Gesellschaften vor der Entstehung staatlicher Herrschaft. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp
• Gossmann, Lionel (1984) "Basle, Bachofen and the Critique of Modernity in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century", in: Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes; 47, pp. 136–185
• Gossman, Lionel. “Orpheus Philologus: Bachofen versus Mommsen on the Study of Antiquity.” American Philosophical Society, 1983. [1] ISBN 1-4223-7467-X.
• Lionel Gossman, Basel in the Age of Burckhardt: A Study in Unseasonable Ideas (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 109-200. ISBN 0-226-30498-1
• Wiedemann, Felix (2007) Rassenmutter und Rebellin: Hexenbilder in Romantik, völkischer Bewegung, Neuheidentum und Feminismus. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann ISBN 3-8260-3679-4.
• Rattner, Josef & Danzer, Gerhard (2003) "Johann Jakob Bachofen und die Mutterrechtstheorie", pp. 9–28 in: Europäische Kulturbeiträge im deutsch-schweizerischen Schrifttum von 1850-2000. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann ISBN 3-8260-2541-5
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Re: Alfred Schuler, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Mar 06, 2018 10:03 pm

Nimet Eloui Bey: The Egyptian Beauty & 20th Century Style Icon
by Alex Aubry
June 5, 2016

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


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At DNACHIC.COM we’ve always searched for those handful of rare instances when chic Arab women captivated the fashion world. Although frequently left out of history books or given a cursory mention, such individuals point to the Middle East’s presence in a world that was becoming increasingly cosmopolitan with the advent of transatlantic travel.

Similar to their counterparts in the West, by the late 1800s it became fashionable for members of Egypt’s aristocracy and upper classes to embark on grand European tours. For Egyptian women, a trip to Paris was an opportunity to update their wardrobes with the latest European fashions. There were shopping excursions to the noted jewelers, glove-makers, cobblers and milliners of the day, as well as famed couturiers such as Worth, Callot Soeurs, Cheruit and Piguet. As clients of the couture houses, women from Egypt and the Levant were fitted for corseted gowns that would later appear in the well-appointed drawing rooms of Cairo and Alexandria.

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By the 1920s, a number of chic Arab women became regular fixtures within the beau monde. Among them was the Cairo-born Nimet Eloui Bey, a celebrated style icon of her day, whom the French novelist Edmond Jaloux described as a great beauty with “a profile seen on Pharaohs in Egyptian royal statuary.” She would also be immortalized by some of the leading photographers of the era such as May Ray, George Hoyningen-Huene and Lee Miller, who captured Nimet in 1931 for Vogue. Dubbed ‘La Belle Circassienne,’ the Egyptian socialite appeared in the fashion publication in a Molyneux gown accessorized with a turban and pearls.

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The daughter of the First Chamberlain to Sultan Hussein Kamel of Egypt, Nimet lost both her parents at a very young age, and was brought up by an aunt on the island of Rhodes. She would later return to Egypt to marry Aziz Eloui Bey, an Egyptian aristocrat and railroad tycoon. While in Egypt, the couple entertained at their Art Deco beach house in Alexandria, as well as their elegant Belle Époque mansion in Cairo, decorated by Maison Jensen, the Paris-based interior design firm. Fluent in Arabic, English, French and Turkish, they soon became fixtures amongst the international jet set, attending chic dinners and balls in Cannes, Venice and St. Moritz, where fellow guests included Charlie Chaplin, Daisy Fellows and Bettina Ballard, the Paris-based American Vogue editor.

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In Paris, Nimet frequented the salons of jazz age couturiers such as Jean Patou, Mainbocher and Marcel Rochas to be fitted for custom evening gowns and day suits. For a surrealist-inspired masquerade ball given by Comtesse Etienne de Beaumont in 1929, the Egyptian beauty arrived dressed in a gown accessorized with a matching caplet, elbow length gloves and large earrings entirely covered in tiny fragments of mirrors. Created for her by the couturier Lucien Lelong, her glittering costume attracted the attention of Vogue, whose editor asked her to pose once again for the magazine, thus cementing her position as an early 20th century style icon.

By the 1920s, a number of chic Arab women became regular fixtures within the beau monde. Among them was the Cairo-born Nimet Eloui Bey, a celebrated style icon of her day, whom the French novelist Edmond Jaloux described as a great beauty with “a profile seen on Pharaohs in Egyptian royal statuary.”


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