Eichmann Tells His Own Damning Story, by Life Magazine

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Re: Eichmann Tells His Own Damning Story, by Life Magazine

Postby admin » Sun Sep 23, 2018 11:13 pm

Albert Brackmann
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/23/18

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Albert Brackmann

Albert Brackmann (24 June 1871, Hanover – 17 March 1952, Berlin-Dahlem)[1] was a leading nationalist German historian associated with the Ostforschung, a multi-disciplined organisation set up to co-ordinate German propaganda on Eastern Europe. After Nazis were elected to power, he became one of the chief propagandists in service of the regime. In this position he supported Nazi genocidal policies, ethnic cleansing and anti-semitism.

At the conclusion of his university education in Tübingen, Leipzig, and Göttingen, Brackmann joined, at the age of twenty-seven, the staff of MGH (Monumenta Germaniae Historica),[2] the leading German source publication for medieval documents. He was appointed professor of history at Königsberg in 1913, Marburg in 1920, and Berlin in 1922.[1] In 1929 he became the director general of the Prussian Privy State Archives, in Berlin-Dahlem.
[3] In connection with accepting the position he advocated for the establishment of a special Institute for Archival Sciences and Historical Training (Preußisches Institut für Archivwissenschaft), to provide for the professional training of archivists; the institute, which came under the administration of the state archives, opened in Berlin-Dahlem in May 1930.[3][4] Brackmann, in his capacity as director general of the archives, simultaneously served as the archival institute's first director, until his retirement in 1936.[5] During his term at the archives he retained an honorary professorship at the University of Berlin.[2]

Originally a specialist in relations between the Holy Roman Empire and the Papacy, he turned towards the history of the Germans in Eastern Europe as a result of his experiences of the First World War.[2] Politically right-wing, he was a member first of the DVP (German People's Party) and then of the DNVP (German National People's Party) during the Weimar Republic,[6] and was joint editor of the prestigious and influential Historische Zeitschrift from 1928 to 1935.[2]

Favoured by leading Nazis, including Adolf Hitler himself, Brackmann steadily turned the Ostforschung away from detached academic work towards projects that fed directly into the wider foreign policy and expansionist aims being pursued by the Nazi government. In September 1939, he congratulated himself on heading a research organisation that had become the central agency "for scholarly advice for the Foreign, Interior and Propaganda ministries, the army high command and a number of SS departments."[7][8] He was also an author for the Ahnenerbe, a research body set up under the auspices of Heinrich Himmler, publishing a booklet entitled "Crisis and Construction in Eastern Europe"[9] that questioned the historical validity of Poland as a nation by arguing that Mitteleuropa (Central Europe) was the original Lebensraum of the German nation.[10]

After the outbreak of World War II, Brackmann's work also extended to issues of Germanisation, and the removal of "undesired ethnic elements" from German domains. In this particular context he did much to promote the work of Otto Reche, professor of racial studies at the University of Leipzig, and a noted anti-Semite. Responding to Reche's appeal that Germany needed Raum (room), and not "Polish lice in the fur", Brackmann brought his argument for a strict definition of ethnicity to the attention of a number of different ministries. In essence, Reche argued that the Poles should be pushed eastwards further into Ukraine, whose population, in turn, would be pushed even further east.

Defeat in the war produced only a temporary halt in Brackmann's academic work. In 1946 he was actively involved in the reconstruction of Ostforschung, and many of his pupils went on to occupy important academic positions in the German Federal Republic, with anti-communism replacing the former fashion for expansionism. Brackmann died in 1952, but the Zeitschrift für Ostforschung went on, amongst other things, to re-publish some of the work of the notoriously anti-Polish Dr Kurt Lück, who served as an SS-Sonderführer, before he was killed by Soviet partisans in 1942.

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Kurt Lück (December 28, 1900, in Kolmar (today Chodzież ), Province of Poznan – March 5, 1942, near Orsha, Belarus) was a German historian and SS Obersturmbannführer. He was an ethnographer, an activist minority in Poland and lieutenant colonel in the body of SS officers, doctor of philosophical sciences.

-- Kurt Luck, by Wikipedia


References

1. Goetting, Hans (1955). "Brackmann, Albert Theodor Johann Karl Ferdinand." in: Neue Deutsche Biographie, vol. 2, p. 504-505. Online version retrieved 2015-11-03.
2. Burleigh, Michael (1988). "Albert Brackmann (1871-1952) Ostforscher: The Years of Retirement." Journal of Contemporary History, 23(4), p. 573-588; here: p. 573.
3. Musial, Torsten (1996). Staatsarchive im Dritten Reich. Zur Geschichte des staatlichen Archivwesens in Deutschland 1933-1945. Potsdam: Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg. p. 24.
4. Bemis, Samuel Flagg (1939). "The Training of Archivists in the United States." The American Archivist, 2(3), p. 154-161; here: p. 156. Available as a PDF file: [1].
5. Eckert, Astrid M. (2012). The Struggle for the Files: The Western Allies and the Return of German Archives After the Second World War. Washington, DC: German Historical Institute. p. 115.
6. Burleigh (1988), "Albert Brachmann," p. 574.
7. Burleigh, Michael (1987). "Albert Brackmann & the Nazi adjustment of history." History Today, 37(3), p. 42–46; here p. 44. The quotation is from Brackmann.
8. Burleigh, Michael (1988). Germany Turns Eastwards: A Study of 'Ostforschung' in the Third Reich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-35120-0. p. 157. Burleigh quotes Brackmann, citing a letter from Brackmann to a fellow professor, the geographer Friedrich Metz, September 23, 1929.
9. Brackmann, Albert (1939). Krisis und Aufbau in Osteuropa: ein weltgeschichtliches Bild. Berlin: Ahnenerbe-Stiftung. 68 p. OCLC 576558911
10. Burleigh (1988), Germany Turns Eastwards, p. 150.

Further reading

• Burleigh, Michael (2002) [1987]. Germany Turns Eastwards: A Study of Ostforschung in the Third Reich. London: Pan Macmillan. ISBN 0-330-48840-6.
• Burleigh, Michael (1988). "Albert Brackmann (1871-1952) Ostforscher: The Years of Retirement," Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 23, No. 4 (Oct.), pp. 573–588.
• Burleigh, Michael (1987). "Albert Brackmann & the Nazi adjustment of history," History Today, Vol. 37, No. 3 (March), pp. 42–46.

External links

• Works by or about Albert Brackmann at Internet Archive
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Re: Eichmann Tells His Own Damning Story, by Life Magazine

Postby admin » Mon Sep 24, 2018 12:11 am

Asit Krishna Mukherji
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/23/18

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Asit Krishna Mukherji

Asit Krishna Mukherji (1898-March 21, 1977) was a Bengali with National Socialist convictions who published pro-Axis journals. He married Savitri Devi in 1940 in order to protect her from deportation or internment.

Biography

Mukherji attended the University of London taking a doctorate in history. After graduating, he traveled in the Soviet Union. Unimpressed with Marxist materialism, he turned down several offers to work for communist newspapers back in India. He began, instead, to publish The New Mercury in collaboration with Sri Vinaya Datta. Openly proclaiming its support for Nazi Germany and Aryan racism, it expressed admiration for the race laws and Hellenic ideals. Mukherji recognised parallels between the Third Reich and Hindu nationalism: common use of the swastika on the Nazi and pan-Hindu flag; the similarity of the Hitler Youth and K.B. Hedgewar's Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh boys; the challenging of British authority.

Hitler's views on India were disparaging.[76] He considered the British colonial rule of the subcontinent as an exemplary one and intended the German rule in the occupied East to resemble it.[76] Hitler thought little of the Indian independence movement, declaring the freedom fighters to be racially inferior "Asiatic jugglers".[76] As early as 1930 he spoke of the Indian freedom movement as the rebellion of the "lower Indian race against the superior English Nordic race", and that the British were free to deal with any subversive Indian activists as they liked.[77] In 1937 he told the British Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax that the British should "shoot Gandhi, and if this doesn't suffice to reduce them to submission, shoot a dozen leading members of the Congress, and if that doesn't suffice shoot 200, and so on, as you make it clear that you mean business."[77] During the same discussion Hitler reportedly told Halifax that one of his favorite films was The Lives of a Bengal Lancer, because it depicted a handful of "superior race" Britons holding sway over an entire continent.[78]

Nazi ideologist Alfred Rosenberg stated that although the Vedic culture was Aryan in origin, any Nordic blood had long since been lost due to racial mixing.[76] Like Hitler, he viewed the British rule in India as being desirable.[76] Asit Krishna Mukherji, with support of the German consulate, published The New Mercury, a National Socialist magazine and was lauded by Baron von Selzam in a "communiqué to all German legations in the Far East that no one had rendered services to the Third Reich in Asia comparable to those of Sir Asit Krishna Mukherji's."[76] Savitri Devi, who would later marry him, shared his beliefs "in the pan Aryan revival of India", as well as in Hindu nationalism, and once World War II started, both "undertook clandestine war work on behalf of the Axis powers in Calcutta."[76]

-- New Order (Nazism) [die Neuordnung Europas (the New Order of Europe)] [Neurop] [Neu Europa], by Wikipedia


In January 1938, Mukherji met Savitri Devi who was deeply impressed with his knowledge. They married on June 9, 1940 in Calcutta.

After The New Mercury was closed down by the British government, he began publishing The Eastern Economist in collaboration with the Japanese legation from 1938-1941.

Mukherji used his connections with Subhas Chandra Bose and the Japanese authorities to put them in contact with one another, thus facilitating the formation of the Indian National Army.

After the war he made his living as an astrologer and had his wife's books printed.

Works

• A History of Japan, 1945

References

• Hitler’s Priestess: Savitri Devi, the Hindu-Aryan Myth, and Neo-Nazism by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, 1998, ISBN 0-8147-3111-2
• The Saffron Swastika by Koenraad Elst, Voice of India, Delhi 1999 ISBN 81-85990-69-7

External links

• The strange case of Savitri Devi and Zydenbos vs. Rajaram: a Case Study in Aryan Invasion Polemic by Koenraad Elst
• Savitri Devi: Life and Work at the Wayback Machine (archived October 27, 2009)
• 1949: Prophetess of the Saucers from the UFO ROUNDUP Volume 7 Number 39
• Shinto - The Way of the Gods by Savitri Devi (portions of which may have first appeared in The Eastern Economist)
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Re: Eichmann Tells His Own Damning Story, by Life Magazine

Postby admin » Mon Sep 24, 2018 12:22 am

Savitri Devi
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/23/18

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Savitri Devi Mukherji
Portrait of Savitri Devi
Born Maximiniani Julia Portas
30 September 1905
Lyon, France
Died 22 October 1982 (aged 77)
Sible Hedingham, Essex, England
Alma mater University of Lyon
Occupation Teacher, author, political activist
Spouse(s) Asit Krishna Mukherji

Savitri Devi Mukherji (30 September 1905 – 22 October 1982) was the pseudonym of the Greek-French-Italian writer Maximiani Portas (pronounced [mak.si.mja.ni pɔʁ.tɑ]; also spelled Maximine Portaz), a prominent proponent of deep ecology[1] and Nazism, who served the Axis cause during World War II by spying on Allied forces in India.[2][3][4] She wrote about animal rights movements and was a leading member of the Nazi underground during the 1960s.[2][4][5]

Devi authored the animal rights manifesto The Impeachment of Man in 1959[4] and was a proponent of Hinduism[6] and Nazism, synthesizing the two, proclaiming Adolf Hitler to have been sent by Providence, much like an avatar of the Hindu God Vishnu. She believed Hitler was a sacrifice for humanity which would lead to the end of the Kali Yuga induced by those who she felt were the powers of evil, the Jews.[4] Her writings have influenced neo-Nazism and Nazi occultism. Among Savitri Devi's ideas was the classifications of "men above time", "men in time" and "men against time".[7] Rejecting Judeo-Christianity, she believed in a form of pantheistic monism; a single cosmos of nature composed of divine energy-matter.[8][9]

She is credited with pioneering neo-Nazi interest in occultism, deep ecology and the New Age movement, and more contemporaneously has influenced the Alt-right.[10] She also influenced the Chilean diplomat Miguel Serrano. In 1982, Franco Freda published a German translation of her work Gold in the Furnace, and the fourth volume of his annual review, Risguardo (1980–), was devoted to Savitri Devi as the "missionary of Aryan Paganism".[2]

Savitri was an associate in the post-war years of Françoise Dior,[11] Otto Skorzeny,[11] Johannes von Leers,[11] and Hans-Ulrich Rudel.[11] She was also one of the founding members of the World Union of National Socialists.[3]

Early years

Born as Maximiani Julia Portas in 1905,[4] Savitri Devi was the daughter of Maxim Portas, a French citizen of Greek and Italian ancestry and an Englishwoman, Julia Portas (née Nash). Maximine Portas was born two and a half months premature, weighing only 930 grams (2.05 lbs), and was not at first expected to live. She formed her political views early. From childhood and throughout her life, she was a passionate advocate for animal rights. Her earliest political affiliations were with Greek nationalism.[3]

Portas studied philosophy and chemistry, earning two master's degrees and a Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Lyon.[4] She next traveled to Greece, and surveyed the legendary ruins. Here, she became familiar with Heinrich Schliemann's discovery of swastikas in Anatolia. Her conclusion was that Ancient Greeks were Aryan in origin. Her first two books were her doctoral dissertations: Essai-critique sur Théophile Kaïris (Critical Essay on Theophilos Kairis) (Lyon: Maximine Portas, 1935) and La simplicité mathématique (Mathematical Simplicity) (Lyon: Maximine Portas, 1935).


Sometime between 1932 and 1935, she was the French tutor of the philosopher Cornelius Castoriadis (1922–1997), as he revealed in a radio interview by Katherine von Bülow (France Culture 20/4/1996).[12]

National Socialism

In early 1928, she renounced her French citizenship and acquired Greek nationality. Joining a pilgrimage to Palestine during Lent in 1929, Portas decided that she was a National Socialist.

In 1932, she travelled to India in search of a living pagan Aryan culture. Formally adhering to Hinduism, she took the name Savitri Devi ("Sun-rays Goddess" in Sanskrit). She volunteered at the Hindu Mission as an advocate against Judeo-Christianity,[8] and wrote A Warning to the Hindus to offer her support for Hindu nationalism and independence, and to rally resistance to the spread of Christianity and Islam in India.[2] During the 1930s, she distributed pro-Axis propaganda and engaged in intelligence gathering on the British in India.[4]

In the late 1930s, through her personal contacts, she enabled Subhas Chandra Bose (leader during World War II of the Axis-affiliated Indian National Army), to make contact with representatives of the Empire of Japan.[13]


World War II

During World War II, Devi's connection to the Axis powers led to a clash with her mother, who served with the French Resistance during the German occupation of France.[14]

In 1940, Devi married Asit Krishna Mukherji, a Bengali Brahmin with National Socialist views who edited the pro-German newspaper New Mercury. During 1941, Devi chose to interpret Allied military support for Greece, against Italian and German forces, as an invasion of Greece. Devi and Mukherji continued to gather intelligence for the Axis cause. This included entertaining Allied personnel, which gave Devi and Mukherji an opportunity to question them regarding military matters. The information gathered was passed on to Japanese intelligence officials and contributed to attacks on Allied airbases and army units.[13]

Post-war Nazi activism

After World War II, she travelled to Europe in late 1945[11] under the name Savitri Devi Mukherji as the wife of a British subject from India, under a British Indian passport. She stopped briefly in England, then visited her mother in France, and then travelled on to Iceland where she witnessed the eruption of Mount Hekla. She then returned to England, before travelling to Sweden where she met with Sven Hedin.[2]

On 15 June 1948 she took the Nord-Expreß from Denmark to Germany,[2] where she distributed many thousands of copies of handwritten leaflets encouraging the "Men and women of Germany" to "hold fast to our glorious National Socialist faith, and resist!" She recounted her experience in Gold in the Furnace (which has been reedited in honour of her 100th birthday under the title Gold in the Furnace: Experiences in Post-War Germany).[2][11]

Arrested for posting bills, she was tried in Düsseldorf on 5 April 1949 for the promotion of Nazi ideas on German territory subject to the Allied Control Council, and sentenced to two years imprisonment. She served eight months in Werl prison, where she befriended her fellow Nazi and SS prisoners (recounted in Defiance), before being released and expelled from Germany. She then went to stay in Lyon, France.[2][11]

In April 1953, she obtained a Greek passport in her maiden name in order to re-enter Germany, and she began a pilgrimage, as she called it, of Nazi "holy" sites. She flew from Athens to Rome then travelled by rail over the Brenner Pass into "Greater Germany", which she regarded as "the spiritual home of all racially conscious modern Aryans". She travelled to a number of sites significant in the life of Adolf Hitler and the NSDAP (German Nazi Party), as well as German nationalist and heathen monuments, as recounted in her 1958 book Pilgrimage.[2]

Savitri Devi became friends with Hans-Ulrich Rudel, and completed her manuscript of The Lightning and the Sun at his home in March 1956. Through his introductions she was able to meet a number of Nazi émigrés in Spain and the Middle East. In 1957 she stayed with Johannes von Leers in Egypt as she traveled across the Middle East when returning home to New Delhi, including stops in Beirut, Damascus, Baghdad, Tehran, and Zahedan.[2] In 1961 she stayed with Otto Skorzeny in Madrid.[11]

Savitri Devi took employment teaching in France during the 1960s, spending her summer holidays with friends at Berchtesgaden. In the spring of 1961, while on her Easter holiday in London she learned of the original British National Party. This group emerged after the Second World War when a handful of former members of the British Union of Fascists took on the name. (The original BNP was absorbed quite quickly into the Union Movement – it is not directly connected with the present BNP.) She met with the British National Party president Andrew Fountaine. Beginning a correspondence with Colin Jordan, she became a devoted supporter of the National Socialist Movement.[11]

In August 1962, Savitri Devi attended the international Nazi conference in Gloucestershire and was a founder-signatory of the Cotswold Agreement that established the World Union of National Socialists (WUNS). At this conference she met, and was greatly impressed by, George Lincoln Rockwell. When Rockwell became leader of WUNS, he appointed William Luther Pierce editor of its new magazine: National Socialist World (1966–68). Along with articles by Jordan and Rockwell, Pierce devoted nearly eighty pages of the first issue to a condensed edition of The Lightning and the Sun. Because of the enthusiastic response, Pierce included chapters from Gold in the Furnace and Defiance in subsequent issues.[11]

After retiring from teaching in 1970, Savitri Devi spent nine months at the Normandy home of close friend Françoise Dior while working on her memoirs; although she was at first welcome, her annoying personal habits began to disrupt life at the presbytery (amongst other traits, she did not take a bath during her stay and chewed garlic continually). Concluding that her pension would go much further in India and encouraged by Françoise Dior, she flew from Paris to Bombay on 23 June 1971. In August she moved to New Delhi, where she lived alone, with a number of cats and at least one cobra.[11]

Savitri Devi continued correspondence with Nazi enthusiasts in Europe and the Americas, particularly with Colin Jordan, John Tyndall, Matt Koehl, Miguel Serrano and Ernst Zündel. She was the first to claim to Zündel that the Nazi genocide of the Jews was untrue; he proposed a series of taped interviews (conducted in November 1978) and published a new illustrated edition of The Lightning and the Sun in 1979.[11]

Animal rights activism

Devi was a pioneer in animal rights activism, and was a vegetarian from a young age and held ecologist views in her works. She wrote Impeachment of Man in 1959 in India[4] in which she declared her views on animal rights and nature. According to her, human beings do not stand above the animals; but in her ecologist views, humans are rather a part of the ecosystem and should respect all life, including animals and the whole of nature.

She always held radical views on vegetarianism[4] and supported the death penalty for those who didn't "respect nature or animals". She once broke into laboratories and took animals being held there, releasing them from being used in experiments. She believed that vivisection, circuses, slaughter and fur industries among others do not belong in a civilized society.

Death

By the late 1970s she had developed cataracts and her eyesight was rapidly deteriorating. A clerk from the French embassy in India named Myriam Hirn looked after her, making regular house visits. She decided to leave India, returning to Germany to live in Bavaria in 1981 before re-moving to France in 1982.[2]

She eventually died in 1982 in Sible Hedingham, Essex, England, at a friend's home. The cause of death was recorded as myocardial infarction and coronary thrombosis. She was en route to lecture in America at the invitation of Matt Koehl at the time. Devi's ashes are enshrined next to those of George Lincoln Rockwell in the small red brick building, often misidentified today as Rockwell's former headquarters (now a coffee shop called The Java Shack) in Arlington, Virginia.[11]

Works

Year / Title / ISBN / Summary


1935 / Essai critique sur Théophile Kaïris / -- / First doctoral thesis, on the life and thought of the Greek educator and philosopher Theophilos Kairis.
1935 / La simplicité mathématique / -- / A 500-page thesis on the nature of simplicity in mathematics. It included a discussion of Léon Brunschvicq and drew upon the work of George Boole, Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, Henri Poincaré and Alfred North Whitehead.
1940 (written 1935-6) / L'Etang aux lotus (The Lotus Pond) / -- / Impressions of India. A combination of travelogue and philosophical, cultural and political reflections.
1936 / A Warning to the Hindus / ISBN 978-81-85002-40-8 / Written to rally support for Hindu nationalism and independence, and to rally resistance to the spread of Christianity and Islam in India.
1940 / The Non-Hindu Indians and Indian Unity / -- / Promotes the idea that India must put aside social prejudice and communal hatred to create the political unity to achieve independence.
1946 / A Son of God: The Life and Philosophy of Akhnaton, King of Egypt / ISBN 0-912057-95-5 and ISBN 0-912057-17-3 / Detailing the life of the Egyptian monotheist (whom Sigmund Freud in Moses and Monotheism speculates was "Moses").
1951 / Defiance / ISBN 0-9746264-6-5 / Autobiographical account of her propaganda mission, arrest, trial and imprisonment in occupied Germany in 1949.
1952 (written 1948-9), reedited 2005 / Gold in the Furnace / ISBN 978-0-906879-52-8 and ISBN 978-0-9746264-4-4 / Conditions in post-war Germany.
1958 (written 1953-9) / Pilgrimage / -- / Account of her pilgrimage to various National Socialist holy sites.
1958 (written 1948–56) / The Lightning and the Sun / ISBN 978-0-937944-14-1 (abridged) / A work synthesizing the Hindu philosophy of cyclical history with National Socialism. Contains biographies of Genghis Khan, Akhnaton and Adolf Hitler. Famous for the claim that Hitler was an avatar of the God Vishnu.
1959 (written in 1945) / Impeachment of Man / ISBN 978-0-939482-33-7 / Animal rights and ecology.
1965 (written 1957–60) / Long-Whiskers and the Two-Legged Goddess, or The True Story of a "Most Objectionable Nazi" and... half-a-dozen Cats / -- / A fictionalized autobiography and memoir of her favorite cats.
1976 (written 1968–71) / Souvenirs et reflexions d’une aryenne (Memories and Reflections of an Aryan Woman) / -- / A series of philosophical essays rather than a memoir, this is the most comprehensive statement of her philosophy.
2005 / And Time Rolls on: The Savitri Devi Interviews / ISBN 978-0-9746264-3-7 / 1978 autobiographical interviews originally recorded in Calcutta.
2012 (written 1952-53) / Forever and Ever: Devotional Poems / -- / Collection of devotional poems dedicated to Adolf Hitler.


See also

• Hinduism portal
• Fascism portal
• Nazism and race

Notes

1. Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke (1998). Hitler's Priestess: Savitri Devi, the Hindu-Aryan Myth, and Neo-Nazism. NY: New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-3110-4
2. "Hitler's Priestess: Savitri Devi, the Hindu-Aryan Myth, and Neo-Nazism", Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke. NYU Press, 2000. ISBN 0-8147-3111-2, ISBN 978-0-8147-3111-6. pp. 6, 42–44, 104, 130–148, 179, 222
3. Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke (2003). Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity. New York University Press. p. 88. ISBN 0-8147-3155-4. OCLC 47665567.
4. "The new encyclopedia of the occult", John Michael Greer. Llewellyn Worldwide, 2003. ISBN 1-56718-336-0, ISBN 978-1-56718-336-8. p. 130-131
5. "Politics and the Occult: The Left, the Right, and the Radically Unseen", Gary Lachman. Quest Books, 2008. ISBN 0-8356-0857-3, ISBN 978-0-8356-0857-2. p. 257
6. Smith, Blake (17 December 2016). "Writings of French Hindu who worshipped Hitler as an avatar of Vishnu are inspiring the US alt-right". Scroll.in. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
7. "Gods of the blood: the pagan revival and white separatism", Mattias Gardell. Duke University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8223-3071-7, ISBN 978-0-8223-3071-4. p. 183
8. "Christ, Faith, and the Holocaust", Richard Terrell. WestBow Press, 2011. ISBN 1-4497-0912-5, ISBN 978-1-4497-0912-9. p. 70-71
9. "The Hunt for the God particle", Popular Science, November 2001, Vol. 259, No. 5. ISSN 0161-7370. p. 55
10. "Savitri Devi: The mystical fascist being resurrected by the alt-right". BBC Magazine. 2017-10-29. Retrieved 2017-10-29.
11. "Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity", Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke. NYU Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8147-3155-4, ISBN 978-0-8147-3155-0. p. 97-106
12. "Savitri Devi: The Woman Against Time" by R. G. Fowler. Mourning the Ancient. Accessed 30 September 2011.
13. Shrabani Basu, 1999, "The spy who loved Hitler", Rediff; (6 November 2012).
14. Greg Johnson, 2006, "Savitri Devi’s Communist Nephews", savitridevi.org; (6 November 2012).

Further reading

• Elst, Koenraad, The Saffron Swastika: The Notion of "Hindu Fascism", chapter V. "Savitri Devi and the "Hindu-Aryan Myth"" (New Delhi, India: Voice of India, 2001, 2 Vols., ISBN 81-85990-69-7).
• Gardell, Matthias, Gods of the Blood: The Pagan Revival and White Separatism, Duke University Press (2003, ISBN 0-8223-3071-7).
• Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas, Hitler's Priestess: Savitri Devi, the Hindu-Aryan Myth, and Neo-Nazism (New York University Press, 1998, hardcover: ISBN 0-8147-3110-4, paperback: ISBN 0-8147-3111-2).
• Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas, Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity, "Savitri Devi and the Hitler Avatar", chapter 5 (New York University Press, 2002, hardcover: ISBN 0-8147-3124-4; reissue edition, 2003, paperback: ISBN 0-8147-3155-4).
• Kaplan, Jeffrey (editor), Encyclopedia of White Power: A Sourcebook on the Radical Racist Right, Altamira Press (2000, ISBN 0-7425-0340-2).
• Death by Dior: Françoise Dior, by Terry Cooper (Dynasty Press, 2013, ISBN 978-0-9568038-6-3)

External links

• The Savitri Devi Archive
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Re: Eichmann Tells His Own Damning Story, by Life Magazine

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“The Contribution of Savitri Devi”
by Ernesto Milà
Translated with notes by R.G. Fowler

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The following text is extracted from Professor Ernesto Milà’s book Nazisme et ésotérisme [Nazism and Esotericism] (Paris: Pardès 1990). Although I cannot agree with many of Professor Milà’s judgments, and although his book contains a number of small factual errors (some indicated below in my notes), his book is an honest and remarkably fair-minded overview and analysis of the connection between National Socialism and esotericism, written from a Traditionalist point of view. —R. G. Fowler

Every time one speaks about Nazi esotericism, sooner or later the figure of Savitri Devi appears. Two strong reasons contribute to this: in the first place, she was the wife of a well-read man of the higher caste, with a perfect knowledge of the Vedic doctrines, which, in one way or another, bestows a certain Traditional preparation. In the second place, her fidelity with the convictions of her youth led her to give eulogistic lectures on the figure of Hitler right up to the days preceding her death (1982).1

Savitri Devi appears in all the more or less scandalous books touching on the topic of neo-Nazism. She took part in the creation of the World Union of National Socialists [W.U.N.S.] and collaborated with various neo-Nazi groups. Her ambition was to create an international “Aryan” organization able to fight the enemies of Aryan man. She presented her ideas on all these topics in a multitude of articles2 and lectures generally given in front of the very small public predisposed to receive her preaching favorably. Savitri Devi arrived at a better definition of the Hitlerian phenomenon than Miguel Serrano. Thus, for example, whereas Serrano affirms that Hitler was an Avatar of Vishnu, Savitri Devi spoke with more prudence:

Adolf Hitler was not Kalki—although he was the same, essentially speaking, as the ancient Rama Chandra, or the historical Krishna, or Siegfried, or the Prophet Mohammed, the Leader of a true “holy war” (i.e., of a ceaseless combat against the Forces of disintegration; against the Forces of the abyss). He was, like every great Combatant against the current of Time, a Precursor of Kalki. He was—always in his essence—the Emperor of the Cave. In him, the Emperor reappeared, intensely awakened, and armed, as he had reappeared already under the figures of various great German leaders, in particular Frederic II of Prussia, whom Adolf Hitler venerated so much. But he was not his last and definitive reappearance in this cycle. [Souvenirs et réflexions d'une aryenne, 1976]

This being the case, Savitri Devi considered the defeat of Nazism and the end of Hitler as logical: his hour has not yet sounded; when he seized power, the cycle had not come to an end, and a victorious movement could not prevail against the current of decadence. Hitler was dramatically predestined to defeat, because the hour of the end of Kali Yuga had not yet sounded. In this sense, her cyclical interpretation is correct. The Führer, based on the cyclical view of history created by Hörbiger, which does not correspond to the Traditional view, perhaps believed in the possibility of a final victory in accord with the cyclic laws of the cosmos that Hörbiger was praised for having discovered. But it was only a miscalculation: his final failure shows this was so.

Savitri Devi’s advantage over other specialists in Nazi esotericism lies in formation she received in the Tradition, hence the preeminence she gave to the sacred texts of the Tradition. Despite her “orthodox” point of departure, Savitri Devi was not freed from some “distortions” due to her admiration beyond all reason for the figure of Hitler. Indeed, Savitri Devi was a Hitlerian fanatic, and this fanaticism sometimes spoils and deforms her Traditional formation, obliterating the validity of her conclusions.

In particular, the work of Savitri Devi suffers from an erroneous appreciation of the racial problem. She is unaware that, when Hitler spoke about the Aryan race, he meant the Germanic people, and that is also manifest, although in a more attenuated way than in Hitler, in Rosenberg himself. National Socialism, apart from any occultist veins, was above all a form of Pan-Germanism which, at most, towards the end of the war and partly constrained by the state of the conflict, had to “open” itself by authorizing the formation of volunteer contingents from Aryan and non-Aryan countries.

Even when Savitri Devi sketches the caste system of India, she does not seem to understand its base exactly. It would perhaps be useful to quote on this subject the luminous essay of Frithjof Schuon, Castes and Races: “. . . The race is a form, the caste a spirit,” placed at the beginning of the part entitled “The meaning of races.” But without going into considerations on the caste system, it is obvious that Hitler destroyed it implicitly when it wrote in Mein Kampf that, “to be a sweeper in the Reich is more honorable than to be a monarch of a foreign nation.” That said, the assessment of Savitri Devi, when she tells us—quoting a Brahmin—that Hitler wanted “to restore the caste system and extend it to the whole world,” expresses, it seems, only an illusion.

The origin of the caste system is not simple racial separation; it is connected with the Aryan concept of victory and life before and after death. Insofar as the victors are opposed to other people throughout a war, and especially insofar as victory goes to those who have a superhuman and transcendent power, they superimpose themselves on the vanquished and stratify themselves as castes, each of which takes up a determined duty, which corresponds to its dominant interior characteristics. The racial theme in the formation of castes is something of an accessory; it is only a posteriori that one race—the Dravidian tribes—forms the lower castes, or the outcasts, and another race, the Aryan, forms the higher castes.

Can one find something of that in National Socialism? To discover elements there having a remote relationship with this thesis, it is necessary to make an historical effort of comprehension. For example, for the rebuilding of the caste system, one needed not a leveling but a diversified education, adapted to the spirit and the requirements of the character of each caste. In fact, one found something of that in the SS. The SS, whether consciously or not, made itself into a true “warrior caste.” In the same way, one could think of the “Labor Front” as forming a caste of “proletarians” (pardon the expression: not of proletarians in the modern sense of the term, but of producers as masters of the forces of their work). In any case, it should not be forgotten that the dominant component within National Socialism was the warlike element: as is known, the warrior aristocracies were at the origin of the phenomenon of “Titanism”; and, if one wishes to describe Hitlerism adequately, one must choose the term “Titanic.”

One of the most contradictory aspects of National Socialism was this double tendency: on the one hand, egalitarian and leveling (great demonstrations in which the principle of personality was diluted in the oceanic and standardized masses, equal pride of membership of the same nation, etc.) and, on the other hand, inclined to create a warlike and “Titanic” atmosphere.

Another correct discovery by Savitri Devi is to have located the center of Traditionalist influence within the Nazi regime: she saw in the Ahnenerbe “the guardian of the Tradition.” And, in that, she was right, as she was right not to want to venture hypotheses on the esotericism of the Thule Lodge whose rituals where not clear to her . . . And she adds, as proof of sincerity: “It is impossible to say up to what point the Thule Society was in possession of this priceless heritage of the ages . . .” [op. cit.].

Thus, whereas Miguel Serrano is inclined to fall into occultist commonplaces from consumer literature, Savitri Devi is perfectly aware of the danger the anti-Traditional sects pose. It does not matter that she considers Theosophy and the movement of Rabindranath Tagore as excluded from the Hindu tradition solely because they wuere anti-Hitlerian; what counts it is that she identified them as counter-initiatory forces.

This woman, Savitri Devi, born in Lyons on 30 September 1905, went to India where she married the Brahmin A.K. Mukherji when he published the review The New Mercury,3 supported by the German consulate in Madras.4 Mukherji accepted the congratulations of the civil servants of the German consulate and appeared among the partisans of Subhas Chandra Bose, still a hero of the Indian people today, who offered his services to the Japanese. When her husband died, she returned to Europe,5 working as a teacher in a school in Montbrison, from 1960 to 1969. Then she returned to India, and finally died in Europe in 1982. Her eyesight much diminished and in bad health, she spent her last years6 in France, Germany (from where she was expelled for diffusing Nazi ideas), and in England, where she died as she awaited a visa to go to the United States to give to a series of lectures organized by group Yankee neo-Nazis. It is there that her ashes were sent.

The final assessment of the work of Savitri Devi is obviously more positive than that of Miguel Serrano; there we find a better Traditional formation, fewer occultist tendencies, perhaps also a bit more sincerity. Savitri Devi never claims to speak ex cathedra or to have occult Masters who communicate with Hitler “in the astral plane”; but, in the end, both have an unconditional and irrational admiration for Adolf Hitler, an admiration which, in the case of Savitri Devi, often makes her mistake her desires for realities.

_______________

Notes:

1 Savitri Devi was planning a lecture tour before her death, but she died before it began. Of course Savitri did bear witness to her National Socialist convictions to the very end of her life, but not in the setting of formal lectures.—Trans.

2 Savitri Devi was actually the author of very few articles, but perhaps the author is counting each chapter of Souvenirs et réflexions as a separate essay.—Trans.

3 Savitri Devi married A.K. Mukherji on 29 September 1939 (in a civil ceremony) and on 9 June 1940 (in a religious ceremony). The New Mercury had been suppressed by the British in 1937.—Trans.

4 The New Mercury had been supported through the German Consulate in Calcutta.—Trans.

5 Savitri Devi lived in India from 1935-45, 1957-60, and 1971-81. A.K. Mukherji died in New Delhi on 21 March 1977.—Trans.

6 Savitri Devi’s last sojourn in Europe lasted a little more than a year, from 4 October 1981 until her death on 22 October 1982.—Trans.
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