Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

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Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

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Wandervogel
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Image
Group from Berlin c. 1930

Wandervogel is the name adopted by a popular movement of German youth groups from 1896 onward. The name can be translated as rambling, hiking, or wandering bird (differing in meaning from "Zugvogel" or migratory bird) and the ethos is to shake off the restrictions of society and get back to nature and freedom. Soon the groups split and they originated ever more organisations, which still all called themselves Wandervogel, but were organisationally independent. Nonetheless the feeling was still of being a common movement, but split into several branches.

History

The Wandervogel movement was officially established on 4 November 1901 by Karl Fischer, a former pupil of Herman Hoffmann Fölkersamb, who had formed a study circle at the boys' Berlin-Steglitz grammar school where he was teaching in 1895. The Wandervogel soon became the pre-eminent German youth movement. It was a back-to-nature youth organization emphasizing freedom, self-responsibility, and the spirit of adventure, and took a nationalistic approach, stressing Germany's Teutonic roots.[1]

After World War I, the leaders returned disillusioned from the war. The same was true for leaders of German Scouting. So both movements started to influence each other heavily in Germany. From the Wandervogel came a stronger culture of hiking, adventure, bigger tours to farther places, romanticism and a younger leadership structure. Scouting brought uniforms, flags, more organization, more camps, and a clearer ideology. There was also an educationalist influence from Gustav Wyneken.

Together this led to the emergence of the Bündische Jugend. The Wandervogel, German Scouting and the Bündische Jugend together are referred to as the German Youth Movement.

They had been around for more than a quarter of a century before National Socialists began to see an opportunity to utilize some methods and symbols of the German Youth Movement and incorporate it in the Hitler Youth.

This movement was very influential at that time. Its members were romantic and prepared to sacrifice a lot for their ideals. That is why there are many to be found on both sides in the Third Reich. Some of the Wandervogel groups had Jewish members; Jewish youth and adults had their own Wandervogel group called "Blau-Weiss" ("blue-white"), and this eventually became a Zionist youth movement; other Jewish scouting movements such as Hashomer Hatzair were influenced by the Wandervogel. Other groups within the movement were anti-semitic or close to the Nazi government. Therefore, one can later find prominent members subscribing to the Third Reich and other prominent members resisting it.[citation needed]

From 1933 the Nazis outlawed the Wandervogel, German Scouting, the Jungenschaft, and the Bündische Jugend, along with most youth groups independent of the Hitler Youth. Only Church-affiliated groups survived, lasting until almost 1936.[2]

Japan

Before World War II, in a context of cordial relations with Germany, and in an effort to promote healthy activities for young people throughout the country, Japan's Ministry of education launched the movement among Japanese universities, calling it the Health Promotion Wandervogel Association (奨健会ワンダーフォーゲル部 Shōkenkai Wandāfōgeru-bu). The first WanderVogel student club was created in 1935 in Rikkyo University. It then spread to Keio University[3] and Meiji University,[4] and from 1937 on to several other universities around the country, especially after World War II, in the context of high economic growth and popularization of mountaineering.

Modern aspects

The Wandervogel movement was refounded after World War II and exists in Germany to this day with around 5,000 members in many different associations, as well as in neighboring countries.

In Japan, it is now a fairly renowned student club with activities like mountaineering, sawanobori and ski touring.

Influence

Some authors have seen the ethos and activities of the Wandervogel as an influence on later social movements, in particular the hippie movement which developed in the United States during the 1960s.[5][6]

See also

• Vogelfrei

Notes

1. "German nationalist youth groups : Wandervogel". histclo.com.
2. Priepke, Manfred (1960). Die evangelische Jugend im Dritten Reich 1933–1936. Norddeutsche Verlagsanstalt. pp. 187–189.
3. "KWV 慶應義塾大学ワンダーフォーゲル部". kwv.sakura.ne.jp.
4. http://www.kisc.meiji.ac.jp/~wangel/
5. Gordon Kennedy & Kody Ryan, Hippie Roots & The Perennial Subculture, excerpt from Children of the Sun; A Pictorial Anthology From Germany To California, 1883-1949, 1998Archived 2007-08-30 at the Wayback Machine. ISBN 0-9668898-0-0
6. Jump up^ "Wandervogel - Frequently Asked Questions". http://www.wandervogel.com.

References

• Howard Paul Becker. German Youth: Bond or Free. New York: Oxford University Press, 1946. Detailed history and sociology of the various aspects of the youth movement. Remarkable for the times, the discussion of homoeroticism and homosexuality within some of these groups is non-judgmental. OCLC 2083809 In 1998, Routledge reprinted this work as Volume 8 of its International Library of Sociology and The Sociology of Youth and Adolescence series. OCLC 761549797 ISBN 978-0-415-86351-3
• Walter Laqueur. Young Germany: A History of the German Youth Movement. Transaction Pub, 1984, ISBN 0-87855-960-4.
• Jon Savage. Teenage: The Creation of Youth Culture. Viking, 2007, ISBN 978-0-670-03837-4
• Peter D. Stachura. The German Youth Movement, 1900-1945: An Interpretative and Documentary History. St. Martin’s Press, 1981, ISBN 0-312-32624-6
• John Alexander Williams. Turning to Nature in Germany: Hiking, Nudism, and Conservation, 1900-1940. Stanford University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-8047-0015-3

External links

http://www.wandervogel.de — Common webportal of most present day Wandervogel associations
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Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Nov 14, 2018 8:41 pm

Vogelfrei
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Vogelfrei in German usage denotes the status of a person on whom a legal penalty of outlawry has been imposed. However, the original meaning of the term referred to independence, being "free as a bird"; the current negative meaning developed only in the 16th century. It then came to predominate through the influence of Baroque poetry and of Jacob Grimm's Deutsche Grammatik (German Grammar; 1819).

History and etymology

Originally, the word vogelfrei merely meant "as free as a bird, not bound." That is the usage in older sources.[1] Even Luther and Zwingli used the word still in its original meaning.

Much later the term was linked to a person being banned. This resulted from the formulas:

As you have been lawfully judged and banished for murder, so I remove your body and good from the state of peace and rule them strifed and proclaim you free of any redemption and rights and I proclaim you as free as the birds in the air and the beasts in the forest and the fish in the water, and you shall not have peace nor company on any road or by any ruling of the emperor or king.[2]


and

his body should be free and accessible to all people and beasts, to the birds in the air[3] and the fish in water so that none can be made liable for any crimes committed against him[4]


This ban also implied that persons sentenced thus were not to be granted any dwelling.[5] In the case of death one's body was not buried, but left for the birds to feed on.[6]

According to modern research the cause for the spreading of the pejorative meaning is not to be sought there but rather in the language of the mercenaries and soldiers of that time. This theory is supported by the loan word "Preis" [price] in German (Italian: presa, French: prize), which in this context is synonymous with the word "booty". Malicious people would be "preis gegeben und vogelfrey" [lit: given away and free as the birds].[7]

In his magnum opus, Das Kapital Volume I, Marx uses the term vogelfrei to refer to the emergence of the proletariat during the decay of feudalism:

The proletariat created by the breaking-up of the bands of feudal retainers and by the forcible expropriation of the people from the soil, this free and rightless* [vogelfrei] proletariat could not possibly be absorbed by the nascent manufactures as fast as it was thrown upon the world. On the other hand, these men, suddenly dragged from their accustomed mode of life, could not immediately adapt themselves to the discipline of their new condition. They were turned in massive quantities into beggars, robbers and vagabonds, partly from inclination, in most cases under the force of circumstances. Hence at the end of the fifteenth and during the whole of the sixteenth centuries, a bloody legislation against vagabondage was enforced throughout Western Europe. The fathers of the present working class were chastised for their enforced transformation into vagabonds and paupers. Legislation treated them as ‘voluntary’ criminals, and assumed that it was entirely within their powers to go on working under the old conditions which in fact no longer existed.[8]


Marx calls this second group free or “bird-free” (vogelfrei), meaning at one and the same time that while the proletariat are not property (as slaves), they are themselves without property and cast out of the community of property owners.[9]

See also

• Knight-errant
• Troubadour
• Vagrancy (people)
• Wandervogel

Notes

1. According to a 1455 document, clerics of Buchenau monastery were "vogelfrei" (i.e. liberal, generous) if they donated one penny a year. Schmidt-Wiegand, p. 931, including further examples.
2. Article 241 of the Bamberger Halsgerichtsordnung [Bamberg Penal Code], quoted by Jacob Grimm, volume I, p. 58: ("als du mit urteil u. recht zu der mordacht erteilt worden bist, also nim ich dein leib u. gut aus dem fride und thu sie in den unfrid und künde dich erlös u. rechtlos und künde dich den vögeln frei in den lüften und den tieren in dem wald und den vischen in dem waßer und solt auf keiner straßen noch in keiner mundtat, die keiser oder künig gefreiet haben, nindert fride noch geleit haben; …")
3. Grimm noted here in a footnote: hence outlawed, permissus avibus; the older language also had another meaning: free as a bird. Konrad von Würzburg: Trojanischer Krieg [Trojan War]. Verse 14,516, 'I'm free as the bird on a twig' [daher vogelfrei, permissus avibus; die ältere sprache sagte auch in anderm sinn: vrî als ein vogel] Konrad von Würzburg: . Vers 14516; ich bin frî als der vogel ûf dem zwî]. Laßberg (ed.) Liedersaal [Hall of Songs]. (1820 to 1825). Volume 3, p. 637"
4. "sein leib soll frei und erlaubt sein allen leuten und thieren, den vögeln in den lüften, den vischen im waßer, so daß niemand gegen ihn einen frevel begehen kann, dessen er büßen dürfe". Wigand, Das Femgericht Westphalens. Hamm 1825, p. 436; cited by Grimm, p. 59
5. "Aqua et ignis interdictus" (Latin: Deprived of water and hearth fire)
6. "permissus avibus" (Latin: free for the birds)
7. Still noted thus as a pair of terms in Constitutio criminalis Theresiana [Maria Theresa's Criminal Law], 31 December 1768
8. Karl Marx, Capital, Volume One, 1976, Fowkes trans, p. 896.
9. Jason Read, Primitive Accumulation: The Aleatory Foundation of Capitalism, Rethinking Marxism 14(2), p. 28.

References

• Grimm, Jacob; Heusler, Andreas; Hübner, Rudolf (1994) [1899]. Deutsche Rechtsaltertümer [History of German Law] (Reprint of the 4th, improved ed.). Darmstadt. ISBN 3-534-00205-9.
• Schmidt–Wiegand, Ruth (1998). "Vogelfrei". Handwörterbuch der Deutschen Rechtsgeschichte [Dictionary of the History of German Law]. 5: Straftheorie [Penal theory]. Berlin: Schmidt. pp. 930–932. ISBN 3-503-00015-1.
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Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

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Jewish youth movement [Judische Jugendbewegung]
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Accessed: 11/14/18

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Under the name Jewish youth movement various Jewish youth associations of the German Empire and the Weimar Republic are summarized, which were influenced in their contents and forms of the German youth movement and at the same time relied on specifically Jewish elements. The frets of the Jewish youth movement made in only a short time interval the developments of the German youth movement, first forms of the Wandervogel, later the Bündnis Jugend and the Jungeschaft were adopted.

With the increasing Jewish persecution in the German Reich between 1933 and 1939, the possibilities of the Jewish youth leagues were increasingly restricted until they were banned in 1939. Numerous members of the frets were murdered in extermination camps. A double exception is the Hashomer Hatzair, which emerged as the only significant alliance of the Jewish youth movement outside the German Reich and exists because of its international orientation to this day.

The political alignment of the Jewish frets was uneven and changed over time. At the beginning, the coinage was dominated by assimilated Judaism, while later, above all, Zionist and socialist ideas shaped the frets. In addition, there were always groups of religious Judaism.

History

In its initial phase, the wandering bird movement took boys regardless of their religion. From 1904, the movement split into different frets, some of which, like the Wandervogel, German Bund already made in their name the reference to Germanism. At the same time, ideas of the Dürer League and the All-German Association gained supporters in the Wandervogel movement. [1] In the following years, the Wandervogel movement oriented in many parts increasingly on the nationalist movement. The Austrian Wandervogel declared in 1913: "That is why we (...) have made it known that we have neither slaves nor woods. We still want to see Jews in our ranks, because we, surrounded by strangers and interspersed by half-breeds, must preserve our racial purity." [2]

In the first decade of the 20th century, the first local Jewish hiking groups emerged from this experience of being unwanted in the Wandervogel movement, such as the 1907 Breslauer Wanderverein. In 1912, its founder, Joseph Marcus, encouraged the foundation of Wandervogel-like youth groups on the Delegation Day of the Zionist Association for Germany. In the same year, blue-white bands were created in several places, which merged in 1913 with the hiking club in 1907 to blue-white, Bund for Jewish youth hiking in Germany. By an anti-Semitic incident in a ZittauerWandervogelgruppe, which was picked up by the media in the German Reich, had blue-white already in its founding year strong inflow. [3] When war broke out in 1914 had blue and white 900 members until the end of the First World War the number of members grew to about 3000. [4] Inspired by this successful foundation of the German Empire was an identically hiking Bund in Austria.

Although Blau-Weiß was dissolved in 1925-26 after a failed settlement project in Palestine, its development characterized that of most other Jewish youth fraternities: the emergence in response to external influences, the development of its own youthful style and the move to Palestine and Alija are typical of the Jewish youth movement. [5] From the residual groups of blue-white led to several other Jewish youth associations who underwent similar development steps.

Unlike the non-Jewish youth leagues, the Jewish fraternities were not dissolved after the seizure of power by the National Socialists, but they had to join the Reich Committee of the Jewish youth associations. The work centered more and more on the Hechaluz and the emigration to Palestine, for which the Hessscharah camps were set up, which were also used to train against the National Socialist ideology. In these forms, the frets of the Jewish youth movement could continue to work until 1938, when they were affected by the intensified persecution after the November pogroms of 1938 completely change their work to emigration. In early 1939, the Jewish youth leagues were then banned. Individual groups continued their work until 1943 as part of the Hachsharah camp, although the emigration of Jews from the German Reich had already been prohibited in 1941 and the camps had been converted into forced labor camps. The Hachscharah-Gut Landwerk Neuendorf in Neuendorf in the sand in today's free community Steinhöfel was the last of the camp on 8 April 1943 dissolved, the 160 people were deported to the concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. [6] [7]

One after the factory action on February 27, 1943 underground in Berlin existing group from this area was the Chug Chaluzi to Jizchak Schwersenz. [8th]

Through the Youth Aliyah and Hachsharah, several thousand juvenile Jews were able to emigrate to Palestine. [9] They introduced forms of youth movement into the Israeli youth organizations, such as the Boy Scouts, which continue the Jewish youth movement.

In addition, in the 1930s, there were often overlaps between resistance groups originating from the workers' movement, for example the KPD, the KPO, the IKD and the ISK on the one hand, and Jewish youth organizations such as the Deutsch-Juden Wanderbund "Kameraden", the Werkleute or the Hashomer Hatzair on the other hand [10 ]. The most famous of these resistance groups is the one around Herbert Baum, which formed around 1933 and was smashed after the arson attack on the Nazi propaganda exhibition "The Soviet Paradise" on May 18, 1942.[11]

Frets of the Jewish Youth Movement

Similar to the non-Jewish youth movement, the Jewish youth movement was characterized by a multitude of different frets, some of which existed only briefly, fused together or split off from other frets. The most important frets were:

• Blue and white, Bund for Jewish Youth Hiking in Germany
• Brith Hanoar schel ziere Misrachi (Association of Misrachi Youth)
• League of Jewish Boy Scouts
• Esra Pirche Agudath Jisroel (Ezra, League of the faithful Jews) [12]
• Habonim Noar Chaluzi (builders)
• Hashomer Hatzair (Young Guardians)
• Jung-Jewish Wanderbund, from 1929 Brith Haolim (Bund der Aufsteigenden)
• Kadima, Ring Jewish Wander- und Pfadfinderbünde; Separation: Jewish Scout Federation Germany
• Comrades, German-Jewish Wanderbund, from him several splits emerged:
• Black bunch around Hans Litten and Max Fürst (writer)
• Workmen (Bund Jewish Youth)
• Black flag, from this in turn split in 1934 under the leadership of Paul Yogi Mayer [13] the group
• Blue flock off.
• Free German-Jewish youth
• Maccabee Hazair (Young Maccabees )
• League of German-Jewish Youth (BDJJ). To him in December 1933, the following non-Zionist federations had joined together [14] :
• German-Jewish Youth Community (DJJG)
• Hamburg German-Jewish Youth
• Jewish youth and children's crowds Berlin
• Jewish-liberal youth club
• CV youth groups


See also

• Hans Litten
• Children and Youth Alijah

Literature

• Jutta Hetkamp: The Jewish Youth Movement in Germany from 1913-1933. LIT, Münster 1994. ISBN 3-89473-797-2 .
• Werner Kindt (ed.): Documentation of the youth movement.
• Vol 2: The Wandervogelzeit. Sources for the German Youth Movement 1896-1919. Diedrichs, Dusseldorf 1968.
• Vol. 3: The German Youth Movement 1920 to 1933. The Bündische Zeit. Diedrichs, Dusseldorf 1974, ISBN 3-424-00527-4 .
• Irmgard Klönne: German, Jewish, Bündisch. Memory of the Jewish youth movement expelled from Germany. Pulse 21. Verlag der Jugendbewegung, Witzenhausen 1993, ISSN 0342-3328
• Eliyahu Kutti Salinger: Next year in kibbutz. The Jewish-Chaluzian youth movement in Germany between 1933 and 1943. KoWAG, Paderborn 1998, ISBN 3-933577-01-2 .
• Bodo Mrozek : Short Portraits of Jewish Youth Federations, in: Wilfried Löhken u. Werner Vathke: Jews in the resistance. Three groups between struggle for survival and political action, Berlin 1939-1945 . Berlin 1993, ISBN 3-89468-068-7 .
• Andreas Winnencken: A case of anti-Semitism. On the history and pathogenesis of the German youth movement before the First World War. Science and Politics, Cologne 1991, ISBN 3-8046-8770-9 .
• Lothar Bembenek: Werner T. Angress, Paul Yogi Mayer and Guy Stern. In: Barbara Stambolis (ed.): Youth Movement coined , V & R UniPress, Göttingen, 2013, ISBN 978-3-8471-0004-1 , pp. 69-88.
• Ḥotam, Yotam (ed.): German Jewish youth in the "Age of Youth" , V & R Unipress, Göttingen, 2009, ISBN 978-3-89971-557-6 .

Web links

• House of the Wannsee conference: The black heap ( Memento of 3 May 2006 in the Internet Archive ) - Representation of a emerged from the comrades group
• Hachschara site Ahrensdorf , headed by Maccabi Hazair
• The Blue and White Leaves (old episode) , Blue and White Leaves (new episode) and Blue and White Leaves ("Führerzeitung") of the Federal Government for Jewish Youth Hiking in Germany in the Internet Archive of Jewish Periodicals
• Youth in Germany 1918 to 1945: Jewish Youth (NS Documentation Center of the City of Cologne)

Individual proofs

1. Winnecken. P. 34
2. quoted after Winnecken. P. 39 f.
3. Winnecken. P. 101 ff.
4. Kindt. Vol. 2, p. 728 ff.
5. Salinger. P. 13 ff.
6. Salinger. P. 157.
7. Rosa Luxemburg Foundation : A history of Fürstenwalder (PDF, 38 kB)
8. Wolfgang Benz , Walter H. Pehle (ed.): Encyclopedia of German Resistance. 2nd, durchges. Aufl . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1994, pp. 189-190.
9. Salinger. P. 222.
10. Arnold Pauker: German Jews in the Resistance 1933-1945. Facts and problems (2nd edition) . Memorial German Resistance, Berlin 2003, p. 17-18. 21-27 and 31-34, PDF here .
11. Wolfgang Benz / Walter H. Pehle (ed.): Lexicon of the German resistance. 2nd, durchges. Edition . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1994, pp. 225-227.
12. Manfred Voigts: Esra. An Orthodox Jewish Youth League 1919-1933 . In more detail: Benjamin Benno Adler: Ezra. The History of an Orthodox-Jewish Youth League at the Time of the Weimar Republic , Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 2001, ISBN 978-3-447-04433-2
13. To Black Flag and Blue Flock see: Lothar Bembenek: Werner T. Angress, Paul Yogi Mayer and Guy Stern
14. League of German-Jewish Youth (BDJJ)
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Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

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Covenant Youth [Bundische Jugend]
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Image
Camp of the Bündnis Jugend in Berlin-Grunewald (1933)

Bündische Jugend is the term used to describe the youth movement that emerged from Wandervogel in Germany in its second phase after the First World War . Building on the ideas of migratory birds and scouts, the fraternities of the League of Bishops came into being in the Weimar Republic (called the Bündnis for short).

History

Both scouts and hikers returned from World War I disillusioned, in addition, much of the previous leaders had fallen. As a result, the frets and the covenant landscape changed. They wanted to change society from the ground up. Political activities began to gain importance.

During this time, the youthful youth cultivated a human image of the man as a knight , who voluntarily subjects himself to the discipline and self-discipline that is at the service of his covenant and its goals. Important for the formation of the Bündnis Jugend was the endeavor to form groups in the future, which should not exist as formerly in Wandervogel only from young people, but had the character of a Lebensbundes. Many fraternities, the aspired federal community appeared only in pure male or female alliances, which is why co-operative fraternities greatly lost importance.

From 1924 propagated some frets, z. For example, the Silesian Young Team (SJ) and the Artamans , the labor camp as an educational tool in which the national community should be brought to life. After F. Raabe they wanted to prepare the development of the people's race; In this way, they were to rearrange the state and society from the point of view of the Volkstum and thus ensure the organic cooperation of all parts across all classes, parties and denominations.

In 1927, the German Freischar formed as a central alliance of various fraternities of the Scout and Wandervogel movement.

The Catholic Youth Association Bund Neudeutschland , in which Catholic students were organized in secondary schools, can be counted among the Bündische Jugend.

Around 1930, the boyhood movement came on, which rejected the Lebensbundprinzip and put in its place the idea of self-education of the younger. The boyhoods exerted a great fascination on the groups of the Covenant Youth. Most frets were challenged in a central question of their self-image. Although some style elements such as Kohte and boy jacket were gradually taken over by most frets, the existing frets were largely able to assert themselves.

In 1933, many frets in the Greater German Confederation, led by Admiral von Trotha, joined forces, hoping not to be banned by the NS state as a larger federation of some 50,000 members. A common Bundestag was planned as a federal camp at Pentecost in Dresden on the site training place Heller , but temporarily prohibited by the NS Reichsstatthalter Mutschmann . Therefore, the federal dodged on Munster , where he was also supported by the Reichswehr . The event was considered a provocation by the Hitler Youth . As a result, ordered the district administrator of the district Fallingbostelon Pentecost Sunday (4 June) the immediate demolition of the camp. [1] A few weeks later, the big German Bund was prohibited. [2]

From 1933, the Hitler Youth , which had initially oriented itself to the forms of the workers' youth movement , took over part of the scouting and bourgeois traditions. This led many of the members of the Bündische Jugend to hope to transform the Hitler Youth from the inside out in a literal sense. Therefore, a part of the frets voluntarily joined the Hitler Youth, while other groups disbanded themselves to escape incorporation. From the summer of 1933, the frets were initially banned in the Third Reich , later were also appropriate clothing and equipment under the name of civil machinations as punishable. The free frets were considered "archenemies of the Hitler Youth" (quote Baldur von Schirach ). The suppression of the structures of the bourgeoisie initially met with incomprehension and rejection in regime-milieu milieus and partly also in party offices and state organs. National Socialist ideologues therefore carried out intensive negative labeling and criminalization of the youth leagues. Often one resorted to the discrediting of the structures of the bourgeoisie to the actually given or simply assumed homosexual orientation of the Bündnis.[3]

Since the structure of the League groups was not designed for illegality, a significant portion adapted to the total state as necessary to survive, or went into exile early, especially to Britain. [4] A small group of units continued in secret, continuing their underground journeys and camps. These groups went through a politicization due to the Nazi persecution. [3] They formed part resistance groups against the Third Reich and led partially open street battles against the HJ. This resistance was felt especially in the Rhineland . Many of theseWild League youth groups were called Edelweiss Pirates or called themselves by the name under which they were persecuted. To popularize this youthful subculture contributed that the free youth groups realized those claims and expectations that propagated by the Hitler Youth, but ultimately were not met, especially the continuation of the youth movement and self-determination within the youth groups. In addition, the oppositional youth milieu formed an attractive contrast to the regulated HJ system for many adolescents through the free roaming and traveling life with romanticizing customs and free intercourse between the sexes. [5]

After the beginning of the Second World War , many of the Bundische living in British exile took part in the preparations of the Socialist Union of the SPD , ISK and the "re-starting" group led by Richard Löwenthal for the democratic reconstruction of Germany after the war. [6]

Basic Beliefs

The development of the youth movement from Wandervogel to the Bündische Jugend brought about a change in the basic convictions:

While the Wandervogel emphasized the renewal of the individual and derived other innovations from it, the Bündnis Jugend immediately sought the renewal of society. [7] [8]

Like the wandering bird, the Covenant Youth was no longer an end in itself, which in itself was revolutionary. Instead, the individual through the admission into the covenant carried out a comprehensive "service obligation", which claimed him to the most private. [8th]

They paid homage to religious ideas and took the order of knights as their model. The individual was not his group leader, but all were committed to the common cause.

The orientation towards the Bündisch led in part to the fact that the Bund understood as a boys and men alliance "par excellence" (Laqueur), which led to a significant decrease coeducational and to a segregation of female groups. [8th]

There was an elitist claim. It was aimed at a selection: By far not every aspirant was included in a covenant. Often, boys were selected who could fit into the respective covenant, and only these were asked if they wanted to see a group of the federal once. The idea of ​​the covenant thus also lived from the opposite to the mass. [9]

Externally, the emergence of a unified gap was an expression of the close community of the Federation or Order of importance.

The Covenant Youth emphasized symbolic acts and romantic, solemn and mythical forms. This was closely related to the examination of the common sense, partly through his engagement with the poet Stefan George : his federal concept, which he described in 1914 in the Star of the Covenant , had a mythical-religious character. [10] George could not enthusiastic about the reformist ideas of the Wandervogel themselves. [11]

Another idea generator of the Bündnis Jugend came from Great Britain. John Hargrave developed his ideas in the British Scout movement. From this Hargrave was expelled in 1920, whereupon he founded the movement Kibbo Kift the Woodcraft Kindred . In Germany, the natural educational principles developed therein were received with great interest. [12]

As in other branches of world history, the idea of ​​a covenant of life was part of the basic ideas of the Bündnis Jugend. This was in marked contrast to the basic beliefs of the Wandervogel of the time before the First World War.

Review by historian

After the end of the Third Reich, critics of the Bündische Jugend claimed to have been stirrup-holders of National Socialism by conveying similar ideas such as "leading and following", "soldierly virtues" or patriotism. Others pointed out that the frets placed great value on self-determination and autonomy , emphasized the personal relationship between leaders and leaders, that their elitist claims did not fit with the mass movement of National Socialism and that they were unpolitical.

"To sum up: The bourgeois German youth movement until 1933 was in its political way of thinking or emotional world mostly so far in the vicinity of National Socialism that they 1933 as part of the" national survey "could understand. These political ideas of the youth movement and its majority were signs of a general political maldevelopment of the German bourgeoisie - but only a symptom, in addition to many rectified and certainly not the cause of the movement towards fascism. But when fascism was state-established in Germany, it became apparent that in the tradition of the youth movement there was at the same time a chance of a system -oppositional behavior.

- Arno Klönne . [13]


Present

Image
Brigantine Falado of Rhodes, sailed by allied youth groups . The ship sank on August 9, 2013.

It is disputed by historians to what extent the Bündische Jugend persists today. Some believe that it finally went under with the beginning of the National Socialist dictatorship . They justify this with the great differences in the worlds of life of young people and the frequent structural and substantive reorientation of the reunited after the Second World War frets.

Unaffected by this there are today groups and fraternities, which consider themselves to be both culturally and / or youth-motivated. Numerous youth movements / covenants have re-established their league after the end of the Third Reich, following the tradition of the 1920s and early 1930s. In addition, there are occasionally new start-ups of groupings. More common, however, is the elimination of parts of a group because of incompatibility of beliefs.

Also groups of the German scouting movement and the church youth work, especially of the YMCA , are influenced by the influences of the youth movement, which distinguishes them also internationally. However, there are big differences between the individual groups.

Mannheim Resolution

As Mannheim resolution is a display of many frets of the youth movement in the weekly newspaper The time of January 15, 1993 called. In it, the signatories spoke out against the xenophobic riots in the fall of 1992. The resolution was signed by a large number of groups and individuals who follow the Bündnis Jugend and has also been published in several daily newspapers. [14]

Covenant Initiatives and Groups

• Castle Balduinstein
• Castle Ludwigstein
• Waldeck Castle
• Jugendburg Streitwiesen
• Brigantine Falado of Rhodes eV with the sailing schooner Whydah of Bristol
• the icebreaker , supra-first journal
• Ring of young frets
• Nerother hiking bird
• German Freischar
• Migratory bird - German travel federation
• German forest youth
• various hiking bird groups
• different boyhood groups
• different scout groups
• YMCA West Union ecumenical associations of Protestant confession with numerous small local youth groups [15]

Literature

• Rüdiger Ahrens: Covenant Youth. A new story 1918-1933. Wallstein, Göttingen 2015, ISBN 978-3-8353-1758-1 .
• Matthias von Hellfeld : Covenant Youth and Hitler Youth - The History of Adaptation and Resistance 1930-1939 . Publisher Science and Politics, 1987, ISBN 3-8046-8683-4 .
• Werner Kindt: Documentation of the Youth Movement, Volume III: The German Youth Movement 1920 to 1933. The Covenant Time . Diederichs, Dusseldorf 1974, ISBN 3-424-00527-4 .
• Arno Klönne : Youth opposition in the "Third Reich" . National Center for Political Education Thuringia. Second edition, Erfurt 2013 ( PDF ).
• Arno Klönne: Youth in the Third Reich: The Hitler Youth and their opponents . Papy Rossa Verlag, Cologne 2003, ISBN 3-89438-261-9 .
• Walter Laqueur : The German Youth Movement . Publisher Science and Politics, Cologne 1978, ISBN 3-8046-8548-X . Translation by: Walter Laqueur: Young Germany: A History of the German Youth Movement , Transaction Pub, 1984, ISBN 0878559604 .
• Florian Malzacher , Matthias Daenschel: Youth movement for beginners. 2nd Edition. Verlag der Jugendbewegung, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-88258-131-X .
• Felix Raabe: The League of Youth. A contribution to the history of the Weimar Republic . Brentanoverlag, Stuttgart 1961.
• Alexei Stachovich in: Bündisch ist ... Contributions to the question of the Bündnis . Publisher: Free educational work Balduinstein, Burg Balduinstein 1977.

Web links

• Bündisch ist ... Definition attempts
• What is bündisch? Another attempt at definition
• Youth in Germany 1918 to 1945: Bündische Jugend (NS Documentation Center of the City of Cologne)

Bündische Gruppen

http://www.wandervogel.de Portal to different Wandervogel bands
http://www.cvjm-buendisch.de Bündische Jugendarbeit in the CVJM -Westbund
Overbundling Initiatives [ edit | Edit ]
• Bishops Academy
• Falado of Rhodes, carrier association
• Culture initiative
• Sound Archive of the Covenant Youth

Individual proofs

1. Joachim von Stülpnagel: "Munster Camp" Pentecost 1933 - last big event of the Bündnis Jugend. In: 100 years soldiers in Munster 1893-1993. Publisher: Stadt Munster, August 1993, p. 86 f.
2. Hellfeld, p. 90ff.
3. Arno Klönne: Youth Subcultures in the Third Reich. In: shock and creation - youth aesthetics in the 20th century. Darmstadt 1986, p. 311.
4. Borinski, Grimm, Winkler, Wolf (ed.): Youth in Political Protest 1923-1933-1977 (Sources and Contributions to the History of the Youth Movement, Vol. 19). Frankfurt am Main 1977, p. 81 ff.
5. Arno Klönne: Youth Subcultures in the Third Reich. In: shock and creation - youth aesthetics in the 20th century. Darmstadt 1986, p. 312.
6. Borinski, Grimm, Winkler, Wolf (ed.): Youth in Political Protest 1923-1933-1977 (Sources and Contributions to the History of the Youth Movement, Vol. 19). Frankfurt am Main 1977, p. 88.
7. Peter Nasarski : Awakening of youth in the border and abroad. In: ders .: German Youth Movement in Europe. Cologne 1967, p. 21.
8. Walter Laqueur : The German Youth Movement. A historical study. Cologne 1962, p. 150.
9. Wolfgang Lindner: Youth movement as an expression of ideological mentality. The mentality-historical preferences of the German youth movement in the mirror of their lyrics. Schriften zur Kulturwissenschaft 48. Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3-8300-0886-4 , p. 312f.
10. Florian Malzacher, Matthias Daenschel: Youth movement for beginners. 2nd Edition. Südmarkverlag Michael Fritz KG, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-88258-131-X , p. 68ff .; Wolfgang Lindner: Youth movement as an expression of ideological mentality. The mentality-historical preferences of the German youth movement in the mirror of their lyrics (Schriften zur Kulturwissenschaft 48). Hamburg 2003, ISBN 978-3-8300-0886-6 , p. 312f .; Walter Laqueur : The German Youth Movement. A historical study. Cologne 1962, p. 151f .; Johann Thun: The Bund and the frets. Stefan George and the German youth movement, In: Thorsten Carstensen, Marcel Schmidt (Hrsg.): The literature of the Lebensreform. Transcript, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-8376-3334-4 , pp. 87-105.
11. Thomas Karlauf: Stefan George. Pantheon, 2008, p. 397.
12. Walter Laqueur: The German Youth Movement. A historical study. Cologne 1962, p. 153f.
13. Arno Klönne : Youth in the Third Reich. The Hitler Youth and their opponents. Papyrossa Verlagsges., 2003, ISBN 3894382619 , p. 125.
14. Mannheimer Resolution
15. Bündische Arbeit CVJM Westbund
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Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

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Young Shaft [Jungenschaft]
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Young stem is a term that mainly in the bündisch youth movement was coined and used. On the one hand, this meant that within certain youth leagues a certain age group, usually the 11- to 18-year-olds. On the other hand, the term has linked certain ideas of a bourgeois organization. Hermann Kügler coined the term 1920 in order to express the idea of ​​a pure boy wall bird. This was followed in the 1920s by those districts that explicitly understood themselves as boys' leagues. Eberhard Köbel, also a supporter of Jungebund idea, took up the term in 1929, conceived his autonomous German boyhood of November 1, 1929 (dj.1.11) but programmatically as a movement that should transform and renew the youth movement from within. The dj.1.11 influenced the style of the Second World War.

Boyhood as Boyband

When the leader of the Sachsengaues of the hiking bird, Hermann Kügler, returned from the First World War, he found the Saxon wandering bird in his understanding of poor constitution. He attributed this to the gender mix of the frets and sought a separation. The will leads to the boy's covenant, because: "The sense of the boy goes to the covenant, the costumes of the girls go to mating. But that wears down every covenant. A covenant cannot accommodate germs in itself, which necessarily bring about its decline." [1] Kügler derived the term "boyhood "from an analogy to the term" young team", which was used in Silesia : boys covenant → boyhood. [2]For Kügler, boyhood was not a theoretical concept, but the main element of the bündischen Jugend, on which the larger federation should build. [3] This expressed a conviction that was in fact integral to the whole of the Civic culture, "the conviction of unalterable social diversity of the sexes." [4]

The district of Saxony was already in October 1919 by the departure of the girls for the first pure Jungengau in Wandervogel. But Kügler was not the only one in the old Wandervogel who wanted a purely male youth alliance. On the Federal Week of the Old Wandervogel from March 30 to April 4, 1920 in Bad Sachsa, the federal government separated into a boys and a girls alliance. Not because the woman is considered inferior, or because of Hans Blüher's position in the men's covenant, according to Federal leader Ernst Buske, but because boys and girls want to be separated for their own sake. [5]

"The facts are that the girl matures far earlier in her development than the boy, and that the girl, therefore, is intellectually superior to the boy, for whom the WV usually means the developmental period, from which then the great danger of mental influence grows up through the girl. And this danger is greater and more far-reaching than one generally thinks, for our whole culture, not least because of the tremendous influence of the woman, has reached such a barren stage that it is no longer possible to speak of culture. Our whole life is lightened and soft. "

-- Ernst Buske : Federal Communications May 1920 [5]


The historian Marion De Ras argues that it was the growing influence of the girls that made it necessary for boys and men in the wandering bird to equate youth movement and boy movement and define the girls as the other category. [6] The First World War had caused a change in attitude within the migrant bird. The combatants wanted to restore the pre-war situation, as at least the leadership positions of the frets were male-dominated. At the same time have the stab legend created the impression that effeminacy had caused the defeat. In the end, Ernst Buske had clearly articulated only one conviction that had already existed sublimated, namely that girls had no right to be in a wandering bird. [7]

However, there was also opposition, mainly from the districts of Berlin, Bavaria and Swabia, which contributed to the further fragmentation of the old wall bird. At the Federal Representative Meeting in Naumburg on October 23 and 24, 1920, for instance, Kügler's Gau Saxony split. On January 1, 1921, the groups that rejected the separation from the girls founded the German Wandervogel on the Hanstein. On 30 March 1921, Kügler was one of the founders of the Wandervogel boy federation, in which the boys' guilds of Saxony, Harz-Elbe and Badenmerged. He also became the first leader of the new covenant. At the end of 1921, the Silesian boyhood under Hans Dehmel joined the Confederation.

1922/23, the various fraternities approached again. So joined the various boy teams Altwandervogel, Wandervogel-Wehrbund, Wandervogel-boy covenant and Silesian Wandervogel boy covenant in August 1923 together again and adopted the name Wandervogel-German boyhood. Under the leadership of Buske the name Alt-Wandervogel, German boyhood was adopted. Negotiations with the Alliance of Free Wandervogelbünde failed in 1925 still on the girl question. After the merger of the Old-Wandervogel, German boyhood and the Greater German Scout Association in early 1926 also joined the Wandervogel-Deutscher Jugendbund the new alliance after it had been promised to include girls as well. This new covenant was called Bund der Wandervögel und Pfadfinder, later German Freischar. The term "boyhood" was also used in other fraternities, such as the Young National Union, to profess the idea of ​​a boy's covenant.

Within the German Freischar designated boy shaft the age of the 11- to 18-year-olds. The 18- to 25-year-olds were in the young team summarized, the still older in the team. [8] The individual stages should be self-contained and have their own laws. At the same time, according to the concept of the Lebensbund, as far as possible members of the young team should lead the boyships.

Eberhard Köbel and the "autonomous boyhood"

Radical supporters of the idea of ​​a boyhood existed in all branches of the youth movement. In the German Freischar it was especially Eberhard Köbel, who was enthusiastic for the idea of ​​a uniform large German boyhood and at the same time a "rebellion of the boys" operated. On 1 November 1929, he first founded the dj.1.11 in the form of a conspiracy within the German Free Association. After the surprising death of the Federal leader Ernst Buskes and the self-proclaimed self-proclamation Köbels leader of the southern frets of the German Freischar, Köbel was excluded on May 4, 1930 from the German Freischar. The dj.1.11 then constituted itself as an independent federation.

Köbel chose the term "autonomous boyhood", because he was a supporter of the idea of ​​a pure boyhood and at the same time wanted to distance himself from the idea of ​​the "Lebensbund". He criticized the inclusion of all ages in the frets and argued that the young team of the elderly patronize the boys and neglect their ways of life. He questioned the definition of youth as a phase of preparation for the man. [9]

"You can only indulge in one thing: either the idea of ​​the Lebensbund or the Jungeschaft. The boyhood leader belongs entirely to the boyhood. With the moment when the boyhood is no longer enough for him, it is no longer important to him alone, but he is no longer a boy's leader, but a youth worker, educator, to an idea, to the idea of ​​the Lebensbund. "

-- Tusk (di Eberhard Köbel): Boyhood or Lebensbund (1930) [10]


Köbel's conviction that the boyhood idea had revolutionary potential stemmed from the idea of ​​an "order" to which the members belonged heart and soul. Regardless of the anarchist component, Marion de Ras was concerned with more conservative ideals whose roots he had seen among primitive peoples. Köbel was also not concerned with a question of the mind, but with a "religious question" and "universal truth". [11]

Boyhood to this day

The dj.1.11 is considered "probably the most important group for the formation of the civic milieu" during the National Socialism . [12] This is one of the reasons why the dj.1.11 influenced the style of the development of the boys until today. Shortly after the end of the Second World War, various groups of boys formed, which more or less followed the tradition of dj.1.11. Known was about 1946 by Walter Scherf (travel name tejo) founded Göttingen boy shaft. As with many of these start-ups, this group consisted mainly of former members of the young people, which for a long time led to a rejection by peer circles, which had roots in the boy resistance against the national socialists.

In 1946, some boys (Bremen, Göttingen, Hildesheim, Lüneburg, Verden / Aller, Wolfenbüttel and Hanover) united to the German boyhood. At the turn of the year 1948/1949 Walter Scherf was elected federal leader. Already in mid-1949, he retired, however. The covenant was continued by Michael Jovy , Hans-Jochen Zenker and Gerhard Rasche. In 1951, Klaus-Jürgen Citron founded the New German Boyhood out of the German Boys 'Union, but this start-up was not supported by most of the leaders of the German Boys' Union and did not last long. She went in 1954 in the "boyhood in the covenant", [13]For their part, Jovy, Zenker and Rasche registered the name of the German boyhood as an association to protect the name. [14]

The idea of ​​the independent boyhood was maintained:

"It is imperative to push through new content and new forms of boyhood while respecting the heritage of the burg. So it should be: who belongs to the boyhood in the covenant, should be excellent, not signed off. We have the firm confidence that this will succeed. The prerequisite for this is the inviolable autonomy of the boyhood as well as its immanent being with people who, on their way through the boys' covenant, have experienced the decisive imprint of their lives and are committed to it. Therefore, the allies of the boyhood are not 'alumni' but 'presenters' who vouch with their personality for the integrity of the cause and the authenticity of the covenant, and who put their knowledge and ability into their service. "

-- Newsletter of the "BUNDES", an association of several boys' associations, at the beginning of 1954 [15]


Johannes Ernst Seiffert tried in 1953 with the dj.1.11-Bund even more directly to Koebels dj.1.11 tie by pointing this boy's shaft clearly on his imagination, forms and content. Moreover existed as start-ups or as a continuation age groups autonomous Horten and Hort rings such as the establishment on 1 November 1959 antitrust German boy properties [16] and the dj.1.11-hoarding ring in the Rhine / Ruhr area (1963 joined the dj.1.11 Association [16] ).

The German Freischar 1933 rather than the pre-war boyhood similar German Bundschaft - BdJ was born in 1960 from the boys and boys in the Bund (which consisted of parts of the German Freischar, the Companionship and the New German boyhood and had already founded in 1954). The BDJ saw itself as one with the present and versatile federal and developed particularly in the wake of Meißnerlagers 1963 large überbündischen influence [17], The BdJ opened to girls and adults to mixed groups. There were also girls in groups of the dj.1.11 covenant; all other post-war boys maintained the idea of ​​the Pure Boyhood. [18]

In addition to some, not very strong memberships of young people, which see each other in different proportions in the succession of dj.1.11, use frets such as the German Freischar, the German Scout Federation or the Scout Association crusaders the term boyhood as a term for groups or ages. Also in the church, mainly the Protestant youth work and in the YMCA the concept of boyhood for boys groups has been preserved. However, these groups mostly have different roots than dj.1.11. There are also some Christian (mostly Protestant) boys who see themselves in the tradition of dj.1.11. However, critics argue that a confessional bond can not be reconciled with the autonomy ideal of dj.1.11.

Literature

• Helmut Grau: dj.1.11. Structure and transformation of a subcultural youth milieu in four decades . dipa, Frankfurt am Main 1976. ISBN 3-7638-0213-4 .
• Rudolf Kneip, Ludwig Liebs u. Karl-Heinrich Zimmermann: The secret of Bündische Führung. Documentary talks with Hermann Kügler . dipa, Frankfurt / Main 1980, ISBN 3-7638-0221-5 .
• Werner Kindt (ed.): The German Youth Movement 1920 to 1933. Die bündische Zeit. Eugen Diederichs, Dusseldorf 1974.
• Marion EP de Ras: body, eros and female culture. Girl in the hiker bird and Covenant youth 1900-1933 . Centaurus, Pfaffenweiler 1988.
• Fritz Schmidt (ed.): The clear air is today's free: The League of German boys . Südmarkverlag Fritsch, Heidenheim 1986. ISBN 3-88258-090-9
• Fritz Schmidt: German boyhood 1945-1951 . Pulse 19. Südmarkverlag, Witzenhausen 1991. ISSN 0342-3328

Individual proofs

1. Kneip, Lieps u. Zimmermann, The Secret of the Alliance , p. 12.
2. Rudolf Kneip: Wandervogel - Bündische Jugend, 1905-1943. Frankfurt a. M. 1967, cit. after Werner Kindt (ed.): The German youth movement from 1920 to 1933. Die bündische Zeit. Eugen Diederichs, Dusseldorf 1974, p. 70.
3. Kneip, Lieps u. Zimmermann, The Secret of the Alliance , pp. 11-15.
4. Irmgard Klönne: "I jump in this ring". Girls and women in the german youth movement. Centaurus, Pfaffenweiler 1990, p. 215-219, cit. 215th
5. Werner Kindt (ed.): The German Youth Movement 1920 to 1933. Die bündische Zeit. Eugen Diederichs, Dusseldorf 1974, p. 47f.
6. Marion EP de Ras: body, eros and female culture. Girl in the hiker bird and Covenant youth 1900-1933 . Centaurus, Pfaffenweiler 1988, p. 90.
7. Marion EP de Ras: body, eros and female culture. Girl in the hiker bird and Covenant youth 1900-1933 . Centaurus, Pfaffenweiler 1988, p. 105, 91f.
8. Hiltraud Casper-Hehne: On the Language of the League of Youth. The example of the German Freischar. Niemeyer, Tübingen 1989, p. 52.
9. Hiltraud Casper-Hehne: On the Language of the League of Youth. The example of the German Freischar. Niemeyer, Tübingen 1989, p. 6f.
10. Werner Kindt (ed.): The German Youth Movement 1920 to 1933. Die bündische Zeit. Eugen Diederichs, Dusseldorf 1974, p. 1211.
11. Marion EP de Ras: body, eros and female culture. Girl in the hiker bird and Covenant youth 1900-1933 . Centaurus, Pfaffenweiler 1988, p. 93.
12. Wilfried Breyvogel: Young Resistance Forms - From Organized Resistance to the Youth Everyday Opposition , in: Peter Steinbach, Johannes Tuchel (ed.): Resistance to National Socialism . Series of publications Volume 323, FederalAgencyfor Civic Education, Bonn 1994. ISBN 3-89331-195-5 , p. 435f., Cit. 435th
13. Gray: dj.1.11 , p. 53; Schmidt: New German boy shaft , -schrift- 37
14. Schmidt: German Boyhood , p. 38
15. Karl Seidelmann: Federation and group as life forms of German youth. Attempt of an appearance customer of the German youth life in the first half of the XX. Century . Wiking, Munich 1955, p. 378.
16. Gray: dj.1.11 , p. 54
17. Florian Malzacher, Matthias Daenschel: Youth movement for beginners . Second edition. ISBN 3-88258-131-X , p. 157
18. Gray: dj.1.11 , p. 65
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Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Nov 14, 2018 9:47 pm

Hachshara [Hachsharah]
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Accessed: 11/14/18

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Image
Work on the Hachschara farm in Betzenrod, Germany, 1920s

As Hachschara ( Hebrew הכשרה"Preparation, Appropriation") was the systematic preparation of Jews for the aliyah, d. H. for the colonization of Palestine especially in the 1920s and 1930s. Ideological basis for this program was the Zionism, it was carried and propagated by the Jewish youth movement, and here especially by the two umbrella organizations Hechaluz and Bachad.

Most Hachschara courses took place on agricultural goods. A group of emigrants (Hebrew קבוצה, Kəvutza) got there together what appeared necessary to build a community in Palestine. The young people, who often come from middle-class surroundings, mainly acquired horticultural, agricultural, domestic and craft skills and learned Iwrit, modern Hebrew. In the further development of the Hachschara, the creation of a Jewish identity became increasingly important. This included celebrating Jewish festivals, getting to know Jewish history and literature. Living and working in a collective should create the cultural basis for the new existence in Palestine. In later Israel , the Hachshara communities settled in the kibbutzim. Individuals who are willing to emigrate have rarely become acquainted with a farmer or craftsman.

History

The Hachshara formed at the end of the 19th century from the "Chaluzbewegung" (from Hebrew חלוץ, Chaluz, German pioneer), especially among Jews in the US and Russia. At the 12th Zionist Congress in 1922 in Karlovy Vary, the world pioneer organization Hechaluz was formed. In 1923, a German Hechaluz Association was founded, which in 1928 counted 500 members and four teaching goods. Overall, the movement among the strongly assimilated Jews of Western Europe spread only slowly. Only since the global economic crisis has emigration been understood by many as an opportunity for a new economic start. The idealistic attitude of early Zionism receded into the background.

The growing discrimination against the Jews gave the Hachschara movement a great deal of popularity in the early stages of National Socialist rule in Germany. In addition to the preparation for emigration to Palestine, it was especially important for young Jews that Hachschara was one of the last possibilities for them to obtain any vocational training (redeployment in the language at that time). In 1934, the German Hechaluz recorded around 15,000 members. Around 3,500 people were trained at the time in the Hachschara teaching facilities. These were commissioned by the Reichsvertretung der Deutschen Juden by Martin Gerson cared for. In total, at least 32 of these preparatory camps were set up within the then German borders.

In the early years, the predominant form of education was the single Hachscharain which people who wanted to leave the country worked for a farmer or a craft business and were supported and looked after by a Hachschara or Hechaluz center. With increasing demand for training places since 1933, other forms of Hachshara emerged, such as "Hachschara-Kibbuzim, where the youth lived and trained together, Hachschara centers where they lived together, but trained in various agricultural and craft trades Jobs were given and -- especially in larger cities -- the Batei-Chaluz (sing. Beit Chaluz), dormitories for young people willing to leave home with individual or domestic vocational training. The increased demand for training places explains only partially the accelerated expansion of the common Hachschara teaching materials in the following years,[1]

Hachshara and Youth Aliyah were important pillars of Jewish self-help in preparing young people for emigration to Palestine. In addition, in 1935, the so-called Mittler-Hachschara (also: Mi-Ha). It aimed at 15- to 17-year-olds and looked like the regular Hachschara a two-year agricultural, horticultural or domestic education. An apprenticeship took three years. [2] Joseph Walk refers to her as a substitute for not youth aliyah to Palestine immigrant youth of this age group. It "follows in its daily routine the model of the groups educated in the collective settlements there: the morning was the professional, essentially agricultural (for girls: domestic) training, the afternoon reserved for spiritual training. The curriculum included Hebrew (6 hours), Judaism and Judaism (2), Geography (2), Science (2); one hour each of Palestine and Zionism. The discussions and discussions that took place during the evenings on days off, which focused primarily on the problems of Palestinian construction, took up a great deal of space.[3]

As bearer of the Mi-Ha, Walk also mentions the Noar Agudati ("Youth of the Aguda") in addition to the already mentioned associations Hechaluz and Bachad. It was the German youth association of the founded in 1912 ultra-Orthodox-Jewish Agudath Israel World Organization. An important role in this organization played Kalman Kahana, who was involved in the founding of the Noar Agudati in Germany. [4]

A special role played the foreign Hachschara. It existed in ten European countries in the 1930s, predominantly in the form of the single Hachschara. Only the Werkdorp Wieringermeer in Holland was organized in the style of a Hachschara kibbutz. The foreign Hachschara also offered the possibility to deprive particularly vulnerable persons from access by National Socialist authorities. There were also Youth Aliyah centers abroad, such as the boarding school Kristinehovin Sweden. They offered the opportunity to accommodate young people for whom there were no entry certificates for Palestine. In addition to the facilities already mentioned, there were those in Romania, Lithuania, Northern Ireland, England, France, Luxembourg, Denmark, Russia and Switzerland, as well as overseas (USA, Canada), where the origin of the movement lay.

Hachschara facilities

Image
Memorial plaque, Selma-and-Paul-Latte-Platz, Berlin-Niederschönhausen

Hachschara institutions in the territory of the German Reich

Berlin


• The bottle factory of Selma Latte and Paul Latte in Berlin-Niederschönhausen, on whose grounds there was a Hachschara training company in handcraft. [5] The history of the former Hachsharah camp at the Buchholzerstraße 23-31 in Niederschönhausen exemplifies the self-assertion at risk of discrimination and exclusion Jewish population. [6]

Brandenburg

In Brandenburg, there were the following Hachshara sites [7]

• Old-Karbe in the Neumark, today Poland (existing until 1940)
• Landwerk Ahrensdorf near Trebbin (1936-1941) [8]
• Eichow »New field cutter mill«, today municipality Kolkwitz , with Cottbus (until 1941)
• Havelberg / Mark, Hunting Homestead Parola (until 1941)
• the agricultural estate of the copper and brass works Hirsch bei Eberswalde [9]
• Half in the marrow (until 1939)
• Hachschara camp Jessen (also Jessen mill ) near Sorau in the Lower Lusatia : "One of the few who survived underground until the liberation was the later TV presenter Hans Rosenthal, previously" on Hachschara "in Jessen in the Lower Lusatia." [ 10] (from 1937)
• Landkreis Neuendorf near Fürstenwalde (1932-1943)
• Polenzwerder at Eberswalde (1937 to presumably 1940)
• Rüdnitz, Hof Wecker, near Bernau (until 1941) [11] "In so-called Hachschara centers, the 14 to 17-year-old Jewish youth who enrolled in the Youth Aliyah to rely on Germany for Palestine were on her prepared there life. The Gut Rüdnitz on the railway line Berlin-Eberswalde was the first preparation center. It was followed, inter alia, Ahrensdorf at Trebbin, Schiebinchen (Sommerfeld / Niederlausitz), Polenzwerder at Eberswalde, Good angle at Fürstenwalde, kibbutz cracks near Hamburg, Kibbutz Jägerlust at Flensburg, Gehringshof at Fulda. There were also Youth Aliyah schools in Cologne and Berlin. " [12]
• Schniebinchen near Sommerfeld, today a part of the rural community Gmina Lubomino [13] (until 1941). The last two leaders of Schniebinchen , Alfred Cohn and Ludwig Kuttner, were previously teachers at the private forest school Kaliski in Berlin. [14]
• In the area of today's municipality Spreenhagen were several Hachschara facilities:
• Skaby (Kreis Beeskow) primarily for young couples (possibly until 1943)
• Landwerk Steckelsdorf near Rathenow [15] (1934-1942 / 43)
• Good angle [16]

Hamburg

In the Hamburg Hachschara facilities had until 1938 about 800 young people completed their education. [17]

• Agricultural school Shalom in Neugraben . [18] The school was an institution of Bachad.
• Youth hostel (Bet Chaluz) of the Hechaluz in Beneckestrasse (since June 1932). "The Bet Chaluz in the Beneckestraße became a center of Jewish youth culture - and a special goal of the November Pogrom in 1938." [17]
• Since June 1933 there were apprenticeships in a carpentry shop in Emilienstr. and in the Siedlerschule Wilhelminenhöhe. The latter was discontinued in the spring of 1934 because of its Zionist orientation and instead established a training course for gardeners. [17]
• For the care of the trainees, who were older than 18 years old, several care centers existed:
• Kibbutz Ejn Chaim ("Source of Life") in Hamburg cracks (from August 1933) [19]
• Kibbutz Schachal was an institution of Bachad in the former mansion of a Jewish dentist at Blankeneser Steubenweg 36 (now Grotiusweg 36) [20]
• Herut-Harut
• For mid-Hachschara participants, dormitories existed on Schäferkampsallee (from February 1936) and on Klosterallee (from May 1937).
• "Manual training offered the training workshops for carpenters and locksmiths in the Weidenallee, which had been established by the German-Israelite community in March 1934." [17]
• For girls, there have been training courses since March 1934 - mainly in practical housekeeping - "in the Jewish Household School in cooperation with the Jewish College for dressmakers (Heimhuderstr.), Internal in the boarding school of girls orphanage (Laufgraben)". [17]
• Since May 1935, the Bachad operated a religious school for girls in Johnsallee.
• Since February 1935, the Noar Agudati also operated a training center for girls in the Werderstraße.

Hesse

• Gehringshof near Fulda with its predecessors in Betzenrod (Scots) and Rodges ( Kibbutz Haddatih )
• Külte

Lower Saxony

• the - originally not Zionist - Israeli horticultural school Ahlem near Hannover
• Kibbutz Cheruth near Hameln [21] "In Hamelin the Hechaluz established a first common Hachschara site (Kibbutz-Hachschara) in 1926, most of them being members of the Zionist youth covenant 'Brith Haolim'. The name 'Cheruth' (freedom) was given by the group itself, but the reference to Buber's 'Cheruth' speech in 1919 is controversial. 1928 migrated the first of the group Cheruth 'and established together with Chaluzim from Eastern Europe Kibbutz Givat burner in Rehovot . " [22]

North Rhine-Westphalia

• Dietkirchener Hof in Urfeld
• Kibbutz Westerbeck - Hof Stern in Westerkappeln , Bauerschaft Westerbeck [23]

Schleswig-Holstein

• Brüderhof near Harksheide . He was probably looked after by the Hechaluz from Hamburg. "The Brüderhof ceased its work in the spring of 1939." [17]

Other Hachschara facilities

• A special feature was the so-called Nautical Hachschara of the " Fairplay Schleppdampfschiffs Reederei Richard Borchard GmbH " of the Jewish ship owner Lucy Borchardt . [24] "At the beginning of 1934, a maritime training of the Fairplay, later also the Amber and Schindler shipping companies had been added. It succeeded to accommodate a few apprentices in shipbuilding companies in Hamburg and Lübeck. They formed the human resource base of the resulting 1,934 merchant shipping in Palestine. " [17]

Forced Labor Instead of Hachschara

From 1941, the Hachschara institutions in the German Reich were converted by the National Socialists into forced labor camps for Jewish youth or completely dissolved.

Facilities of the foreign Hachschara

Great Britain


There were about 20 Hachschara centers across the UK.

• Whittingehame Farm School
• Millisle farm
• Not exclusively, but in parts, it is also possible to attribute the Camp Windermere to the foreign Hachshara, where young Holocaust survivors were cared for. According to Martin Gilbert, "consultants of various Zionist organizations, including Habonim and Hashomer Hatzair and the religious Zionist Bachad movement" took care of the young people there. [25]

Yugoslavia

• Subotica

At least between 1937 and 1939 there was a farm here "run by the Zionist organization Hechaluz. Here the young men and women learned to manage the winery and the fields, to take care of the animals and to run the farm. " [26]

Netherlands

• Werkdorp Wieringermeer

Sweden

• Boarding school Kristinehov
• Without mentioning further names, Pontus Rudberg refers to "young Jews who have completed their agricultural retraining on Swedish farms". [27]

Hachschara institutions after the Second World War

After the end of National Socialism, surviving Zionist Jews again founded Hachshara communities that existed until the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948.

• 30 institutions existed in Central and Upper Franconia. [28]
• The Gehringshof was reactivated as Kibbutz Buchenwald.

Literature

• Michael Winkelmann: The Hachscharah in Külte. In: Renate Knigge-Tesche, Axel Ulrich (ed.): Persecution and resistance in Hesse. 1933-1945. Eichborn, Frankfurt 1996, ISBN 3-8218-1735-6 , pp. 102-112.
• Irmgard Klönne, Ilana Michaeli (ed.): Good angle, the protective island. Hachshara 1933-1941. LIT publishing house, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-8258-0441-1 .
• Werner Rosenstock: Exodus 1933 to 1939. An overview of Jewish emigration from Germany. In: Robert Weltsch (ed.): German Judaism, rise and crisis. Shapes, ideas, works. Fourteen monographs. Publication of the Leo Baeck Institute . Deutsche Verlagsanstalt , Stuttgart 1963, pp. 380-405 (first in English: Exodus 1933-1939, A survey of Jewish emigration from Germany, in: Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook LBY, 1, 1956, pp. 373-390; also as separate pressure)
• Ulrike Pilarczyk: Community in pictures. Jewish youth movement and Zionist educational practice in Germany and Palestine / Israel. (= Hamburg Contributions to the History of German Jews, Volume XXXV). Wallstein publishing house, Goettingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-8353-0439-0 . (on-line)
• Joseph Walk: Jewish School and Education in the Third Reich. Publisher Anton Hain, Frankfurt am Main 1991, ISBN 3-445-09930-8 .

Sources and Web Links

• Literature by and about Hachschara in the catalog of the German national library
• Hachschara site Ahrensdorf
• Hachshara in Brandenburg
• A Fürstenwalder story: Landwerk Neuendorf im Sande and Gut Winkel, Martin Gerson and Clara Grunwald (PDF 38 KB)
• Memorial Ahlem on the site of the former "Israeli horticultural school Ahlem"
• The training center of the Hechaluz on the Brüderhof near Harksheide, haGalil , by Sieghard Bußenius
• with list of Hachschara sites
• Photographs of life in Hachschara camps in the inventory of the Jewish Museum Berlin
• Living and dying of Jewish families in Lower Lusatia. In: Lusatian Rundschau . March 26, 2007. Exhibition on the two Niederlausitzer camps in Schniebinchen , today Świbinki , a district of Teuplitz , camp of children and youth Alijah ; as well as the camp in Jessen near Sorau , at that time called Jessen near Sommerfeld , a Hachschara camp.
• Journal of Jewish Welfare and Social Policy , by Georg Josephthal : Educational and Migration Policy Aspects of Jewish Vocational Training in Germany, H, 1, 1938, p. 1 ff. [29]
• The Movement in the memorial circular, 144, by Herbert Fiedler; further literature
• Jewish Hamburg: Hachschara sites
• Barbara Rösch: Jewish History and Culture in Brandenburg. Teacher handout for elementary schools. , University Publishing Potsdam, 2009.

Individual proofs

1. Ulrike Pilarczyk: Community in Pictures. 2009, p. 107.
2. Ulrike Pilarczyk: Community in Pictures. 2009, p. 108.
3. Joseph Walk: Jewish School and Education in the Third Reich. 1991, p. 155.
4. Rabbi K. Kahane - PAI Leader
5. Honoring the couple , Werkstatt Denkmal, 2016; see. German version , Museum Pankow ; ditto, English-language version, more detailed and with reference to further materials.
6. printed matter - VII-1126: Designation of a public square in the district Niederschönhausen in "Selma and Paul Latte Square"
7. The following compilation follows - as far as no other sources are named - the publication of Barbara Rösch: Jewish history and culture in Brandenburg. Teacher Handbook for Primary Schools , p. 174 ff.
8. A detailed description of this with Barbara Rösch: Jewish history and culture in Brandenburg. Teacher Handbook for Primary Schools , p. 175 ff.
9. Friedrich von Borries , Jens-Uwe Fischer: Home container. German prefabricated houses in Israel. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt 2009, p. 64f .; see. continue: Katharina Hoba: The Good Angle - Spreenhagen in the Mark. In: Irmgard Klönne, Ilana Michaeli (ed.): Good angle, the protective island. Hachshara 1933-1941. LIT Verlag, Berlin 2007, p. 250 f.
10. Verena Buser: Fire on the farm. Even Hachschara camps for emigrants fell victim to the pogroms. In: Jewish General . November 7, 2013.
11. Rainer Horn: Rüdnitz Hachschara as a station on the run from the persecution of the Jews. Destinies in a bad time. In: moz.de , November 19, 2014.
12. The Youth Aliyah: From Nazi Germany to Palestine, from the Holocaust to Israel. In: its-arolsen.org , accessed on January 17, 2018.
13. From the collections of the Jewish Museum Berlin: Young people in the Hachschara camp Schniebinchen near Sommerfeld (photography)
14. Biographical Notes on Cohn and Kuttner see The Jewish Teaching Staff of PriWaKi
15. Ezra BenGershôm: David. Records of a survivor. Fischer, Frankfurt 1994, ISBN 3-596-11700-3 , P. 111-199 (chapter: "In a Palestine preparatory school"). The buildings are still almost completely preserved today.
16. Facts about Gut Winkel and Katharina Hoba: Das Gut Winkel - Spreenhagen in der Mark. In: Irmgard Klönne, Ilana Michaeli (ed.): Good angle, the protective island. Hachshara 1933-1941. LIT Verlag, Berlin 2007. The Landwerk Neuendorf and the Gut Winkel are covered in detail by Horst Helas: A History of Fürstenwalder (PDF, 38 kB)
17. Jewish Hamburg: Hachschara sites . All information on Hamburg is based on this publication - unless otherwise stated.
18. Hachschara. In: Kirsten Heinsohn (Red.): The Jewish Hamburg. A historical reference work. Published by the Institute for the History of German Jews. Wallstein-Verlag, Göttingen 2006, ISBN 3-8353-0004-0 , p. 102ff.
19. Oliver Törner: From kibbutz life in Hamburg. In: Hamburger Abendblatt. October 19, 1999.
20. Speech for the commemoration Grotiusweg 36; July 17, 2011
21. Biography Arie Goral-Sternheim
22. Meike Sophia Baader, Helga Kelle, Elke Kleinau (ed.): Bildungsgeschichten. Gender, religion and pedagogy in the modern age. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-412-33405-7 , p. 32 (note 16)
23. Gisbert Strotdrees : A kibbutz in Westphalia. In: Jewish General. January 22, 2015. (online)
24. Ina Lorenz: Lucy Borchardt. In: Kirsten Heinsohn (Red.): The Jewish Hamburg. A historical reference work. Published by the Institute for the History of German Jews. Wallstein-Verlag, Göttingen 2006, ISBN 3-8353-0004-0 , p 40.
25. Martin Gilbert: They were the boys. The story of 732 young Holocaust survivors. Publisher for Berlin-Brandenburg, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-86650-222-2 , p. 330.
26. Kim Wünschmann: Palestine as a haven for European Jews until 1945. Federal Agency for Civic Education, 2014.
27. Pontus Rudberg: Sweden and Jewish Refugees from Nazi Germany, 1933-1939. In: International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (ed.): Bystanders, Rescuers or Perpetrators? The Neutral Countries and the Shoah. Metropol Verlag & IHRA, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-86331-287-9 , pp. 65-76. (on-line)
28. Jim G. Tobias: The kibbutz on the Streicher farm. The forgotten history of Jewish collective farms 1945-1948. Antogo, Nuremberg 1997, ISBN 3-9806636-1-2 .
29. He also mentions the two aforementioned camps, as well as others; the slider on the website below on the numbers 1274ff. put.
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Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

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Hechaluz
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11/14/18

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Hechaluz (Hebrew for The Pioneer) was the umbrella organization of Zionist youth organizations, which had set itself the goal of organizing Jewish immigration to Palestine (Alija) and its preparation (Hachschara).

Germany

On December 16, 1922, a German national association was founded, which summarized all operating in Germany Chaluzim. [1] [2] According to the founding principles, anyone could become a member of the German National Association who learned ("redeployment ") or practiced an agricultural, craft or any other essential for the construction of Palestine and who could integrate into the Jewish working class of Palestine. [1]

During the Weimar Republic, there were never more than about 500 members; In the course of 1933, the number of members rose rapidly to an estimated 13,000 Chawerim ("comrades"), of which about a third was female. [3] Despite close cooperation with the Zionist Union of Hechaluz formally remained independent. From 1933, there were thirteen Gilim ("districts") with a district leader at the top. Head of Hechaluz became Enzo Sereni in 1933, who had come to Germany as an instructor of the Palestinian kibbutz movement. In 1934 he was succeeded by Georg Josephthal, who left Berlin in 1937 and gave many responsibilities to Yehuda Barlev and Yehuda Markus. [4]

Ideologically, the association identified with the Mapai. The socialist Habonim played an important role, while the rivalry with the Marxist Hashomer Hatzair intensified after 1933. [5] In the tradition of the German Youth Movement prevailed in Hechaluz a certain cult of leadership and a penchant for flags and symbols in order to strengthen the confidence of the Jewish youth.

The Hechaluz publishing house gave a total of 25 brochures a. Ä. out, according to own data altogether over 200.000 copies.

With the increasing Jewish emigration from 1936, the number of local groups decreased, and missing leaders had to be replaced by often inexperienced forces. The Hechaluz went in November 1938 in the Department I of the Palestine Office.

See also

• Nathan Schwalb

Literature

• Carsten Teichert: Chasak! Zionism in National Socialist Germany. 1933-1938 (Diss. University Cologne 1997), Cologne 2000. ISBN 3-9807173-0-5 .
• Harald Lordick: Polish Zionists in the Ruhr area. A Hechaluzverein in Hamborn around 1925 . In: Jan-Pieter Barbian , Michael Brocke , Ludger Heid (ed.): Jews in the Ruhr. From the Age of Enlightenment to the present , Essen 1999. ISBN 3-88474-694-4 . Pp. 523-540

Individual proofs

1. Hochspringen nach:a b Yehuda Reinharz (ed.): Documents on the history of German Zionism 1882-1933 . Mohr Siebeck, 1981, ISBN 3-16-743272-1 , p 328 ff . ( online ).
2. Hochspringen Hechaluz. Ghetto Theresienstadt - A reference work, accessed on April 9, 2008 .
3. Hochspringen Teichert, p. 116 f.
4. Hochspringen See Teichert, p. 137 f.
5. Hochspringe↑ Teichert, p. 142.
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Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

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Zionist Association for Germany
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Accessed: 11/14/18

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The National Jewish Association was founded in Cologne in 1894 by Max Bodenheimer, Fabius Schach, Moritz Levy, David Wolffsohn and Rachel Apple [1] and in 1897 renamed the Zionist Association for Germany (ZVfD). It counted about 10,000 in 1914 and about 20,000 members in the 1920s.

In 1928 a theological seminary was opened in Sarajevo by the federation of the Jewish communities, offering a secondary school education. The seminary's first rector, Rabbi Moritz Levi, author of the first historical study on the Sephardim in Bosnia, died in the Holocaust.

-- The Misanthropic Misogynist, by Encyclopaedia Judaica, Volume 18


Their publication organ was first the Zionist Correspondence in Germany, then the Jewish Rundschau. In 1919-1920 she also published the communications of the Zionist Association for Germany (Berlin, every half-month).

In 1925 there was a split, the revisionist wing (whose main international representative Vladimir Zeev Jabotinsky was), namely the Zionist Association, led by Georg Kareski.

Chairwoman

• Max I. Bodenheimer (1894-1910)
• Arthur Hantke (1910-1920)
• Alfred Klee (1914)
• Felix Rosenblüth (1920-1923)
• Alfred Landsberg (1923-1924)
• Kurt Blumenfeld (1924-1933)
• Siegfried Moses (1933-1937)
• Hans Friedenthal, 1936 managing chairman. [2]

Memorial Plaques

U. a. in Cologne's Richmodisstraße, a side street of the Cologne Neumarkt , a commemorative plaque commemorates the emergence of the Zionist Association for Germany in Cologne.

Web links

• Statute of the Zionist Association for Germany, retrieved on April 1, 2014

Individual proofs

1. Jehuda Reinharz (ed.): Documents on the History of German Zionism 1882-1933 (= Series of Scientific Treatises of the Leo Baeck Institute, Volume 37). Mohr Siebeck, 1981, ISBN 978-3-16-743272-3 , ISSN 0459-097X , p. 36 .
2. How long Friedenthal held the office is unclear. In a letter printed by Feidel-Mertz, he describes himself as chairman, but leaves the exact time open. Comparisons: Hildegard-Feidel-Mertz: Education in exile after 1933 , dipa-Verlag, Frankfurt, 1990, ISBN 3-7638-0520-6 , p. 166.

**************************

Zionist Federation of Germany
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/14/18

The Zionist Federation of Germany (German: Zionistische Vereinigung für Deutschland) also known as the Zionist Association for Germany was a Zionist organisation in Germany that was formed in 1897 in Cologne by Max Bodenheimer. It had attracted 10,000 members by 1914[1] and was by far the largest Zionist organisation in Germany.[2] The group supported the 1933 Haavara Agreement between Nazi Germany and German Zionist Jews which was designed to encourage German Jews to emigrate to Palestine.[3]

Presidents

• Max Bodenheimer (1894–1910)
• Arthur Hantke (1910–1920)
• Felix Rosenblüth (1920–1923)
• Alfred Landsberg (1923–1924)
• Kurt Blumenfeld (1924–1933)
• Siegfried Moses [de] (1933–1937)
• Hans Friedenthal [de], since 1936 per pro

References

1. See Neiwyk, Donald. (2001) The Jews in Weimar Germany, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, Ch 6: The Jew as Jewish Nationalist: The Quest for Zionist Utopia
2. Bloom, E. (2011) Arthur Ruppin and the Production of Pre-Israeli Culture, Studies in Jewish History and Culture, BRILL Publishers, p. 347
3. Stackelberg, R. (2007) The Routledge Companion to Nazi Germany, Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge Publishers, p. 313
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Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

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Max I. Bodenheimer
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Image
Max I. Bodenheimer (1st from left). Pictured is the delegation of the Zionists, who had come to Palestine at the end of October 1898 to meet with Kaiser Wilhelm II . From left to right: Bodenheimer, Wolffsohn, Herzl, Moses Schnirer, Joseph Seidener

Max Isidor Bodenheimer (born March 12, 1865 in Stuttgart , † July 19, 1940 in Jerusalem) was a German jurist of Jewish religion, pioneer of the Zionist movement in Germany and subsequently influential official of the Zionist World Organization. Herzl's nickname for Bodenheimer was occasionally Hajoll (Heb. Chajal = soldier, also code designation in telegrams, etc.).

Life

Bodenheimer studied law until 1889 in Berlin, Strasbourg, Freiburg im Breisgau and Tübingen, settled in 1890 in Cologne and opened there in 1893 a law firm, which he operated until 1933.

In 1896, Max Bodenheimer married Rosa Dalberg (born December 7, 1876, died March 24, 1938) at the Zionist Congress in The Hague in 1907 to found the Association of Jewish Women for Cultural Work in Palestine, the predecessor of the WIZO. The marriage came from the three children Fritz Simon (1897-1959, Professor of Zoology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem), Henrietta Hannah (1898-1992, biographer of her father) and Ruth (1900-1941, lawyer).

The seizure of power by the National Socialists forced Bodenheimer 1933 to emigrate to Amsterdam. After retreating from the Zionist movement in 1934, the family moved to Jerusalem in 1935, where Bodenheimer devoted himself to writing his autobiography, but was otherwise active in journalism. There he died on July 20, 1940.

Political career

For a long time Bodenheimer had dealt with the situation of the Jews. From 1889 onward, too, the realization that Judaism represented a nation matured, and he began to engage in the Zionist movement. His first article appeared in 1891. Are the Russian Jews a nation? in the Hamburg weekly The Menorah, the others followed, especially (also 1891) his booklet Where to go with the Russian Jews or Syria, a refuge of the Russian Jews (a part of the former administrative unit Syria was Palestine).

He gradually contacted various Zionist organizations and worked closely with David Wolffsohn since his first meeting in February 1892. Together with him Bodenheimer founded in 1893 the Cologne Association for the Promotion of Agriculture and Crafts in Palestine. In 1894 he participated with Gustav cloth in Hamburg at the founding of the Free Israelite Association. Also in 1894 was under Bodenheimer leadership the first National Jewish Association in Cologne (later "ZVfD"), whose president he was (and remained until 1910).

Image
Max Bodenheimer memorial plaque, Cologne Richmodstr. 6

From May 1896 Bodenheimer was in close correspondence with Theodor Herzl. Before the two met for the first time, the "National Jewish Association of Germany" was founded in Bingen on July 11, 1897, and Bodenheimer was elected its chairman. Herzl and Bodenheimer met at the first Zionist World Congress, which began on 29 August 1897 in Basel and participated in the Bodenheimer as a delegate of the German movement. There he was elected to the Action Committee, to which he belonged until 1921. From 1901 to 1922 Bodenheimer was the Congress Attorney of the Zionist World Congress.

On Herzl's travels to Constantinople and Jerusalem, Bodenheimer accompanied him in October and November 1898, when Herzl, in talks with, among others, Kaiser Wilhelm II and Sultan Abdulhamid II, strove to found his own state, "Israel."

In May 1899, Bodenheimer initiated together with others the Jewish National Fund. In addition to his involvement in the German Zionist movement, he was mainly responsible for a concept on the organizational statutes of the World Association. This concept was adopted at the 5th World Congress, 1901, and the founding of an International Fund, the Jewish National Fund (JNF), whose second president =- after Kremenetzky =- Bodenheimer from 1907 to 1914 was.

Bodenheimer also became a member of the Organizing Committee, in 1910 he took over his chairmanship with the aim of reforming the organizational structures. The reform became necessary due to the emergence of party formations within the organization, which Bodenheimer had initially criticized. The reforms were intended to regulate the positions of these parties within the World Federation and were implemented at the 10th Congress in August 1911 in Basel.

As a result, Bodenheimer's influence increased internationally, while in Germany, with the change of the headquarters of the German Zionists from Cologne to Berlin, decreased. Especially between 1912 and 1914 Bodenheimer openly opposed the more radical sentiment of the German movement, which was now dominated by Kurt Blumenfeld. This meant that Bodenheimer 1912 for the first time not participated in the German Zionist Congress. Bodenheimer spent the March and April of the year on behalf of the JNF in Palestine.

At the beginning of the First World War, 1914, moved on the initiative Bodenheimer, the headquarters of the JNF from Cologne to The Hague. Subsequently, he (together with Franz Oppenheimer, Adolf Friedemann and other Zionists) initiated the "Committee for the Liberation of the Russian Jews", later renamed the "Committee for the East", whose goal was to improve the situation of Jews in Germany and Austria. Hungary occupied Russian territories. So as not to question the neutrality of the World Association, Bodenheimer was not appointed Chairman of the Committee. Franz Oppenheimer took over the chairmanship instead. In November of that year he resigned from the chairmanship of the JNF, but remained a member of the Board of Directors.

1921 became the fateful year for Bodenheimer: in April he voted, with the majority of the JNF Board of Directors, to try to buy land in Palestine and passionately defended this decision at the 12th World Congress in September 1922 in Karlovy Vary. This appearance should also be his last intervention at a Zionist World Congress. The new leaders in the World Association, among them the newly elected President Chaim Weizmann in 1920 , slowly broke away from the era of Theodor Herzl. This led in December to the fact that many of Herzl's companions were not re-elected to the board of the JNF, among them Bodenheimer.

Bodenheimer had one last major appearance in Germany in 1928, when the Cologne Jewish Community gave him the organization and presentation of the Jewish exhibition as part of the International Press Exhibition "Pressa".

In 1929 Bodenheimer finally broke with Weizmann's policy and joined the revisionists around Zeev Jabotinsky. As its delegate, he participated in 1931 in Basel at its last World Congress. With his resignation from the Revisionist Party, 1934, Bodenheimer withdrew into private life.

Little is known that in 1933 he had written a drama about the life of Jesus (In the matter of Jesus, under the pseudonym M. Bodmer).

Fonts

• That's how Israel became. From the history of the Zionist movement. Memories of Dr. Max Isidor Bodenheimer (edited by Henriette Hannah Bodenheimer on the basis of the Hebrew unfinished biography of 1952), Europäische Verlagsanstalt, Frankfurt a. M., 1958

Literature

• Bodenheimer, Max. In: Encyclopedia of German-Jewish authors . Volume 3: Birk-Braun. Published by the Archives Bibliographia Judaica. Saur, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-598-22683-7 , p 250-255.
• Henriette Hannah Bodenheimer (ed.): In the beginning of the Zionist movement . Frankfurt am Main 1965.
• Dies .: The Zionists and Imperial Germany . Bensberg 1972.
• Dies .: The breakthrough of political Zionism in Cologne 1890-1900 . Cologne 1978.
• This .: Max Isidor Bodenheimer (1865-1940). In: Rhenish Life Pictures, Volume 12. Edited by Franz-Josef Heyen. Rheinland Verlag, Cologne 1991, pp. 233-256.
• Wilhelm Sternfeld , Eva Tiedemann: German exile literature 1933-1945. An organic bibliography . Vorw. By Hanns Wilhelm Eppelsheimer , Schneider, Heidelberg / Darmstadt, 1962.
• Zitron , Lexicon Zioni, column 57
• Herzl's diaries, passim
• Roland Geiger: On the edge of knowledge . In: Yesterday 5th ed. By Roland Geiger, St. Wendel 2004, pp. 94-101.

Web links

• Literature by and about Max I. Bodenheimer in the catalog of the German National Library
• Biography of Bodenheimer (German)
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Re: Ludwig Gurlitt, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Nov 14, 2018 10:12 pm

Fabius Schach
by Encyclopaedia Judaica
COPYRIGHT 2007 Thomson Gale

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SCHACH, FABIUS (1868–1930), one of the first members of the Zionist movement in Germany. Born in Wexna, Lithuania, Schach studied at yeshivot and went to Riga and then Berlin, where he studied at the university. There he made the acquaintance of Max *Bodenheimer, who brought him to Cologne as a Hebrew teacher (1893). Together with Bodenheimer and David Wolffsohn, he founded a Jewish national society that formed the nucleus of the German Zionist Federation. Schach participated in the First Zionist Congress and helped to draw up the *Basle Program. Afterward he fell out with Theodor *Herzl and his associates and spent the following years in Karlsruhe and Berlin. During World War I he worked in Hamburg as the editor of newspapers and journals, including those which opposed Zionism. During his Zionist period he was one of the foremost propagandists of the Zionist cause and a prolific writer, especially in German (but also in Hebrew) on Zionism, Judaism, and the Hebrew and Yiddish languages. Among his works is Volk-oder Salonjudentum (1893). His sister Miriam (1867–1956) was a pioneer of political Zionism in France. She left her home in Lithuania in 1879, completed her studies at the Sorbonne in Paris, and taught the liberal arts and languages at various high schools in France. She played an important role, together with Max *Nordau, Alexander *Marmorek, and Bernard *Lazar, in putting Zionist ideas across to the French. She also helped to found the French Zionist newspaper, L'Echo Sioniste (published from 1900). During the last years of her life, she lived in Haifa. A Hebrew version by K.A. Bertini of her memoirs of the beginnings of the Zionist movement in France, titled Asher Ittam Hithallakhti, was published in 1951.

bibliography:

L. Jaffe (ed.), Sefer ha-Congress (19502), 201, 391–2; R. Lichtheim, Toledot ha-Ẓiyyonut be-Germanyah (1951), index.
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