Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Aug 07, 2019 6:28 am

Giuseppe Tucci
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/6/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


John translated two great classics into English: Tibet: Land of the Snows by Giuseppe Tucci and R.A. Stein’s Tibetan Civilization.

-- John E. Stapleton Driver, by Dilgo Khyentse Fellowship - Shechen


Image
Tucci drinking butter tea in Tibet. Photo by Fosco Maraini.

Giuseppe Tucci (Italian pronunciation: [dʒuˈzɛppe ˈtuttʃi]; 5 June 1894 – 5 April 1984) was an Italian Orientalist, Indologist and scholar of East Asian studies, specialised in Tibetan culture and history of Buddhism. During its zenith, Tucci was a supporter of Italian Fascism, and he used idealized portrayals of Asian traditions to support Italian ideological campaigns. Tucci was fluent in several European languages, Sanskrit, Bengali, Pali, Prakrit, Chinese and Tibetan and he taught at the University of Rome La Sapienza until his death. He is considered one of the founders of the field of Buddhist Studies.

Life and work

Education and background


He was born to a middle-class south Italian family (Apulian) in Macerata, Marche, and thrived academically. He taught himself Hebrew, Chinese and Sanskrit before even going to university and in 1911, aged only 18, he published a collection of Latin insciptions in the prestigious Zeitschrift des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. He completed his studies at the University of Rome in 1919, where his studies were repeatedly interrupted as a result of World War I.

After graduating, he traveled to India and settled down at the Visva-Bharati University, founded by the Bengali poet and Nobel Laureate, Rabindranath Tagore. There he studied Buddhism, Tibetan and Bengali, and also taught Italian and Chinese. He also studied and taught at Dhaka University, the University of Benares and Calcutta University. He remained in India until 1931, when he returned to Italy.

Scholarship and reputation

He was Italy's foremost scholar of the East, with such diverse research interests ranging from ancient Iranian religion to Indian and Chinese philosophy. He taught primarily at the University of Rome but was a visiting scholar at institutions throughout Europe and Asia. In 1931, the University of Naples "L'Orientale" made him its first Chair of Chinese Language and Literature. In 1933 he promoted the foundation the Italian Institute for the Middle and Far East [it] - IsMEO (Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente), based in Rome. The IsMEO was established as a "Moral body directly depending on Mussolini".[1] Until 1945, when the IsMEO was closed, Gentile was its President and Tucci was its Managing Vice-President and, later, Director of the courses of languages.

Tucci officially visited Japan for the first time in November 1936, and remained there for over two months until January 1937, when he attended at the opening of the Italian-Japanese Institute (Istituto Italo-nipponico) in Tokyo.[2] Tucci traveled all over Japan giving lectures on Tibet and "racial purity".[3]

He organised several pioneering archaeological digs throughout Asia, such as in Swat in Pakistan, Ghazni in Afghanistan, Persepolis in Iran and in the Himalayas. He was also the promoter of the National Museum of Oriental Art. In 1978 he received the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding,[4] in 1979 the Balzan Prize for History (ex aequo with Ernest Labrousse). During the course of his life, he wrote over 360 books and articles.

Politics

Tucci was a supporter of Italian Fascism and Benito Mussolini.[3] His activity under Il Duce started with Giovanni Gentile, at the time Professor of the History of Philosophy at the University of Rome and already close friend and collaborator of Mussolini, when Tucci was studying at the university of Rome, and went on until the Gentile killing, and the compulsory administration of IsMEO for over two years until 1947.[5] In November 1936 - January 1937 he was the representative of Mussolini in Japan, where he was sent to improve the diplomatic relations between Italy and Japan and to make Fascist propaganda. On 27 April 1937 he gave a speech on the radio in Japanese on Mussolini's behalf.[6] In this country his strong and tireless action paved the way to the inclusion of Italy to the Anti-Comintern Pact (6 November 1937).[7] He wrote popular articles for the Italian state that decried the rationalism of industrialized 1930s-1940s Europe and yearned for an authentic existence in touch with nature, that he claimed could be found in Asia.[8] According to Tibetologist Donald S. Lopez, "For Tucci, Tibet was an ecological paradise and timeless utopia into which industrialized Europe figuratively could escape and find peace, a cure for western ills, and from which Europe could find its own pristine past to which to return."[9]

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Death

Tucci died in San Polo dei Cavalieri, near Rome, in 1984.[10]

Biography

The only biography on Tucci is by Enrica Garzilli, L'esploratore del Duce. Le avventure di Giuseppe Tucci e la politica italiana in Oriente da Mussolini a Andreotti. Con il carteggio di Giulio Andreotti, Roma/Milano: Memori, Asiatica, 2012 (3rd ed. 2014), 2 vols.; vol. 1, pp. lii+685, ISBN 978-8890022654; vol. 2, pp. xiv + 724 ISBN 978-8890022661.

Selected bibliography

• Indo-tibetica 1: Mc'od rten e ts'a ts'a nel Tibet indiano ed occidentale: contributo allo studio dell'arte religiosa tibetana e del suo significato, Roma, Reale Accademia d'Italia, 1932 (Chinese transl.:《梵天佛地 1: 西北印度和西藏西部的塔和擦擦——试论藏族宗教艺术及其意义》, 魏正中 萨尔吉 主编. 上海, 上海古籍出版社, 2009);
• Indo-tibetica 2: Rin c'en bzan po e la rinascita del buddhismo nel Tibet intorno al Mille, Roma, Reale Accademia d'Italia, 1933 (English transl.: Rin-chen-bzan-po and the renaissance of Buddhism in Tibet around the millennium, New Delhi, Aditya Prakashan, [1988]; Chinese transl.:《梵天佛地 2: 仁钦桑波及公元1000年左右藏传佛教的复兴》, 魏正中 萨尔吉 主编. 上海, 上海古籍出版社, 2009);
• (with E. Ghersi) Cronaca della missione scientifica Tucci nel Tibet occidentale (1933), Roma, Reale Accademia d'Italia, 1934 (English transl.: Secrets of Tibet. Being the chronicle of the Tucci Scientific Expedition to Western Tibet, 1933, London & Glasgow, Blackie & Son, 1935);
• Indo-tibetica 3 : I templi del Tibet occidentale e il loro simbolismo artistico, 2 vols, Roma, Reale Accademia d'Italia, 1935-1936 (Chinese transl.:《梵天佛地 3: 西藏西部的寺院及其艺术象征》, 魏正中 萨尔吉 主编. 上海, 上海古籍出版社, 2009);
• Santi e briganti nel Tibet ignoto: diario della spedizione nel Tibet occidentale 1935, Milano, U. Hoepli, 1937;
• Indo-tibetica 4: Gyantse ed i suoi monasteri, 3 vols, Roma, Reale Accademia d'Italia, 1941 (English transl.: Gyantse and its monasteries, New Delhi, Aditya Prakashan, 1989; Chinese transl.:《梵天佛地 4: 江孜及其寺院》, 魏正中 萨尔吉 主编. 上海, 上海古籍出版社, 2009);
• Asia religiosa, Roma, Partenia, 1946;
• Tibetan Painted Scrolls, 3 vols, Roma, Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, 1949;
• Teoria e pratica del Mandala, Roma, Astrolabio, 1949 (English transl.: The theory and practice of the Mandala, London, Rider and Co., 1961);
• Italia e Oriente, Milano, Garzanti, 1949;
• Tibetan folksongs from the district of Gyantse, Ascona, Artibus Asiae, 1949; 2nd rev. ed. 1966;
• The Tombs of the Tibetan Kings, Roma, IsMEO, 1950;
• A Lhasa e oltre, Roma, La Libreria dello Stato, 1950 (English transl.: To Lhasa and beyond, Roma, La Libreria dello Stato, 1956);
• Tra giungle e pagode, Roma, La Libreria dello Stato, 1953;
• Preliminary report on two scientific expeditions in Nepal, Roma, IsMEO, 1956;
• Storia della filosofia indiana, Bari, Laterza, 1957;
• Nepal: alla scoperta dei Malla, Bari, Leonardo da Vinci, 1960 (English transl.: Nepal. The discovery of the Malla, London, George Allen & Unwin, 1962);
• Die Religionen Tibets in G. Tucci and W. Heissig, Die Religionen Tibets und der Mongolei, Stuttgart, W. Kohlhammer, 1970 (English transl.: The religions of Tibet, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980).
• " Tibet. Land of Snows" Translated by J. E. Stapleton Driver. Oxford & IBH PublishingCo., Calcutta. Bombay. New Delhi.

Footnotes

1. On the foundation of IsMEO until 1947, when it was re-opened after its compulsory administration, see Enrica Garzilli, L'esploratore del Duce. Le avventure di Giuseppe Tucci e la politica italiana in Oriente da Mussolini a Andreotti. Con il carteggio di Giulio Andreotti, 2 Vols., Memori /Asiatica Association, Vol. 1, pp. 355-493. ISBN 978-8890022654
2. {{The newsreel Giornale Luce B1079, 21 April 1937, on the opening entitled Giappone Tokyo. L'Istituto Italo-Nipponico, produced by Asahi and distributed in the Italian Cinemas, can be viewed at the site of Istituto Luce in Rome url=http://www.archivioluce.com/archivio/}}
3. "Fosco Maraini". Obituaries. The Independent. 19 June 2004. Retrieved 25 September 2010. On Tucci's mission in Japan and the related diplomatic documents see Enrica Garzilli, L'esploratore del Duce. Le avventure di Giuseppe Tucci e la politica italiana in Oriente da Mussolini a Andreotti. Con il carteggio di Giulio Andreotti, 2 Vols., Memori/Asiatica Association, Rome, Milan, 2012, Vol. 1, pp. 401-418.
4. "List of the recipients of the Jawaharlal Nehru Award". ICCR website.
5. See Enrica Garzilli, L'esploratore del Duce. Le avventure di Giuseppe Tucci e la politica italiana in Oriente da Mussolini a Andreotti. Con il carteggio di Giulio Andreotti, 2 Vols., Memori/ Asiatica: Rome and Milan, 2012, Vol. 1, Chaps. 2-6; Vol. 2, Chap. 8.
6. Reported in the newspaper Il Messaggero of 27 April 1937. See Enrica Garzilli, L'esploratore del Duce. Le avventure di Giuseppe Tucci e la politica italiana in Oriente da Mussolini a Andreotti. Con il carteggio di Giulio Andreotti, 2 Vols., Memori/ Asiatica: Rome and Milan, 2012, Vol. 1, p. 405 ISBN 978-8890022654.
7. On Tucci's collaboration with Fascism see Enrica Garzilli, L'esploratore del Duce, cit., Vol. 1, pp. 283-493; Vol. 2, pp. 5-82 et passim. On Tucci's mission in Japan, idem, Vol. 1, pp. 387-413 ISBN 978-8890022661.
8. Clarke, John James (1997). Oriental enlightenment: the encounter between Asian and Western thought. Psychology Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-415-13376-0.
9. Mullen, Eve (2001). The American occupation of Tibetan Buddhism: Tibetans and their American hosts in New York City. Jugend, Religion, Unterricht. 6. Waxmann Verlag. p. 94. ISBN 978-3-8309-1053-4.
10. Brooks, E Bruce. "Sinological Profiles - Giuseppe Tucci". University of Massachusetts. Retrieved 27 June 2018.

References

• Federico Chitarin, "Le imprese di Giuseppe Tucci, l'Indiana Jones di Mussolini", in Memori Mese-Mensile, October 2012.
• Alice Crisanti, "Il memoriale di Giuseppe Tucci", Quaderni di storia 81 (2015), pp. 267–75.
• Enrica Garzilli, L'esploratore del Duce. Le avventure di Giuseppe Tucci e la politica italiana in Oriente da Mussolini a Andreotti. Con il carteggio di Giulio Andreotti, Roma/Milano: Memori, Asiatica, 2012 (3rd ed. 2014), 2 vols.; vol. 1, pp. lii+685, ISBN 978-8890022654; vol. 2, pp. xiv + 724 ISBN 978-8890022661.
• Enrica Garzilli, Mussolini's Explorer: The Adventures of Giuseppe Tucci and Italian Policy in the Orient from Mussolini to Andreotti. With the Correspondence of Giulio Andreotti (Volume 1), (riv. and enlarged version of the first 2 chapters of L'esploratore del Duce. Le avventure di Giuseppe Tucci.., cit.), Milano: Asiatica, 2016, pp. liii+332, ISBN 978-8890022692.
• Enrica Garzilli, "Un grande maceratese che andò lontano: Giuseppe Tucci, le Marche e l'Oriente / A Great Man from Macerata Who Went Far: Giuseppe Tucci, the Marches Region and the East" English version and Italian version, in Identità Sibillina, Year 2006 -n. 2.
• Enrica Garzilli "L’esploratore dell’Oriente: Giuseppe Tucci", in Il Sole 24 Ore-Ispirazione, 15 Nov. 2007.
• Enrica Garzilli, "Giuseppe Tucci: l’Indiana Jones italiano", in L’Illustrazione italiana, Year 3, N. 1, pp. 84–86.
• Enrica Garzilli, "Giuseppe Tucci, l’orientalista italiano diventato una leggenda: una sola passione, l’Asia", in EUR. La città nella città, 22 July 2010.
• Enrica Garzilli, "L'esploratore dell'Oriente: Giuseppe Tucci", in Il Sole 24 Ore-Ispirazione, 15 Nov. 2011.
• Enrica Garzilli, "A Sanskrit Letter Written by Sylvain Lévi in 1923 to Hemarāja Śarmā Along With Some Hitherto Unknown Biographical Notes (Cultural Nationalism and Internationalism in the First Half of the 21st Cent.: Famous Indologists Write to the Raj Guru of Nepal – no. 1)" in Commemorative Volume for 30 Years of the Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project, Journal of the Nepal Research Centre, vol. 12 (Kathmandu, 2001), ed. by A. Wezler in collaboration with H. Haffner, A. Michaels, B. Kölver, M. R. Pant and D. Jackson, pp. 115–149 (on Tucci's guru, the Nepalese Hemarāja Śarmā).
• Enrica Garzilli, "A Sanskrit Letter Written by Sylvain Lévy in 1925 to Hemarāja Śarmā along with Some Hitherto Unknown Biographical Notes (Cultural Nationalism and Internationalism in the First Half of the 20th Century – Famous Indologists write to the Raj Guru of Nepal – No. 2)", in History of Indological Studies. Papers of the 12th World Sanskrit Conference Vol. 11.2, ed. by K. Karttunen, P. Koskikallio and A. Parpola, Motilal Banarsidass and University of Helsinki, Delhi 2015, pp. 17-53.
• Raniero Gnoli, Ricordo di Giuseppe Tucci, Roma, IsMEO, 1985;
• Giuseppe Tucci: Commemorazione tenuta dal Presidente dell'Istituto Gherardo Gnoli il 7 maggio 1984 a Palazzo Brancaccio, Roma, IsMEO, 1984;
• Giuseppe Tucci nel centenario della nascita : Roma, 7-8 giugno 1994, a cura di Beniamino Melasecchi, Roma, IsMEO, 1995;
• Giuseppe Tucci : Un maceratese nelle terre sacre dell'Oriente, Macerata, Comune di Macerata, 2000;
• Tucci l'esploratore dell'anima, Catalogue of the Exhibition, Pollenza, Arte Nomade, 2004 (in Italian and English);
• "Concetto Guttuso intervistato da Oscar Nalesini", Il Giornale del Museo Nazionale d'Arte Orientale, n. 3, 2008, pp. 7–8 (sul viaggio in Nepal del 1952), now also on-line [1];
• Hans Thomas Hakl, "Giuseppe Tucci entre études orientales, ésoterisme et Fascisme (1894–1984)", Politica Hermetica Nr. 18, Lausanne, L’Age d’Homme, 2004, p. 119–136.
• Oscar Nalesini, "Assembling loose pages, gathering fragments of the past: Giuseppe Tucci and his wanderings throughout Tibet and the Himalayas, 1926-1954", in Sanskrit Texts from Giuseppe Tucci's Collection Part I, Ed. by F. Sferra, Roma, IsIAO, 2008, pp. 79–112 (Manuscripta buddhica, 1);
• Oscar Nalesini, "Ghersi e gli altri. I fotografi delle spedizioni Tucci". In Eugenio Ghersi, un marinaio ligure in Tibet, a cura di D. Bellatalla, C. A. Gemignani, L. Rossi. Genova, SAGEP, 2008, pp. 53–60;
• Oscar Nalesini, "A short history of the Tibetan explorations of Giuseppe Tucci", in Visibilia invisibilium. Non-invasive analyses on Tibetan paintings from the Tucci expeditions, ed. by M. Laurenzi Tabasso. M.A. Polichetti, C. Seccaroni. Orientalis Publications, 2011, pp. 17–28;
• Oscar Nalesini, "Il carteggio Moise-Tucci sulla spedizione tibetana del 1948 (The Moise-Tucci correspondence on the Tibetan expedition of 1948)", in Miscellanea di storia delle esplorazioni 37 (2012), pp. 115–61;
• O. Nalesini, "Felice Boffa Ballaran, diarista, fotografo e cartografo della spedizione italiana in Tibet del 1939", in Miscellanea di storia delle esplorazioni 38 (2013), pp. 267–309.

External links

• Il Duce's Explorer. The Adventures of Giuseppe Tucci. Blog in English including unedited documents such as his letters to Mussolini, to the Royal Preceptor of Nepal and to Giulio Andreotti, and documents on his relationship with Gandhi, Tagore, Giovanni Gentile, Karl Houshofer, Mircea Eliade, and so on.
• Giuseppe Tucci: Life, Travels and Adventures of the Explorer of Fascism: Blog in Italian including unedited documents such as his letters to Mussolini, to the Royal Preceptor of Nepal and to Giulio Andreotti, and documents on his relationship with Gandhi, Tagore, Giovanni Gentile, Karl Houshofer, Mircea Eliade, and so on.
• Giuseppe Tucci: Life and Works, Explorations, Digital library, Photographic archives, Texts' collections at the Wayback Machine (archived 18 June 2012)
• A Great Man from Macerata Who Went Far: Giuseppe Tucci - the Marches Region and the East
• Images of Earth and Water: The Tsa-Tsa Votive Tablets of Tibet - Giuseppe Tucci and Stupa Symbolism
• Giuseppe Tucci: A Sketch of Indian Materialism
• Giuseppe Tucci. Facebook page.
• Il Duce's Explorer. Facebook page (in English)
• Giuseppe Tucci l'esploratore del Duce. Facebook page (in Italian)
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Aug 07, 2019 6:39 am

Rolf Alfred Stein [R.A. Stein]
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/6/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
Rolf Alfred Stein (13 June 1911 – 9 October 1999) was a German-born French Sinologist and Tibetologist. He contributed in particular to the study of the Epic of King Gesar, on which he wrote two books, and the use of Chinese sources in Tibetan history. He was the first scholar to correctly identify the Minyag of Tibetan sources with the Xixia of Chinese sources.

Stein was born in Schwetz (now Świecie, Poland) to a family of Jewish origin in 1911. As a young man, Stein became interested in the occult, and it was from there that his interest in Tibet began.

He received his first degree in Chinese from the Seminar für Orientalische Sprachen at the University of Berlin in 1933. He fled to France the same year.
He obtained degrees from l'École nationale des langues orientales vivantes in Chinese (1934) and Japanese (1936). In Paris he studied Tibetan with Jacques Bacot and Marcelle Lalou. He became a French citizen on 30 August 1939. Stein spent the Second World War in French Indo-China, working as a translator and where he was taken prisoner by the Japanese. He completed his doctorat d'État in 1960 on the Gesar epic.

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Stein was a professor at the École pratique des hautes études, Ve section (Religions de la Chine et de la Haute Asie) from 1951 until 1975. He was a professor at the prestigious Collège de France from 1966 until 1982. He died in 1999. He was married to a Vietnamese lady from the highlands and adopted a daughter of Vietnamese-French descent.

Among Stein's most notable students were Anne-Marie Blondeau, Ariane Macdonald-Spanien, Samten Karmay, Yamaguchi Zuiho, and Yoshiro Imaeda.

Samten Gyeltsen was born in 1936 in Sharkhog, eastern Tibet. He received religious training in Dzogchen meditation from his uncle. He completed his studies in the Bon monastery in 1955, obtaining the degree of geshe, and left with a group of friends to Drepung Monastery, a Gelug gompa near Lhasa. The monastery was known for its high philosophical training.

After leaving Drepung due to the difficult political situation, Samten moved to Nepal and later to India. After working for some time in Delhi, he was invited to England by David Snellgrove under a Rockefeller fellowship. Upon moving to Europe, he assumed the surname Karmay. He studied under two mentors, Snellgrove and Rolf Stein, who both recognized Samten's knowledge of Tibetan texts. He earned an M. Phil degree at the SOAS, University of London.

In 1980 he moved to France, where he entered the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (National Centre for Scientific Research). During his time there, he was awarded with the CNRS Silver Medal for his contribution to Human Sciences. A number of Revue d'Etudes Tibétaines was dedicated to him in November 2008. He also held the post of the President of the International Association of Tibetan Studies between 1995 and 2000, being the first Tibetan to be elected to the post. In 2005 he was a visiting professor at the International Institute for Asian Studies, under the sponsorship of Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai (""Society for the Promotion of Buddhism"").

-- Samten Karmay, by Wikipedia


Yoshiro Imaeda (Japanese: 今枝 由郎 Hepburn: Imaeda Yoshirō, born 1947) is a Japanese-born Tibetologist who has spent his career in France. He is director of research emeritus at the National Center for Scientific Research in France.[1]

Born in Aichi Prefecture, Imaeda graduated from the Otani University Faculty of Letters, where he studied with Shoju Inaba, under whose advice he pursued graduate studies in France, where he earned his Ph.D. at Paris VII. He began work at the CNRS in 1974. Between 1981 and 1990, he worked as an adviser to the National Library of Bhutan Bhutan. In 1995, he was a visiting professor at the University of California, Berkeley, and has also held a visiting appointment at Columbia University.

His research has focused on Dunhuang Tibetan documents, but he has also translated the poems of the VI Dalai lama, and produced a catalog of Kanjur texts.

-- Yoshiro Imaeda, by Wikipedia


Works of Rolf Stein

• 1939 "Leao-tsche", T'oung Pao, XXXV: 1-154
• 1939 "Trente-fois fiches de divination tibétaines", Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, IV : 297-372
• 1941: “Notes d'étymologie tibétaine.” Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient, XLI: 203–231
• 1942 "Jardins en miniature d'Extrême-Orient, le Monde en petit", Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient (Hanoi, Paris), XLII: 1-104 [publ. 1943]
• 1942 "A propos des sculptures de bœufs en métal", Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient (Hanoi, Paris), XLII: 135-138 [publ. 1943]
• 1947 "Le Lin-yi, sa localisation, sa contribution à la formation du Champa et ses liens avec la Chine", Han-hiue, Bulletin de Centre d’études sinologiques de Pekin, II : 1 -335
• 1951 "Mi-nag et Si-hia, géographie historique et légendes ancestrales", Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient (Hanoi, Paris), XLIV (1947–1950), Fasc. 1, Mélanges publiés en l'honneur du Cinquantenaire de l'École Française d'Extrême Orient
223-259
• 1952 "Chronique bibliographique: récentes études tibétaines", Journal Asiatique, CCXL : 79-106
• 1952 "Présentation de l'œuvre posthume de Marcel Granet: 'Le Roi boit,'" Année Sociologique, 3e série : 9-105 [publ. 1955]
• 1953 "Chine", Symbolisme cosmique et monuments religieux, Musée Guimet, Catalogue de l'exposition, Paris : 31-40
• 1956 L'épopée tibétaine de Gesar dans sa version lamaïque de Ling, Paris, Annales du musée Guimet, Bibliothèque d'études, LXI
• 1957 "L'habitat, le monde et le corps humain", Journal Asiatique, CCXLV : 37-74
• 1957 "Architecture et pensée religieuse en Extrême-Orient." Arts asiatiques IV : 163-186
• 1957 "Les religions de la Chine", Encyclopédie française. Paris, tome 19 : 54.3-54.10
• 1957 "Le linga des danses masquées lamaïques et la théorie des âmes", Lieberthal Festschrift, Sino-Indian Studies V, 3-4, ed. Kshitis Roy. Santiniketan : 200-234
• 1958 "Les K'iang des marches sino-tibétaines, exemple de continuité de la tradition", Annuaire de l'École pratique des Hautes Études, Ve section, Paris, 1957-58 : 3-15
• 1958 "Peintures tibétaines de la vie de Gesar", Ars Asiatique, V, 4 : 243-271
• 1959 Recherches sur l'épopée et le barde au Tibet. Paris: Bibliothèque de l'Institut des Hautes Études chinoises, XIII.
• 1959 "Lamaïsme", Le Masque, Catalogue de l'exposition, décembre 1959-septembre 1960, Musée Guimet. Paris: Éditions des Musées nationaux: 42-45.
• 1961 Les tribus anciennes des marches sino-tibétaines. Paris: Bibliothèque de l'Institut des Hautes Études chinoises, vol. XV.
• 1961 Une chronique ancienne de bSam-yas : sBa-bzed, édition du texte tibétain et résumé français. Paris: Bibliothèque de l’Institut des Hautes Études chinoises, Textes et Documents.
• 1961 "Le théâtre au Tibet." Les théâtre d'Asie. Paris: CNRS : 245-254
• 1962 Civilization Tibetain
• 1962 "Une source ancienne pour l'histoire de l’épopée tibétaine, le Rlans Po-ti bse-ru" Journal Asiatique 250: 77-106.
• 1963 "Remarques sur les mouvements du taoïsme politico-religieux au 1 Ie siècle après Jésus-Christ." T'oung Pao 50.1-3: 1-78.
• 1963 "Deux notules d'histoire ancienne du Tibet." Journal Asiatique 251: 327-333
• 1964 "Une saint poète tibétain." Mercure de France, juillet-aout 1964 : 485-501
• 1966 "Nouveaux documents tibétains sur les Mi-nag / Si-hia", Mélanges de sinologie offerts à Monsieur Paul Demieville. Paris: Bibliothèque de l’Institut des Hautes Études chinoises, XX, vol. 1: 281-289
• 1966 Leçon inaugurale, Collège de France, Chaire d’étude du monde chinois: Institutions et concepts. Paris: Collège de France.
• 1968 "Religions comparées de L'Extrême-Orient et de la Haute-Asie", Problèmes et méthodes d'histoire des religions. École pratique des Hautes Études, Ve section — Sciences Religieuses. Paris: Presses universitaires de France: 47-51
• 1969 "Un exemple de relations entre taoïsme et religion populaire." Fukui hakase shôju kinen Tôyô bunka ronshû. Tôkyô : 79-90
• 1969 "Les conteurs au Tibet." France-Asie 197: 135-146.
• 1970 "Un document ancien relatif aux rites funéraires des Bon-po tibétains." Journal Asiatique CCLVIII: 155-185
• 1970 "La légende du foyer dans le monde chinois." Échanges et communications: Mélanges offerts à Claude Lévi-Strauss, reunis par Jean PouUon et Pierre Miranda. The Hague: Mouton. 1280-1305
• 1971 "Illumination subite ou saisie simultanée, note sur la terminologie chinoise et tibétaine." Revue de l'histoire des religions CLXXIX: 3-30.
• 1971 "La langue zan-zun du Bon organisé", Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient LVIII: 231-254
• 1971 "Du récit au rituel clans les manuscrits tibétains de Touen-houang." Études tibétaines dédiées à la mémoire de M. Lalou. éd. Ariane Macdonald, Paris, A. Maisoneuve : 479-547
• 1972 Vie et chants de 'Brug-pa Kun-legs, le yogin, traduit du tibetain et annoté. (Collection UNESCO d’œuvres représentatives). Paris: G.-P. Maisoneuve et Larose
• 1973 "Le texte tibétain de "Brug-pa Kun-legs", Zentralasiatische Studien 7:9-219
• 1973 "Un ensemble sémantique tibétain: créer et procréer, être et devenir, vivre, nourrir et guérir", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies XXXVI : 412-423
• 1974 "Vocabulaire tibétain de la biographie de 'Brug-pa Kun-legs", Zentralasiatische Studien 8 : 129-178
• 1976 "Préface." Choix de documents tibétains conservés à la Bibliothèque nationale complété par quelques manuscrits de l'India Office et du British Museum. Ariane Macdonald et Yoshiro Imaeda. Paris: Bibliothèque nationale, tome 1: 5-8
• 1977 "La gueule du makara: un trait inexpliqué de certains objets rituels." Essais sur l'art du Tibet. éd. par Ariane Macdonald et Yoshirô Imaeda. Paris: A. Maisonneuve: 53-62
• 1978 "À propos des documents anciens relatifs au phur-bu (kïla)." Proceedings of the Csoma de Kôrôs Memorial Symposium. éd. L. Ligeti. Budapest: 427-444
• 1979 "Religious Taoism and Popular Religion from the Second to Seventh Centuries", Facets of Taoism: Essays in Chinese Religions. ed. H. Welch and A. Seidel, Yale University Press: 53-81
• 1979 "Introduction to the Gesar Epic", The Epic of Gesar. 25 vol., Thimpu: Bhutan, vol.1: 1-20.
• 1980 "Une mention du manichéisme dans le choix du bouddhisme comme religion d'Etat par le roi Khri-sron lde-bstan", Indianisme et Bouddhisme, Mélanges offerts à Mgr Etienne Lamotte. Louvain-La-Neuve: Publications de l’Institut Orientaliste de Louvain, 23: 329-338
• 1981 "Bouddhisme et mythologie. Le problème", Dictionnaire des mythologies et des religions des sociétés traditionnelles et du monde antique (sous la direction de Yves Bonnefoy), Paris, Flammarion, vol. 1 : 127-129
• 1981 "Porte (gardien de la) : un exemple de mythologie bouddhiste, de l'Inde au Japon", Dictionnaire des mythologies et des religions des sociétés traditionnelles et du monde antique. (sous la direction de Yves Bonnefoy), Paris, Flammarion, vol. 2 : 280-294.
• 1981 "Saint et Divin, un titre tibétain et chinois des rois tibétains." Numéro spécial — Actes du Colloque international (Paris, 2-4 octobre 1979) : Manuscrits et inscriptions de Haute-Asie du Ve au Xe siècle. Journal Asiatique, CCLIX, 1 et 2 : 231-275.
• 1983 "Tibetica Antiqua I: Les deux vocabulaires des traductions indo-tibétaines et sino-tibétaines dans les manuscrits Touen-Houang", Bulletin de l'École Française d'Extrême Orient LXXII: 149-236.
• 1983 "Notes sur l’esthétique d'un lettre chinois pauvre du XVIIe siècle", Revue d’esthétique, nouvelle série n° 5, Autour de le Chine: 35-43.
• 1984: "Allocution", Les peintures murales et les manuscrits de Dunhuang (Colloque franco-chinois organisé à la Fondation Singer-Polignac à Paris, les 21, 22 et 23 février 1983) ed. M. Soymie, Paris, Éditions de la Fondation Singer-Polignac : 17-20.
• 1984 "Quelques découvertes récentes dans les manuscrits tibétains." Les peintures murales et les manuscrits de Dunhuang, Paris, Éditions de la Fondation Singer-Polignac : 21-24.
• 1984 "Tibetica Antiqua II: L'usage de métaphores pour des distinctions honorifiques à l’époque des rois tibétains", Bulletin de l'École Française d'Extrême Orient LXXIII: 257-272.
• 1985 "Tibetica Antiqua III : À propos du mot gcug-lag et de la religion indigène." Bulletin de l'École Française d'Extrême Orient LXXIV: 83-133
• 1985 "Souvenir de Granet", Etudes chinoises IV. 2 : 29-40
• 1986 "Tibetica Antiqua IV : La tradition relative au début du bouddhisme au Tibet." Bulletin de l'École Française d'Extrême Orient LXXV: 169-196.
• 1986 "Avalokitesvara / Kouan-yin, un exemple de transformation d'un dieu en déesse." Cahiers d'Extrême-Asie II: 17-80.
• 1987 Le monde en petite : jardins en miniature et habitations clans la pensée religieuse d'Extrême-Orient. Paris, Flammarion.
• 1987 "Un genre particulier d'exposés du tantrisme ancien tibétain et khotanais." Journal Asiatique CCLXXV. 3-4 : 265-282.
• 1988: "Tibetica Antiqua V : La religion ingene et les bon-po dans le manuscrits de Touen-houang", Bulletin de l'École Française d'Extrême Orient LXXVII: 27-56
• 1988 "La mythologie hindouiste au Tibet", Orientalia Iosephi Tucci memoriae dicata. Rome: Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente : 1407-1426
• 1988 "Grottes-matrices et lieux saints de la déesse en Asie Orientale", Paris Bulletin de l'École Française d'Extrême Orient CLI, 106 p
• 1988 "Les serments des traités sino-tibétains (8e-9e siècles), T'oung Pao LXXXIV : 119-138
• 1990. "L’Épopée de Gesar dans sa Version Écrite de l’Amdo" in Skorupski, T. (ed.) 1990. "Indo Tibetan Studies: Papers in Honour and Appreciation of David L. Snellgrove's contribution to Indo-Tibetan Studies" Buddha Britannica, Institute of Buddhist Studies. Series II. Tring. 293-304.
• 1990 The World in Miniature: Container gardens and Dwellings in Far Eastern religious Thought. trans. Phyllis Brooks. Stanford University Press. (translation of Stein 1987)

References

• Obituary at Tibet.ca
• Biography at the École française d'Extrême-Orient. (in French)
• Rolf Alfred Stein official website
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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David Snellgrove
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Accessed: 8/7/19

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David Snellgrove
Snellgrove in London, May 2011
Born: David Llewellyn Snellgrove, 29 June 1920, Portsmouth, Hampshire, England
Died: 25 March 2016 (aged 95), Pinerolo, Italy
Residence: Lusernetta, Italy
Citizenship: United Kingdom
Known for Study of Tibet
Scientific career
Fields" Tibetology
Institutions: School of Oriental and African Studies
Website: http://www.dlsnellgrove.com

David Llewellyn Snellgrove (29 June 1920 – 25 March 2016) was a British Tibetologist noted for his pioneering work on Buddhism in Tibet as well as his many travelogues.

Biography

Snellgrove was born in Portsmouth, Hampshire, and educated at Christ's Hospital near Horsham in West Sussex. He went on to study German and French at Southampton University. In 1941 he was called up to do his military service as a member of the Royal Engineers. He attended the Officers Cadet Training Unit in the Scottish seaside town of Dunbar, and was commissioned as an infantry officer. Thereafter he attended various intelligence courses and further training at the War Office in London, from where he requested a posting to India.[1]

Snellgrove arrived in Bombay in June 1943, and travelled cross-country to Calcutta. He was stationed at Barrackpore, some way up the Hooghly River. A few months after beginning his posting he contracted malaria and was sent to the military hospital at Lebong, just north of Darjeeling. It was while he was at Lebong that he began his future life's calling by purchasing some books about Tibet by Charles Bell as well as a Tibetan Grammar and Reader.[2]

Snellgrove returned to Darjeeling, from where he sometimes went on leave to Kalimpong. On one of these visits he took a young Tibetan into his personal employ in order to have someone with whom to practice speaking Tibetan. He also travelled in the small Himalayan state of Sikkim, and on one such visit he met Sir Basil Gould, who was then the British Representative for Tibet.[2] Inspired to work in Tibet, in 1946 after he left the Army he sat the entrance exams for the Indian Civil Service. This was the first time the exams had been held since the start of the war, and the last time they were ever held. Although he passed the exams, he was not able to take up an appointment in India. Having already begun to study Tibetan, he resolved to find a university where he could further his studies. However, as no university offered courses in Tibetan at that time he was convinced by Sir Harold Bailey that a sound knowledge of Sanskrit and Pali would be beneficial, so he gained entry to Queens' College, Cambridge in October 1946. While at Cambridge, he converted to Roman Catholicism, in part through the influence of his friend Bede Griffiths.


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In 1950, after having completed his studies at Cambridge, he was invited to teach a course in elementary Tibetan at the School of Oriental and African Studies University of London.[3] He was Professor of Tibetan at SOAS until his retirement in 1982.

Snellgrove's research subsequent to his retirement was focused increasingly upon the art history of South East Asia. He died on 25 March 2016 in Pinerolo, Italy.

Bibliography

Books and articles


• Snellgrove, David. (1956) Buddhist Morality. IN: Springs of Morality 239-257.
• Snellgrove, David. (1957) Buddhist Himālaya : travels and studies in quest of the origins and nature of Tibetan religion. Oxford: B. Cassirer.
• Snellgrove, David (1958). Note on the Adhyāsayasamcodana Sûtra. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 21: 620-623.
• Snellgrove, David. (1959) The Notion of Divine Kingship in Tantric Buddhism. The Sacral Kingship (E.J. Brill, Leiden).
• Snellgrove, David. (1960) Cultural and Educational Traditions in Tibet. Science and Freedom 14: 26-33.
• Snellgrove, David. (1961) Shrines and Temples of Nepal. Arts Asiatiques 8 fasc. 1, pp. 3–10; fasc. 2, pp. 93–120.
• Snellgrove, David. (1961) Himalayan Pilgrimage : a study of Tibetan religion by a traveller through Western Nepal. Oxford: Bruno Cassirer.
• Snellgrove, David. (1966) For a Sociology of Tibetan Speaking Regions. Central Asiatic Journal 11: 199-219.
• Snellgrove, David. (1967) Four Lamas of Dolpo. Oxford: Bruno Cassirer.
• Snellgrove, David. (1967) The Nine Ways of Bon: excerpts from gZi-brjid. London: Oxford University Press.
• Snellgrove, David. (1969) Cosmological Patterns in Buddhist Tradition. Studia Missionalia 87-110.
• Snellgrove, David. (1970) Sanctified Man in Mahāyāna Buddhism. Studia Missionalia (Rome) 55-85.
• Snellgrove, David. (1971) Buddhism in Tibet. Shambhala (Occasional Papers of the Inst. of Tibetan Studies) no 1, 31-44.
• Snellgrove, David. (1971) Indo-Tibetan Liturgy and its Relationship to Iconography. Mahāyāna Art after 900 A.D. 36-46.
• Snellgrove, David. (1971) The End of a Unique Civilisation. Shambhala (Occasional Papers of the Institute of Tibetan Studies) no 1, 3-6.
• Snellgrove, David. (1972) Traditional and Doctrinal Interpretation of Buddhahood. Bulletin of the Secretariat for Non-christian Religions (1970) 3-24.
• Snellgrove, David. Two Recent Studies in Buddhism. Heythrop J. 13 no. 3, 307-315.
• Snellgrove, David. (1973) Buddhist Monasticism. Shambhala (Occasional Papers of the Institute of Tibetan Studies) no 2, 13-25.
• Snellgrove, David. (1973) "Śākyamuni's Final 'nirvāṇa.'" Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 36: 399-411.
• Snellgrove, David. (1974) In Search of the Historical Sākyamuni. South Asian Review 7: 151-157.
• Snellgrove, David & Tadeusz Skorupski (1977), The Cultural Heritage of Ladakh, Warminster: Aris & Phillips.
• Snellgrove, David. (1979) A Description of Muktinath, the Place of Promenade, Ku-tsab-ter-nga, Mount Mu-li, the Guru's Hidden Cave and the Sna-ri Lord (text translation). Kailash 7: 106-128.
• Snellgrove, David. (1980) The Hevajra Tantra: A Critical Study, Oxford University Press (London).
• Snellgrove, David. (1980) The Nine Ways of Bon: Excerpts from Gzi-brjid Edited and Translated, Prajñā Press (Boulder).
• Snellgrove, David. (1982) Buddhism in North India and the Western Himalayas: Seventh to Thirteenth Centuries. IN: D. Klimburg-Salter, ed., The Silk Route and the Diamond Path UCLA Art Council, 64-80.
• Snellgrove, David. (1988) "Categories of Buddhist Tantras." G. Gnoli & L. Lanciotti, Orientalia Iosephi Tucci Memoriae Dicata, Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente. vol. 3 pp. 1353–1384.
• Snellgrove, David. Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists & Their Tibetan Successors, Shambhala Press (Boston 1987), 2 volumes (pagination continuous).
• Snellgrove, David. Multiple Features of the Buddhist Heritage. T. Skorupski, ed, The Buddhist Heritage (1989) 7-18.
• Snellgrove, David. Places of Pilgrimage in Thag (Thak Khola). Kailash 7 (1979) no. 2, pp. 70 ff. (75-170?). Dkar-chag.
• Snellgrove, David. (1981) Himalayan Pilgrimage, Prajñā Press (Boulder).
• Snellgrove, David. Review of Meyer, Gso-ba Rig-pa. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 46 pt. 1 (1983) 172-174.
• Snellgrove, David. (1987) Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and their Tibetan successors. London: Serindia.
• Snellgrove, David. (1996) Borobudur: Stûpa or Mandala? East and West 46 no 3-4: 477-484.
• Snellgrove, David. (2001) The Relationship of Buddhism to the Royal Brahmanical Cult in the Khmer Empire. IN: R. Torella, ed., Le parole e i marmi (Rome).
• Snellgrove, David. (2000) Asian Commitment : Travels and Studies in the Indian Sub-Continent and South-East Asia. Bangkok: Orchid Press.
• Snellgrove, David. (2001) Khmer Civilization and Angkor. Bangkok: Orchid Press.
• Snellgrove, David. (2004) Angkor, Before and After : a Cultural History of the Khmers. Bangkok: Orchid Press.
• Snellgrove, David. (2006) Religion as History, Religion as Myth. Bangkok: Orchid Press.
• Snellgrove, David. (2008) How Samten Came to Europe. Revue d'Etudes Tibétaines 14: 1-6.
With Hugh Richardson
• 1968 A Cultural History of Tibet. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

Reviews

• Snellgrove, David (1951). The Book of Chao by W. Liebenthal. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 13, No. 4 (1951), pp. 1053–1055
• Snellgrove, David (1952). Mi-la Ras-pa by Helmut Hoffmann. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 14, No. 2 (1952), pp. 396–399
• Snellgrove, David (1954). Tombs of the Tibetan Kings by Giuseppe Tucci. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 16, No. 1 (1954), p. 200
• Snellgrove, David (1954). The Śatapañcāśatka of Mātṛceṭa by D. R. Shackleton Bailey. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 16, No. 1 (1954), pp. 199–200.
• Snellgrove, David. (1954). An Introduction to Tantric Buddhism by Shashi Bhusan Dasgupta. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 16, No. 1 (1954), pp. 178–179
• Snellgrove, David (1954). Manuel élémentaire de tibétain classique (méthode empirique) by Marcelle Lalou. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 16, No. 1 (1954), pp. 198–199
• Snellgrove, David (1954). Deux traités grammaticaux tibétains and Morphologie du verbe tibétain by Jacques A. Durr. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 16, No. 1 (1954), pp. 179–182
• Snellgrove, David (1956). Tibetan Folksongs from the District of Gyantse by Giuseppe Tucci. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 18, No. 1 (1956), p. 204
• Snellgrove, David (1956). The Na-khi Nāga cult and Related Ceremonies by J. F. Rock. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 18, No. 1 (1956), pp. 190–191
• Snellgrove, David (1958). Ancient Folk-Literature from North-Eastern Tibet (Introductions, Texts, Translations and Notes) by F. W. Thomas. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 21, No. 1/3 (1958), pp. 650–651
• Snellgrove, David. (1958). Oracles and Demons of Tibet: The Cult and Iconography of the Tibetan Protective Deities by René de Nebesky-Wojkowitz. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 21, No. 1/3 (1958), pp. 649–650
• Snellgrove, David. (1958). Thirteen Tibetan Tankas by Edna Bryner. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 21, No. 1/3 (1958), pp. 677–678
• Snellgrove, David (1959). L'épopée tibétaine de Gesar dans sa version lamaïque de Ling by R. A. Stein. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 22, No. 1/3 (1959), pp. 596–597
• Snellgrove, David (1959). Die tibetischen Handschriften und Drucke des Linden-Museums in Stuttgart by R. O. Meisezahl. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 22, No. 1/3 (1959), p. 621
• Snellgrove, David (1959). Preliminary Report on Two Scientific Expeditions in Nepal by Giuseppe Tucci. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 22, No. 1/3 (1959), pp. 377–378
• Snellgrove, David (1959). Mediaeval History of Nepal (c. 750-1480) by Luciano Petech. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 22, No. 1/3 (1959), p. 378
• Snellgrove, David (1959). Le parler de l'Amdo: étude dialecte archaïque du Tibet by Georges de Roerich. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 22, No. 1/3 (1959), p. 621
• Snellgrove, David. (1961). Nepal: A Cultural and Physical Geography by Pradyumna P. Karan, William M. Jenkins. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 24, No. 1 (1961), pp. 156–159
• Snellgrove, David. (1962). The Large sutra on Perfect Wisdom, with the Divisions of the Abhisamayālaṅkāra. Part I by Edward Conze. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 25, No. 1/3 (1962), pp. 376–377
• Snellgrove, David (1963). La civilisation tibétaine by R. A. Stein. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 26, No. 3 (1963), pp. 671–672
• Snellgrove, David. (1983). gSo-ba riq-pa, le système médical tibétain by Fernand Meyer. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 46, No. 1 (1983), pp. 172–174
• Snellgrove, David. (1985). Tibetan Thangka Painting: Methods and Materials by Janice A. Jackson, David P. Jackson. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 48, No. 3 (1985), pp. 580–582
• Snellgrove, David (1988). Il mito psicologico nell' India antica by Maryla Falk. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 51, No. 2 (1988), pp. 362–365

References

1. "David Snellgrove interviewed by Sara Shneiderman and Mark Turin in Torre Pellice, Piedmont, Italy, on 20th September 2004". Retrieved 27 April 2010.
2. Skorupski, Tadeusz (1990). Indo-Tibetan studies: Papers in Honour and Appreciation of Professor David L. Snellgrove's Contribution to Indo-Tibetan Studies. Tring: Institute of Buddhist Studies. pp. 2–3. ISBN 978-0-9515424-1-5.
3. "Tibetan Studies at SOAS". Retrieved 27 April 2010.

External links

• Professor David Snellgrove, Tibetologist – obituary The Telegraph, 18. April 2016.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Basil Gould
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/7/19

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Basil Gould and the Tibetan Prime Minister–Lonchen Langdun–sitting in the British Political Officer's residence called Dekyi Lingka

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Basil Gould as photographed by Ernst Schäfer in 1938.

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Basil Gould with Ernst Schäfer-German expedition to Tibet in 1938.

Sir Basil John Gould, CMG, CIE (29 December 1883[1] – 27 December 1956) was a British Political Officer in Sikkim, Bhutan and Tibet from 1935 to 1945.[2]

Known as "B.J.", Gould was born in Worcester Park, Surrey, to Charles and Mary Ellen Gould.[3] He was educated at Winchester College and Oxford University. He joined the Indian Civil Service in 1907.[4]

Gould was a British Trade Agent in Gyantse, Tibet from 1912 to 1913.[5][6] In 1912, the Dalai Lama asked that some "energetic and clever sons of respectable families" should be given "world-class educations at Oxford College, London". The Indian government decided that Gould, who was about to go on leave back to England, should guide the four young boys (known as the "Four Rugby Boys") on their journey to the United Kingdom and assist them during their first few weeks in England in April 1913.[7]

Gould married Lorraine Macdonald Kebbell (1898–1935) when back in England on leave from India on 14 September 1921. They had two sons.[8]

In 1926 Gould was posted to the British Legation in Kabul, Afghanistan. He was subsequently assigned to Kurrum, Malakand and Waziristan and finally in 1933 to Baluchistan. His wife Lorraine died in Baluchistan in 1935.[8]

In August 1936, Gould led a delegation to Lhasa to negotiate with the Tibetan government on the possibility of the 9th Panchen Lama's return to Tibet. Gould also discussed British military aid to Lhasa. Gould inquired about the creation of a British office in Lhasa, but the Tibetan government rejected this. Gould eventually departed Lhasa, but left behind his commercial representative, Hugh Richardson, who had been previously stationed in Gyantse. Richardson was equipped with a radio so Richardson could maintain contact with the British.[9]

Gould married his second wife Cecily, the daughter of Colonel C. H. Brent-Good, of Yarmouth on the Isle of Wight. Gould had one son with Cecily.[4]

In 1940, Gould attended the installation ceremonies of the 14th Dalai Lama in Lhasa, Tibet.[10] Gould brought a gift of a Meccano set for the young Tenzin Gyatso.[11] In 1941, Gould was knighted by King George VI. In 1945, the British Mission under Gould helped to start a school in Lhasa, but it was soon closed under pressure from Tibetan religious authorities.[12]

He died in Yarmouth in 1956, two days before his 76th birthday.[2]

Publications

• The jewel in the lotus: Recollections of an Indian political, Basil John Gould, Chatto & Windus, 1957.
• Tibetan language records, Basil Gould, Tharchin, 1949
• Tibetan Word Book, Sir Basil Gould, C.M.G., C.I.E., and Hugh Edward Richardson, Oxford University Press, 1943
• Report on the Discovery, Recognition and Installation of the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, B. J. Gould, New Delhi, 1941.
• The Discovery of the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, B. J. Gould, The Geographical Magazine, volume 19, October 1946, p. 246-258.

References

1. Surrey, England, Church of England Baptisms, 1813-1912
2. "Obituary: Sir Basil Gould – Authority on Tibet". The Times. The Times Digital Archive. 28 December 1956. p. 9.
3. 1901 England Census
4. "Obituary: Sir Basil Gould, C. M. G., C. I. E.", F. M. Bailey, The Geographical Journal, Vol. 123, No. 2 (Jun., 1957), pp. 280-281.
5. Gould also visited Tibet in 1936, 1940 and 1941.
6. Tibetan Histories: A Bibliography of Tibetan-Language Historical Works, Dan Martin, with contributor Michael Aris, Serindia Publications, 1997, ISBN 0-906026-43-1
7. The History of Tibet, Alex Mackay, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 0-7007-1508-8
8. Lorraine Gould Collection, Lorraine Macdonald Gould, Reference code: GB165-0407, Dates of creation of material: 19-25 Dec 1928, Middle East Centre, St Antony's College, Oxford.
9. (8) The Demise of the 13th Dalai Lama and Huang Musong's Entry Into Tibet Archived January 7, 2005, at the Wayback Machine, Wang Jiawei and Nyima Gyaincain, Chapter VI: Tibet is Not an Independent Political Entity During the Period of the Republic of China, in The Historical Status of China's Tibet, China Intercontinental Press, 1997.
10. Seeing Lhasa: British Depictions of the Tibetan Capital, 1936-1947, Clare Harris, Tsering Shakya, Serindia Publications, 2003.
11. Kundun: A Biography of the Family of the Dalai Lama, Mary Craig, Counterpoint Press, 1998, ISBN 1-887178-91-0
12. Tibet and the United States of America: An Annotated Chronology of Relations Since 1900[permanent dead link], Ken Herold.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Harold Walter Bailey
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/7/19

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During 1936–37 he studied Pahlavi, another ancient Iranian language, with Sir Harold Bailey at Cambridge University. Zaehner thereafter held Prof. Bailey in high esteem.[5] He then began work on his book Zurvan, a Zoroastrian Dilemma, a study of the pre-Islamic religion of Iran.[6][7]

-- Robert Charles Zaehner, by Wikipedia


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Sir Harold Walter Bailey, FBA (16 December 1899 – 11 January 1996), who published as H. W. Bailey, was an eminent English scholar of Khotanese, Sanskrit, and the comparative study of Iranian languages.

Life

Bailey was born in Devizes, Wiltshire, and raised from age 10 onwards on a farm in Nangeenan, Western Australia, without formal education. While growing up, he learned German, Italian, Spanish, Latin, and Greek from household books, and Russian from a neighbour. After he grew interested in the lettering on tea-chests from India, he acquired a book of Bible selections translated into languages with non-European scripts, including Tamil, Arabic, and Japanese. By the time he had left home, he was reading Avestan as well.

In 1921 he entered the University of Western Australia to study classics. In 1927, after completing his master's degree on Euripides, he won a Hackett Studentship to Oxford where he joined the Delegacy of Non-Collegiate Students, later St Catherine's College. There he studied under Frederick William Thomas.[1]

After graduating with first class honours in 1929, Bailey was appointed as Parsee Community Lecturer in the then London School of Oriental Studies. In 1936 Bailey became Professor of Sanskrit (succeeding E. J. Rapson, who had held the post since 1906) and a Fellow at Queens' College, Cambridge;[1] he was succeeded at SOAS by W. B. Henning. During World War II he worked in the Royal Institute of International Affairs.[2]

Bailey retired in 1967. After his death, he left his enormous library to the Ancient India and Iran Trust in Cambridge.

Work

Bailey has been described as one of the greatest Orientalists of the twentieth century. He was said to read more than 50 languages.

In 1929 Bailey began his doctoral dissertation, a translation with notes of the Greater Bundahishn, a compendium of Zoroastrian writings in Middle Persian recorded in the Pahlavi scripts. He became the world's leading expert in the Khotanese dialect of the Saka language, the mediaeval Iranian language of the Kingdom of Khotan (modern Xinjiang). His initial motivation for the study of Khotanese was an interest in the possible connection with the Bundahishn.[1] He later passed his material on that work to Kaj Barr.[3]

He was known for his immensely erudite lectures, and once confessed: "I have talked for ten and a half hours on the problem of one word without approaching the further problem of its meaning."[4]

Selected publications

• Codices khotanenses, Copenhagen : Levin & Munksgaard, 1938.
• Zoroastrian problems in the ninth-century books, Oxford : The Clarendon press, 1943.
• Khotanese texts, Cambridge : The University Press, 1945
• Khotanese Buddhist texts, London : Taylor's Foreign Press, 1951.
• Sad-dharma-puṇḍarīka-sūtra [the summary in Khotan Saka by], Canberra : Australian National University, Faculty of Asian Studies, 1971.
• Dictionary of Khotan Saka. Cambridge University Press. 1979. 1st Paperback edition 2010. ISBN 978-0-521-14250-2.
• The culture of the Sakas in ancient Iranian Khotan, Delmar, N.Y. : Caravan Books, 1982.

Honours and awards

Bailey was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1944, and subsequently a member of the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish Academies. He received honorary degrees from four universities including Oxford; served as president of Philological Society, the Royal Asiatic Society, the Society for Afghan Studies, and the Society of Mithraic Studies; and chaired the Anglo-Iranian Society and Ancient India and Iran Trust. He was knighted for services to Oriental studies in 1960.[5][6]

References

• British Academy Review - memoir
• British Academy Review - centenary
• St Catherine's College Oxford
• Encyclopaedia Iranica biography and bibliography by John Sheldon
• "In Honour of Sir Harold Bailey". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 33 (1). 1970. JSTOR i225483.
• "Obituary: Sir Harold Bailey 1899-1996", Nicholas Sims-Williams, George Hewitt, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 60, No. 1 (1997), pp. 109–116. JSTOR 620774

Notes

1. Brockington, J. L. "Bailey, Harold Walter". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/60739.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
2. C. Edmund Bosworth (27 December 2001). A Century of British Orientalists, 1902-2001. Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-19-726243-6. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
3. Obituary, The Independent, 12 January 1996.
4. C. Edmund Bosworth (27 December 2001). A Century of British Orientalists, 1902-2001. Oxford University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-19-726243-6. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
5. "No. 41909". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 January 1960. p. 2.
6. "No. 41953". The London Gazette. 12 February 1960. p. 1081.

External links

• Encyclopedia Iranica, Bailey, Harold Walter by John Sheldon
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Harold Walter Bailey
Persons of Indian Studies
by Prof. Dr. Klaus Karttunen
February 2, 2017

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BAILEY, Harold Walter. Devizes, Wiltshire 16.12.1899 — 11.1.1996. Sir (1960). British Indo-Iranian Scholar, Famous Specialist of the Khotan Saka. Professor in Cambridge. Son of Frederic Charles Quinton B. (1869–1952) and Emma Jane Reichardt (1871–1962). Born in England, he moved with his parents in 1910 to start a farm in Western Australia. Studied classical philology at University of Western Australia in Perth (B.A. 1924, M.A. 1927), in 1926-27 also Tutor in Latin there. With a scholarship studied from 1927 Sanskrit and Avesta under F. W. Thomas at Oxford (B.A. 1929, M.A.), also Armenian. In 1933 D.Phil. dissertation on the Bundahešn. In 1929-36 Parsee Community Lecturer in Iranian Studies at S.O.A.S., University of London. From 1936 Professor of Sanskrit at Cambridge (Rapson’s successor). During the war worked 3 years in Foreign Research and Press Service, mainly reading Armenian and Albanian newspapers. In 1967 emeritus. From 1944 Fellow of the British Academy. Knighted 1960. Hon.dr. of University of Western Australia 1963, A.N.U., Oxford, and Manchester. He lived to an advanced age and lost much of his eye-sight, but with some technical help he continued working until his last year.

HWB is known as the great scholar of Khotanese Saka, but his wide interests also included Avesta and Pahlavi, Ossetic, Armenian, Caucasian, Gandhārī, Gypsy, and Tocharian. At Cambridge he taught Vedic, Sanskrit, Pāli and Prākrit. He started collecting the Khotan Saka Dictionary from 1934, also freely giving his ms. notes open to his students, until the monumental work was published in 1979. After Khotanese Texts VII he no longer worked on Saka, but on Pahlavi and Caucasian. The Bundahešn edition he prepared remained incomplete.

In Australia, he started his career with a M.A. thesis on religion in the dramas of Euripides. He was a bachelor concentrating most of his time to scholarship. He left chess, because it interrupted research, but continued playing violin. He was a tee­totaler and almost vegetarian. In 1978 he founded with others the Ancient India and Iran Trust in Cambridge, in 1981 moved to its house and left his enormous personal library to it. He travelled in Iran in 1932, then only two short visits in 1968 and 1975. He travelled much in Europe and paid several visits to Australia, visiting on way Sri Lanka and India and once Japan. Among his many students were Brough, Emmerick, Gershevitch, Dresden, K. R. Norman, and Zaehner.

Publications: diss. The Iranian recension of the Pahlavi Bundahesh: a philological and critical treatment of the text with transl. MS. Oxford 1933.

– a great number of articles on Khotanese Saka, on Iranian, occasionally also on Sanskrit, in BSOAS and other journals, in Festschrifts etc., since 1930, e.g. “Ttaugara”, BSOS 8:4, 1937, 883-921; “Recent work with Tocharian”, TrPhilSoc 1947, 126-153; “The Staël-Holstein Miscellany”, AM N.S. 2, 1951, 1-45 (Khot.).

– The Content of Indian and Iranian Studies. Inaugural Lecture. Cambridge 1938.

– Zoroastrian Problems in the Ninth Century Books. 235 p. Oxf. 1943, 2nd ed. 1971.

– Codices Khotanenses. Copenh. 1938; “The Khotan Dharmapada”, BSOAS 11, 1945, 488-512 (ed.); Indo-Scythian Studies being Khotanese Texts. I–III. 257+134+140 p. Cambr. 1945, 1954, 1956; I–III. 2nd ed. 1969; IV–V. 192+?? p. Cambr. 1961, 1963; VI. (Prolexis to the Book of Zambasta) 463 p. Cambr. 1967; VII. Cambr. 1985; Khotanese Buddhist texts. 157 p. L. 1951, 2nd rev. ed. 1981; Saddharma-puṇḍarīka-sūtra: the Summary in Khotanese Saka. 47 p. Canberra 1971 (ed.).

– Saka Documents. 96 pl. Corpus Inscr. Iranicarum, Portfolios i–iv. L. 1960-67; Text vol. 129 p. L. 1968.

– Dictionary of Khotanese Saka. 559 p. Cambr. 1979.

– The Culture of the Sakas in ancient Iranian Khotan. 121 p. Columbia Lectures on Iranian Studies 1. Delmar 1982.

Sources: *M. Bénisti & M. Strickmann, Buddhist Studies Review 13, 1996, 76-78; *A.D.H. Bivar, JRAS 6, 1996, 407-410; R.E. Emmerick, Pr.Br.Acad. 1998, 309-349 (with photo, additional bibliography and further biographical sources); *I. Gershevitch, VDI 1990:4, 208-216; *G. Gnoli, E&W 46, 1996, 491-493; *N. Sims-Williams & G. Hewitt, BSOAS 60, 1997, 109-116 with photo; Who’s Who 1983; short note in IIJ 2, 1958, 164; Bibliography by R.E. Emmerick & D.M. Johnson, BSOAS 33:1 (= H.W. Bailey Fs.), 1970, ix-xiv, with photo; Bio-bibliogr. de 136 savants. 1979, 33-35; Wikipedia. Personal meeting in July 1995.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Alfred Korzybski
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Accessed: 8/7/19

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Alfred Korzybski
Born Alfred Habdank Skarbek Korzybski
July 3, 1879
Warsaw, Vistula Country, Russian Empire
Died March 1, 1950 (aged 70)
Lakeville, Connecticut, U.S.
Alma mater Warsaw University of Technology
Spouse(s) Mira Edgerly
Scientific career
Fields Engineer, philosopher, mathematician

Alfred Habdank Skarbek Korzybski ([kɔˈʐɨpski]; July 3, 1879 – March 1, 1950) was a Polish-American independent scholar who developed a field called general semantics, which he viewed as both distinct from, and more encompassing than, the field of semantics. He argued that human knowledge of the world is limited both by the human nervous system and the languages humans have developed, and thus no one can have direct access to reality, given that the most we can know is that which is filtered through the brain's responses to reality. His best known dictum is "The map is not the territory".

Early life and career

Born in Warsaw, Poland, then part of the Russian Empire, Korzybski belonged to an aristocratic Polish family whose members had worked as mathematicians, scientists, and engineers for generations. He learned the Polish language at home and the Russian language in schools; and having a French and German governess, he became fluent in four languages as a child.

Korzybski studied engineering at the Warsaw University of Technology. During the First World War (1914-1918) Korzybski served as an intelligence officer in the Russian Army. After being wounded in a leg and suffering other injuries, he moved to North America in 1916 (first to Canada, then to the United States) to coordinate the shipment of artillery to Russia. He also lectured to Polish-American audiences about the conflict, promoting the sale of war bonds. After the war he decided to remain in the United States, becoming a naturalized citizen in 1940. He met Mira Edgerly,[1] a painter of portraits on ivory, shortly after the 1918 Armistice; They married in January 1919; the marriage lasted until his death.

E. P. Dutton published Korzybski's first book, Manhood of Humanity, in 1921. In this work he proposed and explained in detail a new theory of humankind: mankind as a "time-binding" class of life (humans perform time binding by the transmission of knowledge and abstractions through time which become accreted in cultures).

General semantics

Korzybski's work culminated in the initiation of a discipline that he named general semantics (GS). This should not be confused with semantics. The basic principles of general semantics, which include time-binding, are described in the publication Science and Sanity, published in 1933. In 1938 Korzybski founded the Institute of General Semantics in Chicago.[2] The post-World War II housing shortage in Chicago cost him the Institute's building lease, so in 1946 he moved the Institute to Lakeville, Connecticut, U.S., where he directed it until his death in 1950.

Korzybski maintained that humans are limited in what they know by (1) the structure of their nervous systems, and (2) the structure of their languages. Humans cannot experience the world directly, but only through their "abstractions" (nonverbal impressions or "gleanings" derived from the nervous system, and verbal indicators expressed and derived from language). These sometimes mislead us about what is the truth. Our understanding sometimes lacks similarity of structure with what is actually happening.

He sought to train our awareness of abstracting, using techniques he had derived from his study of mathematics and science. He called this awareness, this goal of his system, "consciousness of abstracting". His system included the promotion of attitudes such as "I don't know; let's see," in order that we may better discover or reflect on its realities as revealed by modern science. Another technique involved becoming inwardly and outwardly quiet, an experience he termed, "silence on the objective levels".

"To be"

Many devotees and critics of Korzybski reduced his rather complex system to a simple matter of what he said about the verb form "is" of the general verb "to be."[3] His system, however, is based primarily on such terminology as the different "orders of abstraction," and formulations such as "consciousness of abstracting." The contention that Korzybski opposed the use of the verb "to be" would be a profound exaggeration.

He thought that certain uses of the verb "to be", called the "is of identity" and the "is of predication", were faulty in structure, e.g., a statement such as, "Elizabeth is a fool" (said of a person named "Elizabeth" who has done something that we regard as foolish). In Korzybski's system, one's assessment of Elizabeth belongs to a higher order of abstraction than Elizabeth herself. Korzybski's remedy was to deny identity; in this example, to be aware continually that "Elizabeth" is not what we call her. We find Elizabeth not in the verbal domain, the world of words, but the nonverbal domain (the two, he said, amount to different orders of abstraction). This was expressed by Korzybski's most famous premise, "the map is not the territory". Note that this premise uses the phrase "is not", a form of "to be"; this and many other examples show that he did not intend to abandon "to be" as such. In fact, he said explicitly[citation needed] that there were no structural problems with the verb "to be" when used as an auxiliary verb or when used to state existence or location. It was even acceptable at times to use the faulty forms of the verb "to be," as long as one was aware of their structural limitations.

Anecdotes

One day, Korzybski was giving a lecture to a group of students, and he interrupted the lesson suddenly in order to retrieve a packet of biscuits, wrapped in white paper, from his briefcase. He muttered that he just had to eat something, and he asked the students on the seats in the front row if they would also like a biscuit. A few students took a biscuit. "Nice biscuit, don't you think," said Korzybski, while he took a second one. The students were chewing vigorously. Then he tore the white paper from the biscuits, in order to reveal the original packaging. On it was a big picture of a dog's head and the words "Dog Cookies." The students looked at the package, and were shocked. Two of them wanted to vomit, put their hands in front of their mouths, and ran out of the lecture hall to the toilet. "You see," Korzybski remarked, "I have just demonstrated that people don't just eat food, but also words, and that the taste of the former is often outdone by the taste of the latter."[4]

William Burroughs went to a Korzybski workshop in the Autumn of 1939. He was 25 years old, and paid $40. His fellow students—there were 38 in all—included young Samuel I. Hayakawa (later to become a Republican member of the U.S. Senate), Ralph Moriarty deBit (later to become the spiritual teacher Vitvan) and Wendell Johnson (founder of the Monster Study).[5]

Influence

Korzybski was well received in numerous disciplines, as evidenced by the positive reactions from leading figures in the sciences and humanities in the 1940s and 1950s.[6]

As reported in the third edition of Science and Sanity, in World War II the US Army used Korzybski's system to treat battle fatigue in Europe, under the supervision of Dr. Douglas M. Kelley, who went on to become the psychiatrist in charge of the Nazi war criminals at Nuremberg.

Some of the General Semantics tradition was continued by Samuel I. Hayakawa.

See also

• Alfred Korzybski Memorial Lecture
• Concept and object
• E-Prime
• Institute of General Semantics
• Robert Pula
• Structural differential

References

1. Don Shelton (July 13, 1954). "20C - American Miniature Portraits: Korzybska, Mira Edgerly - portrait of three sisters or a triptych?". American-miniatures20c.blogspot.com. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
2. "The Institute of General Semantics » History". Generalsemantics.org. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
3. Alfred Korzybski, Selections from Science and Sanity, 2010.
4. R. Diekstra, Haarlemmer Dagblad, 1993, cited by L. Derks & J. Hollander, Essenties van NLP (Utrecht: Servire, 1996), p. 58.
5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 7, 2011. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
6. "Notable Individuals Influenced by General Semantics". The Institute of General Semantics.

Further reading

• Kodish, Bruce. 2011. Korzybski: A Biography. Pasadena, CA: Extensional Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9700664-0-4 softcover, 978-09700664-28 hardcover.
• Kodish, Bruce and Susan Presby Kodish. 2011. Drive Yourself Sane: Using the Uncommon Sense of General Semantics, Third Edition. Pasadena, CA: Extensional Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9700664-1-1
• Alfred Korzybski, Manhood of Humanity, foreword by Edward Kasner, notes by M. Kendig, Institute of General Semantics, 1950, hardcover, 2nd edition, 391 pages, ISBN 0-937298-00-X. (Copy of the first edition.)
• Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-Aristotelian Systems and General Semantics, Alfred Korzybski, Preface by Robert P. Pula, Institute of General Semantics, 1994, hardcover, 5th edition, ISBN 0-937298-01-8. (Full text online.)
• Alfred Korzybski, Collected Writings 1920-1950, Institute of General Semantics, 1990, hardcover, ISBN 0-685-40616-4
• Montagu, M. F. A. (1953). Time-binding and the concept of culture. The Scientific Monthly, Vol. 77, No. 3 (Sep., 1953), pp. 148–155.
• Murray, E. (1950). In memoriam: Alfred H. Korzybski. Sociometry, Vol. 13, No. 1 (Feb., 1950), pp. 76–77.

External links

• Works by Alfred Korzybski at Project Gutenberg
• Works by or about Alfred Korzybski at Internet Archive
• Alfred Korzybski and Gestalt Therapy Website
• Australian General Semantics Society
• Institute of General Semantics
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Vienna International School
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/8/19

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When I first arrived in Vienna, I had left Gesar in Boulder. He stayed at the Court with Pat because I didn't know if my living situation in Europe was going to be stable enough for him. It was difficult for him to be separated from me. He used to ask Pat to call me so that we could talk on the phone. He was quite concerned about when he could join me. After about six months, I found a nice house to rent, with a garden with plum trees and a beautiful lawn.

When I moved into my little house in Vienna, on Roterdestrasse, I arranged for Pat to bring Gesar over to live with me. (By this time Jeanine had returned to the United States.) Pat and her new husband, Tom Adducci, both lived in the house with us. Soon after Gesar arrived, I took him to a performance at the Spanish Riding School, which he loved. It gave him some idea of what his mother was doing all this time in Vienna.

When he was four-and-a-half [end of 1977], Gesar enrolled in kindergarten at the British Diplomatic School in Grinzing, a very nice area of Vienna. Although his school was conducted in English, he also learned German during his time in Vienna. I think this was a positive time in Gesar's life. He found it exciting to live in Europe. However, the other children sometimes teased Gesar on the bus to school. They called him Quasar, and then they called him Gay-sar. For the winter, I bought him a Russian-style fur hat, and he looked very cute in it. The kids would steal his hat and throw it around the bus.

-- Dragon Thunder: My Life with Chogyam Trungpa, by Diana J. Mukpo with Carolyn Rose Gimian


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Vienna International School
Location: Vienna, Austria
Coordinates: 48°14′41.45″N16°25′54.74″ECoordinates: 48°14′41.45″N 16°25′54.74″E
Type: Private
Established: 1959
Faculty: 174
Grades 1-12 (ELC 4-5, ELC 5-6)
Enrollment: 1400
Average class size: 17-24
Student to teacher ratio: 1:8.3
Campus type: Suburban
Color(s): Blue/White
Athletics conference ISST, SCIS, DVAC, CEESA
Mascot: Panthers
Website: http://www.vis.ac.at

Vienna International School (VIS) is a non-profit international school in Vienna, Austria. The school was built to accommodate the children of United Nations (UN) employees and diplomats when the UN decided to locate one of its offices in Vienna (at the Vienna International Centre), and it remains affiliated to the UN. About 50% of students are children of UN employees and receive education grants, while much of the remaining students are children mainly of embassy staff and company staff. The school has an enrollment of 1700 students, from pre-primary to twelfth grade.

History

International Community School


The first English language medium school in Vienna was set up in August 1955 as the International Community School. Previously, it had been the 'British Army School' in Schönbrunn barracks and catered for the children of the British occupying forces in Vienna. The Austrian State Treaty signed in May 1955 resulted in the occupying forces leaving Austria, so the school transformed into the International Community School under the patronage of the British, American and Indian Missions.

It opened on 1 September 1955 in the 18th district of Vienna. By the end of the year, 150 students between the ages of 3 and 15 years attended the International Community School. Soon the building proved too small for the expanding school, which moved into the 19th district. By 1959, 300 children represented 25 different nationalities in ICS. However, most of the children were American or Canadian, so the British and Indian Embassies started a separate British style school in 1959, the English School, while the ICS changed into the American International School.

English School

The English School moved into Grinzinger Straße 95, a premises found with the help of the British Ambassador, Sir James Bowker, the legal advisor at the Embassy Walter Rhodes, and Vienna's Deputy Lord Mayor, Hans Mandl. The English School quickly expanded and was visited by the British Minister of Education in 1961. Some of the first staff of the International Atomic Energy Agency sent their children to the English School in 1959. The school year 1961-62 saw the introduction of William Kirk as director. In May 1969, Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip visited the English School on a state visit to Vienna. In 1974, some families of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) started sending their children to the school.

Vienna International School

In September 1977, Maurice Pezet was invited by the Austrian Government to start the project of developing a Vienna International School on the model of the Geneva and New York United Nations Schools in preparation for the expansion of the United Nations to Vienna. {Vienna is one of the four headquarters of the UN, along with New York, Geneva and Nairobi. The Vienna International Centre (UNO City) is leased to the United Nations for 1 Austrian schilling (7 euro cent) per year.} It was anticipated that there would be two years of preparation for the small existing English School to be incorporated into the school development plan for the Vienna International School (VIS).

The Vienna International School officially opened its doors on 11 September 1978 to pupils of 60 nationalities. Primary and Secondary were accommodated on Grinzingerstrasse and Kindergarten was located on Heiligenstädter Strasse. A part of Secondary moved briefly to Zollergasse and then Schloss Pötzleinsdorf. A year later, Secondary School moved to Peter-Jordan-Straße, where it remained until the custom built present campus was opened in September 1984 with Maurice Pezet as Director. The then Chancellor, Dr Bruno Kreisky had initiated the idea of a new, specially built school and the campus was entirely funded by the Austrian Government. Dr. Kreisky employed Maurice Pezet, formerly associated with the UN School in New York (UNIS), to manage the project and he became the first Director of the new Vienna International School. Dr. Kreisky was present at some of the opening events at the VIS. The new building was constructed in the 22nd District, two U-Bahn (underground) stops from the VIC, and opened in September 1984. It is located on Straße der Menschenrechte, two hundred metres away from the U1 Kagran underground station and the Donau Zentrum Shopping Mall.[1]

Facilities

The school is divided into 3 wings. A Primary and Secondary area, an administrative wing and a separate building for Pre-Primary.The school also has an outdoor ecology area. Facilities include:

• 5 gyms
• 1 Theater (The William Kirk Theatre)[2]
• 2 well-stocked libraries (one for primary school, and one for secondary school)
• Numerous computer labs and a wireless network to support work on laptops for Secondary students.

Outside facilities include:

• Artificial turf field
• 2 grass courts
• 1 large paved court
• 380 meters Athletic track
• 3 playgrounds

Modernizations

The school is recently undergoing a refurbishment project, modernizing many parts of the campus. These have included (list not complete):

• Construction of students study lounges 2012
• Theatre renovation project 2013
• Major investment in bathroom facilities 2010 - 2013
• Upgrading of 6 science labs with a donation from Borealis, July 2008.
• Preparing an adjacent field to be used for PE lessons, July 2008.
• Establishing a pond, May 2010
• Upgrading of 2 computer labs, April 2009
• Refurbishing the athletics track, May 2008.

School Day

The school day starts at 8:30 for Primary 8:27 for Secondary and ends at 14:55 for the Primary school and at 15:15 for the Secondary school. For Grade 11/12, some subjects last until 16:00. In the Secondary school, there are 8 periods per day, each 40 minutes long, with 3-minute intervals to get to class to class, a 20-minute break at 10:00 and a 45-minute lunch break from 12:20-13:05. Grades 6-8 have separate lunch breaks than 9-12. Grades 6-8 have lunch breaks from 12:21- 13:04 and 9-12's have lunch breaks from 13:04-14:49. The Primary School has 7 periods a day, with a rough 1-hour lunch break at 11:40- 11:45 and a 20-minute break at 10:00-10:20.

Academics

VIS offers all three programs of the International Baccalaureate (IB) - International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme (IBPYP), International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme (IBMYP) and the IB Diploma Programme (IBDP). The school has offered the IB Diploma programme since 1984.

Accreditation

The school has an IB World School. It is also accredited by the Council of International Schools (CIS).

Graduation requirements and courses

For the IB Diploma, students must select one each from the following groups. The following subjects were offered at VIS as of 2015:

Group 1: Language 1

• English A Literature HL & SL
• English A Language and Literature HL & SL
• German A Literature HL & SL
• German A Language and Literature HL & SL
It is also possible to study a privately taught mother tongue as Group 1 language at HL or SL

Group 2: Language 2

• English B HL & SL
• German B HL & SL
• German ab initio SL
• French B HL & SL
• Spanish B HL & SL

Group 3: Individuals and Society

• Economics HL & SL
• Geography HL & SL
• History HL & SL
• Psychology HL & SL
• Information technology in a global society (ITGS) HL & SL

Group 4: Experimental Sciences

• Biology HL & SL
• Chemistry HL & SL
• Physics HL & SL
• Design Technology HL & SL
• Computer Science HL & SL
• Environmental Systems and Societies SL (transdisciplinary course)

Group 5: Mathematics

• Mathematics HL & SL
• Mathematical Studies SL

Group 6: The Arts

• Music HL & SL
• Theatre HL & SL
• Visual Arts HL & SL
• Film HL & SL

Rather than taking an arts course, students may opt to take another subject from Groups 1 to 5 as their 6th subject

Camps & trips

Additionally to one-day excursions starting in Pre-Primary, the school offers yearly whole-grade camps from Grades 2-9 and specialized trips from Grade 10-12.

• Grade 2: Applehof
• Grade 3: Annaberg
• Grade 4: Illmitz
• Grade 5: Radstadt "Ski Week"
• Grade 6: Hallstatt
• Grade 7: Wagrain "Ski week"
• Grade 8: Wagrain
• Grade 9: Murau
• Grade 10: French: Champagne-Ardenne, Humanities: Mauthausen
• Grade 11: Spanish: Barcelona, French: Paris, Biology/ESS: Lunz am See, Drama: London, Art: Venice

School magazine

The school magazine is called the Spotlight. It is published four times yearly, with additional issues for student council elections or other special events. A primary school magazine known as The Mole was also started under the guidance of secondary students during the 2012-2013 academic year.

Famous visits

• March 2012: Ernst Fuchs, one of the founders and member of the "Vienna School of Fantastic Realism"
• 19. May 2009: Jane Goodall
• 15. June 2009: Sr. Lucy Kurien, founder of MAHER

Famous alumni

• Salam Pax
• Tobias Ellwood, Foreign Minister, United Kingdom

Athletics

Sports


VIS offers the following teams during the year,[3] in addition to other sports:

• Season 1: Soccer, HS Volleyball, Cross Country
• Season 2: Basketball, Alpine Skiing, Swimming, Sr Rugby
• Season 3: Golf, Softball, Track & Field, MS Volleyball, MS & Jr Rugby, HS Tennis

Conferences

VIS participates in the following athletics conferences:

• Danube Valley Athletics Conference (DVAC)
• International School Sports Tournament (ISST)
• Sports Council of International Schools (SCIS)
• Central and Eastern European Schools Association (CEESA)

In addition to this, VIS traditionally organizes the annual Hauser Kaibling Race in Haus im Entstal between international schools in Austria, Germany and Switzerland.

Charity

The school has a strong engagement in local and global charital events. One of its main charities is Maher.

2004 Tsunami Disaster Response

The school responded to the 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami and focused their efforts on helping to rebuild a school in Indonesia which had been hit hard by the disaster.

Fairtrade

VIS also operates a Fairtrade group aiming to promote the purchase of products that tries to guarantee a better return and quality of life for farmers in lesser economically developed countries.

Alumni

There are multiple alumni pages. These include:

• a reunion section on the website
• a dedicated website
• a Facebook page

Scouting

Vienna International School is the home of Vienna International Scout Group 88 (German: Wien 88-Internationale Pfadfindergruppe). The Scout group is affiliated to Boy Scouts and Girl Guides of Austria. It is one of a few English-speaking groups in Vienna but the only one within the Austrian Scout Association which is part of the world associations (WAGGGS and WOSM). It was founded in 1980 and was offered as an afternoon free time activity to pupils and students of the VIS of primary and secondary level first. Over the years children from other bilingual schools around joined in. Meanwhile, the scouting meetings happen offsite but the VIS still supports the group and the volunteer leaders team.

References

1. VIS School History
2. http://www.vis.ac.at/show_content2.php?s2id=40
3. "VIS Competitive Sports Programme". VIS Website. Vienna International School. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2013.

External links

• Official website
• Scouting Group Site
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Aug 08, 2019 10:00 pm

Ashoka Mukpo
by linkedin.com
Accessed: 8/8/19

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Ashoka Mukpo
Journalist
Brooklyn, New York
About
Journalist and researcher currently working as a staff reporter at the ACLU. Formerly freelance in West Africa - experience in documentary news production and investigative reporting, background in human rights research and advocacy. Publication list includes narrative feature writing, breaking news, and analysis pieces. Fieldwork experience across West Africa, research and advocacy contract work for aid and peace-building organizations including the United Nations, International Alert, Action Aid, and others.

Research Consultant - International Development and Peace-building Policy
Dates Employed 2013 – Present
Employment Duration 6 yrs
Freelance field researcher and program evaluation consultant for international aid organizations, including the United Nations, International Alert, Action Aid, Education International, and others. Specialization in conflict dynamics, livelihood mapping, agriculture, and natural resource management. Experience designing and executing field research in remote/challenging areas, running focus group discussions, and carrying out stakeholder interviews with government officials, community leaders, and local organizations to map impact of aid programming among different groups at various socio-political levels. Practical familiarity with conflict analysis tools, baseline research, gender analysis, and OECD DAC Criteria for evaluations. Specialization in West Africa.

Investigative Researcher
Company Name Sustainable Development Institute
Dates Employed Sep 2012 – May 2014
Employment Duration 1 yr 9 mos
Location Monrovia, Liberia
• Worked as investigative researcher and project manager for Liberian watchdog organization that publicizes corruption and abuse in mining, plantation expansion, and logging projects.
• Worked closely with Silas Siakor, winner of the 2005 Goldman Environmental Prize.
• Covered community rights and corporate governance in the oil palm, forestry, oil, and mining sectors.
• Led field investigations to rural areas, compiled findings into briefing papers and advocacy reports.
• Managed M&E for multiple projects and supervised small team of staff members
• Acted as media contact for Western journalists.
• Led rapid-response missions.


Senior Associate
Company Name Human Rights Watch
Dates Employed Apr 2006 – May 2009
Employment Duration 3 yrs 2 mos
Location Greater New York City Area
• Logistical support provided to two units within Human Rights Watch: one that operated as a rapid response team to crises and humanitarian emergencies, and another that focused on conditions inside prisons in the United States
• Drafted letters, op-eds, and policy briefing papers.
• Proofread reports up to institutional publication quality.
• Designed a mechanism for responding to prisoner mail, successfully found representation for a number of inmates facing egregious abuses.

Education
London School of Economics and Political Science
Degree Name Masters in Public Administration
Field Of Study Political Economy
Dates attended or expected graduation 2011 – 2012

Columbia University - School of International and Public Affairs
Degree Name Masters in International Affairs

Field Of Study Human Rights and International Conflict Resolution

Dates attended or expected graduation 2010 – 2011

Licenses & Certifications
AKE International
Hostile Environment Training
Issuing authority AKE International
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Aug 08, 2019 10:02 pm

Is Human Rights Watch Too Closely Aligned With US Foreign Policy?: It has ignored repression by regimes close to Washington and dismissed criticism—by Nobel laureates—of its conflicts of interest.
by Mark Weisbrot
The Nation
September 23, 2016

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Image
Supporters of Dilma Rousseff demonstrate after she was stripped of the country’s presidency by a Senate impeachment vote in São Paulo, Brazil. (Cris Faga / NurPhoto via AP Images)

Human-rights organizations are supposed to defend universal principles such as the rule of law and freedom from state repression. But when they are based in the United States and become close to the US government, they often find themselves aligned with US foreign policy. This damages their credibility and can hurt the cause of human rights.

Recent events in Latin America have highlighted this problem. On August 29, the Brazilian Senate removed the elected president, Dilma Rousseff, from office, even though the federal prosecutor assigned to her case had determined that the accounting procedures for which she was being impeached did not constitute a crime. Moreover, leaked transcripts of phone calls between political leaders of the impeachment showed that they were trying to get rid of Dilma in order to protect themselves from investigations into their own corruption.

Michel Temer, who has already been banned from running for office because of campaign finance violations, replaced an elected president who had committed no crime. Everything about the process was political—and now the new government is trying to implement a right-wing agenda that was defeated in the last three presidential elections.

HRW didn’t offer the slightest criticism of the impeachment process against Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff.


Part of that right-wing agenda is a close alliance with the United States and its Cold War strategy of “containment” and “rollback” with respect to the left governments in Latin America. And that is where Human Rights Watch, the most prominent US-based human-rights organization—its Americas Division in particular—comes in. HRW abstained from offering the slightest criticism of the impeachment process; even worse, the executive director of its Americas Division, José Miguel Vivanco, was quoted in the Brazilian media—on the day that the Brazilian Senate voted to permanently oust the president—saying Brazilians “should be proud of the example they are giving the world.” He also praised the “independence of the judiciary” in Brazil. Sérgio Moro, the judge investigating the political corruption cases, has been far from independent. He had to apologize in March for leaking wiretapped conversations to the press between former president Lula da Silva and Dilma; Lula and his attorney; and between Lula’s wife and their children.

Vivanco also appeared to endorse the political persecution of Argentina’s former president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, while praising her replacement, the right-wing, US-backed Mauricio Macri. “An institution gains credibility when it is able to confront whoever it may be,” he said, referring to the current prosecution of Fernández. Of course, investigations into corruption of any government official, including a former president, can be perfectly legitimate. But Fernández, her former finance minister, and the former head of the central bank have been indicted for conducting what any economist knows is nothing more than a normal central-bank operation. This is clearly a case of trying to remove from politics a leftist former president who, together with her predecessor and late husband, Néstor Kirchner, presided over an enormous increase in living standards over a period of 12 years. This kind of political repression should be a serious concern for human-rights organizations, but there has not been a word about it in Washington.

Of course, all of this behavior aligns closely with US foreign policy in the region; for example, the Obama administration has clearly demonstrated its support for the Brazilian coup. On August 5, Secretary of State John Kerry met with the acting foreign minister of Brazil and held a joint press conference with him about the positive future of US-Brazilian relations. By making these joint statements and acting as if this was already the actual government of Brazil, when the Brazilian Senate had not yet decided the fate of the elected president, Kerry made it clear where the US government stood. The State Department had already sent a similar signal in May, just three days after the Brazilian lower house voted to impeach Dilma.

And President Obama made very clear his preference for the new right-wing government of Argentina, with the Obama administration lifting its opposition to loans from multilateral organizations that it had imposed during the prior left government, which of course contributed to the country’s balance-of-payments problems.

When asked why HRW hadn’t issued any statement about the Brazilian impeachment, Vivanco responded:

We don’t get involved in critiquing impeachment proceedings and other local political developments, except when they pose a significant threat to human rights and the rule of law. So, for instance, we denounced the coup d’état that ousted Honduran President Manuel Zelaya in 2009, as well as the one that briefly ousted President Hugo Chavez in 2002. But the situation in Brazil is not like these. Whether one agrees with the outcome or not, this [is] a political process occurring in a country with an independent judiciary capable of determining whether the laws governing that process are being respected.


But the impeachment process raised very serious questions about the independence of Brazil’s judiciary, as well as the rule of law, as noted above and elsewhere. And when the Honduran military overthrew President Zelaya, HRW’s Americas Division did very little. It posted a few statements on its website in the months following the coup, but these were largely pro forma. HRW has access to the most important US media, in opinion and news, and can usually place effective, high-profile op-eds when it chooses to make the effort. Yet, in the months following the Honduran coup, there was nothing in the media from HRW. And HRW, unlike the OAS, the UN, and the rest of the world, never called for the restoration of the democratically elected president. During this time, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton worked successfully to prevent Zelaya from returning to office (which she admitted in her 2014 book).

When the Honduran military overthrew President Zelaya, HRW’s Americas Division did very little.


Although it sometimes denounces human-rights violations by pro-US governments, the Americas Division of HRW has also at times ignored or paid little attention to terrible crimes that are committed in collaboration with the US government in this hemisphere. Some of the worst examples include the overthrow of the elected government of Haiti in 2004, after which thousands were killed and officials of the constitutional government were jailed.

The OAS also has a checkered history with regard to human rights—it even played a significant role in the ouster of Haiti’s elected president in 2004 and reversed Haiti’s 2010 election results at the behest of Washington. But the OAS’s Inter-American Commission on Human Rights issued a statement in September expressing its concern over Dilma’s impeachment, and the OAS secretary general—a staunch US ally—issued a detailed denunciation, in much stronger terms, when the impeachment process began. All this is in sharp contrast to Vivanco’s statements on behalf of HRW’s Americas Division.

HRW has repeatedly and summarily dismissed or ignored sincere and thoroughly documented criticisms of its conflicts of interest. These include letters from Nobel laureates, former high-ranking UN officials, and scholars asking HRW to “bar those who have crafted or executed U.S. foreign policy from serving as HRW staff, advisors or board members,” or even to bar “those who bear direct responsibility for human rights violations” from participating on the boards of directors of independent human rights organizations like HRW.

Governments that commit human-rights abuses—and this includes just about every government in the world—often attack Western human-rights organizations or their (sometimes US-funded) domestic allies as tools of Western governments. This helps them degrade the legitimate struggle for human rights and even rally nationalist support for authoritarian governments, or for abuses committed by democratic governments. It is therefore vitally important that human-rights organizations stick to their avowed principles and defend human rights without regard to the objectives of US foreign policy.

Mark Weisbrot is co-director of the Center for Economic and Policy Research in Washington, DC, and president of Just Foreign Policy. His latest book is Failed: What the "Experts" Got Wrong About the Global Economy (2015, Oxford University Press).
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