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Gregory Bateson
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Accessed: 4/20/19



Gregory Bateson
Rudolph Arnheim (L) and Bateson (R) speaking at the American Federation of Arts 48th Annual Convention, 1957 Apr 6 / Eliot Elisofon, photographer. American Federation of Arts records, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Born 9 May 1904
Grantchester, England
Died 4 July 1980 (aged 76)
San Francisco, California, U.S.
Known for Double bind, ecology of mind, deuterolearning, schismogenesis
Spouse(s) Margaret Mead
(m. 1936; div. 1950)
Elizabeth Sumner
(m. 1951; div. 1957)
Lois Cammack
(m. 1961)
Children 5, including Mary C. Bateson
Scientific career
Fields Anthropology, social sciences, linguistics, cybernetics, systems theory
Influences Margaret Mead, Conrad Hal Waddington, Warren McCulloch, Norbert Wiener, John von Neumann, Evelyn Hutchinson, Julian Bigelow
Influenced John C. Lilly, Heinz von Foerster, Jerry Brown, Richard Bandler, Stewart Brand, Gilles Deleuze, John Grinder, Félix Guattari, Jay Haley, Don D. Jackson, Bradford Keeney, Stephen Nachmanovitch, William Irwin Thompson, R. D. Laing, Paul Watzlawick, Carl Whitaker, Niklas Luhmann, Sharon Traweek; biosemiotics, application of type theory in social sciences, communication theory, ethnicity theory,[1] evolutionary biology, family therapy, brief therapy, neuro-linguistic programming, systemic coaching, anti-psychiatry, visual anthropology

Gregory Bateson (9 May 1904 – 4 July 1980) was an English anthropologist, social scientist, linguist, visual anthropologist, semiotician, and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many other fields. In the 1940s, he helped extend systems theory and cybernetics to the social and behavioral sciences. He spent the last decade of his life developing a "meta-science" of epistemology to bring together the various early forms of systems theory developing in different fields of science.[2] His writings include Steps to an Ecology of Mind (1972) and Mind and Nature (1979). Angels Fear (published posthumously in 1987) was co-authored by his daughter Mary Catherine Bateson.

In Palo Alto, California, Bateson and his colleagues Donald Jackson, Jay Haley and John H. Weakland developed the double-bind theory (see also Bateson Project).[3]

Bateson's interest in systems theory and cybernetics forms a thread running through his work. He was one of the original members of the core group of the Macy conferences in Cybernetics, and the later set on Group Processes, where he represented the social and behavioral sciences. Bateson was interested in the relationship of these fields to epistemology. His association with the editor and author Stewart Brand helped to widen his influence. From the 1970s until his last years, a broader audience of university students and educated people working in many fields came to know his thought.

In 1956, he became a naturalised citizen of the United States. Bateson was a member of William Irwin Thompson's Lindisfarne Association. In the 1970s, he taught at the Humanistic Psychology Institute (renamed the Saybrook University) in San Francisco;[4] and in 1972 joined the faculty of Kresge College at the University of California, Santa Cruz.[5] He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1976.[6] In 1976, California Governor Jerry Brown appointed Bateson to the Regents of the University of California,[7] in which position he served until his death (although he resigned from the Special Research Projects committee in 1979, in opposition to the university's work on nuclear weapons). He died on Independence Day, 1980, in the guest house of the San Francisco Zen Center.[8]

Personal life

Bateson was born in Grantchester in Cambridgeshire, England, on 9 May 1904. He was the third and youngest son of (Caroline) Beatrice Durham and the distinguished geneticist William Bateson. He was named Gregory after Gregor Mendel, the Austrian monk who founded the modern science of genetics.[9]

The younger Bateson attended Charterhouse School from 1917 to 1921, obtained a Bachelor of Arts in biology at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1925, and continued at Cambridge from 1927 to 1929. Bateson lectured in linguistics at the University of Sydney in 1928. From 1931 to 1937, he was a Fellow of St. John's College, spent the years before World War II in the South Pacific in New Guinea and Bali doing anthropology. During 1936–1950, he was married to Margaret Mead.[10] At that time he applied his knowledge to the war effort before moving to the United States.

Bateson's life, according to Lipset (1982), was greatly affected by the death of his two brothers. John Bateson (1898–1918), the eldest of the three, was killed in World War I. Martin Bateson (1900–1922), the second brother, was then expected to follow in his father's footsteps as a scientist, but came into conflict with his father over his ambition to become a poet and playwright. The resulting stress, combined with a disappointment in love, resulted in Martin's public suicide by gunshot under the statue of Anteros in Piccadilly Circus on 22 April 1922, which was John's birthday. After this event, which transformed a private family tragedy into public scandal, all William and Beatrice's ambitious expectations fell on Gregory, their only surviving son.[11]

Bateson's first marriage, in 1936, was to American cultural anthropologist Margaret Mead.[12] Bateson and Mead had a daughter, Mary Catherine Bateson (born 1939), who also became an anthropologist.[13] Bateson separated from Mead in 1947, and they were divorced in 1950.[14] In 1951, he married his second wife Elizabeth "Betty" Sumner (1919–1992), the daughter of the Episcopalian Bishop of Oregon, Walter Taylor Sumner.[15] They had a son, John Sumner Bateson (1951–2015), as well as twins who died shortly after birth in 1953. Bateson and Sumner were divorced in 1957, after which Bateson married his third wife, the therapist and social worker Lois Cammack (born 1928), in 1961. They had one daughter, Nora Bateson (born 1969).[14]

Bateson was a lifelong atheist, as his family had been for several generations.[16]

The 2014 novel Euphoria by Lily King is a fictionalized account of Bateson's relationships with Mead and Reo Fortune in pre-WWII New Guinea.[17]


Where others might see a set of inexplicable details, Bateson perceived simple relationships.[18] In "From Versailles to Cybernetics," Bateson argues that the history of the twentieth century can be perceived as the history of a malfunctioning relationship. In his view, the Treaty of Versailles exemplifies a whole pattern of human relationships based on betrayal and hate. He therefore claims that the treaty of Versailles and the development of cybernetics—which for him represented the possibility of improved relationships—are the only two anthropologically important events of the twentieth century.[19]


WWII and Office of Strategic Services career

Although initially reluctant to join the intelligence services, served in OSS during World War II along with dozens of other anthropologists.[20] He was stationed in the same offices as Julia Child (then Julia McWilliams), Paul Cushing Child, and others.[21] He spent much of the war designing 'black propaganda' radio broadcasts. He was deployed on covert operations in Burma and Thailand, and worked in China, India, and Ceylon as well. Bateson used his theory of schismogenesis to help foster discord among enemy fighters. He was upset by his wartime experience and disagreed with his wife over whether science should be applied to social planning or used only to foster understanding rather than action.[20]

Early Work: New Guinea and Bali

Bateson's beginning years as an anthropologist were spent floundering, lost without a specific objective in mind. He began first with a trip to New Guinea, spurred by mentor A. C. Haddon.[22] His goal, as suggested by Haddon, was to explore the effects of contact between the Sepik natives and whites. Unfortunately for Bateson, his time spent with the Baining of New Guinea was halted and difficult. The Baining turned out to be secretive and excluded him from many aspects of their society. On more than one occasion he was tricked into missing communal activities, and they held out on their religion.[22] He left them, frustrated. He next studied the Sulka, another native population of New Guinea. Although the Sulka were dramatically different from the Baining and their culture much more "visible" to the observer, he felt their culture was dying, which left him feeling dispirited and discouraged.[22]

He experienced more success with the Iatmul people, another indigenous people of the Sepik River region of New Guinea. He would always return to the idea of communications and relations or interactions between and among people. The observations he made of the Iatmul allowed him to develop his concept of schismogenesis. He studied the 'naven', an honorific ceremony among the Iatmul, still continued today, that celebrates first-time cultural achievements. The ceremony entails many antics that are normally forbidden during everyday social life. For example, men and women reverse and exaggerate gender roles; men dress in women's skirts, and women dress in men's attire and ornaments.[22] Additionally, certain categories of female kin smear mud in the faces of other relatives, beat them with sticks, and hurl bawdy insults. Mothers may drop to the ground so their celebrated 'child' walks over them. And during a male rite, a mother's brother may slide his buttocks down the leg of his honoured sister's son, a complex gesture of masculine birthing, pride, and insult, rarely performed before women, that brings the honoured sister's son to tears.[23] Bateson suggested the influence of a circular system of causation, and proposed that:

Women watched for the spectacular performances of the men, and there can be no reasonable doubt that the presence of an audience is a very important factor in shaping the men's behavior. In fact, it is probable that the men are more exhibitionistic because the women admire their performances. Conversely, there can be no doubt that the spectacular behavior is a stimulus which summons the audience together, promoting in the women the appropriate behavior.[22]

In short, the behaviour of person X affects person Y, and the reaction of person Y to person X's behaviour will then affect person X's behaviour, which in turn will affect person Y, and so on. Bateson called this the "vicious circle."[22] He then discerned two models of schismogenesis: symmetrical and complementary.[22] Symmetrical relationships are those in which the two parties are equals, competitors, such as in sports. Complementary relationships feature an unequal balance, such as dominance-submission (parent-child), or exhibitionism-spectatorship (performer-audience). Bateson's experiences with the Iatmul led him to publish a book in 1936 titled Naven: A Survey of the Problems suggested by a Composite Picture of the Culture of a New Guinea Tribe drawn from Three Points of View (Cambridge University Press). The book proved to be a watershed in anthropology and modern social science.[24]

Until Bateson published Naven, most anthropologists assumed a realist approach to studying culture, in which one simply described social reality. Bateson's book argued that this approach was naive, since an anthropologist's account of a culture was always and fundamentally shaped by whatever theory the anthropologist employed to define and analyse the data. To think otherwise, stated Bateson, was to be guilty of what Alfred North Whitehead called the "fallacy of misplaced concreteness." There was no singular or self-evident way to understand the Iatmul naven rite. Instead, Bateson analysed the rite from three unique points of view: sociological, ethological, and eidological. The book, then, was not a presentation of anthropological analysis but an epistemological account that explored the nature of anthropological analysis itself.

The sociological point of view sought to identify how the ritual helped bring about social integration. In the 1930s, most anthropologists understood marriage rules to regularly ensure that social groups renewed their alliances. But Iatmul, argued Bateson, had contradictory marriage rules. Marriage, in other words, could not guarantee that a marriage between two clans would at some definite point in the future recur. Instead, Bateson continued, the naven rite filled this function by regularly ensuring exchanges of food, valuables, and sentiment between mothers' brothers and their sisters' children, or between separate lineages. Naven, from this angle, held together the different social groups of each village into a unified whole.

The ethological point of view interpreted the ritual in terms of the conventional emotions associated with normative male and female behaviour, which Bateson called ethos. In Iatmul culture, observed Bateson, men and women lived different emotional lives. For example, women were rather submissive and took delight in the achievement of others; men fiercely competitive and flamboyant. During the ritual, however, men celebrated the achievement of their nieces and nephews while women were given ritual license to act raucously. In effect, naven allowed men and women to experience momentarily the emotional lives of each other, and thereby to achieve a level of psychological integration.

The third and final point of view, the eidological, was the least successful. Here Bateson endeavoured to correlate the organisation structure of the naven ceremony with the habitual patterns of Iatmul thought. Much later, Bateson would harness the very same idea to the development of the double-bind theory of schizophrenia.

In the Epilogue to the book, Bateson was clear: "The writing of this book has been an experiment, or rather a series of experiments, in methods of thinking about anthropological material." That is to say, his overall point was not to describe Iatmul culture of the naven ceremony but to explore how different modes of analysis, using different premises and analytic frameworks, could lead to different explanations of the same sociocultural phenomenon. Not only did Bateson's approach re-shape fundamentally the anthropological approach to culture, but the naven rite itself has remained a locus classicus in the discipline. In fact, the meaning of the ritual continues to inspire anthropological analysis.[25]

Bateson next travelled to Bali with his new wife Margaret Mead. They studied the people of the Balinese village Bajoeng Gede. Here, Lipset states, "in the short history of ethnographic fieldwork, film was used both on a large scale and as the primary research tool."[22] Indeed, Bateson took 25,000 photographs of their Balinese subjects.[26]

Bateson discovered that the people of Bajoeng Gede raised their children very unlike children raised in Western societies. Instead of attention being paid to a child who was displaying a climax of emotion (love or anger), Balinese mothers would ignore them. Bateson notes, "The child responds to [a mother's] advances with either affection or temper, but the response falls into a vacuum. In Western cultures, such sequences lead to small climaxes of love or anger, but not so in Bali. At the moment when a child throws its arms around the mother's neck or bursts into tears, the mother's attention wanders".[22] This model of stimulation and refusal was also seen in other areas of the culture. Bateson later described the style of Balinese relations as stasis instead of schismogenesis. Their interactions were "muted" and did not follow the schismogenetic process because they did not often escalate competition, dominance, or submission.[22]

After Bali, Bateson and Mead returned to the Sepik River in 1938, and settled into the village of Tambunum, where Bateson spent three days in the 1920s. They aimed to replicate the Balinese project on the relationship between childraising and temperament, and between conventions of the body – such as pose, grimace, holding infants, facial expressions, etc. – reflected wider cultural themes and values. Bateson snapped some 10,000 black and white photographs, and Mead typed thousands of pages of fieldnotes. But Bateson and Mead never published anything substantial from this research.[27]

Bateson and Margaret Mead contrasted first and Second-order cybernetics with this diagram in an interview in 1973.[28]

Bateson's encounter with Mead on the Sepik river (Chapter 16) and their life together in Bali (Chapter 17) is described in Mead's autobiography Blackberry Winter: My Earlier Years (Angus and Robertson. London. 1973). Catherine's birth in New York on 8 December 1939 is recounted in Chapter 18.

Double bind

In 1956 in Palo Alto, Bateson and his colleagues Donald Jackson, Jay Haley, and John Weakland[3] articulated a related theory of schizophrenia as stemming from double bind situations. The double bind refers to a communication paradox described first in families with a schizophrenic member. The first place where double binds were described (though not named as such) was according to Bateson, in Samuel Butler's The Way of All Flesh (a semi-autobiographical novel about Victorian hypocrisy and cover-up).[29]

Full double bind requires several conditions to be met:[citation needed]

1. The victim of double bind receives contradictory injunctions or emotional messages on different levels of communication (for example, love is expressed by words, and hate or detachment by nonverbal behaviour; or a child is encouraged to speak freely, but criticised or silenced whenever he or she actually does so).
2. No metacommunication is possible – for example, asking which of the two messages is valid or describing the communication as making no sense.
3. The victim cannot leave the communication field.
4. Failing to fulfill the contradictory injunctions is punished (for example, by withdrawal of love).

The strange behaviour and speech of schizophrenics was explained by Bateson et al. as an expression of this paradoxical situation, and were seen in fact as an adaptive response, which should be valued as a cathartic and transformative experience.

The double bind was originally presented (probably mainly under the influence of Bateson's psychiatric co-workers) as an explanation of part of the etiology of schizophrenia. Currently, it is considered to be more important as an example of Bateson's approach to the complexities of communication which is what he understood it to be.[citation needed]

The role of somatic change in evolution

According to Merriam-Webster's dictionary the term somatic is basically defined as the body or body cells of change distinguished from germplasm or psyche/mind. Bateson writes about how the actual physical changes in the body occur within evolutionary processes.[30] He describes this through the introduction of the concept of "economics of flexibility".[30] In his conclusion he makes seven statements or theoretical positions which may be supported by his ideology.

The first is the idea that although environmental stresses have theoretically been believed to guide or dictate the changes in the soma (physical body), the introduction of new stresses do not automatically result in the physical changes necessary for survival as suggested by original evolutionary theory.[30] In fact the introduction of these stresses can greatly weaken the organism. An example that he gives is the sheltering of a sick person from the weather or the fact that someone who works in an office would have a hard time working as a rock climber and vice versa. The second position states that though "the economics of flexibility has a logical structure-each successive demand upon flexibility fractioning the set of available possibilities".[30] This means that theoretically speaking each demand or variable creates a new set of possibilities. Bateson's third conclusion is "that the genotypic change commonly makes demand upon the adjustive ability of the soma".[30] This, he states, is the commonly held belief among biologists although there is no evidence to support the claim. Added demands are made on the soma by sequential genotypic modifications is the fourth position. Through this he suggests the following three expectations:[30]

1. The idea that organisms that have been through recent modifications will be delicate.
2. The belief that these organisms will become progressively harmful or dangerous.
3. That over time these new "breeds" will become more resistant to the stresses of the environment and change in genetic traits.

The fifth theoretical position which Bateson believes is supported by his data is that characteristics within an organism that have been modified due to environmental stresses may coincide with genetically determined attributes.[30] His sixth position is that it takes less economic flexibility to create somatic change than it does to cause a genotypic modification. The seventh and final theory he believes to be supported is the idea that in rare occasions there will be populations whose changes will not be in accordance with the thesis presented within this paper. According to Bateson, none of these positions (at the time) could be tested but he called for the creation of a test which could possibly prove or disprove the theoretical positions suggested within.[30]

Ecological anthropology and cybernetics

In his book Steps to an Ecology of Mind, Bateson applied cybernetics to the field of ecological anthropology and the concept of homeostasis.[31] He saw the world as a series of systems containing those of individuals, societies and ecosystems. Within each system is found competition and dependency. Each of these systems has adaptive changes which depend upon feedback loops to control balance by changing multiple variables. Bateson believed that these self-correcting systems were conservative by controlling exponential slippage. He saw the natural ecological system as innately good as long as it was allowed to maintain homeostasis[31] and that the key unit of survival in evolution was an organism and its environment.[31]

Bateson also viewed that all three systems of the individual, society and ecosystem were all together a part of one supreme cybernetic system that controls everything instead of just interacting systems.[31] This supreme cybernetic system is beyond the self of the individual and could be equated to what many people refer to as God, though Bateson referred to it as Mind.[31] While Mind is a cybernetic system, it can only be distinguished as a whole and not parts. Bateson felt Mind was immanent in the messages and pathways of the supreme cybernetic system. He saw the root of system collapses as a result of Occidental or Western epistemology. According to Bateson, consciousness is the bridge between the cybernetic networks of individual, society and ecology and the mismatch between the systems due to improper understanding will result in the degradation of the entire supreme cybernetic system or Mind. Bateson thought that consciousness as developed through Occidental epistemology was at direct odds with Mind.[31]

At the heart of the matter is scientific hubris. Bateson argues that Occidental epistemology perpetuates a system of understanding which is purpose or means-to-an-end driven.[31] Purpose controls attention and narrows perception, thus limiting what comes into consciousness and therefore limiting the amount of wisdom that can be generated from the perception. Additionally Occidental epistemology propagates the false notion that man exists outside Mind and this leads man to believe in what Bateson calls the philosophy of control based upon false knowledge.[31]

Bateson presents Occidental epistemology as a method of thinking that leads to a mindset in which man exerts an autocratic rule over all cybernetic systems.[31] In exerting his autocratic rule man changes the environment to suit him and in doing so he unbalances the natural cybernetic system of controlled competition and mutual dependency. The purpose-driven accumulation of knowledge ignores the supreme cybernetic system and leads to the eventual breakdown of the entire system. Bateson claims that man will never be able to control the whole system because it does not operate in a linear fashion and if man creates his own rules for the system, he opens himself up to becoming a slave to the self-made system due to the non-linear nature of cybernetics. Lastly, man's technological prowess combined with his scientific hubris gives him the potential to irrevocably damage and destroy the supreme cybernetic system, instead of just disrupting the system temporally until the system can self-correct.[31]

Bateson argues for a position of humility and acceptance of the natural cybernetic system instead of scientific arrogance as a solution.[31] He believes that humility can come about by abandoning the view of operating through consciousness alone. Consciousness is only one way in which to obtain knowledge and without complete knowledge of the entire cybernetic system disaster is inevitable. The limited conscious must be combined with the unconscious in complete synthesis. Only when thought and emotion are combined in whole is man able to obtain complete knowledge. He believed that religion and art are some of the few areas in which a man is acting as a whole individual in complete consciousness. By acting with this greater wisdom of the supreme cybernetic system as a whole man can change his relationship to Mind from one of schism, in which he is endlessly tied up in constant competition, to one of complementarity. Bateson argues for a culture that promotes the most general wisdom and is able to flexibly change within the supreme cybernetic system.[31]

Other terms used by Bateson

• Abduction. Used by Bateson to refer to a third scientific methodology (along with induction and deduction) which was central to his own holistic and qualitative approach. Refers to a method of comparing patterns of relationship, and their symmetry or asymmetry (as in, for example, comparative anatomy), especially in complex organic (or mental) systems. The term was originally coined by American Philosopher/Logician Charles Sanders Peirce, who used it to refer to the process by which scientific hypotheses are generated.
• Criteria of Mind (from Mind and Nature A Necessary Unity):[31]
1. Mind is an aggregate of interacting parts or components.
2. The interaction between parts of mind is triggered by difference.
3. Mental process requires collateral energy.
4. Mental process requires circular (or more complex) chains of determination.
5. In mental process the effects of difference are to be regarded as transforms (that is, coded versions) of the difference which preceded them.
6. The description and classification of these processes of transformation discloses a hierarchy of logical types immanent in the phenomena.
• Creatura and Pleroma. Borrowed from Carl Jung who applied these gnostic terms in his "Seven Sermons To the Dead".[32] Like the Hindu term maya, the basic idea captured in this distinction is that meaning and organisation are projected onto the world. Pleroma refers to the non-living world that is undifferentiated by subjectivity; Creatura for the living world, subject to perceptual difference, distinction, and information.
• Deuterolearning. A term he coined in the 1940s referring to the organisation of learning, or learning to learn:[33]
• Schismogenesis – the emergence of divisions within social groups.
• Information – Bateson defined information as "a difference which makes a difference." For Bateson, information in fact mediated Alfred Korzybski's map–territory relation, and thereby resolved, according to Bateson, the mind-body problem.[34][35][36]

Continuing extensions of Bateson's work

His daughter Mary Catherine Bateson published a joint biography of her parents (Bateson and Margaret Mead) in 1984.[37] Bateson's legacy was reintroduced to new audiences by his daughter the filmmaker Nora Bateson, with the release of An Ecology of Mind, a documentary that premiered at the Vancouver International Film Festival.[38] This film was selected as the audience favourite with the Morton Marcus Documentary Feature Award at the 2011 Santa Cruz Film Festival,[39] and honoured with the 2011 John Culkin Award for Outstanding Praxis in the Field of Media Ecology by the Media Ecology Association.[40] The Bateson Idea Group (BIG) initiated a web presence in October 2010. The group collaborated with the American Society for Cybernetics for a joint meeting in July 2012 at the Asilomar Conference Grounds in California.

See also

• Ray Birdwhistell
• Coherence therapy § Hierarchical organization of constructs
• Complex systems
• Constructivist epistemology
• Cybernetics
• Family therapy
• Holism
• Ignacio Matte Blanco
• Macy Conferences
• Systems science portal
• Margaret Mead
• Mary Catherine Bateson
• Mind-body problem
• Niklas Luhmann
• Second-order cybernetics
• Systems philosophy
• Systems theory in anthropology
• Systems thinking



• Bateson, Gregory (1944). An Analysis of the Film "Hitlerjunge Quex" (1933). New York?. OCLC 41057404.
• Bateson, G. (1958). Naven: A Survey of the Problems suggested by a Composite Picture of the Culture of a New Guinea Tribe drawn from Three Points of View (1936). Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0520-8.
• Bateson, G.; Mead, M. (1942). Balinese Character: A Photographic Analysis. New York Academy of Sciences. ISBN 0-89072-780-5.
• Ruesch, J.; Bateson, G. (2009) [1951]. Communication: The Social Matrix of Psychiatry. W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-1-4128-0614-5. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
• Bateson, G. (2000) [1972]. Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in Anthropology, Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-03905-6. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
• Bateson, G. (1979). Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity (Advances in Systems Theory, Complexity, and the Human Sciences). Hampton Press. ISBN 1-57273-434-5.
• (published posthumously), Bateson, G.; Bateson, MC (1988). Angels Fear: Towards an Epistemology of the Sacred. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-553-34581-0.
• (published posthumously), Bateson, G.; Donaldson, Rodney E. (1991). A Sacred Unity: Further Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-250100-3.
Articles, a selection
• 1956, Bateson, The message 'this is play.' In B. Schaffner (Ed.), Group Processes: Transactions of the Second Conference (pp. 145–242) New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation.
• 1956, Bateson, G., Jackson, D. D., Jay Haley & Weakland, J., "Toward a Theory of Schizophrenia", Behavioral Science, vol.1, 1956, 251–264. (Reprinted in Steps to an Ecology of Mind)
• Bateson, G.; Jackson, D. (1964). "Some varieties of pathogenic organization. In Disorders of Communication". Research Publications. Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease. 42: 270–283.
• 1978, Malcolm, J., "The One-Way Mirror" (reprinted in the collection "The Purloined Clinic"). Ostensibly about family therapist Salvador Minuchin, essay digresses for several pages into a meditation on Bateson's role in the origin of family therapy, his intellectual pedigree, and the impasse he reached with Jay Haley.
Documentary film
• Trance and Dance in Bali, a short documentary film shot by cultural anthropologist Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson in the 1930s, but it was not released until 1952. The film was an inductee of the 1999 National Film Registry list.[41]
• An Ecology of Mind, a documentary film shot by Nora Bateson and released in 2010 through The Impact Media Group, includes segments from Bateson's early films made in Bali.


1. Thomas Hylland Eriksen, "Bateson and the North Sea Ethnicity paradigm",
2. Lipset, David (1980). Gregory Bateson: Legacy of a Scientist. Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0133650561.
3. Bateson, G.; Jackson, D. D.; Haley, J.; Weakland, J. (1956). "Toward a theory of schizophrenia". Behavioral Science. 1 (4): 251–264. doi:10.1002/bs.3830010402.
4. Gordon, Susan (2013). "Editor's Introduction". In Susan Gordon (ed.). Neurophenomenology and Its Applications to Psychology. New York: Springer Publishing. p. xxxii. ISBN 978-1-4614-7238-4.
5. Per the jacket copy of the first edition of Mind and Nature (1979)
6. "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
7. "The Regents of the University of California (list)" (PDF). University of California. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
8. 'Gregory Bateson: Old Men Ought to be Explorers', Stephen Nachmanovitch, CoEvolution Quarterly, Fall 1982
9. Koestler, Arthur (1926). The Case of the Midwife Toad.
10. NNDB, Gregory Bateson, Soylent Communications, 2007.
11. Schuetzenberger, Anne. The Ancestor Syndrome. New York, Routledge. 1998.
12. Encyclopædia Britannica (2007). "Gregory Bateson". Retrieved from Britannica Concise, 5 August 2007
13. "Mary Catherine Bateson". Mary Catherine Bateson. Retrieved 27 July2013.
14. To Cherish the Life of the World: Selected Letters of Margaret Mead. Margaret M. Caffey and Patricia A. Francis, eds. With foreword by Mary Catherine Bateson. New York. Basic Books. 2006.
15. "Walter Taylor Sumner". Find a Grave. 21 August 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
16. Noel G. Charlton (2008). Understanding Gregory Bateson: mind, beauty, and the sacred earth. SUNY Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780791474525. This was to be the last large-scale work of lifelong atheist Bateson, seeking to understand the meaning of the sacred.
17. Eakin, Emily (6 June 2014). "Going Native: 'Euphoria,' by Lily King". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
18. Tognetti, Sylvia S. (2002). "Bateson, Gregory". In Peter Timmerman (ed.). Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Chang e (PDF). Chichester: Wiley. pp. 183–184. ISBN 0-471-97796-9. Retrieved 15 August 2012. Instead, Bateson stressed the importance of relationships that provide the basis for organization, and that are a greater limiting factor than energy. Relationships, which are sustained through communication of information rather than by energy flows, are also important as a source of information about context and meaning.
19. Bateson, Gregory (21 April 1966). ""Versailles to Cybernetics"". Steps to an Ecology of Mind. pp. 477–485. Retrieved 15 August 2012. This is what mammals are about. They are concerned with patterns of relationship, with where they stand in love, hate, respect, dependency, trust, and similar abstractions, vis-à-vis somebody else.
20. Gregory Bateson and the OSS: World War II and Bateson's Assessment of Applied Anthropology, by Dr David H. Price,
21. Conant, Jennet (2011). A Covert Affair Julia Child and Paul Child in the OSS. Simon and Schuster. p. 43.
22. Lipset, 1982[page needed]
23. ^ Silverman, Eric Kline (2001) Masculinity, Motherhood and Mockery: Psychoanalyzing Culture and the Iatmul Naven Rite in Ne Guinea. University of Michigan Press
24. Marcus, George (1985) A Timely Rereading of Naven: Gregory Bateson as Oracular Essayist. Raritan 12:66–82.
25. See, most recently, Michael Houseman and Carlo Seviri, 1998, Naven or the Other Self: A Relational Approach to Ritual Action (Leiden: Brill); Eric Kline Silverman, 2001, Masculinity, Motherhood and Mockery: Psychoanalyzing Culture and the Iatmul Naven Rite in New Guinea (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press); Andrew Moutu, 2013, Names are Thicker than Blood: Kinship and Ownership amongst the Iatmul (Oxford University Press).
26. Harries-Jones, Peter (1995). A Recursive Vision: Ecological Understanding and Gregory Bateson. University of Toronto Press.
27. Silverman, Eric Kline. Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson in the Sepik, 1938: A Timely Polemic From a Lost Anthropological Efflorescence. Pacific Studies 28 (3/4) 2005:128-41.
28. Interview Archived 26 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine with Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead, in: CoEvolutionary Quarterly, June 1973.
29. Bateson, Steps to an ecology of mind
30. Bateson, Gregory (December 1963). "The Role of Somatic Change in Evolution". Evolution. 17 (4): 529–539. doi:10.2307/2407104. JSTOR 2407104.
31. Bateson, Gregory (1972). Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in Anthropology, Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-03905-6.
32. Carl Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, Vintage Books, 1961, ISBN 0-394-70268-9, p. 378
33. Visser, Max (2002). Managing knowledge and action in organizations; towards a behavioral theory of organizational learning. EURAM Conference, Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management, Stockholm, Sweden.
34. Form, Substance, and Difference, in Steps to an Ecology of Mind, p. 448-466
35. David A Reid. "". Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
36. "". Retrieved 27 July 2013.
37. Bateson, M. C. (1984). With a daughter's eye: A memoir of Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson. New York: Pocket Books.
38. [1][dead link]
39. "2011 SCFF Award Winners". Santa Cruz Film Festival. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
40. "The 2011 MEA Awards". Retrieved 27 July 2013.
41. ... y-listing/ | accessed 3/18/2018

Sources and further reading

• 1982 Carol Wilder and John Weakland, Rigor and Imagination: Essays from the Legacy of Gregory Bateson. New York: Praeger.
• Lipset, David (1982). Gregory Bateson: the Legacy of a Scientist. Beacon Press.
• 1982, Stephen Nachmanovitch, Gregory Bateson: Old Men Ought to be Explorers, CoEvolution Quarterly, Fall 1982.
• 1992, Gregory Bateson's Theory of Mind : Practical Applications to Pedagogy by Lawrence Bale. Nov. 1992, (Published online by Lawrence Bale, D&O Press, Nov. 2000).
• Article The Double Bind: The Intimate Tie Between Behaviour and Communication by Patrice Guillaume
• 1995, Paper Gregory Bateson: Cybernetics and the social behavioral sciences by Lawrence S. Bale, PhD: First Published in: Cybernetics & Human Knowing: A Journal of Second Order Cybernetics & Cyber-Semiotics, Vol. 3 no. 1 (1995), pp. 27–45.
• 1996, Paradox and Absurdity in Human Communication Reconsidered by Matthijs Koopmans.
• 1997, Schizophrenia and the Family: Double Bind Theory Revisited by Matthijs Koopmans.
• 2005, Perception in pose method rumng by Dr. Romanov
• 2005, "Gregory Bateson and Ecological Aesthetics" Peter Harries-Jones, in: Australian Humanities Review (Issue 35, June 2005) as are the following three articles:
• 2005, "Chasing Whales with Bateson and Daniel" by Katja Neves-Graça
• 2005, "Pattern, Connection, Desire: In honour of Gregory Bateson" by Deborah Bird Rose
• 2005, "Comments on Deborah Rose and Katja Neves-Graca" by Mary Catherine Bateson
• 2007, Stephen Nachmanovitch, "Bateson and the Arts," Kybernetes, 36:7/8.
• 2008. Jesper Hoffmeyer (ed.), A Legacy for Living Systems: Gregory Bateson as Precursor to Biosemiotics, Berlin: Springer
• 2008, Stephen Nachmanovitch, "It don't mean a thing if it ain't got that swing: Bateson's epistemology and the rhythms of life," Journal of Meaning and Ultimate Reality, 30:1.
• 2009, Stephen Nachmanovitch, "This is play," New Literary History, vol. 40.
• 2010. "An Ecology of Mind". A film portrait of Gregory Bateson, produced and directed by his daughter, Nora Bateson. Film Website at An Ecology Of Mind, A Daughter's Portrait of Gregory Bateson
• 2013, Stephen Nachmanovitch, "An Old Dinosaur: Gregory Bateson's Ecology of Ideas, 1980/2012," Kybernetes, 2013, Vol 42/no 9-10.

External links

• Book "A Recursive Vision: Ecological Understanding and Gregory Bateson" by Peter Harries-Jones
• Book "Understanding Gregory Bateson" by Noel Charlton
• "Institute for Intercultural Studies"
• "Six days of dying"; essay by Catherine Bateson describing Gregory Bateson's death
• "Bateson's Influence on Family Therapy" ; inside details by MindForTherapy
• Movie and website "An Ecology of Mind" A daughter's portrait of Gregory Bateson by Nora Bateson
• The Bateson Idea Group
• Gregory Bateson on IMDb
• Ansgar Fabri, Burkhart Brückner: Biography of Gregory Bateson in: Biographical Archive of Psychiatry (BIAPSY).
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CHAPTER THREE: Freud, Haeckel, and Jung


EVOLUTIONARY THEORY was the topic on everyone's tongue in the latter half of the nineteenth century after the publication of The Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection by Charles Darwin (1809-1882) on 24 November 1859. With Darwin's work the field of evolutionary biology was born. Darwin's highly articulated mechanistic theories of evolution surpassed all previous efforts and stimulated an interest in origins, in the creative or regenerative processes of ontogeny (individual development), and in phylogeny (the evolution of an entire species, or the birth of new ones) from the perspective of scientific materialism. [1]

Prior to Darwin, at least in the minds of many supposedly skeptical Enlightenment theorists, the only "origins" and "variations" were degenerations from perfect or ideal original types that had been created by the Judeo-Christian God. [2] Between 1790 and 1830, several different schools of Naturphilosophie dominated the scientific community in German Europe, in which philosophical and literary speculation was combined with empirical science. [3] These schools of Naturphilosophie have also been generically referred to as "essentialism" or "morphological idealism."

The word archetype was used in the mid-1800s in this Romantic biological context by the last great morphological idealist, Richard Owen (1804-1892) in his On the Archetype and Homologies of the Vertebrate Skeleton of 1848. [4] For most early biologists, there was no descent, as species did not evolve -- especially not from one into another. The search for the Urform or original form (or Urtyp, the original type or archetype) of each species -- studied by comparing similar structures in the different organisms -- was known as the idealistic science (Wissenschaft) of morphology, a term coined by Goethe in 1807. Goethe used the terms Urbild or "primordial image" and Urtyp, and these were later borrowed by Jung. These archetypes were eternal and transcendent, shaping man and the natural world in mysterious, but observable, ways.

Some of Jung's earliest and most powerful influences were among the speculative and metaphysical Naturphilosophen of the Romantic era, who after 1800 increasingly confined their studies to medical theory and practice. [5] C. G. Jung the Elder practiced medicine in this metaphysical Romantic mode. The most influential Naturphilosophen included F.W.J. Schelling (1775-1854), Goethe, Lorenz Oken (1779-1851), and a man that Goethe much admired, Carl Gustav Carus (1789-1869), a comparative anatomist who insisted that the divine essence of life would only be recognized through initiation into these insights through spiritual development:

Insofar as the idea of life is no other than the idea of an eternal manifestation of the divine essence through nature, it belongs among those original insights of reason that do not come to man from outside .... These insights open up in the inwardness of man; they must reveal themselves and, once a man has reached a certain level of development, they will always reveal themselves. [6]

This view is precisely the affirmation of the belief of the Naturphilosophen that, as historian of science Timothy Lenoir succinctly puts it, "when properly trained in the method of philosophical reflection, the understanding is capable, primarily through a higher faculty of judgment, of penetrating and comprehending the structure of the life process itself." [7] Thus, as living beings at the peak of the great chain of being (as historian of ideas Arthur O. Lovejoy called it), humans were uniquely capable of an intuitive grasp of the very pulse of life itself in its more elemental forms. Jung's twentieth-century psychological methods -- including that of "active imagination" -- are direct survivors of this Romantic praxis.

As Ellenberger and others have briefly pointed out, it is with these early Romantic Naturphilosophen that we feel closest to a living tradition -- albeit one that was driven underground -- that resurfaces in the work of Jung. [8] Jung's own biological position and his fascination with the Urtyp seem to place him directly within the speculative or metaphysical schools of Naturphilosophie, despite his later attempts to integrate this idealism regarding mechanistic evolutionary concepts with his own phylogenetic theories. [9] Jung mentions Carus throughout his life, in the same breath with von Hartmann, as a major influence on his idea of a collective unconscious, and he read both men during his student years. [10] Jung was particularly taken with Carus's Psyche (1846). In Mysterium Coniunctionis (1955-1956), a late work that comprises CW 14, Jung says:

the psychology of the unconscious that began with C. G. Carus took up the trail that had been lost by the alchemists. This happened, remarkably enough, at a moment in history when the apparitions of the alchemists had found their highest poetic expression in Goethe's Faust. At the time Carus wrote, he certainly could not have guessed that he was building the philosophical bridge to an empirical psychology of the future. [11]

A few of the philosophical perspectives associated with Naturphilosophie (teleology, etc.) survived in the nineteenth-century biophysics movement that Freud and Jung both encountered as part of their medical training, Freud in the 1870s and Jung in the 1890s. Although psychiatric historian Iago Galdston has argued for a greater acknowledgment of the influence of the vitalism of the romantic Naturphilosophen on Freud through his influential friend Wilhelm Fliess and his vitalistic theories based on ideas of periodicity, polarity, and bisexuality -- all familiar concepts in romantic Naturphilosophie -- other scholars such as Frank Sulloway and Paul Cranefield have challenged this. [12] Freud's first-degree intellectual ancestors were, in part, the reductionistic scientific materialists, including his beloved mentor, Ernst von Brucke. [13] However, the affinities between the Naturphilosophen and Jung, as we have seen, were acknowledged repeatedly by Jung himself. It is tempting to speculate that the eventual incompatibility of ideas between Jung and Freud can be attributed to their very partisan participation in a greater battle in the biological sciences between vitalistic Naturphilosophie and mechanistic Naturwissenschaft.

This idealism of Naturphilosophie was eventually challenged and successfully replaced by the work of the Kantian "teleomechanists" or "vital materialists" such as Johann Blumenbach, Karl Kielmeyer, Johann Christian Reil, and Karl Ernst von Baer; [14] by "scientific materialists" such as Karl Vogt, Jacob Moleschott, Ludwig Buchner, and Heinrich Czolbe; [15] and by the mechanism of evolutionists such as Darwin and German zoologist Ernst Haeckel. It was Haeckel who, along with Freud (but in a different vein), took scientific renown one step further and designed secular paths of cultural renewal or regeneration that were greatly influenced by evolutionary biological training. [16]


It may seem outrageous to write a book on Jung without devoting considerable space to his relationship with Freud, but that relationship has been discussed in so many other volumes, and at such great length, that it would be impossible to do justice to yet another retelling of the Freud/Jung myth here. Perhaps the best such exposition is John Kerr's A Most Dangerous Method: The Story of Jung, Freud, and Sabina Spielrein. [17] It is time to step out of this important -- but limiting -- intellectual context. Instead, I would like to briefly draw attention to some alternative perspectives on Jung's involvement with Freud and psychoanalysis that, to my knowledge, have not been adequately addressed. In particular, I am interested in the historical role of psychoanalysis as a type of Lebensphilosophie and revitalization movement in a fin-de-siecle world of degeneration and decay.

In his autobiographical statements, seminars, and filmed interviews, Jung always acknowledges that Freud was a great man and his master. It would not be unreasonable to say that Freud was Jung's first experience of someone he considered a true living genius. In this regard, their relationship was analogous to Nietzsche's relationship with Richard Wagner, "the Master." In the presence of genius, both Nietzsche and Jung wisely observed, absorbed, and imitated. After repeated exposure to the genius and his ever-changing ideas (so true to the inconstant, mercurial nature of a genius!), however, the luster of divinity began to wear. In Jung's case, it was the seven weeks he spent with Freud on ships and in America in autumn 1909, each of them analyzing the other's dreams daily; for Nietzsche, it was the repeated personal contact with Wagner and especially the cult-like atmosphere the Meister himself encouraged at the first Bayreuth festival in 1876. Nietzsche's rupture with Wagner and Jung's dissociation from Freud are played out according to nineteenth-century scripts of "genius": once one recognizes the spark of genius in oneself, there is no longer any need for discipleship. [18]

What attracted Jung to Freud and his ideas for so many years (1905-1912) and with such devotion? Volumes have been written trying to understand this relationship. In addition to Freud's charisma as a living exemplum of "genius," I propose that Jung was attracted to the practical aspects of Freudian psychoanalysis:

1. as a way to overcome the onus of hereditary degeneration in his institutionalized patients (and perhaps in himself)

2. by its later role as an agent of cultural revitalization through its core Nietzschean themes of uncovering, bond-breaking, and of irrationality and sexuality

Psychoanalysis was originally a supposedly medical and then a cultural movement that promised a better existence (freedom from symptoms, self-knowledge) for the successfully analyzed. Full access to memory was the key to revitalization. These memories were sexual, infantile, and above all personal. This was indeed the basic message of the work that drew the world's attention to Freud and his mentor Josef Breuer, Studies on Hysteria (1895). [19]

It has been persuasively argued that Freud's conceptualization of psychoanalysis as a cultural movement was a "scientific" path (unlike political paths such as Marxism) to achieve liberal political revolution for marginalized groups such as Jews in an increasingly conservative and anti-Semitic Vienna. [20] Yet we must remember that psychoanalysis was absolutely unknown to the common citizen of Austria-Hungary at the time. It is often still forgotten that although he named and began practicing what he called psychoanalysis in his Viennese office in the mid-1890s, until 1900 or so Freud, working in his "splendid isolation," was the psychoanalytic movement. By 1902 Freud found four Jewish physicians (primarily internists) -- Alfred Adler, Max Kahane, Rudolph Reitler, and Wilhelm Stekel -- who were interested enough in his ideas to meet with him weekly at 19 Bergasse at meetings dominated by his intellect. This was the famous Psychological Wednesday Evening Circle, which grew to seventeen members by 1906 (the year that Freud and Jung began their correspondence; they first met in early 1907). In 1908 the First International Congress was held in Salzburg, Austria, attended by forty participants from six countries and in that same year Freud's Wednesday group was renamed the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. In 1910 the International Psychoanalytic Association was founded, with Jung as its first president. By 1910 there were two official psychoanalytic journals.

The Viennese psychoanalytic movement grew rapidly in professional circles in Europe and America only after 1911 or so, but its first fateful success was the relative conversion of a group of eminent Swiss alienists (Bleuler, Jung, and their colleagues) at the Burgholzli by 1904 or so. [21] Bleuler (1857-1939), as chief of the Burgholzli, also held the prestigious Chair in Psychiatry at the University of Zurich, which, along with the other such Chairs in Vienna and Berlin, made him and his clinic one of the top three centers of modern psychiatry in Europe -- indeed, in the whole world. When Bleuler and the Swiss took Freud seriously, others in Europe and elsewhere began to do so as well.

An often unacknowledged advantage of Freud's psychoanalytic theory was its shift of etiological significance from biological hereditarian factors (degeneration) to psychodynamic ones (repressed traumatic memories, etc.) in its earliest theoretical formations. Thus one was not doomed by the fate of one's "bad blood" and indeed, one could be renewed through psychoanalytic treatment. This made psychoanalysis especially attractive to the "tainted," including those tainted in Central European culture by their ethnicity, such as Jews. [22] According to psychiatric historian Sander Gilman, Freud "repudiated the model of degeneracy" despite the other dominant nineteenth-century biological assumptions of his theories. [23]

The introduction of a method of treatment that seemed to bypass the biological fate of degeneration and perhaps even reverse its symptoms must have seemed particularly attractive to those -- like Jung -- who were toiling in institutions where hopeless cases seemed to be the rule and not the exception. Other than ordering and perhaps administering the usual somatic treatments (baths, electrotherapy, work therapy, opiates and barbiturates, muffs, camisoles, and other physical restraints), psychiatrists in such institutions engaged in typical medical examination and the diagnostic classification of patients. The claims that Freud was making about psychoanalysis circa 1905 would seem like a ray of hope to the psychiatrist confined with his patients in the back wards of asylums, which were storerooms of human degeneration. Dementia praecox, as Kraepelin first defined it in his famous textbook in 1893, was a degenerative psychotic disorder. Jung, despite his obvious philosophical nature, was always interested in the practical application of ideas in the form of therapeutic methods. Although in his writings at this time (1904-1905) Freud actually said very little about how one should perform psychoanalysis, Jung and his fellow physicians at the Burgholzli attempted to read between the lines of Freud's writings and practice psychoanalysis on their patients. It was the first step towards liberation from hereditary taint that Jung would complete with his own unique formulations in 1916.

The evolution of the psychoanalytic movement from one based on primarily clinical concerns to a totalizing cultural revitalization has been documented by Kerr. [24] Conspicuously few scholars have dared to examine the psychoanalytic movement from the perspective of the sociology of religion even though, as Sulloway notes, "the discipline of psychoanalysis, which has always tapped considerable religious fervor among its adherents, has increasingly come to resemble a religion in its social organization" with its "secular priesthood of soul doctors." [25]

No single study of Freud's branch of the psychoanalytic movement as a charismatic group has been conducted, although, indeed, during the rise of psychoanalysis that was precisely how many viewed the energetic efforts and genius-cult of the "secret committee" circle surrounding Freud and the worldwide movement they promoted. As many other charismatic groups did, following the urgings of the Lebensphilosophen, Freudians appealed to "experience." They believed and violently argued that one could only understand Freud or psychoanalysis after being analyzed by a Freudian psychoanalyst. This reliance upon a specialist elite -- initiated into secret, "occult" knowledge -- who proceeded by an essentially "intuitive" method, illustrates the basis of psychoanalysis in an "aristocratic epistomology." Ironically, given Freud's alliance with reductionist materialism and atheism, in the twentieth century the psychoanalytic movement took on a more than passing resemblance to the nineteenth-century German vitalistic or Lebensphilosophie traditions that left the confines of academia and became social and cultural movements of Lebensreform. [26] The proselytizing Freudians did give Weber, the German "father of sociology," some serious concern, for in private correspondence as early as 1907 he singled out Freud's movement as a quasi-mystical charismatic group based on the personality and ideas of a charismatic leader who was considered to have almost divine qualities. [27]

Others noted the cult-like nature of the psychoanalytic movement as well. Starting in 1909, after the Clark Conference, Freud and psychoanalysis took the American psychiatric community by storm. [28] An apocryphal story about the 1909 ocean voyage to America has Freud turning to Jung and saying, as they arrive in New York harbor, "Don't they know that we're bringing them the plague?" History cannot deny that Freudianism began to infect the North American psychiatric community after this visit, but some critics were immune to the virus. The eminent Columbia University experimental psychologist Robert S. Woodworth charged Freudian psychoanalysis was an "uncanny religion." [29] Another prominent American psychologist, Knight Dunlap, asserted in his early polemical work, Mysticism, Freudianism, and Scientific Psychology, that "psychoanalysis attempts to creep in wearing the uniform of science, and to strangle it from the inside."  [30] Many others also rejected psychoanalysis as an atheistic and materialistic cult. [31]


Another European movement explicitly designed to be an "anti-Christian" path of Lebensreform was the "Monistic Religion" of Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919). From his post as professor of zoology at the University of Jena, Haeckel dominated German evolutionary biology in the second half of the nineteenth century and was the most prominent proponent of the social implications of Darwinian theory. Over the years Haeckel made many creative departures from Darwin, so many in fact that the tenets of Darwinism were occluded by the renovations of Haeckelism. Since he was a prolific author, and wrote books and articles for both the scholarly and popular presses, it has been said that he dominated the discussion of evolutionary theory in German Europe by providing "the most comprehensive surveys of the Darwinist position authored by a German." [32]

Haeckel published his views on human evolution in 1868, before Darwin did so in 1871 with The Descent of Man. [33] Darwin himself acknowledged Haeckel's priority by several years in formulating the theory of the descent of humans from simian ancestors. Historian of science and evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr credits Haeckel for being "perhaps the first biologist to object vigorously to the notion that all science had to be like the physical sciences or to be based on mathematics." [34] Mayr says Haeckel was the first to insist that evolutionary biology was a historical science involving the historical methodologies of embryology, paleontology, and especially phylogeny.

In particular it was Haeckel's influential "Biogenetic Law" -- "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" -- based on the evidence of these historical methods in biology that eventually had profound implications not only for evolutionary biology, but for psychiatry and psychoanalysis, especially Jung's analytical psychology. Haeckel considered this law as a universal truth -- indeed, for much of his early career, perhaps the only universal truth. That the stages of individual development (ontogeny) could be shown to replicate, in order, the states of the development of the human race (phylogeny) was a compelling theory. Each adult human being, then, in both development and structure, was a living museum of the entire history of the species.

Taking this principle as a starting point, as early as 1866 Haeckel proposed a new "natural religion" based on the natural sciences, since "God reveals himself in all natural phenomena." [35] In many later publications he promoted his pantheistic natural religion based on scientific principles -- a philosophy he called "Monism" -- as a way of linking science and religion. Haeckel was interested in theorizing about the driving natural force of life and evolution, which he insisted Darwin left out of his (therefore) incomplete theories. His somewhat quasi-vitalistic descriptions of monism provided that. However, his first specific recommendations for a monistic religion came in 1892 in a speech in Altenburg. He argued fervently for a monism as a new faith founded on a "scientific Weltanschauung," thus going beyond a mere substitution of atheistic materialism for Christianity (as he was generally perceived as doing by his contemporaries and even by many historians today).....

In 1911 Nobel-laureate Wilhelm Ostwald of Leipzig University, a physical chemist, became president of the Monistenbund and founded a "monistic cloister" devoted to initiating Social Darwinian cultural reforms in the areas of eugenics, euthanasia, and economics. An elite devoted to the preservation of the Monistic Religion clustered around the charismatic Ostwald and his volkisch metaphysical works. [45] Indeed, it is these works of speculative philosophy (Ostwald even embraced the term Naturphilosopllie for this exercise) that made him an international figure long before his 1909 Nobel Prize, and many considered him a prophet of the modern age. [46][/size][/b]

We know that Ostwald was a significant influence on Jung in the formation of his theory of psychological types. Jung mentions Ostwald's division of men of genius into "classics" and "romantics" in his very first public presentation on psychological types at the Psychoanalytical Congress in Munich in September 1913 (published in a French translation in December of that year in Archives de Psychologie), [47] The classics and romantics correspond, according to Jung, to the "introverted type" and the "extraverted type" respectively. Long quotations from Ostwald appear in other of Jung's works between 1913 and 1921 -- precisely the period of Ostwald's most outspoken advocacy of eugenics, nature worship, and German imperialism through the Monistenbund. An entire chapter of Jung's Psychological Types is devoted favorably to these same ideas of Ostwald. [48] Except for a one-sentence comment that "the concept of energy in Ostwald's monism" is "an example of the superstitious overvaluation of facts," Ostwald is often cited at length and frequently favorably. [49] We have evidence that Jung read the Annalen der Naturphilosophie that Ostwald founded in 1901 and that contains some of his essays on his vitalistic "modern theory of energetics," which may have influenced Jung's own later theoretical work on "psychic energy." [50]....

The best documented [volkish] circle is the Guido von List Society, founded in Vienna in March 1908. Von List (1848-1919) was a Viennese mystic and magician who, among many other activities, participated in ancient German pagan rites in a Hungarian castle with his colleague Jorg Lanz von Liebenfels and playwright August Strindberg. As a youth List had an unusual experience in a cathedral that he later interpreted as his call to become an initiate into the mysteries of the ancient Teutons. He experienced a pagan mystery initiatory experience, he claimed, as a fourteen-year-old exploring the subterranean crypt of St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna. Through visionary experiences, the secret wisdom of the ages were passed down to him from the ancient Aryan brotherhood of spiritual beings known as the Armanen. The similarities between this idea and Blavatsky's secret doctrine and brotherhood are many, for indeed List and his closest followers had extensive connections with Eckstein's Vienna Theosophical Society and other Theosophical groups.

Among the important information imparted to List was the true occult interpretation of the Nordic runes. Also, since the "life-force" of the universe flowed from nature, List believed that being close to nature brought one closest to "truth." List trained his closest disciples to enter trances and attempt to listen to nature and "see with one's soul." The highest initiates in the hierarchical List society were said to possess the capacity to communicate directly with the spiritual Teutonic brotherhood of the Armanen. In "Ariosophist" organizations such as this, then, volkisch utopian theories are pursued with practical methodologies derived from spiritualism and Theosophy.

"We must read with our souls the landscape which archeology reconquers with the spade," List often said about his method of achieving "Intuitionen," according to his biographer Joseph Baltzli. [12] Such a methodology finds similarities with those of the Romantic Naturphilosophen, Blavatsky circa 1875 and, circa 1916, Jung and his technique of "active imagination."....

Like any educated Germanic European from this era with interests in Lebensphilosophie in its manifold forms, Jung's personal library contains many volumes published by the Eugen Diederichs Verlag, including editons of the Eddas and books by one of the analysts of the Zurich School who defected with Jung in 1914, Adolph Keller. [38] Indeed, Diederichs was perhaps the most important disseminator of Lebensphilosophie in Central Europe from 1896 to 1930. Diederichs personally chose the types of volumes he wished to reprint and that he felt should be read by his contemporaries, and his agenda was to deliberately resurrect the vitalism of the Lebensphilosophen to "help [it] achieve a greater contemporary effect." [39] Not surprisingly, many of the topics converge remarkably with the sources of Jung's intellectual influences. For example, in 1901 Diederichs began printing a multivolume series under the title Gott-Natur (God-Nature) that reprinted the works of Giordano Bruno, Paracelsus, Lamarck, Goethe, Carus, and other early nineteenth-century proponents of speculative Naturphilosophie upon which Jung built his theory of the archetypes.....


In a symbolic gesture of the volkisch sympathy between Jung and Keyserling, Jung wrote an essay on how the "earthly environment" shapes the human soul specifically for a book that Keyserling edited, Mensch und Erde (1927). By this point Jung had already moved away from a purely biological or racial model of the unconscious mind (in fact, he had done so by 1916 when he proposed a collective unconscious) and instead embraced the more transcendental claims of mysticism and old Romantic Naturphilosophie. However, as we saw, the volkisch movement, with the prominent backing of Haeckel, continued to embrace quasi-Lamarckian notions of Darwinian pangenesis that gave scientific justification for such environmental influences.

The idea of Bodenbeschaffenheit gained further scientific credibility in an age of increasing materialism through a volume by the German natural scientist Bernhard von Cotta, Deutschlands Boden: Sein Bau und dessen Einwirkung auf das Leben der Menschen (Germany's Soil: Its Construction and Effect on the Life of Humans), published in 1853. [75] Cotta's thesis was to demonstrate "what influence the geological structures of countries have on their peoples." [76] The union of Volk with landscape, of Blut und Boden, was supported by Cotta's vision of "ideal natural regions" that were interpreted by other volkisch commentators as justification for the idea of a German nation-state as an organic, natural body. Such "soft inheritance" was still a credible idea in some German scientific circles at the turn of the century. Sounding very much like Keyserling in his Travel Diary, Jung makes the following claims of pangenesis:

Just as, in the process of evolution, the mind has been molded by earthly conditions, so the same process repeats itself under our eyes today. Imagine a large section of some European nation transplanted to a strange soil and another climate. We can confidently expect this human group to undergo certain psychic and perhaps also physical changes in the course of a few generations, even without the admixture of foreign blood. [77]

As evidence, Jung cites the "marked differences" between Spanish, North African, German, and various Russian "varieties of Jews." He then goes on to predict the "Indianization of the American people," who were originally a "predominantly Germanic people." As evidence, Jung recalls watching "a stream of workers coming out of a factory" in 1912 in Buffalo and remarking to a friend that "I should never have thought there was such a high percentage of Indian blood." His American friend laughingly told Jung there wasn't a drop of Indian blood in any of them. Backpedaling, Jung deduced that it must have been the geography that shaped their phenotypic expression, not "Mendelian units" (genes). In an effort to further back up this typically volkisch logic, Jung cites the anthropometric work of the noted American anthropologist Franz Boas, whom Jung claims "has shown that anatomical changes begin already in the second generation of immigrants, chiefly in the measurements of the skull." [78]

The first indication of Jung's fascination with the idea of Bodenbeschaffenheit that was used so extensively by members of the Volkstumbewegung (especially by its most racist and anti- Semitic elements) is a report in a letter to Freud dated 6 April 1910 that he is reading a book by Maurice Low, The American People: A Study in National Psychology (1909), that "holds the climate largely responsible for the frequency of neurosis in America." Although the effect of climate in causing psychopathology is an idea dating to the ancient Greeks, Jung then gives it a decided volkisch twist by surmising, "Perhaps a harshly continental climate really is ill-suited to a race sprung from the sea." [79] Such logic could be reversed to argue that Jews whose ancestors were Semites from an arid, dry desert land do not fit in in Europe. Although Freud does not respond to Jung's comment, he was acutely aware that such logic was a major element in anti- Semitic rhetoric at this time....

Jung's use of the geological metaphor of the fiery magma of the earth's core as the central fire that connects all life, human and nonhuman, is related to an image that Jung invokes frequently during this period: that of the sun as the core of the human personality. This image of the psyche is represented in Jung's very first mandala drawing of 1916. [92] Indeed, geographical diagrams depicting a cross-sectioning of the earth and its magma core can indeed be seen as representing a fiery sun or star embedded at the center of the earth. If one accepts the theory that the earth was originally jettisoned from the sun, then indeed the hot core of the Earth is truly "sun." In a sense Jung owes this metaphor of the human personality, in part, to the Naturphilosophen for whom the earth was an anthropomorphized entity with its own soul or, indeed, psyche. [93] Psychotherapy could thus be imagined as a mining expedition or geographical exploration to reach the central source of life at the "core." As we shall see in a later chapter, this was indeed the case in the analysis of Hermann Hesse by one of Jung's disciples.

Both scientists and occultists have proposed a dynamic hot core similar to a sun deep within the planet. The French naturalist and philosopher the Comte de Buffon (1707-1788) believed that the earth had once been a fireball flung off from the sun, and that the crust was therefore the cooling exterior of a still volatile and extremely hot core of star matter. The material of the human body, it could thus be claimed, was made of star matter, making us all Sonnenkinder, "children of the sun." The often-cited maxim of the alchemists that was so dear to Jung, "as above, so below," thus takes on new meaning, as does another of Jung's favorite images -- the account of Apuleius (through the character Lucius) in Metamorphoses (Book 11) who claims "I saw the sun in the middle of the night" ("nocte media vidi solem") during a subterranean Isaic mystery-cult rite of initiation. Naturalists since the eighteenth century cited the worldwide prevalence of volcanoes and their lava flows as compelling scientific evidence of a hot molten core beneath the earth's crust, and the hypothesis of central heat or a central fire was a primary assumption of the vulcanist or plutonist school of geologists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. [94] Geophysics and Naturphilosophie commonly overlapped at many junctures.

Thus, cross-sectional images of the planet since that time show a mandala-like sequence of concentric circles, indicating the Earth's various geological strata, with a central glowing spherical core of intense heat at its center. Such illustrations were common in the German popular-science journals that began to appear in the 1850s and would have been familiar images to the adolescent Jung. Jung's "geology of the personality" is hence based on a vulcanist or plutonist geophysical vision borrowed from his training in the natural sciences.

Also significant in Jung's 1925 lecture is his clear statement that he does not consider the collective unconscious to be solely inside the brain and nervous system. Since it can be located outside the brain, Jung says that "on this basis the main body of the collective unconscious cannot be strictly said to be psychological, but psychical." [95] This is an early appearance of a theoretical distinction Jung would make later in his career (in 1946) about the transcendental, quasi-physical, quasi-psychological, "psychoid" nature of the archetypes. Jung borrowed the term "psychoid" (as an adjective, not a noun) from the twentieth-century version of speculative Naturphilosophie and vitalism expounded by Bleuler, on "the natural history of the soul." [96] Both Bleuler and Jung attempted to distinguish themselves from the more nakedly vitalistic use of the term "die Psychoide" by Hans Driesch (1867-1941). [97] Jung's own full return to Naturphilosophie is never so clear as when he remarks,

We cannot repeat this distinction too often, for when I have referred to the collective unconscious as "outside" our brains, it has been assumed that I meant hanging somewhere in mid-air. After this explanation it will become clear to you that the collective unconscious is always working upon you through trans-subjective facts which are probably inside as well as outside yourselves. [98]

By documenting this phylogenetic layer of the unconscious mind one also learns about the earliest origins of the human race. Therefore, we learn something new about not only archaeology, but evolutionary biology. What Jung doesn't explicitly say -- but it is fundamental to his project to demonstrate the utility of psychoanalysis as the new Wissenschaft -- is that we also learn about the origins of the very planet we live on, and that this method can add to our knowledge of the earth sciences. The strong implication by Jung, especially after a brief flirtation with the cultural stages of Bachofenian theory circa 1912-1913, is that (1) the universality of solar symbolism in material from the phylogenetic unconscious and (2) evidence of still-existing sun worship in primitive societies around the world (which Jung would one day see for himself in Africa and in the American Southwest) are expressions of prephylogenetic memories from our inanimate history. As the earth sprang from the sun and took many millions of years to cool off before life emerged from nonlife and began the process of evolution, these memories of being torn from the sun must somehow be in the very matter that comprise our physical bodies. This is one of the areas in which Jung's line of thought parallels Henri Bergson's ideas and indeed may have been informed by them, for Bergson's hypothesis of a biological unconscious in which humans can intuit the memories of their evolutionary past was put forth in his books Mattiere et Memoire (Matter and Memory) in 1896 and L'Evolution Creatrice in 1907. Libido, Bergsonian elan vital, Lebenskraft (the old term of the Naturphilosophen and the vitalists for the "force of life"), and the sun are therefore indeed one. [57]....

Jung never deviated from vitalism throughout the remainder of his career. It was with the vitalistic school of evolutionary biology and it origins in the Naturphilosophie of the Romantics that Jung was always to remain -- even when new discoveries in genetics and other areas seemed to legitimize the predominant scientific worldview in the twentieth century that includes a biology based only on mechanistic materialism. As we shall see, Jung was most modern in his scientific worldview during these student years, after which his ideas slowly retreated further back into a philosophy that more closely resembled early nineteenth-century biological science and its Romantic idealism.....


Besides Jung's vigorous rejection of the Christian god and his guerilla war against the organized Judeo-Christian religions of his day, Jung also rejected the science of the early twentieth century and instead embraced the world view and methodologies of early nineteenth-century romantic conceptions of science. With the creation of his religious cult and its transcendental notions of a collective unconscious in 1916 Jung had already left the scientific world and academia, never to really return (despite later pleas for the scientific nature of his analytical psychology). The adoption of the additional theory of dominants or archetypes completed this break and formally allied Jung with Goethe, Cams, and the morphological idealists of the romantic or metaphysical schools of Naturphilosophie that reigned supreme between 1790 and 1830 in German scientific circles. [34]....

On the three basic types of Naturphilosophie (transcendental, romantic, and metaphysical Naturphilosophie) see Timothy Lenoir, "The Gottingen School and the Development of Transcendental Naturphilosophie in the Romantic Era," in William Coleman and Camille Limoges, eds., Studies in the History of Biology, Volume 5 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981), pp. 111-205. See also the following: D. M. Knight, "The Physical Sciences and the Romantic Movement," History of Science 9 (1970): 54-75; H.A.M. Snelders, "Romanticism and Naturphilosophie and the Inorganic Natural Sciences, 1798-1840. An Introductory Survey," Studies in Romanticism 9 (1970): 193-215; Charles Culotta, "German Biophysics, Objective Knowledge and Romanticism," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 4 (1975): 3-38; Elke Hahn, "The Philosophy of Living Things: Schelling's Naturphilosophie as a Transition to the Philosophy of Identity," in Woodward and Cohen, World Views and Scientific Discipline Formation pp. 339-50; L. H. LeRoy, "Johann Christian Reil and Naturphilosophie in Physiologie" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1985); Helmut Muller-Sievers, "Epigenesis: Wilhelm von Humbolt und die Naturphilosophie" (Ph.D. diss., Stanford University, 1990); and Gunther B. Risse, "Kant, Schelling and the Early Search for a Philosophical Science of Medicine in Germany," Journal for the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 27 (1972): 145-58. Two useful essays on Naturphilosophie appear in the volume edited by G. S. Rousseau and Roy Porter, The Ferment of Knowledge: Studies in the Historiography of Eighteenth-Century Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980): Simon Schaffer, "Natural Philosophy" (pp. 55-91), and J. L. Heilbron, "Experimental Natural Philosophy" (pp. 357-87). The best collection of essays on Naturphilosophie, however, can be found in Herbert Harz, Rolf Lather, and Siegfried Wollgast, ed., Naturphilosophie van der Spekulation zur Wissenschaft (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1969).

-- The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement, by Richard Noll

Naturphilosophie (German for "nature-philosophy") is a term used in English-language philosophy to identify a current in the philosophical tradition of German idealism, as applied to the study of nature in the earlier 19th century. German speakers use the clearer term Romantische Naturphilosophie, the philosophy of nature developed at the time of the founding of German Romanticism. It is particularly associated with the philosophical work of Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling[1] and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel[1]—though it has some clear precursors also. More particularly it is identified with some of the initial works of Schelling during the period 1797–9, in reaction to the views of Fichte, and subsequent developments from Schelling's position. Always controversial, some of Schelling's ideas in this direction are still considered of philosophical interest, even if the subsequent development of experimental natural science had a destructive impact on the credibility of the theories of his followers in Naturphilosophie.[2]

Naturphilosophie attempted to comprehend nature in its totality and to outline its general theoretical structure, thus attempting to lay the foundations for the natural sciences. In developing their theories, the German Naturphilosophen found their inspiration in the natural philosophy of the Ancient Greek Ionian philosophers.

As an approach to philosophy and science, Naturphilosophie has had a difficult reception. In Germany, neo-Kantians came to distrust its developments as speculative and overly metaphysical.[3] For most of the 19th and early 20th centuries, it was poorly understood in Anglophone countries. Over the years, it has been subjected to continuing criticism. Since the 1960s, improved translations have appeared, and scholars have developed a better appreciation of the objectives of Naturphilosophie.

Outline of development

The German Idealist philosopher Fichte had attempted to show that the whole structure of reality follows necessarily from the fact of self-consciousness. Schelling took Fichte's position as his starting-point, and in his earliest writings posited that nature must have reality for itself. In this light Fichte's doctrines appeared incomplete. On the one hand, they identified the ultimate ground of the universe of reason too closely with finite, individual Spirit. On the other, they threatened the reality of the world of nature by seeing it too much in the manner of subjective idealism. Fichte, in this view, had not managed to unite his system with the aesthetic view of nature to which Immanuel Kant's Critique of Judgment had pointed.

Naturphilosophie is therefore one possible theory of the unity of nature. Nature as the sum of what is objective, and intelligence as the complex of all the activities making up self-consciousness, appear as equally real. The philosophy of nature and transcendental idealism would be the two complementary portions making up philosophy as a whole.

German philosophy

Naturphilosophie translated into English would mean just "philosophy of nature", and its scope began to be taken in a broad way. Johann Gottfried Herder, particularly taken in opposition to Immanuel Kant, was a precursor of Schelling:

Herder's dynamic view of nature was developed by Goethe and Schelling and led to the tradition of Naturphilosophie[...][4]

Later Friedrich Schlegel theorised about a particular German strand in philosophy of nature, citing Jakob Böhme, Johannes Kepler and Georg Ernst Stahl, with Jan Baptist van Helmont as an edge case.[5] Frederick Beiser instead traces Naturphilosophie as developed by Schelling, Hegel, Schlegel and Novalis to a crux in the theory of matter, and identifies the origins of the line they took with the vis viva theory of matter in the work of Gottfried Leibniz.[6]

Subsequently Schelling identified himself with Baruch de Spinoza, to whose thought he saw himself as approaching. The Darstellung meines Systems, and the expanded treatment in the lectures on a System der gesamten Philosophie und der Naturphilosophie insbesondere given in Würzburg in 1804, contain elements of Spinoza's philosophy.


In a short space of time Schelling produced three works: Ideen zu einer Philosophie der Natur als Einleitung in das Studium dieser Wissenschaft, 1797 (Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature as Introduction to the Study of this Science); Von der Weltseele, 1798 (On the World Soul); and Erster Entwurf eines Systems der Naturphilosophie, 1799 (First Plan of a System of the Philosophy of Nature). As criticism of scientific procedure, these writings retain a relevance. Historically, according to Richards:

Despite the tentativeness of their titles, these monographs introduced radical interpretations of nature that would reverberate through the sciences, and particularly the biology, of the next century. They developed the fundamental doctrines of Naturphilosophie.

In System des transzendentalen Idealismus, 1800 (System of Transcendental Idealism) Schelling included ideas on matter and the organic in Part III. They form just part of a more ambitious work that takes up other themes, in particular aesthetics. From this point onwards Naturphilosophie was less of a research concern for him, as he reformulated his philosophy. However, it remained an influential aspect of his teaching. For a short while, he edited a journal, the Neue Zeitschrift für speculative Physik (bound volume 1802).[7]

Schelling's Naturphilosophie was a way in which he worked himself out of the tutelage of Fichte, with whom he quarrelled decisively towards the end of the 1790s. More than that, however, it brought him within the orbit of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, both intellectually and (as a direct consequence of Goethe's sympathetic attitude) by a relocation; and it broke with basic Kantian tenets. Grant writes:

Schelling's postkantian confrontation with nature itself begins with the overthrow of the Copernican revolution ...[8]

Schelling held that the divisions imposed on nature, by our ordinary perception and thought, do not have absolute validity. They should be interpreted as the outcome of the single formative energy which is the soul or inner aspect of nature. In other words he was a proponent of a variety of organicism. The dynamic series of stages in nature, the forms in which the ideal structure of nature is realized, are matter, as the equilibrium of the fundamental expansive and contractive forces; light, with its subordinate processes (magnetism, electricity, and chemical action); organism, with its component phases of reproduction, irritability and sensibility. The continual change presented to us by experience, taken together with the thought of unity in productive force of nature, leads to the conception of the duality through which nature expresses itself in its varied products.

In the introduction to the Ideen he argues against dogmatism, in the terms that a dogmatist cannot explain the organic; and that recourse to the idea of a cosmic creator is a feature of dogmatic systems imposed by the need to explain nature as purposive and unified.[9] Fichte's system, called the Wissenschaftslehre, had begun with a fundamental distinction between dogmatism (fatalistic) and criticism (free), as his formulation of idealism.[10]

Beiser divides up the mature form of Schelling's Naturphilosophie into the attitudes of transcendental realism (the thesis that "nature exists independent of all consciousness, even that of the transcendental subject") and transcendental naturalism (the thesis that "everything is explicable according to the laws of nature, including the rationality of the transcendental subject").[11] He notes how Naturphilosophie was first a counterbalance to Wissenschaftslehre, and then in Schelling's approach became the senior partner. After that, it was hardly to be avoided that Schelling would become an opponent of Fichte, having been a close follower in the early 1790s.

We are able to apprehend and represent nature to ourselves in the successive forms which its development assumes, since it is the same spirit of which we become aware in self-consciousness, though here unconsciously. The variety of its forms is not imposed on it externally, since there is no external teleology in nature. Nature is a self-forming whole, within which only natural explanations can be sought. The function of Naturphilosophie is to exhibit the ideal as springing from the real, not to deduce the real from the ideal.

Influence and critics of Naturphilosophie

Criticism of Naturphilosophie has been widespread, over two centuries. Schelling's theories, however influential in terms of the general culture of the time, have not survived in scientific terms. Like other strands of speculation in the life sciences, in particular, such as vitalism, they retreated in the face of experiment, and then were written out of the history of science as Whig history. But critics were initially not scientists (a term not used until later); rather they came largely from within philosophy and Romantic science, a community including many physicians. Typically, the retrospective views of scientists of the 19th century on "Romantic science" in general erased distinctions:

Scientific criticism in the nineteenth century took hardly any notice of the distinctions between Romantic, speculative and transcendental, scientific and aesthetic directions.[12]

One outspoken critic was the chemist Justus von Liebig, who compared Naturphilosophie with the Black Death.[13] Another critic, the physiologist Emil du Bois-Reymond, frequently dismissed Naturphilosophie as "bogus".[14]

Role in aesthetics

Isaiah Berlin summed up the reasons why Naturphilosophie had a wide-ranging impact on views of art and artists:

if everything in nature is living, and if we ourselves are simply its most self-conscious representatives, the function of the artist is to delve within himself, and above all to delve within the dark and unconscious forces which move within him, and to bring these to consciousness by the most agonising and violent internal struggle.[15]

Philosophical criticism

Fichte was very critical of the opposition set up in Schelling's Naturphilosophie to his own conception of Wissenschaftslehre. In that debate, Hegel then intervened, largely supporting his student friend Schelling, with the work usually called his Differenzschrift, the Differenz des Fichteschen und Schellingschen Systems der Philosophie (The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's System of Philosophy); a key publication in his own philosophical development, his first book, it was published in September 1801.[16]

Schelling's Absolute was left with no other function than that of removing all the differences which give form to thought. The criticisms of Fichte, and more particularly of Hegel (in the Preface to the Phenomenology of Spirit), pointed to a defect in the conception of the Absolute as mere featureless identity. It was ridiculed by Hegel as "the night in which all cows are black."[17][18]

Other views in Romantic science

Ignaz Paul Vitalis Troxler, a follower of Schelling, later broke with him.[19] He came to the view that the Absolute in nature and mind is beyond the intellect and reason.[12]


• Adam Karl August von Eschenmayer, engaged in controversy with Schelling from 1801, published Grundriss der Natur-Philosophie in 1832
• Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer, an influence on Schelling's thinking, he was a founder rather than a follower, and a proponent of recapitulation theory
• Johann Friedrich Meckel[20]
• Lorenz Oken[21]
• Hans Christian Ørsted[22]
• Johann Wilhelm Ritter[22]
• Henrik Steffens
• August Ludwig Hülsen
• Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus[23]
• Karl Joseph Hieronymus Windischmann


1. Frederick C. Beiser(2002), German Idealism: The Struggle Against Subjectivism 1781–1801, Harvard university Press, p. 506.
4. ... ew/160/269
5. Paola Mayer, Jena Romanticism and Its Appropriation of Jakob Böhme: Theosophy, Hagiography, Literature (1999), p. 127.
6. Frederick Beiser, 'The Enlightenment and Idealism', pp. 21–42, esp. pp. 32–33, in Karl Ameriks (editor) (2000), The Cambridge Companion to German Idealism.
7. Online text
8. Grant p. 6.
9. Dale E. Snow, Schelling and the end of Idealism (1996), p. 83.
10. Beiser 2002, p. 261.
11. Beiser 2002, p. 483.
12. ^ Dietrich von Engelhardt, Romanticism in Germany p. 112, in Roy Porterand Mikulaš Teich, editors, Romanticism in National Context (1988).
13. Siegbert Prawer (editor), The Romantic Period in Germany (1970), Introduction by Prawer p. 5.
14. du Bois-Reymond, Emil (1912). Reden. Leipzig: Veit. pp. vol. 2: 143, 258.
15. Isaiah Berlin, The Roots of Romanticism (Henry Hardy, editor) (2000), p. 89.
16. Terry Pinkard, Hegel (2000), p. 109.
17. Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich; (tr.), A. V. Miller (1998-01-01). Phenomenology of Spirit. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 9. ISBN 9788120814738.
18. Hegel, Georg W. F. (2013-03-01). Phänomenologie des Geistes (in German). Meiner Verlag. ¶ 13. ISBN 378732464X.
19. ... xler-e.htm
20. Stephen Jay Gould, Ontogeny and Phylogeny (1977), p. 45.
21. Stephen Jay Gould, Ontogeny and Phylogeny (1977), p. 39.
22. ... ecture.htm


19th century

• F. W. J. Schelling, Einleitung zu den Ersten Entwurf (Sämtliche Werke Vol. III) – the most accessible account of Naturphilosophie in Schelling's own work.
• Kuno Fischer, Geschichte der neueren Philosophie, Vol. VI, pp. 433–692 – a detailed discussion by a 19th-century historian of philosophy.
• Frederick C. Beiser (2002), German Idealism: The Struggle Against Subjectivism 1781-1801
• Robert J. Richards (2002), The Romantic Conception of Life: Science and Philosophy in the Age of Goethe
• Iain Hamilton Grant (2006), Philosophies of Nature after Schelling
• Slavoj Žižek (1996), The Indivisible Remainder: Essays on Schelling and Related Matters, London: Verso.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Society for Psychical Research
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Accessed: 4/26/19



The second generation of the Cecil Bloc was famous at the time that it was growing up (and political power was still in the hands of the first generation) as "The Souls," a term applied to them partly in derision and partly in envy but used by themselves later. This group, flitting about from one great country house to another or from one spectacular social event to another in the town houses of their elders, has been preserved for posterity in the autobiographical volumes of Margot Tennant Asquith and has been caricatured in the writings of Oscar Wilde. The frivolity of this group can be seen in Margot Tennant's statement that she obtained for Milner his appointment to the chairmanship of the Board of Inland Revenue in 1892 merely by writing to Balfour and asking for it after she had a too brief romantic interlude with Milner in Egypt. As a respected scholar of my acquaintance has said, this group did everything in a frivolous fashion, including entering the Boer War and the First World War.

One of the enduring creations of the Cecil Bloc is the Society for Psychical Research, which holds a position in the history of the Cecil Bloc similar to that held by the Royal Institute of International Affairs in the Milner Group. The Society was founded in 1882 by the Balfour family and their in-laws, Lord Rayleigh and Professor Sidgwick. In the twentieth century it was dominated by those members of the Cecil Bloc who became most readily members of the Milner Group. Among these we might mention Gilbert Murray, who performed a notable series of experiments with his daughter, Mrs. Arnold J. Toynbee, in the years before 1914, and Dame Edith Lyttelton, herself a Balfour and widow of Arthur Balfour's closest friend, who was president of the Society in 1933-1934.

-- The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden, by Carroll Quigley

Society for Psychical Research
Abbreviation SPR
Formation 1882; 137 years ago
Legal status Non-profit organisation
Purpose Parapsychology
1 Vernon Mews, West Kensington, London W14 0RL
Region served
Psi researchers
Prof Chris Roe
Main organ
SPR Council
Website SPR

The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) is a nonprofit organisation in the United Kingdom. Its stated purpose is to understand events and abilities commonly described as psychic or paranormal. It describes itself as the "first society to conduct organised scholarly research into human experiences that challenge contemporary scientific models."[1] It does not, however, since its inception in 1882, hold any corporate opinions: SPR members assert a variety of beliefs with regard to the nature of the phenomena studied.[2]


Henry Sidgwick, first president of the SPR

The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) originated from a discussion between journalist Edmund Rogers and the physicist William F. Barrett in autumn 1881. This led to a conference on the 5 and 6 January 1882 at the headquarters of the British National Association of Spiritualists which the foundation of the Society was proposed.[3] The committee included Barrett, Rogers, Stainton Moses, Charles Massey, Edmund Gurney, Hensleigh Wedgwood and Frederic W. H. Myers.[4] The SPR was formally constituted on the 20 February 1882 with philosopher Henry Sidgwick as its first president.[5][6][7]

The SPR was the first organisation of its kind in the world, its stated purpose being "to approach these varied problems without prejudice or prepossession of any kind, and in the same spirit of exact and unimpassioned enquiry which has enabled science to solve so many problems, once not less obscure nor less hotly debated."[8]

Other early members included the author Jane Barlow,[9] the renowned chemist Sir William Crookes, physicist Sir Oliver Lodge, Nobel laureate Charles Richet and psychologist William James.[10]

Members of the SPR initiated and organised the International Congresses of Physiological/Experimental psychology.[11][12]

Areas of study included hypnotism, dissociation, thought-transference, mediumship, Reichenbach phenomena, apparitions and haunted houses and the physical phenomena associated with séances.[11][13][14] The SPR were to introduce a number of neologisms which have entered the English language, such as 'telepathy', which was coined by Frederic Myers.[15]

The Society is run by a President and a Council of twenty members, and is open to interested members of the public to join. The organisation is based at 1 Vernon Mews, London, with a library and office open to members, and with large book and archival holdings in Cambridge University Library, Cambridgeshire, England.[16] It publishes the peer reviewed quarterly Journal of the Society for Psychical Research (JSPR), the irregular Proceedings and the magazine Paranormal Review. It holds an annual conference, regular lectures and two study days per year[1][17] and supports the LEXSCIEN on-line library project.[18]


Psychical research

Among the first important works was the two-volume publication in 1886, Phantasms of the Living, concerning telepathy and apparitions, co-authored by Gurney, Myers and Frank Podmore.[19] This text, and subsequent research in this area, was received negatively by the scientific mainstream,[12] though Gurney and Podmore provided a defense of the society's early work in this area in mainstream publications.[20][21][22][23][24]

The SPR "devised methodological innovations such as randomized study designs" and conducted "the first experiments investigating the psychology of eyewitness testimony (Hodgson and Davey, 1887), [and] empirical and conceptual studies illuminating mechanisms of dissociation and hypnotism"[11]

In 1894, the Census of Hallucinations was published which sampled 17,000 people. Out of these, 1, 684 persons reported having experienced a hallucination of an apparition.[25] Such efforts were claimed to have undermined "the notion of dissociation and hallucinations as intrinsically pathological phenomena"[11]

The SPR investigated many spiritualist mediums such as Eva Carrière and Eusapia Palladino.[26]

During the early twentieth century, the SPR studied a series of automatic scripts and trance utterances from a group of automatic writers, known as the cross-correspondences.[27]

Famous cases investigated by the Society include Borley Rectory and the Enfield Poltergeist.

In 1912 the Society extended a request for a contribution to a special medical edition of its Proceedings to Sigmund Freud. Though according to Ronald W. Clark (1980) "Freud surmised, no doubt correctly, that the existence of any link between the founding fathers of psychoanalysis and investigation of the paranormal would hamper acceptance of psychoanalysis" as would any perceived involvement with the occult. Nonetheless, Freud did respond, contributing an essay titled "A Note on the Unconscious in Psycho-Analysis"[28] to the Medical Supplement to the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research.[29]

Exposures of fraud

Much of the early work involved investigating, exposing and in some cases duplicating fake phenomena. In the late 19th century, SPR investigations into séance phenomena led to the exposure of many fraudulent mediums.[30]

Richard Hodgson distinguished himself in that area. In 1884, Hodgson was sent by the SPR to India to investigate Helena Blavatsky and concluded that her claims of psychic power were fraudulent.[31]

In 1886 and 1887 a series of publications by S. J. Davey, Hodgson and Sidgwick in the SPR journal exposed the slate writing tricks of the medium William Eglinton.[32] Hodgson with his friend, S. J. Davey, had staged fake séances for educating the public (including SPR members). Davey gave sittings under an assumed name, duplicating the phenomena produced by Eglinton, and then proceeded to point out to the sitters the manner in which they had been deceived. Because of this, some spiritualist members such as Stainton Moses resigned from the SPR.[32]

In 1891, Alfred Russel Wallace requested for the Society to properly investigate spirit photography.[33] Eleanor Sidgwick responded with a critical paper in the SPR which cast doubt on the subject and discussed the fraudulent methods that spirit photographers such as Édouard Isidore Buguet, Frederic Hudson and William H. Mumler had utilised.[34]

Due to the exposure of William Hope and other fraudulent mediums, Arthur Conan Doyle led a mass resignation of eighty-four members of the Society for Psychical Research, as they believed the Society was opposed to spiritualism.[35] Science historian William Hodson Brock has noted that "By the 1900s most avowed spiritualists had left the SPR and gone back to the BNAS (the London Spiritualist Alliance since 1884), having become upset by the sceptical tone of most of the SPR's investigations."[36]

Criticism of the SPR

The Society has been criticised by both spiritualists and sceptics.

Criticism from spiritualists

Prominent spiritualists at first welcomed the SPR and cooperated fully. But relations soured when spiritualists discovered that the SPR would not accept outside testimony as proof, and the society accused some prominent mediums of fraud. Spiritualist Arthur Conan Doyle resigned from the SPR in 1930, to protest what he regarded as the SPR's overly restrictive standards of proof. Psychic investigator and believer in spiritualism Nandor Fodor criticised the SPR for its "strong bias" against physical manifestations of spiritualism.[37]

Criticism from sceptics

Trevor H. Hall, a critic of the SPR

Sceptics have criticised members of the SPR for having motives liable to impair scientific objectivity. According to SPR critics John Grant and Eric Dingwall (a member of the SPR), early SPR members such as Henry Sidgwick, Frederic W. H. Myers, and William Barrett hoped to cling to something spiritual through psychical research.[38][39] Myers stated that "[T]he Society for Psychical Research was founded, with the establishment of thought-transference--already rising within measurable distance of proof--as its primary aim."[40] Defenders of the SPR have stated in reply that "a ‘will to believe’ in post-mortem survival, telepathy and other scientifically unpopular notions, does not necessarily exclude a "will to know" and thus the capacity for thorough self-criticism, methodological rigour and relentless suspicion of errors."[41]

The sceptic and physicist Victor J. Stenger has written:

The SPR ... on occasion exposed blatant cases of fraud even their own credulous memberships could not swallow. But their journals have never succeeded in achieving a high level of credibility in the eyes of the rest of the scientific community. ... most articles usually begin with the assumption that psychic phenomena are demonstrated realities.[42]

Ivor Lloyd Tuckett an author of an early sceptical work on psychical research wrote that although the SPR have collected some valuable work, most of its active members have "no training in psychology fitting them for their task, and have been the victims of pronounced bias, as sometimes they themselves have admitted."[43] Trevor H. Hall, an ex-member of the Society for Psychical Research, criticised SPR members as "credulous and obsessive wish... to believe." Hall also claimed SPR members "lack knowledge of deceptive methods."[44]

Writer Edward Clodd asserted that the SPR members William F. Barrett and Oliver Lodge had insufficient competence for the detection of fraud and suggested that their spiritualist beliefs were based on magical thinking and primitive superstition.[45] Clodd described the SPR as offering "barbaric spiritual philosophy", and characterised the language of SPR members as using such terms as "subliminal consciousness" and "telepathic energy," as a disguise for "bastard supernaturalism."[46]

A 2004 psychological study involving 174 members of the Society for Psychical Research completed a delusional ideation questionnaire and a deductive reasoning task. As predicted, the study showed that "individuals who reported a strong belief in the paranormal made more errors and displayed more delusional ideation than sceptical individuals". There was also a reasoning bias which was limited to people who reported a belief in, rather than experience of, paranormal phenomena. The results suggested that reasoning abnormalities may have a causal role in the formation of paranormal belief.[47]

Some sceptical members have resigned from the SPR. Eric Dingwall resigned and wrote " After sixty years' experience and personal acquaintance with most of the leading parapsychologists of that period I do not think I could name half a dozen whom I could call objective students who honestly wished to discover the truth. The great majority wanted to prove something or other: They wanted the phenomena into which they were inquiring to serve some purpose in supporting preconceived theories of their own."[38]


The following is a list of presidents:

Society for Psychical Research

1882-1884 Henry Sidgwick (1838–1900), Professor, Trinity College, Cambridge; Philosopher and Economist
1885-1887 Balfour Stewart (1827–1887), Professor, Owenham College, Manchester; Physicist
1888-1892 Henry Sidgwick (→ 1882), Professor, Trinity College, Cambridge; Philosopher and Economist
1893 Arthur Balfour KG, OM, PC, DL (1848–1930), later Prime Minister, known for the Balfour Declaration
1894-1895 William James (1842–1910) Professor, Harvard University; American Psychologist, Philosopher and Physician
1896-1899 Sir William Crookes (1832–1919), Physical Chemist, discovered the element Thallium, invented the Crookes tube
1900 Frederic W. H. Myers (1843–1901), Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; Classicist and Philosopher
1901-1903 Sir Oliver Lodge (1851–1940), Professor, University College, Liverpool; Physicist and Mathematician, developer of wireless telegraphy
1904 William F. Barrett FRS (1845–1926), Professor, Royal College of Science, Dublin; Experimental Physicist
1905 Charles Richet (1850–1935), Professor, Collège de France, Paris; French Physiologist, Nobel Prize in Medicine/Physiology 1913
1906-1907 Gerald Balfour (1853–1945), Politician, brother of Arthur Balfour; Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge
1908-1909 Eleanor Sidgwick (1845–1936), Principal, Newnham College, Cambridge; Physicist
1910 Henry Arthur Smith (1848–1922), Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple, London; Lawyer and author of legal treatises
1911 Andrew Lang (1844–1912), Fellow, Merton College, Oxford; Classicist and writer on folklore, mythology, and religion
1912 William Boyd Carpenter KCVO (1841–1918), Pastoral Lecturer, Theology, Cambridge; Bishop of Ripon
1913 Henri Bergson (1859–1941) Professor, Collège de France, Paris; Chair of Modern Philosophy; Nobel Prize, Literature 1927
1914 F. C. S. Schiller (1864–1937), Fellow, Corpus Christi College, Oxford; Philosopher
1915-1916 Gilbert Murray (1866–1957), Regius Professor of Greek, University of Oxford; Classicist
1917-1918 Lawrence Pearsall Jacks (1860–1955), Professor, Manchester College, Oxford; Philosopher and Theologian
1919 John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh OM, PRS (1842–1919), Cavendish Professor, Trinity College, Cambridge; Physicist, Nobel Prize, Physics 1904
1920-1921 William McDougall FRS (1871–1938), Professor, Duke University; Psychologist, founder J B Rhine Parapsychology Lab
1922 Thomas Walker Mitchell (1869–1944), Physician and Psychologist, Publisher of the British Journal of Medical Psychology 1920-1935
1923 Camille Flammarion (1842–1925), founder and first president of the Société Astronomique de France, author of popular science and science fiction works
1924-1925 John George Piddington (1869–1952), Businessman, John George Smith & Co., London
1926-1927 Hans Driesch (1867–1941), Professor, Universitaet Leipzig; German Biologist and Natural Philosopher, performed first animal cloning 1885
1928-1929 Sir Lawrence Evelyn Jones (1885–1955) Honorary Fellow, Balliol College, Oxford; Author
1930-1931 Walter Franklin Prince (1863–1934), Clergyman
1932 Eleanor Sidgwick (→ 1908) and Oliver Lodge (→ 1901)
1933-1934 Edith Lyttelton (born as Edith Balfour; 1865–1948), Writer
1935-1936 C. D. Broad (1887–1971), Philosopher
1937-1938 Robert Strutt, 4th Baron Rayleigh (1875–1947), Physicist
1939-1941 H. H. Price (1899–1984), Philosopher
1942-1944 Robert Henry Thouless (1894–1984), Psychologist
1945-1946 George Nugent Merle Tyrrell (1879–1952), Mathematician
1947-1948 William Henry Salter (1880–1969), Lawyer
1949 Gardner Murphy (1895–1979), Director of Research, Menninger Foundation, Topeka, Kansas; Psychologist
1950-1951 Samuel Soal (1889–1975), Mathematician
1952 Gilbert Murray (→ 1915)
1953-1955 F. J. M. Stratton (1881–1960), Astrophysicist, Professor in Cambridge University
1956-1958 Guy William Lambert (1889–1984), Diplomat
1958-1960 C. D. Broad (→ 1935)
1960-1961 H. H. Price (→ 1939)
1960-1963 E. R. Dodds (1893–1979), Hellenist, Professor in Birmingham and Oxford
1963-1965 Donald J. West (born 1924), Psychiatrist and criminologist
1965-1969 Sir Alister Hardy (1896–1985), Zoologist
1969-1971 W. A. H. Rushton (1901–1980), Physiologist, Professor in Cambridge
1971-1974 Clement Mundle (1916–1989), Philosopher
1974-1976 John Beloff (1920–2006), Psychologist at the University of Edinburgh
1976-1979 Arthur J. Ellison (1920–2000), Engineer
1980 Joseph Banks Rhine (1895–1980), Biologist and Parapsychologist
1980 Louisa Ella Rhine (1891–1983), Parapsychologist, wife of Joseph Rhine
1981-1983 Arthur J. Ellison (→ 1976)
1984-1988 Donald J. West (→ 1963)
1988-1989 Ian Stevenson (1918–2007), Psychiatrist
1992-1993 Alan Gauld (born 1932), Psychologist
1993-1995 Archie Roy (1924–2012), Professor of Astronomy in Glasgow, founded the Scottish SPR in 1987
1995-1998 David Fontana (1934–2010), Professor of Psychology in Cardiff
1998-1999 Donald J. West (→ 1963, → 1984)
2000-2004 Bernard Carr, Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy in London
2004-2007 John Poynton, Professor Emeritus of Biology, University of Natal
2007-2011 Deborah Delanoy, Parapsychologist
2011-2015 Richard S. Broughton, senior lecturer in psychology at The University of Northampton, UK
2015-2018 John Poynton (→2004)
2018- Chris Roe, Professor of Psychology, University of Northampton


The Society publishes Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, the Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, and the Paranormal Review, as well as the online Psi Encyclopedia.[48][49][50]

Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research

First published in 1882 as a public record of the activities of the SPR, the Proceedings are now reserved for longer pieces of work, such as Presidential Addresses, and are only occasionally published.[51] The current editor is Dr David Vernon.

Journal of the Society for Psychical Research

The Journal of the Society for Psychical Research has been published quarterly since 1884. It was introduced as a private, members-only periodical to supplement the Proceedings.[51] It now focuses on current laboratory and field research, but also includes theoretical, methodological and historical papers on parapsychology. It also publishes book reviews and correspondence. The current editor is Dr David Vernon.

Paranormal Review

The Paranormal Review is the magazine of the Society for Psychical Research. Formerly known as the Psi Researcher, it has been published since 1996. Previous editors have included Dr Nicola J. Holt.[52] The current editor is Dr Leo Ruickbie.[49]

Other societies

A number of other psychical research organisations use the term 'Society for Psychical Research' in their name.

• Australia - In 1977 the Australian Institute of Parapsychological Research was founded.[53]
• Austria - Founded in 1927 as the Austrian Society for Psychical Research, today the Austrian Society for Parapsychology.[54]
• Canada - From 1908 to 1916 the Canadian Society for Psychical Research existed in Toronto.[55]
• Denmark - Selskabet for Psykisk Forskning (The Danish Society for Psychical Research) was founded in 1905.[56]
• Finland - Sällskapet för Psykisk Forskning (The Finnish Society for Psychical Research) was formed in 1907 by Arvi Grotenfelt as a first chairman, and the society existed until 2002. A splinter group for Finnish speaking people, Suomen parapsykologinen tutkimusseura (Parapsychological research society of Finland), still exists today.
• France - In 1885, a society called the Société de Psychologie Physiologique (Society for Physiological Psychology) was formed by Charles Richet, Théodule-Armand Ribot and Léon Marillier. It existed until 1890 when it was abandoned due to lack of interest.[57][58]
• Iceland - Sálarrannsóknarfélag Íslands (Icelandic Society for Psychical Research) was formed in 1918. It has a predecessor called the Experimental Society, which was founded in 1905.[59][60]
• Netherlands - The Studievereniging voor Psychical Research (Dutch for Society for Psychical Research) was founded in 1917.[61]
• Poland - The Polish Society for Psychical Research was very active before the second world war.[62]
• Scotland - The Scottish Society for Psychical Research is active today.[63]
• Sweden - Sällskapet för Parapsykologisk Forskning (the Swedish Society for Parapsychological Research) was founded in 1948.[64]
• USA - An American branch of the Society was formed as the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR) in 1885, which became independent in 1906.[65] A splinter group, the Boston Society for Psychical Research existed from May 1925 to 1941.[66]

See also

• American Society for Psychical Research
• Institut suisse des sciences noétiques
• List of parapsychology topics


1. "SPR website". Archived from the original on 17 February 2010. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
2. "Join the SPR!". Society for Psychical Research. Membership does not imply acceptance of any particular opinion concerning the nature or reality of the phenomena examined, and the Society holds no corporate views.
3. Oppenheim, Janet. (1988). The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850-1914. pp. 136-138. ISBN 978-0521347679
4. Luckhurst, Roger. (2002). The Invention of Telepathy, 1870-1901. Oxford University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0199249626
5. Schultz, Bart. (2004). Henry Sidgwick: Eye of the Universe: An Intellectual Biography. Cambridge University Press. p. 276. ISBN 978-0521829670
6. McCorristine, Shane. (2010). Spectres of the Self: Thinking about Ghosts and Ghost-Seeing in England, 1750–1920. Cambridge University Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0521747967
7. Alan Gauld, The Founders of Psychical Research (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1968), p. 138.
8. Grattan-Guinness, Ivor. (1982). Psychical Research: A Guide to Its History, Principles and Practices: In Celebration of 100 Years of the Society for Psychical Research. Aquarian Press. p. 19. ISBN 0-85030-316-8.
9. "Meetings of the Council". Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. 18(335): 12. 1917.
10. Christie, Drew. Societies for Psychical Research. In Michael Shermer. (2002). The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. ABC-CLIO. pp. 217-219. ISBN 1-57607-653-9
11. Sommer, Andreas (2012). "Psychical research and the origins of American psychology: Hugo Münsterberg, William James and Eusapia Palladino". History of the Human Sciences. 25 (2): 23–44. doi:10.1177/0952695112439376. PMC 3552602. PMID 23355763.
12. Sommer, Andreas (2011). "Professional Heresy: Edmund Gurney (1847–88) and the Study of Hallucinations and Hypnotism". Medical History. 55 (3): 383–388. doi:10.1017/S0025727300005445. PMC 3143882. PMID 21792265. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
13. Thurschwell, Pamela. (2004). Literature, Technology and Magical Thinking, 1880–1920. Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-521-80168-0
14. McCorristine, Shane. (2010). Spectres of the Self: Thinking about Ghosts and Ghost-Seeing in England, 1750-1920. Cambridge University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-521-76798-9
15. "Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 10 September2011.
16. "Rare Books - Collections directory - name access". Retrieved 23 March 2018.
17. "Edinburgh University Website". Archived from the original on 3 March 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
18. "LEXSCIEN Library of Exploratory Science". Retrieved 10 September 2011.
19. Oppenheim, Janet. (1988). The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850-1914. pp. 141-142. ISBN 978-0521347679
20. Gurney, Edmund. (1887). Thought-transference. Science, 233-235.
21. Gurney, Edmund. (1887). Thought-transference. National Review, 9, 437-439
22. Gurney, Edmund. (1888). Hallucination of memory and ‘telepathy’. Mind, 13, 415-417.
23. Podmore, Frank. (1892). IN DEFENCE OF PHANTASMS. The National Review. Vol. 19, No. 110. pp. 234-251
24. Podmore, Frank. (1895). What Psychical Research Has Accomplished. The North American Review. Vol. 160, No. 460. pp. 331-344
25. Williams, William F. (2000). Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience: From Alien Abductions to Zone Therapy. Routledge. p. 49. ISBN 1-57958-207-9
26. Anderson, Rodger. (2006). Psychics, Sensitives and Somnambules: A Biographical Dictionary with Bibliographies. McFarland & Company. pp. 14-132. ISBN 978-0786427703
27. Edmunds, Simeon. (1966). Spiritualism: A Critical Survey. Aquarian Press. pp. 178-180. ISBN 978-0850300130
28. 1912 Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 26 (Part 66), 312-18.
29. Keeley, James P. "Subliminal Promptings: Psychoanalytic Theory and the Society for Psychical Research." American Imago, vol. 58 no. 4, 2001, pp. 767-791. Project MUSE, doi:10.1353/aim.2001.0021
30. Moreman, Christopher M. (2010). Beyond the Threshold: Afterlife Beliefs and Experiences in World Religions. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-7425-6228-8 "SPR investigators quickly found that many mediums were indeed, as skeptics had alleged, operating under cover of darkness in order to perpetrate scams. They used a number of tricks facilitated by darkness: sleight of hand was used to manipulate objects and touch people eager to make contact with deceased loved ones; flour or white lines would give the illusion of spectral white hands or faces; accomplices were even stashed under tables or in secret rooms to lent support in the plot... As the investigations of the SPR, and other skeptics, were made public, many fraudulent mediums saw their careers ruined and many unsuspecting clients were enraged at the deception perpetrated."
31. Oppenheim, Janet. (1988). The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850-1914. pp. 175-176. ISBN 978-0521347679
32. Oppenheim, Janet. (1988). The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850-1914. Cambridge University Press. pp. 139-140. ISBN 978-0521347679
33. "The Belief in Spirit Photography". Martyn Jolly.
34. Edmunds, Simeon. (1966). Spiritualism: A Critical Survey. Aquarian Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0850300130 "The early history of spirit photography was reviewed by Mrs Henry Sidgwick in the Proceedings of the SPR in 1891. She showed clearly not only that Mumler, Hudson, Buguet and their ilk were fraudulent, but the way in which those who believed in them were deceived."
35. Nelson, G. K. (2013). Spiritualism and Society. Routledge. p. 159. ISBN 978-0415714624
36. Brock, William Hodson. (2008). William Crookes (1832–1919) and the Commercialization of Science. Ashgate Publishing. p. 206. ISBN 978-0754663225
37. Nandor Fodor, An Encyclopedia of Psychic Science (Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel, 1966) 350-352.
38. Dingwall, Eric. (1985). The Need for Responsibility in Parapsychology: My Sixty Years in Psychical Research. In Paul Kurtz. A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. pp. 161-174. ISBN 0-87975-300-5 Author John Grant stated that prominent member F. W. H. Myers held that telepathy, according to some speculative explanations, might, in demonstrating that mind could communicate with mind apart from recognised channels, provide evidence supporting the proposition that human personality could continue after the death of the body. "Thus the supernatural might be proved by science, and psychical research might become, in the words of Sir William Barrett, a handmaid to religion."
39. Grant, John. (2015). Spooky Science: Debunking the Pseudoscience of the Afterlife. Sterling Publishing. pp. 23-24. ISBN 978-1-4549-1654-3
40. Woerlee, G. M. (2011). "Review of Consciousness Beyond Life by Pim van Lommel". Retrieved 2016-12-19.
41. Sommer, Andreas (2011). "HamiltonTrevor, Immortal Longings: F.W.H. Myers and the Victorian Search for Life after Death (Exeter: Imprint Academic, 2009), pp. 359, £19.95, hardback". Medical History. 55 (3): 433–435. doi:10.1017/S0025727300005597. ISBN 978-1845-401238. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
42. Stenger, Victor J. (1990). Physics and Psychics: The Search for a World Beyond the Senses. Prometheus Books. pp. 161-162. ISBN 978-0-87975-575-1
43. Tuckett, Ivor Lloyd. (1911). The Evidence for the Supernatural: A Critical Study Made with "Uncommon Sense". K. Paul, Trench, Trübner. pp. 8-9
44. Spangenburg, Ray; Moser, Diane. (2004). The Age of Synthesis: 1800-1895. Facts on File. p. 134. ISBN 978-0816048533
45. Clodd, Edward. (1917). The Question: A Brief History and Examination of Modern Spiritualism. Grant Richards, London. pp. 265-301
46. Luckhurst, Roger. (2002). The Invention of Telepathy: 1870-1901. Oxford University Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-0199249626
47. Lawrence, E., & Peters, E. (2004). Reasoning in believers in the paranormal. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 192, 727–733.
48. ... l-research, accessed 19 October 2017.
49., accessed 19 October 2017.
50., accessed 19 October 2017.
51. ... oceedings/, accessed 19 October 2017.
52. ... s%5Cn-holt, accessed 19 October 2017.
53. Australian Institute of Parapsychological Research
54. Peter Mulacz. "Austrian Society for Parapsychology". Retrieved 10 September 2011.
55. [McMullin, Stan (2004) Anatomy of a Séance: A History of Spirit Communication in Central Canada (Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press), p. 87.]
56. "Selskabet for Psykisk Forskning". Retrieved 23 March 2018.
57. "La lumière sur " L'ombre des autres "". Archived from the original on 8 November 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
58. Richet, Charles. Traité de Métapsychique. Bruxelles: Artha Production, 1994, p.63. ISBN 2-930111-00-3
59. "Sálarrannsóknarfélag Íslands". Icelandic Society for Psychical Research. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
60. Gissurarson, Loftur Reimar; Haralsson, Erlendur. "History of Parapsychology in Iceland" (PDF). International Journal of Parapsychology. 12 (1): 29–50.
61. "Parapsychologie in Nederland (Dutch website)". Retrieved 10 September 2011.
62. [Barrington, Stevenson and Weaver, (2005) A World in a Grain of Sand: The Clairvoyance of Stefan Ossowiecki, Jefferson, NC, and London, McFarland, ISBN 0-7864-2112-6]
63. "sspr". sspr. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
64. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 June 2003. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
65. "American Society for Psychical Research". Retrieved 23 March 2018.
66. Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991.

Further reading

SPR histories

• Bennett, Edward T. (1903). The Society for Psychical Research: Its Rise & Progress & A Sketch of its Work. London: R. Brimley Johnson.
• Gauld, Alan. (1968). The Founders of Psychical Research. Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0710060679
• Haynes, Renee. (1982). The Society for Psychical Research 1882-1982: A History. London: MacDonald & Co. ISBN 978-0356078755
• Salter, William Henry. (1948). The Society for Psychical Research: An Outline of its History. Society for Psychical Research.
Scholarly studies
• Cerullo, John. (1982). Secularization of the Soul: Psychical Research in Modern Britain. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues. ISBN 978-0897270281
• Luckhurst, Roger. (2002). The Invention of Telepathy, 1870-1901. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199249626
• McCorristine, Shane. (2010). Spectres of the Self: Thinking about Ghosts and Ghost-Seeing in England, 1750-1920. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521747967
• Oppenheim, Janet. (1988). The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850-1914. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521347679
• McCabe, Joseph. (1920). Scientific Men and Spiritualism: A Skeptic's Analysis. The Living Age. June 12. pp. 652–657. A sceptical look at SPR members who had supported Spiritualism, concludes they were duped by fraudulent mediums.
• Brandon, Ruth. (1983). The Spiritualists: The Passion for the Occult in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0394527406
• Hyman, Ray. (1989). The Elusive Quarry: A Scientific Appraisal of Psychical Research. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0879755041

External links

• SPR home page
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Albert Schweitzer
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 4/27/19



Albert Schweitzer
Schweitzer in 1955
Born 14 January 1875
Kaysersberg, Alsace-Lorraine, German Empire
Died 4 September 1965 (aged 90)
Lambaréné, Gabon
German (1875–1919)
French (1919–1965)
Alma mater University of Strasbourg
Known for
Spouse(s) Helene Bresslau, daughter of Harry Bresslau
Goethe Prize (1928)
Nobel Peace Prize (1952)
Scientific career
Doctoral advisor
Theobald Ziegler
Heinrich Julius Holtzmann
Robert Wollenberg [de][1]
Influences H. S. Reimarus

Albert Schweitzer, OM (14 January 1875 – 4 September 1965) was an Alsatian polymath. He was a theologian, organist, writer, humanitarian, philosopher, and physician. A Lutheran, Schweitzer challenged both the secular view of Jesus as depicted by the historical-critical method current at this time, as well as the traditional Christian view. His contributions to the interpretation of Pauline Christianity concern the role of Paul's mysticism of "being in Christ" as primary and the doctrine of Justification by Faith as secondary.

He received the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize for his philosophy of "Reverence for Life",[2] becoming the eighth Frenchman to be awarded that prize. His philosophy was expressed in many ways, but most famously in founding and sustaining the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, in the part of French Equatorial Africa which is now Gabon. As a music scholar and organist, he studied the music of German composer Johann Sebastian Bach and influenced the Organ Reform Movement (Orgelbewegung).


Schweitzer was born in the province of Alsace, which was a part of the Holy Roman Empire up to the Thirty Year War. In 1648, with the Treaty of Westphalia, the Habsburgs renounced their claims to its territory, when it became a part of France for the first time. In 1871, through the Treaty of Frankfurt, Alsace became a part of the German Empire ("Reichsland"), becoming French a second time in 1919, after Germany's defeat during the First World War. Schweitzer considered himself French,[3][additional citation(s) needed] but wrote mostly in German. His mother-tongue was Alsatian, a Low Alemannic German dialect, although he was also fluent in French and High-German.


Albert Schweitzer's birthplace, Kaysersberg

Schweitzer was born in Kaysersberg, Haute Alsace, the son of Louis Schweitzer and Adèle Schillinger.[4][5] He spent his childhood in the Alsatian village of Gunsbach, where his father, the local Lutheran-Evangelical pastor of the EPCAAL, taught him how to play music.[6] The tiny village became home to the Association Internationale Albert Schweitzer (AIAS).[7] The medieval parish church of Gunsbach was shared by the Protestant and Catholic congregations, which held their prayers in different areas at different times on Sundays. This compromise arose after the Protestant Reformation and the Thirty Years' War. Schweitzer, the pastor's son, grew up in this exceptional environment of religious tolerance, and developed the belief that true Christianity should always work towards a unity of faith and purpose.[8]

Schweitzer's first language was the Alsatian dialect of German language. At the Mulhouse gymnasium he received his "Abitur" (the certificate at the end of secondary education) in 1893. He studied organ in Mulhouse from 1885 to 1893 with Eugène Munch, organist at the Protestant cathedral, who inspired Schweitzer with his profound enthusiasm for the music of German composer Richard Wagner.[9] In 1893 he played for the French organist Charles-Marie Widor (at Saint-Sulpice, Paris), for whom Johann Sebastian Bach's organ music contained a mystic sense of the eternal. Widor, deeply impressed, agreed to teach Schweitzer without fee, and a great and influential friendship thus began.[10]

From 1893 Schweitzer studied Protestant theology at the Kaiser Wilhelm University in Strasbourg. There he also received instruction in piano and counterpoint from professor Gustav Jacobsthal, and associated closely with Ernest Munch, the brother of his former teacher, organist of St William church, who was also a passionate admirer of J.S. Bach's music.[11] Schweitzer served his one-year compulsory military service in 1894. Schweitzer saw many operas of Richard Wagner in Strasbourg (under Otto Lohse) and in 1896 he managed to afford a visit to the Bayreuth Festival to see Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen and Parsifal, which deeply impressed him. In 1898 he went back to Paris to write a PhD dissertation on The Religious Philosophy of Kant at the Sorbonne, and to study in earnest with Widor. Here he often met with the elderly Aristide Cavaillé-Coll. He also studied piano at that time with Marie Jaëll.[12] In 1899, Schweitzer spent the summer semester at the University of Berlin and eventually obtained his theology degree in University of Strasbourg.[13][14][15][16] He published his PhD thesis at the University of Tübingen in 1899.[17]

In 1905, Schweitzer began his study of medicine at the University of Strasbourg, culminating in the degree of M.D. in 1913.[13][16]


Schweitzer rapidly gained prominence as a musical scholar and organist, dedicated also to the rescue, restoration and study of historic pipe organs. With theological insight, he interpreted the use of pictorial and symbolical representation in J. S. Bach's religious music. In 1899 he astonished Widor by explaining figures and motifs in Bach's Chorale Preludes as painter-like tonal and rhythmic imagery illustrating themes from the words of the hymns on which they were based. They were works of devotional contemplation in which the musical design corresponded to literary ideas, conceived visually. Widor had not grown up with knowledge of the old Lutheran hymns.[18]

The exposition of these ideas, encouraged by Widor and Munch, became Schweitzer's last task, and appeared in the masterly study J. S. Bach: Le Musicien-Poète, written in French and published in 1905. There was great demand for a German edition, but, instead of translating it, he decided to rewrite it.[19] The result was two volumes (J. S. Bach), which were published in 1908 and translated into English by Ernest Newman in 1911.[20] Ernst Cassirer, a contemporaneous German philosopher, called it "one of the best interpretations" of Bach.[21] During its preparation Schweitzer became a friend of Cosima Wagner, then resident in Strasbourg, with whom he had many theological and musical conversations, exploring his view of Bach's descriptive music, and playing the major Chorale Preludes for her at the Temple Neuf.[22] Schweitzer's interpretative approach greatly influenced the modern understanding of Bach's music. He became a welcome guest at the Wagners' home, Wahnfried.[23] He also corresponded with composer Clara Faisst, who became a good friend.[24]

The Choir Organ at St Thomas' Church, Strasbourg, designed in 1905 on principles defined by Albert Schweitzer

His pamphlet "The Art of Organ Building and Organ Playing in Germany and France" (1906,[25] republished with an appendix on the state of the organ-building industry in 1927) effectively launched the 20th-century Orgelbewegung, which turned away from romantic extremes and rediscovered baroque principles—although this sweeping reform movement in organ building eventually went further than Schweitzer had intended. In 1909 he addressed the Third Congress of the International Society of Music at Vienna on the subject. Having circulated a questionnaire among players and organ-builders in several European countries, he produced a very considered report.[26] This provided the basis for the International Regulations for Organ Building. He envisaged instruments in which the French late-romantic full-organ sound should work integrally with the English and German romantic reed pipes, and with the classical Alsace Silbermann organ resources and baroque flue pipes, all in registers regulated (by stops) to access distinct voices in fugue or counterpoint capable of combination without loss of distinctness: different voices singing the same music together.

Schweitzer also studied piano under Isidor Philipp, head of the piano department at the Paris Conservatory.

In 1905 Widor and Schweitzer were among the six musicians who founded the Paris Bach Society, a choir dedicated to performing J.S. Bach's music, for whose concerts Schweitzer took the organ part regularly until 1913. He was also appointed organist for the Bach Concerts of the Orféo Català at Barcelona, Spain, and often travelled there for that purpose.[18] He and Widor collaborated on a new edition of Bach's organ works, with detailed analysis of each work in three languages (English, French, German). Schweitzer, who insisted that the score should show Bach's notation with no additional markings, wrote the commentaries for the Preludes and Fugues, and Widor those for the Sonatas and Concertos: six volumes were published in 1912–14. Three more, to contain the Chorale Preludes with Schweitzer's analyses, were to be worked on in Africa, but these were never completed, perhaps because for him they were inseparable from his evolving theological thought.[27]

On departure for Lambaréné in 1913 he was presented with a pedal piano, a piano with pedal attachments to operate like an organ pedal-keyboard.[28] Built especially for the tropics, it was delivered by river in a huge dug-out canoe to Lambaréné, packed in a zinc-lined case. At first he regarded his new life as a renunciation of his art, and fell out of practice: but after some time he resolved to study and learn by heart the works of Bach, Mendelssohn, Widor, César Franck, and Max Reger systematically.[29] It became his custom to play during the lunch hour and on Sunday afternoons. Schweitzer's pedal piano was still in use at Lambaréné in 1946.[30] According to a visitor, Dr. Gaine Cannon, of Balsam Grove, N.C., the old, dilapidated piano-organ was still being played by Dr. Schweitzer in 1962, and stories told that "his fingers were still lively" on the old instrument at 88 years of age.

Sir Donald Tovey dedicated his conjectural completion of Bach's The Art of Fugue to Schweitzer.

Schweitzer's recordings of organ-music, and his innovative recording technique, are described below.

One of his notable pupils was conductor and composer Hans Münch.


Saint-Nicolas, Strasbourg

In 1899 Schweitzer became a deacon at the church of Saint Nicholas in Strasbourg. In 1900, with the completion of his licentiate in theology, he was ordained as curate, and that year he witnessed the Oberammergau Passion Play. In the following year he became provisional Principal of the Theological College of Saint Thomas, from which he had just graduated, and in 1903 his appointment was made permanent.[note 1]

In 1906 he published Geschichte der Leben-Jesu-Forschung ("History of Life-of-Jesus research"). This book, which established his reputation, was first published in English in 1910 as The Quest of the Historical Jesus. Under this title the book became famous in the English-speaking world. A second German edition was published in 1913, containing theologically significant revisions and expansions: but this revised edition did not appear in English until 2001. In 1931 he published Mystik des Apostels Paulus ("The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle"); a second edition was published in 1953.

The Quest of the Historical Jesus (1906)

In The Quest, Schweitzer reviewed all former work on the "historical Jesus" back to the late 18th century. He showed that the image of Jesus had changed with the times and outlooks of the various authors and gave his own synopsis and interpretation of the previous century's findings. He maintained that the life of Jesus must be interpreted in the light of Jesus' own convictions, which reflected late Jewish eschatology and apocalypticism. Schweitzer writes: The Jesus of Nazareth who came forward publicly as the Messiah, who preached the ethic of the kingdom of God, who founded the kingdom of heaven upon earth and died to give his work its final consecration never existed. He is a figure designed by rationalism, endowed with life by liberalism, and clothed by modern theology in a historical garb. This image has not been destroyed from outside; it has fallen to pieces...[36] He observes the many verses describing important events that never took place and technically, now, never can take place.

The concept that Christianity started as a Jewish apocalyptic movement is evidenced by the teachings of the historical Jesus concerning the end of days. Not only did he preach he would rise from the grave, but that he would also ascend to heaven and one day return to judge and rule over the world, saying that no one, including himself, knew the exact time of his return, but it would be before the end of the end of the first generation of followers. In The Quest of the Historical Jesus, Schweitzer verifies and cross-referenced the many New Testament verses declaring imminent fulfillment of the promise of the World's ending within the lifetime of Jesus's original followers.[37] He noted that in the gospel of Mark, Jesus speaks of a "tribulation", with his "coming in the clouds with great power and glory" (St. Mark), and states when it will happen: "This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled" (St. Matthew, 24:34) or, "have taken place" (Luke 21:32). Similarly, in 1st Peter 1:20, "Christ, who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world but was manifest in these last times for you," as well as "But the end of all things is at hand," (1 Peter 4:7) and "Surely, I come quickly." (Revelation 22:20).

Schweitzer observes that Jesus very specifically states "not seal up the words of the prophecy" and promises that some of his listeners, as well as the high priest at his trial, would be alive to see him return to the Earth. He says, "Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of the prophecy and heed the things which are written in it; for the time is near" (Revelation 1:3). St. Paul spoke of the last times, "Brethren, the time is short, it remaineth, that both they that have wives be as though they had none," (1 Corinthians 7:29) and "God hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son," (Hebrews 1:2). Also, "There be some standing here which shall not taste of death till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom" (Matthew 16:28) as well as "until they see that the kingdom of God has come with power," (Mark 9:1) and "till they see the kingdom of God" (Luke 9:27) reinforce this prophecy. Schweitzer observes that St. Paul, urgently, believed in the immediacy of the Second Coming of Jesus.

Schweitzer insists that it is unreasonable for modern followers of Jesus to believe that "coming quickly", "near", and "soon" could mean hundreds, much less thousands, of years of the faithful waiting for a second coming. His evidence is verses "Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of the prophecy and heed the things which are written in it; for the time is near." (Revelation 1:3) "And he said to me, 'These words are faithful and true'; and the Lord, the God of the spirits of the prophets, sent His angel to show to His bond-servants the things which must soon take place." as well as "And behold, I am coming quickly. Blessed is he who heeds the words of the prophecy of this book." He references "And he said to me, "Do not seal up the words of the prophecy of this book, for the time is near" (Revelation 22:6, 7, 10, 12). "All these things shall come upon this generation" (Matthew 23:36) as well. Schweitzer's observations are in stark contrast to many modern variants of Christian belief, those ignoring these verses. Schweitzer concludes that 1st-century Christian theology; first belief, originating in the lifetimes of the very first followers of Jesus, is totally incompatible with modern theology.

The cover of Albert Schweitzer's The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle

The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle (1931)

In The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle, Schweitzer first distinguishes between two categories of mysticism: primitive and developed.[36] Primitive mysticism "has not yet risen to a conception of the universal, and is still confined to naive views of earthly and super-earthly, temporal and eternal." Additionally, he argues that this view of a "union with the divinity, brought about by efficacious ceremonies, is found even in quite primitive religions."[36]

On the other hand, a more developed form of mysticism can be found in the Greek mystery-cults that were popular in first-century A.D. society. These included the cults of Attis, Osiris, and Mithras. A developed form of mysticism is attained when the "conception of the universal is reached and a man reflects upon his relation to the totality of being and to Being in itself." Schweitzer claims that this form of mysticism is more intellectual and can be found "among the Brahmans and in the Buddha, in Platonism, in Stoicism, in Spinoza, Schopenhauer, and Hegel."[37]

Next, Schweitzer poses the question: "Of what precise kind then is the mysticism of Paul?" He locates Paul between the two extremes of primitive mysticism and developed mysticism. Paul stands high above primitive mysticism, due to his intellectual writings, but never speaks of being one with God or being in God. Instead, he conceives of sonship to God as "mediated and effected by means of the mystical union with Christ."[38] He summarizes Pauline mysticism as "being in Christ" rather than "being in God."

Paul's imminent eschatology (from his background in Jewish eschatology) causes him to believe that the kingdom of God has not yet come and that Christians are now living in the time of Christ. Christ-mysticism holds the field until God-mysticism becomes possible, which is in the near future.[39] Therefore, Schweitzer argues that Paul is the only theologian who does not claim that Christians can have an experience of "being-in-God." Rather, Paul uses the phrase "being-in-Christ" to illustrate how Jesus is a mediator between the Christian community and God. Additionally, Schweitzer explains how the experience of "being-in-Christ" is not a "static partaking in the spiritual being of Christ, but as the real co-experiencing of His dying and rising again." The "realistic" partaking in the mystery of Jesus is only possible within the solidarity of the Christian community.[39]

One of Schweitzer's major arguments in The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle is that Paul's mysticism, marked by his phrase "being in Christ", gives the clue to the whole of Pauline theology. Rather than reading justification by faith as the main topic of Pauline thought, which has been the most popular argument set forward by Martin Luther, Schweitzer argues that Paul's emphasis was on the mystical union with God by "being in Christ." Jaroslav Pelikan, in his Forward to The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle, points out that:

the relation between the two doctrines was quite the other way around: 'The doctrine of the redemption, which is mentally appropriated through faith, is only a fragment from the more comprehensive mystical redemption-doctrine, which Paul has broken off and polished to give him the particular refraction which he requires.[40]

Paul's "Realism" versus Hellenistic "Symbolism"

Schweitzer contrasts Paul's "realistic" dying and rising with Christ to the "symbolism" of Hellenism. Although Paul is widely influenced by Hellenistic thought, he is not controlled by it. Schweitzer explains that Paul focused on the idea of fellowship with the divine being through the "realistic" dying and rising with Christ rather than the "symbolic" Hellenistic act of becoming like Christ through deification.[41] After baptism, the Christian is continually renewed throughout their lifetime due to participation in the dying and rising with Christ (most notably through the Sacraments). On the other hand, the Hellenist "lives on the store of experience which he acquired in the initiation" and is not continually affected by a shared communal experience.[42]

Another major difference between Paul's "realism" and Hellenistic "symbolism" is the exclusive nature of the former and the inclusive nature of the latter. Schweitzer unabashedly emphasizes the fact that "Paul's thought follows predestinarian lines."[43] He explains, "only the man who is elected thereto can enter into relation with God."[44] Although every human being is invited to become a Christian, only those who have undergone the initiation into the Christian community through baptism can share in the "realistic" dying and rising with Christ.


At the age of 30, in 1905, Schweitzer answered the call of The Society of the Evangelist Missions of Paris, which was looking for a physician. However, the committee of this missionary society was not ready to accept his offer, considering his Lutheran theology to be "incorrect".[45] He could easily have obtained a place in a German evangelical mission, but wished to follow the original call despite the doctrinal difficulties. Amid a hail of protests from his friends, family and colleagues, he resigned his post and re-entered the university as a student in a three-year course towards the degree of Doctorate in Medicine, a subject in which he had little knowledge or previous aptitude. He planned to spread the Gospel by the example of his Christian labour of healing, rather than through the verbal process of preaching, and believed that this service should be acceptable within any branch of Christian teaching.

Even in his study of medicine, and through his clinical course, Schweitzer pursued the ideal of the philosopher-scientist. By extreme application and hard work, he completed his studies successfully at the end of 1911. His medical degree dissertation was another work on the historical Jesus, The Psychiatric Study of Jesus. He defended Jesus′ mental health in it. In June 1912, he married Helene Bresslau, municipal inspector for orphans and daughter of the Jewish pan-Germanist historian Harry Bresslau.[46]

In 1912, now armed with a medical degree, Schweitzer made a definite proposal to go as a physician to work at his own expense in the Paris Missionary Society's mission at Lambaréné on the Ogooué river, in what is now Gabon, in Africa (then a French colony). He refused to attend a committee to inquire into his doctrine, but met each committee member personally and was at last accepted. Through concerts and other fund-raising, he was ready to equip a small hospital.[47] In spring 1913, he and his wife set off to establish a hospital (Albert Schweitzer Hospital) near an existing mission post. The site was nearly 200 miles (14 days by raft[48]) upstream from the mouth of the Ogooué at Port Gentil (Cape Lopez) (and so accessible to external communications), but downstream of most tributaries, so that internal communications within Gabon converged towards Lambaréné.

The catchment area of the Ogooé occupies most of Gabon. Lambaréné is marked.

In the first nine months, he and his wife had about 2,000 patients to examine, some travelling many days and hundreds of kilometers to reach him. In addition to injuries, he was often treating severe sandflea and crawcraw sores, framboesia (yaws), tropical eating sores, heart disease, tropical dysentery, tropical malaria, sleeping sickness, leprosy, fevers, strangulated hernias, necrosis, abdominal tumours and chronic constipation and nicotine poisoning, while also attempting to deal with deliberate poisonings, fetishism and fear of cannibalism among the Mbahouin.

Schweitzer's wife, Helene Schweitzer, was an anaesthetist for surgical operations. After briefly occupying a shed formerly used as a chicken hut, in autumn 1913 they built their first hospital of corrugated iron, with two 13-foot rooms (consulting room and operating theatre) and with a dispensary and sterilising room in spaces below the broad eaves. The waiting room and dormitory (42 by 20 feet) were built, like native huts, of unhewn logs along a 30-yard path leading from the hospital to the landing-place. The Schweitzers had their own bungalow and employed as their assistant Joseph, a French-speaking Galoa (Mpongwe) who first came as a patient.[49][50]

After World War I broke out in July 1914, Schweitzer and his wife, German citizens in a French colony when the countries were at war, were put under supervision by the French military at Lambaréné, where Schweitzer continued his work.[51] In 1917, exhausted by over four years' work and by tropical anaemia, they were taken to Bordeaux and interned first in Garaison and then from March 1918 in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence. In July 1918, after being transferred to his home in Alsace, he was a free man again. At this time Schweitzer, born a German citizen, had his parents' former (pre-1871) French citizenship reinstated and became a French citizen. Then, working as medical assistant and assistant-pastor in Strasbourg, he advanced his project on the philosophy of civilization, which had occupied his mind since 1900. By 1920, his health recovering, he was giving organ recitals and doing other fund-raising work to repay borrowings and raise funds for returning to Gabon. In 1922, he delivered the Dale Memorial Lectures in Oxford University, and from these in the following year appeared Volumes I and II of his great work, The Decay and Restoration of Civilization and Civilization and Ethics. The two remaining volumes, on The World-View of Reverence for Life and a fourth on the Civilized State, were never completed.

In 1924 he returned without his wife, but with an Oxford undergraduate, Noel Gillespie, as assistant. Everything was heavily decayed, and building and doctoring progressed together for months. He now had salvarsan for treating syphilitic ulcers and framboesia. Additional medical staff, nurse (Miss) Kottmann and Dr. Victor Nessmann,[52] joined him in 1924, and Dr. Mark Lauterberg in 1925; the growing hospital was manned by native orderlies. Later Dr. Trensz replaced Nessmann, and Martha Lauterberg and Hans Muggenstorm joined them. Joseph also returned. In 1925–6, new hospital buildings were constructed, and also a ward for white patients, so that the site became like a village. The onset of famine and a dysentery epidemic created fresh problems. Much of the building work was carried out with the help of local people and patients. Drug advances for sleeping sickness included Germanin and tryparsamide. Trensz conducted experiments showing that the non-amoebic strain of dysentery was caused by a paracholera vibrion (facultative anaerobic bacteria). With the new hospital built and the medical team established, Schweitzer returned to Europe in 1927, this time leaving a functioning hospital at work.

He was there again from 1929 to 1932. Gradually his opinions and concepts became acknowledged, not only in Europe, but worldwide. There was a further period of work in 1935. In January 1937, he returned again to Lambaréné and continued working there throughout World War II.

Schweitzer's views


Schweitzer considered his work as a medical missionary in Africa to be his response to Jesus' call to become "fishers of men" but also as a small recompense for the historic guilt of European colonizers:[53]

Who can describe the injustice and cruelties that in the course of centuries they [the coloured peoples] have suffered at the hands of Europeans?... If a record could be compiled of all that has happened between the white and the coloured races, it would make a book containing numbers of pages which the reader would have to turn over unread because their contents would be too horrible.

Schweitzer was one of colonialism's harshest critics. In a sermon that he preached on 6 January 1905, before he had told anyone of his plans to dedicate the rest of his life to work as a physician in Africa, he said:[54]

Our culture divides people into two classes: civilized men, a title bestowed on the persons who do the classifying; and others, who have only the human form, who may perish or go to the dogs for all the 'civilized men' care.

Oh, this 'noble' culture of ours! It speaks so piously of human dignity and human rights and then disregards this dignity and these rights of countless millions and treads them underfoot, only because they live overseas or because their skins are of different color or because they cannot help themselves. This culture does not know how hollow and miserable and full of glib talk it is, how common it looks to those who follow it across the seas and see what it has done there, and this culture has no right to speak of personal dignity and human rights...

I will not enumerate all the crimes that have been committed under the pretext of justice. People robbed native inhabitants of their land, made slaves of them, let loose the scum of mankind upon them. Think of the atrocities that were perpetrated upon people made subservient to us, how systematically we have ruined them with our alcoholic 'gifts', and everything else we have done... We decimate them, and then, by the stroke of a pen, we take their land so they have nothing left at all...

If all this oppression and all this sin and shame are perpetrated under the eye of the German God, or the American God, or the British God, and if our states do not feel obliged first to lay aside their claim to be 'Christian'—then the name of Jesus is blasphemed and made a mockery. And the Christianity of our states is blasphemed and made a mockery before those poor people. The name of Jesus has become a curse, and our Christianity—yours and mine—has become a falsehood and a disgrace, if the crimes are not atoned for in the very place where they were instigated. For every person who committed an atrocity in Jesus' name, someone must step in to help in Jesus' name; for every person who robbed, someone must bring a replacement; for everyone who cursed, someone must bless.

And now, when you speak about missions, let this be your message: We must make atonement for all the terrible crimes we read of in the newspapers. We must make atonement for the still worse ones, which we do not read about in the papers, crimes that are shrouded in the silence of the jungle night ...


Schweitzer was nonetheless still sometimes accused of being paternalistic, colonialist, and racist in his attitude towards Africans, and in some ways his views did differ from that of many liberals and other critics of colonialism.[55] For instance, he thought that Gabonese independence came too early, without adequate education or accommodation to local circumstances. Edgar Berman quotes Schweitzer as having said in 1960, "No society can go from the primeval directly to an industrial state without losing the leavening that time and an agricultural period allow."[56] Schweitzer believed dignity and respect must be extended to blacks, while also sometimes characterizing them as children.[57] He summarized his views on European-African relations by saying "With regard to the negroes, then, I have coined the formula: 'I am your brother, it is true, but your elder brother.'"[57] Chinua Achebe has criticized him for this characterization, though Achebe acknowledges that Schweitzer's use of the word "brother" at all was, for a European of the early 20th century, an unusual expression of human solidarity between Europeans and Africans.[58] Schweitzer eventually emended and complicated this notion with his later statement that "The time for speaking of older and younger brothers has passed".[59] Later in life he became more convinced that "modern civilization" was actually inferior to or the same as previous cultures in terms of morality.[citation needed]

American journalist John Gunther visited Lambaréné in the 1950s and reported Schweitzer's patronizing attitude towards Africans. He also noted the lack of Africans trained to be skilled workers.[60] By comparison, his contemporary Sir Albert Cook in Uganda had been training nurses and midwives since the 1910s and had published a manual of midwifery in the local language of Luganda.[61] After three decades in Africa, Schweitzer still depended on Europe for nurses.[62]

Hospital conditions

The journalist James Cameron visited Lambaréné in 1953 (when Schweitzer was 78) and found significant flaws in the practices and attitudes of Schweitzer and his staff. The hospital suffered from squalor and was without modern amenities, and Schweitzer had little contact with the local people.[63] Cameron did not make public what he had seen at the time: according to a BBC dramatisation, he made the unusual journalistic decision to withhold the story, and resisted the expressed wish of his employers to publish an exposé.[64]

The poor conditions of the hospital in Lambaréné were also famously criticized by Nigerian professor and novelist Chinua Achebe in his essay on Joseph Conrad's novel Heart of Darkness: "In a comment which has often been quoted Schweitzer says: 'The African is indeed my brother but my junior brother.' And so he proceeded to build a hospital appropriate to the needs of junior brothers with standards of hygiene reminiscent of medical practice in the days before the germ theory of disease came into being."[58]

Reverence for life

Schweitzer in 1955

The keynote of Schweitzer's personal philosophy (which he considered to be his greatest contribution to mankind) was the idea of Reverence for Life ("Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben"). He thought that Western civilization was decaying because it had abandoned affirmation of life as its ethical foundation.

In the Preface to Civilization and Ethics (1923) he argued that Western philosophy from Descartes to Kant had set out to explain the objective world expecting that humanity would be found to have a special meaning within it. But no such meaning was found, and the rational, life-affirming optimism of the Age of Enlightenment began to evaporate. A rift opened between this world-view, as material knowledge, and the life-view, understood as Will, expressed in the pessimist philosophies from Schopenhauer onward. Scientific materialism (advanced by Herbert Spencer and Charles Darwin) portrayed an objective world process devoid of ethics, entirely an expression of the will-to-live.

Schweitzer wrote, "True philosophy must start from the most immediate and comprehensive fact of consciousness, and this may be formulated as follows: 'I am life which wills to live, and I exist in the midst of life which wills to live.'"[65] In nature one form of life must always prey upon another. However, human consciousness holds an awareness of, and sympathy for, the will of other beings to live. An ethical human strives to escape from this contradiction so far as possible.

Though we cannot perfect the endeavour we should strive for it: the will-to-live constantly renews itself, for it is both an evolutionary necessity and a spiritual phenomenon. Life and love are rooted in this same principle, in a personal spiritual relationship to the universe. Ethics themselves proceed from the need to respect the wish of other beings to exist as one does towards oneself. Even so, Schweitzer found many instances in world religions and philosophies in which the principle was denied, not least in the European Middle Ages, and in the Indian Brahminic philosophy.

For Schweitzer, mankind had to accept that objective reality is ethically neutral. It could then affirm a new Enlightenment through spiritual rationalism, by giving priority to volition or ethical will as the primary meaning of life. Mankind had to choose to create the moral structures of civilization: the world-view must derive from the life-view, not vice versa. Respect for life, overcoming coarser impulses and hollow doctrines, leads the individual to live in the service of other people and of every living creature. In contemplation of the will-to-life, respect for the life of others becomes the highest principle and the defining purpose of humanity.[66]

Such was the theory which Schweitzer sought to put into practice in his own life. According to some authors, Schweitzer's thought, and specifically his development of reverence for life, was influenced by Indian religious thought and in particular the Jain principle of ahimsa, or non-violence.[67] Albert Schweitzer noted the contribution of Indian influence in his book Indian Thought and Its Development:[68]

The laying down of the commandment to not kill and to not damage is one of the greatest events in the spiritual history of mankind. Starting from its principle, founded on world and life denial, of abstention from action, ancient Indian thought – and this is a period when in other respects ethics have not progressed very far – reaches the tremendous discovery that ethics know no bounds. So far as we know, this is for the first time clearly expressed by Jainism.
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Part 2 of 2

Later life

The Schweitzer house and Museum at Königsfeld in the Black Forest

After the birth of their daughter (Rhena Schweitzer Miller), Albert's wife, Helene Schweitzer was no longer able to live in Lambaréné due to her health. In 1923 the family moved to Königsfeld im Schwarzwald, Baden-Württemberg, where he was building a house for the family. This house is now maintained as a Schweitzer museum.[69]

Albert Schweitzer's house at Gunsbach, now a museum and archive

Albert Schweitzer Memorial and Museum in Weimar (1984)

From 1939–48 he stayed in Lambaréné, unable to go back to Europe because of the war. Three years after the end of World War II, in 1948, he returned for the first time to Europe and kept traveling back and forth (and once to the US) as long as he was able. During his return visits to his home village of Gunsbach, Schweitzer continued to make use of the family house, which after his death became an archive and museum to his life and work. His life was portrayed in the 1952 movie Il est minuit, Docteur Schweitzer, starring Pierre Fresnay as Albert Schweitzer and Jeanne Moreau as his nurse Marie. Schweitzer inspired actor Hugh O'Brian when O'Brian visited in Africa. O'Brian returned to the United States and founded the Hugh O'Brian Youth Leadership Foundation (HOBY).

Albert Schweitzer Monument in Wagga Wagga, Australia

Schweitzer was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize of 1952,[70] accepting the prize with the speech, "The Problem of Peace".[71] From 1952 until his death he worked against nuclear tests and nuclear weapons with Albert Einstein, Otto Hahn and Bertrand Russell. In 1957 and 1958 he broadcast four speeches over Radio Oslo which were published in Peace or Atomic War. In 1957, Schweitzer was one of the founders of The Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy. On 23 April 1957, Schweitzer made his "Declaration of Conscience" speech; it was broadcast to the world over Radio Oslo, pleading for the abolition of nuclear weapons. His speech ended, "The end of further experiments with atom bombs would be like the early sunrays of hope which suffering humanity is longing for."[72]

Weeks prior to his death, an American film crew was allowed to visit Schweitzer and Drs. Muntz and Friedman, both Holocaust survivors, to record his work and daily life at the hospital. The film The Legacy of Albert Schweitzer, narrated by Henry Fonda, was produced by Warner Brothers and aired once. It resides in their vault today in deteriorating condition. Although several attempts have been made to restore and re-air the film, all access has been denied.[73]

In 1955 he was made an honorary member of the Order of Merit (OM) by Queen Elizabeth II.[74] He was also a chevalier of the Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem.

Schweitzer died on 4 September 1965 at his beloved hospital in Lambaréné, now in independent Gabon. His grave, on the banks of the Ogooué River, is marked by a cross he made himself.

His cousin Anne-Marie Schweitzer Sartre was the mother of Jean-Paul Sartre. Her father, Charles Schweitzer, was the older brother of Albert Schweitzer's father, Louis Théophile.[75]

Schweitzer was a vegetarian.[76][77][better source needed]However, in an account written by Dr. Edgar Berman, it is suggested that Schweitzer consumed fried liver at a Sunday dinner in Lambaréné.[78]

The Albert Schweitzer Fellowship was founded in 1940 by Schweitzer to unite US supporters in filling the gap in support for his Hospital when his European supply lines were cut off by war, and continues to support the Lambaréné Hospital today. Schweitzer, however, considered his ethic of Reverence for Life, not his Hospital, his most important legacy, saying that his Lambaréné Hospital was just "my own improvisation on the theme of Reverence for Life. Everyone can have their own Lambaréné." Today ASF helps large numbers of young Americans in health-related professional fields find or create "their own Lambaréné" in the US or internationally. ASF selects and supports nearly 250 new US and Africa Schweitzer Fellows each year from over 100 of the leading US schools of medicine, nursing, public health, and every other field with some relation to health (including music, law, and divinity). The peer-supporting lifelong network of "Schweitzer Fellows for Life" numbered over 2,000 members in 2008, and is growing by nearly 1,000 every four years. Nearly 150 of these Schweitzer Fellows have served at the Hospital in Lambaréné, for three-month periods during their last year of medical school.[79]

International Albert Schweitzer Prize

The prize was first awarded on 29 May 2011 to Eugen Drewermann and the physician couple Rolf and Raphaela Maibach in Königsfeld im Schwarzwald, where Schweitzer's former residence now houses the Albert Schweitzer Museum.[80]

Sound recordings

Recordings of Schweitzer playing the music of Bach are available on CD. During 1934 and 1935 he resided in Britain, delivering the Gifford Lectures at Edinburgh University, and those on Religion in Modern Civilization at Oxford and London. He had originally conducted trials for recordings for HMV on the organ of the old Queen's Hall in London. These records did not satisfy him, the instrument being too harsh. In mid-December 1935 he began to record for Columbia Records on the organ of All Hallows, Barking-by-the-Tower, London.[81] Then at his suggestion the sessions were transferred to the church of Ste Aurélie in Strasbourg, on a mid-18th-century organ by Johann Andreas Silbermann (brother of Gottfried), an organ-builder greatly revered by Bach, which had been restored by the Lorraine organ-builder Frédéric Härpfer shortly before the First World War. These recordings were made in the course of a fortnight in October 1936.[82]

The Schweitzer Technique

Schweitzer developed a technique for recording the performances of Bach's music. Known as "The Schweitzer Technique", it is a slight improvement on what is commonly known as mid-side. The mid-side sees a figure-8 microphone pointed off-axis, perpendicular to the sound source. Then a single cardioid microphone is placed on axis, bisecting the figure-8 pattern. The signal from the figure-8 is mult-ed, panned hard left and right, one of the signals being flipped out of polarity. In the Schweitzer method, the figure-8 is replaced by two small diaphragm condenser microphones pointed directly away from each other. The information that each capsule collects is unique, unlike the identical out-of-polarity information generated from the figure-8 in a regular mid-side. The on-axis microphone is often a large diaphragm condenser. The technique has since been used to record many modern instruments.[citation needed]

Columbia recordings

Altogether his early Columbia discs included 25 records of Bach and eight of César Franck. The Bach titles were mainly distributed as follows:

• Queen's Hall: Organ Prelude and Fugue in E minor (Edition Peters[83] Vol 3, 10); Herzlich thut mich verlangen (BWV 727); Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein (Vol 7, 58 (Leipzig 18)).[84]
• All Hallows: Prelude and Fugue in C major; Fantasia and Fugue in G minor (the Great); Prelude and Fugue in G major; Prelude and Fugue in F minor; Little Fugue in G minor; Toccata and Fugue in D minor.[85]
• Ste Aurélie: Prelude and Fugue in C minor; Prelude and Fugue in E minor; Toccata and Fugue in D minor. Chorale Preludes: Schmücke dich, O liebe Seele (Peters Vol 7, 49 (Leipzig 4)); O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde groß (Vol 5, 45); O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig (Vol 7, 48 (Leipzig 6)); Christus, der uns selig macht (Vol 5, 8); Da Jesus an dem Kreuze stand (Vol 5, 9); An Wasserflüssen Babylon (Vol 6, 12b); Christum wir wollen loben schon (Vol 5, 6); Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier (Vol 5, app 5); Mit Fried und Freud ich fahr dahin (Vol 5, 4); Sei gegrüßet, Jesu gütig (Var 11, Vol 5, app. 3); Jesus Christus, unser Heiland (Vol 6, 31 (Leipzig 15)); Christ lag in Todesbanden (Vol 5, 5); Erschienen ist der herrlich Tag (Vol 5, 15).[86][87]

Gunsbach parish church, where the later recordings were made

Later recordings were made at Parish church, Günsbach: These recordings were made by C. Robert Fine during the time Dr. Schweitzer was being filmed in Günsbach for the documentary "Albert Schweitzer." Fine originally self-released the recordings but later licensed the masters to Columbia.

• Fugue in A minor (Peters, Vol 2, 8); Fantasia and Fugue in G minor (Great) (Vol 2, 4); Toccata, Adagio and Fugue in C major (Vol 3, 8).[88]
• Prelude in C major (Vol 4, 1); Prelude in D major (Vol 4, 3); Canzona in D minor (Vol 4, 10) (with Mendelssohn, Sonata in D minor op 65.6).[89]
• Chorale-Preludes: O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde groß (1st and 2nd versions, Peters Vol 5, 45); Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein (Vor deinen Thron tret ich hiermit) (vol 7, 58 (Leipzig 18)); Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ (Vol 5, 30); Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ (Vol 5, 17); Herzlich tut mich verlangen (Vol 5, 27); Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland (vol 7, 45 (BWV 659a)).[90]

The above were released in the United States as Columbia Masterworks boxed set SL-175.

Philips recordings

• J. S. Bach: Prelude and Fugue in A major, BWV 536; Prelude and Fugue in F minor, BWV 534; Prelude and Fugue in B minor, BWV 544; Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 538.[91]
• J. S. Bach: Passacaglia in C minor, BWV 582; Prelude and Fugue in E minor, BWV 533; Prelude and Fugue in A minor, BWV 543; Prelude and Fugue in G major, BWV 541; Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565.[92]
• César Franck: Organ Chorales, no. 1 in E Major; no. 2 in B minor; no. 3 in A minor.[93]


Dramatisations of Schweitzer's life include:

• The 1952 biographical film Il est minuit, Docteur Schweitzer, with Pierre Fresnay as Schweitzer
• The 1957 biographical film Albert Schweitzer in which Schweitzer appears as himself and Phillip Eckert portrays him
• The 1962 TV remake of Il est minuit, Docteur Schweitzer, with Jean-Pierre Marielle as Schweitzer
• The 1990 biographical film The Light in the Jungle, with Malcolm McDowell as Schweitzer
• Two 1992 episodes of the television series The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles ("German East Africa, December 1916" and "Congo, January 1917"), with Friedrich von Thun as Schweitzer
• The 1995 biographical film Le Grand blanc de Lambaréné, with André Wilms as Schweitzer
• The 2006 TV biographical film Albert Schweitzer: Called to Africa, with Jeff McCarthy as Schweitzer
• The 2009 biographical film Albert Schweitzer – Ein Leben für Afrika, with Jeroen Krabbé as Schweitzer


• — (2001) [German, 1906. English edition, A. & C. Black, London 1910, 1911], The Quest of the Historical Jesus; A Critical Study of Its Progress From Reimarus To Wrede, translated by Montgomery, William, Augsburg Fortress Publishers, ISBN 978-0-8006-3288-5.
• — (1905), J. S. Bach, Le Musicien-Poète [JS Bach, the Poet Musician] (in French), introduction by C. M. Widor, Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel with P. Costellot. Fulltext scan.
• — (1908), J. S. Bach (in German) (enlarged ed.), Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel. English translation by Ernest Newman, with author's alterations and additions, London 1911. Fulltext scans (English): Vol. 1, Vol. 2.
• — (1906). Deutsche und französische Orgelbaukunst und Orgelkunst [German and French organbuilding and organ art] (in German). Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel. (first printed in Musik, vols 13 and 14 (5th year)).
• — (1948) [1911]. The Psychiatric Study of Jesus: Exposition and Criticism. Gloucester, Massachusetts: Peter Smith Publisher. ISBN 978-0-8446-2894-3.
• — (1912). Paul and His Interpreters, A Critical History. Translated by Montgomery, W. London: Adam & Charles Black.
• — (1985) [1914]. The Mystery of the Kingdom of God: The Secret of Jesus' Messiahship and Passion. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0-87975-294-1.
• — (1922). Zwischen Wasser und Urwald [On the Edge of the Primeval Forest]. Translated by Campion, C. T. London: A. & C. Black.
• The Decay and the Restoration of Civilization and Civilization and Ethics (The Philosophy of Civilization, Vols I & II of the projected but not completed four-volume work), A. & C. Black, London 1923. Material from these volumes is rearranged in a modern compilation, The Philosophy of Civilization (Prometheus Books, 1987), ISBN 0-87975-403-6
• — (1998) [1930, 1931], The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle, Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-6098-0.
• — (1931). Mitteilungen aus Lambaréné [More from the Primeval Forest]. Translated by Campion, C. T. London: A. & C. Black.
• — (1931). Aus Meinem Leben und Denken. Leipzig: Felix Meiner Verlag. translated as — (1998) [1933]. Out of My Life and Thought: An Autobiography. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-6097-3.
• — (1935). Indian Thought and Its Development. Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press. OCLC 8003381.
• Afrikanische Geschichten (Felix Meiner, Leipzig u. Hamburg 1938): tr. Mrs C. E. B. Russell as From My African Notebook (George Allen and Unwin, London 1938/Henry Holt, New York 1939). Modern edition with Foreword by L. Forrow (Syracuse University Press, 2002).
• — (4 November 1954). "The Problem of Peace". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
• — (1958). Peace or Atomic War?. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 978-0-8046-1551-8.
• — & Neuenschwander, Ulrich (1968). The Kingdom of God and Primitive Christianity. New York: Seabury Press. OCLC 321874.
• — (2005). Brabazon, James (ed.). Albert Schweitzer: Essential Writings. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. ISBN 978-1-57075-602-3.

See also

• List of peace activists
• Category:Cultural depictions of Albert Schweitzer


1. He officiated at the wedding of Theodor Heuss (later the first President of West Germany) in 1908.[31][32][33][34][35]



1. Philosophy Tree profile Albert Schweitzer
2. Schweitzer, Albert (10 December 1953), "Award Ceremony Speech", The Nobel Peace Prize 1952, The Nobel prize.
3. Olga La Marquise de St. Innocent; Kahler, Woodland (1974). Olga: The memoirs of Olga La Marquise de St. Innocent. New York, NY: Walker. qtd. in
4. Oermann 2016, p. 43.
5. Free 1988, p. 74.
6. Stammbaum – Genealogic tree Arbre généalogique de la famille Schweitze, Schweitzer, archived from the original on 26 April 2006.
7. Association Internationale Albert Schweitzer, retrieved 1 August 2012.
8. Seaver 1951, p. 3–9.
9. A. Schweitzer, Eugene Munch (J. Brinkmann, Mulhouse 1898).
10. Joy 1953, p. 23–24.
11. Joy 1953, p. 24.
12. George N. Marshall, David Poling, Schweitzer, JHU Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8018-6455-0
13. Cicovacki, Predrag (2 February 2009). Albert Schweitzer's Ethical Vision A Sourcebook. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199703326.
14. Schweitzer, Albert; Bresslau, Helene; Stewart, Nancy (2003). Albert Schweitzer-helene Bresslau: the Years Prior to Lambarene. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 9780815629948.
15. Brabazon, James (2000). Albert Schweitzer: A Biography. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 9780815606758.
16. "Albert Schweitzer - Biographical". Retrieved 10 March 2018.
17. Joy 1953, p. 24–25.
18. Seaver 1951, p. 20.
19. Schweitzer, My Life and Thought, pp 80–81; cf. Seaver 1951, pp. 231–232
20. Joy 1953, p. 58–62.
21. Cassirer, Ernst (1979). Verene, Donald Phillip (ed.). Symbol, Myth, and Culture: Essays and Lectures of Ernst Cassirer 1935-1945. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-300-02666-5.
22. Schweitzer, in Joy 1953, pp. 53–57
23. Joy 1953, pp. 53–57, quoting from and translating A. Schweitzer, 'Mes Souvenirs sur Cosima Wagner', in L'Alsace Française, XXXV no. 7 (12 February 1933), p. 124ff.
24. Wedel, Gudrun (2010), Autobiographien von Frauen: ein Lexikon
25. Reproduced in Joy 1953, pp. 127–129, 129–165: cf. also Seaver 1951, pp. 29–36
26. Joy 1953, pp. 165–166: Text of 1909 Questionnaire and Report, pp. 235–269.
27. Seaver 1951, p. 44.
28. Given by the Paris Bach Society, Seaver 1951, p. 63; but Joy 1953, p. 177, says it was given by the Paris Missionary Society.
29. Seaver 1951, p. 63–64.
30. Joy 1953 plate facing p. 177.
31. Oermann 2016, p. 101-102.
32. Brabazon 2000, p. 422.
33. Pierhal 1956, p. 63.
34. Pierhal 1957, p. 63f.
35. The Bulletin, Bonn, West Germany: Press and Information Office, 9–10, p. 36, 1962, ISSN 0032-7794, retrieved 2 July2017 Missing or empty |title= (help)
36. Schweitzer 1931, p. 1.
37. Schweitzer 1931, p. 2.
38. Schweitzer 1931, p. 3.
39. Schweitzer 1931, p. 13.
40. Schweitzer 1931, p. xvi.
41. Schweitzer 1931, p. 16.
42. Schweitzer 1931, p. 17.
43. Schweitzer 1931, p. 103.
44. Schweitzer 1931, p. 9.
45. Seaver 1951, p. 40.
46. Marxsen, Patti M. Helene Schweitzer: A Life of Her Own. First Edition. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 2015.
47. From the Primeval Forest, Chapter 1.
48. From the Primeval Forest, Chapter 6.
49. Monfried, Walter (10 February 1947). "Admirers Call Dr. Schweitzer "Greatest Man in the World"". Milwaukee, Wisconsin. pp. 1, 3.
50. From the Primeval Forest, Chapters 3–5.
51. Albert Schweitzer 1875–1965 Archived 14 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. (in German)
52. Nessmann worked with the French Resistance during the Second World War, was captured and executed by the Gestapo in Limoges in 1944. cf Guy Penaud, Dictionnaire Biographique de Périgord, p. 713. ISBN 978-2-86577-214-8
53. Schweitzer, Albert (1931), On the Edge of the Primeval Forest, New York: Macmillan, p. 115, OCLC 2097590.
54. Schweitzer 2005, p. 76–80.
55. Brabazon 2000, p. 253-256.
56. Berman, Edgar (1986), In Africa With Schweitzer, Far Hills, NJ: New Horizon Press, p. 139, ISBN 978-0-88282-025-5.
57. Schweitzer, Albert (1924) [1922]. "Social Problems in the Forest". On the Edge of the Primeval Forest. Translated by Ch. Th. Campion. p. 130.
58. Chinua Achebe. "An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness." Archived 18 January 2006 at the Wayback Machine – the Massachusetts Review. 1977. (c/o North Carolina State University)
59. Quoted by Forrow, Lachlan (2002). "Foreword". In Russell, C.E.B. (ed.). African Notebook. Albert Schweitzer library. Syracuse University Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-0-8156-0743-4. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
60. Inside Africa. New York: Harper. 1955.
61. Amagezi Agokuzalisa. London: Sheldon Press.
62. Paget, James Carleton (2012). "Albert Schweitzer and Africa". Journal of Religion in Africa. 24 (3): 277–316. JSTOR 41725476.
63. Cameron, James (1966) [1978]. Point of Departure. Law Book Co of Australasia. pp. 154–74. ISBN 9780853621751.
64. On Monday 7 April 2008 ("The Walrus and the Terrier" – programme outline) BBC Radio 4 broadcast an Afternoon Play"The Walrus and the Terrier" by Christopher Ralling concerning Cameron's visit.
65. Civilization and Ethics, Chapter 21, p. 253: reprinted as A. Schweitzer, The Philosophy of Civilization, (Prometheus Books, Buffalo 1987), Chapter 26.
66. Civilization and Ethics, Preface and Chapter II, 'The Problem of the Optimistic World-View'.
67. Ara Paul Barsam (2002) "Albert Schweitzer, jainism and reverence for life" in:Reverence for life: the ethics of Albert Schweitzer for the twenty-first century Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, ISBN 978-0-8156-2977-1 pp. 207–08
68. Albert Schweitzer and Charles Rhind Joy (1947) Albert Schweitzer: an anthology Beacon Press
69. Schweitzer museum
70. "The Nobel Peace Prize 1952". The Nobel Foundation. 21 May 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
71. Schweitzer 1954.
72. Declaration of Conscience speech Archived 16 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine – at Tennessee Players
73. "Albert Schweitzer and Henry Fonda's Lost Special". Culturedarm. 20 January 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
74. "List of Members of the Order of Merit, past and present". British Monarchy. Retrieved 2 December 2008.
75. "Louis Théophile Schweitzer". Retrieved 18 October 2011.
76. "History of Vegetarianism – Dr Albert Schweitzer (1875–1965)". 4 September 1965. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
77. "Dr. Albert Schweitzer – Take Heart – Christian Vegetarian Association". Retrieved 1 July 2011.
78. In Africa With Schweitzer, (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1986), page 165.
79. "The Albert Schweitzer Fellowship". 23 June 2011. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
80. "Königsfeld feiert ?Schweitzer-Erben? | Südkurier Online". 30 May 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
81. This fine 1909 Harrison and Harrison organ was blitzed in the War (cf W. Kent, The Lost Treasures of London (Phoenix House 1947), 94–95) but was rebuilt in 1957, see "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 July 2008. Retrieved 6 May2008..
82. Seaver 1951, p. 139–152.
83. Schweitzer's Bach recordings are usually identified with reference to the Peters Edition of the Organ-works in 9 volumes, edited by Friedrich Conrad Griepenkerl and Ferdinand Roitzsch, in the form revised by Hermann Keller.
84. (78 rpm HMV C 1532 and C 1543), cf R.D. Darrell, The Gramophone Shop Encyclopedia of Recorded Music (New York 1936).
85. (78 rpm Columbia ROX 146–52), cf. Darrell 1936.
86. Joy 1953, pp. 226–230. The 78s were issued in albums, with a specially designed record label (Columbia ROX 8020–8023, 8032–8035, etc.). Ste Aurélie recordings appeared also on LP as Columbia 33CX1249
87. E.M.I., A Complete List of EMI, Columbia, Parlophone and MGM Long Playing Records issued up to and including June 1955(London 1955) for this and discographical details following.
88. Columbia LP 33CX1074
89. Columbia LP 33CX1084
90. Columbia LP 33CX1081
91. E.M.G., The Art of Record Buying (London 1960), pp. 12–13. Philips ABL 3092, issued March 1956.
92. E.M.G., op. cit., Philips ABL 3134, issued September 1956. Other selections are on Philips GBL 5509.
93. Philips ABL 3221.


• Schweitzer, Albert (1931), The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle, Johns Hopkins University Press.
Further reading[edit]
• Erica Anderson/Eugene Exman The World of Albert Schweitzer Harper & Brothers New York 1955
• ——— (1965), The Schweitzer Album, New York: Harper & Row.
• Brabazon, J. (1975). Albert Schweitzer: A Biography. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 978-0-399-11421-2.
• Brabazon, J. (2000). Albert Schweitzer: A Biography. Albert Schweitzer library. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-0675-8. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
• Cousins, Norman "Albert Schweitzer's Mission Healing and Peace" W.W. Norton & Company 1985
• Free, A.C. (1988). Animals, Nature and Albert Schweitzer. Flying Fox Press. ISBN 978-0-9617225-4-8. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
• Joy, Charles R., ed. (1953). Music in the Life of Albert Schweitzer. London: A. & C. Black.
• Oermann, N. O. (2016). Albert Schweitzer: A Biography. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-108704-2. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
• Pierhal, J. (1956). Albert Schweitzer: the life of a great man. Lutterworth. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
• Pierhal, J. (1957). Albert Schweitzer: the story of his life. Philosophical Library. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
• Seaver, G. (1951). Albert Schweitzer: The Man and His Mind. London: A. & C. Black.
• Rud, A. G. Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education: Reverence for Life (Palgrave Macmillan; 2011) 173 pp.

External links

• Wikilivres has original media or text related to this article: Albert Schweitzer(in the public domain in New Zealand)
• Albert Schweitzer info
• Works by Albert Schweitzer at Project Gutenberg
• Works by or about Albert Schweitzer at Internet Archive
• Works by Albert Schweitzer at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
• Albert Schweitzer Papers at Syracuse University
• John D. Regester Collection on Albert Schweitzer
• The Helfferich Collection, collected by Reginald H. Helfferich on Albert Schweitzer, is at the Andover-Harvard Theological Library at Harvard Divinity School in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
• What Jesus was thinking An interpretation and restatement of Schweitzer's last book, The Kingdom of God and Primitive Christianity
• Newspaper clippings about Albert Schweitzer in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW)
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Jun 20, 2019 3:34 am

Part 1 of 2

Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies [The Geneva School of International Studies]
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/19/19

Not to be confused with the similarly-named Geneva School of Diplomacy and International Relations

Freda relished the camaraderie of college life. ‘We talked endlessly, mainly between nine and midnight over large cups of coca or Bourneville made in the College pantries. Everything from socialism to Karl Marx, Proust, D.H. Lawrence, the family, to the new fields of Birth Control and travel were the subjects of conversation.’ [16] Initially, she worked hard – the ‘first year was one of study,’ she recounted. But her enthusiasm for the course waned. ‘Suddenly, I couldn’t be bothered … I could speak French fluently already. I wanted to learn other languages, to understand the world.’ She was also concerned about what a modern languages degree would point her towards: ‘It was the flash of understanding which showed me French could only lead me to becoming a teacher or lecturer. And I passionately did not want to go back into the world of childhood that being a teacher meant.’ She was closing in on what she did wish to pursue as a career. ‘My eyes were on journalism, writing [and] interpreting that incredible international adult world that poured into magazine and newspaper.’ She even met the editor of the Derby Daily Telegraph who promised her an opening once she had her degree, but she never went back to her home city. She did eventually carve our a reputation as a journalist, and demonstrated curiosity and social concern as well as the ability to communicate, but only after several years in the line of work she had been so keen to avoid: teaching and lecturing.

Freda followed her friend Barbara Castle’s example and switched from French to Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE), also known at that time as ‘Modern Greats’. It may have been more congenial but she didn’t shine academically. Freda’s tutors’ reports paint a picture of a diligent student, but one who found the transition from being the outstanding pupil in a small secondary school to the more exacting environment of Oxford rather daunting. There were a few positive remarks about her work, particularly in her optional subject of international relations....

In the summer of 1932, perhaps while recuperating from her ill health, Freda travelled in northern Germany. She wrote articles for the Derby Evening Telegraph about German family life and about the merits of German men, their cheerfulness, domesticity and love of order. [50]

-- The Lives of Freda: The Political, Spiritual and Personal Journeys of Freda Bedi, by Andrew Whitehead

Freda married BPL on June 12, 1933, at the Oxford Registrar’s Office. She was twenty-two and he was twenty-six….

Their creative, radical Oxford days were over. Both Freda and BPL received their degrees and a whole new life beckoned. It was not what Freda had imagined. She had successfully lined up a job as a cub reporter on the Derby Telegraph, her first stepping stone to Fleet Street (as she had intended). Instead she went to Germany with her new husband, who had won a Humboldt scholarship at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin, to research a PHD in Political Science.

“Bedi was concerned about the rise of Hitler, but he thought that as long as he didn’t get a chance to rant in Parliament, it would be all right. He was going to keep a very keen eye on the situation,” she said. She was not to see her homeland again for fourteen years….

By the time Freda reached Berlin, she was pregnant, and delighted with the prospect of motherhood. BPL somewhat protectively decided that she should not work, but instead live quietly in the charming little cottage they had found on the bank of Lake Wannsee. “It was really a lovely place, with a beautiful garden, and we had some very happy months there preparing for the child,” she said. She busied herself with making baby clothes, but could not resist going to Berlin University to study Hindi with a Punjabi professor – a necessary preparation, she thought, for a life on the subcontinent, and to counteract the full-on domesticity she found herself in….

BPL refrained from any political activity in Germany, although he was keeping up-to-date with the Free India movement in India. A frequent visitor to their lakeside cottage was Subhas Chandra Bose, who went on to become one of the most prominent and controversial leaders of the independence movement. Bose was educated at Cambridge and also had a European wife – Emilie Schenkl, an Austrian. He made it a point to visit sympathetic Indian students living in Europe, and the couple had much in common with Freda and BPL Bedi.

“We came to know Bose intimately, and a deep friendship grew,” said BPL. Bose was a hard-core communist, a great admirer of the Soviet Union, who maintained that only an authoritarian state, not democracy, would be able to reshape India. (Later he was forced to resign as present of the Indian National Congress because his platform of violent resistance clashed with Gandhi’s peaceful pathway.)

In Germany, however, Bose, won the young BPL over completely. “Freda and I were both fired up with the patriotic zeal of liberating the motherland from British imperialism,” BPL said. “While we were in Berlin, an eminent journalist asked me what was my agenda for India. ‘Live dangerously,’ I replied. ‘Live dangerously for every form of exploitation of man by man. Live dangerously for every form of injustice. Live dangerously for any violation of human dignity.’”

On May 13, 1934, Freda gave birth to a son after just a four-hour labor….They named him Ranga after the Indian statesman who had defeated the political opposition to their marriage, ten months previously….

BPL had not joined any political club at Berlin University, nor was he taking part in any political activities, but he sensed that tension was mountain. He was friendly with many of the Indian students living in the International Houses, which were being increasingly dominated by Nazi representatives.

In August 1934, Hitler was made fuhrer. The morning the news broke, BPL put down his paper and announced, “Tomorrow we get on the train and go to Geneva. It’s not safe here anymore.”

“He knew that Hitler could swoop down on the Indian students, which was precisely what happened,” said Freda. The life of drama and danger that she pledged to share with Bedi had begun. “You can imagine the state I was in, having to pack up everything in one day, and with BPL having to get the visas for Switzerland. But the next morning we were on the train!” she said

After their hasty exit, they spent a few pleasant weeks staying in accommodations that had been arranged by their old Oxford professor, Alfred Zimmern [Professor Sir Alfred Eckhard Zimmern, whose name is associated with the founding of the League of Nations], who ran a school there. In October 1934, they finally made the decision to go to India and make it their permanent home. They sailed on the SS Conte Verde from northern Italy to Bombay, a journey of three weeks.....

The tulkus were learning English and their lessons on the modern world with varying degrees of success. Freda's star student, Trungpa Rinpoche, however, was making exceptional progress, and Freda's aspirations for him became increasingly ambitious. He had a natural aptitude for English and had taken to reading the poets that Freda presented him with, especially T.S. Eliot. He was keen on history and geography too. Freda decided that he was ready to try to get into Oxford, her own university, where he would receive the finest education the West had to offer. With such credentials he would be perfectly equipped and have the clout to bring the sacred Buddhist teachings to the outside world in a language it could understand.

With the help of John Driver, an Englishman who was also tutoring Trungpa, Freda set about getting a Spalding Scholarship for Trungpa, and succeeded.
In early 1963 Trungpa set sail for England accompanied by Akong Rinpoche, to enter into the arcane, privileged, and hallowed halls of Oxford University. It was another epic journey into the unknown, heralding as many adventures, pitfalls, and triumphs as they had met in their escape from Tibet.

-- The Revolutionary Life of Freda Bedi, by Vicki Mackenzie

Through the League of Nations, where the influence of the Milner Group was very great, the RIIA was able to extend its intellectual influence into countries outside the Commonwealth. This was done, for example, through the Intellectual Cooperation Organization of the League of Nations. This Organization consisted of two chief parts: (a) The International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, an advisory body; and (b) The International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation, an executive organ of the Committee, with headquarters in Paris. The International Committee had about twenty members from various countries; Gilbert Murray was its chief founder and was chairman from 1928 to its disbandment in 1945. The International Institute was established by the French government and handed over to the League of Nations (1926). Its director was always a Frenchman, but its deputy director and guiding spirit was Alfred Zimmern from 1926 to 1930. It also had a board of directors of six persons; Gilbert Murray was one of these from 1926.

It is interesting to note that from 1931 to 1939 the Indian representative on the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. In 1931 he was George V Professor of Philosophy at Calcutta University. His subsequent career is interesting. He was knighted in 1931, became Spalding Professor of Eastern Religions and Ethics at Oxford in 1936, and became a Fellow of All Souls in 1944.

Beginning in 1928 at Berlin, Professor Zimmern organized annual round-table discussion meetings under the auspices of the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation. These were called the International Studies Conferences and devoted themselves to an effort to obtain different national points of view on international problems.
The members of the Studies Conferences were twenty-five organizations. Twenty of these were Coordinating Committees created for the purpose in twenty different countries. The other five were the following international organizations: The Academy of International Law at The Hague; The European Center of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; the Geneva School of International Studies; the Graduate Institute of International Studies at Geneva; the Institute of Pacific Relations. In two of these five, the influence of the Milner Group and its close allies was preponderant. In addition, the influence of the Group was decisive in the Coordinating Committees within the British Commonwealth, especially in the British Coordinating Committee for International Studies. The members of this committee were named by four agencies, three of which were controlled by the Milner Group. They were: (1) the RIIA, (2) the London School of Economics and Political Science, (3) the Department of International Politics at University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, and (4) the Montague Burton Chair of International Relations at Oxford. We have already indicated that the Montague Burton Chair was largely controlled by the Milner Group, since the Group always had a preponderance on the board of electors to that chair. This was apparently not assured by the original structure of this board, and it was changed in the middle 1930s. After the change, the board had seven electors: (1) the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford, ex officio; (2) the Master of Balliol, ex officio; (3) Viscount Cecil of Chelwood; (4) Gilbert Murray, for life; (5) B. H. Sumner; (6) Sir Arthur Salter; and (7) Sir. J. Fischer Williams of New College. Thus, at least four of this board were members of the Group. In 1947 the electoral board to the Montague Burton Professorship consisted of R. M. Barrington-Ward (editor of The Times); Miss Agnes Headlam-Morley (daughter of Sir James Headlam-Morley of the Group); Sir Arthur Salter; R. C. K. Ensor; and one vacancy, to be filled by Balliol College. It was this board, apparently, that named Miss Headlam-Morley to the Montague Burton Professorship when E. L. Woodward resigned in 1947. As can be seen, the Milner Group influence was predominant, with only one member out of five (Ensor) clearly not of the Group.

The RIIA had the right to name three persons to the Coordinating Committee. Two of these were usually of the Milner Group. In 1933, for example, the three were Lord Meston, Clement Jones, and Toynbee.

The meetings of the International Studies Conferences were organized in a fashion identical with that used in other meetings controlled by the Milner Group — for example, in the unofficial conferences on British Commonwealth relations — and the proceedings were published by the Institute of Intellectual Cooperation in a similar way to those of the unofficial conferences just mentioned, except that the various speakers were identified by name. As examples of the work which the International Studies Conferences handled, we might mention that at the fourth and fifth sessions (Copenhagen in 1931 and Milan in 1932), they examined the problem of "The State and Economic Life"; at the seventh and eighth session (Paris in 1934 and London in 1935), they examined the problem of "Collective Security"; and at the ninth and tenth sessions (Madrid in 1936 and Paris 1937) they examined the problem of "University Teaching of International Relations."

In all of these conferences the Milner Group played a certain part. They could have monopolized the British delegations at these meetings if they had wished, but, with typical Milner Group modesty they made no effort to do so. Their influence appeared most clearly at the London meeting of 1935. Thirty-nine delegates from fourteen countries assembled at Chatham House to discuss the problem of collective security. Great Britain had ten delegates. They were Dr. Hugh Dalton, Professor H. Lauterpacht, Captain Liddell Hart, Lord Lytton, Professor A. D. McNair, Professor C. A. W. Manning, Dr. David Mitrany, Rear Admiral H. G. Thursfield, Arnold J. Toynbee, and Professor C. K. Webster. In addition, the Geneva School of International Studies sent two delegates: J. H. Richardson and A. E. Zimmern. The British delegation presented three memoranda to the conference. The first, a study of "Sanctions," was prepared by the RIIA and has been published since. The second, a study of "British Opinion on Collective Security," was prepared by the British Coordinating Committee. The third, a collection of "British Views on Collective Security," was prepared by the delegates. It had an introduction by Meston and nine articles, of which one was by G. M. Gathorne-Hardy and one by H. V. Hodson. Zimmern also presented a memorandum on behalf of the Geneva School. Opening speeches were made by Austen Chamberlain, Allen W. Dulles (of the Council on Foreign Relations), and Louis Eisenmann of the University of Paris. Closing speeches were made by Lord Meston, Allen Dulles, and Gilbert Murray. Meston acted as president of the conference, and Dulles as chairman of the study meetings. The proceedings were edited and published by a committee of two Frenchmen and A. J. Toynbee.....

This brief sketch of the Royal Institute of International Affairs does not by any means indicate the very considerable influence which the organization exerts in English- speaking countries in the sphere to which it is devoted. The extent of that influence must be obvious. The purpose of this chapter has been something else: to show that the Milner Group controls the Institute. Once that is established, the picture changes. The influence of Chatham House appears in its true perspective, not as the influence of an autonomous body but as merely one of many instruments in the arsenal of another power. When the influence which the Institute wields is combined with that controlled by the Milner Group in other fields — in education, in administration, in newspapers and periodicals — a really terrifying picture begins to emerge.... The picture is terrifying because such power, whatever the goals at which it may be directed, is too much to be entrusted safely to any group. That it was too much to be safely entrusted to the Milner Group will appear quite clearly in Chapter 12. No country that values its safety should allow what the Milner Group accomplished in Britain — that is, that a small number of men should be able to wield such power in administration and politics, should be given almost complete control over the publication of the documents relating to their actions, should be able to exercise such influence over the avenues of information that create public opinion, and should be able to monopolize so completely the writing and the teaching of the history of their own period.

-- The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden, by Carroll Quigley

Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement
Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies
Former names
The Graduate Institute of International Studies (1927–2007)
Type Semi-private, semi-public graduate school
Established 1927[1]
Director Philippe Burrin
Academic staff
70 professors, 13 lecturers, 38 visiting[2]
Students 838 (78% international)[2]
Location Geneva, Switzerland
Campus Urban
Working languages English and French
Nickname The Graduate Institute, IHEID, HEI
Affiliations Europaeum, APSIA, EUA, ECUR, EADI, AUF

The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, or the Graduate Institute (in French: Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement (previously known as Institut (universitaire) de hautes études internationales), abbreviated IHEID (previously HEI, IHEI, or IUHEI) is a higher education institution located in Geneva, Switzerland, but not an officially recognised Swiss university.[3][4]

The institution counts one UN secretary-general (Kofi Annan), seven Nobel Prize recipients, one Pulitzer Prize winner, and numerous ambassadors, foreign ministers, and heads of state among its alumni and faculty.[5] Founded by two senior League of Nations officials, the Graduate Institute maintains strong links with that international organisation's successor, the United Nations, and many alumni have gone on to work at UN agencies. The school is a full member of the APSIA.[6]

Founded in 1927, the Graduate Institute of International Studies (IHEI or HEI) is continental Europe's oldest school of international relations and was the world's first university dedicated solely to the study of international affairs.[7] It offered one of the first doctoral programmes in international relations in the world. In 2008, the Graduate Institute absorbed the Graduate Institute of Development Studies, a smaller post-graduate institution also based in Geneva founded in 1961. The merger resulted in the current Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies.[8]

Today the school enrolls about 800 graduate students from over 100 countries. Foreign students make up nearly 80% of the student body and the school is officially a bilingual English-French institution, although the majority of classes are in English.[2] With Maison de la Paix acting as its primary seat of learning, the Institute's campuses are located blocks from the United Nations Office at Geneva, International Labour Organization, World Trade Organization, World Health Organization, International Committee of the Red Cross, World Intellectual Property Organization and many other international organizations.[9][10]

It runs joint degree programmes with universities such as Smith College and Yale University, and is Harvard Kennedy School's only partner university to co-deliver double degrees.[11][12]

one of the university's campus sites, the Maison de la paix

Maison de la paix, with the site of United Nations, the Palais des Nations in the background.

The Davis Library of the Maison de la paix


The Villa Barton campus on the shores of Lake Geneva.

The Graduate Institute of International Studies was co-founded in 1927 by two scholar–diplomats working for the League of Nations Secretariat: the Swiss William Rappard, director of the Mandates Section, and the Frenchman Paul Mantoux, director of the Political Section.[13] A bilingual institution like the League, it was to train personnel for the nascent international organization.[13] Its co-founder, Rappard, served as director from 1928 to 1955.[13]

The Institute's original mandate was based on a close working relationship with both the League of Nations and the International Labour Organization. It was agreed that in exchange for training staff and delegates, the Institute would receive intellectual resources and diplomatic expertise (guest lecturers, etc.) from the aforementioned organizations. According to its statutes, the Graduate Institute was "an institution intended to provide students of all nations the means of undertaking and pursuing international studies, most notably of a historic, judicial, economic, political and social nature."

The institute managed to attract a number of eminent faculty and lecturers, particularly from countries mired in oppressive Nazi regimes, e.g., Hans Wehberg [de] and Georges Scelle for law, Maurice Bourquin for diplomatic history, and the rising young Swiss jurist, Paul Guggenheim. Indeed, it is said that William Rappard had observed, ironically, that the two men to whom the Institute owed its greatest debt were Mussolini and Hitler. Subsequently, more noted scholars would join the Institute's faculty. Hans Kelsen, the well-known theorist and philosopher of law, Guglielmo Ferrero, Italian historian, and Carl Burckhardt, scholar and diplomat all called the Graduate Institute home. Other arrivals, similarly seeking refuge from dictatorships, included the eminent free market economy historian, Ludwig von Mises, and another economist, Wilhelm Ropke, who greatly influenced German postwar liberal economic policy as well as the development of the theory of a social market system.[14]

After a number of years, the Institute had developed a system whereby cours temporaires were given by prominent intellectuals on a week, semester, or yearlong basis. These cours temporaires were the intellectual showcase of the Institute, attracting such names as Raymond Aron, René Cassin, Luigi Einaudi, John Kenneth Galbraith, G. P. Gooch, Gottfried Haberler, Friedrich von Hayek, Hersch Lauterpacht, Lord McNair, Gunnar Myrdal,[15] Harold Nicolson, Philip Noel Baker, Pierre Renouvin, Lionel Robbins, Jean de Salis [fr], Count Carlo Sforza, Jacob Viner, and Martin Wight.

IHEID's later logo at Villa Barton's main gate.

Another cours temporaire professor, Montagu Burton Professor of International Relations at Oxford University, Sir Alfred Zimmern, left a particularly lasting mark on the Institute. As early as 1924, while serving on the staff of the International Council for intellectual Cooperation in Paris, Zimmern began organizing international affairs summer schools under the auspices of the University of Geneva, 'Zimmern schools', as they became known. The initiative operated in parallel with the early planning for the launch of the Graduate Institute and the experience acquired by the former helped to shape the latter.[14]

Despite its small size, (before the 1980s the faculty never exceeded 25 members), the Institute boasts four faculty members who have received Nobel Prizes for economics – Gunnar Myrdal, Friedrich von Hayek, Maurice Allais, and Robert Mundell. Three alumni have been Nobel laureates.

For a period of almost thirty years (1927–1954) the school was funded predominantly through the support of the Rockefeller Foundation. Since then the Canton of Geneva and the Swiss Federal Council bear most of the costs associated with the Institute. This transfer of financial responsibility coincided with the 1955 arrival of William Rappard's successor as director of the institute, Lausanne historian Jacques Freymond. Freymond inaugurated a period of great expansion, increasing the range of subjects taught and the number of both students and faculty, a process that continued well after his retirement in 1978. Under Freymond's tenure, the Graduate Institute hosted many international colloquia that discussed preconditions for east-west negotiations, relations with China and its rising influence in world affairs, European integration, techniques and results of politico-socioeconomic forecasting (the famous early Club of Rome reports, and the Futuribles project led by Bertrand de Jouvenel), the causes and possible antidotes to terrorism, Pugwash Conference concerns and much more. Freymond's term also saw many landmark publications, including the Treatise on international law by Professor Paul Guggenheim and the six-volume compilation of historical documents relating to the Communist International.[14]

The parallel history of the Graduate Institute of Development Studies (French: Institut universitaire d’études du développement, IUED) also involves Freymond, who founded the institution in 1961 as the Institut Africain de Genève, or African Institute of Geneva. The Graduate Institute of Development Studies was among the pioneer institutions in Europe to develop the scholarly field of sustainable development. The school was also known for the critical view of many of its professors on development aid, as well as for its journal, the Cahiers de l'IUED[16] It was at the center of a huge international network.

Recent merger

In 2008, the Graduate Institute of International Studies (HEI [fr]), absorbed the Graduate Institute of Development Studies (IUED [fr]), to create the current Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (IHEID).


Admission to the Graduate Institute's study programmes is highly competitive, with only 14% of applicants attending the Graduate Institute in 2014.[17] The Institute awards its own degrees.[18] It does not award undergraduate degrees.


As a small institution offering exclusively master's and PhD programmes, the institute does not participate in popular university ranking.[19]

In Foreign Policy's 2014[20] Inside the Ivory Tower ranking of best international relations schools in the world, the Graduate Institute's master's program was ranked 24st among Master's Programs for Policy Career in International Relations. In 2012, The Graduate Institute was listed among the Foreign Policy Association's "Top 50 International Affairs Graduate Programs." [21] The LLM in international dispute settlement, offered jointly with the University of Geneva, was ranked second worldwide according to a 2012 survey of law firms conducted by the Global Arbitration Review.[22]

Degree programmes

Master of Arts in International Affairs (MIA)

The MIA is an intensive two-year interdisciplinary Master programme which begins with a rigorous foundation in quantitative and qualitative methods and in all the disciplines of the Institute. Courses follow in three thematic tracks: Trade & International Finance; Global Security; and Environment, Resources & Sustainability.[23] All students undertake independent interdisciplinary research towards a dissertation. Applied Research Seminars expose them to stakeholders beyond academia and develop skills to design and execute research projects in partnership with them. Specialized, interactive, hands-on workshops help enhance professional skills, while internships for credit allow students to develop work skills and experience.

Master of Arts in Development Studies (MDEV)

Disciplinary Master's degree (MA/MPhil equivalent)

An advanced disciplinary two-year master's programme is offered by each of the Graduate Institute's five academic departments: International Relations & Political Science, International History, International Law, International Economics, and Anthropology & Sociology. The programme includes a significant taught portion and students dedicate a full semester on their master's thesis under supervision during the programme. In addition, a number of students transition during the MPhil to PhD status by way of the Fast Track programme.[24]

Master of Laws in International Law (LLM)

The LLM was introduced in 2012. Students have the opportunity to discuss legal problems in tutorials, develop their professional skills in practical workshops and write an LLM paper on a topic within their specialty stream. Moreover, LLM participants undertake real legal work for a client as part of a law clinic.

Doctorate (PhD)

PhD students specialize in one disciplinary field. PhD candidates who wish to carry out bi-disciplinary research choose a main discipline (a major) and a second discipline (a minor).

Executive masters

Executive education programmes include masters in International Negotiation and Policy-Making, Development Policies and Practices, International Oil and Gas Leadership.


The Graduate Institute has established joint or dual degree programmes with: the MPA programme at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government; the LLM in Global Health Law programme at the Georgetown University's Law Center; the BA programme at Yale University's Jackson Institute for Global Affairs; the BA programme at Peking University; the BA programme at Smith College; the BA programme at the University of Hong Kong, and with the University of Geneva's LLM in International Dispute Settlement, LLM in International Humanitarian Law, Master's in Transational Justice, Master's of Advanced Studies in Humanitarian Action, Master's in Global Health, and Master's in Asian Studies.

Apart from the dual/joint degree programmes, students also have the option to spend an exchange semester at Georgetown Law School, Harvard Law School, Michigan Law School, UCLA School of Law, Boston University School of Law, Yale University, the Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University, School of International Service at American University in Washington D.C., Northwestern University, University of Toronto, Sciences Po Paris – Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris, the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin, Bocconi University in Italy, Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali Guido Carli in Italy, the Graduate School of International Studies at Seoul National University, the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore, the Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies at Waseda University, University of Hong Kong, Tsinghua University, Fudan University, Peking University, KIMEP University, Gadjah Mada University, the School of International Studies at Jawaharlal Nehru University, University of Malaya, the American University in Cairo, Boğaziçi University in Turkey, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, El Colegio de México, the University of Ghana, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Stellenbosch University, as well as the University of St. Gallen and ETH Zürich in Switzerland.

Furthermore, the Graduate Institute is an active member of the following associations and academic networks:

• APSIA – Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs: The world’s main academic institutions specialising in international relations and international public policy are represented among APSIA’s thirty-odd members.
• European University Association: Represents and supports more than 850 institutions of higher education in 46 countries, providing them with a forum for cooperation and exchange of information on higher education and research policies.
• Europaeum: Created at the initiative of the University of Oxford, the Europaeum is composed of ten leading European institutions of higher education and research.
• European Consortium for Political Research: The ECPR is an independent scholarly association that supports the training, research and cross-national cooperation of many thousands of academics and graduate students specialising in political science and all its sub-disciplines.
• European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes: The EADI is the largest existing network of research and training institutes active in the field of development studies.
• Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie: The AUF supports the build-up a French-language research area between French-speaking universities. The Institute is one of 536 members belonging to the AUF and takes part in its exchange programmes in the fields of teaching and research.
• Swiss University Conference: The SUC is a governmental organization tasked with accrediting officially recognized Swiss universities.


Maison de la paix ("House of Peace").

The Villa Moynier campus

The Campus de la paix is a network of buildings extending from Place des Nations (the United Nations Headquarters in Geneva) to the shores of Lake Geneva, spanning two public parks – Parc Barton [fr] and Parc Moynier [fr].

Maison de la paix

The Graduate Institute's main campus is the Maison de la paix ("House of Peace"), which opened in 2013.[25] The Maison de la Paix is a 38,000 meter-square glass building distributed into six connected sections. It contains the Davis Library, which holds 350,000 books about social sciences, journals and annual publications, making it one of Europe's richest libraries in the fields of development and international relations. It is named after two Institute alumni—Ambassador Shelby Cullom Davis and his wife Kathryn Davis, following the Davis' $10 million donation to the Institute.[26] The neighboring Picciotto Student Residence was completed in 2012 and provides 135 apartments for students and visiting professors.

In addition to serving as the Institute's main campus, the Maison de la paix also houses policy centres and advocacy groups with close ties to the Institute such as the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), the Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP) the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining, Interpeace, the International Institute of Humanitarian Law and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development.[25]

Historic villas

Another section of the campus are two historic villas situated by Lake Geneva, Villa Barton and Villa Moynier. Villa Barton served as the Institute's main campus for most of the school's history. It now mostly houses administrative staff. Villa Moynier, created in 2001 and which opened in October 2009, houses the Institute-based Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. The building holds a symbolic significance as it was originally owned by Gustave Moynier, co-founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross, and subsequently used by the League of Nations and as the headquarters of the ICRC between 1933 and 1946.

Campus expansion

Expansion projects include the construction of the Portail des Nations (or Gate of Nations) near the Palace of Nations. The new building will house a series of conference rooms for students and host exhibitions on the role of Geneva in world affairs.[27] The school has also partnered with the University of Geneva to open a center for international cooperation at the historic Castle of Penthes [fr].[28] And in 2017, the school announced it had retained the services of Japanese architect Kengo Kuma to build a 700-bed student housing building. [29]


The Institute's research activities are conducted both at fundamental and applied levels with the objective of bringing analysis to international actors, private or public, of main contemporary issues. These research activities are conducted by the faculty of the Institute, as part of their individual work, or by interdisciplinary teams within centres and programmes whose activity focus on these main fields:

• Conflict, security, and peacebuilding
• Development policies and practices
• Culture, religion, and identity
• Environment and natural resources
• Finance and Development
• Gender
• Globalisation
• Governance
• Migration and refugees
• Non-state actors and civil society
• Rural development
• Trade, regionalism, and integration
• Dispute settlement
• Humanitarian action

Furthermore, IHEID is home to the Swiss Chair of Human Rights, the Curt Gasteyger Chair in International Security and Conflict Studies, the André Hoffmann Chair in Environmental Economics, the Pictet Chair in Environmental International Law, the Pictet Chair in Finance and Development, the Yves Oltramare Chair on Politics and Religion, the Swiss Chair of International Humanitarian Law, and the Pierre du Bois Chair Europe and the World.

Programmes and research centres

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The centres and programmes of the Institute distribute analysis and research that contributes to the analysis of international organisations headquartered in Geneva:

• The Centre on Conflict, Development and Peacebuilding is the Graduate Institute’s focal point for research in the areas of conflict analysis, peacebuilding, and the complex relationships between security and development.
• The Centre for International Environmental Studies was established in 2010 for the purpose of developing political, legal and economic discourse on problems related to the global environment. It is dedicated to the better understanding of the social, economic and political facets of global problems related to the environment.
• The Centre for Trade and Economic Integration brings together the research activities of eminent professors of economics, law and political science in the area of trade, economic integration and globalization. The Centre provides a forum for discussion and dialogue between the global research community, including the Institute's student body and research centres in the developing world, and the international business community, as well as international organisations and NGOs.
• The Centre for Finance and Development's research deals with finance and development at three levels: international finance, and development finance in particular, including the role played by the international financial institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank; financial development, including banking and financial sector development in emerging and developing countries, both from contemporary and historical perspectives; microeconomics of finance and development.
• The Global Governance Centre provides a forum for scholars of governance and international organisations to interact with practitioners from the policy world in order to analyse global governance arrangements across a variety of issues.
• The Global Health Programme's activities focus on two pillars, namely global health governance and global health diplomacy.
• The Global Migration Centre focus on the transnational dimensions of migration and its interdisciplinary orientation. It combines inputs from lawyers, political scientists, economists, historians, anthropologists and sociologists.
• The Albert Hirschman Centre on Democracy explores the "plurality of democratic experiences and aspirations in an interdisciplinary and comparative perspective".
• The Programme on Gender and Global Change produces research on the workings of gender in development and international relations and serves as a channel for the dissemination of such knowledge in both the anglophone and the francophone worlds.
• The Small Arms Survey is an independent research project that serves as the principal international source of public information on all aspects of small arms and armed violence and as a resource for governments, policy-makers, researchers, and activists.


• Refugee Survey Quarterly – Published by Oxford University Press and based at the Graduate Institute, the Refugee Survey Quarterly is a peer-reviewed journal focusing on the challenges of forced migration from multidisciplinary and policy-oriented perspectives.
• Journal of International Dispute Settlement – Established by the Graduate Institute and the University of Geneva in 2010, the JIDS is dedicated to international law with commercial, economic and financial implications. It is published by Oxford University Press.
• International Development Policy – A peer-reviewed e-journal that promotes cutting-edge research and policy debates on global development.
• European Journal of Development Research – The European Journal of Development Research is a co-publication of the Graduate Institute and the European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes with a multi-disciplinary focus.
• Medicine Anthropology Theory – Medicine Anthropology Theory is an open-access journal that publishes scholarly articles, essays, reviews, and reports related to medical anthropology and science and technology studies.
• Relations Internationales – Relations Internationales publishes research on international relations history ranging from the end of the 19th century to recent history.


Legal status

Historian Philippe Burrin, director of the Graduate Institute since 2004

IHEID is constituted as a Swiss private law foundation, Fondation pour les hautes études internationales et du développement, sharing a convention with the University of Geneva.[30] This is a particular organizational form, because IHEID is constituted as a foundation of private law fulfilling a public purpose. In addition, the political responsibility for the Institute shared between the Swiss Confederation and the Canton of Geneva. Usually in Switzerland, it is the responsibility of the Cantons to run public universities, except for the Federal Institutes of Technology (ETHZ and EPFL). IHEID is therefore something like a hybrid institution, in-between the two standard categories.[31]

Foundation Board

The Foundation Board is the administrative body of the Institute. It assembles academics, politicians, people of public life and practitioners. It includes among others: Carlos Lopes, currently UN under secretary general and executive secretary of the Economic Commission for Africa, Julia Marton-Lefèvre (former director general of the International Union for Conservation of Nature), Joëlle Kuntz [fr] (journalist), and Tamar Manuelyan Atinc, (a former World Bank vice president).[8]


The Institute is headed by Philippe Burrin and his deputy Elisabeth Prügl.

Notable alumni

Main article: List of alumni of the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies

The Graduate Institute has more than 18,000 alumni working around the world.

• Kofi Annan – former secretary-general of the United Nations and 2001 Nobel Peace Prize recipient
• Mohamed ElBaradei – Egyptian jurist and diplomat, former director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency and 2005 Nobel Peace Prize recipient
• Leonid Hurwicz – Polish-American economist and mathematician, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics in 2007
• Micheline Calmy-Rey – former president of the Swiss Confederation
• Kurt Furgler – former president of the Swiss Confederation
• Michel Kafando – interim president of Burkina Faso
• Alpha Oumar Konaré – ex-president of Mali
• Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
• Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete – fourth president of Tanzania


• Kofi Annan, former UN secretary-general, 1997–2006 and Nobel Peace prize recipient
• Mohamed ElBaradei, IAEA director-general, 1997–2009, former vice-president of Egypt and Nobel Peace Prize recipient
• Micheline Calmy-Rey, former Swiss foreign minister and president of the Swiss Federal Council, 2007 and 2011
• Philipp Hildebrand, head of the Swiss National Bank, 2010–2012, currently vice-chairman of BlackRock
• Leonid Hurwicz, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences co-recipient
• Jakob Kellenberger, president of the ICRC(2000–2012), and current professor at the institute
• Brad Smith, president and chief legal officer at Microsoft, non-executive director at Netflix
• Patricia Espinosa, Mexican secretary of foreign affairs, 2006–2012, diplomat and executive secretary of the UNFCCC, 2016–present
• Saul Friedländer, Israeli historian and Pulitzer Prize winner
• Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, 2000–present
• Hans-Gert Pöttering, president of the European Parliament, 2007–2009
• Jakaya Kikwete, the fourth president of Tanzania(2005-2015) and the Minister of Foreign Affairs (1995-2005) of Tanzania
• Alpha Oumar Konaré, the president of Mali(1992 to 2002), and chairperson of the African Union Commission (2003 to 2008)
• Michel Kafando, the president of Burkina Faso (2014 to 2015),[32]and minister of foreign affairs (1982 to 1983), the permanent representative of Burkina Faso to the United Nations (1998 to 2011)[33]
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Nobel laureates

• Kofi Annan (DEA 1962), former secretary-general of the United Nations and 2001 Nobel Peace Prize winner[34]
• Mohamed ElBaradei (DEA 1964), Egyptian jurist and diplomat, former director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency, 1997–2009, and 2005 Nobel Peace Prize winner
• Leonid Hurwicz (1940), Polish-American economist and mathematician, 2007 winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics[35]


• Ralph D. Crosby Jr. (DEA 1976), chairman and CEO of Airbus Group, Inc.(formerly EADS North America), 2002–2009[36]
• Jean-Marc Duvoisin (DEA 1985), CEO of Nespresso[37]
• Nobuyuki Idei, founder and CEO of Quantum Leaps Corporation; chairman and group CEO of Sony Corporation, 1999–2005[35]
• Daniel Jaeggi, co-founder of Mercuria Energy Group[38]
• Martin Kupka, chief economist of Československá obchodní banka.
• Rick Gilmore (PhD 1971), president and CEO of the GIC Group and Council on Foreign Relations scholar
• Philipp Hildebrand (DEA 1990), vice-president of BlackRock, former president of the Swiss National Bank[38]
• Baron Léon Lambert, Belgian banker and art collector,[38] whose bank was merged into the powerhouse Drexel Burnham Lambert
• Lynn Forester de Rothschild (fellow 1978–1979), CEO of E.L. Rothschild
• Yan Lan (PhD 1993), managing director of Lazard China[38]
• Frank Melloul (licence 1999), CEO of i24news
• Christopher Murphy-Ives (DES 1990), vice-president and deputy general counsel for Europe, Middle East and Africa, Latin America and Canada at Hewlett-Packard[38]
• Muriel Schwab, Chief financial officer of the Gunvor (company) Group.
• Brad Smith (DEA 1984), president and chief legal officer, Microsoft[39]
• Rafael Tiago Juk Benke, global head of corporate affairs of Brazilian multinational Vale
• G. Richard Thoman, American businessman and former president and CEO of Xerox Corporation[40]
• Bernard Zen-Ruffinen, president of Europe, Middle East and Africa at Korn Ferry International[38]
• Carl Zimmerer, founder and CEO of InterFinanz[38]


• Rubén González Sosa (DEA), ambassador, under-secretary of foreign affairs, 1971–1976, and acting foreign minister of Mexico, 1970–1975[41]
• Walid Abdel Nasser, ambassador of Egypt to the United Nations Office in Geneva
• Imran N. Hosein, Islamic scholar-specialist in Islamic Eschatology; foreign service officer in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago
• Ochieng’ Adala, Ambassador of Kenya, executive director of the Africa Peace Forum
• Félix Baumann (DEA 1995), ambassador of Switzerland to the United Nations in Geneva
• William M. Bellamy (Certificate), Ret. US ambassador
• Térence Billeter (DEA), ambassador of Switzerland to China
• Jean-Marc Boulgaris (1970), former Swiss ambassador to Colombia and Denmark
• Linus von Castelmur (1992), ambassador of Switzerland to India
• Shelby Cullom Davis (PhD 1934), US ambassador to Switzerland, 1969–1975; philanthropist[42]
• Elyes Ghariani, Tunisian ambassador to Germany
• Erwin Hofer (1976), Swiss ambassador to Russia
• María Teresa Infante (PhD 1980), Chilean ambassador to the Netherlands
• Claude Heller (DEA), ambassador of Mexico to the United Nations
• Tamara Kunanayakam (DEA 1982), ambassador of Sri Lanka to the United Nations Office in Geneva; chairperson-rapporteur of the United Nations Open-ended Intergovernmental Working Group on the Right to Development, Human Rights Council
• A.H.M. Moniruzzaman (certificate '89), ambassador of Bangladesh to Belgium, Switzerland, and Luxembourg
• Robert G. Neumann (1937), American ambassador and politician
• François Nordmann (DEA 1972), Swiss ambassador to France
• Assad Omer, ambassador of Afghanistan to France
• Marcial Perez Chiriboga (PhD 1965), former ambassador of Venezuela to the US
• Michael Reiterer (1985), ambassador of the European Commission to Switzerland
• Oswaldo de Rivero, permanent representative of Peru to the United Nations in New York
• Zalman Shoval (DEA), former Israeli ambassador to the US
• Luis Solari Tudela, ambassador of Peru to the United Kingdom
• Mohamed Ibrahim Shaker (PhD 1975), Egyptian amabassador
• Nikolaos Vamvounakis (Diploma 1975), Greek ambassador in Bangkok and non-resident ambassador to Singapore, Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar
• Christian Wenaweser, ambassador of Liechtenstein to the United Nations

Law, politics and government

Heads of state

• Micheline Calmy-Rey (Licence 1968), former president of the Swiss Confederation[35]
• Kurt Furgler (1948), former president of the Swiss Confederation and member of the Swiss Federal Council
• Michel Kafando (1972), interim president of Burkina Faso, 2014–2015
• Alpha Oumar Konaré, former president of Mali, 1992–2002; chairperson of the African Union Commission, 2003–2008
• Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1980)[43]

Cabinet ministers

• Delia Albert, former secretary of foreign affairs of the Philippines
• Lourdes Aranda Bezaury, Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs of Mexico
• Youssouf Bakayoko (Certificate 1971), Foreign Minister of Côte d'Ivoireand ambassador[38]
• Davit Bakradze (1998), chairman of the Georgian Parliament and former foreign affairs minister
• Sibusiso Bengu (PhD 1974), former minister of education of South Africa; first black vice-chancellor of a South African university (Fort Hare University)[35]
• István Bibó (PhD 1935), former minister of state of Hungary
• Martin Coiteux (PhD), minister responsible for Government Administration of Quebec; chair of the Treasury Board of Quebec
• Joseph Cuthbert, Minister of Education, Culture, External Affairs of Trinidad and Tobago, 1971–1986
• Patricia Espinosa (DEA 1987), Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Mexico[35]
• Abul Fateh (Fellow 1962–1963), first Foreign Minister of Bangladesh
• He Yafei (DEA 1987), Assistant Foreign Minister of China
• Manouchehr Ganji (PhD 1960), Iranian human rights activist and former education minister
• Bonaya Godana (PhD 1982), Foreign Minister of Kenya, 1998–2001
• Parker T. Hart (Certificate 1936), former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs
• Jafar Hassan (PhD 2000), Jordanian Minister of Planning and International Cooperation, 2009–2013
• Annemarie Huber-Hotz (1975), former federal chancellor of Switzerland, 2000–2007
• Sandra Kalniete (1995), Minister of Foreign Affairs of Latvia, 2002–2004, current Member of the European Parliament
• Patti Londono Jaramillo, deputy foreign minister of Colombia, vice-minister of multilateral affairs, 2010–2013[38]
• Paul Martin Sr., former foreign minister of Canada, 1963–1968
• Yōichi Masuzoe, former governor of Tokyo, former Japanese Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare, 2007–2009, former member of the Japanese House of Councillors[38]
• Omer Tshiunza Mbiye (DEA 1967), former minister of economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
• Robert McFarlane (Licence), United States National Security Advisor, 1983–1985
• Teodor Meleșcanu (PhD 1973), Minister of Foreign Affairs of Romania, former director of the Foreign Intelligence Service and former minister of defense
• Ram Niwas Mirdha, former cabinet minister in India
• Kamel Morjane(DEA 1976), former defence minister and foreign minister of Tunisia, 2005–2011
• Saïd Ben Mustapha, former foreign minister of Tunisia, 1997–1999
• Kristiina Ojuland (1992), former foreign minister of Estonia and current Member of the European Parliament
• Andrzej Olechowski, former minister of finance and minister of foreign affairs of Poland
• Marco Piccinini, former minister of finance and economy of Monaco
• Francisco Rivadeneira (1995), Minister of Foreign Trade and Economic Integration of Ecuador
• Haroldo Rodas (DEA), former foreign minister of Guatemala[38]
• Shri Shumsher K. Sheriff, secretary-general of the upper house of the Parliament of India
• André Simonazzi (Licence 1992), vice-chancellor of the Swiss Federal Council
• Albert Tévoédjrè, former minister of information of Benin
• Tôn Thất Thiện (PhD 1963), former cabinet minister and public intellectual in Vietnam
• Omar Touray (DEA 1992, PhD 1995), former secretary of foreign affairs of the Gambia[38]
• Joseph Tsang Mang Kin, former minister of arts and culture of Mauritius; poet


• Ann Aldrich, United States federal judge
• Marc Bossuyt (PhD 1975), member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration
• Giorgio Malinverni (PhD 1974), judge at the European Court of Human Rights
• Fatsah Ouguergouz (PhD 1991), judge at the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights
• Christos Rozakis (visiting scholar 1985–1986), first vice-president of the European Court of Human Rights
• Max Sørensen (PhD 1946), former judge at the European Court of Justice, 1973–1979, and the European Court of Human Rights, 1980–1981
• Nina Vajić (DEA), judge at the European Court of Human Rights
• Abdulqawi Yusuf (PhD 1980), president of the International Court of Justice[38]

Members of Parliament

• Rep. Michael D. Barnes (DEA 1966), US Congressman, 1979–1987
• Tarcísio Burity, former governor of Paraíba, Brazil
• Jacques-Simon Eggly, Swiss Member of Parliament
• Mauricio Mulder (DEA 1985), member of Peruvian Congress
• Jacques Myard (PhD), member of the National Assembly of France
• Hans-Gert Pöttering (PhD), former president of the European Parliament, 2007–2009[44]
• Meta Ramsay, Baroness Ramsay of Cartvale, former British intelligence officer and member of House of Lords[45]
• Emrys Roberts, president of the British Liberal Party, 1963–1964[46]
• Alexandra Thein, German politician and Member of the European Parliament

Public officials

• Luis Marco Aguiriano Nalda (Licence), Secretary of State for the European Union
• Shara L. Aranoff (Fulbright 1984–1985), chairman of the U.S. International Trade Commission[35]
• Tennent H. Bagley (PhD 1950), Deputy Chief of the CIA's Soviet Bloc Division during the 1960s; author
• Signe Krogstrup (PhD), assistant governor and head of economics and monetary policy at Danmarks Nationalbank.
• Andréa Maechler (DEA 1994), Swiss National Bank's first female board member; Deputy Division Chief in the International Monetary Fund's Monetary and Capital Markets Department
• Jean-Pierre Roth (PhD 1975), former chairman of the Swiss National Bank[38]
• Robert-Jan Smits, director-general for research at the European Commission[35]
• Marcelo Zabalaga (1977), president of the Central Bank of Bolivia

United Nations and international organisations

• Arnauld Antoine Akodjènou (PhD '88), head of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA)
• Catarina de Albuquerque, UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation
• Hédi Annabi, former special representative of the United Nations Secretary-General for Haiti
• Anthony Banbury (DEA 1993), United Nations assistant secretary-general for field support, deputy ebola coordinator and operation crisis manager[38]
• Marcel André Boisard (PhD), under-secretary general to the United Nations and former executive director of United Nations Institute for Training and Research
• Arthur E. Dewey, former assistant UN secretary-general[38]
• Arthur Dunkel, director-general of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(GATT), 1980–1993[38]
• Kamil Idris (PhD 1964), director-general of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), 1997–2008[38]
• C. Wilfred Jenks, director-general of the International Labour Organization, 1970–1973
• Jakob Kellenberger (1974–1975), president of the ICRC, 2000–2012[35]
• Pierre Krähenbühl, commissioner-general of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)
• Olivier Long (PhD 1943), director-general of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 1968–1980[38]
• Carlos Lopes (DEA), UN under secretary-general and executive secretary of the Economic Commission for Africa[35]
• Jonathan Lucas (PhD 1998), head of the International Narcotics Control Board
• Jacques Moreillon (PhD 1971), former director-general of the ICRC
• Cornelio Sommaruga (PED 1961), former president of the ICRC from 1987 to 1999.
• Eric Suy, UN under secretary-general for legal affairs and director-general of the European Office of the United Nations in Geneva[38]
• Mervat Tallawy, Egyptian politician, former UN under-secretary and executive secretary of ESCWA
• Laura Thompson Chacón (DEA), deputy director-general of the International Organization for Migration and Costa Rican Ambassador
• Sérgio Vieira de Mello, former United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
• René-Jean Wilhelm (PhD 1983), co-author of the Geneva Conventions
• Ralph Zacklin, UN assistant secretary-general for legal affairs



• Victoria Curzon-Price (PhD), economist and former director of the Mont Pelerin Society
• Paul Demeny (1957), economist who pioneered the concept of Demeny voting
• Paul Dembinski, scholar specialized on finance and ethics
• Rüdiger Dornbusch (Licence 1966), international economics scholar at MIT[47]
• Marcus Fleming, Scottish economist, former deputy director of the research department of the International Monetary Fund
• Rikard Forslid (PhD 1994), professor of economics at Stockholm University[48]
• Asher Hobson (PhD 1931), agricultural economist
• Urban Jermann (PhD 1994), professor of international finance at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania
• Lewis Webster Jones, president of the University of Arkansas, 1947–1951; president of Rutgers University, 1951–1958
• Karl William Kapp (PhD 1936), founding father of ecological economics and a leading institutional economist
• Gianmarco Ottaviano (Diploma 1994), professor of economics at the London School of Economics and Political Science
• Smita Srinivas, economics development professor at Columbia University


• Norma Breda Dos Santos, professor of history at the Institute of International Relations at the University of Brasilia
• Cary Fraser, historian of international relations; president of the University of Guyana
• Saul Friedländer (PhD 1963), Israeli historian of Germany and Jewish history at UCLA, winner of the 2008 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction[35]
• Piero Gleijeses (PhD 1972), Italian historian of U.S. foreign relations at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies(SAIS), best known for his scholarly studies of Cuban foreign policy under Fidel Castro[49]
• Robert A. Graham (PhD 1952), Jesuit, church historian and authority on papal diplomacy[50]
• Peter Hruby (PhD 1978), historian of central and eastern Europe
• William Lazonick (PhD 1975), business historian, winner of the 2010 Schumpeter Prize
• John Joseph Mathews, historian who became one of the Osage Nation's most important spokespeople and writers
• Arno J. Mayer, Luxembourg-born American Marxist historian, Dayton-Stockton Professor Emeritus of History at Princeton University
• Gerhard Menk (1969), German historian and honorary professor at the University of Giessen
• Miklós Molnár (PhD 1963), Hungarian historian
• Boris Mouravieff (PhD 1951), Russian historian
• André Reszler (Licence 1958, PhD 1966), scholar of the history of ideas
• Davide Rodogno (PhD 2001), professor of international history and head of the International History Department at the Graduate Institute[51]

International law

• Georges Abi-Saab (PhD), Egyptian international law specialist[52]
• Jean Allain (PhD), professor of international law and associate dean, Monash University's faculty of law.
• Bartram S. Brown (PhD), professor of international law, member of the Council on Foreign Relations and member of the board of directors of Amnesty International, USA
• Laurence Boisson de Chazournes (PhD 1991), professor of international law at the University of Geneva
• Michael Bothe (diploma 1966), professor of public law, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, and chair of the Commission for International Humanitarian Law
• Ion Diaconu, professor of international law at the University of Bucharest
• Cleopatra Doumbia-Henry, president of the World Maritime University
• Willem Thomas Eijsbouts (DEA 1971), professor of European law at Leiden University
• Ossip K. Flechtheim, German jurist credited with coining the term "Futurology"
• Robert Kolb (PhD 1998), professor of international law at the University of Geneva
• Frédéric Mégret, professor of international law at McGill University, Canada Research Chair in the Law of Human Rights and Legal Pluralism
• Steven Ratner (DEA), professor of international law at the University of Michigan's International Institute
• Lyal S. Sunga (PhD 1991), ex-OHCHR official; affiliated professor, Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law; special advisor on human rights and humanitarian law, International Development Law Organization; Head, Rule of Law programme, The Hague Institute for Global Justice; human rights, humanitarian law, and international criminal law expert
• Jorge E. Viñuales (Licence and DEA), Harold Samuel Professor of Law and Environmental Policy at the University of Cambridge[53]
• Patricia K. Wouters, founding director of the Dundee UNESCO Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science and professor of international law at the University of Dundee

International relations and political science

• Pontus Braunerhjelm (PhD 1994), professor of economics at the Royal Institute of Technology
• Andrew W. Cordier (1930–1931), former president of Columbia University, 1968–1970[38]
• Wolfgang F. Danspeckgruber (PhD 1994), Austrian political scientist at Princeton University, expert on self-determination
• Marwa Daoudy (PhD), assistant professor of international relations specializing in the Middle East at Georgetown University
• André Donneur (PhD 1967), Canadian political scientist
• Osita C. Eze (PhD 1975), former director-general of the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs[35]
• A.J.R. Groom (PhD), professor emeritus of international relations, University of Kent at Canterbury
• Sieglinde Gstöhl (PhD 1988), director of the department of EU international relations at the College of Europe in Bruges
• Thierry Hentsch (PhD 1967), Swiss-Canadian political philosopher
• John H. Herz (Diploma 1938), American scholar of international relations and law
• Shireen Hunter (PhD 1983), research professor at Georgetown University, member of the Council on Foreign Relations and scholar on Iran
• Dimitri Kitsikis (1962), Greek Turkologist
• Bahgat Korany (PhD 1974), fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and professor at the American University in Cairo; winner of the International Studies Association's 2015 Distinguished Scholar Award
• Urs Luterbacher (PhD 1974), political scientist specializing in game theory
• Zidane Meriboute (PhD 1983), SOAS scholar specializing in Islam
• Kristen Monroe (junior year), American political scientist specializing in political psychology and ethics
• Hans Joachim Morgenthau (post-graduate work 1932), leading political scientist of international relations[54]
• Philippe Regnier (PhD 1986), professor at the School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa
• Philippe C. Schmitter (Licence 1961), emeritus professor of the Department of Political and Social Sciences at the European University Institute
• Pierre de Senarclens (PhD 1973), international relations theorist
• Hsueh Shou-sheng (Licence, PhD 1953), vice-chancellor of Nanyang University in Singapore, 1972–1975 and founding rector of the University of Macau[35]
• Peter Uvin, professor of government at Claremont McKenna College
• Thomas G. Weiss, international relations scholar recognized as an authority on the United Nations system
• Francis O. Wilcox, former dean of the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies[38]
• Andrew Williams, British professor of international relations, University of St Andrews


• George W. Grace (Licence 1948), linguist specializing in Oceanic languages of Melanesia

Broadcasting, journalism and literature

• Frédéric Bastien (PhD), Canadian author and historian
• Robert Albert Bauer (1931), anti-Nazi radio broadcaster with Voice of America
• René Cruse, French public intellectual, writer
• Carlos Fuentes (1950), Mexican novelist, essayist and former diplomat[35]
• Eric Hoesli, Swiss journalist
• Michel Jeanneret (Licence), editor-in-chief of L'Illustré
• Elizabeth Jensen (DES '83), ombudsman and public editor of NPR
• Beat Kappeler (PhD 1970), Swiss journalist
• Helen Kirkpatrick (DEA), American war correspondent during the Second World War
• Esther Mamarbachi (DEA 1992), Swiss broadcast journalist
• Selim Matar, Iraqi novelist and sociologist
• Derek B. Miller (PhD 2004), American novelist
• Malika Nedir (Diploma), Swiss news anchor
• Jean-Pierre Péroncel-Hugoz (PhD 1974), French journalist and essayist
• Nicolas Rossier (1995), American filmmaker and reporter
• Pierre Ruetschi (Licence '83), Swiss journalist
• Jon Woronoff (Licence 1965), American writer and East Asian specialist


• Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza and pretender to the throne of Portugal
• Princess Nora of Liechtenstein[55]
• Maria Teresa, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg[56]

Public policy

• Allison Anderson (DEA), former director of the Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies
• Antony Alcock (PhD 1968), Ulster Unionist politician
• Svein Andresen (PhD), secretary-general of the Financial Stability Board
• James Bevan (MA), founder of Conflict Armament Research
• Jennifer Blanke (PhD 2005), Chief Economist, World Economic Forum
• Pontus Braunerhjelm (PhD 1994), secretary-general of the Swedish government's Globalization Council
• Julius E. Coles, former president of Africare
• Laurent Goetschel, director of swisspeace
• Stephanie T. Kleine-Ahlbrandt (DEA), Asia-Pacific director at United States Institute of Peace and Council on Foreign Relations scholar
• Edward Kossoy (PhD 1975), Polish lawyer and activist for victims of Nazism
• Gerhart M. Riegner, secretary-general of the World Jewish Congress, 1965–1983; in 1942, he sent the so-called Riegner Telegram
• Riadh Sidaoui, Tunisian political scientist and director of Geneva's Centre Arabe de Recherches et d'Analyses Politiques et Sociales
• Hernando de Soto, Peruvian economist and president of the Institute for Liberty and Democracy[35]
• Matthias Stiefel, founder of Interpeace
• Fred Tanner (Licence), ambassador and former director of the Geneva Centre for Security Policy
• John Ulanga (DPP 2013), executive director of the Foundation for Civil Society, Tanzania
• Tek Vannara (DPP 2007), executive director of the NGO Forum on Cambodia
• Scott Vaughan (IEP 2014), president and chief executive officer of the International Institute for Sustainable Development
• Willem de Vogel (Licence), chairman of The Jamestown Foundation
• René Wadlow, president and representative to the UN of the Association of World Citizens
• Laure Waridel CM, Canadian social activist, writer and executive director of the Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en opérationnalisation du développement durable (CIRODD)
• Leicester Chisholm Webb, Australian political scientist, public servant and journalist
• Béatrice Wertli (licence), secretary-general of the Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland
• Theodor H. Winkler (Licence 1977, PhD 1981), director of the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces[57]
• Samuel A. Worthington (Fulbright 1985), CEO of InterAction[58]
• Saadia Zahidi, head of Gender Parity and Human Capital of the World Economic Forum


• Jack Fahy, US government official and suspected spy during World War II
• Jacques Piccard, deep-sea explorer and inventor
• Kathryn Wasserman Davis, American philanthropist

Notable faculty

Former Faculty

• Georges Abi-Saab – International law specialist, currently chairman of the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization.
• Maurice Allais – French economist and recipient of the 1988 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics.
• Lucius Caflisch – Swiss international law specialist, member of the United Nations International Law Commission.
• Kemal Dervis – professor of economics, former head of the United Nations Development Programme and former minister of economic affairs of Turkey.
• Saul Friedländer – Israeli historian of Germany and Jewish history at UCLA, 2008 Pulitzer Prize recipient.
• Harry Gordon Johnson – Canadian economist who made many contributions to the development of Hecksher-Ohlin theory.
• Friedrich von Hayek – Prominent Austrian school economist, co-recipient of the 1974 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics.
• Hans Kelsen – Noted international jurist and legal philosopher.
• Dimitri Kitsikis – Noted Greek Turkologist.
• Olivier Long – Swiss international law specialist and former director-general of the GATT (1968–80).
• Patrick Low – Chief Economist at the World Trade Organization.
• Theodor Meron – Former president of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)
• Ludwig von Mises – Prominent Austrian school economist, philosopher, and classical liberal.
• Robert Mundell – Canadian international economist and recipient of the 1999 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics.
• Gunnar Myrdal – Swedish economist and co-recipient of the 1974 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics.[15]
• William Rappard – economic historian, director of the League of NationsMandate Section (1920–1925), and Swiss delegate to the ILO (1945–1956).
• Wilhelm Röpke – International economics and spiritual father of the German social market economy.
• Jacob Viner – Canadian international economics and early member of the Chicago School of Economics.
• Jean Ziegler – Swiss sociologist, author and public intellectual.

Current Faculty

• Jean-Louis Arcand – professor of international economics, director of the Centre for Finance and Development
• Richard Baldwin – acclaimed international trade economist
• José Manuel Barroso – Visiting professor, chairman at Goldman Sachs International.,[59] the 11th president of the European Commission (2004–14) and the 115th Prime Minister of Portugal (2002–2004).
• Thomas J. Biersteker – Curt Gasteyger Professor of International Security, Council on Foreign Relations scholar and former director of the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University.
• Gilles Carbonnier – professor of development economics and vice-president of the International Committee of the Red Cross.
• Andrew Clapham professor of international law, former representative of Amnesty International at the United Nations, and former adviser on international humanitarian law to the Special Representative of the UN secretary-general in Iraq.
• Tim Flannery – Visiting professor, Australian of the Year 2007, mammalogist, palaeontologist, environmentalist and former chief commissioner of the Federal Climate Commission.
• Michael Goebel – Holder of the Pierre du Bois Chair Europe and the World.
• Jakob Kellenberger – Visiting professor, former head of the International Committee of the Red Cross.
• Ilona Kickbusch – Adjunct professor, leading thinker in the fields of health promotion and global health.
• Robert B. Koopman – Adjunct professor and chief economist of the World Trade Organization.
• Nico Krisch – professor of international law specializing in constitutional theory, and global governance.
• Keith Krause – professor of international relations, director of the Small Arms Survey.
• Jussi Hanhimäki – professor of international history, recipient of the 2002 Bernath Prize for his book The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy.
• Susanna Hecht – professor of international history whose early work on the deforestation of the Amazon led to the founding of the subfield of political ecology.
• Anna Leander – professor of international relations well known for her work in critical security studies and international political sociology.
• Giacomo Luciani – Leading scholar on the geopolitics of energy.
• Mohamed Mahmoud Ould Mohamedou – professor of international history, former foreign minister of Mauritania and acclaimed Al Qaeda specialist.
• Nicolas Michel – honorary professor of international law, former under-secretary-general for legal affairs and United Nations legal counsel.
• Alessandro Monsutti – Leading expert on the Hazaras.
• Ugo Panizza – Pictet Professor of Development and Finance.
• Joost Pauwelyn – professor of international law, famous scholar in WTO law and public international law.
• Timothy Swanson – André Hoffmann Professor of Environmental Economics.
• Jordi Tejel – professor of international history specialized in Kurdish state-building and Syrian Kurds.
• Jorge E. Viñuales – Adjunct professor of environmental law and Harold Samuel Professor of Law and Environmental Policy at the University of Cambridge.
• Beatrice Weder di Mauro – professor of international macroeconomics and president of the Centre for Economic Policy Research
• Charles Wyplosz – professor of international economics, regular columnist in the Financial Times, Le Monde, Libération, Le Figaro, Finanz und Wirtschaft, and Handelsblatt.


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55. "HSH the Princess Nora of Liechtenstein". Retrieved 9 May 2016.
56. "Biography of Her Royal Highness Grand Duchess Maria Teresa of Luxembourg". Retrieved 9 May 2016.
57. "Theodor H. Winkler". Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
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59. "Ex-European Commission head Barroso under fire over Goldman Sachs job". 13 July 2016 – via


• The Graduate Institute of International Studies Geneva: 75 years of service towards peace through learning and research in the field of international relations, The Graduate Institute, 2002.

External links

• Official website
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Jun 20, 2019 8:40 am

Ann Randolph
by Esalen
Accessed: 6/22/19




Ann Randolph is an award-winning writer, performer, and educator. Her off-Broadway hit, Squeezebox, was produced by Mel Brooks. Her current show is Inappropriate in All the Right Ways. Her personal essays have aired on NPR, BBC and The Moth.

Email Me:

Sharing Your Life Story from the Page to the Stage
View general pricing information


This is an invitation for you to discover your own unique and powerful story and the profound transformation that occurs when you speak it out loud. You’ll learn how to trust your creative impulses, thus embracing all of who you are. By becoming the author of your own life and learning how to tell your own story, you will not only learn to craft your experience into a compelling narrative, but you will also unleash a sense of purpose in your own life that you never thought possible. Through improvisation, writing exercises and group discussion, you can cultivate a fearlessness in speaking your truth.

Ann creates a supportive, fun, and dynamic space in which to create. All levels are welcome. This is a workshop for those seeking to explore personal essay, memoir, solo performance, or the sacred practice of journaling.

Topics include:

• Writing exercises to stimulate memory

• Learning to structure the narrative in a compelling way

• Discovering ways to create spontaneously

• Overcoming performance anxiety

• Utilizing tools to release yourself from the inner critic

• Transforming your ideas/stories into performance

Recommended reading: Pressfield, War of Art.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Jun 20, 2019 8:40 am

Unlocked Stories: Ann Randolph, Writer, Performer, Comedienne, Teacher and Trailblazer
Accessed: 6/23/19




To do the work you love, you’ve got to unlock a few doors. UNLOCKED Stories are honest conversations with people who chose a path and made it happen.

A note from Ellen: I was introduced to Ann Randolph through a mutual friend, and as soon as Ann and I started chatting I knew: this woman is OUT OF THIS WORLD.

Ann is an award-winning playwright, actor, comedian, and performer, though she prefers to simply call herself a “storyteller.”

Ann’s plays touch upon the dark, messy, uncomfortable aspects of what it means to be human. Audiences leave Ann’s shows feeling cracked open and cathartically transformed, like it’s finally OK to share feelings they never thought they could share. The Washington Post calls her work “inappropriate in all the right ways” and Mel Brooks calls her “a genius.”

Buckle up for Ann’s story, which will inspire you to keep marching towards your dream, even if the journey tests your faith and patience to the limit. If Ann can find the inner grit to keep going, keep writing, and keep putting her work out there… why not you?


[Ann]: I am a storyteller. I write and perform solo theatre shows. I also teach people to speak their truth for the page and the stage in writing workshops across the U.S .


[Ann]: Most of my shows deal with situations that people may find uncomfortable to witness or talk about. Situations and topics like sex (not PG13-rated, Disney-fied sex, but raunchy, awkward, messy sex), grief, insanity, illness, and stories about marginalized people in our society who often get ignored.


[Ann]: I was always doing these things. As a little kid I would impersonate different people. I was attracted to oddballs—misfits — people living on the margins of life.

In college, I needed to get a job and there was this mental hospital. Built at the turn of the century, old Victorian, just rotting and decrepit.

They told me they didn’t have any jobs available. But every semester, they let six college students live there—with free room and board—if they’re studying Psychology.

And I go, “I’m not studying Psychology, but I could write plays for the patients.” They said, “You can move in.”

I was assigned to the Schizophrenic Unit. It smelled like urine and dirty feet. Practically my first day on the job, I see a guy walking around with no pants on, masturbating. These patients had no filter, no censorship. It was so hardcore.

I’d never been around the mentally ill before, but somehow I felt pulled to be with these people. Oddly, I felt right at home.

I wound up working there for four years. I wrote plays. I would cast the patients in my plays as a form of “creative/art therapy.” That was the beginning of my “official” playwriting career!


[Ann]: After graduating from college, my goal was to write and perform on Saturday Night Live. My dream was to live in NYC. But I had no money. That was a problem.

I read in the back of a magazine that I could earn $20,000 dollars for one summer’s worth of work cleaning fish in Alaska—so I went there and I got a job on a slime line cleaning fish.

I lived in a tent. I was terrible at that job because I was very slow. I got fired. Then I saw an ad in the paper from a local school seeking a Professor to teach Humanities and Playwriting. I’d never taken a Humanities course in my life, but I walked in there, lied, and said, “Yes I can do this”… so I got the job. I even wrote the first play for the college based on my experiences at the mental hospital.

After that (this is the hyper-accelerated, sound-bite version of the story…) I joined a comedy troupe in Boston, then I spent a year in NYC, then bounced back to Alaska to clean rocks after a huge Exxon oil spill, earned a ton of money there, then went down to New Mexico and moved into a mansion with three professors studying Chaos Theory at the Santa Fe Institute.

While living in Santa Fe, I had this vision of building an outdoor theater in the mountains. I was singing at a local church, and—as it turns out—the church owned some land and they offered to give it to me—for free—if I’d build the theater there. I happened to be dating a contractor at the time, so I used my Exxon oil spill clean up money, hired him to help, and built the theater on the donated church land.

When the theater opened, I put on my first show. Well, at least… my first show outside of a mental institute!


[Ann]: After moving to L.A. I worked at a homeless shelter for 4 nights a week from 7pm to 7am shift. I took the graveyard shift because I was allowed to sleep part of the night. I needed my days free to create. On my days off, I received reduced rent from where I was staying because I only slept there 3 nights a week.

Meanwhile, I was part of the Groundlings comedy group alongside Will Ferrell, Chris Kattan, and Cheri Oteri. All these incredible performers were my peers, but I felt ashamed, like I was living a lie. I was performing, but I felt I had much more to say then a 3 minute sketch. I was at a choice point. Do I stay with Groundlings or quit and focus on solo shows. I quit and focused on returning to solo shows.

Everybody thought I was nuts to do this but I had to listen to the stories that wanted to come through me and they were not always funny. Also, it was terrifying financially because who makes their living from solo shows? Who goes to see a solo show?

For the next 10 years, I wrote and performed 4 solo shows in addition to other plays and sketch shows. These shows would win awards, get great reviews, but I made no money. All the money I saved went into renting theaters and never an apartment. I never had my own place.

I really struggled with comparison, jealousy, and questioning my level of talent. My career seemed like it was crawling along while my peers appeared to be soaring. Deals would come my way but then nothing panned out. People told me I was too outrageous, that my characters needed to be toned down. It was now 10 years at the shelter making $8.60 cents an hour and well, I just plain lost faith. I lost my mojo.

Finally, a mentor told me that I needed to stop hiding the fact that I worked at a shelter, and instead, I should write about it.

That’s what I did—and that choice changed my career.

I wrote a play called Squeeze Box, all about my experiences working in a shelter, and in writing that play, I rediscovered myself and found my faith again. The show was discovered by Mel Brooks and Anne Bancroft. They optioned the play and helped me hone my chops for over a year, before they opened Squeeze Box Off-Broadway.


[Ann]: I’ve had a lot of successes and also a lot of failures. But each failure made me more fearless. Each time I got knocked down, it gave me something deep and gritty to write about. It gave me more courage, too. At a certain point, you’re like, “What have I got to lose?”

I’ve learned that things are rarely “linear” in this business. My career path has been extremely swervy and loopy, not a straight line. I’ve had incredible opportunities handed to me—Broadway opportunities, Hollywood film deal opportunities—only to have everything fall apart at the last moment due to uncontrollable circumstances. Frustrating things happen. But miraculous things happen, too. Like I once received a $10,000 check—out of the blue—from a woman who saw one of my shows and wanted to support me. Then at one of my lowest moments, I got a phone call from someone who loved my work and wanted to help me set up a national tour so that I could perform all across America. Totally unexpected. You just never who’s going to email you or call you up… or who’s going to be sitting in your audience one night… or what’s around the corner.


[Ann]: Should I lie or tell the truth?


[Ann]: HAHAHA! I eat a bunch of crap. I have this thing with McDonald’s. That’s my unhealthy coping strategy. I’ve done that. I also love to spend time alone in the woods. That’s my healthy coping strategy.


[Ann]: McDonald’s and Nature!


[Ann]: I have so many. Astor Piazzolla, who’s an Argentinian jazz tango artist. His music inspires me. Carol Burnett, definitely. As a kid, it was Pippi Longstocking.


[Ann]: I’m premiering my new solo show, Inappropriate in all the Right Ways” at the Marsh. The Huffington Post just gave it a wonderful review and said, “It’s a show like no other” That’s the best compliment because I have combined my love of performing with teaching. I perform and then guide the audience in telling their own stories, so by the end of the show, the audience takes the stage. It’s super cool and inspiring. If you live in SF, please come to the premiere.

Also, this past summer I got to help create a story to Saint-Saëns Organ symphony. It was digitaly mapped in front of 35,000 people with this amazing orchestra playing in front. I love the idea of creating stories to classical music.

I am going to begin my interviews in November and then I will go from there.


[Ann]: Surround yourself with people who believe in you. People who can be your champions. That’s HUGE.

Who believes in you? Only go to them.

People often give up on their career dreams because they feel too lonely or someone put fear in their bones.

To really do something big, there’s got to be that encouragement. If you don’t have anybody to provide that encouragement right now, create a voice in your head that champions you.



Three questions to think about, write about—or talk about with a friend.

1. Ann says to surround yourself with people who believe in you: your champions.

Who is your biggest champion? Who roots for you to succeed? What could you do to deepen and strengthen your relationship with that person even more?

2. Ann has had a series of peculiar jobs—working in a mental institute, a homeless shelter, gutting fish in Alaska, cleaning up after a huge oil spill—yet each “odd job” provided a ton of inspiration/material for her to write about in her plays.

Have you ever had a really “odd” or “random” job? Did that job teach you something important—or influence your life in an unexpectedly positive way?

3. Ann isn’t afraid to talk about the dark, messy, gritty aspects of being human—and by sharing her experiences onstage, she gives the people in her audience permission to open up and share their feelings, too.

What’s something about yourself—or your past/life experiences—that you’ve always kept quiet? Would it feel healing to share that story? Would sharing help others to feel less alone? What’s stopping you from speaking about it?
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Jun 22, 2019 2:05 am

Conspiracy of Heretics
by Joel Garreau
November 1, 1994



The Global Business Network was founded in 1988 as a think tank to shape the future of the world. It's succeeding.

On April 21, 1994, between 7 p.m. and 9 p.m. – the Twilight Zone, you might call it – I rendezvoused with a blend of fantasy and reality in which, you'll be happy to know, the future of the planet was successfully resolved.

The encounter occurred aboard the presidential yacht USS Potomac, the same steel-hulled craft that, half a century ago, carried Roosevelt to his meeting with Churchill wherein they secretly plotted World War II. It cruised on the San Francisco Bay as helicopters hovered above, dropping smoke flares to mark a jumper from the Golden Gate Bridge.

The twilight was a glorious gold, fading to a cool blue-gray.

Reality started turning to smoke, however, as I listened to the people on board bartering the globe. Those identifying themselves as Middle Easterners and Africans – controlling the world's gold, oil, diamonds, and rare earths – quickly made deals that they said raised US$300 billion. They needed it badly, they felt, to protect themselves from a Russian named Boris.

Over by the bar, a lean, shifty-looking man actually went by that name. The Europeans said they feared such a man might be the 21st century's Adolf Hitler. This led to sophisticated discussions about America's war machine. How fortuitous, everyone agreed, that it still exists. Several people on the boat speculated as to the circumstances under which it might be leased.

Those who said they embodied the interests of Asia largely ignored those who represented North America. They were too preoccupied with their bucking and surging economies. The Americans were mildly surprised. But since they were focused utterly inward, intent only on transforming their newly lean multinational companies into mean global forces, they shrugged it off.

Sideshows abounded. The fool Brazilians cutting down the planet's oxygen production, it was agreed, must be dealt with. So the wasteland of the Sahara would simply have to be forested. Africa's Rwanda-like chaos-wars might even be damped by such a project, some felt.

There were surprises. Microsoft was quietly discussed as far more effective a world shaper than the International Monetary Fund. The Latins were startled by how much better the North Americans were at presenting a future for Brazil, Chile, and Argentina than were the South Americans themselves. I, meanwhile, was having a marvelous time wandering about in the guise of a world-weary diplomatic sleazeball representing "international institutions" like the United Nations and the World Bank. Almost involuntarily dropping into a British accent, I sidled up to a chap who supposedly was a neighbor of North Korea and said, archly, "Say, old man, have you any security problems you find sticky? Pity. Perhaps you might give us a ring."

In one dimension, this was all a game. A trivial little game really, conducted by an outfit that at one level is only a vanishingly tiny $4.5 million international consulting company – Global Business Network.

But that is only one layer of reality. To this day, I ponder how history may have shifted during that "game" that I was a part of because I, too, am a member of the Global Business Network. "Membership" is a tricky word at GBN; there is no initiation ritual. One simply gets more and more tangled in its swirling mists. I was first asked to join a discussion on the network's private BBS. Then I started receiving books that members thought I might find interesting. Then I got invited to gatherings at fascinating places, from Aspen to Amsterdam. Finally, I was asked to help GBN project the future regarding subjects about which I had expertise. By then, the network seemed natural.

The GBN members who rehearsed the future on that boat hailed from the Singapore Ministry of Defense, the Australian department of taxation, the Mexican Stock Exchange, the London Stock Exchange, Volvo, Fiat, Petroleos de Venezuela, Allstate, DuPont, ARCO, Saatchi & Saatchi, the American Express Bank in London, and the Executive Council of the Club of Rome. And that scarcely begins to define the group. For spice, there were the likes of Jon McIntire, former manager of the Grateful Dead, and theoretical neurophysiologist William Calvin.

Nor does that game and list of players delimit the group's ambitions. The agenda for the next day was modestly labeled "The Restructuring of the World Economy."

Toward the end of the boat trip, Jay Ogilvy, a co-founder of Global Business Network, reclined in a rattan deck chair of the style favored by those who, back in the '40s, created our modern world.

"I like this," he said, sipping his sauvignon blanc as he gazed at the bosom-like hills of Marin.

"I like it a lot."

He was referring to the pleasures of lording like a potentate over a rented boat.

But once again, not entirely.

Ogilvy is one of five white men of a certain age who, in 1988, created a company/think tank/men's club whose explicit purpose is to shape the future of the world.

It is succeeding.

The Joint Chiefs of staff, for example, hired Global Business Network to help figure out what the nature of military threats to the United States might be for the next 30 years. (The most challenging possibility: what would they do should they face decades of peace?)

How about the LA riots and the collapse of the California economy? GBN helped Pacific Gas and Electric Company anticipate the consequences of both, causing the utility company to put major and early emphasis on convincing industry not to leave Northern California.

Back when the Japanese stock market was flying and Japanese car companies seemed invulnerable, GBN helped Nissan North America Inc. imagine how it would stave off bankruptcy and where it might move its factories if, as actually came to pass this year, the unthinkable happened and the yen dropped below 100 to the dollar.

Back when AT&T thought of itself as a collection of telephone cables, GBN helped the company imagine the modern world in which mobile communication defines the future, and entertainment drives the system.

What happens when broadcast television collapses and the underpinnings of entire industries disappear? That was of interest to Leo Burnett Company, one of the world's major advertising agencies; Universal, one of the world's biggest producers of broadcast programming; and ABC, the television network - all clients of GBN who listen to its advice.

How will we handle the crisis when, as seems plausible later this decade, half of the US nuclear-power-generating capacity becomes too expensive to operate? GBN has thought about it.

What happens if computer shopping kills off every mall? A retailer with gross annual sales larger than the GNP of some European countries keenly wanted to know. They went to GBN for a hint.

Suppose the Asian economic miracle fails, brought down by regional wars and a bellicose China, and the whole territory begins to look like El Salvador in the '80s?

GBN has profited from untangling concepts like "loyalty," "altruism," "community," "honesty," "individualism," "justice," and "fun" for Dentsu Inc., the Japanese advertising agency that is the largest in the world.

GBN is currently indirectly helping the White House plot a course for sustaining the planet should there come a world ecology crisis – a sudden shift in the Gulf Stream brought on by global warming, for example, coupled with the aforementioned nuclear crisis.

In the world of consulting, this is beyond all imagining. "Given GBN's size, it's an absolute miracle that I've even heard of it, much less that I have an image of it" as a world leader in futurism, said Melvyn Menezes, manager at Gemini Consulting, the $516 million Morristown, New Jersey-based firm which has offices around the world.

But then again, at only one plane of truth is GBN a consulting company. In its other, more mysterious guises, GBN pops up in the darnedest places.

When a very informal group of GBNers, as they call themselves, became interested in the future of money, the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco was so impressed with the intellectual and financial power and connections of those who asked for the visit, it rolled out the chief operating officer. As he presided, woodenly, a rather more fluid woman staffer described her plans to have the Fed electronically dematerialize the world's checks. An encryption hacker with a dastardly imagination brought along by the GBNers grilled her about the security of these trillions. As an aside, she discussed the resiliency of $100 greenbacks as the currency of choice in some 30 countries.

The day before, when Genentech Inc., one of the world's leading biotech companies, had discovered GBN was coming, it was sufficiently awed that it rolled out its director of bio-organic chemistry, director of pharmaceutical R&D, director of business development, and several of its hottest, young, jeans-clad scientists. The primary thing the GBNers learned from this encounter was that when bioengineers create new forms of life, they rarely, if ever, discuss the ethics and societal implications of what they're doing. "Just wait till this technology moves off-shore," said GBN co-founder, Stewart Brand. "The developing countries' corporate motto is gonna be" – he smirked and waved his hand – "Ahhhhh, Just Do It."

A private computer bulletin board through which members stay in touch reveals why "Global" is this brotherhood's first name. Members chew to boredom the technical vexations of reaching the Internet from the remote portions of extinct empires. It's the kind of complaint that is really a subtle form of one-upmanship: it announces one's arrival in, say, Tashkent, with an assignment important enough to require a laptop.

Indeed, GBN has influenced your life. The magazine you're holding in your hands was co-founded by Executive Editor Kevin Kelly. Kelly is a member of the GBN cabal. To the cognoscenti, the GBN inspiration has been obvious – perhaps essential – in every issue of Wired.

The origins of Global Business Network, oddly enough, lie in the oil business. The reasons for its existence can be traced back to the '60s, 20 years before GBN was founded.

The golden age of American stability – the '50s – was breaking up on a number of sharp rocks: the Baby Boom, contraception, wars of national liberation, drugs, new technology, the rise of the Pacific Rim, and rock and roll.

It was abundantly clear to those who wished to think about it – markedly few of whom were in the Fortune 500 – that not only was change and upheaval upon them, but it was not going to stop. In fact, even change was changing – becoming unprecedented in magnitude and ever more impossible to prophesy.

This was not so obvious a proposition as one might think. The strategic planning of the time assumed one could project existing realities out in a more or less straight line and achieve satisfactory results. If General Motors was the world's preeminent automobile manufacturer, it would continue to be so. If IBM based its business on mainframes, that would be OK forever. Rapid discontinuous change? Why plan for that? Hadn't happened much in 25 years.

But one year, 1973, changed everything. The quadrupling of energy prices redrew the world's power map and fundamentally rocked the industrial economies. Only one organization, Royal Dutch/Shell's Group Planning, anticipated the energy crisis. Don't take my word for this. The evidence is presented in Daniel Yergin's The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power, the bestselling 1992 Pulitzer winner that gives Shell's Group Planning the credit. (Yergin, too, is a member of GBN. Watch the wiring diagrams here. This fraternity is not called the Network for nothing.)

It is virtually impossible to overestimate the importance of foreseeing that radical discontinuous change in the world of oil prices back in the '70s. The planners at Shell were not only pioneering a new way of thinking about the future; they had so much confidence in it as to go to comrades-in-arms and tell them to end their businesses. If the consumption of oil was going to crash because of soaring prices, the economic survival of Shell depended, for example, on stopping the building of supertankers immediately. This was thought by most to be insane. Everyone "knew" the oil industry to be invulnerable. Friendships terminated. Anguish ensued.

But Shell Group Planning, whose alumni would eventually found GBN, had it absolutely right: as a result, in 1990, Shell won its 70-year war with Exxon, passing it to become the largest oil company in the world. Group Planning was also right in predicting the second price shock in 1979, with its attendant upheavals, and the ultimate price collapse of the '80s that led to, for example, the economic depressions of Houston and Denver.

For an encore, Group Planning also anticipated the rise of Gorbachev and the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Thus, it is little surprise that in 1988, a year when Pentagon planners were saying that for the next 30 years, without question, the major threat facing the United States would be the Soviet Union, the very first sentence of the first scenario book that the newly formed Global Business Network wrote, was "The Cold War is over."

Global Business Network was founded by Shell alumni such as Peter Schwartz and Napier Collyns to be a sort of Group Planning not just for one company, but for the world. Today, even the Pentagon is impressed, for GBN's kind of thinking is becoming recognized as the cutting edge of "futurism."

GBN's renown is largely due to the work of a Frenchman, Pierre Wack (pronounced "Vack"), who as head of "business environment" research for Shell Group Planning in the '70s, helped pioneer an utterly improbable idea.

Wack burned incense in his office and spoke in riddles and parables. His speeches were mesmerizing, like those of a stage magician. When he retired in 1981, it was to a medieval château in the south of France. He looks like Yoda.

Wack claimed that if the rules of the world were constantly changing, it was hopeless to get the "right" forecast. Hiring more or better forecasters to project existing realities in a straight line was pointless. The stakes were too high, the changes too widespread. Just look at the unexpected upheavals of feminism, to pick one example. Who would have guessed back in 1970 that women entering the workforce in America would help cause the number of cars on the road to double, and all-day traffic jams to become common?

The only stability, he argued, was in accepting uncertainty. Organizations would have to be systematically open to heresy.

Wack thus developed "scenario planning."

Scenario planning is gracefully described in The Art of the Long View, by the man who in the '80s held Wack's old job at Shell – GBN co-founder Schwartz. Scenario planning is the methodical thinking of the unthinkable. It searches for wisdom in unusual places. It assumes that there will never be enough information on which to base a decision, if that decision requires certainty about the future. Therefore, it is important to prepare a wide range of possible decisions based on an entire range of possible futures. Never being wrong about the future is better than occasionally being exactly right.

In this view, the best way to deal with the possibility of falling over a cliff is to help people figure out in advance how tall and steep the cliff is. Also to calculate how many different kinds of cliffs there are. And how to recognize when a cliff is coming, and which kind it is.

This is not trivial. Not only must one know what possible futures exist, but one must know how to recognize into which previously anticipated future one is entering. For, as Cicero wrote, "It was ordained at the beginning of the world that certain signs should prefigure certain events."

One astonishing example of scenario planning in action occurred in the early '90s. At the invitation of a multiracial group of South Africans, Adam Kahane, a Global Business Network member and alumnus of Shell Group Planning, shouldered no less a task than seeing whether scenario planning could help turn that pariah nation into a multiracial democracy.

The Mont Fleur scenarios – as they became known, after the small town near Stellenbosch, South Africa, where, in 1991, they were first devised – were the first in the world to attempt the turnaround of an entire country.

These Mont Fleur tales tried to describe nothing less than the ways the world might be tomorrow.

The amazing thing about them is that their narrative power was so compelling that they caused everyone from the radical African National Congress to the crypto-fascist National Party to agree objectively that they were accurate descriptions of the possible future realities.

There were four main futures for South Africa. Everybody, after intensive discussion, agreed that the following were logical and plausible:

> "The Ostrich Scenario." If the white power structure just stuck its head in the sand - did not face the world economic and political isolation, did not deal with internal black unrest except by repression, and did not conduct negotiations with the majority - the result would be massive internal resistance, international condemnation, violence, flight of capital and skills, and economic deterioration. Then things would get really ugly.

> "The Lame Duck Scenario." If negotiations did occur, but the result was a grudging transition to the new, in tiny steps and dragged out indefinitely, the country would be marked by indecision, lack of confidence, lowest-common-denominator waffling, uncertainty, and a resultant lack of outside capital infusions to either turn the economy around or solve social problems. Nobody would be truly satisfied.

> "The Icarus Scenario" (fly now, crash later). Suppose negotiations occurred, and the transition to the new was rapid and decisive, but the result was a populist government that went on a huge spending spree to try to cure all the problems of generations overnight. As has happened so often in Latin America, deficit spending would cause a brief boom, but ultimately the country would become an economic basket case, and the poor as well as the wealthy would end up worse than before.

> "The Flight of the Flamingos Scenario." Flamingos take off slowly, but fly high and together. In this scenario, negotiations and a quick transition lead to effective, sustainable, clean, inclusive government, generating the economic growth that allows social problems to be addressed. Everyone lives happily ever after.

The amazing thing about these scenarios is not that they were drawn up. The amazing thing is that they had such power – were logical, persuasive, easily understood and communicated – that to-the-death enemies, all of whom had it in their power to prevent the flamingos from taking off, began to see a feasible, positive path toward a successful national democratic future together.

The beauty of such scenario thinking – whether in South Africa or elsewhere – is that it basically allows people to tell each other stories about how the world might work. The key element is not whether they are "right" or "wrong." The key element is a sort of literary criticism, in which people dig down to understand the assumptions and perceptions that underpin the imaginations in each scenario, and evaluate their plausibility, their credibility.

This is not a linear, mechanistic, numbers-driven process. It is more of a dance. The process is sufficiently intuitive that, back on the GBN computer network, I discover that one of the more elegant participants is an artist – Brian Eno, the Grammy Award-winning experimental musician.

Such storytelling also allows people to find the most pleasing scenario. Then they can start figuring how to make it happen, as was the case in South Africa. It is all rather like the way a painter creates a new work. Indeed, the point is not to focus on outcomes so much as to understand the forces that would compel the outcome; less on figures, more on figure-ground.

Quite a stunt.

In fact, during the day I first encountered GBN – as mysterious people filled my head with far-out ideas – the first thing that popped into my mind was Isaac Asimov.

On August 1, 1941, Asimov began a series of stories that came to be known as the "Foundation" series. In it, a conspiracy of high-minded people had figured out a science called "psychohistory" that could reliably anticipate the future.

They foresaw a coming galactic Dark Age and launched a plan to cause – to force – a future in which enlightenment would return and triumph over brutal barbarism and savage warfare in only 1,000 years, rather than the 30,000 that it would otherwise require.

At any rate, that first night I could only think one thing about GBN: Holy shit. This is The Foundation.

Subsequent events have only marginally disabused me of this framework of understanding.

One of Wack's iconoclastic beliefs was in putting a premium on listening to heretics – whom he called "remarkable people."

In this view, all the statistical data in the world is of less value than a bracing afternoon with an outcast, renegade, nonlinear thinker.

The members of GBN themselves are such "remarkable people." Co-founder Peter Schwartz, 48, for example, has a welcoming smile, quick wit, halo of hair, and full beard. He resembles the genial host of that kind of restaurant where large men eat large steaks while making large decisions. He is by training an astronautical engineer. He worked for NASA. This allows him to get off lines like, "I am a rocket scientist. I can tell you. Scenario planning is not rocket science."

Schwartz has also studied Tibetan Buddhism and worked closely with Willis Harman, a key figure in the transpersonal psychology movement in San Francisco. Before accepting a post at Shell's Planning Group, he worked at SRI International, the famed Menlo Park, California, research outfit that came up with the widely used psychographic measuring system known as VALS (for "values and life styles"). SRI also developed the computer mouse. Schwartz's is a tame résumé by the standards of GBN.

Member Peter Gabriel, for example, the innovative rock musician, won an MTV Video Music Award for his "Kiss That Frog" video. Rusty Schweickart, who was the lunar module pilot of Apollo 9, is a co-founder of the Association of Space Explorers, an international professional society of astronauts and cosmonauts. Mary Catherine Bateson is the author of With a Daughter's Eye, a memoir of her parents, pioneering anthropologists Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead. Doug Carlston is head of Brøderbund, the world's hottest producer of learning software like "Living Books" and Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego? Orville Schell is the widely read China scholar. Alex Singer directed episodes of some of televisions best series, including Lou Grant, Cagney and Lacey, Hill Street Blues, and Star Trek: The Next Generation. There are a ton of members focused on the transformation of the former Soviet bloc.

I gotta tell you. This makes for one hell of a cocktail party.

Okay, so Royal Dutch/Shell was a major influence on GBN; SRI was another (co-founder Ogilvy is also from the latter). If scenario planning is its engine, remarkable people are its fuel.

Its product, however, is nothing less than accelerated evolution. Such rapid evolution is frequently described as "group learning." Its value is stunning. It assumes that morphing into new shapes is the only sustainable advantage any competitive organization has.

This ability to morph is embedded in GBN itself, which, from its offices in an industrial neighborhood of Emeryville, California, can and does – with only 30 employees – present itself in so many bewildering guises that describing it as a tiny consulting company with 55 major corporate clients is as silly as describing Yale's "Skull and Bones" as just a fraternity.

GBN is a "network," which by definition connects to other power structures. There are also different ways in which a person can be inside or outside the organization. That makes GBN like the elephant being felt up by the blind men. Its elements can add up in mysterious and perplexing ways.

At its core GBN is a cause, a club, a conspiracy, and a collection of highly energetic particles aimed at bumping up against huge organizations with positive results.

"It's a convention of curious kids," says Eric Best, a GBN staffer. "They want the opportunity and license to explore anything with the smartest people they can find.

"At a time of macro change, it's a collection of magpies and blue jays that set up the screeching when a big animal moves in the forest – because the forest needs that. When we tried to boil it down to two or three words, the phrase 'ruthless curiosity' came up."

GBN can come together in so many ways that describing it organizationally is an almost hopeless task other than to note that there are basically four classes of connection: the five co-founders, the staff, about 90 network members (the eclectic braintrust), and the 55 corporations that are paying customers.

More satisfying than presenting a wiring diagram of GBN is to say how it feels.

Global Business Network, first of all, has an Anglo-American cast.

The grand old man of the organization is co-founder Napier Collyns, 67. An avuncular British liberal of keen insight and random concentrations, one would almost expect him to be a dedicated breeder of orchids.

Coming from the London office of Shell, Collyns helped impart a scholarly, tolerant, upper-crust seasoning to GBN. He is the kind of person who winces when pressed about the profit-making aspects of Global Business Network. That all seems so, rather, base.

GBN, however, also has a California capacity for American boogie. That is brought to it in part by Stewart Brand, 55, another co-founder. Brand has been an American cultural icon for half his life. This is the man who, in the '60s, won the National Book Award for inventing The Whole Earth Catalog. Its motto was so American as to bring a tear to the eye: "We are as gods and might as well get good at it." That might as well also be the motto of GBN.

In the '80s, Brand stuck with his maxim by creating the Well, one of the nation's most influential computer bulletin boards, with which GBN trades staffers, and through which - on a private conference - GBNers stay in touch. (The Well, in turn, feels like a San Francisco bar fight.)

Brand also has become the distinguished chronicler of MIT's Media Lab – where, it has been said, "the future is invented." His interest in the implications of cyberspace continues to be a recurring preoccupation of the members of Global Business Network.

There is another sense, however, in which GBN feels Anglo-American. This allegedly universal set of iconoclasts is relentlessly white and male and middle-aged – even more so than many dinosaur American corporations. Discussions of music tend to focus on the avant-garde, the experimental, jazz, and classical.

While GBN's European, American, and Asian clients from governments to oil companies to telecommunications conglomerates are geographically, culturally, and racially quite diverse, there are only 15 women in the core network of 90 GBNers, and only one black, one Latino, and one Asian.

Collyns gets quite defensive when this is pointed out. "If anyone knows of a professional scenarist with lots of experience who is a woman, please let us know. Training takes longer," he harrumphs on the computer network. Everyone points to the misogynistic aspects of the oil and gas industry from which scenario planning sprang as the historical precedent GBN has to overcome. Stewart Brand points to the number of women and minorities at a recent scenario training exercise as the beginnings of a new and virtuous circle.

Barbara Heinzen – who made it through Shell to become one of the world's few woman scenarists, and who is a member of GBN - does not buy all of this. "There is some diversity," she noted, "but not as much as we might see in another three to five years' time, if we continue to develop as a truly global network."

But the women and the minorities who are part of GBN are remarkably inclined to cut the organization some slack. They point to the omnidirectional, informal, friendly, and open-minded atmosphere.

Nancy Hicks Maynard, the former publisher of The Oakland Tribune who has been a panelist on Face the Nation, Meet the Press, and Washington Week in Review, agrees. "I've spent a lot of time working on issues of diversity. But I've been very pleased with the reaction to what I have to bring to GBN. Not necessarily being a black woman, but to my work experience, where I've lived – the way my crazy brain is wired."

She compares GBN positively to outfits that may appear more diverse, but, "There's 10 of us, and two of that: there's a very mechanical feel to it that is not at all welcoming to the people being included. They are not there for who they are in a deep sense – who's a good linear thinker, who's an iconoclast, who's a good convergence thinker, bringing the pieces together. GBN just feels comfortable."

GBN feels articulate, artistic, even literary, as well as visionary. It's quite charming to be rafting down the Rio Chama in northern New Mexico on a GBN expedition in which you're pulling an oar next to Joe Traub, a pioneer of the science of "complexity," or launching a pirate raid/water fight against the boat of Pamela McCorduck, an explorer of hypertext – a new medium that allows her to represent memory as a dynamic, complex system. All the while, Peter Warshall, the ecologist, is describing the complexities of the wilderness through which you float, and Lee Schipper, the transportation visionary, is doing a Lenny Bruce shtick. Just as fascinating are the paying clients, like Robert Salmon, the Parisian vice chairman of L'Oréal – an outfit deeply interested in GBN's take on the future of women around the world.

GBN feels powerful. A high-ranking corporate officer can get quite upset if you present him with a convincing scenario that suggests an entire multibillion-dollar class of investments on which his company has depended for generations might well become worthless within the next five years.

(This sort of thing is also rather fun.)

Finally, GBN feels optimistic.

At an April GBN meeting, one of the most closely studied scenarios was one developed outside GBN by Roger Cass, titled "The Belle Epoque." It made a closely reasoned (and heavily caveated) case that the coming decades could see the greatest flowering of the human spirit since the Renaissance, with democracy ascendant, international trade flourishing, prosperity growing, and intellectual achievements proliferating as unlimited thoughts bloom and are cross-pollinated on the Net.

This sort of optimism is important. One of Peter Schwartz's favorite stories, repeated over and over again, is how in 1980, IBM calculated that the world market for personal computers over the following 10 years was 275,000 machines. The actual number, he smirks, was 60 million.

IBM was caught not by its inability to foresee problems, but by its inability to imagine greatness.

That is to say, it scarcely takes a rocket scientist to generate a disaster scenario.

But to envision success takes talent.

And courage.

There is a rather New Age sort of romanticism to all this. (Not surprising: when co-founder Ogilvy, 52, was a young assistant professor of philosophy at Yale University, Garry Trudeau created a Doonesbury character around him named "Dr. Consciousness.")

Yet GBN's headquarters are not in the rarified air of the Berkeley hills. They are in a converted factory in the industrial flatlands of Emeryville, down by the footings of the Bay Bridge. The trendy seven-foot designer grasses someone has thoughtfully planted grow through rusted triple-strand barbed wire.

"Business" is GBN's middle name, and it ultimately lives or dies by its ability to shake down big bucks from hard-headed clients such as Sears, Ford, Hewlett-Packard, Campbell's Soup, and Bell South. Yet the only co-founder of GBN with an MBA is Lawrence Wilkinson; characteristically, he studied classics at Oxford University before that. One wonders how this sort of touchy-feely séance plays back in the halls of power in Washington, London, and Singapore. I mean, really. Sharing knowledge as a way to achieve profit? Isn't this all rather zen?

The answer seems to be that so many top corporate managers around the world are so utterly shell shocked by change that nothing seems implausible anymore. The rise of China, the fall of IBM, the acknowledgement by many that they have absolutely no idea what a career in their industry will look like in 20 years, much less how to educate and prepare their staffs for that future – all they know is that business-as-usual means death.

To the extent that scenario planning offers any logical path at all, GBN starts looking good to business.

Capitalists have deeply internalized, for example, the lesson of laughing at W. Edwards Deming, the American statistician whose "quality management" ideas led the Japanese to glory. They don't laugh so much any more at any idea – no matter how outlandish it may sound on the surface – if there seems to be a kernel of opportunity in it. After listening to a few Genentech scientists at a GBN conclave talk seriously about someone creating a slave class of genetically modified chimps, very little else a corporate officer hears at a GBN meeting seems preposterous. Besides, if it's the chief economist of the American Express Bank in London sitting next to you who's just said something weird, one feels less self-conscious about stretching one's thinking.

"I'll go out on a limb and take a stab at articulating the 'capitalist' perspective on this rather unique breed of cat," posted Dan Simpson, director of strategy and planning at The Clorox Company, a GBN client member.

"GBN is a rather unique set of competencies and connections," he wrote, "that offers the businessperson three things:

1. Technique;
2. Food on the Future (challenges to thinking about the future);
3. Food on the Present (challenges to rethinking the present differently).

"Whenever I refer colleagues to GBN, it is always in response to the question, Who would you recommend to help us in developing our very first set of scenarios?

"The network is a curious blend of scientists, musicians, artists, economists, anthropologists, and information technology gym rats who form a mosaic by which us capitalists can view our business environment and even our company."

Another corporate client, J.R.W. "Wick" Sloane of Aetna, adds, "People are hungry for new views. The current argot is outside-the-box thinking. By and large, people believe that systemic shocks will make or break companies, and that little curiosities today could be major trends soon. Environmentalism is one example. Thirty years ago a quirky movement. Superfund today.

"I take the GBN mailings and send them out to about 100 people from time to time. People are fascinated, interested, and look for more."

In order to close the circle on these futurists, I asked Peter Schwartz to give me three scenarios for the future of GBN, at least one of which would have to be The Official Future.

He complied, but in such a corporate way as almost to lull me into the belief that his was indeed nothing more than a tiny little company housed in a converted factory.

The Official Future involves GBN spinning off television shows for PBS, new publications, that sort of thing. The most interesting offshoot in this scenario addressed that age-old question: if you're so smart, why ain't you rich? "We find that we are in a position to see a lot of companies that are emerging intriguingly in new fields," Schwartz said. "We're thinking about starting up a venture fund to invest in them." Entry would be on the order of $5 million a pop.

But the other scenarios were pretty much what you'd expect of any young company. In "Slow Slide," the phone stops ringing. "Wildest Dreams" involves an extraordinarily high buyout bid from one of consulting's giants.

Not a whole lot in these scenarios about The Men's Club, or The Shape Shifter, or The Foundation, or even Remarkable People. It is enough to shake one's belief that the Global Business Network might be anything extraordinary.

But then, but then....

Back on GBN's private computer network, Sloane, the insurance executive in Connecticut, posted to the group asking for information about how things were going in South Africa.

From Cape Town came back no less an authority on the subject than Adam Kahane, that instigator of the Mont Fleur scenarios that changed the country.

Reading the words Kahane typed to his fellow GBNers, I once again flashed back to Asimov and his depiction of The Foundation. Kahane's eerie posting reminded me of a passage in Asimov in which an agent for The Foundation's founder, Hari Seldon, is speaking to a new recruit:

"'You must realize that Dr. Seldon's plans include all eventualities with significant probabilities. This is one of them. It will end well; almost certainly so for the project; and with reasonable probability for you.'

"'What are the figures?' demanded Gaal.

"'For the project, over 99.9 percent.'

"'And for myself?'

"'I am instructed that this probability is 77.2 percent.'

"'Then I've got better than one chance in five of being sentenced to prison or death.'

"'The last is under one percent.'"

For it is possible to get the giggles about the work of GBN at the same instant one realizes it can be deathly serious. Kahane, for example, referred to the scenarios South Africa had in fact gone through on its way to joining the rest of the globe in a marvelously camp secret-agent-sounding burst: "We're in Flamingos now. Icarus is still a danger – but one that is present in everyone's mind, and is therefore less likely to occur. Lame Duck is also less likely for the same reason. Ostrich is past now. The MF [Mont Fleur] team will be reconstituted (with a wider range of viewpoints) this August. I will facilitate again. Two key members of MF-1 are now in the Cabinet."

Peter Schwartz, the spark plug of GBN, did not giggle online. He of course took it all seriously.

"Since Flamingos was the most balanced and optimistic scenario, it is an interesting outcome," he mused. "It is rare that the best case is the real outcome."

"On reflection," wrote Schwartz, the Hari Seldon of GBN, "it would be interesting to explore why that was so."

Life is not going to be easy in the 21st century for people who insist on black-and-white descriptions of reality. The shape of the truth isn't static; it shifts depending on where one stands. Bottomless truth lies in the gray.

There are multiple layers of truths about this organization. GBN is a network. All networks shimmer with gray boundaries, vague membership, and multiple - often contradictory - goals. Like the search committee for the MacArthur "genius" grants, Global Business Network assumes that if you are one of the hundred-or-so remarkable people in whom they might have an interest, they know how to find you. It's spooky.

And the network is a tangle. This article on GBN was commissioned by a magazine whose executive editor is a member of GBN. It is running in a magazine which mentions a GBN member in almost every issue. Four GBNers have already been on its cover. And, as I mentioned at the beginning, it was written by a journalist who is a member of GBN.

Hari Seldon would definitely get a kick out of this.

For information about GBN, e-mail or look for GBN's World Wide Web home page at

Who's Who in GBN:

A sampling of GBN's member roster turns up a collection of heretics and remarkable people:

Peter Coyote,
a film and television actor and one-time leader of the Diggers, the famous commune formed by members of the San Francisco Mime Troupe in the Haight-Ashbury of the '60s.

Bruce Sterling,
cyberpunk icon and author of four science-fiction novels and the nonfiction The Hacker Crackdown.

Eric Drexler,
the godfather of nanotechnology, the incipient revolution in manufacturing based on the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules.

Paul Hawken,
founder of Smith & Hawken, the ecology-friendly gardening enterprise, and host of the PBS series Growing a Business.

Pamela McCorduck,
author of Machines who Think and four other books on the intellectual impact of computers.

William Gibson,
a founder of the cyberpunk vein of fiction writing and author of Neuromancer, Count Zero, Mona Lisa Overdrive, and Virtual Light.

Jaron Lanier,
a musician and pioneer of the virtual reality industry.

Bill Joy,
co-founder of Sun Microsystems, the pioneer in powerful workstations.

Lawrence Lasker,
a writer and producer who has seen his movies WarGames and Awakenings nominated for Best Screenplay and Best Picture Oscars.

Mitch Kapor,
the developer of Lotus 1-2-3 and co-founder of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, the advocacy group for computer users.

Amory Lovins,
co-founder of the Rocky Mountain Institute and America's foremost seer on energy futures.

Richard Rodriquez,
the author of Days of Obligation: An Argument With My Mexican Father and a prominent writer on the Mexican-American immigrant experience.

Danny Hillis,
co-founder of Thinking Machines Corp., the trailblazer of massively parallel computers

Donella Meadows,
co-author of the ground-breaking The Limits to Growth.

Don Michael,
one of the few futurists who saw the feminist revolution coming.

Michael Murphy,
co-founder of the Esalen Institute, the source of the human potential movement.

Gary Snyder,
a beat poet and a leader of the '60s cultural revolution.

Michael Naylor,
senior vice president of technology and environment for Rubbermaid Inc., the innovative creator of mundane and necessary household items.

Walter Parkes,
head of Steven Spielberg's production company, Amblin Entertainment.

John L. Petersen,
an expert on the changing nature of the concept "national security."
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