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Thomas Henry Huxley
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Image
The Right Honourable
Thomas Henry Huxley
FRS FLS
Woodburytype print of Huxley (1880 or earlier)
Born 4 May 1825
Ealing, London, Middlesex, England
Died 29 June 1895 (aged 70)
Eastbourne, Sussex, England
Residence London
Nationality English
Citizenship United Kingdom
Education Sydenham College, London[1]
Charing Cross Hospital
Known for Evolution, science education, agnosticism
Awards Royal Medal (1852)
Wollaston Medal (1876)
Clarke Medal (1880)
Copley Medal (1888)
Linnean Medal (1890)
Hayden Memorial Geological Award (1893)
Scientific career
Fields Zoology; comparative anatomy
Institutions Royal Navy, Royal College of Surgeons, Royal School of Mines, Royal Institution University of London
Academic advisors Thomas Wharton Jones
Notable students Michael Foster
H. G. Wells
Influences Edward Forbes
Charles Darwin
Influenced Patrick Geddes
Henry Fairfield Osborn
H. G. Wells
E. Ray Lankester
William Henry Flower
Aldous Huxley
Julian Huxley

Thomas Henry Huxley PC FRS HonFRSE FLS (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist and anthropologist specialising in comparative anatomy. He is known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution.[2]

The stories regarding Huxley's famous debate in 1860 with Samuel Wilberforce were a key moment in the wider acceptance of evolution and in his own career, although historians think that the surviving story of the debate is a later fabrication.[3] Huxley had been planning to leave Oxford on the previous day, but, after an encounter with Robert Chambers, the author of Vestiges, he changed his mind and decided to join the debate. Wilberforce was coached by Richard Owen, against whom Huxley also debated about whether humans were closely related to apes.

Huxley was slow to accept some of Darwin's ideas, such as gradualism, and was undecided about natural selection, but despite this he was wholehearted in his public support of Darwin. Instrumental in developing scientific education in Britain, he fought against the more extreme versions of religious tradition.

Originally coining the term in 1869, Huxley elaborated on "agnosticism" in 1889 to frame the nature of claims in terms of what is knowable and what is not. Huxley states

Agnosticism, in fact, is not a creed, but a method, the essence of which lies in the rigorous application of a single principle... the fundamental axiom of modern science... In matters of the intellect, follow your reason as far as it will take you, without regard to any other consideration... In matters of the intellect, do not pretend that conclusions are certain which are not demonstrated or demonstrable.[4]


Use of that term has continued to the present day (see Thomas Henry Huxley and agnosticism).[5] Much of Huxley's agnosticism is influenced by Kantian views on human perception and the ability to rely on rational evidence rather than belief systems.[6]

Huxley had little formal schooling and was virtually self-taught. He became perhaps the finest comparative anatomist of the later 19th century.[7] He worked on invertebrates, clarifying relationships between groups previously little understood. Later, he worked on vertebrates, especially on the relationship between apes and humans. After comparing Archaeopteryx with Compsognathus, he concluded that birds evolved from small carnivorous dinosaurs, a theory widely accepted today.

The tendency has been for this fine anatomical work to be overshadowed by his energetic and controversial activity in favour of evolution, and by his extensive public work on scientific education, both of which had significant effects on society in Britain and elsewhere.[8][9] Huxley’s 1893 Romanes Lecture, “Evolution and Ethics” is exceedingly influential in China; the Chinese translation of Huxley’s lecture even transformed the Chinese translation of Darwin’s Origin of Species.[10]

Early life

Thomas Henry Huxley was born in Ealing, which was then a village in Middlesex. He was the second youngest of eight children of George Huxley and Rachel Withers. Like some other British scientists of the nineteenth century such as Alfred Russel Wallace, Huxley was brought up in a literate middle-class family which had fallen on hard times. His father was a mathematics teacher at Ealing School until it closed,[11] putting the family into financial difficulties. As a result, Thomas left school at age 10, after only two years of formal schooling. Huxley's parents were Anglicans, although it was against organized religion Huxley sympathized with the town's Nonconformist.[12][13]

Despite this unenviable start, Huxley was determined to educate himself. He became one of the great autodidacts of the nineteenth century. At first he read Thomas Carlyle, James Hutton's Geology, and Hamilton's Logic. In his teens he taught himself German, eventually becoming fluent and used by Charles Darwin as a translator of scientific material in German. He learned Latin, and enough Greek to read Aristotle in the original.

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Huxley, aged 21

Later on, as a young adult, he made himself an expert, first on invertebrates, and later on vertebrates, all self-taught. He was skilled in drawing and did many of the illustrations for his publications on marine invertebrates. In his later debates and writing on science and religion his grasp of theology was better than most of his clerical opponents. Huxley, a boy who left school at ten, became one of the most knowledgeable men in Britain.[14][15]

He was apprenticed for short periods to several medical practitioners: at 13 to his brother-in-law John Cooke in Coventry, who passed him on to Thomas Chandler, notable for his experiments using mesmerism for medical purposes. Chandler's practice was in London's Rotherhithe amidst the squalor endured by the Dickensian poor. Here Thomas would have seen poverty, crime and rampant disease at its worst.[16] Next, another brother-in-law took him on: John Salt, his eldest sister's husband. Now 16, Huxley entered Sydenham College (behind University College Hospital), a cut-price anatomy school whose founder, Marshall Hall, discovered the reflex arc. All this time Huxley continued his programme of reading, which more than made up for his lack of formal schooling.

A year later, buoyed by excellent results and a silver medal prize in the Apothecaries' yearly competition, Huxley was admitted to study at Charing Cross Hospital, where he obtained a small scholarship. At Charing Cross, he was taught by Thomas Wharton Jones, Professor of Ophthalmic Medicine and Surgery at University College London. Jones had been Robert Knox's assistant when Knox bought cadavers from Burke and Hare.[17] The young Wharton Jones, who acted as go-between, was exonerated of crime, but thought it best to leave Scotland. He was a fine teacher, up-to-date in physiology and also an ophthalmic surgeon. In 1845, under Wharton Jones' guidance, Huxley published his first scientific paper demonstrating the existence of a hitherto unrecognised layer in the inner sheath of hairs, a layer that has been known since as Huxley's layer. No doubt remembering this, and of course knowing his merit, later in life Huxley organised a pension for his old tutor.

At twenty he passed his First M.B. examination at the University of London, winning the gold medal for anatomy and physiology. However, he did not present himself for the final (Second M.B.) exams and consequently did not qualify with a university degree. His apprenticeships and exam results formed a sufficient basis for his application to the Royal Navy.[14][15]

Voyage of the Rattlesnake

Aged 20, Huxley was too young to apply to the Royal College of Surgeons for a licence to practise, yet he was 'deep in debt'.[18] So, at a friend's suggestion, he applied for an appointment in the Royal Navy. He had references on character and certificates showing the time spent on his apprenticeship and on requirements such as dissection and pharmacy. Sir William Burnett, the Physician General of the Navy, interviewed him and arranged for the College of Surgeons to test his competence (by means of a viva voce).

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HMS Rattlesnake by the ship's artist Oswald Brierly

Finally Huxley was made Assistant Surgeon ('surgeon's mate', but in practice marine naturalist) to HMS Rattlesnake, about to set sail on a voyage of discovery and surveying to New Guinea and Australia. The Rattlesnake left England on 3 December 1846 and, once they had arrived in the southern hemisphere, Huxley devoted his time to the study of marine invertebrates.[19] He began to send details of his discoveries back to England, where publication was arranged by Edward Forbes FRS (who had also been a pupil of Knox). Both before and after the voyage Forbes was something of a mentor to Huxley.

Huxley's paper "On the anatomy and the affinities of the family of Medusae" was published in 1849 by the Royal Society in its Philosophical Transactions. Huxley united the Hydroid and Sertularian polyps with the Medusae to form a class to which he subsequently gave the name of Hydrozoa. The connection he made was that all the members of the class consisted of two cell layers, enclosing a central cavity or stomach. This is characteristic of the phylum now called the Cnidaria. He compared this feature to the serous and mucous structures of embryos of higher animals. When at last he got a grant from the Royal Society for the printing of plates, Huxley was able to summarise this work in The Oceanic Hydrozoa, published by the Ray Society in 1859.[20][21]

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Australian woman: Pencil drawing by Huxley

The value of Huxley's work was recognised and, on returning to England in 1850, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In the following year, at the age of twenty-six, he not only received the Royal Society Medal but was also elected to the Council. He met Joseph Dalton Hooker and John Tyndall,[22] who remained his lifelong friends. The Admiralty retained him as a nominal assistant-surgeon, so he might work on the specimens he collected and the observations he made during the voyage of the Rattlesnake. He solved the problem of Appendicularia, whose place in the animal kingdom Johannes Peter Müller had found himself wholly unable to assign. It and the Ascidians are both, as Huxley showed, tunicates, today regarded as a sister group to the vertebrates in the phylum Chordata.[23] Other papers on the morphology of the cephalopods and on brachiopods and rotifers are also noteworthy.[14][15][24] The Rattlesnake's official naturalist, John MacGillivray, did some work on botany, and proved surprisingly good at notating Australian aboriginal languages. He wrote up the voyage in the standard Victorian two volume format.[25]

Later life

Huxley effectively resigned from the navy (by refusing to return to active service) and, in July 1854, he became Professor of Natural History at the Royal School of Mines and naturalist to the British Geological Survey in the following year. In addition, he was Fullerian Professor at the Royal Institution 1855–58 and 1865–67; Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons 1863–69; President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 1869–1870; President of the Quekett Microscopical Club 1878; President of the Royal Society 1883–85; Inspector of Fisheries 1881–85; and President of the Marine Biological Association 1884–1890.[15]

The thirty-one years during which Huxley occupied the chair of natural history at the Royal School of Mines included work on vertebrate palaeontology and on many projects to advance the place of science in British life. Huxley retired in 1885, after a bout of depressive illness which started in 1884. He resigned the presidency of the Royal Society in mid-term, the Inspectorship of Fisheries, and his chair (as soon as he decently could) and took six months' leave. His pension was a fairly handsome £1200 a year.[26]

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Huxley's grave

In 1890, he moved from London to Eastbourne where he edited the nine volumes of his Collected Essays. In 1894 he heard of Eugene Dubois' discovery in Java of the remains of Pithecanthropus erectus (now known as Homo erectus). Finally, in 1895, he died of a heart attack (after contracting influenza and pneumonia), and was buried in North London at St Marylebone. This small family plot had been purchased upon the death of his beloved youngest son Noel, who died of scarlet fever in 1860; Huxley's wife Henrietta Anne née Heathorn and son Noel are also buried there. No invitations were sent out, but two hundred people turned up for the ceremony; they included Joseph Dalton Hooker, William Henry Flower, Mulford B. Foster, Edwin Lankester, Joseph Lister and, apparently, Henry James.[27]

Huxley and his wife had five daughters and three sons:

Noel Huxley (1856–1860), died aged 4.
Jessie Oriana Huxley (1856–1927), married architect Fred Waller in 1877.
Marian Huxley (1859–1887), married artist John Collier in 1879.
Leonard Huxley (1860–1933), married Julia Arnold.
Rachel Huxley (1862–1934), married civil engineer Alfred Eckersley in 1884.
Henrietta (Nettie) Huxley (1863–1940), married Harold Roller, travelled Europe as a singer.
Henry Huxley (1865–1946), became a fashionable general practitioner in London.
Ethel Huxley (1866–1941) married artist John Collier (widower of sister) in 1889.

Public duties and awards

From 1870 onwards, Huxley was to some extent drawn away from scientific research by the claims of public duty. He served on eight Royal Commissions, from 1862 to 1884. From 1871 to 1880 he was a Secretary of the Royal Society and from 1883 to 1885 he was president. He was president of the Geological Society from 1868 to 1870. In 1870, he was president of the British Association at Liverpool and, in the same year was elected a member of the newly constituted London School Board. He was president of the Quekett Microscopical Club from 1877 to 1879. He was the leading person amongst those who reformed the Royal Society, persuaded government about science, and established scientific education in British schools and universities.[28] Before him, science was mostly a gentleman's occupation; after him, science was a profession.[29]

He was awarded the highest honours then open to British men of science. The Royal Society, who had elected him as Fellow when he was 25 (1851), awarded him the Royal Medal the next year (1852), a year before Charles Darwin got the same award. He was the youngest biologist to receive such recognition. Then later in life came the Copley Medal in 1888 and the Darwin Medal in 1894; the Geological Society awarded him the Wollaston Medal in 1876; the Linnean Society awarded him the Linnean Medal in 1890. There were many other elections and appointments to eminent scientific bodies; these and his many academic awards are listed in the Life and Letters. He turned down many other appointments, notably the Linacre chair in zoology at Oxford and the Mastership of University College, Oxford.[30]

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Huxley by Bassano c. 1883

In 1873 the King of Sweden made Huxley, Hooker and Tyndall Knights of the Order of the Polar Star: they could wear the insignia but not use the title in Britain.[31] Huxley collected many honorary memberships of foreign societies, academic awards and honorary doctorates from Britain and Germany. He also became foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1892.[32]

As recognition of his many public services he was given a pension by the state, and was appointed Privy Councillor in 1892.

Despite his many achievements he was given no award by the British state until late in life. In this he did better than Darwin, who got no award of any kind from the state. (Darwin's proposed knighthood was vetoed by ecclesiastical advisers, including Wilberforce)[33] Perhaps Huxley had commented too often on his dislike of honours, or perhaps his many assaults on the traditional beliefs of organised religion made enemies in the establishment—he had vigorous debates in print with Benjamin Disraeli, William Ewart Gladstone and Arthur Balfour, and his relationship with Lord Salisbury was less than tranquil.[15][34]

Huxley was for about thirty years evolution's most effective advocate, and for some Huxley was "the premier advocate of science in the nineteenth century [for] the whole English-speaking world".[35]

Though he had many admirers and disciples, his retirement and later death left British zoology somewhat bereft of leadership. He had, directly or indirectly, guided the careers and appointments of the next generation, but none were of his stature. The loss of Francis Balfour in 1882, climbing the Alps just after he was appointed to a chair at Cambridge, was a tragedy. Huxley thought he was "the only man who can carry out my work": the deaths of Balfour and W. K. Clifford were "the greatest losses to science in our time".[15]

Vertebrate palaeontology

The first half of Huxley's career as a palaeontologist is marked by a rather strange predilection for 'persistent types', in which he seemed to argue that evolutionary advancement (in the sense of major new groups of animals and plants) was rare or absent in the Phanerozoic. In the same vein, he tended to push the origin of major groups such as birds and mammals back into the Palaeozoic era, and to claim that no order of plants had ever gone extinct.[citation needed]

Much paper has been consumed by historians of science ruminating on this strange and somewhat unclear idea.[36] Huxley was wrong to pitch the loss of orders in the Phanerozoic as low as 7%, and he did not estimate the number of new orders which evolved. Persistent types sat rather uncomfortably next to Darwin's more fluid ideas; despite his intelligence, it took Huxley a surprisingly long time to appreciate some of the implications of evolution. However, gradually Huxley moved away from this conservative style of thinking as his understanding of palaeontology, and the discipline itself, developed.[citation needed]

Huxley's detailed anatomical work was, as always, first-rate and productive. His work on fossil fish shows his distinctive approach: whereas pre-Darwinian naturalists collected, identified and classified, Huxley worked mainly to reveal the evolutionary relationships between groups.[citation needed]

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Huxley by Wirgman, a drawing in pencil, 1882

The lobed-finned fish (such as coelacanths and lung fish) have paired appendages whose internal skeleton is attached to the shoulder or pelvis by a single bone, the humerus or femur. His interest in these fish brought him close to the origin of tetrapods, one of the most important areas of vertebrate palaeontology.[37][38][39]

The study of fossil reptiles led to his demonstrating the fundamental affinity of birds and reptiles, which he united under the title of Sauropsida. His papers on Archaeopteryx and the origin of birds were of great interest then and still are.[24][40][41]

Apart from his interest in persuading the world that man was a primate, and had descended from the same stock as the apes, Huxley did little work on mammals, with one exception. On his tour of America Huxley was shown the remarkable series of fossil horses, discovered by O. C. Marsh, in Yale's Peabody Museum.[42][43] Marsh was part palaeontologist, part robber baron, a man who had hunted buffalo and met Red Cloud (in 1874). Funded by his uncle George Peabody, Marsh had made some remarkable discoveries: the huge Cretaceous aquatic bird Hesperornis, and the dinosaur footprints along the Connecticut River were worth the trip by themselves, but the horse fossils were really special.[according to whom?]

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Huxley's sketch of then hypothetical five-toed Eohippus being ridden by "Eohomo"

The collection at that time went from the small four-toed forest-dwelling Orohippus from the Eocene through three-toed species such as Miohippus to species more like the modern horse. By looking at their teeth he could see that, as the size grew larger and the toes reduced, the teeth changed from those of a browser to those of a grazer. All such changes could be explained by a general alteration in habitat from forest to grassland.[citation needed] And, it is now known, that is what did happen over large areas of North America from the Eocene to the Pleistocene: the ultimate causative agent was global temperature reduction (see Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum). The modern account of the evolution of the horse has many other members, and the overall appearance of the tree of descent is more like a bush than a straight line.

The horse series also strongly suggested that the process was gradual, and that the origin of the modern horse lay in North America, not in Eurasia. If so, then something must have happened to horses in North America, since none were there when Europeans arrived. The experience was enough for Huxley to give credence to Darwin's gradualism, and to introduce the story of the horse into his lecture series.[citation needed]

Darwin's bulldog

See also: Reaction to Darwin's theory

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The frontispiece to Huxley's Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature (1863): the image compares the skeletons of apes to humans. The gibbon (left) is double size.

Huxley was originally not persuaded of "development theory", as evolution was once called. This can be seen in his savage review[44] of Robert Chambers' Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, a book which contained some quite pertinent arguments in favour of evolution. Huxley had also rejected Lamarck's theory of transmutation, on the basis that there was insufficient evidence to support it. All this scepticism was brought together in a lecture to the Royal Institution,[45] which made Darwin anxious enough to set about an effort to change young Huxley's mind. It was the kind of thing Darwin did with his closest scientific friends, but he must have had some particular intuition about Huxley, who was from all accounts a most impressive person even as a young man.[46][47]

Huxley was therefore one of the small group who knew about Darwin's ideas before they were published (the group included Joseph Dalton Hooker and Charles Lyell). The first publication by Darwin of his ideas came when Wallace sent Darwin his famous paper on natural selection, which was presented by Lyell and Hooker to the Linnean Society in 1858 alongside excerpts from Darwin's notebook and a Darwin letter to Asa Gray.[48][49] Huxley's famous response to the idea of natural selection was "How extremely stupid not to have thought of that!"[50] However, he never conclusively made up his mind about whether natural selection was the main method for evolution, though he did admit it was a hypothesis which was a good working basis.

Logically speaking, the prior question was whether evolution had taken place at all. It is to this question that much of Darwin's On the Origin of Species was devoted. Its publication in 1859 completely convinced Huxley of evolution and it was this and no doubt his admiration of Darwin's way of amassing and using evidence that formed the basis of his support for Darwin in the debates that followed the book's publication.

Huxley's support started with his anonymous favourable review of the Origin in the Times for 26 December 1859,[51] and continued with articles in several periodicals, and in a lecture at the Royal Institution in February 1860.[52] At the same time, Richard Owen, whilst writing an extremely hostile anonymous review of the Origin in the Edinburgh Review,[53] also primed Samuel Wilberforce who wrote one in the Quarterly Review, running to 17,000 words.[54] The authorship of this latter review was not known for sure until Wilberforce's son wrote his biography. So it can be said that, just as Darwin groomed Huxley, so Owen groomed Wilberforce; and both the proxies fought public battles on behalf of their principals as much as themselves. Though we do not know the exact words of the Oxford debate, we do know what Huxley thought of the review in the Quarterly:

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Caricature of Huxley by Carlo Pellegrini in Vanity Fair 1871

Since Lord Brougham assailed Dr Young, the world has seen no such specimen of the insolence of a shallow pretender to a Master in Science as this remarkable production, in which one of the most exact of observers, most cautious of reasoners, and most candid of expositors, of this or any other age, is held up to scorn as a "flighty" person, who endeavours "to prop up his utterly rotten fabric of guess and speculation," and whose "mode of dealing with nature" is reprobated as "utterly dishonourable to Natural Science."

If I confine my retrospect of the reception of the Origin of Species to a twelvemonth, or thereabouts, from the time of its publication, I do not recollect anything quite so foolish and unmannerly as the Quarterly Review article...[55][56]


Huxley said "I am Darwin's bulldog". While the second half of Darwin's life was lived mainly within his family, the younger combative Huxley operated mainly out in the world at large. A letter from Huxley to Ernst Haeckel (2 November 1871) states: "The dogs have been snapping at [Darwin's] heels too much of late." At Oxford and Cambridge Universities, "Bulldog" was and still is student slang for a university policeman, whose job was to corral errant students and maintain their moral rectitude.

Debate with Wilberforce

Main article: 1860 Oxford evolution debate

Famously, Huxley responded to Wilberforce in the debate at the British Association meeting, on Saturday 30 June 1860 at the Oxford University Museum. Huxley's presence there had been encouraged on the previous evening when he met Robert Chambers, the Scottish publisher and author of "Vestiges", who was walking the streets of Oxford in a dispirited state, and begged for assistance. The debate followed the presentation of a paper by John William Draper, and was chaired by Darwins's former botany tutor John Stevens Henslow. Darwin's theory was opposed by the Lord Bishop of Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce, and those supporting Darwin included Huxley and their mutual friends Hooker and Lubbock. The platform featured Brodie and Professor Beale, and Robert FitzRoy, who had been captain of HMS Beagle during Darwin's voyage, spoke against Darwin.[57]

Wilberforce had a track record against evolution as far back as the previous Oxford B.A. meeting in 1847 when he attacked Chambers' Vestiges. For the more challenging task of opposing the Origin, and the implication that man descended from apes, he had been assiduously coached by Richard Owen—Owen stayed with him the night before the debate.[58] On the day Wilberforce repeated some of the arguments from his Quarterly Review article (written but not yet published), then ventured onto slippery ground. His famous jibe at Huxley (as to whether Huxley was descended from an ape on his mother's side or his father's side) was probably unplanned, and certainly unwise. Huxley's reply to the effect that he would rather be descended from an ape than a man who misused his great talents to suppress debate—the exact wording is not certain—was widely recounted in pamphlets and a spoof play.

The letters of Alfred Newton include one to his brother giving an eyewitness account of the debate, and written less than a month afterwards.[59] Other eyewitnesses, with one or two exceptions (Hooker especially thought he had made the best points), give similar accounts, at varying dates after the event.[60] The general view was and still is that Huxley got much the better of the exchange though Wilberforce himself thought he had done quite well. In the absence of a verbatim report differing perceptions are difficult to judge fairly; Huxley wrote a detailed account for Darwin, a letter which does not survive; however, a letter to his friend Frederick Daniel Dyster does survive with an account just three months after the event.[61][62][63][64][65][66]

One effect of the debate was to increase hugely Huxley's visibility amongst educated people, through the accounts in newspapers and periodicals. Another consequence was to alert him to the importance of public debate: a lesson he never forgot. A third effect was to serve notice that Darwinian ideas could not be easily dismissed: on the contrary, they would be vigorously defended against orthodox authority.[67][68] A fourth effect was to promote professionalism in science, with its implied need for scientific education. A fifth consequence was indirect: as Wilberforce had feared, a defence of evolution did undermine literal belief in the Old Testament, especially the Book of Genesis. Many of the liberal clergy at the meeting were quite pleased with the outcome of the debate; they were supporters, perhaps, of the controversial Essays and Reviews. Thus both on the side of science, and on the side of religion, the debate was important, and its outcome significant.[69] (see also below)

That Huxley and Wilberforce remained on courteous terms after the debate (and able to work together on projects such as the Metropolitan Board of Education) says something about both men, whereas Huxley and Owen were never reconciled.

Man's place in nature

See also: Man's Place in Nature

For nearly a decade his work was directed mainly to the relationship of man to the apes. This led him directly into a clash with Richard Owen, a man widely disliked for his behaviour whilst also being admired for his capability. The struggle was to culminate in some severe defeats for Owen. Huxley's Croonian Lecture, delivered before the Royal Society in 1858 on The Theory of the Vertebrate Skull was the start. In this, he rejected Owen's theory that the bones of the skull and the spine were homologous, an opinion previously held by Goethe and Lorenz Oken.[70]

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Huxley at 32

From 1860–63 Huxley developed his ideas, presenting them in lectures to working men, students and the general public, followed by publication. Also in 1862 a series of talks to working men was printed lecture by lecture as pamphlets, later bound up as a little green book; the first copies went on sale in December.[71] Other lectures grew into Huxley's most famous work Evidence as to Man's place in Nature (1863) where he addressed the key issues long before Charles Darwin published his Descent of Man in 1871.

Although Darwin did not publish his Descent of Man until 1871, the general debate on this topic had started years before (there was even a precursor debate in the 18th century between Monboddo and Buffon). Darwin had dropped a hint when, in the conclusion to the Origin, he wrote: "In the distant future... light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history".[72] Not so distant, as it turned out. A key event had already occurred in 1857 when Richard Owen presented (to the Linnean Society) his theory that man was marked off from all other mammals by possessing features of the brain peculiar to the genus Homo. Having reached this opinion, Owen separated man from all other mammals in a subclass of its own.[73] No other biologist held such an extreme view. Darwin reacted "Man...as distinct from a chimpanzee [as] an ape from a platypus... I cannot swallow that!"[74] Neither could Huxley, who was able to demonstrate that Owen's idea was completely wrong.

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Huxley with sketch of a gorilla skull (c1870)

The subject was raised at the 1860 BA Oxford meeting, when Huxley flatly contradicted Owen, and promised a later demonstration of the facts. In fact, a number of demonstrations were held in London and the provinces. In 1862 at the Cambridge meeting of the B.A. Huxley's friend William Flower gave a public dissection to show that the same structures (the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle and hippocampus minor) were indeed present in apes. The debate was widely publicised, and parodied as the Great Hippocampus Question. It was seen as one of Owen's greatest blunders, revealing Huxley as not only dangerous in debate, but also a better anatomist.

Owen conceded that there was something that could be called a hippocampus minor in the apes, but stated that it was much less developed and that such a presence did not detract from the overall distinction of simple brain size.[75]

Huxley's ideas on this topic were summed up in January 1861 in the first issue (new series) of his own journal, the Natural History Review: "the most violent scientific paper he had ever composed".[48] This paper was reprinted in 1863 as chapter 2 of Man's Place in Nature, with an addendum giving his account of the Owen/Huxley controversy about the ape brain.[76] In his Collected Essays this addendum was removed.

The extended argument on the ape brain, partly in debate and partly in print, backed by dissections and demonstrations, was a landmark in Huxley's career. It was highly important in asserting his dominance of comparative anatomy, and in the long run more influential in establishing evolution amongst biologists than was the debate with Wilberforce. It also marked the start of Owen's decline in the esteem of his fellow biologists.

The following was written by Huxley to Rolleston before the BA meeting in 1861:

"My dear Rolleston... The obstinate reiteration of erroneous assertions can only be nullified by as persistent an appeal to facts; and I greatly regret that my engagements do not permit me to be present at the British Association in order to assist personally at what, I believe, will be the seventh public demonstration during the past twelve months of the untruth of the three assertions, that the posterior lobe of the cerebrum, the posterior cornu of the lateral ventricle, and the hippocampus minor, are peculiar to man and do not exist in the apes. I shall be obliged if you will read this letter to the Section" Yours faithfully, Thos. H. Huxley.[77]


During those years there was also work on human fossil anatomy and anthropology. In 1862 he examined the Neanderthal skull-cap, which had been discovered in 1857. It was the first pre-sapiens discovery of a fossil man, and it was immediately clear to him that the brain case was surprisingly large.[78]

Perhaps less productive was his work on physical anthropology, a topic which fascinated the Victorians. Huxley classified the human races into nine categories, and discussed them under four headings as: Australoid, Negroid, Xanthocroic and Mongoloid types. Such classifications depended mainly on appearance and anatomical characteristics.[79][80]

Natural selection

Huxley was certainly not slavish in his dealings with Darwin. As shown in every biography, they had quite different and rather complementary characters. Important also, Darwin was a field naturalist, but Huxley was an anatomist, so there was a difference in their experience of nature. Lastly, Darwin's views on science were different from Huxley's views. For Darwin, natural selection was the best way to explain evolution because it explained a huge range of natural history facts and observations: it solved problems. Huxley, on the other hand, was an empiricist who trusted what he could see, and some things are not easily seen. With this in mind, one can appreciate the debate between them, Darwin writing his letters, Huxley never going quite so far as to say he thought Darwin was right.

Huxley's reservations on natural selection were of the type "until selection and breeding can be seen to give rise to varieties which are infertile with each other, natural selection cannot be proved".[81][82] Huxley's position on selection was agnostic; yet he gave no credence to any other theory. Despite this concern about evidence, Huxley saw that if evolution came about through variation, reproduction and selection then other things would also be subject to the same pressures. This included ideas because they are invented, imitated and selected by humans: ‘The struggle for existence holds as much in the intellectual as in the physical world. A theory is a species of thinking, and its right to exist is coextensive with its power of resisting extinction by its rivals.’[83] This is the same idea as meme theory put forward by Richard Dawkins in 1976.[84]

Darwin's part in the discussion came mostly in letters, as was his wont, along the lines: "The empirical evidence you call for is both impossible in practical terms, and in any event unnecessary. It's the same as asking to see every step in the transformation (or the splitting) of one species into another. My way so many issues are clarified and problems solved; no other theory does nearly so well".[85]

Huxley's reservation, as Helena Cronin has so aptly remarked, was contagious: "it spread itself for years among all kinds of doubters of Darwinism".[86] One reason for this doubt was that comparative anatomy could address the question of descent, but not the question of mechanism.[87]

Pallbearer

Huxley was a pallbearer at the funeral of Charles Darwin on 26 April 1882.[88]

The X Club

Main article: X Club

In November 1864, Huxley succeeded in launching a dining club, the X Club, composed of like-minded people working to advance the cause of science; not surprisingly, the club consisted of most of his closest friends. There were nine members, who decided at their first meeting that there should be no more. The members were: Huxley, John Tyndall, J. D. Hooker, John Lubbock (banker, biologist and neighbour of Darwin), Herbert Spencer (social philosopher and sub-editor of the Economist), William Spottiswoode (mathematician and the Queen's Printer), Thomas Hirst (Professor of Physics at University College London), Edward Frankland (the new Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution) and George Busk, zoologist and palaeontologist (formerly surgeon for HMS Dreadnought). All except Spencer were Fellows of the Royal Society. Tyndall was a particularly close friend; for many years they met regularly and discussed issues of the day. On more than one occasion Huxley joined Tyndall in the latter's trips into the Alps and helped with his investigations in glaciology.[89][90][91]

Image
From the portrait of A. Legros.

There were also some quite significant X-Club satellites such as William Flower and George Rolleston, (Huxley protegés), and liberal clergyman Arthur Stanley, the Dean of Westminster. Guests such as Charles Darwin and Hermann von Helmholtz were entertained from time to time.[92]

They would dine early on first Thursdays at a hotel, planning what to do; high on the agenda was to change the way the Royal Society Council did business. It was no coincidence that the Council met later that same evening. First item for the Xs was to get the Copley Medal for Darwin, which they managed after quite a struggle.

The next step was to acquire a journal to spread their ideas. This was the weekly Reader, which they bought, revamped and redirected. Huxley had already become part-owner of the Natural History Review[93] bolstered by the support of Lubbock, Rolleston, Busk and Carpenter (X-clubbers and satellites). The journal was switched to pro-Darwinian lines and relaunched in January 1861. After a stream of good articles the NHR failed after four years; but it had helped at a critical time for the establishment of evolution. The Reader also failed, despite its broader appeal which included art and literature as well as science. The periodical market was quite crowded at the time, but most probably the critical factor was Huxley's time; he was simply over-committed, and could not afford to hire full-time editors. This occurred often in his life: Huxley took on too many ventures, and was not so astute as Darwin at getting others to do work for him.

However, the experience gained with the Reader was put to good use when the X Club put their weight behind the founding of Nature in 1869. This time no mistakes were made: above all there was a permanent editor (though not full-time), Norman Lockyer, who served until 1919, a year before his death. In 1925, to celebrate his centenary, Nature issued a supplement devoted to Huxley.[94]

The peak of the X Club's influence was from 1873 to 1885 as Hooker, Spottiswoode and Huxley were Presidents of the Royal Society in succession. Spencer resigned in 1889 after a dispute with Huxley over state support for science.[95] After 1892 it was just an excuse for the surviving members to meet. Hooker died in 1911, and Lubbock (now Lord Avebury) was the last surviving member.

Huxley was also an active member of the Metaphysical Society, which ran from 1869 to 1880.[96] It was formed around a nucleus of clergy and expanded to include all kinds of opinions. Tyndall and Huxley later joined The Club (founded by Dr. Johnson) when they could be sure that Owen would not turn up.[97]

Educational influence

When Huxley himself was young there were virtually no degrees in British universities in the biological sciences and few courses. Most biologists of his day were either self-taught, or took medical degrees. When he retired there were established chairs in biological disciplines in most universities, and a broad consensus on the curricula to be followed. Huxley was the single most influential person in this transformation.

School of Mines and Zoology

In the early 1870s the Royal School of Mines moved to new quarters in South Kensington; ultimately it would become one of the constituent parts of Imperial College London. The move gave Huxley the chance to give more prominence to laboratory work in biology teaching, an idea suggested by practice in German universities.[28] In the main, the method was based on the use of carefully chosen types, and depended on the dissection of anatomy, supplemented by microscopy, museum specimens and some elementary physiology at the hands of Foster.

The typical day would start with Huxley lecturing at 9am, followed by a program of laboratory work supervised by his demonstrators.[98] Huxley's demonstrators were picked men—all became leaders of biology in Britain in later life, spreading Huxley's ideas as well as their own. Michael Foster became Professor of Physiology at Cambridge; E. Ray Lankester became Jodrell Professor of Zoology at University College London (1875–91), Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford (1891–98) and Director of the Natural History Museum (1898–1907); S.H. Vines became Professor of Botany at Cambridge; W.T. Thiselton-Dyer became Hooker's successor at Kew (he was already Hooker's son-in-law!); T. Jeffery Parker became Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy at University College, Cardiff; and William Rutherford[99] became the Professor of Physiology at Edinburgh. William Flower, Conservator to the Hunterian Museum, and THH's assistant in many dissections, became Sir William Flower, Hunterian Professor of Comparative Anatomy and, later, Director of the Natural History Museum.[34] It's a remarkable list of disciples, especially when contrasted with Owen who, in a longer professional life than Huxley, left no disciples at all. "No one fact tells so strongly against Owen... as that he has never reared one pupil or follower".[100]

Image
Photograph of Huxley (c. 1890)

Huxley's courses for students were so much narrower than the man himself that many were bewildered by the contrast: "The teaching of zoology by use of selected animal types has come in for much criticism";[101] Looking back in 1914 to his time as a student, Sir Arthur Shipley said "Darwin's later works all dealt with living organisms, yet our obsession was with the dead, with bodies preserved, and cut into the most refined slices".[102] E.W MacBride said "Huxley... would persist in looking at animals as material structures and not as living, active beings; in a word... he was a necrologist.[103] To put it simply, Huxley preferred to teach what he had actually seen with his own eyes.

This largely morphological program of comparative anatomy remained at the core of most biological education for a hundred years until the advent of cell and molecular biology and interest in evolutionary ecology forced a fundamental rethink. It is an interesting fact that the methods of the field naturalists who led the way in developing the theory of evolution (Darwin, Wallace, Fritz Müller, Henry Bates) were scarcely represented at all in Huxley's program. Ecological investigation of life in its environment was virtually non-existent, and theory, evolutionary or otherwise, was at a discount. Michael Ruse finds no mention of evolution or Darwinism in any of the exams set by Huxley, and confirms the lecture content based on two complete sets of lecture notes.[104]

Since Darwin, Wallace and Bates did not hold teaching posts at any stage of their adult careers (and Műller never returned from Brazil) the imbalance in Huxley's program went uncorrected. It is surely strange that Huxley's courses did not contain an account of the evidence collected by those naturalists of life in the tropics; evidence which they had found so convincing, and which caused their views on evolution by natural selection to be so similar. Desmond suggests that "[biology] had to be simple, synthetic and assimilable [because] it was to train teachers and had no other heuristic function".[105] That must be part of the reason; indeed it does help to explain the stultifying nature of much school biology. But zoology as taught at all levels became far too much the product of one man.

Huxley was comfortable with comparative anatomy, at which he was the greatest master of the day. He was not an all-round naturalist like Darwin, who had shown clearly enough how to weave together detailed factual information and subtle arguments across the vast web of life. Huxley chose, in his teaching (and to some extent in his research) to take a more straightforward course, concentrating on his personal strengths.
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Schools and the Bible

Huxley was also a major influence in the direction taken by British schools: in November 1870 he was voted onto the London School Board.[106] In primary schooling, he advocated a wide range of disciplines, similar to what is taught today: reading, writing, arithmetic, art, science, music, etc. In secondary education he recommended two years of basic liberal studies followed by two years of some upper-division work, focusing on a more specific area of study. A practical example of the latter is his famous 1868 lecture On a Piece of Chalk which was first published as an essay in Macmillan's Magazine in London later that year.[107] The piece reconstructs the geological history of Britain from a simple piece of chalk and demonstrates science as "organized common sense".

Huxley supported the reading of the Bible in schools. This may seem out of step with his agnostic convictions, but he believed that the Bible's significant moral teachings and superb use of language were relevant to English life. "I do not advocate burning your ship to get rid of the cockroaches".[108] However, what Huxley proposed was to create an edited version of the Bible, shorn of "shortcomings and errors... statements to which men of science absolutely and entirely demur... These tender children [should] not be taught that which you do not yourselves believe".[109][110] The Board voted against his idea, but it also voted against the idea that public money should be used to support students attending church schools. Vigorous debate took place on such points, and the debates were minuted in detail. Huxley said "I will never be a party to enabling the State to sweep the children of this country into denominational schools".[111][112] The Act of Parliament which founded board schools permitted the reading of the Bible, but did not permit any denominational doctrine to be taught.

It may be right to see Huxley's life and work as contributing to the secularisation of British society which gradually occurred over the following century. Ernst Mayr said "It can hardly be doubted that [biology] has helped to undermine traditional beliefs and value systems"[113]—and Huxley more than anyone else was responsible for this trend in Britain. Some modern Christian apologists consider Huxley the father of antitheism, though he himself maintained that he was an agnostic, not an atheist. He was, however, a lifelong and determined opponent of almost all organised religion throughout his life, especially the "Roman Church... carefully calculated for the destruction of all that is highest in the moral nature, in the intellectual freedom, and in the political freedom of mankind".[112][114] In the same line of thought, in an article in Popular Science, Huxley used the expression "the so-called Christianity of Catholicism," explaining: "I say 'so-called' not by way of offense, but as a protest against the monstruous assumption that Catholic Christianity is explicitly or implicitly contained in any trust-worthy record of the teaching of Jesus of Nazareth."[115]

In 1893, during preparation for the second Romanes Lecture, Huxley expressed his disappointment at the shortcomings of 'liberal' theology, describing its doctrines as 'popular illusions', and the teachings they replaced 'faulty as they are, appear to me to be vastly nearer the truth'.[116]

Vladimir Lenin remarked (in Materialism and empirio-criticism) "In Huxley's case... agnosticism serves as a fig-leaf for materialism" (see also the Debate with Wilberforce above).

Adult education

Image
Thomas Henry Huxley, c. 1885, from carte de visite

Huxley's interest in education went still further than school and university classrooms; he made a great effort to reach interested adults of all kinds: after all, he himself was largely self-educated. There were his lecture courses for working men, many of which were published afterwards, and there was the use he made of journalism, partly to earn money but mostly to reach out to the literate public. For most of his adult life he wrote for periodicals—the Westminster Review, the Saturday Review, the Reader, the Pall Mall Gazette, Macmillan's Magazine, the Contemporary Review. Germany was still ahead in formal science education, but interested people in Victorian Britain could use their initiative and find out what was going on by reading periodicals and using the lending libraries.[117][118]

In 1868 Huxley became Principal of the South London Working Men's College in Blackfriars Road. The moving spirit was a portmanteau worker, Wm. Rossiter, who did most of the work; the funds were put up mainly by F.D. Maurice's Christian Socialists.[119][120] At sixpence for a course and a penny for a lecture by Huxley, this was some bargain; and so was the free library organised by the college, an idea which was widely copied. Huxley thought, and said, that the men who attended were as good as any country squire.[121]

The technique of printing his more popular lectures in periodicals which were sold to the general public was extremely effective. A good example was "The Physical Basis of Life", a lecture given in Edinburgh on 8 November 1868. Its theme—that vital action is nothing more than "the result of the molecular forces of the protoplasm which displays it"—shocked the audience, though that was nothing compared to the uproar when it was published in the Fortnightly Review for February 1869. John Morley, the editor, said "No article that had appeared in any periodical for a generation had caused such a sensation".[122] The issue was reprinted seven times and protoplasm became a household word; Punch added 'Professor Protoplasm' to his other soubriquets.

The topic had been stimulated by Huxley seeing the cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells, which is indeed a sensational sight. For these audiences Huxley's claim that this activity should not be explained by words such as vitality, but by the working of its constituent chemicals, was surprising and shocking. Today we would perhaps emphasise the extraordinary structural arrangement of those chemicals as the key to understanding what cells do, but little of that was known in the nineteenth century.

When the Archbishop of York thought this 'new philosophy' was based on Auguste Comte's positivism, Huxley corrected him: "Comte's philosophy [is just] Catholicism minus Christianity" (Huxley 1893 vol 1 of Collected Essays Methods & Results 156). A later version was "[positivism is] sheer Popery with M. Comte in the chair of St Peter, and with the names of the saints changed". (lecture on The scientific aspects of positivism Huxley 1870 Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews p. 149). Huxley's dismissal of positivism damaged it so severely that Comte's ideas withered in Britain.

Huxley and the humanities

During his life, and especially in the last ten years after retirement, Huxley wrote on many issues relating to the humanities.[123][124][125][126]

Perhaps the best known of these topics is Evolution and Ethics, which deals with the question of whether biology has anything particular to say about moral philosophy. Both Huxley and his grandson Julian Huxley gave Romanes Lectures on this theme.[127][128][129] For a start, Huxley dismisses religion as a source of moral authority. Next, he believes the mental characteristics of man are as much a product of evolution as the physical aspects. Thus, our emotions, our intellect, our tendency to prefer living in groups and spend resources on raising our young are part and parcel of our evolution, and therefore inherited.

Despite this, the details of our values and ethics are not inherited: they are partly determined by our culture, and partly chosen by ourselves. Morality and duty are often at war with natural instincts; ethics cannot be derived from the struggle for existence: "Of moral purpose I see not a trace in nature. That is an article of exclusively human manufacture."[130] It is therefore our responsibility to make ethical choices (see Ethics and Evolutionary ethics). This seems to put Huxley as a compatibilist in the Free Will vs Determinism debate. In this argument Huxley is diametrically opposed to his old friend Herbert Spencer.

Huxley's dissection of Rousseau's views on man and society is another example of his later work. The essay undermines Rousseau's ideas on man as a preliminary to undermining his ideas on the ownership of property. Characteristic is: "The doctrine that all men are, in any sense, or have been, at any time, free and equal, is an utterly baseless fiction."[131]

Huxley's method of argumentation (his strategy and tactics of persuasion in speech and print) is itself much studied.[132] His career included controversial debates with scientists, clerics and politicians; persuasive discussions with Royal Commissions and other public bodies; lectures and articles for the general public, and a mass of detailed letter-writing to friends and other correspondents. A large number of textbooks have excerpted his prose for anthologies.[133]

Royal and other commissions

Huxley worked on ten Royal and other commissions (titles somewhat shortened here).[134] The Royal Commission is the senior investigative forum in the British constitution. A rough analysis shows that five commissions involved science and scientific education; three involved medicine and three involved fisheries. Several involve difficult ethical and legal issues. All deal with possible changes to law and/or administrative practice.

Royal Commissions

• 1862: Trawling for herrings on the coast of Scotland.
• 1863–65: Sea fisheries of the United Kingdom.
• 1870–71: The Contagious Diseases Acts.
• 1870–75: Scientific instruction and the advancement of science.
• 1876: The practice of subjugating live animals to scientific experiments (vivisection).
• 1876–78: The universities of Scotland.
• 1881–82: The Medical Acts. [i.e. the legal framework for medicine]
• 1884: Trawl, net and beam trawl fishing.

Other commissions

• 1866: On the Royal College of Science for Ireland.
• 1868: On science and art instruction in Ireland.

Family

See also: Huxley family

Image
Pencil drawing of Huxley by his daughter, Marian

Image
Huxley with his grandson Julian in 1893

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Marian (Mady) Huxley, by her husband John Collier

In 1855, he married Henrietta Anne Heathorn (1825–1915), an English émigrée whom he had met in Sydney. They kept correspondence until he was able to send for her. They had five daughters and three sons:

• Noel Huxley (1856–60), died aged 4.
• Jessie Oriana Huxley (1858[135] −1927), married architect Fred Waller in 1877.
• Marian Huxley (1859–87), married artist John Collier in 1879.
• Leonard Huxley, (1860–1933) author, father of Julian, Aldous and Andrew Huxley.
• Rachel Huxley (1862–1934) married civil engineer Alfred Eckersley in 1884; he died 1895. They were parents of the physicist Thomas Eckersley and the first BBC Chief Engineer Peter Eckersley.
• Henrietta (Nettie) Huxley (1863–1940), married Harold Roller, travelled Europe as a singer.
• Henry Huxley (1865–1946), became a fashionable general practitioner in London.
• Ethel Huxley (1866–1941), married artist John Collier (widower of sister) in 1889.

Huxley's relationships with his relatives and children were genial by the standards of the day—so long as they lived their lives in an honourable manner, which some did not. After his mother, his eldest sister Lizzie was the most important person in his life until his own marriage. He remained on good terms with his children, more than can be said of many Victorian fathers. This excerpt from a letter to Jessie, his eldest daughter is full of affection:

"Dearest Jess, You are a badly used young person—you are; and nothing short of that conviction would get a letter out of your still worse used Pater, the bête noir of whose existence is letter-writing. Catch me discussing the Afghan question with you, you little pepper-pot! No, not if I know it..." [goes on nevertheless to give strong opinions of the Afghans, at that time causing plenty of trouble to the British Raj—see Second Anglo-Afghan War] "There, you plague—ever your affec. Daddy, THH." (letter 7 December 1878, Huxley L 1900)[136]


Huxley's descendants include children of Leonard Huxley:

• Sir Julian Huxley FRS was the first Director of UNESCO and a notable evolutionary biologist and humanist.
• Aldous Huxley was a famous author (Brave New World 1932, Eyeless in Gaza 1936, The Doors of Perception 1954).
• Sir Andrew Huxley OM PRS won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1963. He was the second Huxley to become President of the Royal Society.

Other significant descendants of Huxley, such as Sir Crispin Tickell, are treated in the Huxley family.

Mental problems in the family

Biographers have sometimes noted the occurrence of mental illness in the Huxley family. His father became "sunk in worse than childish imbecility of mind",[137] and later died in Barming Asylum; brother George suffered from "extreme mental anxiety"[138] and died in 1863 leaving serious debts. Brother James, a well known psychiatrist and Superintendent of Kent County Asylum, was at 55 "as near mad as any sane man can be";[139] and there is more. His favourite daughter, the artistically talented Mady (Marian), who became the first wife of artist John Collier, was troubled by mental illness for years. She died of pneumonia in her mid-twenties.[140][141]

About Huxley himself we have a more complete record. As a young apprentice to a medical practitioner, aged thirteen or fourteen, Huxley was taken to watch a post-mortem dissection. Afterwards he sank into a 'deep lethargy' and though Huxley ascribed this to dissection poisoning, Bibby[142] and others may be right to suspect that emotional shock precipitated the depression. Huxley recuperated on a farm, looking thin and ill.

The next episode we know of in Huxley's life when he suffered a debilitating depression was on the third voyage of HMS Rattlesnake in 1848.[143] Huxley had further periods of depression at the end of 1871,[144] and again in 1873.[145] Finally, in 1884 he sank into another depression, and this time it precipitated his decision to retire in 1885, at the age of 60.[146] This is enough to indicate the way depression (or perhaps a moderate bi-polar disorder) interfered with his life, yet unlike some of the other family members, he was able to function extremely well at other times.

The problems continued sporadically into the third generation. Two of Leonard's sons suffered serious depression: Trevennen committed suicide in 1914 and Julian suffered a breakdown in 1913,[147] and five more later in life.

Satires

Darwin's ideas and Huxley's controversies gave rise to many cartoons and satires. It was the debate about man's place in nature that roused such widespread comment: cartoons are so numerous as to be almost impossible to count; Darwin's head on a monkey's body is one of the visual clichés of the age. The "Great Hippocampus Question" attracted particular attention:

• "Monkeyana" (Punch vol. 40, 18 May 1861). Signed 'Gorilla', this turned out to be by Sir Philip Egerton MP, amateur naturalist, fossil fish collector and—Richard Owen's patron![148] The last two stanzas include a reference to Huxley's comment that "Life is too short to occupy oneself with the slaying of the slain more than once.":[149]

Next HUXLEY replies

That OWEN he lies
And garbles his Latin quotation;
That his facts are not new,
His mistakes not a few,
Detrimental to his reputation.

To twice slay the slain
By dint of the Brain
(Thus HUXLEY concludes his review)
Is but labour in vain,
unproductive of gain,
And so I shall bid you "Adieu"!


• "The Gorilla's Dilemma" (Punch 1862, vol. 43, p. 164). First two lines:

Say am I a man or a brother,
Or only an anthropoid ape?


• Report of a sad case recently tried before the Lord Mayor, Owen versus Huxley.[150] Lord Mayor asks whether either side is known to the police:

Policeman X—Huxley, your Worship, I take to be a young hand, but very vicious; but Owen I have seen before. He got into trouble with an old bone man, called Mantell, who never could be off complaining as Owen prigged his bones. People did say that the old man never got over it, and Owen worritted him to death; but I don't think it was so bad as that. Hears as Owen takes the chair at a crib in Bloomsbury. I don't think it will be a harmonic meeting altogether. And Huxley hangs out in Jermyn Street.


(Tom Huxley's 'low set' included Hooker 'in the green and vegetable line' and 'Charlie Darwin, the pigeon-fancier'; Owen's 'crib in Bloomsbury' was the British Museum, of which Natural History was but one department. Jermyn Street is known for its shops of men's clothing, possibly implying that Huxley was a dandy.)

Image
Huxley (right) and Richard Owen inspect a "water baby" in Edward Linley Sambourne's 1881 illustration

• The Water Babies, a fairy tale for a land baby by Charles Kingsley (serialised in Macmillan's Magazine 1862–63, published in book form, with additions, in 1863). Kingsley had been among first to give a favourable review to Darwin's On the Origin of Species, having "long since... learnt to disbelieve the dogma of the permanence of species",[151] and the story includes a satire on the reaction to Darwin's theory, with the main scientific participants appearing, including Richard Owen and Huxley. In 1892 Thomas Henry Huxley's five-year-old grandson Julian saw the illustration by Edward Linley Sambourne (right) and wrote his grandfather a letter asking:

Dear Grandpater—Have you seen a Waterbaby? Did you put it in a bottle? Did it wonder if it could get out? Could I see it some day?—Your loving Julian.


Huxley wrote back:

My dear Julian—I could never make sure about that Water Baby... My friend who wrote the story of the Water Baby was a very kind man and very clever. Perhaps he thought I could see as much in the water as he did—There are some people who see a great deal and some who see very little in the same things.

When you grow up I dare say you will be one of the great-deal seers, and see things more wonderful than the Water Babies where other folks can see nothing.


Cultural references

• Huxley appears alongside Charles Darwin and Samuel Wilberforce in the play Darwin in Malibu, written by Crispin Whittell, and is portrayed by Toby Jones in the 2009 film Creation.
• Huxley is referred to as the tutor of the main character, Edward Prendick, in H. G. Wells' science fiction novel The Island of Dr Moreau, published in 1896.
• Horse Feathers (1932 Marx Brothers film)—Groucho Marx is Prof. Quincy Adams Wagstaff, Dean of Huxley College, while its rival team is Darwin College.
• Huxley is referenced in the Leviathan series, with a flying fabricated beast named after the man.
• Hexley, the unofficial mascot of the Darwin operating system, is named (with an intended misspelling) after Huxley.[152]
• His statement, "Logical consequences are the Scarecrows of fools and the Beacons of wise men", is quoted by the escape artist character Charles Evan Jeffers, a man with an ironically educated and dignified air about him, played by Roscoe Lee Browne, in the eleventh episode of Season One of Barney Miller.

See also

• European and American voyages of scientific exploration

References

1. Adrian J. Desmond, Huxley: From Devil's Disciple to Evolution's High Priest, Addison-Wesley, 1994, 1915, p. 651 n. 8.
2. Encyclopædia Britannica Online 2006
3. Livingstone, David. "Myth 17. That Huxley Defeated Wilberforce in Their Debate over Evolution and Religion," in Numbers, Ronald L., ed. Galileo goes to jail and other myths about science and religion. No. 74. Harvard University Press, 2009, 152-160.
4. Huxley, T. H. (Feb, 1889). II. Agnosticism. In Christianity and Agnosticism: A controversy. New York, NY: The Humboldt Publishing Co. Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/agnosticism0 ... t_djvu.txt
5. Huxley T. H. 1889. Agnosticism: a rejoinder. In Collected Essays vol 5 Science and Christian tradition. Macmillan, London.
6. Lightman, B. (1987) The Origins of Agnosticism: Victorian Unbelief and the Limits of Knowledge.. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/94.2.444
7. Poulton E. B. 1909. Charles Darwin and the origin of species. London.
8. Lankester E. Ray 1895. The Right Hon. T. H. Huxley. Athenaeum, 6 July. Lankester commented that Huxley was "only accidentally a zoologist".
9. Desmond 1997 'Huxley in perspective', 235–261, an outstanding summary of Huxley in his social & historical context, scarcely mentions his zoological work.
10. Jin, Xiaoxing (December 2018). "Translation and transmutation: the Origin of Species in China". The British Journal for the History of Science. 52: 117–141.
11. Bibby, amongst others, queried this account, which owes its origin to Leonard Huxley's biography (1900). Bibby, Cyril. 1959. T. H. Huxley: scientist, humanist and educator. Watts, London. p. 3–4
12. Biography in the Encyclopædia Britannica Online
13. Victorian Scientific Naturalism: Community, Identity, Continuity. (2014). Edited by Bernard Lightman, Gowan Dawson. University of Chicago Press, p.210.
14. Desmond 1994
15. Huxley 1900
16. Chesney, Kellow 1970. The Victorian underworld. Temple Smith, London; Pelican 1972, pp. 105, 421.
17. The cut-price anatomy schools and Robert Knox are well treated in Desmond's account of materialist medical dissidents of the 1820s and 30s: Desmond A. 1989. The politics of evolution: morphology, medicine and reform in radical London. Chicago.
18. Desmond 1994 p. 35
19. Huxley 1935
20. Di Gregorio 1984
21. Huxley 1859
22. Tyndall 1896 pp. 7, 9, 66, 71.
23. Holland 2007 pp. 153–5
24. Foster & Lankester 1898–1903
25. MacGillivray 1852
26. "Thomas Henry Huxley | British biologist". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
27. Desmond 1997 p. 230
28. Bibby 1959
29. Desmond, 1997 & Huxley in perspective p. 235
30. Bibby 1972
31. Desmond 1998 p. 431
32. "T.H. Huxley (1825 - 1895)". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
33. Desmond & Moore 1991
34. Desmond 1997
35. Lyons 1999 p. 11
36. Desmond A. 1982. Archetypes and ancestors: palaeontology in Victorian London 1850–1875. Muller, London.
37. Clack 2002
38. Huxley 1861 pp. 67–84
39. Foster & Lankester 1898–1903 pp. 163–187
40. Paul 2002 p. 171–224.
41. Prum 2003 pp. 550–561.
42. Desmond 1997 p. 88
43. Huxley 1877
44. Huxley 1854 p.425–439.
45. Huxley 1855 p. 82–85.
46. Browne 1995
47. Desmond 1994 p. 222.
48. Browne 2002
49. Darwin & Wallace 1858
50. Huxley 1900 vol. 1, p.189.
51. Huxley & 1893-94a pp. 1–20
52. Foster & Lankester 1898–1903 p. 400.
53. Owen 1860
54. Wilberforce 1860
55. Darwin, Francis (ed) 1887. The life and letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter. Murray, London, volume 2.
56. A more complete version is available in Wikiquote
57. Jensen, J. Vernon 1991. Thomas Henry Huxley: communicating for science. U. of Delaware Press, Newark. p. 209, note 67.
58. Desmond & Moore 1991 p. 493
59. Wollaston AFR 1921. Life of Alfred Newton: late Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Cambridge University 1866–1907, with a Preface by Sir Archibald Geikie OM. Dutton, NY. pp. 118–120.
60. Jensen, J. Vernon 1991. Thomas Henry Huxley: communicating for science. U. of Delaware Press, Newark. [Chapter 3 is an excellent survey, and its notes gives references to all the eyewitness accounts except Newton: see notes 61, 66, 67, 78, 79, 80, 81, 84, 86, 87, 89, 90, 93, 95: pp. 208–211]
61. Huxley to Dr FD Dyster, 9 September 1860, Huxley Papers 15.117.
62. Browne 2002 p. 118.
63. Huxley 1900 Chapter 14
64. Desmond 1994 pp. 276–281.
65. Lucas 1979 p. 313–330. A pro-Wilberforce account; lists many sources, but not Alfred Newton's letter to his brother. Many of Lucas' points are treated adversely in Jensen 1991, for example, note 77, p. 209.
66. Gould 1991 Chapter 26 'Knight takes Bishop?' is Gould's take on the Huxley-Wilberforce debate.
67. Darwin F. (ed) 1897–99. Life and letters of Charles Darwin. 2 vols, Murray, London. I, 156-7 Darwin to Huxley: "It is of enormous importance the showing the world that a few first-rate men are not afraid of expressing their opinion."
68. Darwin F. and A.C.Seward (eds) 1903. More letters of Charles Darwin. 2 vols, Murray, London. II, 204 Leonard Huxley: "The importance... lay in the open resistance that was made to authority".
69. Jensen, J. Vernon 1991. Thomas Henry Huxley: communicating for science. U. of Delaware Press, Newark. p. 83-86.
70. Foster & Lankester 1898–1903 p. 538–606.
71. Huxley 1862b
72. Darwin 1859, p. 490.
73. Owen 1858 p. 1–37.
74. Burkhardt & 1984 onwards (continuing series)
75. Cosans 2009 pp. 109–111
76. For the full text of the addendum see s:The cerebral structure of man and apes
77. Athenaeum 21 September 1861, p. 498. [key sentence italicised]
78. Huxley 1862a, pp. 420–422
79. Huxley, Thomas Henry. "On the geographical distribution of the chief modifications of mankind". The Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (1869-1870) 2.4 (1870): 404-412.
80. Brantlinger, Patrick. Dark vanishings: discourse on the extinction of primitive races, 1800-1930. Cornell University Press, 2003. [1]
81. Variously worded in Huxley 1860a, Huxley 1860b, Huxley 1861, Huxley 1862b and Huxley1887
82. Poulton 1896 chapter 18 gives detailed quotations from Huxley and discussion—Darwin's letters to Huxley being not yet published
83. Huxley, T. H. "The coming of age of 'The origin of species'". (1880) Science. 1, 15-17.
84. Dawkins, Richard (1976). The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press.
85. Letters CD to THH in Darwin & Seward 1903 vol 1, pp. 137–8, 225–6, 230–2, 274, 277, 287
86. Cronin 1991 p. 397.
87. Mayr 1982
88. Linder, Doug (2004) "Thomas Huxley"
89. Huxley 1857 p. 241.
90. Tyndall 1896 pp. 338–339, 359, 379–383, 406. "During the summer of 1857 he carefully experimented with coloured liquids on the Mer de Glace and its tributaries..." Philosophical Magazine1857, vol xiv, p. 241.
91. Tyndall 1857 p. 327–346.
92. Jensen 1970 pp. 63–72
93. Desmond 1994 pp. 284, 289–290.
94. Barr 1997 p. 1.
95. Desmond 1997 p. 191.
96. Irvine 1955 Chapter 15
97. Desmond 1997 p. 123.
98. Osborn 1924
99. Desmond 1997 p. 14, 60.
100. Charles Darwin to Asa Gray 1860 in Darwin & Seward 1903 p. 153.
101. Lester 1995 p. 67.
102. Wollaston 1921 p. 102.
103. MacBride 1934 p. 65.
104. Ruse 1997
105. Desmond 1997 p. 273, note 20.
106. Desmond 1997 p. 19–20.
107. On a Piece of Chalk (1868)
108. Said of those who wished to abolish all religious teaching, when really all they wanted was to free education from the Church. THH 1873. Critiques and Addresses p. 90.
109. Huxley & 1893-94b p. 397.
110. Bibby 1959 p. 153.
111. School Board Chronicle vol. 2, p. 326.
112. Bibby 1959 p. 155.
113. Mayr 1982 p. 80.
114. School Board Chronicle vol 2, p. 360.
115. Bonnier Corporation. Popular Science April 1887, Vol. 30, No. 46. ISSN 0161-7370. Scientific and pseudo-scientific realism pp. 789-803
116. Huxley, Leonard (2016). Life and Letters of T H Huxley. 3. Wentworth Press. p. 118. ISBN 9781371175252. Archived from the original on 4 October 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
117. White 2003 p. 69.
118. Note: articles are listed, and some are available, in The Huxley File at Clark University
119. Bibby 1959 p. 33.
120. Desmond 1994 p. 361–362.
121. Desmond 1994 Chapter 19
122. Morley 1917 p. 90.
123. Barr 1997
124. Paradis, James G. T. H. Huxley: Man's place in nature. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln 1978.
125. Peterson, Houston 1932. Huxley: prophet of science. Longmans Green, London.
126. Huxley T. H. 1893-4. Collected essays: vol 4 Science and Hebrew tradition; vol 5 Science and Christian tradition; vol 6 Hume, with helps to the study of Berkeley; vol 7 Man's place in nature; vol 9: Evolution and ethics, and other essays. Macmillan, London.
127. Huxley T.H. and Huxley J. 1947. Evolution and ethics 1893–1943. Pilot, London. In USA as Touchstone for ethics, Harper, N.Y. [includes text from the Romanes lectures of both T. H. Huxley and Julian Huxley]
128. ^ Paradis, James & Williams, George C 1989. Evolution and Ethics: T. H. Huxley's 'Evolution and Ethics', with new essays on its Victorian and sociobiological context. Princeton, N.J.
129. Reed J. R. 'Huxley and the question of morality'. In Barr 1997
130. Huxley 1900 vol. 2, p. 285.
131. Huxley T. H. 1890. The natural inequality of man. Nineteenth Century January; reprinted in Collected Essays vol. 1, p. 290–335.
132. Jensen 1991
133. Jensen 1991, p. 196.
134. Huxley 1900
135. Huxley, T.H. "To Lizzie, March 27, 1858". Letters and Diary: 1858. Clark University. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
136. T. H. Huxley Letters and Diary 1878
137. letter THH to eldest sister Lizzie 1853 HP 31.21
138. THH to Lizzie 1858 HP 31.24
139. THH to Lizzie HP 31.44
140. THH to JT 1887 HP 9.164
141. Desmond 1997 pp. 175–176
142. Bibby 1972 p. 7
143. Huxley 1935 Chapter 5 'Wanderings of a human soul'
144. Desmond 1997 p. 27
145. Desmond 1997 p. 49
146. Desmond 1997 p. 151
147. Clark 1968
148. Desmond 1994 p. 296.
149. The Athenaeum. British Periodicals Limited. 1861. p. 498.
150. Pamphlet, published by George Pycraft, London 1863; Huxley Papers 79.6
151. Darwin 1887 287
152. Hooper, Jon. "Hexley Darwin Mascot History". Retrieved 26 May 2016.

Sources

• Encyclopædia Britannica Online (2006), Thomas Henry Huxley, Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.
• Barr, Alan P, ed. (1997), Thomas Henry Huxley's place in science and letters: centenary essays, Georgia: Athens
• Bibby, Cyril (1959), T.H. Huxley: scientist, humanist and educator, London: Watts
• Bibby, Cyril (1972), Scientist Extraordinary: the life and work of Thomas Henry Huxley 1825–1895, Oxford: Pergamon
• Browne, Janet (1995), Charles Darwin. vol 1: Voyaging, Cambridge University Press
• Browne, Janet (2002), Charles Darwin. vol 2: The Power of Place, Cambridge University Press
• Burkhardt, F et al. (eds) (1984 onwards: continuing series), The Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Cambridge University Press Check date values in: |year= (help)
• Clack, Jenny (2002), Gaining ground: the origin of tetrapods, Indiana
• Clark, Ronald W. (1968), The Huxleys, London
• Cosans, Christopher (2009), Owen's Ape and Darwin's Bulldog: beyond Darwinism and Creationism, Bloomington: Indiana University Press
• Cronin, Helena (1991), The ant and the peacock: altruism and sexual selection from Darwin to today, Cambridge University Press
• Darwin, Charles (1887), Darwin, Francis(ed.), The life and letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter, 2, London: John Murray
• Darwin, Charles; Wallace, Alfred Russel(1858), "On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection", Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology, London, 3 (9), pp. (Read 1 July): 45–62, doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1858.tb02500.x
• Darwin, Francis; Seward, A.C. (1903), More Letters of Charles Darwin. 2 vols, London: John Murray
• Desmond, Adrian (1994), Huxley: vol 1 The Devil's Disciple, London: Michael Joseph, ISBN 0-7181-3641-1
• Desmond, Adrian (1997), Huxley: vol 2 Evolution's high priest, London: Michael Joseph
• Desmond, Adrian (1998), Huxley: vol 1 and 2, London: Penguin
• Desmond, Adrian; Moore, James (1991), Darwin, London: Joseph
• Di Gregorio, Mario A (1984), T.H. Huxley's place in natural science, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-03062-2
• Duncan, David (1908), Life and Letters of Herbert Spencer. 2 vols, Michael Joseph
• Eve, A.S.; Creasey, C.H. (1945), "Life and work of John Tyndall", Nature, London: Macmillan, 156: 189–190, Bibcode:1945Natur.156..189R, doi:10.1038/156189a0
• Foster, Michael; Lankester, E. Ray (2007), The scientific memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley. 4 vols and supplement, London: Macmillan (published 1898–1903), ISBN 1-4326-4011-9
• Galton, Francis (1892), Hereditary Genius 2nd ed, London, pp. xix
• Gould, Stephen Jay (1991), Bully for Brontosaurus, Random House
• Holland, Linda Z (2007), "A chordate with a difference", Nature, UK: Nature Publishing Group, 447 (447/7141, pp. 153–155): 153–5, Bibcode:2007Natur.447..153H, doi:10.1038/447153a, ISSN 0028-0836, PMID 17495912
• Huxley, Julian (1935), T.H. Huxley's diary of the voyage of HMS Rattlesnake, London: Chatto & Windus
• Huxley, Leonard (1900), The Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley. 2 vols 8vo, London: Macmillan
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1854), "Review of Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, tenth edition", British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review (13)
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1855), "On certain zoological arguments commonly adduced in favour of the hypothesis of the progressive development of animal life in time", Proceedings of the Royal Institution 2 (1854–58)
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1857), "untitled letter on theory of glaciers", Philosophical Magazine, xiv: 241
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1859), The Oceanic Hydrozoa, London: The Ray Society, ISBN 0-300-03062-2
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1860a), "On species, and races and their origin", Proc. Roy. Inst. 1858–62 (III): 195
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1860b), "The origin of species", Westminster Review (April)
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1861), "On the zoological relations of man with the lower animals", Natural History Review (new series) (1)
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1862a), "On the fossil remains of Man", Proceedings of the Royal Institution (1858–62), London: The Royal Institution, III
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1862b), On our knowledge of the causes of the phenomena of organic nature, London
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1863), Evidence as to Man's place in nature, London: Williams & Norwood
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1864), "Further remarks on the human remains from the Neanderthal", Natural History Review, London (4): 429–46
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1870), "Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews", Nature, London, 3 (54): 22–23, Bibcode:1870Natur...3...22G, doi:10.1038/003022a0
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1877), American Addresses.
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1887), "On the reception of the 'Origin of Species'", in Darwin, Francis (ed.), Life & Letters of Charles Darwin, London: John Murray
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1893–94), Collected essays. 9 vols. Vol 1: Methods and results; vol 2: Darwiniana; vol 3: Science and education; vol 4: Science and Hebrew tradition; vol 5: Science and Christian tradition; vol 6 :Hume, with helps to the study of Berkeley; vol 7:Man's place in nature; vol 8: Discourses biological and geological; vol 9: Evolution and ethics, and other essays, London: Macmillan
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1893–94), Collected essays: vol 2 Darwiniana, London: Macmillan
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1893–94), Collected essays: vol 3 Science and education, London: Macmillan
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (2007), "Preliminary essay upon the systematic arrangement of the fishes of the Devonian epoch.", in Foster, Michael; Lankester, E. Ray (eds.), The scientific memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley. vol 2, London: Macmillan (published 1898–1903), pp. 421–60, ISBN 1-4326-4011-9
• Jensen, J Vernon (1970), "The X Club: fraternity of Victorian scientists", British Journal for the History of Science, 5 (1): 63–72, doi:10.1017/S0007087400010621
• Jensen, J. Vernon (1991), Thomas Henry Huxley: communicating for science., Newark: University of Delaware
• Lester, Joe (1995), E. Ray Lankester:the making of modern British biology (edited, with additions, by Peter J. Bowler), BSHS Monograph #9
• Lucas, John R. (1979), "Wilberforce and Huxley: a legendary encounter", The Historical Journal, Cambridge University Press, 22 (2): 313–30, doi:10.1017/S0018246X00016848, PMID 11617072, retrieved 9 June 2007
• Lyons, Sherrie L (1999), Thomas Henry Huxley: the evolution of a scientist, New York
• MacBride, E.W. (1934), Huxley, London: Duckworth
• MacGillivray, John (1852), Narrative of the voyage of HMS Rattlesnake. 2 vols, London: Boone
• Mackenzie, N; Mackenzie, J, eds. (1982), The diaries of Beatrice Webb vol 1 1873–1892, London: Virago
• Mayr, Ernst (1982), The Growth of Biological Thought, Harvard University Press
• McMillan, N.D.; Meehan, J (1980), John Tyndall: 'X'emplar of scientific & technological education, Dublin: National Council for Educational Awards, retrieved 14 February 2014. (despite its chaotic organisation, this little book contains some nuggets that are well worth sifting)
• Morley, John (1917), Recollections. 2 vols, Macmillan
• Osborn, Henry Fairfield (1924), Impressions of great naturalists
• Owen, Richard (1858), "On the characters, principles of division, and primary groups of the Class Mammalia", Proc Linnean Society: Zoology (2): 1–37
• Owen, Richard (1860), "Darwin on the Origin of Species", Edinburgh Review (111): 487–532
• Paradis, James; Williams, George C (1989), Evolution and Ethics: T. H. Huxley's 'Evolution and Ethics', with New Essays on Its Victorian and Sociobiological Context, Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press
• Paradis, James G. (1978), T.H. Huxley: Man's place in nature, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln
• Paul, G (2002), Dinosaurs of the Air, the evolution and loss of flight in dinosaurs and birds, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 171–224, ISBN 0-8018-6763-0
• Peterson, Houston (1932), Huxley: prophet of science, London: Longmans, Green.
• Poulton, Edward Bagnall (1896), Charles Darwin and the theory of natural selection, London: Cassell.(Chapter 18 deals with Huxley and natural selection)
• Pritchard, M. (1994), A directory of London photographers 1891–1908
• Prum, R (2003), "Are current critiques of the theropod origin of birds science? Rebuttal To Feduccia 2002", The Auk, 120 (2): 550–561, doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2003)120[0550:ACCOTT]2.0.CO;2
• Ruse, Michael (1997), "Thomas Henry Huxley and the status of evolution as science", in Barr, Alan P. (ed.), Thomas Henry Huxley's place in science and letters: centenary essays, Georgia: Athens
• Spencer, Herbert (1904), Autobiography. 2 vols, London: Williams & Norgate
• Tyndall, John; Huxley, Thomas Henry (1857), "On the Structure and Motion of Glaciers", Philosophical Transactions, 147: 327–346, doi:10.1098/rstl.1857.0016
• Tyndall, John (1896), The Glaciers of the Alps (Original edition 1860 ed.), Longmans, Green and Co.
• Webb, Beatrice (1926), My apprenticeship, London: Longmans
• Wilberforce, Samuel (1860), "Darwin's Origin of Species", Quarterly Review (102): 225–64
• Wollaston, A.F.R. (1921), Life of Alfred Newton 1829–1907
• White, Paul (2003), Thomas Huxley: making the 'Man of Science', Cambridge University Press

Further reading

Biographies


• Ashforth, Albert. Thomas Henry Huxley. Twayne, New York 1969.
• Ayres, Clarence. Huxley. Norton, New York 1932.
• Clodd, Edward. Thomas Henry Huxley. Blackwood, Edinburgh 1902.
• Huxley, Leonard. Thomas Henry Huxley: a character sketch. Watts, London 1920.
• Irvine, William. Apes, Angels and Victorians. New York 1955.
• Irvine, William. Thomas Henry Huxley. Longmans, London 1960.
• Mitchell, P. Chalmers. Thomas Henry Huxley: a sketch of his life and work London 1901. Available at Project Gutenberg.
• Voorhees, Irving Wilson. The teachings of Thomas Henry Huxley. Broadway, New York 1907.

External links

• Works written by or about Thomas Henry Huxley at Wikisource
• Thomas H. Huxley on the Embryo Project Encyclopedia
• The Huxley File at Clark University—Lists his publications, contains much of his writing.
• Stephen, Leslie (1898). "Thomas Henry Huxley" . Studies of a Biographer. 3. London: Duckworth & Co. pp. 188–219.
• Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–1895) National Library of Australia, Trove, People and Organisation record for Thomas Huxley
• Works by Thomas Henry Huxley at Project Gutenberg
• Science in the Making Huxley's papers in the Royal Society's archives
• Works by or about Thomas Henry Huxley at Internet Archive
• Works by Thomas Henry Huxley at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
• Huxley review: Darwin on the origin of species The Times, 26 December 1859, p. 8–9.
• Huxley review: Time and life: Mr Darwin's "Origin of species." Macmillan's Magazine 1: 1859 p. 142–148.
• Huxley review: Darwin on the origin of Species, Westminster Review, 17 (n.s.) April 1860 p. 541–570.
• Thomas Henry Huxley at Find a Grave
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Image
Gloria Swanson
Swanson in 1922
Born Gloria May Josephine Swanson[1]
March 27, 1899
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Died April 4, 1983 (aged 84)
New York City, U.S.
Resting place Church of the Heavenly Rest, New York City
Other names Gloria Mae
Education Hawthorne Scholastic Academy
Occupation Actress, producer
Years active 1914–1983
Height 4 ft 11 in (150 cm)
Spouse(s) Wallace Beery
(m. 1916; div. 1918)
Herbert K. Somborn
(m. 1919; div. 1925)
Henry de La Falaise
(m. 1925; div. 1930)
Michael Farmer
(m. 1931; div. 1934)
William Davey
(m. 1945; div. 1946)
William Dufty
(m. 1976)
Children 3

Gloria May Josephine Swanson (March 27, 1899 – April 4, 1983) was an American actress and producer. She achieved widespread critical acclaim and recognition for her role as Norma Desmond, a reclusive silent film star, in the critically acclaimed 1950 film Sunset Boulevard. The film earned her an Academy Award nomination and a Golden Globe Award win.

Swanson was also a star in the silent film era as both an actress and a fashion icon, especially under the direction of Cecil B. DeMille. Throughout the 1920s, Swanson was one of Hollywood's top box office draws.[2]

Swanson starred in dozens of silent films, and was nominated for the first Academy Award for Best Actress. She also produced her own films during this period, including The Love of Sunya (1927) and Sadie Thompson (1928). In 1929, Swanson transitioned into talkies with her performance in The Trespasser. Personal problems and changing tastes saw her popularity wane during the 1930s and she subsequently ventured into theater and television.

Early life

Gloria May Josephine Swanson[1] was born in a small house in Chicago in 1899, the only child to Adelaide (née Klanowski) and Joseph Theodore Swanson, a soldier. She attended Hawthorne Scholastic Academy. Her father was from a strict Lutheran Swedish American family, and her mother was of German, French, and Polish ancestry.[3][4]

Because of her father's attachment to the U.S. Army, the family moved frequently and Swanson ended up spending most of her childhood in Puerto Rico, where she learned Spanish. She also spent time in Key West, Florida. It was not her intention to enter show business, but at 15, on a whim one of her aunts took her to a small film company in Chicago called Essanay Studios for a visit and Swanson was asked to come back to work as an extra.[5]

After a few months as an extra working with others like Charlie Chaplin, and making $13.50 a week, Swanson left school to work full-time at the studio. Her parents soon separated and she and her mother moved to California.[6]

Career

Early years


Image
Gloria Swanson in Teddy at the Throttle (1917).

Image
Gloria Swanson in a production still from the film, Don't Change Your Husband (1919).

Swanson made her film debut in 1914 as an extra in The Song of Soul for Essanay. She subsequently moved to California in 1916 to appear in Mack Sennett's Keystone Studios comedies opposite Bobby Vernon. With their great screen chemistry, the pair became popular. Director Charley Chase recalled that she was "frightened to death" of Vernon's dangerous stunts. Conquering her fears, however, she often cooperated with Vernon.[7] Surviving films in which they appear together include The Danger Girl (1916), The Sultan's Wife (1917), and Teddy at the Throttle (1917).

In 1919 she signed with Paramount Pictures and worked often with Cecil B. DeMille, who turned her into a romantic lead in such films as Don't Change Your Husband (1919), Male and Female (1919) with the famous scene posing as "the Lion's Bride" with a real lion, Why Change Your Wife? (1920), Something to Think About (1920), and The Affairs of Anatol (1921).

In the space of two years, Swanson rocketed to stardom and was one of the most sought-after actresses in Hollywood. She later appeared in a series of films directed by Sam Wood. She starred in Beyond the Rocks (1922) with her longtime friend Rudolph Valentino. (Long believed to be a lost film, Beyond the Rocks was rediscovered in 2004 in a private collection in The Netherlands and is now available on DVD.) Swanson continued to make costume drama films for the next few years. So successful were her films for Paramount that the studio was afraid of losing her and gave in to many of her whims and wishes.[8]

During Swanson's heyday, audiences went to her films not only for her performances, but also to see her wardrobe. She was frequently ornamented with beads, jewels, peacock and ostrich feathers and other extravagant pieces of haute couture. Her fashion, hair styles, and jewels were copied around the world. She was the screen's first clothes horse and was becoming one of the most famous and photographed women in the world.[9]

In 1925, Swanson starred in the French-American Madame Sans-Gêne, directed by Léonce Perret. Filming was allowed for the first time at many of the historic sites relating to Napoleon. While it was well received at the time, no prints are known to exist, and it is considered to be a lost film. During the production of Madame Sans-Gêne, Swanson met her third husband Henri, Marquis de la Falaise, who had been hired to be her translator during the film's production. After a four-month residency in France she returned to the United States as European nobility, now known as the Marquise. She got a huge welcome home with parades in both New York and Los Angeles. Swanson appeared in a 1925 short produced by Lee DeForest in his Phonofilm sound-on-film process. She made a number of films for Paramount, among them The Coast of Folly, Stage Struck and Fine Manners.[citation needed]

In 1927, she decided to turn down a one-million-dollar-a-year (equivalent to $14,400,000 in 2018) contract with Paramount to join the newly created United Artists, where she was her own boss and could make the films she wanted, with whom she wanted, and when. Her first independent film, The Love of Sunya, was directed by Albert Parker, based on the play The Eyes of Youth, by Max Marcin and Charles Guernon. Produced by and starring Swanson, it co-starred John Boles and Pauline Garon. It is the story of a young woman granted the ability to see into her future, including her future with different men. The story had been filmed previously as Eyes of Youth starring Clara Kimball Young (that production was also directed by Albert Parker and was responsible for the discovery of Rudolph Valentino by June Mathis). The production was marred by several problems, mainly a suitable cameraman to deal with the film's intricate double exposures, as Swanson was not used to taking charge, and filming took place in New York. The film premiered at the grand opening of the Roxy Theatre in New York City on March 11, 1927. (Swanson was pictured in the ruins of the Roxy on October 14, 1960, during the demolition of the theater, in a famous photo taken by Time-Life photographer Eliot Elisofon and published in Life magazine.) The production had been a disaster and Swanson felt its success would be mediocre at best.[10] On the advice of Joseph Schenck, Swanson returned to Hollywood, where Schenck begged her to film something more commercial. She agreed but ended up filming the more controversial Sadie Thompson instead.[10]

Sadie Thompson

Main article: Sadie Thompson

Image
A 1919 portrait of Swanson.

Feeling she would never have as much artistic freedom and independence as she had at that moment, Swanson decided she "wanted to make [her] Gold Rush".[11] Schenck pleaded with her to do a commercially successful film like The Last of Mrs. Cheyney. Swanson felt it was too formulaic, and decided to call on director Raoul Walsh, who was signed with Fox Film Corporation at the time.[12] Walsh had been known for bringing controversial material to film, and at their first meeting suggested the John Colton/Clemence Randolph play Rain (1923), based on a story by W. Somerset Maugham in 1921 titled Miss Thompson. She had seen Jeanne Eagels perform the role twice, and enjoyed it.[13]

Because of its content, producing the film under the tight restrictions of the Hays Code would be almost impossible. The play was on the unofficial blacklist, and had quietly been banned from film-making a year earlier.[14] To try to avoid issues with the code, Swanson and Walsh left out profanity, renamed "Reverend Davidson" "Mr. Davidson", and stated it was in the interest of morality to produce the picture as Irving Thalberg had produced The Scarlet Letter (1926) at MGM.[15]

Swanson invited Will Hays for lunch and summarized the plot, naming the author and the sticking points. According to Swanson, Hays made a verbal promise he would have no problem with the making of such a film.[16] Swanson set out to get the rights to the play by having Schenck pretend to buy it in the name of United Artists, never to be used.[17] They were able to obtain the story rights for $60,000 instead of the original $100,000. When news broke concerning just what was intended with the play, the three authors threatened to sue.[10][14] Swanson later contacted Maugham about rights to a sequel, and he offered to grant them for $25,000. Maugham claimed Fox had asked about a sequel at the same time Swanson had bought the original story's rights. The sequel was to follow the further exploits of Sadie in Australia, but was never made.[18]

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Swanson performing in 1922.

Swanson and Walsh set about writing the script,[19] and discreetly placed an ad announcing the film, thinking no one noticed, as Charles Lindbergh had just completed his historic transatlantic flight. However, the press picked up on it and sensationalized the story.[14] United Artists received a threatening two-page telegram from the MPAA signed by all its members, including Fox (Walsh's studio) and Hays himself. In addition, the rest of the signers owned several thousand movie houses, and if they refused to screen the film it could be a financial disaster.[20] This was the first time Swanson had heard the[clarification needed] name of Joseph P. Kennedy, with whom she later had an affair, and who arranged financing for her next few pictures, including Queen Kelly (1929).[21]

Swanson was angered by the response, as she felt those very studios had produced questionable films themselves, and were jealous at not having the chance to produce Rain.[22] After another threatening telegram, she decided to first appeal to the MPAA, and then the newspapers.[23] She heard back only from Marcus Loew, who promised to appeal on her behalf, and since he owned a chain of theaters this eased some of her concerns. Figuring the silence meant the matter had been dropped, Swanson began filming on Sadie Thompson which already had $250,000 invested in it.[24] Before casting began, the young Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. wanted to audition for the role of Handsome O'Hara.[22] However, Swanson felt he was too young and not right for the role.[25] Lionel Barrymore had been first picked to play Davidson but was thought to be too ill at the time, though he eventually won the role.[25] Barrymore wore the same outfit for an entire week, aggravating Swanson. She asked some of the crew to tell him to change and wash, which he did.[26] Aside from this, Swanson was happy with his performance. Walsh had not appeared in front of a camera in eight years, and feared he would not be able to direct and act at the same time. However, two days into filming, his fears had disappeared.[27]

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Swanson depicted on a Sadie Thompson lobby card (1928).

Much of the filming took place on Santa Catalina Island near Long Beach, California. Swanson took ill shortly after, and met a doctor who started her lifelong love of macrobiotic diets.[28] A week into shooting, Sam Goldwyn called cameraman George Barnes away. Swanson was furious, but the loan contract had allowed Goldwyn to call him away as he pleased.[29] Not wanting to let a hundred extras sit around for days, Swanson and Walsh tried to hire two more cameramen, but both were unsatisfactory. Mary Pickford had offered the services of her favorite cameraman Charles Rosher, who was called in but despite doing a decent job couldn't match Barnes' work.[30] Swanson, remembering the kindness showed by Marcus Loew during the telegram affair, turned to him again, desperate for help. Although Loew was sick and would soon die, he told MGM to give her anyone she wanted. MGM loaned her Oliver Marsh and he completed the picture.[31]

The cameraman fiasco was extremely costly to the production, yet shooting continued. With the picture half finished, it was already well over budget, and Schenck was wary, as Swanson's first picture had also been over budget and underperformed. Swanson talked with her advisers and sold her home in Croton-on-Hudson, New York, and offered to sell her New York City penthouse as well.[31]

Despite reports that "dirty" words can be read on the characters' lips, Swanson said the censors went over everything with a fine-tooth comb.[32] However, Swanson admitted that one line she was shouting at Davidson went, "You'd rip the wings off of a butterfly, you son of a bitch!" when recounting a conversation with Walsh later in life.[33] If the word rain was used in a title, they asked that it be removed. They also wanted to change Davidson's name to something else, but Swanson and Walsh refused.[32]

The film was a success and was the only silent independent film of Swanson's to do well at the box office. It was one of her last financially successful films, including the talkies The Trespasser and Sunset Blvd.[34] It went on to make $1,000,000 during its US run. However, at Kennedy's advice, Swanson had sold her distribution rights for the film to Schenck, as Kennedy felt it would be a commercial failure.[35] He also didn't care for the image Swanson portrayed in the film. By this point, Queen Kelly had been a disaster, and Swanson regretted it.[35] The film made the top ten best pictures of the year list as well. It was Raoul Walsh's final role, as he subsequently lost an eye in an accident. The film was nominated for awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role (Gloria Swanson) and Best Cinematography. Swanson did not attend the ceremony, and always felt it was like "comparing apples to oranges".[35] Contemporary reviews called it racy but excellent, and praised Swanson's performance.[36] At present, the film, save for the final reel (stopping just after Davidson finds Sadie in his room), exists in good condition.

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Drawings of Gloria Swanson by Milena Pavlović-Barili, the most notable female artist of Serbian modernism.

Queen Kelly

One of the best known of Hollywood's unfinished films, Queen Kelly (1929), was directed by Erich von Stroheim and produced by Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., father of the future President John F. Kennedy. Produced in 1928–29, the film starred Swanson in the title role, with Walter Byron and Seena Owen. It is the story of Prince Wolfram, betrothed to the mad Queen Regina V of Kronberg. On maneuvers (as punishment for consorting with other women), he spies Kelly walking with the other students of a convent. Enthralled by her beauty, he kidnaps her that night from the convent, takes her to his room and professes his love for her. When the Queen finds them together the next morning, she whips Kelly and throws her out of the castle. Queen Regina then puts Wolfram in prison for his refusal to marry her. Kelly goes to German East Africa to visit her dying Aunt, and is forced to marry the disgusting Jan. The Aunt dies after the wedding, and Kelly refuses to live with Jan, becoming the head of her aunt's brothel. Her extravagances and style earn her the name Queen Kelly.[37]

Production of the costly film was shut down after complaints by Swanson about von Stroheim and the general direction the film was taking. Though the European scenes were full of innuendo, and featured a philandering prince and a sex-crazed queen, the scenes set in Africa were grim and, Swanson felt, distasteful. In later interviews, Swanson said that she had been misled by the script, which referred to her character arriving in, and taking over, a dance hall; looking at the rushes, it was obvious the "dance hall" was actually a brothel.[38]

Stroheim was fired from the film, and the African story line was scrapped. Swanson and Kennedy still wanted to salvage the European material, as it had been so costly and time-consuming, and had potential market value. An alternative ending was shot on November 24, 1931.[39] In this ending, directed by Swanson and photographed by Gregg Toland, Prince Wolfram is shown visiting the palace. A nun leads him to the chapel, where Kelly's body lies in state. This has been called the "Swanson ending". The film was not theatrically released in the United States, but it was shown in Europe and South America with the Swanson ending tacked on. This was due to a clause in Stroheim's contract.[40]

A short extract of the film appears in Sunset Boulevard (1950), representing an old silent picture Swanson's character Norma Desmond—herself a silent movie star—had made. Von Stroheim is also a primary character in Sunset Boulevard as her ex-director, ex-husband, and current butler. In the 1960s, it was shown on television with the Swanson ending, along with a taped introduction and conclusion in which Swanson spoke about the history of the project. By 1985, Kino International had acquired the rights to the movie and restored two versions: one that uses still photos and subtitles in an attempt to wrap up the storyline, and the other the European "suicide ending" version.[citation needed]

Sound era

On March 29, 1928, at the bungalow of Mary Pickford at United Artists, Swanson, Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, Charles Chaplin, Norma Talmadge, John Barrymore, Dolores del Río and D. W. Griffith met to speak on the radio show, The Dodge Brothers Hour, to prove they could meet the challenge of talking movies.[41] To try to recover from the Queen Kelly fiasco, Swanson jumped into making talkies, including The Trespasser (1929), What a Widow! (1930), Indiscreet (1931), Perfect Understanding (1933), and Music in the Air (1934).

The Trespasser tells the story of a "kept woman" who maintains a lavish lifestyle. The film stars Swanson, Robert Ames, Purnell Pratt, Henry B. Walthall, and Wally Albright. The movie was written and directed by Edmund Goulding and released by United Artists, and earned Swanson an Academy Award nomination in her talkie debut. Swanson sang the song "Love, Your Magic Spell Is Everywhere" written by Goulding and Elsie Janis. The Trespasser was filmed simultaneously in a silent and a talking version, and was a smash hit.

The Trespasser was an important film for Swanson, following the disastrous Queen Kelly and the hit Sadie Thompson, and garnered Swanson her second Oscar nomination. Sadly for Swanson, The Trespasser proved to be one of her only two hit talkies, the other being Sunset Boulevard, made over 20 years later. Subsequent follow-ups like What a Widow!, Indiscreet, Tonight or Never, Perfect Understanding, and Music in the Air all proved to be box-office flops. Despite the disappointments following The Trespasser, Swanson was well remembered by Billy Wilder, a writer on Music in the Air, when he was casting the part of Norma Desmond in his masterpiece Sunset Boulevard (1950).

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With director Billy Wilder during the filming of Sunset Boulevard.

Although she made the transition to talkies, as her film career began to decline, Swanson relocated permanently to New York City in 1938, where she began an inventions and patents company called Multiprises, which kept her occupied during the years of World War II. This small company had the sole purpose of rescuing Jewish scientists and inventors from war-torn Europe and bringing them to the United States. She helped many escape, and some useful inventions came from the enterprise.

Swanson made another film for RKO in 1941 (Father Takes a Wife), began appearing in the legitimate theater, and starred in her own television show in 1948. She threw herself into painting and sculpting, writing a syndicated column, touring in summer stock, engaging in political activism, radio and television work, clothing and accessories design and marketing, and making occasional appearances on the big screen. But it was not until 1950 when Sunset Boulevard was released (earning her yet another Academy Award nomination) that she achieved mass recognition again.[citation needed]

Sunset Boulevard

Main article: Sunset Boulevard (film)

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Gloria Swanson as Norma Desmond in Sunset Boulevard (1950).

After Mae West, Mary Pickford and Pola Negri all declined the role,[42] Swanson starred in 1950's Sunset Boulevard, portraying Norma Desmond, a faded silent movie star who falls in love with the younger screenwriter Joe Gillis, played by William Holden. Desmond lives in the past, assisted by her butler Max, played by Erich von Stroheim. Her dreams of a comeback are subverted as she becomes delusional. There are cameos from actors of the silent era in the film, including Buster Keaton, H. B. Warner and Anna Q. Nilsson. Cecil B. DeMille plays himself in a pivotal scene. Some of the lines from the film have become pop-culture mainstays, including "The Greatest Star of them all"; "I am big; it's the pictures that got small"; "We didn't need dialogue, we had faces"; and "All right, Mr. DeMille, I'm ready for my close-up." She received her third Best Actress Oscar nomination, but lost to Judy Holliday for Born Yesterday.[43]

Swanson received several subsequent acting offers but turned most of them down, saying they tended to be pale imitations of Norma Desmond. Her last major Hollywood motion picture role was the poorly received Three for Bedroom "C" in 1952.[44] In 1956, Swanson made Nero's Mistress, which also starred Alberto Sordi, Vittorio de Sica and Brigitte Bardot. Her final screen appearance was as herself in Airport 1975. Although Swanson only made three films after Sunset Boulevard, she starred in numerous stage and television productions during her remaining years. She was active in various business ventures, traveled extensively, wrote articles, columns, and an autobiography, painted and sculpted, and became a passionate advocate of various health and nutrition topics.

Television and theater

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Swanson with Fred MacMurray in the promo of My Three Sons (1965).

Swanson hosted one of the first live television series in 1948, The Gloria Swanson Hour, in which she invited friends and others to be guests. Swanson also later hosted a television anthology series, Crown Theatre with Gloria Swanson, in which she occasionally acted.[45]

Through the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s, Swanson appeared on many different talk and variety shows such as The Carol Burnett Show in 1973 and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson to recollect her films and to lampoon them as well. She was twice the "mystery guest" on What's My Line. She acted in "Behind the Locked Door" on The Alfred Hitchcock Hour in 1964, and in the same year was nominated for a Golden Globe award for her performance in Burke's Law. She made a guest appearance on The Dick Cavett Show in the summer of 1970; a guest on the same show as Janis Joplin, who died later that year.[46]

She made a notable appearance in a 1966 episode of The Beverly Hillbillies, called "The Gloria Swanson Story", in which she plays herself. In the episode, the Clampetts mistakenly believe Swanson is destitute, and decide to finance a comeback movie for her – in a silent film. Her last acting role, aside from playing herself in Airport 1975, was in the made-for-TV horror film Killer Bees (1974). After near-retirement from films, Swanson appeared in many plays throughout her later life, beginning in the 1940s. She toured with A Goose for the Gander, Reflected Glory, and Let Us Be Gay. After her success with Sunset Boulevard, she starred on Broadway in a revival of Twentieth Century (1951) with José Ferrer, and in Nina with David Niven. Her last major stage role was in the 1971 Broadway production of Butterflies Are Free at the Booth Theatre. Swanson appeared on The Carol Burnett Show in 1973, doing a sketch where she flirted with Lyle Waggoner. The episode was called "Carol and Sis/The Guilty Man."

In 1980, Swanson's autobiography, Swanson on Swanson, was published and became a commercial success. Kevin Brownlow and David Gill interviewed her for Hollywood (1980), a television history of the silent era.

Personal life

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Swanson in her New York City apartment (1972).

Swanson became a vegetarian around 1928 and was an early health food advocate who was known for bringing her own meals to public functions in a paper bag. Swanson told actor Dirk Benedict about macrobiotic diets when he was battling prostate cancer at a very early age. He had refused conventional therapies and credited this kind of diet and healthy eating with his recovery.[47] In 1975, Swanson traveled the United States and helped to promote the book Sugar Blues written by her husband, William Dufty.

In early 1980, Swanson's 520-page autobiography, Swanson on Swanson, was published by Random House and became a national best-seller. It was translated into French, Italian and Swedish editions. That same year, she also designed a stamp cachet for the United Nations Postal Administration.

She was a pupil of the modern yoga guru Indra Devi, and was photographed performing a series of yoga poses, reportedly looking much younger than her age, for Devi to use in her book Forever Young, Forever Healthy; but the publisher Prentice-Hall decided to use the photographs for Swanson's book, not Devi's. In return, Swanson, who normally never did publicity events, helped to launch Devi's book at the Waldorf-Astoria in 1953.[48]


Religion

Swanson was a long-time member of the Lutheran church; her father was of Swedish Lutheran descent.[49] In 1964, Swanson spoke at a "Project Prayer" rally attended by 2,500 at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles. The gathering, which was hosted by Anthony Eisley, a star of ABC's Hawaiian Eye series, sought to flood the United States Congress with letters in support of mandatory school prayer, following two decisions in 1962 and 1963 of the United States Supreme Court, which struck down mandatory prayer as conflicting with the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.[50] Joining Swanson and Eisley at the Project Prayer rally were Walter Brennan, Lloyd Nolan, Rhonda Fleming, Pat Boone, and Dale Evans. Swanson declared, "Under God we became the freest, strongest, wealthiest nation on earth, should we change that?"[50]

Marriages and relationships

Throughout her life and her many marriages, Swanson was always known as Miss Swanson. Though she legally took the names of her husbands, her own personality and fame always overshadowed them[citation needed]. Her first husband was the actor Wallace Beery, whom she married on her 17th birthday on March 27, 1916. In her autobiography Swanson on Swanson, Swanson wrote that Beery raped her on their wedding night. She became pregnant by him in 1917. Not wanting her to have the child, she claims he tricked her into drinking a concoction that induced an abortion. They still worked together at Sennett but they separated in June 1917 and Swanson filed for divorce later that year, it was finalized in 1918.[51]

She married Herbert K. Somborn (1919–1925), then-president of Equity Pictures Corporation and later the owner of the Brown Derby restaurant, in 1919; they had a daughter, Gloria Swanson Somborn (October 7, 1920 – December 28, 2000).[52] Their divorce, finalized in January 1925, was sensational and led to Swanson having a "morals clause" added to her studio contract. Somborn accused her of adultery with thirteen men including Cecil B. DeMille, Rudolph Valentino and Marshall Neilan. During their divorce Swanson wanted another child, and in 1923 she adopted a baby boy, Sonny Smith (1922–1975), whom she renamed Joseph Patrick Swanson.[citation needed]

Swanson's third husband was the French aristocrat Henri, Marquis de la Falaise de la Coudraye, whom she married on January 28, 1925, after the Somborn divorce was finalized. Though Henri was a Marquis and the grandson of Richard and Martha Lucy Hennessy from the famous Hennessy Cognac family, he was not rich and had to work for a living.[53] He was originally hired to be her assistant and interpreter in France while she was filming Madame Sans-Gêne (1925). Swanson was the first film star to marry European nobility, and the marriage became a global sensation. She conceived a child with him, but had an abortion, which, in her autobiography, she said she regretted. Later, Henri became a film executive representing Pathé (USA) in France through Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., who was running the studio. Many now assume he was given the position, which kept him in France for ten months a year, to simply keep him out of the way.[54] This marriage ended in divorce in 1930.[55]

While still married to Henri, Swanson had an affair with the married Joseph P. Kennedy, father of future President John F. Kennedy, for a number of years. He became her business partner and their relationship was an open secret in Hollywood. He took over all of her personal and business affairs and was supposed to make her millions. Unfortunately, Kennedy left her after the disastrous Queen Kelly and her finances were in worse shape than when he came into her life. Two books have been written about the affair.[56]

After the marriage to Henri and her affair with Kennedy were over, Swanson married Michael Farmer (1902–1975) in August 1931. Because of the possibility that Swanson's divorce from La Falaise had not been final at the time of the wedding, she was forced to remarry Farmer the following November, by which time she was four months pregnant with Michelle Bridget Farmer, who was born on April 5, 1932.[57] Swanson and Farmer divorced in 1934, after she became involved with married British actor Herbert Marshall. The media reported widely on her affair with Marshall.[58][59][60] After almost three years with the actor, Swanson left him once she realized he would never divorce his wife, Edna Best, for her.[61] In an early manuscript of her autobiography written in her own hand decades later, Swanson recalled, "I was never so convincingly and thoroughly loved as I was by Herbert Marshall."[62]

In 1945, Swanson married William N. Davey and according to her after discovering Davey in a drunken stupor, she and daughter Michelle, believing they were being helpful, left a trail of Alcoholics Anonymous literature around the apartment. Davey quickly packed up and left.[63] The Swanson-Davey divorce was finalized in 1946.[64] For the next thirty years Swanson would remain unmarried and able to pursue her own interests.

Swanson's final marriage occurred in 1976 and lasted until her death. Her sixth husband and widower, writer William Dufty (1916–2002), was the co-author of Billie Holiday's autobiography Lady Sings the Blues, the author of Sugar Blues, a 1975 best-selling health book still in print, and the author of the English version of Georges Ohsawa's You Are All Sanpaku. Dufty was a book ghost-writer and newspaperman, working for many years at the New York Post, where he was assistant to the editor from 1951 to 1960. He first met Swanson in 1965 and by 1967 the two were living together as a couple. Swanson shared her husband's deep enthusiasm for macrobiotic diets and they traveled widely together to speak about sugar and food. They promoted his book Sugar Blues together in 1975 and also wrote a syndicated column together.[65] It was through Sugar Blues that Dufty and Swanson first got to know John Lennon and Yoko Ono. Swanson testified on Lennon's behalf at his immigration hearing in New York, which led to him becoming a permanent resident.[66] Dufty ghost-wrote Swanson's best-selling 1980 autobiography, Swanson on Swanson,[67] based on her early, sometimes handwritten drafts and notes. She personally revised the manuscript several times.[68] They were prominent socialites, having many homes and living in many places, including New York City, Rome, Portugal, and Palm Springs, California. After Swanson's death Dufty returned to his former home in Birmingham, Michigan. He died of cancer in 2002.[67]

Political views

Swanson was a Republican and supported the 1940 and 1944 campaigns for president of Wendell Willkie, and the 1964 presidential campaign of Barry Goldwater.[69] In 1980, she chaired the New York chapter of Seniors for Reagan-Bush.[70]

Death

Shortly after returning to New York from her home in the Portuguese Riviera, on April 4, 1983, Swanson died in New York City in New York Hospital from a heart ailment, aged 84.[71][72] She was cremated and her ashes interred at the Episcopal Church of the Heavenly Rest on Fifth Avenue, in New York City, attended by only a small circle of family. The church was the same one where the funeral of Chester A Arthur took place.[73] Fellow silent star Jacqueline Logan, who co-starred with Swanson in a film, died on the same day.

After Swanson's death, there was a series of auctions from August to September 1983 at William Doyle Galleries in New York of the star's furniture and decorations, jewelry, clothing, and memorabilia from her personal life and career.

Legacy

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The Gloria Swanson parking lot in downtown New Port Richey, Florida honors the star.

In 1960, Gloria Swanson was honored with two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame: one for motion pictures at 6750 Hollywood Boulevard, and another for television at 6301 Hollywood Boulevard.[74] In 1955 and 1957, Swanson was awarded The George Eastman Award, given by George Eastman House for distinguished contribution to the art of film, and in 1966 the museum honored her with a career film retrospective, A Tribute to Gloria Swanson, which screened several of her films between May 12–18.[75] A parking lot by Sims Park in downtown New Port Richey, Florida, is named after the star, who is said to have owned property along the Cotee River.

In 1982, a year before her death, Swanson sold her archives of over 600 boxes for an undisclosed sum, including photographs, artwork, copies of films and private papers including correspondence, contracts and financial dealings to the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin.[76] The second-largest collection of Swanson materials is held in the family archives of Timothy A. Rooks. In the last years of her life Swanson professed a desire to see Beyond the Rocks, but the film was unavailable and considered lost. The film was rediscovered and screened in 2005.

As one of the greatest stars of early Hollywood, today, Swanson is most remembered for her portrayal of Norma Desmond in 1950's Sunset Boulevard.

Portrayals

Swanson has been played both on television and in film by the following actresses:

• 1977: Carol Burnett on The Carol Burnett Show
• 1984: Diane Venora in The Cotton Club
• 1990: Madolyn Smith in The Kennedys of Massachusetts
• 1991: Ann Turkel in White Hot: The Mysterious Murder of Thelma Todd
• 2008: Kristen Wiig in Saturday Night Live
• 2013: Debi Mazar in Return to Babylon

Filmography

Short subject
Year / Title / Role / Notes


1914 / The Song of the Soul / -- / Unconfirmed
1915 / The Misjudged Mr. Hartley / Maid / --
1915 / At the End of a Perfect Day / Hands Bouquet to Holmes / Uncredited
1915 / The Ambition of the Baron / Bit part / --
1915/ His New Job / Stenographer / Uncredited
1915 / The Fable of Elvira and Farina and the Meal Ticket / Farina, Elvira's Daughter / Credited as Gloria Mae
1915/ Sweedie Goes to College / College Girl / --
1915 / The Romance of an American Duchess / Minor Role / Uncredited
1915 / The Broken Pledge / Gloria / --
1916 / Sunshine / -- / --
1916 / A Dash of Courage / -- / --
1916 / Hearts and Sparks / -- / --
1916 / A Social Cub / -- / --
1916 / The Danger Girl / Reggie's madcap sister / --
1916 / Haystacks and Steeples / -- / --
1916 / The Nick of Time Baby / -- / --
1917 / Teddy at the Throttle / Gloria Dawn, His Sweetheart / --
1917 / Baseball Madness / -- / --
1917 / Dangers of a Bride / -- / --
1917 / Whose Baby? / -- / --
1917 / The Sultan's Wife / Gloria / --
1917 / The Pullman Bride / The Girl / --
1922 / A Trip to Paramountown / Herself / --
1925 / Gloria Swanson and Thomas Meighan / Herself / --

Features
Year / Title / Role / Notes


1918 / Society for Sale / Phylis Clyne / --
1918 / Her Decision / Phyllis Dunbar / Lost film
1918 / Station Content / Kitty Manning / --
1918 / You Can't Believe Everything / Patricia Reynolds / --
1918 / Everywoman's Husband / Edith Emerson / --
1918 / Shifting Sands / Marcia Grey / --
1918 / The Secret Code / Sally Carter Rand / Lost film
1918 / Wife or Country / Sylvia Hamilton / Lost film
1919 / Don't Change Your Husband / Leila Porter / --
1919 / For Better, for Worse / Sylvia Norcross / --
1919 / Male and Female / Lady Mary Lasenby / --
1920 / Why Change Your Wife? / Beth Gordon / --
1920 / Something to Think About / Ruth Anderson / --
1921 / The Great Moment / Nada Pelham/Nadine Pelham / Lost film
1921 / The Affairs of Anatol / Vivian Spencer – Anatol's Wife / --
1921 / Under the Lash / Deborah Krillet / Lost film
1921 / Don't Tell Everything / Marian Westover / Lost film
1922 / Her Husband's Trademark / Lois Miller / --
1922 / Her Gilded Cage / Suzanne Ornoff / Lost film
1922 / Beyond the Rocks / Theodora Fitzgerald / --
1922 / The Impossible Mrs. Bellew / Betty Bellew / Lost film
1922 / My American Wife / Natalie Chester / Lost film
1923 / Prodigal Daughters / Swifty Forbes / Lost film
1923 / Bluebeard's 8th Wife / Mona deBriac / Lost film
1923 / Hollywood / Cameo role / Lost film
1923 / Zaza / Zaza / --
1924 / The Humming Bird / Toinette / --
1924 / A Society Scandal / Marjorie Colbert / Lost film
1924 / Manhandled / Tessie McGuire / --
1924 / Her Love Story / Princess Marie / Lost film
1924 / Wages of Virtue / Carmelita / Lost film
1925 / Madame Sans-Gêne / Madame Sans-Gêne / Lost film
1925 / The Coast of Folly / Joyce Gathway/Nadine Gathway / Lost film
1925 / Stage Struck / Jennie Hagen / --
1926 / The Untamed Lady / St. Clair Van Tassel/ Lost film
1926 / Fine Manners / Orchid Murphy / --
1927 / The Love of Sunya / Sunya Ashling / Producer
1928 / Sadie Thompson / Sadie Thompson / Producer
1929 / Queen Kelly / Kitty Kelly/Queen Kelly / Producer
1929 / The Trespasser / Marion Donnell / --
1930 / What a Widow! / Tamarind Brook / Producer; lost film
1931 / Indiscreet / Geraldine "Gerry" Trent / --
1931 / Tonight or Never / Nella Vago / --
1933 / Perfect Understanding / Judy Rogers / Producer
1934 / Music in the Air / Frieda Hotzfelt / --
1941 / Father Takes a Wife / Leslie Collier Osborne / --
1950 / Sunset Boulevard / Norma Desmond / --
1952 / Three for Bedroom "C" / Ann Haven / Costume designer
1956 / Nero's Weekend / Agrippina / --
1972 / Chaplinesque, My Life and Hard Times / Narrator / --
1974 / Airport 1975 / Herself / --

Television
Year / Title / Role / Notes


1950 / The Peter Lind Hayes Show / -- / Episode #1.1
1953 / Hollywood Opening Night / -- / Episode: "The Pattern"
1954–1955 / Crown Theatre with Gloria Swanson / Hostess 2/ 5 episodes
1957 / The Steve Allen Show / Norma Desmond / Episode #3.8
1961 / Straightaway / Lorraine Carrington / Episode: "A Toast to Yesterday"
1963 / Dr. Kildare / Julia Colton / Episode: "The Good Luck Charm"
1963–1964 / Burke's Law / Various roles / 2 episodes
1964 / Kraft Suspense Theatre / Mrs. Charlotte Heaton / Segment: "Who Is Jennifer?"
1964 / The Alfred Hitchcock Hour / Mrs. Daniels / Episode: "Behind the Locked Door"
1965 / My Three Sons / Margaret McSterling / Episode: "The Fountain of Youth"
1965 / Ben Casey / Victoria Hoffman / Episode: "Minus That Rusty Old Hacksaw"
1966 / The Beverly Hillbillies / Herself / Episode: "The Gloria Swanson Story"
1973 / The Carol Burnett Show / Herself / Episode #7.3
1974 / Killer Bees / Madame Maria von Bohlen / Television movie
1980 / Hollywood / Herself / Television documentary

Awards and nominations
Year Award Result Category Film or series


1929 / Academy Award / Nominated / Best Actress / Sadie Thompson;
1930 / Academy Award / Nominated / Best Actress / The Trespasser
1951 / Academy Award / Nominated / Best Actress /Sunset Boulevard
1951 / Golden Globe Award / Won / Best Actress — Motion Picture Drama / Sunset Boulevard
1964 / Golden Globe Award / Nominated / Best TV Star – Female / Burke's Law
1951 / Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists / Won / Best Actress – Foreign Film (Migliore Attrice Straniera) / Sunset Boulevard
1951 / Jussi Award / Won / Best Foreign Actress / Sunset Boulevard
1950 / National Board of Review of Motion Pictures / Won / Best Actress / Sunset Boulevard
1980 / National Board of Review of Motion Pictures / Won / Career Achievement Award / --
1975 / Saturn Award / Won / Special Award / --
-
See also

• List of actors with Academy Award nominations
• Biography portal
• Film portal

Notes

1. Cornell Sarvady, Andrea; Miller, Frank; Haskell, Molly; Osborne, Robert (2006). Leading Ladies: The 50 Most Unforgettable Actresses of the Studio Era. Chronicle Books. p. 185. ISBN 0-8118-5248-2.
2. Peter B. Flint, "Gloria Swanson Dies; 20s Film Idol, New York Times, Apr. 5, 1983, at D00027
3. Quirk, Lawrence J. (1984). The Films of Gloria Swanson. Citadel Press. p. 256. ISBN 0-8065-0874-4.
4. Harzig, Christiane (1996). Peasant Maids, City Women. Cornell University Press. p. 283. ISBN 0-8014-8395-6.
5. Swanson, Gloria (1981). Swanson on Swanson. Chapter 2: Random House. ISBN 0-394-50662-6.
6. Beauchamp, Cari (2009). Joseph P. Kennedy Presents. New York: Knopf. p. 108.
7. Shearer, Stephen Michael (August 27, 2013). Gloria Swanson: The Ultimate Star. United States: Thomas Dunne Books. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-250-00155-9.
8. Swanson 1981, see for example pp. 9, 93–95, 98, 131, 192
9. see Four Fabulous Faces: Swanson, Garbo, Crawford, Dietrichby Larry Carr, 1970, Galahad Books, ISBN 0-88365-044-4 and Without Lying Down: Frances Marion and the Powerful Women of Early Hollywood by Cari Beauchamp, University of California Press, 1998, ISBN 0-520-21492-7
10. Swanson 1981, p. 294
11. Swanson 1981, p. 295
12. Swanson 1981, pp. 295–296
13. Swanson 1981, p. 297
14. Swanson 1981, p. 305
15. Swanson 1981, pp. 297–302
16. Swanson 1981, p. 302
17. Swanson 1981, pp. 303–304
18. Swanson 1981, p. 323
19. Swanson 1981, p. 304
20. Swanson 1981, pp. 305–306
21. Swanson 1981, pp. 308–309
22. Swanson 1981, p. 307
23. Swanson 1981, p. 309
24. Swanson 1981, pp. 311–312
25. Swanson 1981, p. 313
26. Swanson 1981, pp. 320–321
27. Swanson 1981, pp. 317–318
28. Swanson 1981, pp. 313–317
29. Swanson 1981, pp. 319–320
30. Swanson 1981, p. 320
31. Swanson 1981, p. 321
32. Swanson 1981, p. 322
33. Swanson 1981, p. 499
34. Swanson 1981, p. 407
35. Swanson 1981, p. 374
36. Sadie Thompson review
37. Quirk, Lawrence (1984). The Films of Gloria Swanson. Citidal. pp. 211–214. ISBN 978-0-8065-0874-0.
38. Swanson 1981, pp. 388–392
39. Beauchamp, Cari (2009). Joseph P Kennedy Presents. Knopf. pp. 242–250, especially 247. ISBN 978-1-4000-4000-1.
40. SilentEra website
41. Ramon, David (1997). Dolores del Río. Clío. ISBN 968-6932-35-6.
42. Staggs, Sam (2003). Close-up on Sunset Boulevard: Billy Wilder, Norma Desmond, and the Dark Hollywood Dream. Macmillan. p. 54. ISBN 0-312-30254-1.
43. Staggs, Sam (2003). Close-up on Sunset Boulevard: Billy Wilder, Norma Desmond, and the Dark Hollywood Dream. Macmillan. p. 70. ISBN 0-312-30254-1.
44. J.C. (June 27, 1952). "New Film Comedy Takes Gloria Swanson for a Ride". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle: 7.
45. Kashner, Sam; MacNair, Jennifer (2003). The Bad & the Beautiful: Hollywood in the Fifties. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 345. ISBN 0-393-32436-2.
46. Gloria Swanson on The Dick Cavett Show on YouTube
47. Benedict, Dirk (1991). Confessions of a Kamikase Cowboy. Avery Publishing Group.
48. Syman 2010, pp. 188–190.
49. Swanson 1981, pp. 304–305
50. ""The Washington Merry-Go-Round", Drew Pearson column, May 14, 1964" (PDF). dspace.wrlc.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 16, 2013. Retrieved January 13,2013.
51. Shearer, Stephen Michael (2013). Gloria Swanson: The Ultimate Star. Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-1-250-01366-8.
52. thepeerage.com on Gloria Somborn Anderson, daughter of Gloria Swanson and Herbert Somborn Retrieved May 1, 2015
53. "Debrett Goes to Hollywood", 1986, St. Martin's Press, pp. 24–25
54. Joseph P. Kennedy Presents, 2009, knopf, pp. 175, 275
55. Swanson on Swanson, 1981, Random House, p. 419
56. Gloria and Joe: The Star-Crossed Love Affair of Gloria Swanson and Joe Kennedy by Axel Madsen, 1988 (ISBN 0877959463) or Joseph P. Kennedy Presents: His Hollywood Years by Cari Beauchamp, 2009 (ISBN 1400040000)
57. Michelle Bridget Farmer; thepeerage.com Retrieved May 1, 2015
58. Lee, Sonia (April 1935). "Scared of Spring". Picture Play Magazine. 42: 70. Retrieved August 23, 2014. Hollywood is wondering if Gloria Swanson, once free of Michael Farmer, will make Herbert husband Number Five
59. Peak, Mayme Ober (January 13, 1935). "To Be Called Sauve Gets on My Nerves". Daily Boston Globe: B5. Now the Marshalls are separated by more than an ocean and continent. Since their separation, gossip has romantically linked the names of Gloria Swanson and Herbert Marshall. They are constantly seen together.
60. "Film Writer Socks Actor in Row Over Gloria Swanson; Foes Tell Different Versions of How It All Happened". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette: 1. September 25, 1934. Retrieved August 23, 2014. ...Swanson, whose name has been linked romantically with Mr. Marshall's prior to and since her separation from Michael Farmer. Mr. Marshall is likewise separated from Edna Best, English actress.
61. Swanson 1981, pp. 446–49
62. Welsch, Tricia (2013). Gloria Swanson: Ready for Her Close-Up. University Press of Mississippi. p. 298. ISBN 978-1-61703-749-8.
63. Swanson on Swanson, 1981, Random House, p. 472
64. Debrett Goes to Hollywood, 1986, St. Martin's Press, p. 29
65. Sugar Blues, 1975, Chilton, pp. 1–2
66. Vanity Fair, November 2001, "John Lennon—The Collected Interviews: 1973–80" by Lisa Robinson
67. Obituary for William Dufty by Myrna Oliver, Los Angeles Times, July 4, 2002.
68. (Welsch 2013, p. 396). "Swanson produced many draft versions of her autobiography over many years. There are holographs [handwritten manuscripts] as well as typescripts, notes, and lists, many annotated in her hand. I have referred to these in the notes as 'GS manuscript,' indicating when relevant her efforts at revision or deletion."
69. Shearer, Stephen Michael (2013). Gloria Swanson: The Ultimate Star. Thomas Dunne Books. p. 368. ISBN 978-1-250-00155-9.
70. "Show Business" The Milwaukee Journal, October 1, 1980.
71. Peter B. Flint (April 5, 1983). "Gloria Swanson Dies. 20's Film Idol". New York Times. p. A1. Gloria Swanson, a symbol of enduring glamour who was perhaps the most glittering goddess of Hollywood's golden youth in 1920s, died of a heart ailment yesterday in New York Hospital. She was 84 years old. The actress entered the hospital two weeks ago after suffering what friends said was a mild heart attack. ...
72. Associated Press (April 5, 1983). "Gloria Swanson Dies". Herald-Journal. Retrieved October 10, 2012. Gloria Swanson, the quintessential glamour girl who reigned in Hollywood's golden age died in her sleep at New York Hospital early Monday. ...
73. Donnelley, Paul (2003). Fade to Black: A Book of Movie Obituaries. Omnibus. p. 887. ISBN 0-7119-9512-5.
74. Hollywood Walk of Fame
75. Dryden Theatre (1966). The Dryden Theatre of the George Eastman House Presents a Tribute to Gloria Swanson. Rochester, N.Y.: George Eastman House.
76. "An Inventory of Her Papers at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center". University Texas Website.

References

• 1900 United States Federal Census, Chicago Ward 25, Town of Lakeview, Cook County, Illinois, Enumeration District 760, p. 8A (J.T. Swanson)

Further reading

• Beauchamp, Cari (2009). Joseph P. Kennedy Presents, His Hollywood Years. Especially Chapters 10, 11, 13, 18–23, 25, 26. ISBN 978-1-4000-4000-1.
• Card, James (1994). Seductive Cinema: The Art of Silent Film (paperback reprint). University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-3390-8.
• Carr, Larry (1970). Four Fabulous Faces: Swanson, Garbo, Crawford, Dietrich. Galahad Books. ISBN 0-88365-044-4.
• Craughwell-Varda, Kathleen (1999). Looking for Jackie: American Fashion Icons. Hearst Books, New York. Especially Chapter 11. ISBN 0-688-16726-8.
• Dufty, William (1975). Sugar Blues (first edition and reprint). Chilton Books. Especially Introduction. ISBN 0-8019-5954-3.
• Hudson, Richard (1970). Gloria Swanson. Castle Books. LCCN 75-88280.
• Kessler, Ronald (1996). The Sins of the Father: Joseph P. Kennedy and the Dynasty He Founded. Warner. Chapter 6. ISBN 0-446-60384-8.
• Kidd, Charles (1986). Debrett Goes to Hollywood. St. Martin's Press. Especially Chapter 2. ISBN 0-312-00588-1.
• Kobal, John (1985). People Will Talk. Knopf, New York. Especially Introduction and Chapter 1. ISBN 0-394-53660-6.
• Lockwood, Charles (1981). Dream Palaces: Hollywood at Home. New York: Viking Press. Chapter 7.
• Madsen, Axel (1988). Gloria and Joe. The Star-Crossed Love Affair of Gloria Swanson and Joe Kennedy. Arbor House, New York.
• Quirk, Lawrence J. (1984). The Films of Gloria Swanson. Citadel Press. ISBN 0-8065-0874-4.
• Shearer, Stephen Michael (2013). Gloria Swanson: The Ultimate Star. Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-1-250-00155-9.
• Staggs, Sam (2003). Close-up on Sunset Boulevard: Billy Wilder, Norma Desmond, and the Dark Hollywood Dream. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-27453-X.
• Swanson, Gloria (1981). Swanson on Swanson. Random House.
• Syman, Stefanie (2010). The Subtle Body : the Story of Yoga in America. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-53284-0. OCLC 456171421.
• Tapert, Annette (1998). The Power of Glamour. Crown Publishers, Inc. Especially Introduction and Chapter 1. ISBN 0-517-70376-9.
• Welsch, Tricia (2013). Gloria Swanson: Ready for Her Close-Up. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-61703-749-8.

External links

General

• Gloria Swanson on IMDb
• Gloria Swanson at the TCM Movie Database
• Gloria Swanson at the Internet Broadway Database
• Gloria Swanson at the Women Film Pioneers Project
• Glorious Gloria Swanson – Tribute site
• Gloria Swanson's papers at the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin
• Gloria Swanson photographs and bibliography

Interviews

• Gloria Swanson, video of The Mike Wallace Interview, April 28, 1957
• Gloria Swanson, interview on Dick Cavette Show on YouTube, August 3, 1970
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Indra Devi
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/22/19

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Image
Indra Devi
Indra Devi, upper left; Anne T. Hill, bottom center (record album cover)
Born Eugenie Peterson
May 12, 1899
Riga, Russian Empire
Died April 25, 2002 (aged 102)
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Other names Eugenie Peterson
Occupation yoga teacher
Spouse(s) Jan Strakaty (1930–1946, his death)
Sigfrid Knauer (1953–1984, his death)
Eugenie V. Peterson (Russian: Евгения Васильевна Петерсон; May 12, 1899 – April 25, 2002),[1] known as Indra Devi, was a Russian teacher of modern yoga who was an early disciple of Sri Tirumalai Krishnamacharya.

Early years

Born in Riga,[2] Russian Empire, to Vasili Peterson, a Swedish bank director and Alejandra Labunskaia, a Russian noblewoman, Eugenie attended drama school in Moscow as a girl and escaped to Berlin with her mother as the Bolsheviks came to power in 1917.In Berlin, she became an actress and dancer.[3]

The activities and views of right-wing Baltic German subjects of the Russian Empire deserve greater attention than they have received because of the key role that some Baltic Germans subsequently played in the National Socialist movement. The Rubonia Fraternity at the Riga Polytechnic Institute (named after the Rubon, the Roman term for the Duna River that flows through Riga) spurred Baltic German pride. The majority of the Rubonia Fraternity members came from upper-class Baltic German families in the Russian Baltic provinces. [100] Four members of the Rubonia Fraternity eventually immigrated to Germany and played important roles in Aufbau and the National Socialist Party: Max von Scheubner-Richter, Otto von Kursell, Arno Schickedanz, and Alfred Rosenberg.

Scheubner-Richter was born Richter in Riga in 1884 to an Imperial German father and a Baltic German mother. He received his double name in the course of a love affair with Mathilde von Scheubner, the noble wife of a prominent member of Riga society. He absconded from Riga to Munich with Mathilde, who was almost thirty years his senior, and married her in 1911. A relative of Richter’s wife adopted him and granted him her noble name von Scheubner in 1912, entitling him to the name von Scheubner-Richter. [101]

While he was still known as Richter, Scheubner-Richter became friends with Kursell, who had been born into a noble Estonian Baltic Germany family in Saint Petersburg in 1884. [102] Scheubner-Richter and Kursell had first met at the Petri High School in Reval, in what became Estonia. The two Baltic Germans began studying together at the Riga Polytechnic Institute as members of the Rubonia Fraternity in 1905. Scheubner-Richter specialized in chemistry and Kursell studied architecture. Kursell valued Scheubner-Richter as a “popular, cheerful comrade” who held a variety of leadership positions in the Rubonia Fraternity. [103] Kursell was himself a charismatic person and, like Scheubner-Richter, a ladies’ man. [104]

While he was legally considered a subject of Imperial Germany, Scheubner-Richter spoke fluent Russian from his early Russian schooling, and he regarded himself as a Baltic German since he had spent his entire youth in the Imperial Russian Baltic ports Riga and Reval and had risked his life for Baltic German interests in 1905. During the Revolution of 1905, nationalist Latvians and Estonians had joined forces with socialist revolutionaries to overthrow Baltic German landowners who held the leading societal role in the Baltic provinces. Scheubner-Richter had been shot in the knee while serving in the Baltic German Selbstschutz (Self-Protection) forces that had combated this anti-Baltic German alliance. [105]

The two other Rubonia Fraternity members who went on to play important roles in Aufbau and the National Socialist movement, Rosenberg and Schickedanz, entered Rubonia in 1910 and studied there together until 1917. Rosenberg had been born in 1893 in Reval to merchant Baltic German parents. His colleague Schickedanz had been born into a Riga merchant family in 1893. Rosenberg majored in architecture and Schickedanz studied chemistry. [106] Rosenberg admired volkisch ideology. As a young man, he read German mythology, Schopenhauer, and Houston Stewart Chamberlain. He characterized the last as “the strongest positive influence in my youth.” Russian literature also strongly affected him, most notably the works of Dostoevskii. [107] Rosenberg later helped to shape National Socialist ideology by synthesizing volkisch German ideas with White émigré views.

-- The Russian Roots of Nazism: White Emigres and the Making of National Socialism, 1917-1945, by Michael Kellogg


India

Devi's fascination with India began at 15 when she read a book by poet-philosopher Rabindranath Tagore and a yoga instruction book by Yogi Ramacharaka. In 1927, she sailed for India and adopted a stage name that would sound Hindu (using "dev", the Hindi root for "god") and acted in Indian films.[4] In 1930, she married Jan Strakaty, a commercial attache to the Czechoslovak consulate in Bombay.

The famous Yoga guru Sri Tirumalai Krishnamacharya accepted her as a student, only after the Maharaja of Mysore spoke on her behalf, and in 1938 she became the first foreign woman among dedicated yogis. She studied alongside B.K.S Iyengar and K. Pattabhi Jois who would also go on to become world famous yoga teachers.[3] She met every challenge Krishnamacharya set out for her and was so successful that the guru asked her to work as a yoga teacher, when he learned that her husband was to be transferred to China and she would leave India.

China

In 1939, she held what are believed to be the first Yoga classes in China and opened a school in Shanghai at the house of Madame Chiang Kai-shek, wife of the nationalist leader and a new yoga enthusiast.[3] There were many Americans and Russians among her pupils. More and more people began to call her Mataji, which means mother.[5] Indra Devi gave lectures on yoga and free lessons in orphanages.

United States

Image
(left to right) Dr. Harry Lehrer, Jean R. Miller,[6] Anne T. Hill, Indra Devi, Los Angeles 1965

Following the unexpected death of her husband in 1946[3], with eight years of teaching experience gained in India, the renowned guru left for the United States in 1947. A year later she opened a yoga studio in Hollywood.

Indra Devi used her Indian teachings to lay claim to her own forms of yoga, these claims included Indian yoga asanas, breathing techniques such as the Indian form of Pranayama and diets. Later in life, Indra Devi stressed that her method relied on the Indian classical yoga of Patanjali.

She taught Greta Garbo, Eva Gabor, and Gloria Swanson. Also, among her students were Robert Ryan, Jennifer Jones, and the violinist Yehudi Menuhin.[3]

Contrary to popular belief, there is no record of her ever teaching Marilyn Monroe. While Monroe did own her bestselling[7] book Forever Young, Forever Healthy, there is no proof that the two women met in person. A popular photo that shows Eva Gabor training with Devi in 1960 is commonly mistaken for Monroe.

In 1953 Indra married the well-known German physician Dr. Sigfrid Knauer. In the mid-1950s she was granted American citizenship and put her Indra Devi pseudonym in her new passport.

Indra recorded several instructional talks on yoga in the 1970s, including "Renew Your Life with Yoga."[8]

Mexico

In 1961 Indra Devi opened the Indra Devi Foundation in Tecate, México, in Rancho Cuchumá. Mataji was very close to Sathya Sai Baba a Hindu guru and she traveled often from her Yoga Foundation in Tecate Mexico to Bangalore and Puttaparthi. Indra Devi closed the International Training Center for Yoga Teachers in 1977 and moved with her very ill husband to Bangalore. In 1984 she made a trip to Sri Lanka with her husband Doctor Sigfrid Knauer where he died the following year.[9]

Later years and death

In 1985 she moved to Argentina. In 1987 she was elected president of honor of the International Yoga Federation and Latin American Union of Yoga under the presidency of Swami Maitreyananda at Montevideo, Uruguay. She died in Buenos Aires in 2002.[3]

Works

• 1953 Forever Young, Forever Healthy: Simplified Yoga for Modern Living. Prentice-Hall. OCLC 652377847
• 1959 Yoga For Americans: A Complete 6 Week Course for home Practice.

References

1. Aboy, Adriana (2002). "Indra Devi's Legacy". Hinduism Today. Retrieved 13 September 2008.
2. "Michelle Goldberg's book 'The Goddess Pose' paints vivid picture of yoga pioneer Indra Devi". Los Angeles Times. 28 May 2015.
3. Martin, Douglas (30 April 2002). "Indra Devi, 102, Dies; Taught Yoga to Stars and Leaders". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
4. Rolfe, Lionel (17 April 2015). "Indra Devi was not just a nice old lady". Huffington Post.
5. "Indra Devi, Mother of Western Yoga - Amazing Women In History". Amazing Women In History. 2 October 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
6. Jean R. Miller on findagrave.com
7. Schrank, Sarah (2014). "American Yoga: The Shaping of Modern Body Culture in the United States". American Studies. 53(1): 169–182.
8. https://www.amazon.co.uk/Renew-Your-Lif ... 1579704794
9. Sigfrid Knauer on findagrave.com

External links

• Yoga Feminist, Yoga Icon: Indra Devi 2013
• FUNDACION INDRA DEVI - Indra Devi foundation (Spanish)
• A portrait of the First Lady of Yoga, Russia & India Report 2010/11/22
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Jun 23, 2019 12:57 am

Indra Devi
by Theosophy Wiki
Accessed: 6/22/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

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Image

Eugenie V. Peterson (Russian: Евгения Васильевна Петерсон; May 12, 1899 – April 25, 2002), known as Indra Devi, was a Russian yoga teacher who was an early disciple of Sri Tirumalai Krishnamacharya, who is considered by many as the father of modern yoga.

Image

Her first spiritual awakening happened while attending a gathering of Theosophists in Ommen in the Netherlands in 1926, to listen to Jiddu Krishnamurti. Devi was moved, became a vegetarian, and traveled to the headquarters of the Theosophical Society in Adyar, India. She was vital to the globalization of yoga in the West.

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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Jun 23, 2019 1:07 am

Ethan Nichtern – The Road Home Podcast
by The Be Here Now Network
Accessed: 6/22/19

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Ethan Nichtern is the author of the acclaimed book The Road Home: A Contemporary Exploration of the Buddhist Path (Farrar Straus and Giroux, North Point Press), which was recently selected as one of Library Journal’s Best Books of 2015, and one of Tech Insider’s “9 Books That Define 2015.” His most recent book, The Dharma of The Princess Bride: What The Coolest Fairy Tale of Our Time Can Teach Us About Buddhism and Relationships was released by FSG – North Point in September, 2017.

He is also the author of One City: A Declaration of Interdependence (Wisdom Pubs, 2007), and the Novella/poetry collection, Your Emoticons Won’t Save You (Nieto Books, 2012). He founded the Interdependence Project, a nonprofit organization dedicated to secular Buddhist practice and transformational activism and arts.

For the past 15 years, Ethan has taught meditation and Buddhist psychology classes and workshops around New York City and the United States. He has studied in the Shambhala tradition under Sakyong Mipham Rinpoche.

He was formerly a Shastri, a senior teacher in the Shambhala Buddhist tradition, and on the part-time faculty at Eugene Lang College at New School University and has lectured at Brown, Wesleyan, Yale, NYU, FIT, Antioch and other universities, and as well as at many meditation/yoga centers and conferences around the country and world.

Ethan has been featured on CNN, NPR, ABC/Yahoo News, The New York Times, Vogue.com, Business Insider, Nautilus, and Vice to discuss Buddhism and meditation in the 21st Century. His articles have been featured on The Huffington Post, Beliefnet, Shambhala Sun, Tricycle Magazine, BuddhaDharma Magazine, Reality Sandwich, as well as other online publications.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Jun 23, 2019 1:43 am

Accountants and spies: The secret history of Deloitte’s espionage practice
by Eamon Javers @EAMONJAVERS
CNBC
Published Mon, Dec 19, 2016 10:59 AM EST Updated Tue, Dec 20 2016 8:35 AM EST

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As 2016 comes to a close, the consulting firm Deloitte is busy hiring employees in the Washington area — listing a total of 392 jobs open in the region with “federal” in the job description.

According to its website, the firm is looking to hire a federal contracts manager, a federal cybersecurity consultant and is even advertising for military officers with top-secret government clearances.

What none of the people applying for those jobs know — and few of the people doing the hiring know, either — is the secret history of Deloitte’s robust federal practice.

It’s a story that goes back a decade, and has never before been told publicly. It involves several veteran CIA officers, an undercover mission and a huge haul of extremely valuable intelligence.
The saga shows just how intense the competition between major accounting firms is, and just how willing they can be to engage in tactics that don’t exactly mesh with their buttoned-down corporate image.

It’s a classic tale of corporate espionage.

Image
Premium: Corporate espionage elevator surveillance camera. Getty Images

Flash back 10 years. At the time, Deloitte was not the major player in federal consulting it is today. “Deloitte had fits and starts in trying to do the federal business,” recalls a former Deloitte partner who asked not to be named. “In ’05 and ’06, Deloitte was doing maybe $300 million a year in revenue and had maybe 1,000 people.” The former partner says the firm had a lofty internal goal of getting its federal business to the billion-dollar level. “They wanted to do an acquisition, but they weren’t sure which one.”

Then, in early 2007, a phone rang inside Deloitte. On the line was a source, passing on some valuable information. BearingPoint, the struggling consulting firm, had just called an emergency meeting. BearingPoint partners from around the world would be coming to a hastily scheduled session at the convention center in Orlando, Florida. The source didn’t know why the meeting was scheduled. It was a complete mystery. But Deloitte’s managers were prepared to go to unusual lengths to unravel it.

Deloitte had an internal team to call on in just such a moment. Although its name changed over time, the group was generally known as the competitive intelligence unit, and it was led by a trim former CIA officer with piercing eyes named Gordon “Gordy” Welch. His number two was John Shumadine, who had served as an economist for the CIA and, like his boss Welch, was an Army veteran. Shumadine, according to his LinkedIn profile, had served as a military intelligence analyst scrutinizing Iraqi Scud missiles and special-forces operations. Welch said he had been in leadership roles in the 82nd Airborne Division and served as an instructor at the Army’s Ranger school. Neither Welch nor Shumadine commented for this article.

No one interviewed for this article claimed that anyone at Deloitte did anything illegal.

Collectors and analysts

The two CIA officers oversaw a team at Deloitte that was divided into two main categories: collectors and analysts. Collectors uncovered information that could be valuable to Deloitte’s senior managers. Analysts poured through that information, combined it with other known facts and developed narratives about what they thought was going on behind the scenes in the offices of Deloitte’s clients and customers.

“Our job was to spy on Ernst & Young, PriceWaterhouseCoopers, KPMG and some of the consulting competitors,” said a person who worked in the unit. “We were trying to steal their pricing models, how they determined discounts, and especially new product lines or service lines.” The team developed networks of ex-employees as sources and traveled to trade shows to gather information.

The competitive intelligence unit was part of a larger umbrella group called Deloitte Intelligence. That group included two related efforts. One was called “market intelligence” and focused on gathering details about companies that could be useful for its customers and could help Deloitte win new business. “Say Wal-Mart is our client and we want to sell more to them,” said a Deloitte veteran. “We would show them what Target was doing that they were not, and show them how we could help.”

The last piece of the team was known as “win/loss.” That group conducted after-action reports on efforts to win major accounts to determine what had gone right — or wrong — with each sales pitch.


As a result, the Deloitte Intelligence team was a mixture of former government spies and accounting industry veterans. People who had jumped out of helicopters worked alongside people who rarely even jumped out of their office chairs. By several accounts, there were tensions inside Deloitte about how far the intelligence team would be allowed to go, with some employees on the team pushing for a more aggressive approach and other forces inside Deloitte preaching restraint.

Despite their exotic backgrounds, the team was much like any other in corporate America: It had go-getters and malcontents, people who were on their way up the corporate ranks and others who were burning out and would soon leave the firm. It included at least three former CIA officers, a former Secret Service officer, a former IRS agent, an employee who wrote spy novels, and one who had a side business selling Kente cloth Polo shirts.

Called into action

Image
Former CIA officer John Kiriakou. Jacquelyn Martin | AP

When the call from the source came in, nearly all of them went into action.

They stood up a full time office at Deloitte’s offices in suburban Virginia, where managers and analysts could coordinate the operation. Deloitte officials also checked in with the firm’s general counsel to sort out what they would be legally permitted to do.

With the analysts in place, it came time to select the collectors — the actual on-the-ground agents who would book hotel rooms near BearingPoint’s meeting at the Orlando convention center and spend several days trying to figure out what was going on.

Two collectors were assigned the job. The first was a woman named Abby Vietor, a Deloitte employee who had earlier worked at a private investigative firm called Diligence LLC.

The second was a man who would later go on to significant fame and controversy: John Kiriakou, a Deloitte employee and former CIA case officer who had served in various capacities for the spy agency in Bahrain, Athens and at CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia.

Kiriakou had participated in the capture of the suspected terrorist Abu Zubaydah in Pakistan, according to The New York Times. Later in 2007, Kiriakou would give a high-profile interview in which he disclosed that Abu Zubaydah had been water boarded and described the technique as torture. His account sparked controversy because it suggested that the water boarding had been brief and effective although later disclosures revealed the treatment had been much more extensive. In 2013, he was sentenced to 30 months in prison on a charge of passing classified information to the media.


But all that lay in the future. In early 2007, Kiriakou was simply a collector for Deloitte’s corporate intelligence unit
, and he was on his way to Orlando to try to piece together what the BearingPoint partners were up to. Vietor and Kiriakou declined to comment for this article.

You can’t believe what people will say

On the ground, the two Deloitte employees assessed the situation. BearingPoint was clearly in crisis mode, and the firm’s partners appeared in to be disarray. This offered an opportunity for the two collectors from Deloitte: At various points over the coming days, the two Deloitte employees walked in and out of the convention center and stationed themselves at a bar, picking up scraps of conversation from the distraught BearingPoint partners.

According to a person familiar with the operation, the two agents also spent a considerable amount of time in the men’s and women’s bathrooms — hiding out to avoid detection, and taking notes on conversations they overheard. “You can’t believe what people will say while they’re in there,” said a person who participated in the operation.

They were in regular communication with the team in Virginia, emailing snippets of gossip and information that they were picking up. At the Deloitte offices, analysts raced to their computers to check details, confirm facts or issue “taskings” to the Deloitte agents in the field to try to pin down specific details. “When the news came through that they had gotten some information, we stopped what we were doing and focused on it,” said a second person who participated in the operation. “This turned out to be a significant feat.”

That’s because the agents on the ground uncovered a valuable piece of intelligence. BearingPoint’s financial situation was dire. And as a result, the partners were considering selling the firm’s federal practice — a business that could be a perfect solution to Deloitte’s own problems in the federal space.

But how much was BearingPoint’s federal practice actually worth? That would depend on key details such as whom the firm’s clients were and how much those clients were paying every year.

Then Deloitte’s agents in the field made a breakthrough: They learned that senior BearingPoint officers were holding a break-out session, and they figured out the location for the high-level meeting. Deloitte’s team decided that any paperwork the BearingPoint managers left behind would be fair game for the agents to pick up — but only after several hours had passed, making it clear that the material had been officially abandoned.

The Deloitte operatives staked out the empty meeting space for hours after the BearingPoint executives left, pacing the halls. At one point, an operative shooed away a cleaning crew that was on its way into the space. Once they decided enough time had passed, they entered the room.

Hitting pay dirt

Inside, they hit pay dirt: The BearingPoint executives, perhaps distracted by the financial calamity facing their firm, had left behind notes and documents that the Deloitte operatives viewed as the key to unlocking the mystery of the value of the federal practice. “They left revenue projections, source intelligence,” said a person who participated in the operation. “It was like the holy grail of the BearingPoint business.”

The second person who participated in the operation said that the ground team also obtained breakdowns of the revenues generated by specific accounts.


The Deloitte collectors scooped up everything they could find, and headed out to a nearby Kinko’s to fax it directly to the analysts in Virginia, who could begin teasing out the full implications.

People involved in the operation say the intelligence gathered in Orlando gave Deloitte a leg up in understanding just how valuable BearingPoint’s federal business could be, despite the financial difficulty facing the overall firm.

A former partner who was not involved in the Orlando operation described the potential acquisition this way: “They had accounts that would have taken years for Deloitte to develop. Relationships at the Department of Defense and the Department of Homeland Security and other institutions. It was a huge opportunity.”

It wasn’t until March 2009 that Deloitte was able to take advantage of that opportunity. That month, Deloitte announced it would buy BearingPoint’s North American public services unit for $350 million in cash as BearingPoint worked through a bankruptcy.

Jonathan Gandal, a spokesman for Deloitte, said the intelligence operation was not the deciding factor in the purchase of the BearingPoint unit. “Deloitte and other potential bidders received open access and comprehensive information from the court in the BearingPoint bankruptcy proceedings,” Gandal told CNBC. “And that was the basis for our decision-making.”

Despite the success of the operation in Orlando, people familiar with Deloitte’s intelligence team say the unit was wound down over the following years, its employees leaving for other firms and other careers. Only a small number are still employed at Deloitte.

One person who participated in the operation said there was a reason why the odd mixture of accountants and CIA veterans worked for as long as it did inside Deloitte: excitement and money.

“Every accountant I met wished he was a CIA guy,” the person said. “And every CIA guy I met wanted to make what an accountant makes.”


At least for awhile, they both got what they wanted.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Jun 23, 2019 2:59 am

Americans for Democratic Action
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/22/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

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Americans for Democratic Action
Formation January 3, 1947; 72 years ago
Headquarters Washington D.C., U.S.
Membership
65,000 members
President
Art Haywood
Website http://www.adaction.org

Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) is a liberal American political organization advocating progressive policies. ADA works for social and economic justice through lobbying, grassroots organizing, research, and supporting progressive candidates.

History

Formation


The ADA grew out of a predecessor group, the Union for Democratic Action (UDA). The UDA was formed by former members of the Socialist Party of America and Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies as well as labor union leaders, liberal politicians, theologians, and others who were opposed to the pacifism adopted by most left-wing political organizations in the late 1930s and early 1940s.[1][2] It supported a strongly interventionist, internationalist foreign policy and a pro-union, liberal domestic policy. It was strongly anti-communist as well.[2][3] It undertook a major effort to support left-wing Democratic members of Congress in 1946, but this effort was an overwhelming failure.[3][4][5]

James Isaac Loeb (later an ambassador and diplomat in the John F. Kennedy administration), the UDA's executive director, advocated disbanding the UDA and forming a new, more broadly based, mass-membership organization.[6][7] The ADA was formed on January 3, 1947, and the UDA shuttered.[4][7][8][9]

Among ADA's founding members were leading anti-communist liberals from academic, political, and labor circles, including theologian Reinhold Niebuhr, historian Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., Eleanor Roosevelt, labor organizer Walter Reuther, civil rights lawyer Joseph Rauh, and Hubert Humphrey. Its founders hoped to solidify a progressive, pragmatic, noncommunist “vital center” in mainstream politics, embodying Schlesinger's concept formulated in his 1949 book The Vital Center.[10]

Action

On April 3, 1948, ADA declared its decision to support a Democratic Party ticket of General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Supreme Court Judge William O. Douglas over incumbent U.S. President Harry S. Truman. Leveraging Truman's lack of popular support, the ADA succeeded in pushing Truman leftward on issues such as civil rights.[10] It also led a full-scale attack on Progressive Party candidate and former US vice president Henry A. Wallace because of his opposition to the Marshall Plan and support for appeasement of the Soviet Union. The ADA portrayed Wallace and his supporters as dupes of the Communist Party.[10] Adolf A. Berle Jr. and Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. expressed their belief that Eisenhower would accept the nomination.[11]

After November 2, 1948, ADA supported Truman after his victory.[9]

Though strongly anti-communist, unlike other contemporary liberal groups like the Progressive Citizens of America (PCA), which supported cooperation with the Soviet Union, the ADA was still subject to significant McCarthyist scrutiny. The plight of the ADA during that period prompted Eleanor Roosevelt to accept a position as honorary chair of the organization in 1953, and in doing so, put Senator McCarthy in a position in which he would have had to "call her a communist as well" to continue his inquiries into the activities of the group. Because of her actions, many ADA leaders credited her with "saving" the organization.[12]

In the early 1960s, ADA's influence peaked when a number of its key members (e.g. James Loeb, Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.) were picked to join the administration of U.S. President John F. Kennedy.[13] While active in liberal causes ranging from civil rights to Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society reforms, by the mid-1960s the ADA's influence was on the wane.[10] It was badly split over the Vietnam War: initially supporting Johnson's war policy, the ADA had come to oppose the war by early 1968.[10] It endorsed founder Hubert Humphrey's presidential candidacy that year, but with “barely concealed ambivalence”.[10] After Richard Nixon's victory, the ADA was pushed to the political margins,[10] overshadowed by more centrist groups like the Trilateral Commission and Coalition for a Democratic Majority.

Leadership

Founders


Founding, prominent members included:

• Joseph Alsop[14]
• Stewart Alsop[14][15]
• Chester Bowles[16]
• Marquis Childs[15]
• David Dubinsky[15]
• Elmer Davis[15]
• John Kenneth Galbraith[14][17]
• Leon Henderson[16][15]
• Hubert Humphrey[14][16][15]
• James I. Loeb[15]
• Reinhold Niebuhr[14][17][15]
• Joseph P. Lash
• Joseph L. Rauh, Jr.[14]
• Walter Reuther[17][15]
• Eleanor Roosevelt[14][16][17][15]
• Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr.[15]
• Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.[14]
• John H. Sengstacke[14][18][19]
• James Wechsler[15]
• Walter White[15]
• Wilson W. Wyatt[16]

In April 1948 at New York state convention, ADA elected the following new officers: Jonathan Bingham of Scarborough as chairman with vice chairmen Dr. William Lehman of Syracuse, Benjamin Mc:Laurin of New York City, Howard Linsay of New York City, Jack Rubenstein (Textile Workers Union, CIO), and Charles Zimmerman (International Ladies' Garment Workers Union).[11]

Chairs and presidents

Since 1947, ADA's organization leaders include:[17]

• 1947-1948: Wilson Wyatt
• 1948-1949: Leon Henderson
• 1949-1950: Senator Hubert Humphrey
• 1950-1953: Francis Biddle
• 1954-1955: Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. and James E. Doyle (co-chairs)
• 1955-1957: Joseph L. Rauh, Jr.
• 1957-1959: Robert R. Nathan
• 1959-1962: Samuel H. Beer
• 1961-1964: Paul Seabury
• 1962-1965: John P. Roche
• 1965-1967: Rep. Don Edwards
• 1967-1969: John Kenneth Galbraith
• 1970-1971: Joseph Duffey
• 1971-1973: Rep. Allard K. Lowenstein
• 1974-1976: Rep. Donald M. Fraser
• 1976-1978: Senator George McGovern
• 1978-1981: Rep. Patsy T. Mink
• 1981-1984: Rep. Robert F. Drinan, S.J.
• 1984-1986: Rep. Barney Frank
• 1986-1989: Rep. Ted Weiss
• 1989-1991: Rep. Charles B. Rangel
• 1991-1993: Senator Paul D. Wellstone
• 1993-1995: Rep. John Lewis
• 1995-1998: Jack Sheinkman
• 1998-2000: Rep. Jim Jontz
• 2000-2008: Rep. Jim McDermott
• 2008-2010: Richard Parker
• 2010-2016: Rep. Lynn Woolsey
• 2017-2018: State Senator Daylin Leach
• 2018-Present: State Senator Art Haywood

Voting records

ADA ranks legislators, identifies key policy issues, and tracks how members of Congress vote on these issues. The annual ADA Voting Record gives each member a Liberal Quotient (LQ) rating from 0, meaning complete disagreement with ADA policies, to 100, meaning complete agreement with ADA policies. A score of 0 is considered conservative and a score 100 is considered liberal. The LQ is obtained by evaluating an elected official's votes on 20 key foreign and domestic social and economic issues chosen by the ADA's Legislative Committee. Each vote given a score of either 5 or 0 points, depending on whether the individual voted with or against the ADA's position, respectively. Absent voters are also given a score of 0 for the vote.[20]

References

1. Zuckerman, The Wine of Violence: An Anthology on Anti-Semitism, 1947, p. 220; Parmet, The Master of Seventh Avenue: David Dubinsky and the American Labor Movement, 2005, p. 214, ISBN 0-8147-6711-7; Boyle, The UAW and the Heyday of American Liberalism, 1945-1968, 1998, p. 49, ISBN 0-8014-8538-X; Brown, Niebuhr and His Age: Reinhold Niebuhr's Prophetic Role and Legacy, 2002, p. 102, ISBN 1563383756; Ceplair, "The Film Industry's Battle Against Left-Wing Influences, From the Russian Revolution to the Blacklist," Film History, 2008, 400-401; Libros, Hard Core Liberals: A Sociological Analysis of the Philadelphia Americans for Democratic Action, 1975, p. 13, ISBN 0870731483.
2. Brock, Americans for Democratic Action: Its Role in National Politics, 1962, p. 49.
3. Powers, Not Without Honor: The History of American Anticommunism, 1998, p. 200-201, ISBN 0-300-07470-0.
4. Davis, The Civil Rights Movement, 2000, p. 27, ISBN 0-631-22043-7.
5. Halpern, UAW Politics in the Cold War Era, 1988, p. 138-139, ISBN 0887066712.
6. Beinart, The Good Fight: Why Liberals—and Only Liberals—Can Win the War on Terror and Make America Great Again, 2007, p. 4, ISBN 9780522853834.
7. Libros, Hard Core Liberals: A Sociological Analysis of the Philadelphia Americans for Democratic Action, 1975, p. 22, ISBN 0870731483.
8. Hamby, "The Liberals, Truman, and the FDR as Symbol and Myth," The Journal of American History, March 1970; Heale, American Anticommunism: Combating the Enemy Within, 1830-1970, 1990, p. 140, ISBN 0-8018-4050-3
9. "Teachings of Eleanor Roosevelt: Americans for Democratic Action". Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project. Retrieved July 19,2017.
10. Mark L. Kleinman, “Americans for Democratic Action”, in The Oxford Companion to United States History, ed. Paul S. Boyer (Oxford/NY: Oxford UP, 2001), 34.
11. "Democrats Urged to Run Eisenhower". New York Times. April 4, 1948. p. 45. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
12. George Washington University. "Americans for Democratic Action". Retrieved April 29, 2015.
13. "Americans for Democratic Action (ADA)". Encyclopedia Britannica. July 20, 1998. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
14. "Americans for Democratic Action (ADA)". World History. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
15. Schlesinger Jr., Arthur M. (2002). A Life in the Twentieth Century: Innocent Beginnings, 1917-1950. Houghton Miffline. p. 457. ISBN 978-0618219254. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
16. Lindley, Ernest (January 6, 1947). "Rejecting The Reds: Regrouping Of Progressives". Washington Post. p. 5. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
17. "ADA History". Americans for Democratic Action. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
18. Von Eschen, Penny M. (1997). Race Against Empire: Black Americans and Anticolonialism, 1937–1957. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0801482922. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
19. Lucks, Daniel S. (March 19, 2014). Selma to Saigon: The Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 9780813145099. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
20. Americans for Democratic Action. "Voting Records". Retrieved April 29, 2015.

External links

• Americans for Democratic Action
• Americans for Democratic Action records, 1932–1999
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Jun 23, 2019 3:12 am

William Dufty
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/22/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

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Image

William Dufty
Born William Francis Dufty
February 2, 1916
near Grand Rapids, Michigan, U.S.
Died June 28, 2002 (aged 86)
Birmingham, Michigan, U.S.
Occupation Writer, musician, activist
Spouse(s) Maely Bartholomew
(m. 19??; div. 19??)
Gloria Swanson
(m. 1976; died 1983)
Children Bevan Dufty

William Francis Dufty (February 2, 1916 – June 28, 2002) was an American writer, musician, and activist.

Dufty was a supporter of trade unionism. "Dufty was an organizer for the United Auto Workers, wrote speeches for former UAW President Walter Reuther, edited Michigan Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) News and handled publicity for Americans for Democratic Action."[1]

Biography

Dufty was born near Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Youth

Dufty produced some autobiographical notes in the first chapter, "It is necessary to be personal", of his book Sugar Blues (1975):

We spent our summers at Crystal Lake until I was twelve or thirteen. By that time I was making $75 a week in the wintertime season – an undreamed of fortune in those days – as a prodigal jazz pianist on the radio...The day my voice began to change was the beginning of the end of my radio career. If my voice didn’t sound childlike any more, there was nothing remarkable about the way I played the piano.[2]:14


College

In the twenties I had been so rich I never carried a cent on me. In the thirties – mooching my way through college holding a job or two on the side – I was so poor I put every cent on my back where it would show…I took to collegiate journalism as a kind of lark. There I discovered that the cigarette companies virtually subsidized the university paper with their advertising.[2]:17


After suffering through two years of college,[3] I finally dropped out. It took daring in those days to dream of facing life without a degree. But I could sniff another war in the offing...I was drafted in 1942…[2]:18

Army

In due course my body was shipped overseas. Bound for Britain, I trotted around the top deck of the blacked out S.S. Mauretania with a carbine on by shoulder and a heavy Army greatcoat soaked with Atlantic spray. Two hours on, two hours off. By the time we docked in Liverpool, I had a lovely case of walking pneumonia.[2]:19

Eventually, I was packed off by train to Glasgow, by ship to Algiers, then by truck to Oran in the Mediterranean. Three weeks in the desert and I was as good as new...After the landings in southern France, I was packed off to join the First French Army: Arabs, Senegalese, Goums, Sihks, Vietnamese, with French officers and noncoms. We lived off the land, no fancy rations and luxuries. Some brought along pots and pans, ducks and geese, sheep and goats, wives and mistresses...We lived on horsemeat, rabbit, squirrel, dark French peasant bread, and whatever else could be scrounged. Winter in the Vosges mountains was brutal and endless, yet I never had a cold or a sniffle.[2]:20


New York

After the war he moved to New York and began a newspaper career. His columns and exposés for the New York Post drew acclaim, including one that charged that the FBI bungled cases under J. Edgar Hoover's leadership. He was awarded the George Polk Award for an exposé on immigrants.[4]

Dufty had one son, Bevan Dufty, with first wife Maely Bartholomew, who had arrived in New York City during World War II after losing most of her family in the Nazi concentration camps. She settled near Harlem where she met her best friend and Bevan's godmother, Billie Holiday. They later divorced and Maely raised Bevan as a single mother.

Dufty took Billie Holiday's oral history and wrote Lady Sings the Blues ("[5] Billie Holiday with William Dufty") in 1956, which in turn was made into a 1972 movie starring Diana Ross in the title role.[6]

Macrobiotic diet

Dufty credits the death of John F. Kennedy and an article by Tom Wolfe in New York Magazine with starting him on the way to good health. The article described a condition, sanpaku, as a morbid symptom that precedes death, according to Nyoiti Sakurazawa. After obtaining some literature from the Ohsawa Foundation in New York, and following its strict regime of vegetables and rice, Dufty transformed his body and mind. He lost weight and became "calm, cool, collected, precise, and unrattled". He became an advocate of macrobiotics, met Sakurazawa, and prepared the manuscript of You Are All Sanpaku for publication with Felix Morrow in 1965.[7]

Dufty practiced and promoted macrobiotic nutrition, advocating a low-fat, high-fiber diet of whole grains, vegetables, sea vegetables, nuts and seeds, combined in accordance with the principles of yin and yang, said to optimize digestion by attention to nature.

Dufty had struggled with the symptoms of hypoglycemia and had sought the help of physicians. Describing the frustrating search similarly pursued by Dr. Steven Gyland,[8] Dufty wrote,[2]:89

If you've ever gone through this kind of medical rigmarole, as I and millions of others have, one ends up a little bitter, with a sense of mission.


In the 1960s, he met Gloria Swanson, a nutrition enthusiast who convinced him that white sugar was unsafe. Dufty undertook a program of research of the impact that sugar has had, and wrote Sugar Blues in 1975.

He became good friends with Japanese artist Yoko Ono and her husband, musician and former Beatle, John Lennon. When John and Yoko visited Singapore, they wrote to Swanson and Dufty. As Hunter Davies, editor of The John Lennon Letters explains,

[Swanson] was strongly against sugar, as a curse of society; her husband had written a book called Sugar Blues, which John Lennon bought lots of copies of, giving them out to friends.[9]


Marriage and death

Image

Dufty and Swanson were married, she for the sixth time, he for the second time, in 1976. He helped her write her autobiography, Swanson on Swanson in 1981.[10]

After Swanson's death in 1983, he returned to his home state, Michigan, settling in Metro Detroit. From there he continued to lecture, write newspaper and magazine articles and teach macrobiotics to a new generation. Dufty died at age 86 on June 28, 2002, at his home in Birmingham, Michigan.[11]

Books

• 1956: Lady Sings the Blues, Billie Holiday with William Dufty
• 1958: My Father- My Son, by Edward G. Robinson Jr. with William Dufty, via Hathi Trust
• 1965: You Are All Sanpaku, Sakurazawa Nyoiti with William Dufty
• 1966: Spoiled Priest: the Autobiography of an Ex-Priest, Gabriel Longo, University Books, Loan from Internet Archive
• 1969: Mannequin My Life as a Model, Carolyn Kenmore, Bartholomew House Press
• 1975: Sugar Blues
• 1980: Swanson on Swanson, Gloria Swanson, Random House

Notes

1. Stephen Michael Shearer (2012) Gloria Swanson: The Ultimate Star", page 374, ISBN 9781250013668
2. Wm. Dufty (1975) Sugar Blues
3. Wayne State University
4. 1955 George Polk Award winners, link from Long Island University
5. book cover
6. Hamlin, Jesse (August 24, 2010). "Billie Holiday's bio, 'Lady Sings the Blues,' may be full of half-truths, but it gets at jazz great's core". San Francisco Chronicle.
7. W. Dufty (1965) Introduction to You Are All Sanpaku, pp 9–58
8. Stephen Gyland (1953) "Possibly Neurogenic Hypoglycemia", Journal of the American Medical Association 152: 1184, § "Queries and Minor Notes", July 18
9. Hunter Davies (2012) The John Lennon Letters, page 310, Little, Brown and Company ISBN 978-0-316-20080-6
10. Obituary: William Dufty from The Daily Telegraph
11. Myrna Oliver, William Dufty obituary, Los Angeles Times, July 4, 2002.

References

• Hubert B. Herring (April 16, 2002) Sweet taste of beating sugar habit, The New York Times.
• Harris M. Lentz III (2003) Obituaries in the Performing Arts 2002, page 88, McFarland and Company.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Jun 23, 2019 3:16 am

Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/22/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

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Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland

Christoph Wilhelm Friedrich Hufeland (12 August 1762, Langensalza – 25 August 1836, Berlin) was a German physician. He is famous as the most eminent practical physician of his time in Germany and as the author of numerous works displaying extensive reading and a cultivated critical faculty.

Biography

Hufeland was born at Langensalza, Saxony (now Thuringia) and educated at Weimar, where his father held the office of court physician to the grand duchess. In 1780 he entered the University of Jena, and in the following year went on to Göttingen, where in 1783 he graduated in medicine.

After assisting his father for some years at Weimar, he was called in 1793 to the chair of medicine at Jena, receiving at the same time the positions of court physician and professor of Pathology at Weimar. In 1798 Frederick William III of Prussia granted him the position director of the medical college and generally of state medical affairs at the Charité, in Berlin. He filled the chair of pathology and therapeutics in the University of Berlin, founded in 1809, and in 1810 became councillor of state. In 1823, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

In time he became as famous as Goethe, Herder, Schiller, and Wieland in his homeland.

Hufeland was a close friend of Samuel Hahnemann and published his original writings in his journal in 1796.[1] He also "joined the Illuminati order at this time, having been introduced to freemasonry in Göttingen in 1783."[2] He also seems to have professed an interest in Chinese Alchemy and methods of extending longevity.[3]

The most widely known of his many writings is the treatise entitled Makrobiotik oder Die Kunst, das menschliche Leben zu verlängern (1796), which was translated into many languages, including in Serbian by Dr. Jovan Stejić in Vienna in 1828. Of his practical works, the System of Practical Medicine (System der praktischen Heilkunde, 1818-1828) is the most elaborate. From 1795 to 1835 he published a Journal der praktischen Arznei und Wundarzneikunde. His autobiography was published in 1863.

Image
Grave of Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland in the Dorotheenstadt cemetery in Berlin

Naturopathy

Hufeland was an early supporter of naturopathic medicine who posited the existence of a vitalistic "life force", which he believed could be maintained through behavioral and dietary practices.[1][4][5] Hufeland was influenced by Hippocrates and promoted what he termed "natural therapeutics" (naturtherapeutik).[1][6] He supported the use of homeopathy.[1]

The term "macrobiotics" was used by Hufeland in his book Macrobiotics: The Art of Prolonging Life, that was translated into English in 1797.[7][8][9] The book endorsed a program for good health and prolonging life. Hufeland recommended a vegetarian diet.[6][10] Goethe and his wife took interest in the book.[6] His German disciplines gave his dieting and health ideas the name of the Hufelandist movement.[11][12]

George Ohsawa, founder of the macrobiotic diet was influenced by Hufeland.[13]

Bibliography

Works


• Enchiridion medicum oder Anleitung zur medizinischen Praxis: Vermächtniß einer Fünfzigjährigen Erfahrung. Sechste Auflage. Jonas Verlagsbuchhandlung. Berlin,
• Medizinischer Nutzen der elektrischen Kraft beim Scheintod, Verlag Rockstuhl, Bad Langensalza, 1. Reprintauflage 1783/2008, ISBN 978-3-938997-37-6
• Vollständige Darstellung der medicinischen Kräfte und des Gebrauchs der salzsauren Schwererde . Rottmann, Berlin 1794 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf
• Die Kunst, das menschliche Leben zu verlängern . (Volume1/2) Haas, Wien 1798 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf
• Armen-Pharmakopöe, entworfen für Berlin nebst der Nachricht von der daselbst errichteten Krankenanstalt für Arme in ihren Wohnungen . Realschulbuchhandlung, Berlin 3. Aufl. 1818 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf
• Conspectus Materiae medicae secundum Ordines naturales in Usum Auditorium . Dümmler, Berolini Editio altera aucta 1820 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf
• Armen-Pharmakopöe . Reimer, Berlin 4. Aufl. 1825 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf
• Armen-Pharmakopöe : Zugleich eine Auswahl bewährter Arzneimittel und Arzneiformeln . Reimer, Berlin 7.Aufl. 1832 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf
• Makrobiotik oder Die Kunst das menschliche Leben zu verlängern, Stuttgart: A.F. Macklot, 1826.
• Aphorismen und Denksprüche, Verlag Rockstuhl, Bad Langensalza, 1. Reprintauflage 1910/2009, ISBN 978-3-86777-066-8
• Bibliothek der practischen Heilkunde Veröffentlicht in der academischen Buchhandlung, 1802. Notizen: v. 6 Digitised on Google Books
• Hufeland's Art of Prolonging Life, edited by William James Erasmus Wilson, 1854.

Studies

• Helmut Busse: Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, Blaeschke Verlag, St. Michael, Austria, 1982
• Klaus Pfeifer: Medizin der Goethezeit - Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland und die Heilkunst des 18. Jahrhunderts, Verlag Böhlau, Cologne, 2000, ISBN 978-3-412-13199-9
• Günther Hufeland: Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland (1762-1836), Verlag Rockstuhl, Bad Langensalza, 2002, ISBN 978-3-936030-79-2
• Wolfgang U. Eckart: Geschichte der Medizin, Heidelberg 2005

Notes

1. Mehdipour, Parvin. (2017). Cancer Genetics and Psychotherapy. Springer. p. 942. ISBN 978-3-319-64548-3
2. Christoph Wilhelm Friedrich Hufeland (1762-1836)
3. G J Gruman, A History of Ideas about Prolongation of Life,Springer Publishing, 2005, p.158
4. Raso, Jack. (1993). Mystical Diets: Paranormal, Spiritual, and Occult Nutrition Practices. Prometheus Books. p. 30. ISBN 0-87975-761-2
5. Wellmon, Chad. (2010). Becoming Human: Romantic Anthropology and the Embodiment of Freedom. Pennsylvania State University. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-271-03734-9
6. Weinrich, Harald. (2008). On Borrowed Time: The Art and Economy of Living with Deadlines. University of Chicago Press. pp. 30-33. ISBN 978-0-226-88601-5
7. Kushi et al. (2001). The Macrobiotic Diet in Cancer. The Journal of Nutrition 131 (11): 3056S–3064S.
8. Heelas, Paul. (2008). Spiritualities of Life: New Age Romanticism and Consumptive Capitalism. Wiley. p. 43. ISBN 978-1405139380
9. Bergdolt, Klaus. (2008). Wellbeing: A Cultural History of Healthy Living. Polity Press. pp. 253-254. ISBN 978-07456-2913-1
10. Williams, Howard. (1883). The Ethics of Diet: A Catena of Authorities Deprecatory of the Practice of Flesh-Eating. London: F. Pitman. p. 184.
11. Freeman, Joseph T. (1979). Aging: Its History and Literature. Human Science Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0877052517
12. Boyle, Joan M; Morriss, James E. (1987). The Mirror of Time: Images of Aging and Dying. Greenwood Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0313255977
13. Friedhelm Kirchfeld, Wade Boyle. (1994). Nature Doctors: Pioneers in Naturopathic Medicine. Medicina Biológica. p. 7. ISBN 0-9623518-5-7

References

• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hufeland, Christoph Wilhelm" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 856.

External links

• Works by C. W. Hufeland at Project Gutenberg
• Works by or about Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland at Internet Archive
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