Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Jul 08, 2019 5:18 am

St Antony's College, Oxford
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/7/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


In 1963, with the assistance of sympathetic Westerners, Trungpa received a Spalding sponsorship to study comparative religion at St Antony's College, Oxford University.[23][24]

_______________

Notes:

23. Trungpa, Chogyam (2000). Born in Tibet (4 ed.). Boston: Shambhala Publications. p. 252. ISBN 1-57062-116-0.
24. The Buddhist Handbook: A Complete Guide to Buddhist Teaching and Practice at Google Books

-- Chögyam Trungpa, by Wikipedia


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St Antony's College
Oxford
St Antony's College, Oxford
Blazon: Or on a chevron between three tau crosses gules as many pierced mullets of the field.
Image
Location Between Woodstock Road, Bevington Road and Winchester Road
Coordinates 51°45′47″N 1°15′46″WCoordinates: 51°45′47″N 1°15′46″W
Latin name Collegium Sancti Antonii
Motto Plus est en vous
Established 1950
Named for St Antony of Egypt
Sister college Wolfson College, Cambridge
Warden Roger Goodman
Undergraduates None
Postgraduates 400
Website http://www.sant.ox.ac.uk Edit this at Wikidata
Boat club Boat Club
Image
St Antony's College, Oxford
Location in Oxford city centre

St Antony's College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Founded in 1950 as the result of the gift of French merchant Sir Antonin Besse of Aden, St Antony's specialises in international relations, economics, politics, and area studies relative to Europe, Russia, former Soviet states, Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, Japan, China, and South and South East Asia.[1] It is consecutively ranked in the top five worldwide.

The college is located in North Oxford, with Woodstock Road to the west, Bevington Road to the south and Winchester Road to the east. As of 2018, St Antony's had an estimated financial endowment of £43.8m.[2] Formerly a men's college, it has been coeducational since 1962.[3]

History

St Antony's was founded in 1950 as the result of the gift of Sir Antonin Besse of Aden, a merchant of French descent.

In 1947, Besse was considering giving around £2 million to the University of Oxford to found a new college. Ultimately, on the advice of his solicitor, R Clyde, who had attended New College, Besse decided to go ahead with the plan and permitted Clyde to approach the university with the offer. The university was initially unreceptive to the offer, and recommended that Besse instead devote his funds to improving the finances of some of the poorer existing colleges. Eventually Besse acquiesced, contributing a total of £250,000 in varied amounts to the following colleges: Keble, Worcester, St Peter's, Wadham, Exeter, Pembroke, Lincoln and St Edmund Hall. After this large contribution, the university decided to reconsider Besse's offer to help found a new college and, recognising the need to provide for the ever-growing number of postgraduate students coming to Oxford, gave the venture their blessing; and in 1948, Besse signed a deed of trust appointing the college's first trustees.

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Sir Antonin Besse, whose gift enabled the college's foundation.

The attention of the university then turned to providing the new college, by then called St Antony's, with a permanent home. Ripon Hall was initially considered as a good option for a building in which to house the college, but its owners refused to sell, forcing the university to continue its search for premises. They looked at several properties in quick succession, including Youlbury, the Wytham Abbey estate, and Manchester College, which was known to be in financial difficulties and which might thus consider the sale of its 19th-century Mansfield Road buildings. None of these options proved tenable, and the college began to look elsewhere. It is said that Besse became very frustrated with the university and its apparent lack of interest in his project at this point, and almost gave up any hope of its completion. However the college finally acquired its current premises at 62 Woodstock Road in 1950.

The College first admitted students in Michaelmas Term 1950 and received its Royal Charter in 1953. A supplementary charter was granted in 1962 to allow the College to admit women as well as men, and in 1963 the College became a full member of the University of Oxford.[3] By 1952 the number of students at St Antony's had increased to 27 and by the end of the decade that number had risen to 260, amongst whom 34 different nationalities were represented. The college initially struggled due to a lack of funding, and in the late 1960s serious consideration was given to uniting St Antony's with All Souls College when All Souls announced its intention to take a more active role in the education of graduate students. The plan did not come to fruition; All Souls rejected the proposed federal nature of the combined institution, saying they would consider nothing less than a full merger, a proposal which St Antony's governing body did not support. St Antony's lack of funds was partly solved under the wardenship of William Deakin, who devoted himself to college fund-raising and secured a number of generous loans from the Ford and Volkswagen foundations. Since then, St Antony's has almost constantly been financially insecure. This led to the cancellation of a number of proposed physical developments at its site on Woodstock Road. Not until the 1990s was it feasible for the college to embark upon a new building programme; however, since then St Antony's has continued to expand and open new specialist centres for the pursuit of area studies. The college is now recognised as one of the world's foremost centres for such studies.[1] and houses centres for the study of Africa, Asia, Europe, Japan, Latin America, the Middle East and Russia and Eurasia.

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Saint Anthony the Great, for whom the college is named.

From the beginning Besse had expressed his hope that the new college, which he intended to open to men "irrespective of origin, race or creed", would prove instrumental in improving international cooperation and intercultural understanding. The college soon announced its primary role as such: "to be a centre of advanced study and research in the fields of modern international history, philosophy, economics and politics and to provide an international centre within the University where graduate students from all over the world can live and work together in close contact with senior members of the University who are specialists in their fields". The college is still true to its founding principle, remaining one of the most international colleges of the university, and home to many of Oxford's region-specific study departments. This latter feature, combined with the wardenship of William Deakin and St Antony's reputation as a key centre for the study of Soviet affairs during the Cold War, led to rumours of links between the college and the British intelligence services; the author Leslie Woodhead wrote to this effect, describing the college as "a fitting gathering place for old spooks".[4]:220

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Lord Dahrendorf presided over much of the college's expansion in the 1990s.

The official annals of the university state that St Antony's was one of four colleges, along with All Souls, Nuffield and Christ Church, which made a concerted effort to establish external links. In St Antony's case, the college established wide-ranging connections with diplomats and foreign visitors; this is further commented on as having made the college "perhaps more significant than any other single development in Oxford's adjustment to the contemporary international academic environment".[5]

The college's name alludes to its founder, whose name, Antonin Besse, is derived from the same linguistic root. For a long time it was not made clear whether Anthony the Great or Anthony of Padua was the intended namesake. The matter was finally settled in 1961, when the college finally deemed Anthony the Great to be more the appropriate choice, due to his links to one of the college's prime areas of specialisation - the Middle and Near East. Despite this, the college's banner is flown each year on both saints' days as a matter of tradition, and a statue of the "wrong" Anthony, Anthony of Padua (distinguished by his holding of the Christ child), stands in the college's Hilda Besse Building.

Buildings and grounds

Main building


The college's main building was built in the early Victorian era for the Society of the Holy and Undivided Trinity at the behest of Marian Rebecca Hughes, the first woman to take monastic vows within the Church of England since the reformation. The order commissioned Charles Buckeridge, a local architect of some renown, to design the convent buildings. After initially proposing a circular design based on the symbolism of the holy trinity, Buckeridge took to a more traditional approach and drew up the plans for what is now St Antony's main building some time before 1865. Whilst initially there were plans to enlarge the convent with a northerly extension, for which place was made in the building's design, further building never took place. The convent finally opened in November 1868.

The total cost of the initial build was eight thousand pounds, a considerable sum at that time. It is said that upon first seeing the convent's new premises, the architect William Butterfield commented that it was the 'best modern building in Oxford after my college', by which he meant Keble. St Antony's acquired the former convent in 1950 after it had been vacated by the convent and Halifax House, which had occupied the premises in the immediate post war period. The building's chapel, which was never consecrated and now houses the college library, was built in the years 1891–1894 to Buckeridge's original design. The main building's undercroft, now the Gulbenkian Reading Room, was initially used by the nuns as a refectory, a role it continued to play until the completion of the Hilda Besse building in 1970.[6]

1960s: The Hilda Besse Building

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The college library is housed in the old main building.

After a number of ambitious schemes, one of which had been designed by Oscar Niemeyer, to enlarge the college in the 1960s fell through due to lack of funds, the college decided to concentrate its efforts in providing for the construction of a small extension and acquisition of neighbouring properties. The Hilda Besse Building (then known as New Building) was opened in 1970; this building still serves its original purpose in housing the college's dining hall and graduate common room as well as a great number of ancillary meeting rooms. The next major expansion of the college came in 1993 with the completion of a new building to house the Nissan Institute for Japanese Studies and the Bodleian Japanese Library, whilst additional accommodation was not supplied until the Founder's Building was opened to mark the millennium in the year 2000.

2000s: The Gateway Buildings

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The Gateway Buildings were completed in 2013

In the early 21st century not much development took place until completion of the college's new Gateway Buildings in 2013, which greatly altered the estate and provided new world class facilities to staff and students alike.[7] The buildings provide a new main entrance to the college and form the east, and final, side of the college's first quadrangle. The funding for this was gained in part by Foulath Hadid who, for his outstanding services to the College, was elected to an Honorary Fellowship in 2004, and the Hadid Room, the College's meeting room, was named in his honour.[8]

The Investcorp Building

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The Investcorp Building was one of Zaha Hadid's last designs

Furthermore, as part of its ongoing development programme, St Antony's commissioned the construction of a new centre for Middle Eastern Studies. The Middle East Centre, or Investcorp Building, was designed by the renowned Iraqi-British architect Zaha Hadid; it broke ground on January 30, 2013[9] and was opened as the Investcorp Building on May 26, 2015.[10][11]

Student life and study

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The college's dining hall is located in the award-winning Hilda Besse building.

St Antony's College has some 450 students from over 66 nationalities; about half of the students have a first language other than English. Student interests are represented by an elected body, the Graduate Common Room (GCR) Executive,[12] which is elected on an annual basis at the end of Michaelmas Term.

Most college accommodation is located on site, with around 104 en-suite bedrooms provided in the Gateway and Founder's buildings. Further rooms are to be found in converted Victorian houses both on site or very close by. This expansion in the provision of rooms for students is a recent development at St Antony's, which until recently (up until the construction of the Founder's Building at the turn of the millennium) was one of the few Oxford colleges characterised by a chronic lack of student rooms. As a result of this development, the college is now able to provide some of the highest quality postgraduate accommodation in the city.

The college is host to the St Antony's Late Bar, located on the ground floor of the award-winning Hilda Besse building[13] and serving students throughout the academic year. In addition to operating as a regular bar, it hosts numerous themed bops, culture/region/country nights, live music events (guest concerts, open-mic nights, Battle of the Bands), welfare/charity functions, various tastings and launch parties, among others. Popular recurring events include Halloqueen, USA Night, Latin Bop, Balkan Night, and the thrice-annual Drink the Bar Dry.[14]

Libraries and publications

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The Gateway Building, completed in 2013, provides around fifty en-suite study bedrooms.

The Old Main Building - the former Holy Trinity Convent[15] which was built in the 1860s - houses the College Library (including the Gulbenkian Reading Room) and the Russian and Eurasian Studies Centre Library. The College Library keeps general collections in modern history, politics, international relations and economics, collections on Europe, Asia, and the non-Slavonic collections on Russia and the former Soviet Union. It holds over 50,000 volumes and back issues of over 300 journal titles. It also houses some 20th-century archive collections, including the Wheeler-Bennett papers. St Antony's is associated with the Oxford Libraries Information System (OLIS), and has been a contributor to the university's online union library catalogue since 1990.

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The main building and college library.

The other libraries on the College site are the Middle East Centre Library, the Bodleian Latin American Centre Library, the Bodleian Japanese Library and the Russian and Eurasian Studies Centre Library, the last of which was refurbished in 2008–2009 as part of the college's rolling construction and rejuvenation program. The College also holds an extensive collection of archival material relating to the Middle East at the Middle East Centre Archive,[16] the premises of which were greatly expanded with the completion of Zaha Hadid's Softbridge building in mid-2014. The area studies libraries on site are unique within the university and thus generally open to all its students, regardless of college affiliation; they typically hold a wide collection of primary language sources and further Anglophone texts - an abundance of specialist material and unique expertise which prompted Leslie Woodhead to comment as follows:[4]:221

“Generations of well-informed men with unusual backgrounds have passed through the college, excavating the remarkable library and sharing their knowledge of some of the world's more secretive places.”


The college's Graduate Common Room has, since 2005, published a biannual academic journal entitled the St Antony's International Review, which is more commonly known by its acronym - STAIR. The journal represents a medium through which aspiring young academics can publish their work alongside their established policy-makers and their peers. Furthermore, the college publishes a termly newsletter, the Antonian, and a college record - an annual report on college affairs.

Sports and societies

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A women's eight. St Antony's Boat Club has seen much success in recent years.

This cosmopolitan cultural environment is further fostered by a communal dining hall and active sports clubs for football and rowing, in which sport the college club won the Nephthys and Christ Church Regattas in 2011.[17]

Rankings

As a postgraduate only college, St Antony's does not appear in the university's annual Norrington Table.

Traditions and attributes

St Antony's is a largely informal college, mandating the wearing of academic dress (sub fusc) only for the university's matriculation and graduation ceremonies. The college does not maintain a permanent high table, instead choosing to serve high table meals on a number of occasions each week for the college's fellows and visiting academics. Students often attend high table at the invitation of their supervisors.

As a graduate college, St Antony's students play an important role in the day-to-day business of running the college through their elected body of representatives - the Graduate Common Room or GCR.

Coat of arms

The college's arms, granted in 1952, were designed in such a way so as to reflect the college's namesake - Anthony 'the Great' of Egypt. The red represents the Red Sea, whilst the gold was chosen to reflect desert sands. The mullets were borrowed from the founder's trade mark, whilst the T-shaped elements are traditional crosses of St Antony. The heraldic blazon for these arms is as follows:

Or on a chevron between three tau crosses gules as many pierced mullets of the field.


The college's motto 'plus est en vous' is sometimes added in complement to its arms. When this is the case, they are typically placed upon a scroll beneath the escutcheon (shield); this version of the arms is most commonly found on the cover of St Antony's Papers issues. The motto itself can be translated literally as 'there is more in you', although it is commonly taken to imply the following English expression: 'There is more to you than meets the eye'.

Grace

St Antony's is one of nine colleges at the university to employ the 'two-word' Latin grace. This is statistically the most popular form of grace said at hall in Oxford and also in Cambridge, where it is used by five colleges. The grace is read out in two parts at the college's formal meals, which take place thrice each term. The first half of the grace or ante cibum is said before the start of the meal and the second, the post cibum, once the meal has ended. It is read as follows:

Benedictus benedicat - "May the Blessed One give a blessing"

Benedicto benedicatur - "Let praise be given to the Blessed One"


The grace is said in keeping with tradition. However, unlike at most Oxford colleges, St Antony's does not require its students to stand and acknowledge the saying of grace. The second half of the grace or post cibum can also be translated as "Let a blessing be given by the Blessed One".

People associated with St Antony's

Wardens


The first Warden of the College was Sir William Deakin (1950–1968), a young Oxford academic who in the Second World War became an adventurous soldier and aide to Winston Churchill. He won Antonin Besse's confidence and played the key role in turning his vision into the centre of excellence that St Antony's has become. Sir Raymond Carr (1968–1987), a distinguished historian of Spain, expanded the College and its regional coverage and opened its doors to visiting scholars from all over the world.

Sir Ralf Dahrendorf (later Lord Dahrendorf) (1987–1997) came to St Antony's after a distinguished career as a social theorist and politician in Germany, a European Commissioner and Director of the London School of Economics. He further enlarged the College and developed its role as a source of policy advice. The previous Warden, Sir Marrack Goulding (1997–2006), served in the British Diplomatic Service for 26 years before becoming an Under Secretary-General at the United Nations. His appointment underlined the international nature of the College and its links with government and business. Following the retirement of the fifth Warden of the College Margaret MacMillan in October 2017, social anthropologist Roger Goodman was elected Warden, having previously served in an acting capacity between 2006 and 2007.[18]

• Sir William Deakin, 1950–1968
• Sir Raymond Carr, 1968–87
• Sir Ralf Dahrendorf (1987–1993), later Lord Dahrendorf, 1987–97
• Sir Marrack Goulding, 1997–2006
• Roger Goodman, (acting), October 2006 - July 2007
• Margaret MacMillan, 2007–2017
• Roger Goodman, 2017–

Former students

Further information: Category:Alumni of St Antony's College, Oxford

Arnab Goswami
Álvaro Uribe
Aurelio Nuño Mayer
Chrystia Freeland
Gary Hart
Guðni Jóhannesson
Jaime Bermúdez
Nemat Shafik
Olli Rehn
Paul Collier
Paul Kennedy
Richard Evans
Thomas Friedman
Agnia Grigas

St Antony's alumni (Antonians) have achieved success in a wide variety of careers; these include writers, politicians, academics and a large number of civil servants, diplomats and representatives of international organisations.

Former students with careers as politicians and civil servants include Guðni Th. Jóhannesson, the 6th President of Iceland, Álvaro Uribe, who was President of Colombia from 2002 to 2010 and his Minister of Foreign Affairs Jaime Bermúdez, Yigal Allon, a deputy and acting Prime Minister of Israel, former Vice President of the European Commission and current Finnish Minister of Economic Affairs Olli Rehn, the UN Special Coordinator for Lebanon Sigrid Kaag, the former Secretary of State for Wales John Redwood, former EU Commissioner Jean Dondelinger, the Canadian politician John Godfrey, and Gary Hart, a former US Senator and presidential candidate. Diplomats Joseph A. Presel, Gustavo Bell and Shlomo Ben-Ami are also Antonians. Furthermore, Minouche Shafik, Deputy Governor of the Bank of England and former managing director of the International Monetary Fund, is an Antonian, as are three-time Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist Thomas Friedman and Pulitzer Prize-winning war correspondent Dexter Filkins.


Further Antonians include Anne Applebaum, former editor at The Economist, Jorgo Chatzimarkakis, Member of the European Parliament, book author Agnia Grigas, the Bulgarian communist Lyudmila Zhivkova, Indian journalist Sagarika Ghose and Rhodes scholar Chrystia Freeland, Canada's Minister of Foreign Affairs and a former director at Thomson Reuters.

In academia, Sir Christopher Bayly is the current president of St Catharine's College, Cambridge, whilst William Roger Louis is Kerr Chair in English History and Culture at the University of Texas at Austin, Craig Calhoun, current president of the Berggruen Institute is the former director of the London School of Economics, where he remains Centennial Professor, Frances Lannon is the principal of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Richard Evans is the Regis professor of Modern History at Cambridge, Anthony Venables holds Oxford's BP professorship in Economics and was Chief Economist at the UK's Department for International Development; Paul Kennedy is the Dilworth professor of British History at Yale, Rashid Khalidi a professor at Columbia and Michael T. Benson is the president of Southern Utah University.

The college also counts the Olympic gold medal winning swimmer Davis Tarwater, the talented screenwriter Julian Mitchell and the historian Margaret MacMillan amongst its alumni.

Academics

• Timothy Garton Ash, journalist and author on European matters
• Mats Berdal, Professor of Security and Development at the Department of War Studies, King's College London.
• Archie Brown, historian of the end of the Cold War and author of The Gorbachev Factor
• Paul Collier, Director of the Centre for the Study of African Economies at Oxford
• Michael Kaser, economist and author of Soviet Economics
• Homa Katouzian, literary critic and scholar of Iranian studies
• Paul Kennedy, J. Richardson Dilworth Professor of History; Director, International Security Studies, Yale University
• Alan Knight, post-critical historian, Director of the Latin American Centre, and author of the two-volume award-winning book The Mexican Revolution (1986)
• William Roger Louis, historian and scholar of the British Empire, especially Decolonization.
• Kalypso Nicolaïdis, Professor of International Relations and Director of the European Studies Centre
• Tariq Ramadan, Professor of Contemporary Islamic Studies
• Oliver Ready, translator of Russian literature
• Robert Service, historian of the USSR and biographer of Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin
• Avi Shlaim, historian writing on the Arab-Israeli conflict.
• Vivienne Shue, FBA, sinologist and author of "The Reach of the State"
• Arnab Goswami, Indian journalist who has been the Editor-in-Chief and News anchor of the Indian news channel Times Now. He is also the co-founder of the news channel Republic TV.
• Hasan Bulent Paksoy, historian and novelist.
• Omer Bartov, historian writing on genocide focused on the Holocaust; author of seven books.

Former fellows

• Michael Herman, founder of the Oxford Intelligence Group[19]
• Foulath Hadid, Honorary Fellow
• Albert Hourani, Founder-Director, Middle East Centre, St Antony's College, Oxford
• James Joll, historian, fellow (1950–67)
• Sudipta Kaviraj, Professor of Political Sciences, Columbia University, New York
• Frank McLynn, historian and biographer
• Tapan Raychaudhuri, Emeritus Fellow, St Antony's College, Oxford
• Giulio Angioni, Italian writer and anthropologist
• José Cutileiro, Portuguese diplomat, historian, and author
Michael Aris, leading Western authority on Bhutanese, Tibetan and Himalayan culture, Husband of Burmese opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi

Gallery

• Old main entrance
• Old college building
• New main entrance
• Hilda Besse building
• Nissan Institute
• Founder's Building

References

1. Nicholls, C. (2000). The History of St Antony’s College, Oxford, 1950–2000. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 1–31. ISBN 978-0-230-59883-6.
2. "St Antony's College : Annual Report and Financial Statements : Year ended 31 July 2018" (PDF). ox.ac.uk. p. 20. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
3. "History of St Antony's College". http://www.sant.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
4. Woodhead, Leslie (2005). My Life as a Spy. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4050-4086-0.
5. Harrison, Brian, ed. (1994). The History of the University of Oxford: Volume VIII: The Twentieth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 625. ISBN 978-0-19-822974-2.
6. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 December 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
7. "The Gateway Campaign". gatewaycampaign.com.
8. Obituary - 'Foulath Hadid: Writer and expert on Arab affairs' - The Independent11 October 2012
9. "Work starts on futuristic Oxford University building". The Oxford Times. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
10. Glancey, Jonathan (14 June 2015). "Zaha Hadid's Middle East Centre lands in Oxford". The Sunday Telegraph. London. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
11. Jay Merrick (26 May 2015). "Zaha Hadid's modernist library inspires shock and awe in Oxford". The Independent. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
12. "St Antony's GCR". St Antony's GCR. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012.
13. Davidjgill. "The Modern Buildings of St Athony's College". slideshare.net.
14. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 January 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
15. "St. Antony's College Oxford - a history of its buildings and site" Archived 6 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
16. Middle East Centre Archive site
17. "St Antony's GCR". St Antony's GCR. Archived from the original on 6 December 2011.
18. "Sixth Warden of St Antony's College | St Antony's College". http://www.sant.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
19. Phythian, Mark (2017). "Profiles in intelligence: an interview with Michael Herman". Intelligence and National Security. 32 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1080/02684527.2016.1199529. – via Taylor & Francis (subscription required)

External links

• Official website
• Graduate Common Room website
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Jul 08, 2019 6:27 am

Part 1 of 2

Rudyard Kipling
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/7/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
Rudyard Kipling
Kipling in 1895
Born Joseph Rudyard Kipling
30 December 1865
Bombay, Bombay Presidency, British India
Died 18 January 1936 (aged 70)
London, England
Resting place Poets' Corner, Westminster Abbey, London
Occupation Short-story writer, novelist, poet, journalist
Nationality British
Genre Short story, novel, children's literature, poetry, travel literature, science fiction
Notable works The Jungle Book
Just So Stories
Kim
Captains Courageous
"If—"
"Gunga Din"
"The White Man's Burden"
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Literature
1907
Spouse Caroline Starr Balestier (m. 1892)
Children 3, including Elsie Bambridge and John Kipling
Signature

Joseph Rudyard Kipling (/ˈrʌdjərd/ RUD-yərd; 30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)[1] was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist. He was born in India, which inspired much of his work.

Kipling's works of fiction include The Jungle Book (1894), Kim (1901), and many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King" (1888).[2] His poems include "Mandalay" (1890), "Gunga Din" (1890), "The Gods of the Copybook Headings" (1919), "The White Man's Burden" (1899), and "If—" (1910). He is regarded as a major innovator in the art of the short story;[3] his children's books are classics of children's literature, and one critic described his work as exhibiting "a versatile and luminous narrative gift".[4][5]

Kipling was one of the most popular writers in the United Kingdom, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[3] Henry James said: "Kipling strikes me personally as the most complete man of genius, as distinct from fine intelligence, that I have ever known."[3] In 1907, at the age of 41, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him the first English-language writer to receive the prize and its youngest recipient to date.[6] He was also sounded out for the British Poet Laureateship and on several occasions for a knighthood, both of which he declined.[7]

Kipling's subsequent reputation has changed according to the political and social climate of the age[8][9] and the resulting contrasting views about him continued for much of the 20th century.[10][11] George Orwell saw Kipling as "a jingo imperialist", who was "morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting".[12] Literary critic Douglas Kerr wrote: "[Kipling] is still an author who can inspire passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history is far from settled. But as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognised as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of how empire was experienced. That, and an increasing recognition of his extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned with."[13]

Childhood (1865–1882)

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Malabar Point, Bombay, 1865.

Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865 in Bombay, in the Bombay Presidency of British India, to Alice Kipling (née MacDonald) and John Lockwood Kipling.[14] Alice (one of the four noted MacDonald sisters)[15] was a vivacious woman,[16] about whom Lord Dufferin would say, "Dullness and Mrs Kipling cannot exist in the same room."[3][17][18] Lockwood Kipling, a sculptor and pottery designer, was the Principal and Professor of Architectural Sculpture at the newly founded Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art in Bombay.[16]

John Lockwood and Alice had met in 1863 and courted at Rudyard Lake in Rudyard, Staffordshire, England. They married and moved to India in 1865. They had been so moved by the beauty of the Rudyard Lake area that when their first child was born they named him after it. Two of Alice's sisters married artists: Georgiana was married to the painter Edward Burne-Jones, and her sister Agnes to Edward Poynter. Kipling's most famous relative was his first cousin, Stanley Baldwin, who was Conservative Prime Minister three times in the 1920s and '30s.[19]

Kipling's birth home on the campus of the J J School of Art in Bombay was for many years used as the Dean's residence.[20] Although the cottage bears a plaque noting it as the site where Kipling was born, the original cottage may have been torn down decades ago and a new one built in its place.[21] Some historians and conservationists are also of the view that the bungalow marks a site that is merely close to the home of Kipling's birth, as the bungalow was built in 1882—about 15 years after Kipling was born. Kipling seems to have said as much to the Dean when he visited J J School in the 1930s.[22]

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Kipling's India: a map of British India

Kipling wrote of Bombay:

Mother of Cities to me,
For I was born in her gate,
Between the palms and the sea,
Where the world-end steamers wait.[23]


According to Bernice M. Murphy, "Kipling's parents considered themselves 'Anglo-Indians' [a term used in the 19th century for people of British origin living in India] and so too would their son, though he spent the bulk of his life elsewhere. Complex issues of identity and national allegiance would become prominent in his fiction."[24]

Kipling referred to such conflicts, for example: "In the afternoon heats before we took our sleep, she (the Portuguese ayah, or nanny) or Meeta (the Hindu bearer, or male attendant) would tell us stories and Indian nursery songs all unforgotten, and we were sent into the dining-room after we had been dressed, with the caution 'Speak English now to Papa and Mamma.' So one spoke 'English', haltingly translated out of the vernacular idiom that one thought and dreamed in".[25]

Education in Britain

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English Heritage blue plaque marking Kipling’s time in Southsea, Portsmouth

Kipling's days of "strong light and darkness" in Bombay ended when he was five years old.[25] As was the custom in British India, he and his three-year-old sister Alice ("Trix") were taken to the United Kingdom—in their case to Southsea, Portsmouth—to live with a couple who boarded children of British nationals who were serving in India.[26] For the next six years (from October 1871 to April 1877), the children lived with the couple, Captain Pryse Agar Holloway, once an officer in the merchant navy, and Sarah Holloway, at their house, Lorne Lodge, at 4 Campbell Road, Southsea.[27]

In his autobiography, published 65 years later, Kipling recalled the stay with horror, and wondered if the combination of cruelty and neglect which he experienced there at the hands of Mrs Holloway might not have hastened the onset of his literary life: "If you cross-examine a child of seven or eight on his day's doings (specially when he wants to go to sleep) he will contradict himself very satisfactorily. If each contradiction be set down as a lie and retailed at breakfast, life is not easy. I have known a certain amount of bullying, but this was calculated torture—religious as well as scientific. Yet it made me give attention to the lies I soon found it necessary to tell: and this, I presume, is the foundation of literary effort".[25]

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Kipling's England: A map of England showing Kipling's homes

Trix fared better at Lorne Lodge; Mrs Holloway apparently hoped that Trix would eventually marry the Holloways' son.[28] The two Kipling children, however, did have relatives in England whom they could visit. They spent a month each Christmas with their maternal aunt Georgiana ("Georgy") and her husband, Edward Burne-Jones, at their house, The Grange, in Fulham, London, which Kipling called "a paradise which I verily believe saved me".[25]

In the spring of 1877, Alice returned from India and removed the children from Lorne Lodge. Kipling remembers, "Often and often afterwards, the beloved Aunt would ask me why I had never told any one how I was being treated. Children tell little more than animals, for what comes to them they accept as eternally established. Also, badly-treated children have a clear notion of what they are likely to get if they betray the secrets of a prison-house before they are clear of it".[25]

In January 1878, Kipling was admitted to the United Services College at Westward Ho!, Devon, a school founded a few years earlier to prepare boys for the army. The school proved rough going for him at first, but later led to firm friendships and provided the setting for his schoolboy stories Stalky & Co. (1899).[28] During his time there, Kipling also met and fell in love with Florence Garrard, who was boarding with Trix at Southsea (to which Trix had returned). Florence became the model for Maisie in Kipling's first novel The Light That Failed (1891).[28]

Return to India

Near the end of his time at the school, it was decided that Kipling lacked the academic ability to get into Oxford University on a scholarship.[28] His parents lacked the wherewithal to finance him,[16] so Kipling's father obtained a job for him in Lahore, where he was Principal of the Mayo College of Art and Curator of the Lahore Museum. Kipling was to be the assistant editor of a small local newspaper, the Civil and Military Gazette.

He sailed for India on 20 September 1882, and arrived in Bombay on 18 October. He described this moment years later: "So, at sixteen years and nine months, but looking four or five years older, and adorned with real whiskers which the scandalised Mother abolished within one hour of beholding, I found myself at Bombay where I was born, moving among sights and smells that made me deliver in the vernacular sentences whose meaning I knew not. Other Indian-born boys have told me how the same thing happened to them."[25] This arrival changed Kipling, as he explains: "There were yet three or four days' rail to Lahore, where my people lived. After these, my English years fell away, nor ever, I think, came back in full strength".[25]

Early adult life (1882–1914)

From 1883 to 1889, Kipling worked in British India for local newspapers such as the Civil and Military Gazette in Lahore and The Pioneer in Allahabad.[25]

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Lahore Railway Station in the 1880s

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Bundi, Rajputana, where Kipling was inspired to write Kim.

The Civil and Military Gazette in Lahore, the newspaper which Kipling was to call "mistress and most true love",[25] appeared six days a week throughout the year except for one-day breaks for Christmas and Easter. Stephen Wheeler, the editor, worked Kipling hard, but Kipling's need to write was unstoppable. In 1886, he published his first collection of verse, Departmental Ditties. That year also brought a change of editors at the newspaper; Kay Robinson, the new editor, allowed more creative freedom and Kipling was asked to contribute short stories to the newspaper.[4]

In an article printed in the Chums boys' annual, an ex-colleague of Kipling's stated that ..."he never knew such a fellow for ink—he simply revelled in it, filling up his pen viciously, and then throwing the contents all over the office, so that it was almost dangerous to approach him".[29] The anecdote continues: "In the hot weather when he (Kipling) wore only white trousers and a thin vest, he is said to have resembled a Dalmatian dog more than a human being, for he was spotted all over with ink in every direction."

In the summer of 1883, Kipling visited Shimla (then known as Simla), a well-known hill station and the summer capital of British India. By then, it was established practice for the Viceroy of India and the government to move to Simla for six months, and the town became a "centre of power as well as pleasure".[4] Kipling's family became yearly visitors to Simla, and Lockwood Kipling was asked to serve in Christ Church there. Rudyard Kipling returned to Simla for his annual leave each year from 1885 to 1888, and the town featured prominently in many of the stories that he wrote for the Gazette.[4]

He describes this time: "My month's leave at Simla, or whatever Hill Station my people went to, was pure joy—every golden hour counted. It began in heat and discomfort, by rail and road. It ended in the cool evening, with a wood fire in one's bedroom, and next morn—thirty more of them ahead!—the early cup of tea, the Mother who brought it in, and the long talks of us all together again. One had leisure to work, too, at whatever play-work was in one's head, and that was usually full."[25]

Back in Lahore, some thirty-nine stories appeared in the Gazette between November 1886 and June 1887. Kipling included most of these stories in Plain Tales from the Hills, his first prose collection, which was published in Calcutta in January 1888, a month after his 22nd birthday. Kipling's time in Lahore, however, had come to an end. In November 1887, he was transferred to the Gazette's much larger sister newspaper, The Pioneer, in Allahabad in the United Provinces. In Allahabad, he worked as the assistant editor of The Pioneer and lived in Belvedere house, Allahabad from 1888 to 1889.[30][31]

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Rudyard Kipling (right) with his father John Lockwood Kipling (left), circa 1890

Kipling's writing continued at a frenetic pace; in 1888, he published six collections of short stories: Soldiers Three, The Story of the Gadsbys, In Black and White, Under the Deodars, The Phantom Rickshaw, and Wee Willie Winkie, containing a total of 41 stories, some quite long. In addition, as The Pioneer's special correspondent in the western region of Rajputana, he wrote many sketches that were later collected in Letters of Marque and published in From Sea to Sea and Other Sketches, Letters of Travel.[4]

Kipling was discharged from The Pioneer in early 1889, after a dispute. By this time, he had been increasingly thinking about the future. He sold the rights to his six volumes of stories for £200 and a small royalty, and the Plain Tales for £50; in addition, from The Pioneer, he received six-months' salary in lieu of notice.[25]

Return to London

He decided to use this money to make his way to London, the literary centre of the British Empire. On 9 March 1889, Kipling left India, travelling first to San Francisco via Rangoon, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Japan. Kipling was favourably impressed by Japan, writing that the Japanese were "gracious folk and fair manners".[32]

Kipling later wrote that he "had lost his heart" to a geisha whom he called O-Toyo, writing while in the United States during the same trip across the Pacific that: "I had left the innocent East far behind ... Weeping softly for O-Toyo ... O-Toyo was a darling".[32] Kipling then travelled through the United States, writing articles for The Pioneer that were later published in From Sea to Sea and Other Sketches, Letters of Travel.[33]

Starting his American travels in San Francisco, Kipling journeyed north to Portland, Oregon; to Seattle, Washington; up into Canada, to Victoria and Vancouver, British Columbia, through Medicine Hat, Alberta; back into the US to Yellowstone National Park; down to Salt Lake City; then east to Omaha, Nebraska, and on to Chicago, Illinois; then to Beaver, Pennsylvania, on the Ohio River to visit the Hill family; from there, he went to Chautauqua with Professor Hill, and later to Niagara Falls, Toronto, Washington, D.C., New York, and Boston.[33]

In the course of this journey, he met Mark Twain in Elmira, New York, and was deeply impressed. Kipling arrived unannounced at Twain's home, and later wrote that as he rang the doorbell, "It occurred to me for the first time that Mark Twain might possibly have other engagements other than the entertainment of escaped lunatics from India, be they ever so full of admiration."[34]

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A portrait of Kipling by John Collier, ca. 1891

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Rudyard Kipling, by Bourne & Shepherd, Calcutta (1892)

As it was, Twain was glad to welcome Kipling and had a two-hour conversation with him on trends in Anglo-American literature and about what Twain was going to write in a sequel to Tom Sawyer, with Twain assuring Kipling that a sequel was coming; but he had not decided upon the ending: either Sawyer would be elected to Congress or would be hanged.[34] Twain also passed along the literary advice that an author should: "Get your facts first and then you can distort 'em as much as you please."[34] Twain, who rather liked Kipling, later wrote about their meeting: "Between us, we cover all knowledge; he covers all that can be known and I cover the rest".[34] Kipling then crossed the Atlantic and reached Liverpool in October 1889. He soon made his début in the London literary world—to great acclaim.[3]

London

In London, Kipling had several stories accepted by magazines. He also found a place to live for the next two years at Villiers Street, near Charing Cross (the building was subsequently named Kipling House):

Meantime, I had found me quarters in Villiers Street, Strand, which forty-six years ago was primitive and passionate in its habits and population. My rooms were small, not over-clean or well-kept, but from my desk I could look out of my window through the fanlight of Gatti's Music-Hall entrance, across the street, almost on to its stage. The Charing Cross trains rumbled through my dreams on one side, the boom of the Strand on the other, while, before my windows, Father Thames under the Shot tower walked up and down with his traffic.[35]


In the next two years, he published a novel, The Light That Failed, had a nervous breakdown, and met an American writer and publishing agent, Wolcott Balestier, with whom he collaborated on a novel, The Naulahka (a title which he uncharacteristically misspelt; see below).[16] In 1891, on the advice of his doctors, Kipling embarked on another sea voyage visiting South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and once again India.[16]

He cut short his plans for spending Christmas with his family in India when he heard of Balestier's sudden death from typhoid fever and immediately decided to return to London. Before his return, he had used the telegram to propose to and be accepted by Wolcott's sister Caroline Starr Balestier (1862–1939), called "Carrie", whom he had met a year earlier, and with whom he had apparently been having an intermittent romance.[16] Meanwhile, late in 1891, his collection of short stories about the British in India, Life's Handicap, was published in London.[36]

On 18 January 1892, Carrie Balestier (aged 29) and Rudyard Kipling (aged 26) were married in London, in the "thick of an influenza epidemic, when the undertakers had run out of black horses and the dead had to be content with brown ones".[25] The wedding was held at All Souls Church, Langham Place, central London. Henry James gave the bride away.

United States

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Kipling in his study at Naulakha, Vermont, US, 1895.

Kipling and his wife settled upon a honeymoon that would take them first to the United States (including a stop at the Balestier family estate near Brattleboro, Vermont) and then on to Japan.[16] When they arrived in Yokohama, Japan, they discovered that their bank, The New Oriental Banking Corporation, had failed. Taking this loss in their stride, they returned to the US, back to Vermont – Carrie by this time was pregnant with their first child —and rented a small cottage on a farm near Brattleboro for ten dollars a month.[25]

According to Kipling, "We furnished it with a simplicity that fore-ran the hire-purchase system. We bought, second or third hand, a huge, hot-air stove which we installed in the cellar. We cut generous holes in our thin floors for its eight-inch [20 cm] tin pipes (why we were not burned in our beds each week of the winter I never can understand) and we were extraordinarily and self-centredly content."[25]

In this house, which they called Bliss Cottage, their first child, Josephine, was born "in three-foot of snow on the night of 29 December 1892. Her Mother's birthday being the 31st and mine the 30th of the same month, we congratulated her on her sense of the fitness of things ..."[25]

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Rudyard Kipling's America 1892–1896, 1899

It was also in this cottage that the first dawnings of the Jungle Books came to Kipling: " . . workroom in the Bliss Cottage was seven feet by eight, and from December to April, the snow lay level with its window-sill. It chanced that I had written a tale about Indian Forestry work which included a boy who had been brought up by wolves. In the stillness, and suspense, of the winter of '92 some memory of the Masonic Lions of my childhood's magazine, and a phrase in Haggard's Nada the Lily, combined with the echo of this tale. After blocking out the main idea in my head, the pen took charge, and I watched it begin to write stories about Mowgli and animals, which later grew into the two Jungle Books ".[25] With Josephine's arrival, Bliss Cottage was felt to be congested, so eventually the couple bought land – 10 acres (4.0 ha) on a rocky hillside overlooking the Connecticut River – from Carrie's brother Beatty Balestier and built their own house.

Kipling named the house Naulakha, in honour of Wolcott and of their collaboration, and this time the name was spelled correctly.[16] From his early years in Lahore (1882–87), Kipling had become enamoured with the Mughal architecture,[37] especially the Naulakha pavilion situated in Lahore Fort, which eventually became an inspiration for the title of his novel as well as the house.[38] The house still stands on Kipling Road, three miles (5 km) north of Brattleboro in Dummerston, Vermont: a big, secluded, dark-green house, with shingled roof and sides, which Kipling called his "ship", and which brought him "sunshine and a mind at ease".[16] His seclusion in Vermont, combined with his healthy "sane clean life", made Kipling both inventive and prolific.

In the short span of four years, he produced, in addition to the Jungle Books, a collection of short stories (The Day's Work), a novel (Captains Courageous), and a profusion of poetry, including the volume The Seven Seas. The collection of Barrack-Room Ballads was issued in March 1892, first published individually for the most part in 1890, and containing his poems "Mandalay" and "Gunga Din". He especially enjoyed writing the Jungle Books – both masterpieces of imaginative writing – and enjoyed, too, corresponding with the many children who wrote to him about them.[16]

Life in New England

The writing life in Naulakha was occasionally interrupted by visitors, including his father, who visited soon after his retirement in 1893,[16] and British writer Arthur Conan Doyle, who brought his golf-clubs, stayed for two days, and gave Kipling an extended golf lesson.[39][40] Kipling seemed to take to golf, occasionally practising with the local Congregational minister, and even playing with red-painted balls when the ground was covered in snow.[14][40] However, wintertime golf was "not altogether a success because there were no limits to a drive; the ball might skid two miles (3 km) down the long slope to Connecticut river".[14]

From all accounts, Kipling loved the outdoors,[16] not least of whose marvels in Vermont was the turning of the leaves each fall. He described this moment in a letter: "A little maple began it, flaming blood-red of a sudden where he stood against the dark green of a pine-belt. Next morning there was an answering signal from the swamp where the sumacs grow. Three days later, the hill-sides as fast as the eye could range were afire, and the roads paved, with crimson and gold. Then a wet wind blew, and ruined all the uniforms of that gorgeous army; and the oaks, who had held themselves in reserve, buckled on their dull and bronzed cuirasses and stood it out stiffly to the last blown leaf, till nothing remained but pencil-shadings of bare boughs, and one could see into the most private heart of the woods."[41]

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The Kiplings' first daughter Josephine, 1895. She died of pneumonia in 1899 aged 6.

In February 1896, Elsie Kipling was born, the couple's second daughter. By this time, according to several biographers, their marital relationship was no longer light-hearted and spontaneous.[42] Although they would always remain loyal to each other, they seemed now to have fallen into set roles.[16] In a letter to a friend who had become engaged around this time, the 30‑year‑old Kipling offered this sombre counsel: marriage principally taught "the tougher virtues—such as humility, restraint, order, and forethought".[43]

The Kiplings loved life in Vermont and might have lived out their lives there, were it not for two incidents—one of global politics, the other of family discord—that hastily ended their time there. By the early 1890s, the United Kingdom and Venezuela were in a border dispute involving British Guiana. The US had made several offers to arbitrate, but in 1895, the new American Secretary of State Richard Olney upped the ante by arguing for the American "right" to arbitrate on grounds of sovereignty on the continent (see the Olney interpretation as an extension of the Monroe Doctrine).[16] This raised hackles in the UK, and the situation grew into a major Anglo-American crisis, with talk of war on both sides.

Although the crisis led to greater US–British co-operation, at the time Kipling was bewildered by what he felt was persistent anti-British sentiment in the US, especially in the press.[16] He wrote in a letter that it felt like being "aimed at with a decanter across a friendly dinner table".[43] By January 1896, he had decided[14] to end his family's "good wholesome life" in the US and seek their fortunes elsewhere.

A family dispute became the final straw. For some time, relations between Carrie and her brother Beatty Balestier had been strained, owing to his drinking and insolvency. In May 1896, an inebriated Beatty encountered Kipling on the street and threatened him with physical harm.[16] The incident led to Beatty's eventual arrest, but in the subsequent hearing, and the resulting publicity, Kipling's privacy was destroyed, and he was left feeling miserable and exhausted. In July 1896, a week before the hearing was to resume, the Kiplings packed their belongings, left the United States, and returned to England.[14]

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Kipling's Torquay house, with an English heritage blue plaque on the wall.

Devon

By September 1896, the Kiplings were in Torquay, Devon, on the southwestern coast of England, in a hillside home overlooking the English Channel. Although Kipling did not much care for his new house, whose design, he claimed, left its occupants feeling dispirited and gloomy, he managed to remain productive and socially active.[16]

Kipling was now a famous man, and in the previous two or three years had increasingly been making political pronouncements in his writings. The Kiplings had welcomed their first son, John, in August 1897. Kipling had begun work on two poems, "Recessional" (1897) and "The White Man's Burden" (1899) which were to create controversy when published. Regarded by some as anthems for enlightened and duty-bound empire-building (that captured the mood of the Victorian era), the poems equally were regarded by others as propaganda for brazenfaced imperialism and its attendant racial attitudes; still others saw irony in the poems and warnings of the perils of empire.[16]

Take up the White Man's burden—
Send forth the best ye breed—
Go, bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives' need;
To wait, in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild—
Your new-caught sullen peoples,
Half devil and half child.
—The White Man's Burden[44]


There was also foreboding in the poems, a sense that all could yet come to naught.[45]

Far-called, our navies melt away;
On dune and headland sinks the fire:
Lo, all our pomp of yesterday
Is one with Nineveh and Tyre!
Judge of the Nations, spare us yet.
Lest we forget—lest we forget!
—Recessional[46]


A prolific writer during his time in Torquay, he also wrote Stalky & Co., a collection of school stories (born of his experience at the United Services College in Westward Ho!) whose juvenile protagonists displayed a know-it-all, cynical outlook on patriotism and authority. According to his family, Kipling enjoyed reading aloud stories from Stalky & Co. to them and often went into spasms of laughter over his own jokes.[16]

Visits to South Africa

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H.A. Gwynne, Julian Ralph, Perceval Landon, and Rudyard Kipling in South Africa, 1900–1901.

In early 1898, the Kiplings travelled to South Africa for their winter holiday, thus beginning an annual tradition which (excepting the following year) was to last until 1908. They always stayed in "The Woolsack", a house on Cecil Rhodes' estate at Groote Schuur (and now a student residence for the University of Cape Town); it was within walking distance of Rhodes' mansion.[47]

With his new reputation as Poet of the Empire, Kipling was warmly received by some of the most influential politicians of the Cape Colony, including Rhodes, Sir Alfred Milner, and Leander Starr Jameson. Kipling cultivated their friendship and came to admire the men and their politics. The period 1898–1910 was crucial in the history of South Africa and included the Second Boer War (1899–1902), the ensuing peace treaty, and the 1910 formation of the Union of South Africa. Back in England, Kipling wrote poetry in support of the British cause in the Boer War and on his next visit to South Africa in early 1900, he became a correspondent for The Friend newspaper in Bloemfontein, which had been commandeered by Lord Roberts for British troops.[48]

Although his journalistic stint was to last only two weeks, it was Kipling's first work on a newspaper staff since he left The Pioneer in Allahabad more than ten years earlier.[16] At The Friend, he made lifelong friendships with Perceval Landon, H. A. Gwynne, and others.[49] He also wrote articles published more widely expressing his views on the conflict.[50] Kipling penned an inscription for the Honoured Dead Memorial (Siege memorial) in Kimberley.

Sussex

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Kipling at his desk, 1899. Portrait by his cousin, Sir Philip Burne-Jones

In 1897, Kipling moved from Torquay to Rottingdean, East Sussex; first to North End House and later to The Elms.[51] In 1902, Kipling bought Bateman's, a house built in 1634 and located in rural Burwash, East Sussex, England. Bateman's was Kipling's home from 1902 until his death in 1936.[52]

The house, along with the surrounding buildings, the mill and 33 acres (13 ha) was purchased for £9,300. It had no bathroom, no running water upstairs, and no electricity, but Kipling loved it: "Behold us, lawful owners of a grey stone lichened house—A.D. 1634 over the door—beamed, panelled, with old oak staircase, and all untouched and unfaked. It is a good and peaceable place. We have loved it ever since our first sight of it." (from a November 1902 letter).[53][54]

In the non-fiction realm he became involved in the debate over the British response to the rise in German naval power known as the Tirpitz Plan to build a fleet to challenge the Royal Navy, publishing a series of articles in 1898 which were collected as A Fleet in Being. On a visit to the United States in 1899, Kipling and Josephine developed pneumonia, from which she eventually died.

'Peak of career'

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"He sat in defiance of municipal orders, astride the gun Zam-Zammeh, on her old platform, opposite the old Ajaibgher, the Wonder House, as the natives called the Lahore Museum."
-Kim


In the wake of his daughter's death, Kipling concentrated on collecting material for what would become Just So Stories for Little Children. That work was published in 1902, the year after Kim was first issued.[55] The American literary scholar David Scott has argued that Kim disproves the claim made by Edward Said about Kipling as a promoter of Orientalism as Kipling – who was deeply interested in Buddhism —presented Tibetan Buddhism in a fairly sympathetic light and aspects of the novel appeared to reflect the Buddhist understanding of the universe.[56][57] Kipling was offended by the German Emperor Wilhelm II's Hun speech (Hunnenrede) in 1900 urging German troops being sent to China to crush the Boxer Rebellion to behave like "Huns" and to take no prisoners.[58]

In his 1902 poem The Rowers, Kipling attacked the Kaiser as a threat to Britain and made the first use of the term "Hun" as an anti-German insult, using Wilhelm's own words and the actions of German troops in China to portray Germans as essentially barbarians.[58] In an interview with the French newspaper Le Figaro, the Francophile Kipling called Germany a menace and called for an Anglo-French alliance to stop it.[58] In another letter at the same time, Kipling described the "unfrei peoples of Central Europe" as living in "the Middle Ages with machine guns".[58]

Speculative fiction

Kipling wrote a number of speculative fiction short stories, including "The Army of a Dream", in which he attempted to show a more efficient and responsible army than the hereditary bureaucracy of England at that time, and two science fiction stories, "With the Night Mail" (1905) and "As Easy As A.B.C." (1912). Both of those were set in the 21st century in Kipling's Aerial Board of Control universe. They read like modern hard science fiction,[59] and introduced the literary technique known as indirect exposition, which would later become one of science fiction writer Robert Heinlein's hallmarks. This technique is one that Kipling picked up in India, and used to solve the problem of his English readers not understanding much about Indian society, when writing The Jungle Book.[60]

Nobel laureate and beyond

In 1907, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature after having been nominated in that year by Charles Oman, professor at the University of Oxford.[61] The prize citation said: "In consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author." Nobel prizes had been established in 1901 and Kipling was the first English-language recipient. At the award ceremony in Stockholm on 10 December 1907, the Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy, Carl David af Wirsén, praised both Kipling and three centuries of English literature:

The Swedish Academy, in awarding the Nobel Prize in Literature this year to Rudyard Kipling, desires to pay a tribute of homage to the literature of England, so rich in manifold glories, and to the greatest genius in the realm of narrative that that country has produced in our times.[62]


"Book-ending" this achievement was the publication of two connected poetry and story collections: Puck of Pook's Hill (1906), and Rewards and Fairies (1910). The latter contained the poem "If—". In a 1995 BBC opinion poll, it was voted the UK's favourite poem.[63] This exhortation to self-control and stoicism is arguably Kipling's most famous poem.[63]

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Rudyard Kipling by George Wylie Hutchinson

Such was Kipling's popularity that he was asked by his friend Max Aitken to intervene in the 1911 Canadian election on behalf of the Conservatives.[64] In 1911, the major issue in Canada was the reciprocity treaty with the United States signed by the Liberal Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier and vigorously opposed by the Conservatives under Sir Robert Borden. On 7 September 1911, the Montreal Daily Star newspaper published a front-page appeal to all Canadians against the reciprocity agreement with the United States by Kipling who wrote: "It is her own soul that Canada risks today. Once that soul is pawned for any consideration, Canada must inevitably conform to the commercial, legal, financial, social, and ethical standards which will be imposed on her by the sheer admitted weight of the United States."[64] At the time, the Montreal Daily Star was Canada's most read newspaper. Over the next week, Kipling's appeal was reprinted in every English newspaper in Canada and is credited with helping to turn Canadian public opinion against the Liberal government that signed the reciprocity agreement.[64]

Kipling sympathised with the anti-Home Rule stance of Irish Unionists, who opposed Irish autonomy. He was friends with Edward Carson, the Dublin-born leader of Ulster Unionism, who raised the Ulster Volunteers to prevent Home Rule in Ireland. Kipling wrote in a letter to a friend that Ireland was not a nation, and that before the English arrived in 1169, the Irish were a gang of cattle thieves living in savagery and killing each other while "writing dreary poems" about it all. In his viewpoint, it was only British rule that allowed Ireland to advance.[65] A visit to Ireland in 1911 confirmed Kipling's prejudices as he wrote the Irish countryside was beautiful but was spoiled by what he called the ugly homes of the Irish farmers, with Kipling adding that God had made the Irish into poets because he had "deprived them of love of line or knowledge of colour".[66] In contrast, Kipling had nothing but praise for the "decent folk" of Protestant majority and Unionist Ulster.[66]

Kipling wrote the poem "Ulster" in 1912 reflecting his Unionist politics. Kipling often referred to the Irish Unionists as "our party".[67] Kipling had no sympathy with or understanding of Irish nationalism, and for him, Home Rule was an act of treason by the government of the Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith that would plunge Ireland into the Dark Ages and allow the Irish Catholic majority to oppress the Protestant minority.[68] The British scholar David Gilmour wrote that Kipling's lack of understanding about Ireland could be seen in that he attacked John Redmond – the Anglophile leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party who wanted Home Rule because he believed it was the best way of keeping the United Kingdom together – as a traitor working to break up the United Kingdom.[69] Ulster was first publicly read at an Unionist rally in Belfast, where the largest Union Jack ever was also unfolded.[69] In his poem Ulster, which Kipling admitted was meant to strike a "hard blow" against the Asquith government's Home Rule bill, he wrote: "Rebellion, rapine, hate, Oppression, wrong and greed, Are loosed to rule our fate, By England's act and deed".[66] Ulster generated much controversy with the Conservative MP Sir Mark Sykes – who as a Unionist was opposed to the Home Rule bill – condemning Ulster in an article in The Morning Post as a "direct appeal to ignorance and a deliberate attempt to foster religious hate".[69]

Kipling was a staunch opponent of Bolshevism, a position which he shared with his friend Henry Rider Haggard. The two had bonded upon Kipling's arrival in London in 1889 largely on the strength of their shared opinions, and they remained lifelong friends.

Freemasonry

According to the English magazine Masonic Illustrated, Kipling became a Freemason in about 1885, before the usual minimum age of 21.[70] He was initiated into Hope and Perseverance Lodge No. 782 in Lahore. He later wrote to The Times, "I was Secretary for some years of the Lodge . . . , which included Brethren of at least four creeds. I was entered [as an Apprentice] by a member from Brahmo Somaj, a Hindu, passed [to the degree of Fellow Craft] by a Mohammedan, and raised [to the degree of Master Mason] by an Englishman. Our Tyler was an Indian Jew." Kipling received not only the three degrees of Craft Masonry but also the side degrees of Mark Master Mason and Royal Ark Mariner.[71]

Kipling so loved his masonic experience that he memorialised its ideals in his famous poem, "The Mother Lodge",[70] and used the fraternity and its symbols as vital plot devices in his novella, The Man Who Would Be King.[72]

First World War (1914–18)

At the beginning of the First World War, like many other writers, Kipling wrote pamphlets and poems which enthusiastically supported the UK's war aims of restoring Belgium after that kingdom had been occupied by Germany, together with more generalised statements that Britain was standing up for the cause of good. In September 1914, Kipling was asked by the British government to write propaganda, an offer that he immediately accepted.[73] Kipling's pamphlets and stories were very popular with the British people during the war, with his major themes being glorifying the British military as the place for heroic men to be, German atrocities against Belgian civilians and the stories of women being brutalised by a horrific war unleashed by Germany, yet surviving and triumphing in spite of their suffering.[73]

Kipling was enraged by reports of the Rape of Belgium together with the sinking of the RMS Lusitania in 1915, which he saw as a deeply inhumane act, which led him to see the war as a crusade for civilisation against barbarism.[74] In a 1915 speech, Kipling declared that "There was no crime, no cruelty, no abomination that the mind of men can conceive of which the German has not perpetrated, is not perpetrating, and will not perpetrate if he is allowed to go on ... Today, there are only two divisions in the world ... human beings and Germans."[74]

Alongside his passionate antipathy towards Germany, Kipling was privately deeply critical of how the war was fought by the British Army, complaining as early as October 1914 that Germany should have been defeated by now, and something must be wrong with the British Army.[75] Kipling, who was shocked by the heavy losses that the British Expeditionary Force had taken by the autumn of 1914, blamed the entire pre-war generation of British politicians, who he argued had failed to learn the lessons of the Boer War. As a result, thousands of British soldiers were now paying with their lives for their failure in the fields of France and Belgium.[75]

Kipling had scorn for those men who shirked duty in the First World War. In "The New Army in Training"[76] (1915), Kipling concluded the piece by saying:

This much we can realise, even though we are so close to it, the old safe instinct saves us from triumph and exultation. But what will be the position in years to come of the young man who has deliberately elected to outcaste himself from this all-embracing brotherhood? What of his family, and, above all, what of his descendants, when the books have been closed and the last balance struck of sacrifice and sorrow in every hamlet, village, parish, suburb, city, shire, district, province, and Dominion throughout the Empire?


Death of John Kipling

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2nd Lt John Kipling

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Memorial to 2nd Lt John Kipling in Burwash Parish Church, Sussex, England

Kipling's son John was killed in action in the First World War, at the Battle of Loos in September 1915, at age 18. John had initially wanted to join the Royal Navy, but having had his application turned down after a failed medical examination due to poor eyesight, he opted to apply for military service as an Army officer. But again, his eyesight was an issue during the medical examination. In fact, he tried twice to enlist but was rejected. His father had been lifelong friends with Lord Roberts, former commander-in-chief of the British Army, and colonel of the Irish Guards, and at Rudyard's request, John was accepted into the Irish Guards.[73]

John Kipling was sent to Loos two days into the battle in a reinforcement contingent. He was last seen stumbling through the mud blindly, with a possible facial injury. A body identified as his was found in 1992, although that identification has been challenged.[77][78][79] In 2015, the Commonwealth War Grave Commission confirmed that they had correctly identified the burial place of John Kipling;[80] they record his date of death as 27 September 1915, and that he is buried at St Mary's A.D.S. Cemetery, Haisnes.[81]

After his son's death, Kipling wrote, "If any question why we died / Tell them, because our fathers lied." It is speculated that these words may reveal his feelings of guilt at his role in getting John a commission in the Irish Guards.[82] Others, such as English professor Tracy Bilsing, contend that the line is referring to Kipling's disgust that British leaders failed to learn the lessons of the Boer War, and were not prepared for the struggle with Germany in 1914, with the "lie" of the "fathers" being that the British Army was prepared for any war when it was not.[73]

John's death has been linked to Kipling's 1916 poem "My Boy Jack", notably in the play My Boy Jack and its subsequent television adaptation, along with the documentary Rudyard Kipling: A Remembrance Tale. However, the poem was originally published at the head of a story about the Battle of Jutland and appears to refer to a death at sea; the 'Jack' referred to is probably a generic 'Jack Tar'.[83] In the Kipling family, Jack was the name of the family dog while John Kipling was always John, making the identification of the protagonist of "My Boy Jack" with John Kipling somewhat questionable. However, it is true that Kipling was emotionally devastated by the death of his son. It is said that Kipling helped assuage his grief over his son's death by reading the novels of Jane Austen aloud to his wife and daughter.[84] During the war, he wrote a booklet The Fringes of the Fleet[85] containing essays and poems on various nautical subjects of the war. Some of the poems were set to music by English composer Edward Elgar.

Kipling became friends with a French soldier named Maurice Hammoneau whose life had been saved in the First World War when his copy of Kim, which he had in his left breast pocket, stopped a bullet. Hammoneau presented Kipling with the book, with bullet still embedded, and his Croix de Guerre as a token of gratitude. They continued to correspond, and when Hammoneau had a son, Kipling insisted on returning the book and medal.[86]

On 1 August 1918, a poem, "The Old Volunteer", appeared under his name in The Times. The next day, he wrote to the newspaper to disclaim authorship, and a correction appeared. Although The Times employed a private detective to investigate, and the detective appears to have suspected Kipling himself of being the author, the identity of the hoaxer was never established.[87]
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After the war (1918–1936)

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Kipling, aged 60, on the cover of Time magazine, 27 September 1926.

Partly in response to John's death, Kipling joined Sir Fabian Ware's Imperial War Graves Commission (now the Commonwealth War Graves Commission), the group responsible for the garden-like British war graves that can be found to this day dotted along the former Western Front and all the other locations around the world where troops of the British Empire lie buried.

His most significant contributions to the project were his selection of the biblical phrase, "Their Name Liveth For Evermore" (Ecclesiasticus 44.14, KJV), found on the Stones of Remembrance in larger war cemeteries, and his suggestion of the phrase "Known unto God" for the gravestones of unidentified servicemen. He also chose the inscription "The Glorious Dead" on the Cenotaph, Whitehall, London. Additionally, he wrote a two-volume history of the Irish Guards, his son's regiment: it was published in 1923 and is considered to be one of the finest examples of regimental history.[88]

Kipling's moving short story, "The Gardener", depicts visits to the war cemeteries, and the poem "The King's Pilgrimage" (1922) depicts a journey which King George V made, touring the cemeteries and memorials under construction by the Imperial War Graves Commission. With the increasing popularity of the automobile, Kipling became a motoring correspondent for the British press, and wrote enthusiastically of his trips around England and abroad, even though he was usually driven by a chauffeur.

After the war, Kipling was sceptical about the Fourteen Points and the League of Nations, but he had great hopes that the United States would abandon isolationism and that the post-war world would be dominated by an Anglo-French-American alliance.[89] Kipling hoped that the United States would take on a League of Nations mandate for Armenia as the best way of preventing isolationism, and hoped that Theodore Roosevelt, whom Kipling admired, would once again become president.[89] Kipling was saddened by Roosevelt's death in 1919, believing that his friend was the only American politician capable of keeping the United States in the "game" of world politics.[90]

Kipling was very hostile towards communism, writing about the Bolshevik take-over in 1917 that one sixth of the world had "passed bodily out of civilization".[91] In a 1918 poem, Kipling wrote about Soviet Russia that everything good in Russia had now been destroyed by the Bolsheviks and all that was left was "the sound of weeping and the sight of burning fire, and the shadow of a people trampled into the mire".[91]

In 1920, Kipling co-founded the Liberty League[92] with Haggard and Lord Sydenham. This short-lived enterprise focused on promoting classic liberal ideals as a response to the rising power of communist tendencies within Great Britain, or, as Kipling put it, "to combat the advance of Bolshevism".[93][94]

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Kipling (second from left) as rector of the University of St Andrews, Scotland in 1923

In 1922, Kipling, who had made reference to the work of engineers in some of his poems, such as "The Sons of Martha", "Sappers", and "McAndrew's Hymn",[95] and in other writings, including short story anthologies such as The Day's Work,[96] was asked by University of Toronto civil engineering professor Herbert E. T. Haultain for his assistance in developing a dignified obligation and ceremony for graduating engineering students. Kipling was enthusiastic in his response and shortly produced both, formally entitled "The Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer". Today, engineering graduates all across Canada are presented with an iron ring at the ceremony as a reminder of their obligation to society.[97][98] In 1922 Kipling also became Lord Rector of St Andrews University in Scotland, a three-year position.

Kipling, who was a Francophile, argued strongly for an Anglo-French alliance to uphold the peace, calling Britain and France in 1920 the "twin fortresses of European civilization".[99] Along the same lines, Kipling repeatedly warned against revising the Treaty of Versailles in Germany's favour, which he predicted would lead to a new world war.[99] An admirer of Raymond Poincaré, Kipling was one of the few British intellectuals who supported the French Occupation of the Ruhr in 1923 at a time when the British government and most public opinion was against the French position.[100] In contrast to the popular British view of Poincaré as a cruel bully intent on impoverishing Germany by seeking unreasonable reparations, Kipling argued that Poincaré was only rightfully trying to preserve France as a great power in the face of an unfavourable situation.[100] Kipling argued that even before 1914, Germany's larger economy and higher birth rate had made that country stronger than France; with much of France devastated by the war, and the French suffering heavy losses that the low French birth rate would have trouble replacing while Germany was mostly undamaged and still with a higher birth rate, he reasoned that the future would advantage German domination if Versailles were revised in Germany's favour. He wrote that it was madness for Britain to seek to pressure France to revise Versailles in Germany's favour.[100]

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Kipling late in his life, portrait by Elliott & Fry.

In 1924, Kipling was opposed to the Labour government of Ramsay MacDonald as "Bolshevism without bullets", but believing that Labour was a communist front organisation, he took the view that "excited orders and instructions from Moscow" would expose Labour as such an organisation to the British people.[101] Kipling's views were on the right and though he admired Benito Mussolini to a certain extent for a time in the 1920s, Kipling was against fascism, writing that Oswald Mosley was "a bounder and an arriviste". By 1935, he called Mussolini a deranged and dangerous egomaniac and in 1933 wrote, "The Hitlerites are out for blood".[102]

Despite his anti-communism, the first major translations of Kipling into Russian took place during Lenin's rule in the early 1920s, and during the interwar period, Kipling was very popular with Russian readers. Many of the younger Russian poets and writers such as Konstantin Simonov were influenced by Kipling.[103] Kipling's clarity of style, his use of colloquial language and the way in which he used rhythm and rhyme were considered to be major innovations in poetry that appealed to many of the younger Russian poets.[104] Though it was obligatory for Soviet journals to begin translations of Kipling with an introduction attacking him as a "fascist" and an "imperialist", such was Kipling's popularity with Russian readers that his works were not banned in the Soviet Union until 1939 with the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.[103] Kipling's work was unbanned in the Soviet Union in 1941 after Operation Barbarossa, when Britain become a Soviet ally, but his work was banned again, this time for good, with the Cold War in 1946.[105]

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A left-facing swastika in 1911, a symbol of good luck.

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Covers of two of Kipling's books from 1919 (l) and 1930 (r) showing the removal of the swastika

Many older editions of Rudyard Kipling's books have a swastika printed on their covers associated with a picture of an elephant carrying a lotus flower, reflecting the influence of Indian culture. Kipling's use of the swastika was based on the Indian sun symbol conferring good luck and the Sanskrit word meaning "fortunate" or "well-being".[106] He used the swastika symbol in both right- and left-facing orientations, and it was in general use by others at the time.[107][108]

In a note to Edward Bok written after the death of Lockwood Kipling in 1911, Rudyard said: "I am sending with this for your acceptance, as some little memory of my father to whom you were so kind, the original of one of the plaques that he used to make for me. I thought it being the Swastika would be appropriate for your Swastika. May it bring you even more good fortune."[106] Once the Nazis came to power and usurped the swastika, Kipling ordered that it should no longer adorn his books.[106] Less than a year before his death, Kipling gave a speech (titled "An Undefended Island") to the Royal Society of St George on 6 May 1935, warning of the danger which Nazi Germany posed to Britain.[109]

Kipling scripted the first Royal Christmas Message, delivered via the BBC's Empire Service by George V in 1932.[110][111] In 1934, he published a short story in The Strand Magazine, "Proofs of Holy Writ", which postulated that William Shakespeare had helped to polish the prose of the King James Bible.[112]

Death

Kipling kept writing until the early 1930s, but at a slower pace and with much less success than before. On the night of 12 January 1936 he suffered a haemorrhage in his small intestine. He underwent surgery but died less than a week later on 18 January 1936, at the age of 70 of a perforated duodenal ulcer.[113][114] His death had previously been incorrectly announced in a magazine, to which he wrote, "I've just read that I am dead. Don't forget to delete me from your list of subscribers."[115]

The pallbearers at the funeral included Kipling's cousin, the Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, and the marble casket was covered by a Union Jack.[116] Kipling was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium in northwest London, and his ashes interred at Poets' Corner, part of the South Transept of Westminster Abbey, next to the graves of Charles Dickens and Thomas Hardy.[116]

Legacy

In 2010, the International Astronomical Union approved that a crater on the planet Mercury would be named after Kipling—one of ten newly discovered impact craters observed by the MESSENGER spacecraft in 2008–9.[117] In 2012, an extinct species of crocodile, Goniopholis kiplingi, was named in his honour, "in recognition for his enthusiasm for natural sciences".[118]

More than 50 unpublished poems by Kipling, discovered by the American scholar Thomas Pinney, were released for the first time in March 2013.[119]

Kipling's writing has strongly influenced other writers. Kipling's stories for adults remain in print and have garnered high praise from writers as different as Poul Anderson, Jorge Luis Borges, and Randall Jarrell who wrote that, "After you have read Kipling's fifty or seventy-five best stories you realize that few men have written this many stories of this much merit, and that very few have written more and better stories."[120]

His children's stories remain popular, and his Jungle Books have been made into several movies. The first was made by producer Alexander Korda, and other films have been produced by The Walt Disney Company. A number of his poems were set to music by Percy Grainger. A series of short films based on some of his stories was broadcast by the BBC in 1964.[121] Kipling's work is still popular today.

The poet T. S. Eliot edited A Choice of Kipling's Verse (1941) with an introductory essay.[122] Eliot was aware of the complaints that had been levelled against Kipling and he dismissed them one by one: that Kipling is 'a Tory' using his verse to transmit right wing political views, or 'a journalist' pandering to popular taste; while Eliot writes "I cannot find any justification for the charge that he held a doctrine of race superiority."[123] Eliot finds instead,

An immense gift for using words, an amazing curiosity and power of observation with his mind and with all his senses, the mask of the entertainer, and beyond that a queer gift of second sight, of transmitting messages from elsewhere, a gift so disconcerting when we are made aware of it that thenceforth we are never sure when it is not present: all this makes Kipling a writer impossible wholly to understand and quite impossible to belittle.

— T.S. Eliot[124]


Of Kipling's verse, such as his Barrack-Room Ballads, Eliot writes "of a number of poets who have written great poetry, only ... a very few whom I should call great verse writers. And unless I am mistaken, Kipling's position in this class is not only high, but unique."[125]

In response to Eliot, George Orwell wrote a long consideration of Kipling's work for Horizon in 1942, noting that although as a "jingo imperialist" Kipling was "morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting", his work had many qualities which ensured that while "every enlightened person has despised him ... nine-tenths of those enlightened persons are forgotten and Kipling is in some sense still there". Orwell said:

One reason for Kipling's power [was] his sense of responsibility, which made it possible for him to have a world-view, even though it happened to be a false one. Although he had no direct connexion with any political party, Kipling was a Conservative, a thing that does not exist nowadays. Those who now call themselves Conservatives are either Liberals, Fascists or the accomplices of Fascists. He identified himself with the ruling power and not with the opposition. In a gifted writer this seems to us strange and even disgusting, but it did have the advantage of giving Kipling a certain grip on reality. The ruling power is always faced with the question, 'In such and such circumstances, what would you do?', whereas the opposition is not obliged to take responsibility or make any real decisions. Where it is a permanent and pensioned opposition, as in England, the quality of its thought deteriorates accordingly. Moreover, anyone who starts out with a pessimistic, reactionary view of life tends to be justified by events, for Utopia never arrives and 'the gods of the copybook headings', as Kipling himself put it, always return. Kipling sold out to the British governing class, not financially but emotionally. This warped his political judgement, for the British ruling class were not what he imagined, and it led him into abysses of folly and snobbery, but he gained a corresponding advantage from having at least tried to imagine what action and responsibility are like. It is a great thing in his favour that he is not witty, not 'daring', has no wish to épater les bourgeois. He dealt largely in platitudes, and since we live in a world of platitudes, much of what he said sticks. Even his worst follies seem less shallow and less irritating than the 'enlightened' utterances of the same period, such as Wilde's epigrams or the collection of cracker-mottoes at the end of Man and Superman.

— George Orwell[126]


The poet Alison Brackenbury writes that "Kipling is poetry's Dickens, an outsider and journalist with an unrivalled ear for sound and speech."[127]

The English folk singer Peter Bellamy was a great lover of Kipling's poetry, much of which he believed to have been influenced by English traditional folk forms. He recorded several albums of Kipling's verse set to traditional airs, or to tunes of his own composition written in traditional style.[128] However, in the case of the bawdy folk song, "The Bastard King of England", which is commonly credited to Kipling, it is believed that the song is actually misattributed.[129]

Kipling is often quoted in discussions of contemporary British political and social issues. In 1911, Kipling wrote the poem The Reeds of Runnymede that celebrated Magna Carta, and summoned up the vision of the ‘stubborn Englishry’ determined to defend their rights. In 1996, the following verses of the poem were quoted by former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher warning against the encroachment of the European Union on national sovereignty:

At Runnymede, at Runnymede,
Oh, hear the reeds at Runnymede:
‘You musn’t sell, delay, deny,
A freeman’s right or liberty.
It wakes the stubborn Englishry,
We saw ’em roused at Runnymede!

… And still when Mob or Monarch lays
Too rude a hand on English ways,
The whisper wakes, the shudder plays,
Across the reeds at Runnymede.
And Thames, that knows the mood of kings,
And crowds and priests and suchlike things,
Rolls deep and dreadful as he brings
Their warning down from Runnymede![130]


Political singer-songwriter Billy Bragg, who attempts to reclaim English nationalism from the right-wing, has reclaimed Kipling for an inclusive sense of Englishness.[131] Kipling's enduring relevance has been noted in the United States, as it has become involved in Afghanistan and other areas about which he wrote.[132][133][134]

Links with camping and Scouting

In 1903, Kipling gave permission to Elizabeth Ford Holt to borrow themes from the Jungle Books to establish Camp Mowglis, a summer camp for boys on the shores of Newfound Lake in New Hampshire. Throughout their lives, Kipling and his wife Carrie maintained an active interest in Camp Mowglis, which is still in operation and continues the traditions that Kipling inspired. Buildings at Mowglis have names such as Akela, Toomai, Baloo, and Panther. The campers are referred to as "the Pack", from the youngest "Cubs" to the oldest campers living in "Den".[135]

Kipling's links with the Scouting movements were also strong. Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting, used many themes from The Jungle Book stories and Kim in setting up his junior movement, the Wolf Cubs. These connections still exist today, such as the continued popularity of "Kim's Game" in the Scouting movement. The movement is named after Mowgli's adopted wolf family, and the adult helpers of Wolf Cub Packs adopt names taken from The Jungle Book, especially the adult leader who is called Akela after the leader of the Seeonee wolf pack.[136]

Kipling's home at Burwash

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Bateman's, Kipling's beloved home – which he referred to as "A good and peaceable place" – in Burwash, East Sussex, is now a public museum dedicated to the author.[137]

After the death of Kipling's wife in 1939, his house, Bateman's in Burwash, East Sussex, South East England, where he had lived from 1902 until 1936, was bequeathed to the National Trust and is now a public museum dedicated to the author. Elsie Bambridge, his only child who lived to maturity, died childless in 1976, and also bequeathed her copyrights to the National Trust, which in turn donated them to the University of Sussex to ensure better public access.[138]

Novelist and poet Sir Kingsley Amis wrote a poem, 'Kipling at Bateman's', after visiting Kipling's Burwash home (Amis' father had lived in Burwash briefly in the 1960s) as part of a BBC television series on writers and their houses.[139]

In 2003, actor Ralph Fiennes read excerpts from Kipling's works from the study in Bateman's, including, The Jungle Book, Something of Myself, Kim, and The Just So Stories, and poems, including "If ..." and "My Boy Jack", for a CD published by the National Trust.[140][141]

Reputation in India

In modern-day India, whence he drew much of his material, Kipling's reputation remains controversial, especially amongst modern nationalists and some post-colonial critics. Rudyard Kipling was a prominent supporter of Colonel Reginald Dyer, who was responsible for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar (in the province of Punjab). Kipling called Dyer "the man who saved India" and also initiated collections for the latter's homecoming prize.[142] However, Subhash Chopra, in his book Kipling Sahib – the Raj Patriot, writes that the benefit fund was started by The Morning Post newspaper and not by Kipling and that Kipling made no contribution to the Dyer fund. While Kipling's name was conspicuously absent from the list of donors as published in The Morning Post, he clearly admired Dyer.[143]

Other contemporary Indian intellectuals such as Ashis Nandy have taken a more nuanced view of his work. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India, often described Kipling's novel Kim as one of his favourite books.[144][145]

G V Desani, an Indian writer of fiction, had a more negative opinion of Kipling. He alludes to Kipling in his novel, All About H. Hatterr:

I happen to pick up R. Kipling's autobiographical "Kim".

Therein, this self-appointed whiteman's burden-bearing sherpa feller's stated how, in the Orient, blokes hit the road and think nothing of walking a thousand miles in search of something.


Indian writer Khushwant Singh wrote in 2001 that he considers Kipling's "If—" "the essence of the message of The Gita in English",[146] referring to the Bhagavad Gita, an ancient Indian scripture.

Indian writer R. K. Narayan said, "Kipling, the supposed expert writer on India, showed a better understanding of the mind of the animals in the jungle than of the men in an Indian home or the marketplace."[147]

In November 2007, it was announced that Kipling's birth home in the campus of the J J School of Art in Mumbai would be turned into a museum celebrating the author and his works.[148]

Bibliography

Main article: Rudyard Kipling bibliography

Kipling's bibliography includes fiction (including novels and short stories), non-fiction, and poetry. Several of his works were collaborations.

See also

• List of Nobel laureates in Literature
• HMS Birkenhead (1845)

References

1. The Times, (London) 18 January 1936, p. 12
2. "The Man who would be King". Notes on the text by John McGivering. kiplingsociety.co.uk
3. Rutherford, Andrew (1987). General Preface to the Editions of Rudyard Kipling, in "Puck of Pook's Hill and Rewards and Fairies", by Rudyard Kipling. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-282575-5
4. Jump up to:a b c d e Rutherford, Andrew (1987). Introduction to the Oxford World's Classics edition of "Plain Tales from the Hills", by Rudyard Kipling. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-281652-7
5. James Joyce considered Tolstoy, Kipling and D'Annunzio to be the "three writers of the nineteenth century who had the greatest natural talents", but that "he did not fulfill that promise". He also noted that the three writers all "had semi-fanatic ideas about religion, or about patriotism". Diary of David Fleischman, 21 July 1938, quoted in James Joyce by Richard Ellmann, p. 661, Oxford University Press (1983) ISBN 0-19-281465-6
6. Alfred Nobel Foundation. "Who is the youngest ever to receive a Nobel Prize, and who is the oldest?". Nobelprize.com. p. 409. Archived from the original on 25 September 2006. Retrieved 30 September 2006.
7. Birkenhead, Lord. (1978). Rudyard Kipling, Appendix B, "Honours and Awards". Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London; Random House Inc., New York
8. Lewis, Lisa. (1995). Introduction to the Oxford World's Classics edition of "Just So Stories", by Rudyard Kipling. Oxford University Press. pp.xv-xlii. ISBN 0-19-282276-4
9. Quigley, Isabel. (1987). Introduction to the Oxford World's Classics edition of "The Complete Stalky & Co.", by Rudyard Kipling. Oxford University Press. pp. xiii–xxviii. ISBN 0-19-281660-8
10. Said, Edward. (1993). Culture and Imperialism. London: Chatto & Windus. p. 196. ISBN 0-679-75054-1.
11. Sandison, Alan. (1987). Introduction to the Oxford World's Classics edition of Kim, by Rudyard Kipling. Oxford University Press. pp. xiii–xxx. ISBN 0-19-281674-8
12. Orwell, George (30 September 2006). "Essay on Kipling". Archived from the original on 18 September 2006. Retrieved 30 September2006.
13. Douglas Kerr, University of Hong Kong (30 May 2002). "Rudyard Kipling." The Literary Encyclopedia. The Literary Dictionary Company. 26 September 2006.
14. Carrington, C.E. (Charles Edmund). (1955). Rudyard Kipling: His Life and Work. Macmillan & Co.
15. Flanders, Judith. (2005). A Circle of Sisters: Alice Kipling, Georgiana Burne-Jones, Agnes Poynter, and Louisa Baldwin. W.W. Norton and Company, New York. ISBN 0-393-05210-9
16. Gilmour
17. "My Rival" 1885. Notes edited by John Radcliffe. kiplingsociety.co.uk
18. Gilmour, p. 32
19. thepotteries.org (13 January 2002). "did you know . ..." The potteries.org. Retrieved 2 October 2006.
20. Ahmed, Zubair (27 November 2007). "Kipling's India home to become museum". BBC News. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
21. Sir J.J. College of Architecture (30 September 2006). "Campus". Sir J. J. College of Architecture, Mumbai. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2006.
22. Aklekar, Rajendra (12 August 2014). "Red tape keeps Kipling bungalow in disrepair". Mumbai Mirror. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
23. Kipling, Rudyard (1894) "To the City of Bombay", dedication to Seven Seas, Macmillan & Co.
24. Murphy, Bernice M. (21 June 1999). "Rudyard Kipling – A Brief Biography". School of English, The Queen's University of Belfast. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 6 October2006.
25. Kipling, Rudyard (1935). "Something of Myself". Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2008.
26. Pinney, Thomas (2011) [2004]. "Kipling, (Joseph) Rudyard (1865–1936)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/34334.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
27. Pinney, Thomas (1995). "A Very Young Person, Notes on the text". Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
28. Carpenter, Humphrey and Prichard, Mari. (1984). Oxford Companion to Children's Literature. Oxford University Press. pp. 296–297. ISBN 0192115820.
29. Chums, No. 256, Vol. V, 4 August 1897, page 798
30. Neelam, S (8 June 2008). "Rudyard Kipling's Allahabad bungalow in shambles". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
31. Kipling, Rudyard,--1865-1936—Homes & haunts—India—Allahabad (from the collection of William Carpenter)". Library of Congress USA. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
32. Scott, p. 315
33. Pinney, Thomas (editor). Letters of Rudyard Kipling, volume 1. Macmillan & Co., London and NY
34. Hughes, James (2010). "Those Who Passed Through: Unusual Visits to Unlikely Places". New York History. 91 (2): 146–151. JSTOR 23185107.
35. Kipling, Rudyard (1956) Kipling: a selection of his stories and poems, Volume 2 pp.349 Doubleday, 1956
36. Coates, John D. (1997). The Day's Work: Kipling and the Idea of Sacrifice. Fairleigh University Press. p. 130. ISBN 083863754X.
37. Kaplan, Robert D. (1989) Lahore as Kipling Knew It. The New York Times. Retrieved 9 March 2008
38. Kipling, Rudyard (1996) Writings on Writing. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44527-2. see pp. 36, 173
39. Mallet, Phillip. (2003). Rudyard Kipling: A Literary Life. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. ISBN 0-333-55721-2
40. Ricketts, Harry. (1999). Rudyard Kipling: A life. Carroll and Graf Publishers Inc., New York. ISBN 0-7867-0711-9
41. Kipling, Rudyard. (1920). Letters of Travel (1892–1920). Macmillan & Co.
42. Nicolson, Adam. (2001). Carrie Kipling 1862–1939 : The Hated Wife. Faber & Faber, London. ISBN 0-571-20835-5
43. Pinney, Thomas (editor). Letters of Rudyard Kipling, volume 2. Macmillan & Co.
44. Kipling, Rudyard. 1899. The White Man's Burden. Published simultaneously in The Times, London, and McClure's Magazine (U.S.) 12 February 1899
45. Snodgrass, Chris. (2002). A Companion to Victorian Poetry. Blackwell, Oxford
46. Kipling, Rudyard. (July 1897). "Recessional'". The Times, London
47. "Something of Myself", pub. 1935, South Africa Chapter
48. Reilly, Bernard F., Center for Research Libraries, Chicago, Illinois. email to Marion Wallace The Friend newspaper, Orange Free State, South Africa
49. Carrington, C. E., (1955) The life of Rudyard Kipling, Doubleday & Co., Garden City, NY, p. 236
50. Kipling, Rudyard (18 March 1900). "Kipling at Cape Town: Severe Arraignment of Treacherous Afrikanders and Demand for Condign Punishment By and By" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 21.
51. "Kipling.s Sussex: The Elms". Kipling.org.
52. "Bateman's: Jacobean house, home of Rudyard Kipling". National Trust.org.
53. Carrington, C. E., (1955) The life of Rudyard Kipling, p. 286
54. "Bateman's House". Nationaltrust.org.uk. 17 November 2005. Archived from the original on 17 January 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
55. "Writers History – Kipling Rudyard". writershistory.com. Archived from the original on 25 April 2015.
56. Scott, pp. 318–319
57. Leoshko, J. (2001). "What is in Kim? Rudyard Kipling and Tibetan Buddhist Traditions". South Asia Research. 21 (1): 51–75.
58. Gilmour, p. 206
59. Bennett, Arnold (1917). Books and Persons Being Comments on a Past Epoch 1908–1911. London: Chatto & Windus.
60. Fred Lerner. "A Master of Our Art: Rudyard Kipling and modern Science Fiction". The Kipling Society.
61. Nomination Database. Nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 4 May 2017.
62. "Nobel Prize in Literature 1907 – presentation Speech". Nobelprize.org.
63. Emma Jones (1 October 2004). The Literary Companion. Robson. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-86105-798-3.
64. Jump up to:a b c MacKenzie, David & Dutil, Patrice (2011) Canada 1911: The Decisive Election that Shaped the Country. Toronto: Dundurn. p. 211. ISBN 1554889472.
65. Gilmour, p. 242
66. Gilmour, p. 243
67. Gilmour, p. 241
68. Gilmour, pp. 242–244
69. Gilmour, p. 244
70. Mackey, Albert G. (1946). Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Vol. 1. Chicago: The Masonic History Co.
71. Our brother Rudyard Kipling. Masonic lecture. Albertpike.wordpress.com (7 October 2011). Retrieved on 4 May 2017.
72. "Official Visit to Meridian Lodge No. 687" (PDF). 12 February 2014.
73. Bilsing, Tracey (Summer 2000). "The Process of Manufacture of Rudyard Kipling's Private Propaganda" (PDF). War Literature and the Arts. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
74. Gilmour, p. 250.
75. J Gilmour, p. 251.
76. "Full text of "The new army in training"". archive.org.
77. Brown, Jonathan (28 August 2006). "The Great War and its aftermath: The son who haunted Kipling". The Independent. Retrieved 3 May2018. It was only his father's intervention that allowed John Kipling to serve on the Western Front - and the poet never got over his death.
78. Quinlan, Mark (11 December 2007). "The controversy over John Kipling's burial place". War Memorials Archive Blog. Retrieved 3 May2018.
79. "Solving the mystery of Rudyard Kipling's son". BBC News Magazine. 18 January 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
80. McGreevy, Ronan (25 September 2015). "Grave of Rudyard Kipling's son correctly named, says authority". The Irish Times. Retrieved 3 May2018.
81. "Casualty record: Lieutenant Kipling, John". Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
82. Webb, George (1997). Foreword to: Kipling, Rudyard. The Irish Guards in the Great War. 2 vols. Spellmount. p. 9
83. Southam, Brian (6 March 2010). "Notes on "My Boy Jack"". Retrieved 23 July 2011.
84. "The Many Lovers of Miss Jane Austen", BBC2 broadcast, 9 pm 23 December 2011
85. The Fringes of the Fleet, Macmillan & Co., 1916
86. Original correspondence between Kipling and Maurice Hammoneau and his son Jean Hammoneau concerning the affair at the Library of Congress under the title: How "Kim" saved the life of a French soldier : a remarkable series of autograph letters of Rudyard Kipling, with the soldier's Croix de Guerre, 1918–1933. (LOC Ref#2007566938) [1]. The library also possesses the actual French 389-page paperback edition of Kim that saved Hammoneau's life, (LOC Ref 2007581430) [2]
87. Simmers, George (27 May 1918). "A Kipling Hoax". The Times.
88. Kipling, Rudyard (1923). The Irish Guards in the Great War. 2 vols. London.
89. Gilmour, p. 273.
90. Gilmour, pp. 273–274.
91. Hodgson, p. 1060.
92. "The Liberty League—a campaign against Bolshevism | Jot101". jot101.com. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
93. Miller, David and Dinan, William (2008) A Century of Spin. Pluto Press. ISBN 978-0-7453-2688-7
94. Gilmour, p. 275.
95. Kipling, Rudyard (1940) The Definitive edition of Rudyard Kipling's verse. Hodder & Stoughton.
96. "The day's work". Internet Archive.
97. "The Iron Ring". Ironring.ca. Retrieved 10 September 2008.
98. "The Calling of an Engineer". Ironring.ca. Retrieved 24 November2012.
99. Gilmour, p. 300.
100. Gilmour, pp. 300–301.
101. Gilmour, p. 293.
102. Gilmour, pp. 302, 304.
103. Hodgson, pp. 1059–1060.
104. Hodgson, pp. 1062–1063.
105. Hodgson, p. 1059.
106. Smith, Michael."Kipling and the Swastika". Kipling.org.
107. Schliemann, H, Troy and its remains, London: Murray, 1875, pp. 102, 119–20
108. Boxer, Sarah (29 June 2000). "One of the World's Great Symbols Strives for a Comeback". Think Tank. The New York Times. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
109. Rudyard Kipling, War Stories and Poems (Oxford Paperbacks, 1999), pp. xxiv–xxv
110. Knight, Sam (17 March 2017). "'London Bridge is down': the secret plan for the days after the Queen's death". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
111. Rose, Kenneth (1983). King George V. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 394. ISBN 978-1-84212-001-9.
112. Short Stories from the Strand, The Folio Society, 1992
113. Harry Ricketts (December 2000). Rudyard Kipling: A Life. Carroll & Graf. pp. 388–. ISBN 978-0-7867-0830-7. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
114. Rudyard Kipling's Waltzing Ghost: The Literary Heritage of Brown's Hotel, paragraph 11, Sandra Jackson-Opoku, Literary Traveler
115. Chernega, Carol (2011). "A Dream House: Exploring the Literary Homes of England". p. 90. Dog Ear Publishing. p. 90. ISBN 1457502461.
116. "History – Rudyard Kipling". Westminster abbey.org.
117. Article from the Red Orbit News network 16 March 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2010
118. "Rudyard Kipling inspires naming of prehistoric crocodile". BBC Online. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
119. Flood, Alison (25 February 2013). "50 unseen Rudyard Kipling poems discovered". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
120. Jarrell, Randall (1999). "On Preparing to Read Kipling." No Other Book: Selected Essays. New York: HarperCollins.
121. The Indian Tales of Rudyard Kipling on IMDb
122. Eliot. Eliot's essay occupies 31 pages.
123. Eliot, p. 29.
124. Eliot, p. 22.
125. Eliot, p. 36.
126. Orwell, George (February 1942). "Rudyard Kipling". Horizon. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
127. Brackenbury, Alison. "Poetry Hero: Rudyard Kipling". Poetry News. The Poetry Society (Spring 2011). Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
128. Pareles, Jon (26 September 1991). "Peter Bellamy, 47; British Folk Singer Who Wrote Opera". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 July2014.
129. "Bastard King of England, The". fresnostate.edu.
130. “Keith Joseph Memorial Lecture ("Liberty and Limited Government")”. Margaret Thatcher.org. 1996 Jan 11.
131. "BBC Radio 4 – Rhyme and Reason, Billy Bragg". BBC.
132. WORLD VIEW: Is Afghanistan turning into another Vietnam?, Johnathan Power, The Citizen, 31 December 2010
133. Is America waxing or waning?, Andrew Sullivan, The Atlantic, 12 December 2010
134. Dufour, Steve. "Rudyard Kipling, official poet of the 911 War". 911poet.blogspot.com.
135. "History of Mowglis". Retrieved 26 November 2013.
136. "ScoutBase UK: The Library – Scouting history – Me Too! – The history of Cubbing in the United Kingdom 1916–present". Scoutbase.org.uk. Archived from the original on 25 November 2005. Retrieved 10 September 2008.
137. "History at Bateman's". National Trust. 22 February 2019.
138. Howard, Philip (19 September 1977) "University library to have Kipling papers". The Times", p.1
139. leader, Zachary (2007). The Life of Kingsley Amis. Vintage. pp. 704–705. ISBN 0375424989.
140. "Personal touch brings Kipling's Sussex home to life". The Argus.
141. "Rudyard Kipling Readings by Ralph Fiennes".Allmusic.
142. "History repeats itself, in stopping short". telegraphindia.com.
143. Subhash Chopra (2016). Kipling Sahib : the Raj patriot. London: New Millennium. ISBN 9781858454405.
144. Globalization and educational rights: an intercivilizational analysis, Joel H. Spring, pg.137
145. Post independence voices in South Asian writings, Malashri Lal, Alamgīr Hashmī, Victor J. Ramraj, 2001. (Not surprisingly, a brief biographical aside practically identifies Nehru with Kim)
146. Khushwant Singh, Review of The Book of Prayer by Renuka Narayanan , 2001
147. "When Malgudi man courted controversy". The Hindu. Retrieved 13 October 2014
148. Ahmed, Zubair (27 November 2007). "Kipling's India home to become museum". BBC News. Retrieved 9 August 2008.

Cited sources

• Eliot, T.S. (1941). A Choice of Kipling's Verse, made by T. S. Eliot with an essay on Rudyard Kipling. Faber and Faber.
• Gilmour, David (11 June 2003). The long recessional : the imperial life of Rudyard Kipling. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 9781466830004.
• Hodgson, Katherine (October 1998). "The Poetry of Rudyard Kipling in Soviet Russia". The Modern Language Review. 93 (4): 1058–1071. JSTOR 3736277.
• Scott, David (June 2011). "Kipling, the Orient, and Orientals: "Orientalism" Reoriented?". Journal of World History. 22 (2): 299–328 (315). JSTOR 23011713.

Further reading

Biography and criticism


• Allen, Charles (2007) Kipling Sahib: India and the Making of Rudyard Kipling, Abacus, 2007. ISBN 978-0-349-11685-3
• Bauer, Helen Pike (1994) Rudyard Kipling: A Study of the Short Fiction New York: Twayne
• Birkenhead, Lord (Frederick Smith, 2nd Earl of Birkenhead) (1978) Rudyard Kipling (Worthing: Littlehampton Book Services Ltd.) ISBN 978-0-297-77535-5
• Carrington, Charles (1955). Rudyard Kipling: His Life and Work. London: Macmillan & Co.
• David, C. (2007). Rudyard Kipling: a critical study, New Delhi, Anmol, 2007. ISBN 81-261-3101-2
• Dillingham, William B (2005) Rudyard Kipling: Hell and Heroism New York: Palgrave Macmillan
• Gilbert, Elliot L. ed., (1965) Kipling and the Critics (New York: New York University Press)
• Gilmour, David. (2003) The Long Recessional: The Imperial Life of Rudyard Kipling New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-52896-9
• Green, Roger Lancelyn, ed., (1971) Kipling: the Critical Heritage (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul).
• Gross, John, ed. (1972) Rudyard Kipling: the Man, his Work and his World (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson)
• Harris, Brian (2014) "The Surprising Mr Kipling: An anthology and reassessment of the poetry of Rudyard Kipling (CreateSpace) ISBN 978-1-4942-2194-2
• Harris, Brian (2015) "The Two Sided Man" (CreateSpace) ISBN 1508712328.
• Kemp, Sandra. (1988) Kipling's Hidden Narratives Oxford: Blackwell
• Lycett, Andrew (1999). Rudyard Kipling. London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-81907-0
• Lycett, Andrew (ed.) (2010). Kipling Abroad, I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84885-072-9
• Mallett, Phillip (2003) Rudyard Kipling: A Literary Life Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
• Montefiore, Jan (ed.) (2013) In Time's Eye: Essays on Rudyard Kipling Manchester: Manchester University Press
• Narita, Tatsushi. T. S. Eliot and his Youth as 'A Literary Columbus'. Nagoya: Kougaku Shuppan, 2011
• Nicolson, Adam (2001) Carrie Kipling 1862–1939 : The Hated Wife. Faber & Faber, London. ISBN 0-571-20835-5
• Ricketts, Harry. (2001) Rudyard Kipling: A Life New York: Da Capo Press ISBN 0-7867-0830-1
• Rooney, Caroline, and Kaori Nagai, eds. Kipling and Beyond: Patriotism, Globalisation, and Postcolonialism (Palgrave Macmillan; 2011) 214 pages; scholarly essays on Kipling's "boy heroes of empire," Kipling and C.L.R. James, and Kipling and the new American empire, etc.
• Rutherford, Andrew, ed. (1964) Kipling's Mind and Art (Edinburgh and London: Oliver and Boyd)
• Sergeant, David, (2013) Kipling's Art of Fiction 1884–1901 (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
• Martin Seymour-Smith, Rudyard Kipling, (1990).
• Shippey, Tom, "Rudyard Kipling," in: Cahier Calin: Makers of the Middle Ages. Essays in Honor of William Calin, ed. Richard Utz and Elizabeth Emery (Kalamazoo, MI: Studies in Medievalism, 2011), pp. 21–23.
• Tompkins, J. M. S. (1959) The Art of Rudyard Kipling (London : Methuen) online edition
• Walsh, Sue (2010) Kipling's Children's Literature: Language, Identity, and Constructions of Childhood Farnham: Ashgate
• Wilson, Angus The Strange Ride of Rudyard Kipling: His Life and Works New York: The Viking Press, 1978. ISBN 0-670-67701-9

External links

• Wikilivres has original media or text related to this article: Rudyard Kipling (in the public domain in New Zealand)
• The Kipling Society website

Other information

Works


• Works by Rudyard Kipling at Project Gutenberg
• Works by or about Rudyard Kipling at Internet Archive
• Works by Rudyard Kipling at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
• Works by Rudyard Kipling (not public domain in USA, so not available on Wikisource)

Resources

• The Rudyard Kipling Collection maintained by Marlboro College.
• The Rudyard Kipling Poems by Poemist.
• Rudyard Kipling: The Books I Leave Behind exhibition, related podcast, and digital images maintained by the Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University
• Rudyard Kipling at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
• The Rudyard Kipling Collections From the Rare Book and Special Collections Division at the Library of Congress
• Archival material at Leeds University Library
• Newspaper clippings about Rudyard Kipling in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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James George (diplomat)
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Image
James George, 92-year-old former high commissioner to India and former ambassador to Iran, relaxes in his Toronto apartment. In the 1960s, the Dalai Lama asked Canada to resettle Tibetan refugees. Canada refused. George convinced Trudeau (an old friend of his) to do it. In 1971, 228 Tibetan refugees came - in small groups and at different times - to Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Alberta.

After his escape, Rinpoche spent two years in India during which time he was discovered by an English social worker, Freda Bedi, and with her co-founded a school for refugee tulkus, the Young Lama's Home School. While in India, determined to go to the West, he learned English so rapidly that he became useful as a translator for the Tibetan community. Rinpoche stayed for a few months with James George, who was at that time the Canadian High Commissioner to India and Nepal and who later became the leader of the Gurdjieff movement in Canada. At this time, Rinpoche was awarded a scholarship to study at Oxford University in England, but when he told George that he was going to England, George replied, "Rinpoche, you are too big for England; you are going to America!"...

During the 1968 visit to Bhutan, on his way through India, Rinpoche had re-visited his old friend James George. George reports that Rinpoche told him that "although he had never been there [Shambhala] he believed in its existence and could see it in his mirror whenever he went into deep meditation." George describes witnessing Rinpoche gazing into a small hand-mirror and describing in detail the Kingdom of Shambhala. As George says, "... There was Trungpa in our study describing what he saw as if he were looking out of the window."

-- Warrior-King of Shambhala: Remembering Chogyam Trungpa, by Jeremy Hayward


James George (born September 14, 1918 in Toronto, Ontario) is a Canadian diplomat, political and environmental activist, author, and "spiritual seeker."[1] A founder of the Threshold Foundation and president of the Sadat Peace Foundation, he led the Friends of the Earth international mission[2] to Kuwait and the Persian Gulf to assess post-war environmental damage.[3]

Education

George received a Littauer Fellowship to Harvard University,[4] and was a 1940 Rhodes Scholar for Ontario, studying at Upper Canada College, Trinity College, and University of Toronto, and was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Sacred Letters by Trinity College, University of Toronto, at its May 2008 <personally present> Convocation.[5] While a student at the University of Toronto, he was a member of the Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity.[6]

The secret society of Cecil Rhodes is mentioned in the first five of his seven wills. In the fifth it was supplemented by the idea of an educational institution with scholarships, whose alumni would be bound together by common ideals — Rhodes's ideals. In the sixth and seventh wills the secret society was not mentioned, and the scholarships monopolized the estate. But Rhodes still had the same ideals and still believed that they could be carried out best by a secret society of men devoted to a common cause. The scholarships were merely a facade to conceal the secret society, or, more accurately, they were to be one of the instruments by which the members of the secret society could carry out his purpose. This purpose, as expressed in the first will (1877), was:

"The extension of British rule throughout the world, the perfecting of a system of emigration from the United Kingdom and of colonization by British subjects of all lands wherein the means of livelihood are attainable by energy, labour, and enterprise, . . . the ultimate recovery of the United States of America as an integral part of a British Empire, the consolidation of the whole Empire, the inauguration of a system of Colonial Representation in the Imperial Parliament which may tend to weld together the disjointed members of the Empire, and finally the foundation of so great a power as to hereafter render wars impossible and promote the best interests of humanity."


-- The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden, by Carroll Quigley


Career

George served in the Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve during World War II, attaining to the rank of Lt. Commander, following which he represented Canada at the United Nations. Between 1955 to 1957 he's deputy director at the Intelligence division at the External affairs in Ottawa. He's later deputy representative of the Canadian representation to NATO between 1957 and 1960 <personally present>. Other Canadians working at the same time at NAtO are Hugh Hambleton.[5] He then served as High Commissioner of Canada to Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 1960–64,then in Paris at the Canadian embassy, [7] High Commissioner to India and Ambassador to Nepal 1967–72,[5] and Ambassador to Iran and the Gulf States 1972–77.[8] Commonwealth Secretary-General Arnold Smith credited George with helping to contain the conflict between India and Pakistan in 1971, when East Pakistan became Bangladesh.[4]

Retiring from diplomatic service in 1977, George turned his attention to ecological and spiritual issues full time. While directing Threshold Foundation he helped to found in London (1978–82), he played a leading role in the adoption by the International Whaling Commission of a moratorium on high seas whaling and to ban all whaling in the Indian Ocean and the Antarctic.[4] In 1984, he co-founded the Anwar Sadat Peace Foundation to promote peace in the Middle East, and the following year was a founder of the Rainforest Action Network.[5] More recently, he has worked to develop wind power resources in British Columbia, and has been helping to develop new technology to make the desalination of seawater more affordable.[4]

His publisher's bio describes George as "first and foremost a spiritual seeker."[9] During his years of diplomatic service, he met numerous spiritual thinking and teachers, including Krishnamurti, Thomas Merton, Yogaswami of Sri Lanka, Dr. Javad Nurbakhsh, Dudjom Rinpoche, and Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche. Across six decades he has been a devoted practitioner of the Gurdjieff Work, and was a close disciple of the late Madame de Salzmann, G.I. Gurdjieff's primary student.[9]

"You see, my boy, what coincidences occur in our Great Universe. This etherogram refers to your favorites in connection with the 'ape-beings' I just mentioned. It was sent to me from Mars and informs me, among other things, that the three-centered beings of the planet Earth are once more troubled by the 'ape question.'

"I must first tell you that on account of their abnormal being-existence, there was long ago crystallized and there is periodically intensified in the presence of those peculiar three-brained beings arising and existing on the planet Earth a strange factor, producing from time to time a 'crescendo impulse,' under the action of which they wish to find out at any cost whether they have descended from these apes or the apes have descended from them.

"Judging from the etherogram, this time the question is agitating chiefly the biped beings who breed on the continent called 'America. '

"Although this question always troubles them somewhat, every once in a while it becomes for a long time, as they express it, the 'burning question of the day. '...

"In my opinion your favorites could get a correct answer to this question that always agitates them of how the apes arose, if only they really knew how to apply another of the maxims of our dear Mullah Nasr Eddin, who often used to say:

'The cause of every misunderstanding must be sought in woman. '

"If they had made use of this wise maxim to resolve their enigmatic question perhaps they would have finally discovered the origin of these fellow countrymen of theirs.

"As the subject of the genealogy of these apes is indeed exceedingly complicated and unusual, I shall inform your Reason about it from every possible aspect.

"The fact is that neither are your favorites descended from apes nor are apes descended from them, but the cause of the arising of these apes is in this case—as in every other misunderstanding there—their women.

"First of all I must tell you that none of those terrestrial ape-beings now arising there in various exterior forms ever existed before the second 'transapalnian perturbation', it was only after this disaster that the genealogy of their species began.

"The cause of the arising of these 'misconceived' beings —as well as that of all events more or less serious in the objective sense that occur on the surface of that ill-fated planet—stemmed from two sources totally independent of each other.

"The first, as always, was the same lack of foresight on the part of certain Most High, Most Saintly Cosmic Individuals, and the second was, once again, those abnormal conditions of ordinary being-existence established by your favorites themselves.

"The point is that during the second transapalnian perturbation, besides the chief continent of Atlantis many other large and small land masses entered within the planet, and new land masses appeared in their place. These displacements of various parts of the common presence of this unfortunate planet lasted several of their days, accompanied by frequent planetary tremors and manifestations that could not fail to evoke terror in the consciousness and feelings of beings of every kind.

"During that period many of your three-brained favorites who, together with one-brained and two-brained beings of other forms, had chanced to survive unexpectedly found themselves upon other newly formed land masses in places that were entirely unfamiliar to them. It was just then that many of these strange 'keschapmartnian' three-brained beings of active and passive sex or, as they say, 'men' and 'women,' were compelled for a number of their years to exist apart, that is to say, without the opposite sex.

"Before continuing to relate how all this occurred, I must tell you in a little more detail about that sacred substance which is the final result of the evolving transformations of every kind of being-food and is formed in the presence of every being without distinction of 'brain system ' This sacred substance, elaborated in the presence of beings of every kind, is almost everywhere called 'exioëhary,' but your favorites on the planet Earth call it 'sperm. '

"Through the all-gracious foresight and command of our Common Father Creator and according to the actualization of Great Nature, this sacred substance arises in the presence of all beings, without distinction of brain system or exterior coating, in order that by its means they may consciously or automatically fulfill that part of their being-duty which consists in the continuation of their species. But in the presence of three-brained beings it also arises in order that they may consciously transform it for coating their higher being-bodies for their own being.

"Before the second transapalnian perturbation there, which the contemporary three-brained beings refer to as the 'loss of the continent of Atlantis,' in the period when various consequences of the properties of the organ kundabuffer had already begun to be crystallized in their presence, a being-impulse was gradually formed in them which later became predominant.

"This impulse is now called 'pleasure', and in order to satisfy it they were already beginning to exist in a manner unbecoming to three-centered beings, that is to say, most of them gradually began to remove this sacred being-substance from themselves for the satisfaction of this impulse alone.

"Well, my boy, from then on most of the three-brained beings of the planet Earth were not content to carry out the process of the removal of this substance, which is continuously elaborated in them, only at those periods normally established by Great Nature for beings in accordance with their organization, for the purpose of the continuation of their species. Owing to this, and also to the fact that most of them had ceased to utilize this substance consciously for coating their higher being-bodies, it came about that when they did not remove it from themselves in ways that by then had become mechanical, they naturally experienced a sensation called 'sirklinimana,' a state they describe as 'feeling out of sorts,' and which is invariably accompanied by what is called 'mechanical suffering.'

"Remind me at some opportune moment about those periods fixed by Nature for the normal process of the utilization of the exioëhary by beings of different brain-systems for the continuation of their species, and I shall explain this to you in detail.

"Well then, they like ourselves are only 'keschapmartnian' beings, and when this sacred substance, continuously and inevitably formed in them, is utilized normally for the continuation of their species by means of the sacred process 'elmooarno,' its removal from their presences must be accomplished exclusively with the opposite sex. But these three-brained beings who by chance had escaped disaster were no longer in the habit of utilizing this substance for coating their higher being-bodies and, as they were already existing in a manner unbecoming to three-brained beings, when they were obliged to exist for several of their years without beings of the opposite sex, they turned to various antinatural means for the removal from themselves of this sacred substance, exioëhary.

"The beings of the male sex had recourse to the antinatural means called 'moordoorten' and 'androperasty' or, as the contemporary beings would say, 'onanism' and 'pederasty,' and these antinatural means fully satisfied them.

"But for the three-brained beings of the 'passive sex' or, as they call them, 'women,' these antinatural means were not sufficiently satisfying, and so the poor 'women-orphans' of that time, already more cunning and inventive than the men, began to seek out beings of other forms and accustom them to be their 'partners.' Well then, it was after these 'partnerships' that there began to appear in our Great Universe those species of beings which, as our dear Mullah Nasr Eddin would say, are 'neither fish nor fowl.'

"As regards the possibility of this abnormal blending of two different kinds of exioëhary for the conception and formation of a new planetary body of a being, it is necessary to give you the following explanation:

"On the planet Earth, as on other planets of our Universe where 'keschapmartnian' beings breed and exist—that is, three-brained beings in whom the formation of the sacred exioëhary for the creation of a new being must take place exclusively in the presences of two beings of distinct, independent sexes—the fundamental difference between the sacred exioëhary formed in the presences of beings of opposite sexes, that is, in men and women, consists in this, that in the exioëhary formed in the presences of beings of the male sex, the localized 'holy affirming' or 'positive' force of the sacred Triamazikamno participates, while in the exioëhary formed in beings of the female sex there participates the localized 'holy denying' or 'negative' force of the same sacred law.

"Thanks to the all-gracious foresight and command of our Father of everything existing in the Universe, and in accordance with the actualizing power of Great Mother Nature, in certain surrounding conditions and with the participation of the third separately localized holy force of the sacred Triamazikamno, namely, with the 'holy reconciling' force, the blending of the exioëhary formed in two separate beings of distinct, independent sexes during the process of the sacred 'elmooarno' taking place between them brings about the arising of a new being.

"In the case I was speaking of, the abnormal blending of two heterogeneous kinds of exioëhary was possible only by virtue of a certain cosmic law known as the 'affinity of the numbers of the totality of vibrations,' which began to act owing to the second transapalnian perturbation on this ill-fated planet, and which then still continued to act on its common presence.

"Concerning this cosmic law, it is important to tell you that it arose and began to exist in the Universe after the fundamental sacred law of Triamazikamno had been modified by our Creator in order to render the Heropass harmless, and after its holy parts, until then entirely independent, had become dependent upon forces from outside. But, my boy, you will understand this cosmic law in all its aspects only when I shall explain in detail, as I have promised you, all the fundamental laws of world-creation and world-existence.

"Meanwhile, you should know that on normally existing planets anywhere in our Great Universe the exioëhary formed in the presence of a three-brained being having organs of perception and transformation for localizing the 'holy affirming' force of the sacred Triamazikamno, in other words, the exioëhary formed in a three-brained keschapmartnian being of the 'male' sex, can never be blended— owing to that same law—with the exioëhary formed in the presence of a two-brained keschapmartnian being of the opposite sex.

"On the other hand, when a special combination of cosmic forces occurs and this same law of the 'affinity of the numbers of the totality of vibrations' begins to act, the exioëhary formed in a three-brained keschapmartnian being of the 'female' sex can sometimes, in certain surrounding conditions, blend quite well with the exioëhary formed in two-brained keschapmartnian beings of the male sex, but only as the active factor in the actualizing process of the fundamental sacred Triamazikamno.

"In short, during those terrible years on that planet of yours, a phenomenon very rare in the Universe appeared, that is, a blending of the exioëhary of two keschapmartnian beings of different brain systems and of opposite sexes, and the result was the arising of the ancestors of these terrestrial 'misconceived' beings now called 'apes,' who give your favorites no peace, and from time to time so agitate their strange Reason.

"But when this terrible period was over, a relatively normal process of ordinary existence was reestablished on your planet, and your favorites of different sexes again began to find each other and exist together, and thereafter those 'ape-beings' actualized the continuation of their species among themselves.

"And this continuation of their species was possible because the conception for the arising of the first of these abnormal beings had taken place according to the same external conditions that in general determine the presences of future keschapmartnian beings of active or passive sex.

"The most interesting result of this highly abnormal manifestation of the three-brained beings of your planet is that there now exist a great many species of the descendants of these ape-beings, differing in exterior form, and each of these different species bears a striking resemblance to some form of two-brained quadruped being still in existence there.

"This came about because the blending of the exioëhary of the keschapmartnian three-brained beings of the female sex, which brought about the arising of the ancestors of those apes, proceeded with the active exioëhary of the various species of quadruped beings that exist there even until today.

"Indeed, my boy, during my last personal stay on the planet Earth, when I happened in the course of my travels to come across the various species of apes and, in accordance with a habit that has become second nature, I observed them, I ascertained definitely that the whole of their outer functioning and the so-called 'automatic postures' of each 'species' of these contemporary apes are exactly like those in the common presence of certain normally arisen quadruped beings there, and their 'facial features' are even exactly the same as those of particular quadrupeds. As for the 'psychic features' of all the different species of these apes, they are absolutely identical, even down to minute details, with those of the psyche of the three-brained beings of the 'female sex' there. "

At this point in his tales Beelzebub became silent. After a long pause he looked at his favorite Hassein with a smile that clearly expressed a double meaning.


-- Beelzebub's Tales to His Grandson: An Objectively Impartial Criticism of the Life of Man, by G.I. Gurdjieff


In 1968, he wrote a letter of recommendation for Yogi Bhajan on the occasion of his commencing his teaching mission in the West. [10]

66. During the period between June, 1978 and February,1985, the plaintiff was repeatedly struck or touched in a manner which any person of ordinary sensibilities would find to be highly offensive, and which caused the plaintiff pain and physical harm, as well as fear, apprehension and resulting mental and emotional harm. These incidents include, but are not limited to, beatings; involuntary sexual intercourse, sodomy and other sexual attacks; administration of ostensibly medical treatments; administration of bizarre rites; urination upon the plaintiff; and other particulars.

67. At the time of the initial sexual attacks upon the plaintiff by Bhajan, the plaintiff was a virgin, had never had a sexual relationship of any kind with any man, and had intended to remain a virgin until married.

68. From approximately 1980 through at least August 1985, the plaintiff lived under the constant threat, fear and reasonable apprehension of physical injury or death if she left the 3HO organization or failed or refused to obey the directives and commands of Bhajan, or maintained any outside relationships that were not specifically approved by Bhajan.

69. From December 1980 through May, 1985, the plaintiff also lived under the constant threat, fear and reasonable apprehension of physical injury or death if she resisted the sexual assaults of Bhajan.

70. From December 1980 through August, 1985, the plaintiff also lived under the constant fear and reasonable apprehension of physical injury or death if she revealed to any person her experiences while involved with the defendants cult or Bhajan.

71. In carrying out his sexual assaults, Bhajan was at times physically assisted by defendant Amrit Kaur and at times physically assisted by defendant Guru Ke, who would physically restrain the plaintiff.

72. None of the physical touching or other acts described in This Count were done with the voluntary, free or informed consent of the plaintiff, nor were any of the defendants privileged to carry out any of the acts described in This Count.

73. All of the acts of the defendants described in This Count were done willfully, wantonly and with conscious disregard for the rights of the plaintiff. The defendants conduct in this regard was outrageous, and shocking to the sensibilities of ordinary people.

74. As a direct, proximate and foreseeable consequence of the defendants acts as set forth above, the plaintiff has suffered the physical, psychological and economic injury set forth above at paragraphs 62 and 63, above. In addition the plaintiff suffered severe infections of her bladder, kidneys and other internal organs; injury to her rectum and colon; loss of hair; bloody noses; split lips; bruising over her entire body; swollen tongue to the point where she could not take solid food for several days; soreness and misalignment of her jaw; contraction of herpes simplex and lesser venereal diseases; two abortions; permanent scarring of her internal sex organs and her back; and the tearing of a mole from her back.

75. As a result of the aforementioned emotional trauma and psychological injury, the plaintiff has required extensive psychological counseling and treatment, which psychological counseling and treatment is expected to continue on into the future.

76. As a result of the aforementioned physical injuries the plaintiff has required treatment from a variety of medical doctors and specialists, which treatment is continuing to date and is expected to continue on into the future.

77. As a result of the aforementioned physical and psychological injuries, the plaintiff has been limited in the kind of employment she can accept since she left Bhajan's cult, and will continue to be so limited on into the future....

80. From the fall of 1978, and continuing until March 4, 1985, the defendants held the plaintiff in a state of involuntary captivity through a combination of mental coercion, false promises, threats of damnation and unspeakable spiritual torment which defendants knew to be false, and threats of public humiliation, grievous physical injury or death to the plaintiff and her family if she attempted to leave the physical confines of the defendants various compounds where Bhajan directed she live. Any one of the foregoing threats was, by itself, sufficient to constrain the plaintiff.

81. From January, 1981, and continuing until approximately April, 1983, the plaintiff was watched constantly by members of the defendants cult who wou ld report her every move to Bhajan, and telephoned and checked on nightly by Bhajan or another at the direction of Bhajan. This watch was to prevent her from leaving the ashram at Espanola, New Mexico without the permission of Bhajan, or to report her situation to anyone outside the cult.

82. From April, 1983, until the end of October, 1984, the plaintiff was at all times held under armed guard, and was in addition watched constantly by members of the cult, who would report her every move to Bhajan. This guard and close watch were to prevent the plaintiff from leaving the ashram at Espanola, New Mexico without the permission of Bhajan, or to report her situation to anyone outside the cult.

83. At the end of October 1984, and continuing until July 1984, the armed guard placed upon the plaintiff was relaxed somewhat. She was sometimes unaccompanied by armed guards during the day, but was still guarded at night, and still telephoned nightly by Bhajan or someone at the direction of Bhajan. Members of the cult, who would report her every move to Bhajan, also still watched the plaintiff constantly.

84. From July, 1984, until March 4, 1985, the armed guard on the plaintiff was relaxed still further. Armed guards did not accompany her during the day, and the guard on her at night consisted of the two guards stationed outside her home at the Espanola, New Mexico ashram. The plaintiff was still watched constantly by members of the cult, who would report her every move to Bhajan, and was still called nightly by Bhajan or someone at the direction of Bhajan.

85. All of the aforesaid acts were carried out at the direction of Bhajan, using the resources of the defendant corporations and outside agencies controlled by Bhajan, by Amrit Kaur and others, for the purpose of restricting the personal liberty and freedom of locomotion of the plaintiff....

92. During the period in which she was a member of the defendants cult, the plaintiff was systematically subjected to a variety of extreme, outrageous practices by the defendants, which were designed to cause her severe emotional distress. These practices included, but were not limited to:

(a) Subjecting her to the rapes, beatings, involuntary sexual contact and humiliation described in Count II, above.

(b) Subjecting her to the confinement and mental coercion described in Count III, above.

(c) Forcing the plaintiff to adhere to a regimen of yoga exercises, prayer, meditation and long hours of work which left little time for sleep, and which, when coupled with an extremely poor diet and bizarre fasts, had a mentally debilitating effect upon the plaintiff, leaving her confused, demoralized and unable to clearly think or reason.

(d) Harassing the plaintiff by telephoning her nightly and sending a guard to awaken her if she unplugged the telephone.

(e) Causing the plaintiff to be the subject of scorn and ridicule within the group in order to upset her and cause her anguish and humiliation.

(f) Repeatedly telling the plaintiff that she was now "useless" to men other than Bhajan, and that no other man would find her in any way attractive or desirable or wish to marry her.

(g) Telling the plaintiff that Bhajan saw in her "aura" that it was her "destiny" to be sexually attacked and die in an auto accident if she left the "protection" of Bhajan, and that she would wind up as a prostitute, and ultimately an accident victim, if she left (all of which "predictions" Bhajan knew to be groundless when he made them).

(h) Knowingly and intentionally subjecting the plaintiff to the aforementioned thought reform process which, by design, undermined and eventually completely destroyed the plaintiffs self-respect, self-esteem and that concept of self and self-worth known by mental health professionals as "ego". As an integral and necessary part of this process, the plaintiff was constantly harassed, ridiculed, threatened, berated and humiliated publicly and privately any time she attempted to assert her personal rights or independence, and was made to feel wrong, inferior, sacrilegious and spiritually bankrupt for even thinking about deviating from the behaviors prescribed by Bhajan. Any human faults or failings that the plaintiff had were emphasized and exaggerated, and the plaintiff was constantly under pressure to "confess" her inadequacies and "surrender" herself to Bhajan through the group....

103. The use of extortion and threats of physical violence to affect commerce is a standard practice of Bhajan, and is accepted without protest among Bhajans followers, including the other individual defendants named in this case. Specific examples of the use of extortion and threats of physical violence by Bhajan in order to affect commerce, assisted by the other defendants, include:

(a) In November, 1979, in Berkeley, California Bhajan threatened a follower with death if he did not move from the San Francisco area to Los Angeles and work as a messenger and assistant to the "Secretariat" (body of secretaries) of the Sikh Dharma Brotherhood corporation.

(b) In the winter of 1979, in Los Angeles, California, S. Premka Kaur Khalsa, then a secretary and assistant to Bhajan, later to become the "Secretary General" of Bhajans organization, was threatened with death by Bhajan if she ever left his service (hence, the service of the 3HO Foundation, the Sikh Dharma Brotherhood corporation, and the Sin Singh Sahib corporation).

(c) In May, 1985, in Los Angeles, California, Steven Epstein of San Antonio, Texas, was a follower of Bhajan, and was contributing large amounts of money to businesses controlled by Bhajan (including real estate ventures and Khalsa Sunshine, Inc.), and was receiving neither promised remuneration nor proper legal documentation in connection with the transactions. Epsteins wife, Carol, was demanding proper performance by Bhajan and the companies into which Steve Epstein was putting his money and time, and was threatening to divorce Steve Epstein if the matters were not straightened out. Bhajan responded by threatening Steven Epstein with death if he ever "quit working for" Bhajan, and threatening Mr. Epstein's wife that Bhajan, through his organization, would retaliate against Mrs. Epstein if she attempted to divorce her husband. The retaliation against Mrs. Epstein would take the form of harassing lawsuits so that Mrs. Epstein "would never have any peace," the hiring of psychologists to testify that she was an unfit mother for her children and a suit for custody over her children, and Mrs. Epstein being "thrown out into the street with nothing."

(d) In Tucson, Arizona in 1984 Mr. Brook Webb and three others involved in a landscaping company controlled by Bhajan were dissatisfied with the manner in which the local head of the 3HO ashram was running the business. Mr. Webb and the others threatened to quit and leave the company, taking a number of customers with them. Bhajan flew to Tucson and confronted Webb, threatening, inter alia, to kill Webb if he left the company.

-- Katherine Felt, Plaintiff, vs. Yogi Bhajan, by Gordon Reiselt, Esq., Singer, Smith and Williams and Peter N. Georgiades, Esq. & Robert S. Whitehill, Esq., Rothman, Gordon, Foreman and Groudine, P.A.


Personal life

George has been twice married, first to Caroline Parfitt, 1942–96, with whom he had three children: Daniel, Graham (who died in 2003) and Caroline Randolph (Dolphi).[4] He married Barbara Brady Wright in San Francisco on 1 January 2005, at the age of 86.[3]

In September 2007, CBC aired a short documentary about him titled "In the Spirit of Diplomacy," by independent film-maker Marco Mascarin. This piece used elements of a 1975 documentary by Paul Saltzman entitled "Saint Demetrius Rides a Red Horse: James George Leaves India."[5]

Publications

• George, James (1975). Achaemenid Orientations.
• George, James; Blackwelder, Brent (10 July 1991). "Oil Fires: A Middleast Chernobyl?". Toronto Star. p. A21.
• George, James (1 September 2002). ASKING FOR THE EARTH: Waking Up to the Spiritual/Ecological Crisis. Barrytown, NY: Station Hill Press. ISBN 978-1581770902.
• — (22 August 2009). The Little Green Book on Awakening. Barrytown, NY: Station Hill Press. ISBN 978-1-58177-112-1.
• — (2016). Last Call : Awaken to Consciousness (Paperback).

References

1. Fordham, Walter (October 2003). "Interview with James George: June 27th, 2003". Chronicles of Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
2. Cushman, Jr., John H. (25 June 1991). "Environmental Toll Mounting in Kuwait As Oil Fires Burn On". New York Times. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
3. Whittaker, Richard (24 December 2004). "Interview: James George: If Not Now, When? SF, CA 12/24/04". works & conversations. ServiceSpace. Retrieved 1 April2015.
4. "Abstracts 2009: On the writings of G.I. Gurdjieff". All & Everything International Humanities Conference. 2009. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
5. Fordham, Walter (2011). "Chronology: A partial timeline of James George's accomplishments and continuing activities". Chronicles of Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
6. Torontonensis. Toronto: University of Toronto Students' Administrative Council. 1939. p. 418.
7. "Heads of Post List : SRI LANKA". Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada. Government of Canada. 3 October 2011. Archived from the original on 6 November 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
8. "George, James (Career)". Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada. Government of Canada. 3 October 2011. Archived from the original on 6 November 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
9. "James George". Barrytown/Station Hill Press. 2008. Archived from the original on 6 October 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
10. https://www.3ho.org/yogi-bhajan/about-y ... -biography

External links

• THE SPIRITUAL DIPLOMAT short documentary profile of James George at age 94
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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The Lion's Roar: A Yogaswami Story Never Told
by James George
1994

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Yogaswami of Nallur, the Sage of Lanka who lived from 1872 to 1964

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2004 photo of Barbara and James George, former Canadian High Commissioner to Sri Lanka, India and Iran, a brilliant diplomat who was deeply influenced by Yogaswami.

The Tamils of Sri Lanka called him ‘the Sage of Jaffna.' His thousands of devotees, including many Singhalese Buddhists and Christians, called him a saint. Some of those closest to him referred to him as the ‘Old Lion,' or ‘Bodhidharma reborn,' for he could be very fierce and unpredictable, chasing away unwelcome supplicants with a stick. I just called him Swami. He was my introduction to Hinduism in its pure Vedanta form, and my teacher for the nearly four years I served as the Canadian High Commissioner in what was still called Ceylon in the early sixties when I was there.

For the previous ten years I had been apprenticed in the Gurdjieff Work, and it was through a former student of P. D. Ouspensky, James Ramsbotham (now Lord Soulbury), and his brother Peter, that, one hot afternoon, not long after our arrival in Ceylon, I found myself outside a modest thatched hut in Jaffna, on the northern shore of Ceylon, to keep my first appointment with Yogaswami.


I knocked quietly on the door, and a voice from within roared, ‘Is that the Canadian High Commissioner?' I opened the door to find him seated cross-legged on the floor sitting erect with a commanding presence, clad in a white robe, with a generous topping of white hair and long white beard. ‘Well, Swami,' I began, ‘that is just what I do, not what I am.' ‘Then come and sit with me,' he laughed uproariously.

I felt bonded with him from that moment. He helped me to go deeper towards the discovery of who I am, and to identify less with the role I played. Indeed, like his great Tamil contemporary, Ramana Maharshi of Arunachalam, in South India, Yogaswami used ‘Who am I?' as a mantra, as well as an existential question. He often chided me for running around the country, attending one official function after another, and neglecting the practice of sitting in meditation. When I got back to Ceylon from home leave in Canada, after visiting, on the way around the planet, France, Canada, Japan, Indonesia and Cambodia, he sat me down firmly beside him and told me that I was spending my life-energy uselessly, looking always outward for what could only be found within.

‘You are all the time running about, doing something, instead of sitting still and just being. Why don't you sit at home and confront yourself as you are, asking yourself, not me, "Who am I? Who am I? Who am I? Who am I? Who am I? Who am I?"‘ His voice rose in pitch, volume and intensity with each repetition of the question until he was screaming at me with all his force.

Then suddenly he was silent, very powerfully silent, filling the room with his unspoken teaching that went far beyond words, banishing my turning thoughts with his simple presence. In that moment I knew without any question that I AM; and that that is enough; no ‘who' needed. I just am. It is a lesson I keep having to relearn, re-experience, for the ‘doing' and the ‘thinking' takes me over again and again as soon as I forget.

Another time, my wife and I brought our three children to see Yogaswami. Turning to the children, he asked each of them, ‘How old are you?' Our daughter said, ‘Nine,' and the boys, ‘Eleven' and ‘Thirteen.' To each in turn Yogaswami replied solemnly, ‘I am the same age as you.' When the children protested that he couldn't be three different ages at once, and that he must be much older than their grandfather, Yogaswami just laughed, and winked at us, to see if we understood.

At the time, we took it as his joke with the children, but slowly we came to see that he meant something profound, which it was for us to decipher. Now I think this was his way of saying indirectly that although the body may be of very different ages on its way from birth to death, something just as real as the body, and for which the body is only a vehicle, always was and always will be. In that sense, we are in essence all ‘the same age.'

After I had met Yogaswami many times, I learned to prepare my questions carefully. One day, when I had done so, I approached his hut, took off my shoes, went in and sat down on a straw mat on the earth floor, while he watched me with the attention that never seemed to fail him. ‘Swami,' I began, ‘I think…' ‘Already wrong!' he thundered. And my mind again went into the nonconceptual state that he was such a master at invoking, clearing the way for being.

Though the state desired was thoughtless and wordless, he taught through a few favorite aphorisms in pithy expressions, to be plumbed later in silence. Three of these aphorisms I shall report here: ‘Just be!' or ‘Summa iru' when he said it in Tamil. ‘There is not even one thing wrong.' ‘It is all perfect from the beginning.' He applied these statements to the individual and to the cosmos. Order was a truth deeper than disorder. We don't have to develop or do anything, because, essentially, in our being, we are perfectly in order here and now, when we are here and now.

Looking at the world as it is now, thirty years after his death, I wonder if he would utter the same aphorisms with the same conviction today. I expect he would, challenging us to go still deeper to understand what he meant. Reality cannot be imperfect or wrong; only we can be both wrong and imperfect, when we are not real, when we are not now!
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Jul 10, 2019 3:31 am

Jeanne de Salzmann
Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/9/19

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Jeanne de Salzmann born Jeanne-Marie Allemand often addressed as Madame de Salzmann (January 26, 1889, Reims – May 24, 1990, Paris) was the daughter of the famous Swiss architect Jules Louis Allemand and of Marie Louise Matignon. She was a French-Swiss dance teacher and a close pupil of the spiritual teacher G. I. Gurdjieff, recognized as his deputy by many of Gurdjieff's other pupils. She was responsible for transmitting the movements and his teaching through the Gurdjieff Institute of Paris, the Gurdjieff Foundation of New York City, the Gurdjieff Society in London and the Fundación Gurdjieff of Caracas, which she founded or helped founding, as well as other formal and informal groups throughout the world.

Madame de Salzmann began her career at the Conservatory of Geneva, studying piano. Later a student of Émile Jaques-Dalcroze in Germany from 1912, she taught dance and rhythmic movements. She met her husband Alexandre de Salzmann in Hellerau at Dalcroze's Institute. They married on September 6 in Geneva. With him she had a daughter, Nathalie de Salzmann (1919-2007). The First World War caused the closure of Dalcroze's Institute and Jeanne and her husband Alexandre moved to Tiflis, Georgia where she continued to teach.

In 1919, Thomas de Hartmann introduced the de Salzmanns to George Gurdjieff, a relationship that would last until Gurdjieff's death in 1949. She worked with Gurdjieff for nearly 30 years.

She led the Gurdjieff Institute of Paris and continued Gurdjieff's teachings, emphasizing work with the movements, until she died, 101 years old, in 1990.

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Jeanne de Salzmann played a major role in realizing the 1977 movie "Meetings with Remarkable Men" by Peter Brook.

She was buried at Cimetière de Plainpalais in Geneva.[1]

After her death, her son Michel de Salzmann (1923-2001) took over the leadership of the organization and a book, The Reality of Being, was made, faithful to the notebooks she kept for 40 years, witnessing her work and teaching after Gurdjieff died [2]

References

1. Ana Maria Wangeman and Jean Pian, "Jeanne de Salzmann, le mouvement vers l'Être", in Basarab Nicolescu (Ed.), René Daumal et l'enseignement de Gurdjieff (Bois d'Orion Editions, France, 2015), p. 237-246
2. Jeanne de Salzmann, The Reality of Being - The Fourth Way of Gurdjieff (Shambala, Boston§London, 2010)
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Jul 10, 2019 5:39 am

Biddulph Old Hall
by Staffordshire Gardens & Parks Trust (sgpt.org.uk)
April 12, 2018

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Biddulph Old Hall is now in private ownership. It was a royalist stronghold during the English Civil War, a fortification that was laid siege to by the Model Army of Cromwell. It’s worth going back, though, to the the Tudor reign of Henry VIII, when after the conversion to the Church of England there were still many Catholics that continued their methods of worship secretively and were pretty much left to get on with it unhindered. Then came the reign of Charles I, the Stuart monarch whose changing policies and Anglican reforms drew out many Catholic sympathisers to his side.

By and large the conflicts and battles of the Civil War from the 1640s were part of a wider struggle for supremacy between Catholics and Protestants in Europe. Prior to the Dissolution of the Monasteries from 1536, much of North Staffordshire’s land had been governed by religious bequest. As for territory in Stoke-on-Trent, the land under the supervision of the Hulton Abbey monks derives from such a bequest by Henry de Audley in 1219.

The Biddulphs were a fairly peaceful family whose strong side had descended from the elder Audley family line. They were rather disinterested in courtly affairs until Tudor times when Richard Biddulph began to build-up the family wealth with investment in iron and coal. Rushton Grange estate in Burslem for instance was seized by coal-master James Leveson. And in 1542 Leveson sold it to a close friend who happened to be Richard Biddulph for £130 – a cracking investment, you might think, for a piece of stolen property!

The principal inheritor of the Biddulph’s wealth was Francis, who really splashed out from the benefits of his ill-gotten mineral wealth: and it was Francis who built the impressive hall in 1558 overlooking the wide valley above an insignificant little hamlet known as Bradley Green. All was well for the next 100 years and the hall looked indestructible until it was blown apart by the canons of Cromwell’s army.

In 1642 the then owner of the hall, John Biddulph, was killed in the battle of Hopton Heath and his son, another Francis, defended the hall for nine days with a number of royalist friends until the infamous cannon, Roaring Meg, eventually resulted in total defeat.

Over the years new families came to invest in Biddulph’s wealth of iron and coal; families such as the Bateman’s and the Heaths – mineral millionaires who created beautiful gardens to their fabulous houses like Biddulph Grange that features prominently as a modern tourist attraction.

Meanwhile the town grew along a single street. It was much later that the name Bradley Green was dropped in favour of the adopted the name, Biddulph, during which time Biddulph Old Hall was occupied in turn by a collective of Trappist monks, after which a reclusive family name Smith took it over where they lived in seclusion in more recent times.

It is great to see how much the current owners have invested in a wonderful job of restoration. These are some pictures I was permitted took take when I visited in 2005.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Jul 10, 2019 5:40 am

A Tour of Biddulph Old Hall: Rigdzin Shikpo takes us on a tour of Biddulph Old Hall in Staffordshire, England. Biddulph Old Hall is the site of some of Trungpa Rinpoche's early teachings in the UK.
by Rigdzin Shikpo
chronicleproject.com
April 25, 2018

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

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EDITOR Dr Desmond Biddulph
President Dr Desmond Biddulph
REGISTRAR Odin Biddulph

The Buddhist Society at Ninety
by Dr Desmond Biddulph

-- The 90th Anniversary of The Buddhist Society 1924–2014, by The Buddhist Society


[Edwin] Arnold took a position as a schoolmaster at King Edward's School, Birmingham for several years. In 1855, he married Catharine Elizabeth Biddulph (1831-1864), and the couple had four children - Edwin, Julian, Katharine, and Arthur. In 1856 he accepted a post in India as Principal of the Government Sanskrit College at Poona and served there for seven years, returning to England with his wife because of her ill health. [1]

Catharine died in 1864 shortly after Arthur's birth.

-- Edwin Arnold, by Theosophy Wikipedia


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Oxford to Staffordshie: 2h (110.9 mi) via M40; 2h 41 min (126.4 mi) via M5


A Visit to Biddulph Old Hall, July 2013

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To celebrate 50 years of Chogyam Trungpa's arrival in the UK Rigdzin Shikpo visited Biddulph Old Hall where he received many precious teachings from Trungpa Rinpoche.

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[Rigdzin Shikpo] So it was in this tower, "The Tower of England," it was called, that Trungpa Rinpoche did his major teachings with us, teaching on Maha Ati, teaching on the basis of the Bodhisattva vow, and the shetas{?} that go with that. And teachings on the Wheel of Life as well, which seemed supremely important.

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There was a rumor that this was haunted, that this room was haunted. And particularly this part here. And there was something quite specific about it at one time. And people said there was a man with a wooden leg coming down the steps.

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So I kind of thought about that, and thought it was rubbish.

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But then I heard it myself. [Clap, clap, clap, clap] And then you think, "He must be coming. The next step or two, he'll be here, coming through the curtain."

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Nothing.

So you raise up your courage, and lift the curtain, and there was a painting that Rinpoche had put on the wall, and the wind is blowing to make it seem even more eerie.

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And the [wooden dowel] at the end of the thangka is just blowing to and fro, and hitting the stone wall on the side. And that counted for the sound like a man with a wooden leg coming down the steps.

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[Old English Joke] My friend said he knew a man with a wooden leg named Smith. So I asked him, "What was the name of his other leg?"


So that was the ghost. [Laughs]

It was much later that the name Bradley Green was dropped in favour of the adopted the name, Biddulph, during which time Biddulph Old Hall was occupied in turn by a collective of Trappist monks, after which a reclusive family name Smith took it over where they lived in seclusion in more recent times.

-- Biddulph Old Hall, by sgpt.org.uk


I always told Rinpoche, everybody thinks the whole place is haunted, what do you think? He said, "No, it's not haunted. There's no problem about that."

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Trungpa Rinpoche felt that there was something very special about this place. He felt it had a very open quality, and that it was a good place to not only meditate but to do the introductions to certain kinds of truths, that you could do it here. It had the right kind of feel. Like you were in a tower on top of the world.

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You're almost like at the top of Mt. Meru or something, and you could look out and you would somehow know that if you looked out at the window you'd have a vision of the whole of the world.

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He felt that he could really open up and teach in a way that he wasn't able to do in other places.

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And he taught some of the deepest kinds of teachings that you have in Tibetan Buddhism here. And though we may have not understood what he taught, at least we had the edge of it.

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And I think that somehow his power of teaching -- it may be fanciful to say it or sound fanciful, but I think there's some truth to it -- that his truth somehow is part of the fabric of the building.

In Islam, Barakah or Baraka (Arabic: بركة‎ "blessing") is a kind of continuity of spiritual presence and revelation that begins with God and flows through that and those closest to God.[1][2]

Baraka can be found within physical objects, places, and people, as chosen by God. This force begins by flowing directly from God into creation that is worthy of baraka.[1] These creations endowed with baraka can then transmit the flow of baraka to the other creations of God through physical proximity or through the adherence to the spiritual practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. God is the sole source of baraka and has the power to grant and withhold baraka.

Baraka is a prominent concept in Islamic mysticism, particularly Sufism. It pervades Sufi texts, beliefs, practices, and spirituality. Sufism emphasizes the importance of esoteric knowledge and the spiritual union with God through the heart. Baraka symbolizes this connection between the divine and the worldly through God's direct and intentional blessing of those that are most reflective of Him and his teachings.

-- Barakah, by Wikipedia


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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Jul 10, 2019 8:23 am

Thomas de Hartmann
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/10/19

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Thomas de Hartmann
Born Thomas Alexandrovich de Hartmann
September 21, 1885
Khoruzhivka, Poltava Governorate, Russian Empire (now Ukraine)
Died March 28, 1956 (aged 70)
New York City, New York, United States
Nationality Russian
Alma mater Saint Petersburg Conservatory
Occupation Composer
Known for Setting Gurdjieff's writing to music
Spouse(s) Olga Arkadievna de Schumacher (1885-1979)

Thomas Alexandrovich de Hartmann (Russian: Фома́ Алекса́ндрович Га́ртман; September 21, 1885 – March 28, 1956) was a Russian composer and prominent student and collaborator of George Gurdjieff.

Biography

Thomas de Hartmann was born in Khoruzhivka, Poltava Governorate, Russian Empire, now Sumy Oblast, Ukraine. At the age of 18 he received his diploma from the Saint Petersburg Conservatory. He studied conducting in Munich with Felix Mottl before World War I.

Thomas de Hartmann was a graduate of the Imperial Conservatory of Music. He studied musical composition with three of the greatest Russian composers of the 19th century: Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Anton Arensky and Sergei Taneyev. His piano teacher was Anna Yesipova, the second wife and former student of Theodor Leschetizky. Most of De Hartmann's compositions were for voice and piano. In 1907, his ballet The Pink Flower, produced by Nikolay Legat with Vaslav Nijinsky and Tamara Karsavina in the cast, was presented at the Imperial Opera. The Tsar was so impressed that he himself granted De Hartmann exemption from military duty so that he might study conducting in Munich.[1]

In Munich, Thomas de Hartmann met the artist, former Sufi student and later stage impresario, Alexander de Salzmann; they were both friends of Rainer Maria Rilke and Wassily Kandinsky. Later, in Russia, after the beginning of World War I, De Hartmann would introduce De Salzmann to George Gurdjieff.[2]

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On November 12, 1906 Thomas married Olga Arkadievna (Arkadaevna) de Schumacher (August 28, 1885 - September 12, 1979), a celebrated opera singer. Olga was a daughter of Arkady Alexandrovich von Schumacher (June 7, 1855 - June 8, 1938) and Olga Konstantinovna von Wulffert (1860 - April 3, 1939), who both died in Paris. Arkady was a high official in the tsarist Russian government in St. Petersburg.

Thomas was a great-nephew of Eduard von Hartmann, the author of Philosophy of the Unconscious
(3 vols.), vol. 1 of which was published in Germany in 1869. This work later became well-known in America and England.[3]

Association with Gurdjieff

De Hartmann was already an acclaimed composer in Russia when he first met Gurdjieff in 1916 in St. Petersburg. From 1917 to 1929 he was a pupil and confidant of Gurdjieff. During that time, at Gurdjieff's Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man near Paris, De Hartmann transcribed and co-wrote much of the music that Gurdjieff collected and used for his movements exercises.[4][5]

De Hartmann wrote Our Life with Mr. Gurdjieff together with his wife Olga de Hartmann, who was Gurdjieff's personal secretary for many years.


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In 1951 De Hartmann and his wife moved to the United States from France. He died on March 28, 1956, in New York City. After her husband's death, Olga collected many of Gurdjieff's early talks in the book Views from the Real World (1973). She died at her home in Nambé, Santa Fe County, New Mexico on September 12, 1979. Both she and her husband are buried in the Princeton Cemetery, Princeton, New Jersey.

Music

De Hartmann's four-act ballet La Fleurette Rouge (The Red Flower) was performed in 1906. Vaslav Nijinsky, Anna Pavlova, and Michel Fokine danced principal roles in performances at the Imperial opera houses of Moscow and St. Petersburg.

He composed the music for Wassily Kandinsky's The Yellow Sound.

The music he wrote with Gurdjieff was later adapted by Laurence Rosenthal for the 1979 Peter Brook film Meetings with Remarkable Men.

In 1982, the Guggenheim Foundation premiere of Kandinsky's opera Der gelbe Klang was made possible thanks to a complete rearrangement by Gunther Schuller of De Hartmann's hitherto lost work. It is not known whether De Hartmann completed a full score but it is clear why Konstantin Stanislavski could not understand the work when de Hartmann proposed it for the Moscow Art Theatre in 1914.[6]

Recordings

• The complete Piano Music of Georges I. Gurdjieff and Thomas de Hartmann, Cecil Lytle, pianist, 6-CD boxed set, [1], Celestial Harmonies 19904-2
• The Music of Gurdjieff/de Hartmann, three disc set, [2]Triangle Editions, TCD1001-1003, 1989
• The Thomas de Hartmann Project',' by Elan Sicroff, seven-disc set of solo piano, chamber and vocal works (Basta Music 3093472, September 2016)
• G.I. Gurdjieff: Sacred Hymns," by Keith Jarrett, ECM 1174, September 198
• Hidden Sources -Gurdjieff, De Hartmann, by Alessandra Celletti (KHA Records, 1998)[7]
• Sacred Honey -Gurdjieff, De Hartmann,[8] by Alessandra Celletti
• Echoes From the Real World - Gurdjieff, De Hartmann, 21 compositions for solo piano; Mario Sollazzo, pianist. [3], KHA Records, Italy, 2015

References

1. Crunden, Robert Morse (2000). Body and soul: the making of American modernism. Basic Books. p. 408. ISBN 0-465-01485-2. ...Thomas de Hartmann had been an established composer in St. Petersburg
2. Lachman, Gary (2005). A Dark Muse. Basic Books. p. 240. ISBN 978-1-56025-656-4.
3. von Hartmann, Eduard (1893). Philosophy of the Unconscious (in German and English). I. K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., Ltd. Speculative results according to the inductive method of physical science
4. Gurdjieff in Tbilisi - also Image of Thomas de Hartmann
5. Nott, C.S. (1961). Teachings of Gurdjieff - A Pupil's Journal. Penguin Arkana. p. 9. ISBN 0-14-019156-9.
6. Hines, Thomas Jensen (1991). Collaborative form: studies in the relations of the arts. Kent State University Press. p. 99. ISBN 0-87338-417-2. ...to see the obscure stage work performed for the first time ever...
7. "Hidden sources - Press Review". http://www.kha.it. Retrieved 2017-12-24.
8. "Sacred Honey |||||| New Album". Alessandra Celletti | official site. 2018-02-23. Retrieved 2018-05-30.

External links

• Thomas de Hartmann: A Composer’s Life By John Mangan
• Thomas de Hartmann page from Gurdjieff International Review
• Thomas de Hartmann on IMDb
• Thomas de Hartmann papers at Yale University Music Library
• Thomas de Hartmann grave at Princeton Cemetery
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Jul 10, 2019 8:49 am

Alexander (Alexandre) Gustav de Salzmann (1874–1934)
by The Gurdjieff Legacy Foundation Archives
Accessed: 7/10/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


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Alexander de Salzmann, Fourth Way, esoteric Christianity, The Work

Alexander de Salzmann was born in Tiflis (Tblisi), Georgia, on January 25, 1874. His initial studies took him to Moscow and, after studying there, de Salzmann left for Munich where he was part of the artistic circle in the German Art Nouveau movement known as Jungendstil; his friends included Wassily Kandinsky and Ranier Maria Rilke. He contributed illustrations to the journals Jugend and Simplicissimus. René Daumal, his pupil, spoke of him as a "former dervish, former Benedictine, former professor of jui-jisu, healer, stage-designer...."1 He was also "a remarkable painter and a recognized metteur en scène, inventor of a new lighting technique...."2 On March 3, 1934, in Leysin, Switzerland, Alexander de Salzmann died from tuberculosis.3

In 1911 he met and married Jeanne Allemand in Hellerau, Germany, where she was studying dance at the Eurhythmics Institute of Emile-Jaques Dalcroze. At the time Hellerau was in the vanguard of artistic and educational development in Europe. In 1913, de Salzmann produced the German debut of Paul Claudel's play The Annunciation at Hellerau.

Because of the Russian Revolution, de Salzmann and his wife moved to Tiflis from Germany. Soon after, Gurdjieff and his pupils arrived in January of 1919. Thomas de Hartman met de Salzmann, whom he had known from their days in Munich. He learned de Salzmann was producing the scenery and lighting for the opera house productions of Carmen and Rigoletto in Tiflis. De Hartmann introduced de Salzmann and his wife to Gurdjieff and they became students. Gurdjieff said of the couple, "He is a very fine man, and she—is intelligent."4

That fall, the de Salzmanns, along with the de Hartmanns and Dr. Stjoernval, helped Gurdjieff establish his Institute in Tiflis and rehearsals began for Gurdjieff's ballet scenario The Struggle of the Magicians. In July 1920 Gurdjieff's group, with the de Salzmanns, moved to Constantinople. In August 1921 Gurdjieff and his students went to Germany. Finally, in October 1922, they went to Avon, France, where Gurdjieff established his Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man at the Prieuré.

At the Institute, Gurdjieff said he "could number on one hand his lieutenants with a real practical streak...."5 De Salzmann was one of this small group. One of his more notable tasks at the Prieuré was the decoration of the stable loft used by the writer Katherine Mansfield, who was dying from tuberculosis; the space had been vacated by Gurdjieff and given to Mansfield when she arrived.6 After Gurdjieff's near fatal automobile accident in July 1924, de Salzmann painted murals in the Montmartre district of Paris in an attempt to support the Institute financially.7 In 1928 Gurdjieff sent de Salzmann and his wife to Germany several times in the hopes of establishing a core group there.8 About de Salzmann and his wife, "Jeanne's flair for dance... Gurdjieff had wonderfully developed and elevated: but the artist's formidable gift had somehow been marginalized."9

By the summer of 1930, "Alexandre de Salzmann had more or less disappeared from the Institute."10 Upon his leaving he said, "I had entered the monastery under the name of Brother Petrus. I came out with the title of Father Sogol."11 After leaving the Prieuré, de Salzmann said, "I can't bring myself to fall in with this monkey-cage agitation which people so dramatically call life."12

Later, de Salzmann, who at the time was making a living as an antique dealer and interior decorator, met the avant-garde writer René Daumal and introduced him to Gurdjieff's teaching of The Fourth Way. The character of Pierre Sogol in Daumal's Mount Analogue is modeled on de Salzmann.

In 1933, quite ill at the time, de Salzmann met Gurdjieff at the Café Henri IV in Fontainebleau; what was said is not known. Gurdjieff's conviction was that de Salzmann, "in the sense of objective art, was 'the greatest of living painters.'"13 After Alexander de Salzmann's death, Jeanne de Salzmann led her husband's groups until 1939 when she introduced the students to Gurdjieff.

Notes

1. James Moore, Gurdjieff: The Anatomy of a Myth (Shaftesbury, Dorset: Element Books, 1991), 127.
2. Basarab Nicolescu, "The Strait Gate," The Gurdjieff International Review.
3. Ruth Sachs, White Rose History, ed. D. E. Heap and Joyce Light (Lehi, UT: Exclamation! Publishers, 2002), 59.
4. William Patrick Patterson, Struggle of the Magicians (Fairfax, CA: Arete Communications, 1996), 59. In Mme de Hartmann's unpublished memoir "What For?" she says the word used to describe Mme de Salzmann was "clever."
5. Moore, 182.
6. Ibid., 187.
7. Ibid., 208.
8. Ibid., 227.
9. Ibid., 228.
10. Ibid., 236.
11. Ibid., 236.
12. Ibid., 237.
13. Ibid., 249.
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