Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, by Wikipedia

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Re: Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, by Wikipedi

Postby admin » Fri Aug 16, 2019 11:11 pm

Order of Woodcraft Chivalry
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/16/19

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The Order of Woodcraft Chivalry is a scouting-like movement operating in the United Kingdom, which was founded in 1916 by Ernest Westlake. It was inspired by Ernest Thompson Seton's Woodcraft Indians, and Seton was its honorary Grand Chieftain. Whilst largely being contemporary to Baden-Powell's Scouting movement, it differed from it in that it does not have the perceived military overtones of Scouting, instead focusing on the virtues of kindness, fellowship and woodcraft. The Order was small compared to Scouts, having only 1,200 members by 1926.[1] By the 1950s it had ceased to have a major public presence. It still exists (2016) as a semi-formal network of personal friends with historic family links to the original formal organisation, with little interest in publicity and few surviving overt connections with the Woodcraft Folk or the Forest School Camps.

The Order accepted many premises of Neopaganism. It has been suggested by writer Steve Wilson that it provided the basis for the New Forest coven, and through that the Neopagan religion of Wicca.

History

Founding


Westlake was a naturalist, anthropologist and traveller of Quaker upbringing, however in 1909 he began to fault Quakerism and extol the "old gods" of paganism. He was inspired by authors such as Edward Carpenter, Nietzsche, Havelock Ellis, Jane Ellen Harrison, Tylor and Frazer, and saw the Order as saving people from "the cul de sac of intellectualized religion" and reviving the "greater Hellas" of modern civilisation. He saw women as incarnations of God, to be "worshipped in spirit and in truth"; he revered the Jack-in-the-Green, which he considered to be the English equivalent of Dionysus, and held that the "Trinity of Woodcraft" consisted of Pan, Artemis and Dionysus.[2]

The first folkmoot ceremony of the Order was held at Sandy Balls, Westlake's estate on the northern edge of the New Forest, on Lammas 1921, with the sacred fire lit by four people dressed in colours of the elements of each quarter, bringing greetings from the elemental powers in succession from north round to west. Despite these pagan themes, Westlake did not consider they were departing from Christianity, and claimed that "one must be a good pagan before one can be a good Christian". He held that after his resurrection Jesus Christ had become dissolved into nature, and that by recognising the divinity inherent in nature people would come closer to Christ.[3] Consequently, the Order promoted a "mystical and animist" view of nature.[4]


it was not only a physical process that took place when the blood flowed from the wounds of the Saviour, but it was actually accompanied by a spiritual process; that is, the Holy Spirit, which was received at the baptism, united itself with the earth -- Christ himself flowed into the very being of the earth. From now on, the earth was changed, and this is the reason for saying to you in previous lectures that if a person had viewed the earth from a distant star, he would have observed that its whole appearance was altered with the Mystery of Golgotha. The sun Logos became a part of the earth, formed an alliance with it and became the spirit of the earth.

-- Goddess: From Natura to the Divine Sophia, Selections from the work of Rudolf Steiner


The Order had a considerable influence in the founding of the Forest School Camps movement.[5]

There is little evidence of interactions between the Order and the Woodcraft Folk, which was also a breakaway from the Kibbo Kift and was similarly inspired by Seton. This may have been because the Order of Woodcraft Chivalry was non-political and had a mainly affluent middle-class membership (e.g. Westlake owned a country estate) while the Woodcraft Folk, which styled itself 'The Movement for Workers Children' in the 1920s, was predominantly a socialist working-class organisation at the time.

After Westlake

After Westlake's death in a motoring accident in 1922, the role of British Chief of the Order fell to Harry Byngham, who subsequently changed his name to Dion, short for Dionysus. Unlike Westlake, Dion Byngham found no attraction in Christianity, and zealously promoted paganism, naturism and phallic worship as a veneration of the life force. He started publishing an Order periodical called The Pinecone, which contained many provocative items, including a nude Dionysus on the cover of one issue, a photograph of a nude Byngham and his semi-nude girlfriend in Grecian dress, and a verse play by Victor Benjamin Neuburg, who also introduced Byngham to the ideas of the famous occultist Aleister Crowley.

Image


All this brought Byngham into strife with many of the Christian members of the Order, which was primarily aimed at children and had, by its pacifist stance, particularly appealed to Quaker families as an alternative to Scouting. In 1924 Byngham was replaced as editor and in 1925 he was suspended from the Council of Chiefs after posing nude with his girlfriend for press photographs to promote nudism.[6]



Between 1922 and 1927 the rituals of the order continued to evolve along Masonic and quasi-Masonic lines, adopting elaborate titles and ritual equipment. In 1928 a compromise was accepted between the pagan- and the Christian-inclined members whereby the order would promote both the sanctity of nature and Christian ethics, while criticising the "repressive" aspects of Christianity. However membership fell. In 1929 the Society of Friends formally withdrew support for the Order, and by 1930 there were only 400 members remaining. In 1934 Aubrey Westlake, the son of Ernest, resigned as Chieftain, and in 1935 he left the order, depriving it of its meeting place at Sandy Balls.[7] Steve Wilson argues that some of the pagan-inclined members split off to form the New Forest coven, which became the origin of the religion of Wicca.[8]

Contemporary

Hutton stated in 1999 that "The Order continues to survive with a stable but small membership".[9] In the 1990s Martin Westlake, son of Aubrey and grandson of Ernest, allowed the Order to celebrate its anniversary at Sandy Balls estate again.[8]

A website in the Order's name exists and was last updated in Feb 2015. [10] It seems to be mainly used by existing members to post photographs, etc, and contains little to attract potential new members. The Order survives as a small network of personal friends linked to the earlier formal organisation.

The OWC is a co-host, together with the Liga Lesni Moudrosti (The Woodcraft League of the Czech Republic), of the Blue Sky! World Woodcraft Gathering which takes place every three years alternately in the UK and the Czech Republic. Started in 1996, the gathering in 2017 will be the 8th meeting and will be held in the UK. Scouts and Woodcrafters from Poland and other countries also take part.

References

1. Hutton, Ronald. The Triumph of the Moon. p. 163.
2. Hutton, pp. 164-5.
3. Hutton, p. 166.
4. Steven J. Sutcliffe, Children of the New Age: A History of Spiritual Practices, Routledge, London, 2002, p.41
5. 'N' Brand. "Early Days in the Forest School" (PDF). fsc.org.uk. Forest School Camps.
6. Hutton, pp. 166-8.
7. Hutton, pp. 168-170.
8. Jump up to:a b Wilson, Steve (1996). "Woodcrafting the Art of Magic". Aisling #8.
9. Hutton, p. 170.
10. http://www.orderofwoodcraftchivalry.org.uk/

Further reading

• Edgell, Derek. Order of Woodcraft Chivalry.

External links

• Trent University, California, OWC archive catalogue
• Forest School Camps history
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Re: Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, by Wikipedi

Postby admin » Fri Aug 16, 2019 11:56 pm

Ernest Westlake (1855-1922)
by westlakehistory.info
Accessed: 8/16/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


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Ernest Westlake was born in Hampshire, England in 1855 to evangelical Quaker parents, Thomas Westlake (1826-1892) and Hannah Neave (died 1857). While remaining a faithful, if unorthodox Christian, Westlake eschewed much of his upbringing to become a scientist who believed in spiritualism and psychical phenomena and who was dedicated to the Darwinian-inspired theories of evolution. These beliefs also informed his later interests in educational reform.

Westlake studied at University College London from 1873-1875 where he was awarded certificates in geology and mathematics. While he never joined the academy and published relatively little of his work, Westlake was a skilled geologist who carried out meticulous and professional work. He was a member of the Geologists’ Association (1877), and elected a Fellow of the Geological Society of London (1879), a founding member of the Hampshire Field Naturalists Club (1885) and Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Society (1910).

From the late 1870s Westlake studied the geological strata of Hampshire and beyond, visiting newly-made rail and road-cuttings, wells and quarries, and the cliffs of southern England, Ireland and parts of France resulting in a significant collection of fossils (many echinoids) that are held in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Some of Westlake's chalk fossils are also held in the Salisbury Museum where he was an Honorary Curator of Geology. Westlake also collected many thousands of palaeoliths and eoliths mostly in the Hampshire region, including Woodgreen and Breamore, and further afield, which are also held in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Ernest Westlake's English geological work advanced, or was referenced, by geologists including Clement Reid, William Whitaker, H. Osborne White and Jukes Browne.

Westlake’s scientific interests extended beyond geology. A founding member of the London-based Society for Psychical Research, Westlake researched phenomena of dream premonitions, haunted houses and also a history of water divining.

By the late 1880s Westlake had embraced an alternative lifestyle, travelling by a traditional horse-drawn ‘Gipsy’ caravan when collecting artefacts, becoming a keen cyclist and camper and advocating the benefits of exercise, fresh air, freer clothing and a meat-free diet.
Westlake married Lucy Rutter in 1891. They had Aubrey in 1893 and Margaret in 1896. Following a slow deterioration in her health, however, Lucy died in 1901.

Four years later Westlake took cycling holiday in France with his daughter Margaret. In Aurillac, in the Cantal region, Westlake discovered a substantial deposit of eoliths: stone implements he thought were made by humans, or human ancestors, from the Miocene epoch, two million years ago. The idea of an ‘Eolithic’ epoch had first been proposed following finds of early Quaternary and Tertiary stone implements in France in the 1860s. For such scholars ‘eoliths’ revealed an important evolutionary stage in tool-making; for others they were merely broken rocks. Westlake returned to England in 1906 after unearthing about 100,000 artefacts, although French customs, concerned that he was removing the soil of their country, allowed him, as several biographers have noted, to take home about 4000 (although, according to list of his collections formed in 1923 for insurance purposes, Westlake had brought back 7000 eoliths from France. [For more information see: WEST00356 'Correspondence: French Collection 1923-1993 part 2' and WEST000040 'Notes regarding French 'eoliths' and geology' in Rebe Taylor, with Michael Jones and Gavan McCarthy, Stories in Stone: an annotated history and guide to the collections and papers of Ernest Westlake (1855-1922), The University of Melbourne eScholarship Research Centre, 2012.]

In 1908 Westlake saw a display of Tasmanian Aboriginal stone artefacts in the British Museum and was struck immediately by their similarity to his French eoliths. He was convinced that the modern (if by then widely considered ‘extinct’) Tasmanians were representative of an Eolithic stage of culture. While divided by millions of years and thousands of miles from Miocene Aurillac, Westlake believed a collection of Tasmanian artefacts would authenticate his French eoliths. Westlake was not the first or only eolithologist to see comparative similarities between European eoliths and Tasmanian stone implements, but he was the first to go to Tasmania to form his own collection, which remains the largest single collection of Tasmanian stone artefacts; a total of 13,033 (This number mostly includes the stone implements Westlake collected between 1908-1910, but it also includes the collection of J. V. Cook of Hobart, formed before Westlake went to Tasmania and as well as stone implements collected by Joseph Paxton Moir on Westlake's behalf, all of which were and sent by Paxton Moir to Westlake after his return to England [See: WEST00038, 'Correspondence from Joseph Paxton Moir to Ernest Westlake' and WEST00039, 'Correspondence concerning shipping stone tools 1912-1916 (letters from Joseph Paxton Moir included)', Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers.]

Westlake never published his Tasmanian or French findings. Deeply affected by the outbreak of War in 1914, he successfully established, with the assistance of his son, Aubrey Westlake, and the influence of Ernest Thompson Seton, an alternative and pacifist scouts' movement for girls and boys called the Order of Woodcraft Chivalry in 1916. The Order promoted an educational model that remembered the major cultural evolutionary stages of human development. It is still in existence today, and it is in fact for this achievement that Westlake is best remembered.

Westlake’s plans to return to his geological work following the Order’s establishment were abruptly ended when he died in the side car of his son’s motorcycle in Holborn, London in 1922. For details of what happened posthumously to Westlake’s French and Tasmanian collections, see the chronologies of his Tasmanian, French and English collections.

_______________

References:

Baden-Powell, D. F. W., 1955: 'The Suffolk Crag', Transactions of the Suffolk Naturalists Society, 9(3): 1-8 . [images 117-121, images 117-121, WEST00362, Series 15, Westlake Archive, Oxford University, Natural History Museum].

Balfour, Henry, 1893: The Evolution of Decorative Art, London, Percival & Co.

Balfour, Henry, 1925: 'The Status of the Tasmanians Among the Stone-Age People', Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia, 5(1), 1-15. [images 105-116, WEST00362, Series 15, Westlake Archive, Oxford University, Natural History Museum].

Balfour Henry, 1929: 'Stone Implements of the Tasmanians and the Culture-Status Which They Suggest', Report of the Hobart Meeting of 1928, Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, 314-322.

Cove, John J., 1995: What the Bones Say - Tasmanian Aborigines, Science and Domination, Ontario, Carleton University Press.

Delair, Justin B., 1981: 'Ernest Westlake (1855-1922), Geologist and Prehistorian with a synopsis of his field notebooks', The Geological Curator 13(2&3), 133-152. [images 5-39, WEST00362, Series 15, Westlake Archive, Oxford University, Natural History Museum].

Delair, Justin B., 1985: 'Ernest Westlake (1855-1922) Founder Member of the Hampshire Field Club', Hampshire Field Club Archaeological Society, 41, 37-44.

Edgell, Derek, 1992: The Order of Woodcraft Chivalry, 1916-1949, as a New Age alternative to the Boy Scouts, Lewiston, New York, The Edwin Mellen Press.

Flanagan, Martin, 2002: In Sunshine or in Shadow, Sydney, Picador Pan Macmillan.

Hutton, Ronald, 1999: Triumph of the Moon, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Hoare, Philip, 2005: England's Lost Eden: Adventures in a Victorian Utopia, London and New York, Fourth Estate.

Holdsworth, Chris, 2004: 'Tylor, Sir Edward Burnett (1832-1917)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/36602, accessed 3 May 2010

Jones, Rhys, 1971: Rocky Cape and the Problem of the Tasmanians, PhD thesis, University of Sydney.

La Rue, Hélène, 2004: 'Balfour, Henry (1863-1939)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/30557, accessed 10 May 2010.

McNiven, Ian J. and Russell, Lynette, 2005: Appropriated Pasts: Indigenous Poples and the Colonial Culture of Arhcaeology, Oxford, AltaMira.

Murray, Tim, 1992: 'Tasmania and the Consititution of the "Dawn of Humanity', Antiquity, 66, 730-743.

Plomley, Norman J. B. 1976: A word-list of the Tasmanian Aboriginal languages Launceston, in association with the Government of Tasmania.

Plomley, Norman J. B. 1991: The Westlake Papers, Records of Interviews in Tasmania, 1908-1910, Launceston, Occasional Paper No. 4, Queen Victoria Museum & Art Gallery [images 98-178, WEST00345, Series 1].

Roth, Henry Ling, 1890: The Aborigines of Tasmania, London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Truber & Co.

Roth, Henry Ling, 1899: The Aborigines of Tasmania, Halifax, F. King and Sons.

Sollas, W. J. [published as 'W.J.S.'] 1923: 'Obituary for Ernest Westlake', Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 79, 1xii.

Sollas, W. J. Ancient Hunters and their Modern Representatives, Macmillan and Co. London, 1924 (third edition) .

Stokes, Robert, B.: 1977: The Echinoids Micraster and Epiaster From the Turonian and Senonian of England, Paleaontology, 20(4), 805-821, plates 106-109.

Taylor, Rebe, 2004: Island Echoes: Two Tasmanian Aboriginal Histories, PhD Thesis, History Program, Australian National University.

Tylor, Edward Burnett, 1893: 'On the Tasmanians as Representatives of Palaeolithic Man', Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Britain and Ireland, 23, 141-152.

Tylor, Edward Burnett, 1871: Primitive Culture: Researches into the Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Art and Custom, London, J. Murray.

Tylor, Edward Burnett, 1900: 'On Stone Implements from Tasmania: Extracts from a Letter by J. Paxton Moir', The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 31, 257-259.

Tylor, Edward Burnett, 1964 (first edition 1865, this edition republished from the 3rd edition, 1878): Researches into the Early History of Mankind, edited by Paul Bohannan, Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press.

Tylor, Edward Burnett, 1994: The Collected Works of Edward Burnett Tylor, London, Routledge & Thoemmes.

Westlake, Aubrey, 1917: Woodcraft Chivalry, Weston-Super-Mare, Mendip Press Ltd. [WEST00035, Series 1].

Westlake, Aubrey, 1923: 'Ernest Westlake. A Memoir of the "Father of the Order". Pine Cone, 1(1), 4-11.

Westlake, Aubrey, 1956: 'A Centenary Tribute to Ernest Westlake, An Educational Pioneer', The Woodcraft Way, 24, 3-15.

Westlake, Aubrey, 1976: 'Biographical Notes on Ernest Westlake', WEST00012, Series 2, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers.

Westlake, Aubrey, 1979: An Outline History of the Order of Woodcraft Chivalry 1916-1976, The Woodcraft Way Series, 25, The Order of Woodcraft Chivalry, London.

Westlake, Ernest, 1888: Tabular Index to the Upper Cretaceous Fossils of England and Ireland, Fordingbridge, Titus Mitchell . [images 40-67, WEST00362, Series 15, Westlake Archive, Oxford University, Natural History Museum].

Westlake, Ernest, 1883: 'The Early History of the Neighbourhood as Written in its Rocks', in Reginald St. John Hannen's "Notes on the Neighbourhood and Town of Fordingbridge and Hants." in Mitchell's Fordingbridge Almanack, 1884, 1-55. Re-published in 1887, 1889 and 1908, with additions. [The 1889 edition is in: images 68-84, WEST00362, Series 15, Westlake Archive, Oxford University Museum of Natural History].

Westlake, Ernest, 1902: The Antiquity of Man in Hampshire: Notes on Recent Discoveries in the Valley of the Avon', in Kings Fordingbridge Alamanac, Fordingbridge, W. H. King and Co. [images 85-91, WEST00362, Series 15, Westlake Archive, Oxford University Museum of Natural History].

Westlake, Ernest, 1921: Recollections of Recapitulation (a Paper Read at the January Folkmoot, 1921), The Woodcraft Way Series, 7, 19-24.

Westlake, Ernest, 1921: Camping as a Prime Element in Education (a paper read at the Simple Life Exhibition, 1921), The Woodcraft Way Series, 7, 24-28.

Westlake, Ernest, c.1921: The Forest School and other Papers, The Woodcraft Way Series, 7, 8-19.

Westlake, Ernest, 1925: 'Recollections of Recapitulation', Pine Cone, 2(7), 87-90.

Westlake, Ernest, 1925: 'Recollections of Recapitulation', Pine Cone, 2(8), 122-125.

Westlake, Jean, 1977: Sandy Balls For All Seasons, Gods Hill, Fordingbridge, Hampshire, Sandy Balls Press . [digitised in part: images 50-54, WEST00363, Series 15, Westlake Archive, Oxford University Museum of Natural History] and also [partially imaged; images 12-17, WEST00345, Series 1]

Westlake, Jean, 1983 (Second edition 1988): A Handbook for Sandy Balls, Gods Hill, Fordingbridge, Hampshire, Sandy Balls Press [images 18-54, WEST00345, Series 1]

Westlake, Jean, 1982: Gipsy Caravan: A 100-years' Story, Godshill, Fordingbridge, Hampshire, Sandy Balls Press [images 55-97, WEST00345, Series 1].

Westlake, Jean, 2000: 70 Years A-Growing, Stroud, Gloucestershire, Hawthorn Press [partially imaged; images 1-11, WEST00345, Series 1].

Westlake, Margaret, 1918: The Theory of Woodcraft Chivalry, The Woodcraft Way Series, 2, 11-27.
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Re: Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, by Wikipedi

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 12:14 am

Forest School Camps
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/16/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
Forest School Camps' logo
Abbreviation FSC
Motto An Adventure in Education
Formation 1930-1945
Registration no. Charity No. 306006
Headquarters Haddenham, Ely, Cambridgeshire
Region served
United Kingdom
Budget
Non-profit
Website http://www.fsc.org.uk

Forest School Camps (FSC) is an organization that is aimed primarily at children between the ages of 6 and 17. FSC has camps running throughout the year, the main ones lasting 13 nights during late July and August, with one week and weekend camps at Easter and during the spring and early summer.

Being a volunteer run organization, it relies on cultural/social bonds and enthusiasm from participants for support and staffing rather than monetary incentive. Many, though by no means all, volunteers have 'grown up' in the organisation.[1][2] FSC is designed to give children, including those who have never camped before experiences, life skills and social skills.

FSC is an English charity registered with the Charity Commission for England and Wales in the United Kingdom, number 306006.[3]

Culture and history

FSC was originally formed in 1947 by a group of former students and teachers from a radical educational scheme called "Forest School" that started in 1930 in the New Forest. The school later moved to Whitwell Hall [4] in Norfolk, but the building was requisitioned at the start of World War II and the school had to close.

Forest School had connections with a diverse range of cultures such as the Woodcraft movements, Native Americans cultures and the Quakers. FSC has developed its own distinct culture with traditions and internal practices. Many of the traditions have developed out of physical necessity, such as Rally (a meeting of everyone on the Camp where they discuss what is going to happen through the day), Clan (a vertical age sub-group of the lodge that prepares the meals for the day) or the Arise song, though others sprang forth from cultural and aesthetic bases, such as Merrymoot, or the Camp Songs. The camp songs are sung round a big camp fire and are a great way to have fun and a bit of a laugh.

The end of a main standing camp is usually marked by two major events, Merrymoot and Lodge Common Council.

Merrymoot is an expanded camp fire session, where the whole camp gathers to entertain one another with sketches and improvisations as well as many of the traditional songs.

Lodge Common Council is a formal occasion, usually on the final night, where the entire camp gathers round a special fire. This is traditionally octagonal in shape, and may be some five feet high, though in practice the shape is more commonly rectangular. Before lighting the fire, a few coals from the previous year are added to the fire, which is then lit in front of the whole body of the camp.


Once the fire is burning, campers will review the camp and may suggest changes in activities or emphasis for the following year.

Groups

People on camp have traditionally been separated into the following groups, although some experimental camps have varied this arrangement:[5]

Pixies - Children who are too young to go alone and must be accompanied by a parent or relative
Elves - Children between the ages of 6 and a half and 8.
Woodlings - Children between the ages of 9 and 11.
Trailseekers - Children between the ages of 12 and 13.
Trackers - Children between the ages of 14 and 15.
Pathfinders - Children between the ages of 16 and 17.
Pixie parents- the parent or relative looking after a pixie
Waywardens - Adults who require special attention due to disabilities
Staff - Adults who care for the children and co-operatively run the whole camp. With the exception of camp chiefs (who are in overall charge of the entire camp) and caterers (responsible for food), staff are split into groups that look after the different age groups. In each group there is also a group chief.

Generally FSC age groups are based on school year rather than birthday. As most camps take place before September, this means it is possible to have campers whose ages do not exactly fit with the groupings listed above (e.g. 15-year-old Pathfinders).

From 2007, as a trial, the age groups have been amended slightly (to those given above), increasing the age range slightly in the lower groups, and reducing it for the pathfinders, to allow the camps to accommodate slightly more older children without distorting the number in each age group. As a high percentage of children who begin camping with FSC fall in love with camp and want to stay on until their final year, when they participate in a coming of age ceremony, when the pathfinder age group previously encompassed ages 15, 16 and 17, there were always more applications from pathfinders than spaces for them to fill. The change in age groups has compensated for this and now more children are able to continue camping into their final year.

Camps

Each camp has a different agenda and model, set by tradition and the Camp Chief. There are several different identifiable types:

Standing camps

These are set in regularly used locations, at sites generally used for many years, and where a relationship has been built up with the landowners. Sites may be on remote hill farms among mountainous country, or on land in lowland areas. Most camps are in this format and children need to attend at least 2 of these camps to experience FSC life before being able to try activity camps as below. A variety of standard and novel activities take place on these camps, and they can be exciting and challenging, but they are less demanding physically than some of the mobile and activity camps. They may have a theme or special interest depending on the interests of the camp leaders and staff.

Both basic and more advanced camping skills are learnt during Standing Camps, particularly during the first part of the camp. These skills are consolidated by the 'hike', during which each age group walks with its staff away from the site for two, three or four nights, taking just their essential camping gear with them. The distance travelled and the time away from the main camp depend on the age of the children in the group.

Mobile camps

These camps generally do not have a single fixed campsite. They move on most days and are based around walking in lowland or mountain environments, cycling, canoeing or other activities. Whilst most mobiles are based in the United Kingdom some are based abroad.

Semi-mobile camps

Semi-mobiles are essentially Mobiles, however may either have a site on which they spend a period of time before beginning the journey or have a fixed location (often known as a base camp) from which small trips are made most days.

Caving camps

These camps are usually based in a caving hut with day adventures out into local caves. These camps often include a day of overground exploration. Recent camps have taken place in parts of the UK such as the Mendips, Devon, Yorkshire and South Wales. Caving camps are often described by those who frequent them as part of the "real heart of FSC", with the same people attending them year after year, and strong friendships being built up.

Conservation and Skills camps

These are a special form of standing camps focused on a particular work project, usually an environmental project of some sort. These camps restricted to over 16s or over 18s depending on their nature and leaders.

Associate Camps

These are run and organised by FSC associates, usually parents of child campers, but can also include staff from children's camps. They are generally shorter weekend camps, and do not follow exactly the same structure as standard child camps, but are similar in ethos and are open to family groups, children are cared for by their own parents/guardians rather than staff.

FSC Glee

One part of FSC camps is the communal singing and sharing of traditional and contemporary songs. A campfire is often held in the evening where people are encouraged to sing. FSC song books are also printed every few years, these contain some of the more common songs sung on camps. A virtual version of these books is available at the FSC glee website. A few songs unique to FSC such as the Poll Tax song have been written by members and remain part of the oral tradition.

Primary sources

The historical records of the Forest School Camps are held in the Archives of the community Institute of Education, University of London and a full catalogue can be found on-line.

References

1. "Carry on camping". The Guardian. 18 August 1999. Archived from the original on May 7, 2014.
2. Alison Chown (21 June 2014). "Play Therapy in the Outdoors". Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 9780857008053.
3. http://apps.charitycommission.gov.uk/Sh ... ryNumber=0
4. http://www.freewebs.com/whitwellhall/
5. "Confessions of a teenage camp follower". The Independent. 24 August 1999. Archived from the original on May 14, 2009.

External links

• Forest School Camps website
• FSC in the news
• Forest School Camps collection at the Institute of Education Archives.
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Re: Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, by Wikipedi

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 12:36 am

Nearly 800 accuse Boy Scouts of failing to protect them from sex abuse as new lawsuit is filed
by Cara Kelly, David Heath and Rachel Axon
USA TODAY
Published 8:39 p.m. ET Aug. 5, 2019
Updated 10:31 a.m. ET Aug. 12, 2019

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Lawyers representing "Abuse in Scouting" have a filed a new lawsuit against the Boy Scouts of American on behalf of a victim of sexual abuse. USA TODAY

A lawsuit filed late Monday against the Boy Scouts of America says hundreds of former Scouts have come forward in recent months with accounts of sexual abuse, allegations from across eight decades that reach nearly every state.

Lawyers began collecting the accounts this spring as they prepared a suit, which they filed on behalf of a client who alleges his former scoutmaster plied him with drugs and alcohol before repeatedly sexually abusing him.

At a news conference Tuesday morning, the lawyers said they have nearly 800 other clients who were abused while Scouts. The suit says at least 350 abusers do not appear in the Boy Scouts’ disciplinary files, citing that as evidence that the organization has not adequately vetted its volunteers and hidden the extent of the sexual abuse scandal.

“It is apparent that the Boy Scout Defendants continue to hide the true nature of their cover-up and the extent of the pedophilia epidemic within their organizations because the vast majority of new victims coming forward involve claims of abuse at the hands of pedophiles who are not yet identified by the Boy Scouts of America,” the complaint reads.


The law firm's client list, obtained by USA TODAY, alleges molestation ranging from fondling to sodomy. Some of the men accused by former Scouts ended up in court or were punished administratively for similar crimes, sometimes many years after their alleged assaults. About two dozen of the men were kicked out of Scouting for abuse. USA TODAY is naming only those who fit one or more of those categories.

The accused tend to be men of stature in their communities, most of whom volunteered as troop leaders or assistant troop leaders. They were police officers and members of the military, teachers and a mayor, doctors and a child psychologist.

Their prominent positions offered them easy access to children. They allegedly caught their prey in tents and homemade shelters in the wilderness, in their cars shuttling young boys back and forth to Scouting activities, and sometimes in the children’s own homes.

Their access was unique to the Boy Scouts itself – at giant Jamborees and secretive Order of the Arrow ceremonies, isolated summer campgrounds and well-used church recreation halls.
They're accused of trading on the youth organization’s all-American wholesomeness to assuage parents who might not otherwise have allowed young boys to be alone with adult men.

“Looking at the hidden predators we’re uncovering, it sends chills down my spine,” said Tim Kosnoff, an attorney in the case who led abusedinscouting.com, a campaign to encourage victims to come forward before the lawsuit was filed late Monday in Pennsylvania state court. “It remains an open question of just how dangerous Scouting is today.”

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Tom Stewart, right, and his younger brother Matt, settled out of court after suing the Scouts in 2003 for abuse they allegedly suffered at the hands of one of their scoutmasters. (Photo: Stewart family photo)

One client claimed a licensed doctor instructed members of his troop to sleep in the nude during campouts, fondling them after they fell asleep. The abuse allegedly continued during medical exams. Decades later, the man would lose his license after a similar claim emerged.

Another client accused the former mayor of a small town of fondling him from the time he was 7 until he turned 18. Parents trusted the mayor with the care of their sons in Scouts, the client said.
In July, the son of a former employee sued the former mayor, alleging abuse that went on for years. Boy Scouts of America also is named as a defendant.

Although Boy Scouts of America has been dogged by allegations of sexual abuse in recent years, the sheer volume of men lining up to be represented by the law firm hasn’t been seen since the release more than a decade ago of the Boy Scouts' own ineligible volunteer files. Those confidential records, which became public during an earlier lawsuit, were kept by the organization on suspected or known abusers from 1947 to 2005.

A USA TODAY review of the law firm’s client list found only 28 of the alleged abusers were named in Boy Scouts’ files, known internally as the “perversion files.” In those cases, the incidents on the new client list allegedly happened either before or around the time the Scout leader was blacklisted.

The Boy Scouts of America will have 20 days to respond to the lawsuit after it is served. In a statement late Monday, the organization said it has taken steps to ensure that “we respond aggressively and effectively to reports of sexual abuse.”

“We care deeply about all victims of abuse and sincerely apologize to anyone who was harmed during their time in Scouting. We believe victims, we support them, we pay for counseling by a provider of their choice, and we encourage them to come forward,” the statement said. “Upon receipt of this information from the group of plaintiff’s attorneys, we immediately investigated the limited information provided and our efforts have already resulted in approximately 120 reports to law enforcement. We are continuing to manually search old paper records at the local level and will continue to notify law enforcement.”

Matt Stewart, who with his brother filed the lawsuit in 2003 that exposed the ineligible volunteer files for the first time, is not surprised by the avalanche of allegations, even so many years later.

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Matt Stewart says he and his brother Tom were abused as children when they were in the Boy Scouts. They settled out of court after suing in 2003. (Photo: Taya Gray for USA TODAY)

“Some people never want to come forward,” Stewart said. “Some people have buried this chapter of their life deep inside of them. Some people don't want to relive the victimization. They don't want to go up against Big Brother in a court of law like I did.”

Michael Robinson, a law firm client who agreed to speak publicly, waited more than 40 years to come forward to accuse his pediatrician, Alan Schwartz, of fondling him during campouts.

“It’s kind of embarrassing,” he said. “You hide it, you don’t want to talk about it. But it needs to be talked about now. The public needs to know about it.”

The Boy Scouts’ response over the years has been “totally unacceptable,” Robinson said. “I just hope to God they’re not still doing it to kids.”

New allegations highlight where Boy Scouts may have missed signs of abuse

Woven through the law firm’s list is evidence that the organization either was unaware or failed to keep records of some of the Scout leaders accused of abuse. Several cases reviewed by USA TODAY suggest the Boy Scouts of America could have done more to prevent abuse.

New allegations collected by the law firm include those made against Gary Stroup, a former troop leader and teacher. He was banned from Boy Scouts after being accused of groping 11-year-old boys in 1989. Yet he remained a member of the National Eagle Scout Association, according to a letter Boy Scouts sent to his council two years later, reminding them Stroup was ineligible as a Scout volunteer.

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Gary Stroup (Photo: Ohio Department of Corrections)

Stroup achieved Scouting’s highest rank, Eagle Scout, and as an adult worked as a camp counselor and aquatics instructor at camps in central Ohio and at the 1981 National Jamboree. He repeatedly appealed his ban. Boy Scout leaders decided the only way Stroup could participate again was if he had a child of his own who joined the Scouts.

“As a scout, I was taught that to be a good leader it is my business to find out the other person’s point-of-view before we actually press our own,” Stroup wrote to Scout leaders in 1990. “I am hoping that as the leader of our great movement you will take the time to find out my point-of-view. I am putting my trust in you to do the right thing.”

Stroup was indicted on seven counts of “gross sexual imposition” after the abuse allegations in 1989. Shortly after he was acquitted in early 1990, his lawyer again appealed his Boy Scout membership revocation and submitted 41 letters of support, including from the principal of Avondale Elementary School where he worked, the local scoutmaster and camp director, the parents of Scouts and the pastor of his Methodist church.

Another accuser, who is among the legal firm’s new clients, said that at the time the scoutmaster and camp director lobbied for Stroup to remain in the Scouts, Stroup was abusing him. From roughly 1988 to 1990, the former Scout said, he was molested at least 100 times while on camping trips, in Stroup's car, at home, at church and at school. He said Stroup threatened that his brother and sister would be put into foster care if he ever told anyone.

In 2005, Stroup was indicted on multiple counts of sexually abusing children at two schools where he had worked. He entered a plea on two counts of gross sexual exploitation and was sentenced to four years in prison.

Stroup could not be reached Monday. No one answered the phone at the company where he works, and a text message sent to a cellphone number listed as his was returned by someone who said they didn’t know Stroup.

Among the firm’s other clients is a man who brought forward accusations against one of the most prominent of the convicted Scout abusers. He agreed to speak publicly about them.

Frederick Gailor Jr. said he still lives two doors down from the house where Carmine Charles Robert Falco abused him in the mid- to late 1970s. Decades before Falco started serving a life sentence for sexually abusing boys, Gailor said, Falco sodomized him during sleepovers, beginning when he was a first-year Scout.

“At about 11 or 12 when I first smoked pot, I thought I was in heaven,” Gailor said. “What attracted me was the dope.”

The abuse continued for months, Gailor said, until Falco threatened him with physical harm.


His account offers an eerie foreshadowing of what was to come.

In 1979, six months after Gailor quit Scouting, Falco was charged with manslaughter after a booby trap with a .22-caliber rifle he set up in his North Miami Beach home shot and killed a 14-year-old Boy Scout. The teen entered the living room after climbing through the bathroom window, according to court records. Falco pleaded no contest to manslaughter and received two years’ probation.

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Carmine Falco (Photo: Florida Department of Corrections)

The Palm Beach Post reported police found pictures of nude boys in Falco’s home after the shooting but could not use them in a case because they were obtained in an illegal search.

Three years later, police stopped Falco as he was casing the home of another Boy Scout who had been with the teen who died. Falco planned to abduct the boy, and police found Falco in the car with a third Boy Scout, a gun, silencer and a meat hook, the Palm Beach Post reported.


He was convicted of possession of a firearm by a felon, witness tampering and conspiracy to commit kidnapping, according to Florida Department of Corrections records.

Prompted by the criminal case in 1982, prosecutors investigated allegations that Falco sexually abused boys, including some in his Boy Scout troop. Falco wasn’t charged because the victims were afraid to testify, a prosecutor told the Palm Beach Post.

Two years after his release from prison in 1986, he was appointed Scout leader in a neighboring county. The Post reported that Falco was dismissed from that position because some boys complained about him making sexually suggestive gestures while camping with him.

Falco went on to abuse again.

He was arrested again in 1994 and convicted of sexually abusing five boys, and he received six consecutive life sentences for sexual battery of a child, plus an additional 265 years for 10 counts of sexual activity with a child and one count of promoting sexual activity with a child.


Lawsuits depend on victims coming forward, but many never do

Many survivors, such as Michael Robinson, said their old memories were triggered as sexual abuse in institutions such as the Boy Scouts, the Catholic Church and USA Gymnastics made headlines.

As a kid, Robinson said, he didn’t realize what was done to him was wrong. The abuse was so prevalent, he said, he witnessed another boy being orally molested by Schwartz in the middle of the night. The boys asked each other what was going on, but “it was like the normal standard.”

Schwartz could not be reached for comment Monday after the lawsuit was filed.

In 1997, more than two decades after Robinson said he was abused, Schwartz was accused of sexual misconduct by a 15-year-old patient in California, according to records with the state’s medical board. The boy said Schwartz, while examining his development, told him he needed to measure his penis and to collect a semen sample for testing. The doctor allegedly stimulated the boy until he ejaculated.

An administrative judge revoked Schwartz’s license. The medical board instead placed him on 10 years of probation and told him he needed to have another professional present for any exams of young boys.

In 2007, his license was again revoked, this time permanently, when the board found he had ignored that directive and offered negligent care to patients he treated for autism at a holistic medical practice he founded.

Experts said Robinson’s experience is common for child victims, most of whom never come forward.

“I think it is so hard for victims, particularly young victims, because these events rarely occur with a stranger,” said Deborah Daro, senior research fellow at Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. “Nine times out of 10, it's someone the child knows and has trusted ... someone in their sphere that probably had some pretty good standing with the other people in their lives.”

Those who share their stories often don’t do so until adulthood. The average age of disclosure is 52, according to CHILD USA, an interdisciplinary think tank focused on preventing child abuse and neglect.

Lawsuits against institutions have increased in recent years as states extend and revive their civil statute of limitations, a push that began with disclosures surrounding abuse by Catholic priests.

Former Scouts have filed hundreds of lawsuits, but many other claims fall outside of the statute of limitations for criminal or civil complaints. That may change as states loosen statutes for child sexual abuse cases.

In the past two years, legislators in 14 states and the District of Columbia passed bills extending the statute of limitations for civil lawsuits relating to child sexual abuse, according to data from CHILD USA. Nine include so-called revival windows that allow individuals to sue over past abuse.

A handful of those newly accused of molestation were cited in Boy Scouts’ own files

USA TODAY was able to match more than two dozen of the men who answered the law firm’s call-out with the Boy Scouts' confidential records. Some of those internal files pinpoint where different levels of the Boy Scouts were slow to respond to abuse allegations, potentially exposing boys to more abuse.

The 5,000 documents blacklisted men accused of sexual abuse from participating in the Scouts anywhere in the country. The files reveal cases where troops expelled a leader but the national organization waited months before doing the same. Often, the Boy Scouts of America waited for newspaper clippings of convictions to make the ban permanent.

In at least one case, the Boy Scouts failed to report a case of possible abuse to police.

Philmont Scout Ranch spans 214 square miles in New Mexico’s Sangre de Cristo mountain range, a crown jewel in the Scouts’ expansive property holdings, offering more than 1 million Scouts a back-country trekking experience since 1939. 

It was there that, in the summer of 1987, the camp’s general manager learned that an assistant trading post manager had been found with photos of nude young campers. The manager confronted the employee, John Duckworth, according to Boy Scout files, and he readily admitted taking them as the boys ran from a “sweat lodge” to the showers. He said he thought it was funny at the time but realized later that it was not. 

At the time, Duckworth was a 37-year-old fifth grade teacher in Toledo, Ohio. 

Philmont excused the behavior, records show, on grounds that “we had never received any hint of previous impropriety.” 

In fact, Duckworth had been arrested eight years earlier for allegedly abusing a child, according to Scout records. Scouts learned of this later from a tip. That case was reportedly resolved, the records say, with “voluntary counseling.” 

After a parent complained about new inappropriate behavior, Philmont fired Duckworth in June 1988. The Boy Scouts' records say Duckworth was told his case would be referred to police if he didn’t leave. Duckworth hired a lawyer and appealed his dismissal from the Boy Scouts, but in March 1989, a panel ruled unanimously against him. 

Most Scout leaders are volunteers, but Duckworth was a paid employee. The law firm’s new clients' claims against him date back before he was hired by Philmont, to 1982 at an Ohio campground.

Duckworth could not be reached for comment on Monday.

Contributing: Trevor Hughes, Marisa Kwiatkowski, Brett Murphy, Matt Wynn, Mark Nichols, Tricia Nadolny, Nick Penzenstadler, Stephen Reilly and Lindsay Schnell
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