Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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A. S. Neill
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/16/19

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Image
A. S. Neill
Born Alexander Sutherland Neill
17 October 1883
Forfar, Scotland
Died 23 September 1973 (aged 89)
Aldeburgh, Suffolk, England
Occupation Educator, author

Known for Founding Summerhill School, advocacy of personal freedom for children, progressive education
Alexander Sutherland Neill (17 October 1883 – 23 September 1973) was a Scottish educator and author known for his school, Summerhill, and its philosophies of freedom from adult coercion and community self-governance. Raised in Scotland, he was a poor student, but became a schoolteacher at several schools across the country before attending the University of Edinburgh in 1908–1912. He took two jobs in journalism before World War I, and taught at Gretna Green Village School during the first year of the war, writing his first book, A Dominie's Log (1915), as a diary of his life as head teacher. He joined the staff of a school in Dresden in 1921, founding Summerhill on his return to England in 1924. Summerhill received widespread renown in the 1920s to 1930s and then in the 1960s to 1970s, due to progressive and counter-culture interest. Neill wrote 20 books in his lifetime, his bestseller being the 1960 Summerhill, a compilation of four previous books on his school, read widely among the free school movement in the 1960s onwards.

Early life and career

Alexander Sutherland Neill was born in Forfar,[1] Scotland, on 17 October 1883[2] to George and Mary Neill.[3] He was their fourth son; one of the eight surviving children out of 13. He was raised in an austere, Calvinist house with values of fear, guilt, and adult and divine authority, which he later repudiated.[4] As a child, he was obedient, quiet, and uninterested in school.[3] His father was the village dominie (Scottish schoolmaster) of Kingsmuir, near Forfar in eastern Scotland, and his mother had been a teacher before her marriage. The village dominie held a position of prestige, hierarchically beneath that of upper classes, doctors, and clergymen.[3] As typical of Scottish methods at the time, the dominie controlled overcrowded classrooms with his tawse, as corporal punishment. Neill feared his father, though he later claimed his father's imagination as a role model for good teaching. Scholars have interpreted Neill's harsh childhood as the impetus for his later philosophy, though his father was not shown to be harsher to Allie (as Neill was known[3]) than to anyone else.[5] Neill's mother (née Sutherland Sinclair[3]) insisted on high standards for her family, and demanded comportment to set the family apart from the townspeople.[6]

Children usually left the local school for Forfar Academy at the age of 14, and with his father a teacher, Neill was especially expected to do so. Instead of wasting time and money,[7] Neill went to work as a junior clerk in an Edinburgh gas meter factory. His parents took pity on his hatred of the job, homesickness, and its low pay, and so Neill became an apprentice draper in Forfar. He found the work stultifying and came home after a foot inflammation. Neill tried to take an examination that would raise his pay grade, but could not bring himself to study. Now 15, his parents decided to make him his father's assistant "pupil teacher".[1] The children liked Neill, though he received poor marks from a school inspector. He taught a wider range of topics as his self-confidence grew, and he developed an interest in mathematics from the Forfar Academy maths master. After four years, he tried for teacher training college, but came nearly last in his class. He continued as a pupil teacher in Bonnyrigg and Kingskettle, where he found the teachers' instruction militant and loathsome.[8] He stayed in Kingskettle for three years, during which he learned Greek from a local priest, an experience that increased his interest in academicism and sublimated his interest in priesthood into a desire to attend university. After studying with the priest and the Forfar math master, Neill passed his university entrance exam and preliminary teacher's certification.[9]

Neill became an assistant teacher at the Newport Public School in the wealthy Newport-on-Tay, where he learned to dance and appreciate music and theatre. He also fell in love, and Margaret became an obsession of his. He adopted progressive techniques at this school, and abandoned the tawse for other forms of establishing discipline. Neill was friendly and relaxed with his pupils, and described his two years there as "the happiest of [his] life thus far".[10] He finished his university entrance exams and received his full teaching certification.[10]

In 1908, at the age of 25, Neill enrolled in the University of Edinburgh. He began as an agriculture student, at his father's behest for a well-salaried career,[10] but switched to English literature by the end of his first year.[11] Neill was excluded from cultural events due to his lack of funds, but participated in sports, showed interest in the military, and wrote for The Student (the university magazine) and the Glasgow Herald.[12] He became the student paper's editor during his last year, which opened Neill to a world of culture. He also felt more confident to pursue women.[11] In his editorials, Neill criticized the tedium of lectures and the emphasis on tests instead of critical thinking.[11] He began to develop his thoughts about the futility of forced education, and the axiom that all learning came from intrinsic interest.[13] Neill graduated in 1912 and began to edit encyclopedias and similar reference books. He took a new job as art editor of the Piccadilly Magazine, but its operations were halted by the 1914 onset of World War I,[14] in which he served as an officer in the army. He returned to Scotland, working as a head teacher at Gretna Green School during the first year of the war. The diary he wrote for this year was published as a book, A Dominie's Log, in November 1915 by Herbert Jenkins, and received good reviews for its humour and narrative style.

Neill was invited to join a progressive school in Dresden in 1921. The school moved to a monastery near Vienna in 1923, where the townspeople did not receive it well. He moved to England in 1924 and started Summerhill in Lyme Regis, where the name came from the estate.[15]

Summerhill School

Main article: Summerhill School

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Summerhill, 1993

The school picked up some notoriety and the average enrolment was 40 pupils. In 1927, it moved to Leiston, where it remained.[15]

Neill credited Summerhill's environment instead of himself for the school's reformatory successes.[4] Neill used to offer psychoanalytic therapy ("private lessons", since he was not a licensed therapist[16]) for children who arrived as delinquents from other institutions, but later found love, affirmation and freedom to be better cures.[4]

The Summerhill classroom was popularly assumed to reflect Neill's anti-authoritarian beliefs, though their classes were traditional in practice.[17] Neill did not show outward interest in classroom pedagogy, and was mainly interested in student happiness.[18] He did not consider lesson quality important,[18] and thus there were no distinctive Summerhillian classroom methods.[19] Leonard Waks wrote that, like Homer Lane, Neill thought all teaching should follow student interest, and that teaching method did not matter much once student interest was apparent.[19][20] In a review of an algebra lesson taught by Neill as recounted through Herb Snitzer's Living at Summerhill, Richard Bailey described Neill's teaching technique as "simply awful" for his lack of student engagement, inarticulate explanations, and insults directed at students.[21] Bailey criticized Neill's absolution of responsibility for his pupils' academic performance, and his view that charismatic instruction was a form of persuasion that weakened child autonomy.[22] Ronald Swartz referred to Neill's method as Socratic, about which Bailey disagreed.[17]

Neill was not religious. Despite this, he would flippantly remark that Summerhill was the only Christian school in England when its philosophy was compared with that of Christ. Neill saw the doctrine of "original sin" as a means of control and sought a world ruled by love and self-examination.[23] Like Freud, he felt that children who were denied understanding of their sexuality in their youth became adults who were similarly fearful of their own sexuality.[24]

Philosophy

See also: Philosophy of Summerhill School

Neill felt that children (and human nature) were innately good, and that children naturally became just and virtuous when allowed to grow without adult imposition of morality.[25] Children did not need to be coaxed or goaded into desirable behaviour, as their natural state was satisfactory and their natural inclinations "in no way immoral".[26] If left alone, children would become self-regulating, reasonable and ethical adults.[27] Together with Homer Lane, Neill supported personal freedoms for children to live as they please without adult interference, and called this position "on the side of the child".[25] Neill's practice can be summarised as providing children with space, time, and empowerment for personal exploration and with freedom from adult fear and coercion.[28]

The aim of life, to Neill, was "to find happiness, which means to find interest."[29] Likewise, the purpose of Neill's education was to be happy and interested in life,[30] and children needed complete freedom to find their interests.[29] Neill considered happiness an innate characteristic that deteriorated if children were denied personal freedom. Such unhappiness led to repressed and psychologically disordered adults.[30] He blamed a "sick and unhappy" society for widespread unhappiness.[31] Neill claimed that society harboured fears of life, children and emotions that were continually bequeathed to the next generation. He felt that children turned to self-hate and internal hostility when denied an outlet for expression in adult systems of emotional regulation and manipulation. Likewise, children taught to withhold their sexuality would see such feelings negatively, which would fuel disdain for self. Neill thought that calls for obedience quenched the natural needs of children. Moreover, their needs could not be fulfilled by adults or a society that simultaneously prolonged their unhappiness, although perhaps a school like Summerhill could help.[24]

Neill... believed that the best thing teachers could do was to leave children alone to develop naturally.
Denis Lawton, Education and Social Justice, p. 78[32]


As for "interest", Neill felt it came organically and spontaneously as a prerequisite for learning. Neill considered forced instruction (without pupil interest) a destructive waste of time.[33] Earlier in his career, he wrote that human interest releases emotions that otherwise congests a person.[29] He added that education's role is to facilitate that release, with Summerhill actualizing this concept.[34] Neill never defines "true interest" and does not account for the social influences on child interest.[35] Bailey felt that this omission discredits Neill's position against external influence. Bailey also cited "adaptive preferences" literature, where human interests change based on their surroundings and circumstances, as evidence of how intrinsic interest can be externally influenced.[36] Bailey also dubbed Neill's views on intelligence as "innatist" and fatalist — that children had naturally set capabilities and limitations.[37] Neill saw contemporary interventionist practice as doing harm by emphasising conformity and stifling children's natural drive to do as they please.[16]

Neill did not identify with the progressive educators of his time.[38] They advocated far gentler authority in child-rearing, which Neill considered more insidious than overt authority and altogether unnecessary.[39] All imposed authority, even if meant well, was unjustified.[40] He felt that adults asserted authority for its feelings of power, and that this motive was a type of repression.[40] In Neill's philosophy, the goal was maintenance of happiness through avoidance of repressive habits from society.[40] Despite Neill's common citation as a leader within progressive education, his ideas were considerably more radical, and he was called an extremist by other radicals.[38] Unlike Friedrich Fröbel, Neill did not view children with romantic innocence. He saw their animalistic traits as qualities to be "outgrown with time and freedom".[41] Neill also considered his role in providing emotional support.[16]

Emotional education trumped intellectual needs, in Neill's eyes, and he was associated with anti-intellectualism.[42] In actuality, he had a personal interest in scholarship and used his autobiography near the end of his life to profess the necessity of both emotion and intellect in education,[43] though he often took jabs at what he saw to be education's overemphasis on book-learning.[44] Neill felt that an emotional education freed the intellect to follow what it pleased, and that children required an emotional education to keep up with their own gradual developmental needs. This education usually entailed copious amounts of play and distance from the adult anxieties of work and ambition.[45] Neill was influenced by Sigmund Freud's theories of psychoanalysis, Homer Lane's interpretation of Freud, and later, by the unorthodox sexual theories of Wilhelm Reich. The reverence for Reich appears in the abundant correspondence between them.[46] Neill accepted Reich's claims about cosmic energy and his utopian ideas on human sexuality. In Reich's view, "discharge" of sexual energy leads to happiness, whereas lack of such discharge leads to unhappiness and "rigidity". Although not a trained therapist, Neill gave psychoanalytic private lessons to individual children, designed to unblock impasses in their inner energies. Neill also offered body massage, as suggested by Reich. Neill later found that freedom cured better than this therapy.[16]

Richard Bailey placed Neill alongside William Godwin, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Voltaire, and Robert Owen in Thomas Sowell's "unconstrained vision" tradition, where human potential is naturally unlimited and human development is dependent on environment and not incentives.[47] Bailey also compared Neill's thoughts on coercion to those of Godwin, who felt that regulation through reward and punishment stunted growth. Neill saw moral instruction as a wedge between natural instinct and conformity and thought children were best off without it.[25] Neill trusted the natural inclinations of children and saw no need to externally and purposefully influence their behaviour.[26] Denis Lawton likened Neill's ideas to Rousseauan "negative education", where children discover for themselves instead of receiving instruction.[32] Neill is commonly associated with Rousseau for their similar thoughts on human nature, although Neill claimed to not have read Rousseau's Emile, or On Education until near the end of his life.[48] John Cleverley and D. C. Phillips declared Neill "the most notable figure in the Rousseauean tradition", and Frank Flanagan credited Neill with actualising what Rousseau envisaged.[4] Marc-Alexandre Prud-homme and Giuliano Reis found the comparison "inappropriate" on the basis of Rousseau's views on gender.[49]

Peter Hobson found Neill's philosophy of education incomplete, oversimplified, without a "coherent theory of knowledge", and too dependent on his experience instead of philosophical position.[50][51] When presented with Hobson's position, four experts on Neill and Summerhill considered his assertions "irrelevant".[51] Joel Spring likened Neill's views on the family to that of Mary Wollstonecraft, in that the parents would share power equally.[52]

Freedom, not licence

See also: Freedom versus license

When Neill said children should be free, he did not mean complete freedom, but freedom without licence—that everyone can do as they like unless such action encroaches upon another's freedom.[53] As such, adults could and should protect children from danger, but not trample their self-regulation.[54] Neill emphasised that adult removal from child affairs was distinct from disregard for their security.[55] He felt that children met their own limits naturally.[16] Neill believed in equal rights between parents and children, and that undesirable "disciplined" or "spoiled" homes were created when those rights were imbalanced.[56] He felt it unnecessary to fulfil all of childhood's requests and had great disdain for spoiled children.[57] Summerhill children were naturally restricted by the school's limited teaching expertise and low funds.[58]

Bailey wrote that Neill did not have full faith in self-regulation due to his emphasis on the necessity of making specific environments for children.[55] Robin Barrow argued that Neill's idea of self-regulation was contradictory, when its intent was, more simply, the extent to which children need to abide by external restraints.[55] Bailey added that children cannot know the extent to which dull and unknown subjects can be exciting without guidance.[59] He felt that Neill's belief in children's innate and realistic wisdom did not accommodate human characteristics "such as error, prejudice, and ignorance", ascribed genius-level intelligence to children, and did not consider social aspects in child decision-making.[60]

Self-governance

Self-governance was a central idea to Summerhill, and is perhaps its "most fundamental feature".[56] Summerhill held a weekly general meeting that decided the school's rules and settled school disputes, where every member of the community—staff and student alike—had a single vote.[61] Almost everyone in the school attended the meeting, and children always held the majority.[61] Meetings were managed by an elected Chairperson.[61] At times, the school had over 200 rules.[62]

Summerhill sought to produce individualists conscious of their surrounding social order, and Neill chose the self-governance of Homer Lane's Little Commonwealth for the basis of that lesson.[63] The general meeting replaced teacher authority with communal control, which freed teachers from their roles as disciplinarians and instructed children in the role of democratic participation and the role of rules.[64] Additionally, reports of teacher–student disputes were rare.[65] Neill felt that the community's authority never created resentment in those subject to sanctions.[61] Sven Muller contended that the meeting was more useful than discipline for creating civic-minded citizens.[64] An ex-pupil recalled some of the wild ideas Neill would propose at the meeting, and while the students would vote him down, she later recounted how the exercise was also intended as a lesson for the staff on the power of the meeting and communal authority.[66] Neill considered self-governance "the most valuable asset in education and life" and the general meeting "more important than all the textbooks in the world".[64]

On occasion, Neill exercised unilateral decision-making as the owner of the school, despite his emphasis on the authority figure-less nature of the school.[65] Instances include when he once made a decision after the group's discussion protracted, and when he once asserted himself dictator.[65] Ultimately, the school's freedom was Neill's to structure.[65]

Writings

Neill wrote 20 books in his lifetime.[67] His style was simple and friendly, unlike didactic literature from the era.[68] His topics included the balance of authority and the thoughts–feelings relationship.[69]

Summerhill

Main article: Summerhill (book)

The 1960 release of Summerhill catapulted Neill into the public view. Richard Bailey described its result as "an American cult" of Summerhillian schools and their support organizations. The book sold well and made Neill into a figurehead of new interest in education. Bailey added that the unpretentious book's message was easier to impart than Deweyan thought, and that its release inspired Neill's education critic contemporaries as to the viability of their ideas.[70]

Reception and legacy

Critics regard Neill's influence and importance with mixed opinion.[71] Supporters counted Neill amongst the world's most influential educationists.[71] UNESCO listed Neill within its 100 most important educationists worldwide. The Times Educational Supplement listed him in its 12 most important British educationists of the millennium. Herb Kohl declared Neill "one of the greatest democratic educators of the last century" in 2005. Academics and teachers cited Summerhill as the common ancestor for free schools, and Neill was poised to become a public figure during Summerhill's heyday in the 1970s.[71] Its detractors do not classify Summerhill as a school. Max Rafferty called Summerhill "a caricature of education" and felt threatened by the implications of "the spread of Neill's hedonism to the majority of the next generation".[72] Others criticized Neill for his progressive ideals despite agreement on his critique of traditional schools, and bemoaned his "outdated radicalism" and "dangerously enthusiastic following in teaching training institutions".[73]

Richard Bailey wrote that Summerhill received most of its public attention in the 1920s to 1930s and in the 1960s to 1970s, which were milieux of social change (progressivism and the counterculture, respectively). Neill was known in British education circles by the 1920s and was "probably Britain's first educational celebrity" in the 1930s, though he was not driven by his reception. Journal reviews called Neill "the most popular writer on education today" and said of his works, "Nearly all the more alive and up-to-date teachers in Britain have read and argued about his notions". He was known via his books as a figure in the new psychoanalysis.[68] The accessible 1960 Summerhill crowned Neill the leader of a new avant-garde education and he became symbolic of the rebel decade.[69]

Neill is generally associated with democratic schools as a leader in its tradition.[74] H. A. T. Child associated Summerhill with the Bedales School, Alfred the Great, and Child's Dartington Hall School, and David Gribble wrote about schools around the world following Neill's teachings in 1998.[citation needed] Timothy Gray linked the release of Summerhill with the rise of writers Herb Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, Neil Postman, and Ivan Illich.[75] Scholars debate whether Neill fits best in a progressive or more radical tradition.[74]

Few of Neill's acolytes continued his work after his death.[74] His family maintained Summerhill, with Neill's daughter as its headmaster as of 2013. Others influenced by Neill included John Aitkenhead, Michael Duane, and R. F. Mackenzie. Richard Bailey wrote that Maria Montessori and Rudolf Steiner's followers were more evangelical in character, and that Neill deterred would-be devotees. He specifically discouraged American association with his school in both name and likeness.[74] By 1972, Ray Hemmings wrote that Neill's ideas were misinterpreted in the hands of other schools.[68] Hemmings found Neill to have moderate influence on state schools in areas such as teacher–student interactions. Neill's views on sexuality and non-compulsory lessons did not have widespread acceptance.[68] Herb Snitzer said that Neill "influenced thousand of teachers". Both George Dennison and Bailey felt Neill's influence to not be easily measurable, with Dennison adding that non-Summerhill schools continue to adopt Neillian thought.[76]

Neill was awarded three honorary degrees: a master's and two honorary doctorates.[43] One doctorate was from the Newcastle University in 1966.[43] He was reportedly very proud of the awards.[43]

References

1. Bailey 2013, p. 10.
2. Croall 1983b, p. 8.
3. Bailey 2013, p. 5.
4. Bailey 2013, p. 115.
5. Bailey 2013, pp. 6–7.
6. Bailey 2013, p. 8.
7. Bailey 2013, p. 9.
8. Bailey 2013, p. 11.
9. Bailey 2013, p. 12.
10. Bailey 2013, p. 13.
11. Bailey 2013, p. 14.
12. Bailey 2013, pp. 13–14.
13. Bailey 2013, pp. 15–16.
14. Bailey 2013, p. 16.
15. Hobson 2001, p. 1.
16. Bailey 2013, p. 137.
17. 2013, p. 147.
18. 2013, p. 144.
19. 2013, p. 145.
20. Waks 1975, p. 144.
21. Bailey 2013, p. 146.
22. Bailey 2013, pp. 146–148.
23. Bailey 2013, pp. 120–121.
24. Bailey 2013, p. 123.
25. Bailey 2013, p. 111.
26. Bailey 2013, pp. 111–112.
27. Bailey 2013, p. 113.
28. Bailey 2013, p. 116.
29. Bailey 2013, p. 124.
30. Bailey 2013, p. 122.
31. Bailey 2013, pp. 122–123.
32. Lawton 1977, p. 78.
33. Bailey 2013, p. 125.
34. Bailey 2013, pp. 124–125.
35. Bailey 2013, p. 125–126.
36. Bailey 2013, p. 127.
37. Bailey 2013, p. 141.
38. Bailey 2013, p. 107.
39. Bailey 2013, pp. 107–108.
40. Bailey 2013, p. 128.
41. Bailey 2013, p. 114.
42. Bailey 2013, p. 138–139.
43. Bailey 2013, p. 139.
44. Bailey 2013, p. 140.
45. Bailey 2013, p. 138.
46. Documented in Record of a friendship: The correspondence between Wilhelm Reich and A. S. Neill, 1936–1957 (Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1981).
47. Bailey 2013, pp. 108–110, 112.
48. Bailey 2013, pp. 114–115.
49. Prud'homme & Reis 2011, p. 16.
50. Hobson 2001, p. 3.
51. Bailey 2013, p. 149.
52. Spring 2012, p. 190.
53. Bailey 2013, pp. 128–130, 132.
54. Bailey 2013, pp. 128–130.
55. Bailey 2013, p. 129.
56. Bailey 2013, p. 130.
57. Bailey 2013, pp. 129–130.
58. Bailey 2013, p. 136.
59. Bailey 2013, pp. 144, 142.
60. Bailey 2013, p. 143.
61. Bailey 2013, p. 132.
62. Bailey 2013, p. 133.
63. Bailey 2013, pp. 130–131.
64. Bailey 2013, p. 131.
65. Bailey 2013, p. 135.
66. Bailey 2013, p. 134.
67. Croall 1983b, p. 424.
68. Bailey 2013, p. 154.
69. Bailey 2013, pp. 154–155.
70. Bailey 2013, p. 155.
71. Bailey 2013, p. 151.
72. Bailey 2013, p. 152.
73. Bailey 2013, pp. 152–153.
74. Bailey 2013, p. 153.
75. Gray, Timothy (2009). "Fun City: Kenneth Koch among schoolchildren". Texas Studies in Literature and Language. University of Texas Press. 51 (2): 233. JSTOR 40755540.
76. Bailey 2013, pp. 156–157.

Sources

• Ayers, William (2003). On the Side of the Child: Summerhill Revisited. New York: Teachers College Press. ISBN 978-0-8077-4399-7. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
• Bailey, Richard (2013). A. S. Neill. Londo n: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-4411-0042-9.
• Barrow, Robin (1978). Radical Education: A Critique of Freeschooling and Deschooling. London: Martin Robertson. ISBN 978-0-85520-170-8. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
• Cremin, Lawrence (1978). "The Free School Movement: A Perspective". In Deal, Terrence E.; Nolan, Robert R. (eds.). Alternative Schools: Ideologies, Realities, Guidelines. Chicago: Nelson-Hall. ISBN 978-0-88229-383-7. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
• Croall, Jonathan, ed. (1983a). All the Best, Neill: Letters from Summerhill. London: André Deutsch. ISBN 978-0-233-97594-8. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
• Croall, Jonathan (1983b). Neill of Summerhill: The Permanent Rebel. New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 978-0-394-51403-1. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
• Hart, Harold H., ed. (1970). Summerhill: For and Against. New York: Hart Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0805500592. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
• Hemmings, Ray (1973). Children's Freedom: A. S. Neill and the Evolution of the Summerhill Idea. New York: Schocken Books. ISBN 978-0805234848. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
• Hobson, Peter (2001). "A. S. Neill, 1883–1973". In Bresler, Liora; Cooper, David; Palmer, Joy (eds.). Fifty Modern Thinkers on Education: From Piaget to the Present Day. Routledge. pp. 1–5. ISBN 978-1-134-59259-3.
• Lawton, Denis (1977). Education and Social Justice. London: Sage. ISBN 978-0-8039-9946-6.
• Neill, A. S. (1972). Neill! Neill! Orange Peel!. New York: Hart Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-671-81300-0. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
• Neill, A. S. (1960). Summerhill: A Radical Approach to Child Rearing. New York: Hart Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-14-013559-6. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
• Placzek, Beverley R., ed. (1981). A Record of Friendship: The Correspondence Between Wilhelm Reich and A S. Neill 1936–1957. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-51770-0. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
• Prud'homme, Marc-Alexandre; Reis, Giuliano (Summer 2011). Comparing A.S. Neill To Rousseau, Appropriate? (PDF). Journal of Unschooling and Alternative Learning. 5. ISSN 1916-8128. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 December 2013.
• Purdy, Bryn (1997). A. S. Neill: Bringing Happiness to Some Few Children. Bramcote Hills: Educational Heretics Press. ISBN 978-1-900219-03-7. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
• Spring, Joel (2012). Wheels in the Head: Educational Philosophies of Authority, Freedom, and Culture from Confucianism to Human Rights (3rd ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-15537-7.
• Vaughan, Mark (2006). Summerhill and A. S. Neill. Maidenhead: Open University Press. ISBN 978-0-335-21913-1. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
• Walmsley, John (1969). Neill & Summerhill: A Man and His Work, a Pictorial Study. Baltimore: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0140801347. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
• Waks, Leonard J. (1975). "Freedom and desire in the Summerhill philosophy of education". In David A. Nyberg (ed.). The Philosophy of Open Education. London: Routledge. pp. 144–154. ISBN 978-0-203-86109-7.

External links

• Summerhill School official website
• Works by A. S. Neill at Project Gutenberg
• Works by or about A. S. Neill at Internet Archive
• Works by A. S. Neill at HathiTrust
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 4:28 am

National Socialist Teachers Association
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/16/19

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The National Socialist Teachers' Association (NSLB) was founded in 1929 as a party affiliation of the NSDAP affiliated association, developed from 1933 to the sole teacher organization with significant influence on the education under National Socialism in the German Reich and existed until 1943.

Organization and direction

The NSLB saw itself as an association of all persons who wanted to be understood or understood as an educator, regardless of education or training and regardless of the type of educational institution. His task was to make the National Socialist Weltanschauung the basis of education, especially of the school system. For this purpose, the ideological and political orientation of the educators should be influenced, in particular their further education in the National Socialist spirit promoted and operated. For this purpose, the NSLB followed the concept of so-called "camp training": In a total of 29 Gauschulen and 57 fixed training camps of the NSLB (1936) obligatory, in each case several weeks, topic-specific "teacher camps" for ideological, Nazi ideological training of the participants were carried out , Also organized mountain tours for teachers were in so-called Reich exchange camps to offer.

The journalistic central organ, with which the NSLB taught the ideological guidelines and racist didactics to the teachers, educators appeared as a member magazine from 1929 to 1945 under three different titles: From August 1929 to June 1933 as a National Socialist teacher newspaper . Kampfblatt des Nationalsozialistischen Lehrerbundes (NSLZ); from July 1933 to March 1938 as Reichszeitung of the German educators. National Socialist Teachers' Paper (RZDE); from April 1938 to January / February 1945 as The German Educator. Reichszeitung of the National Socialist Teachers' Association (DDE). [2] For students, the NSLB gave the newspaper Hilf! which packed racial and anti-Semitic propaganda into folk- harmonious frame narratives and, with a circulation of five million copies per issue, reached almost the entire student population every month from the age of ten. [3]

The seat of the organization was the House of German Education in Bayreuth . The founders and administrators of the organization were Hans Schemm (1929-1935) and Fritz Wächtler (1935-1943). In addition to its journalistic central organ National Socialist Teachers' Newspaper , the NSLB also published the monthly German Education and various regional periodicals, such as for the Gau Baden, the magazine Die Baden School , which appeared from 1934 to 1938 in Karlsruhe . For the organization of Kinderlandverschickung the NSLB was activated again after 1939, but otherwise fell into insignificance. The resolution 1943 took place in the course of the concentration of the forces on the total war , in order to save personnel and material resources (eg magazines). With the Control Council Act No. 2 of 10 October 1945, the NSLB was additionally banned by the Allied Control Council and a refounding prohibited.

Staff and members

The NSLB had the following organizational structure: [4]

Reichsleiter: Hans Schemm (1929-1935) and Fritz Wächtler (1935-1943)
Head of Staff / Managing Director (until August 1936): Max Kolb
Department of Education: Georg Roder until spring 1935, Hans Stricker (born 1897)
Training: Carl Wolf [6]
Literature: Paul Georg Herrmann [7] , from 1942 Walter Arnold
Organization / Managing Director (1936-42): Heinrich Friedmann (1942)
Press and propaganda: Heinrich Hansen [8] , from 1939 Walter Arnold
Economics and Law: Andreas Tränkenschuh
Treasurer: Hugo Jünger

For individual subjects, interdisciplinary areas or the five types of school were, mostly in the secondary office, Reichsachbearbeiter and Reichsfachschaftsleiter appointed (also called "Reichswalter"), often former officials of the dissolved professional associations, which were assigned to the district level Gausachbearbeiter and including Kreissachbearbeiter , z. B .:

Old languages: Friedrich Einhorn (1888-1978), Herbert Holtorf (Dep., 1891-1959)
German: Alfred chicken houses
Newer foreign languages: Heinrich Fischer [10]
Race questions: Karl Zimmermann
Philosophy, Psychology, Pedagogy: Johann Baptist Rieffert
History: Moritz Edelmann
Geography: Albrecht Burchard , from 1940 Friedrich Knieriem [11]
Geopolitics: Johann Ulrich Folkers
Civics: Walther Wallowitz (1904-1943)
Art Education: Robert Böttcher [12]
Music Education: Karl Landgrebe
Physical Education: Hans Berendes (until 1939), Albert Hirn (Deputy), Otto Stadermann (from 1942)
Speech training : Fritz Gerathewohl
Biology: Ernst Lehmann
Mathematics and Science: Kuno Fladt
Physics: Karl Hahn (from 1936) [13]
Female Education: Auguste Reber Mine
Housekeeping: Grete Buck
Higher schools: Rudolf Benze , from 1936 Karl Frank
Middle Schools: Nikolaus Maaßen [14]
Elementary Schools : Ernst Bargheer
Special schools : Paul Ruckau , from 1938 Fritz Zwanziger
Vocational and technical schools: Walter Pipke (born 1899) [15]
Social educational professions: Hans Volkelt 1934-1938
Schullandheime: Rudolf Nicolai until October 1935 [16]
School radio: Georg Brendel

As a result of the transfer of existing teachers' associations under the umbrella of the NSLB, which was by no means only based on pressure and violence, the organization rose to become the sole teacher association in the German Reich with around 300,000 members following the seizure of power by the National Socialists. 9,000 teachers refused to join. One third of the teaching staff was in addition to their membership in the NSLB also directly a member of the NSDAP - so the numbers from 1937. The powerful "Reichsreferentin for female education" in the association was Auguste Reber-Gruber , one of four leading female Nazi officials at all.

In July 1935, the first was separated with organized university teaching and connected in the National Socialist German Dozentenbund (NSDDB).

Literature

• Willi Feiten: The National Socialist Teachers Association. Development and organization. A Contribution to the Structure and Organizational Structure of the National Socialist System of Government (Studies and Documentaries on the History of German Education 19), Beltz, Weinheim 1981.
• Monika Meister: "German educator! You have to shape the future mothers of the people! "The teacher Auguste Reber-Gruber (1892-1946). In: Hiltrud Häntzschel , Hadumod Bußmann (ed.): Menacingly clever. A century of women and science in Bavaria. Beck, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-406-41857-0 , pp. 248-255.
• Saskia Müller / Benjamin Ortmeyer : The ideological orientation of the teachers 1933-1945. Herrenmenschentum, racism and hostility to Jews in the National Socialist Teachers Association. A documentary analysis of the central organ of the NSLB. Beltz Juventa, Weinheim 2016, ISBN 978-3-7799-3414-1 .
Web links
• National Socialist Teachers Association (NSLB) in: "Historical Dictionary of Bavaria" (Author: Fritz Schäffer )
• Ralf Klee: "Nazi educator with ice ax", one day, October 10, 2008
• Uwe Schmidt: Teacher in lockstep. The National Socialist Teachers Association Hamburg , Hamburg 2006 (PDF)
• Anja Nehls: Teachers in National Socialism . In: Deutschlandfunk , 14th December 2016

Single proofs

1. Andreas Kraas: Teacher camp 1932-1945. Political function and educational design , Bad Heilbrunn 2004, p. 89ff. and pp. 349ff. ISBN 3781513475
2. Saskia Müller / Benjamin Ortmeyer: The ideological orientation of the teachers 1933-1945. Master humanity, racism and hostility towards the Jewish National Socialist Association. A documentary analysis of the central organ of the NSLB. Beltz Juventa, Weinheim 2016, p. 28f.
3. Benjamin Ortmeyer: Indoctrination. Racism and anti-Semitism in the Nazi student magazine "Help us!" (1933-1944). Analysis and documents . Beltz Juventa, Weinheim 2013, p. 7 u. P. 39.
4. Most information according to NS-Lehrerzeitung, 1936, No. 7, for the inauguration of the House of German Education
5. Benjamin Ortmeyer: Nazi ideology in the NSLB journal "The German Elementary School" 1934 -1944 A documentary analysis. 2018, retrieved on 4 August 2019 .
6. Andreas Kraas: Teacher camp 1932-1945: Political function and educational design . Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2004, ISBN 3-7815-1347-5 .
7. Herrmann (1899-1959) was an Upper Palatinate clan researcher, who led the appointed office in the NSLB. He wanted to record and analyze the pedigrees of all German educators. In addition, the censorship of the entire school literature (youth literature, educational journals, libraries, school teaching aids) was transferred to him. In 1941 he was drafted as a captain.
8. Heinrich Hoffmann (Photographer) , Heinrich Hansen (ed.): The room image. Stereoscopic magazine for time and space . 1938th
9. Erich Burck u. a .: Special issue on the history of the DAV. DAV, 1987, retrieved on July 22, 2019 .
10. Reiner Lehberger: Learning English in National Socialism . Stauffenberg, 1986, ISBN 978-3-923721-11-5 .
11. Henning Heske: And tomorrow the whole world: Erdkundeunterricht under National Socialism . BoD 2008, ISBN 978-3-8370-1021-3 .
12. R. Böttcher: The "art education". Bund Deutscher Kunsterzieher, 1938, accessed 22 July 2019 .
13. Hans-Peter de Lorent: offender profiles. The responsible persons in the Hamburg education under the swastika. tape 3 . Hamburg 2019.
14. My life in the service of the school, especially the middle school , 1959
15. Matthias Busch: Citizenship in the Weimar Republic: Genesis of a democratic subject didactics . Klinkhardt, 2016, ISBN 978-3-7815-2069-1 , p. 112 f .
16. Andreas Pehnke: biography of Rudolf Nicolai. In: Saxon biography. Institute of Saxon History and Folklore eV, retrieved on July 22, 2019 .
17. Saskia Müller / Benjamin Ortmeyer: The ideological orientation of the teachers 1933-1945: Herrenmenschentum, racism and hostility to Jews in the National Socialist Teachers' Association. A documentary analysis of the central organ of the NSLB. Beltz Juventa, Weinheim 2016, p. 11f. u. P. 22f.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Rolf Gardiner
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/16/19

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Image
Rolf Gardiner at his wedding to Marabel Hodgkin in 1932. The North Skelton sword dance group form the guard of honour.

Henry Rolf Gardiner (5 November 1902 – 26 November 1971) was an English rural revivalist, helping to bring back folk dance styles including Morris dancing and sword dancing. He founded groups significant in the British history of organic farming. He was said to have sympathised with Nazism and participated in inter-war far right politics, but this was speculation based on his approval of the German Youth Movement's aims of involving townspeople in country community life, such as helping with the harvest. He organised summer camps with music, dance and community aims across class and cultures. His forestry methods were far ahead of their time and he was a founder member of The Soil Association.

Early life

He was born in Fulham the son of Sir Alan Henderson Gardiner and his wife Hedwig, nee Von Rosen.[1] He was educated at West Downs school from 1913,[2] Rugby School, and then at Bedales School.[3][4] He was a student at St John's College, Cambridge, where he was a member of the Kibbo Kift youth group.[5]

Initially he was a youth leader, involved in exchanges with Germany.[6] He was heavily influenced in the 1920s by D. H. Lawrence;[7] he visited Lawrence in Switzerland in 1928, and has been called his first genuine "disciple".[8]

At this period he was also much concerned with English folk dance, and convinced morris dance revivalist Mary Neal that morris was an essentially masculine form.[9][10] He founded the Travelling Morrice in 1924, with Arthur Heffer, having taken a team of English dancers to Germany in 1922, and in 1923 met a few of the surviving dancers while walking in the Cotswolds with the poet Christopher Scaife.[11][12][13] Gardiner was not, however, a founder of the Morris Ring, set up in 1934.

Land owner

He took over Gore Farm in Dorset, bought by Henry Balfour Gardiner in 1924, from 1927, and continued what became a large-scale forestation project, based on training he had received at Dartington Hall, with conifers and beech trees.[14] Here he set up a support group, the Gore Kinship.[15]

He married Mariabella Honor Hodgkin in 1932; she was the daughter of the Irish fabric designer Florence Hodgkin. In 1933 he and 'Marabel' bought the estate at Springhead, near Fontmell Magna, Dorset.[16] He became active in Dorset society becoming a member of Dorset County Council between 1937-1946, High Sheriff of Dorset 1967-68, President of the Dorset Federation of Young Farmers Clubs 1944-46, a Chairman and then President of the Dorset branch of the Council for the Protection of Rural England between 1957-1972 as well as other rural and landscape committees and working parties.

He and his wife developed the Springhead Ring as a music, theatre and crafts network, as well as farming the estate and developing forestry operations.[16] It also hosted much musical activity.[17] The rural writer John Stewart Collis spent a year after the Second World War working for Gardiner, thinning a 14-acre ash wood on the estate; this formed the material for his 1947 book Down to Earth.[18] He was a founder member of The Soil Association and applied organic principles to both farm and forest. The family owned tea-growing estates in Nyasaland (now in Thyolo District, Malawi), known as the Nchima Tea and Tung Estate, of which Gardiner became chairman.[19] Gardiner was active in the 1950s in dealing with colonial officials, with a view to conserving the underlying land.[20] He had written about erosion in Nyasaland and Uganda already in the 1930s, in the New English Weekly.[21] The Estate became the Springhead Trust in 1962.[22]

Politics of the far right

He was editor of the magazine Youth from 1923, when still a student. It had been founded in 1920, and at that point was left-leaning and supported guild socialism. In Gardiner's time it became internationally oriented and Germanophile, and his own political interests turned to Social Credit.[23] He also published articles by John Hargrave with whom he had associated in the Kibbo Kift.[24] After its split from the Woodcraft Folk, Kibbo Kift was in transition, en route for the Social Credit Party of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ("Green Shirts").

It has been suggested that Gardiner moved from the ideas of guild socialism and social credit, current in the circle of A. R. Orage, towards a search for a masculine brotherhood, through his involvement in the "folk revival".[25] His views of folk music and dance have been called "fundamentalist".[26] In any case he took up with and formed small groups, rather than political organisations. He expressly rejected overtures made to him by members of Mosley's party, which at the time was gaining ground in rural areas in response to the effects of the depression and tithe collection on farming.

Gardiner later broke with Hargrave, of whom Lawrence disapproved.[27] In 1929 Gardiner was writing with approval in the Times Literary Supplement of the Jugendbewegung (German Youth Movement) and its anti-scientific outlook.[28] He debated the German Youth Movement in 1934 with Leslie Paul, in the pages of The Adelphi.[29]

In a series of publications from 1928 he articulated racial theories (Baltic peoples versus Mediterranean peoples) and the need for national reversals of "impoverishment" of the stock.[30] It has been said that he was an "ecocentric" looking for a united and pagan England and Germany, and a supporter of Nazi pro-ruralist policies.[31] He reportedly expressed anti-Semitic views from 1933, writing first in German.[32] However, as his mother was half Austrian Jewish, this is unlikely, and in the late thirties he specifically repudiated this. His thinking moved from a belief in the honest value of work, to connection and belonging, and ultimately to a vision of the interplay between the health of soil, animals, crops and people.[18]

He was a member of the English Mistery, and then of the English Array, formed in 1936. Writing in the Array's Quarterly Gazette, Gardiner was an apologist for German "leadership" in Central Europe, dictatorships, and "racial regeneration".[33] He later wrote for the periodical New Pioneer set up in December 1938 by Lord Lymington and John Beckett, as a pro-German and anti-Semitic organ.[34]

After World War II, he kept in touch with Richard Walther Darré, an SS man and NSDAP food and agriculture minister of the Nazi era, who had been one of the chief proponents of the links between a people and the land.[35]

Kinship in Husbandry

In 1941 he formed with H. J. Massingham and Gerald Wallop, Lord Lymington the Kinship in Husbandry, a group of a dozen men with an interest in rural revival. It was a precursor organisation of the Soil Association, which was set up in 1946.[36][37] Original members were: Adrian Bell, Edmund Blunden, Arthur Bryant, J. E. Hosking, Douglas Kennedy, Philip Mairet, Lord Northbourne, Robert Payne and C. Henry Warren.[38][39] The group first met in Edmund Blunden's rooms at Merton College, Oxford, in September 1941.[40] They drew ideas from agricultural experts: Albert Howard, Robert McCarrison, George Stapledon and G. T. Wrench.[21]:3 Other members included Laurence Easterbrook[21] and Jorian Jenks.[41] In official eyes, this grouping or think-tank was treated with less suspicion than its correlated far-right political organisations. It had some effect on agricultural policy, particularly in relation to self-sufficiency.[42] It also affected the thinking of the Rural Reconstruction Association founded in 1935 by Montague Fordham, and the Biodynamic Association.[40]

Nudism

Gardiner published in his maiden issue of Youth in June 1923, a first-hand account of The Cult of Nakedness in Germany by Harold Barlow. It was one of the earliest attempts to introduce German: Nacktkultur to a general British readership.[43]

Works

• The Second Coming and Other Poems, 1919–1921 (Vienna 1921)
• Britain and Germany. A Frank Discussion instigated by Members of the Younger Generation (1928) editor with Heinz Rocholl
• World Without End: British politics and the younger generation (1932)
• England Herself: Ventures in Rural Restoration (1943)
• Love and Memory: a garland of poems (1960)
• Europe awaits British Ecological Leadership (1972)
• Water Springing from the Ground: an anthology of the writings of Rolf Gardiner (1972) editor Andrew Best

Family

His father was Alan Henderson Gardiner, the Egyptologist. His mother Hedwig, née von Rosen,[3] was Austrian, though with a Jewish father and Swedish-Finnish mother. Margaret Gardiner, mother of Martin Bernal, was his sister.[44] The composer Henry Balfour Gardiner was his uncle (the folk-song collector George Barnet Gardiner, with whom Balfour Gardiner worked, was however not a relation).[45] The conductor John Eliot Gardiner is his son.[46] The artist Howard Hodgkin is another grandson of Florence Hodgkin.[47]

Latterday praise

Gardiner was a regular writer of letters to The Times.[48] In 2008, he was mentioned in that paper again in a report of the book Youth Culture in Modern Britain, c1920 to c1970 by Dr David Fowler of Clare Hall, Cambridge, who praised "people like Gardiner" as "true cultural subversives - pop stars before pop even existed. In terms of the influence he had on giving Britain's young people a sense of identity, there's no doubt [Gardiner] is just as important as Mick Jagger".[49]

References

1. "GARDINER, Henry Rolf". Who Was Who (online edn ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing. 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
2. "Old West Downs Society – ex-Pupils by Year". Westdowns.com. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
3. "Newsletter 20 (June 2000)". Audensociety.org. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
4. "Organic Nationalism". Utopia-britannica.org.uk. 3 December 1926. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
5. Gottlieb & Linehan 2004, p. 192.
6. Moore-Colyer 2003, pp. 306–324.
7. "DH Lawrence resources – The University of Nottingham". Nottingham.ac.uk. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
8. Ellis 1998, p. 397.
9. "England, whose England?". Mustrad.org.uk. 1 April 2000. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
10. "Who Were the Kibbo Kift". Kibbokift.org. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
11. "Morris Ring: Information from". Answers.com. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
12. "Cmm History". Homepage.ntlworld.com. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
13. "sidmouth94lect". Opread.force9.co.uk. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
14. "Fontmell Down". Archived from the original on 14 May 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2008.
15. Wright 1995, pp. 181-182.
16. Jump up to:a b "History". Springhead Trust. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
17. "fontmell". Southernlife.org.uk. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
18. Collis 2009.
19. "NYASALAND (ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). Vol. 526. House of Commons. 15 April 1954. col. 1358–1375.
20. Baker 1993, pp. 159-160.
21. Conford, Philip. "A Forum for Organic Husbandry: The New English Weekly and Agricultural Policy, 1939–1949" (PDF). Bahs.org.uk. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
22. "Archived Newsletter, Issue No 6 ~ August 2006". Archived from the original on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2008.
23. Griffiths 1980, p. 143.
24. Barberis, McHugh & Tyldesley 2000, p. 88.
25. Ebbatson 2005, pp. 182-183.
26. "Citing Georgina Boyes" (PDF). Fds.oup.com. p. 3. Retrieved 15 February2014.
27. Mangan 1999.
28. "The First 1,000 Issues, 1902–1921". Archived from the original on 6 July 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2008.
29. Tyldesley 2006, pp. 21-34.
30. Griffiths 1980, pp. 144-146.
31. Pepper 1996, p. 227.
32. Griffiths 1980, p. 75.
33. Griffiths 1980, p. 321.
34. Pugh 2013, p. 280.
35. "Patrick Wright interview" (PDF). Amielandmelburn.org.uk. p. 27. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
36. Moore-Colyer 2001b, pp. 85–108.
37. Moore-Colyer & Conford 2004, pp. 189–206.
38. Gottlieb & Linehan 2004, p. 187.
39. Brocken 2003, p. 45.
40. Jump up to:a b Moore-Colyer 2001a, pp. 187-209.
41. "Angmering History – Jorian Jenks – Angmering's Blackshirt farmer". Angmeringvillage.co.uk. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
42. Stone 2002, p. 53.
43. Tyldesley 2016, p. 88.
44. Morgan, Janet (5 January 2005). "Obituary: Margaret Gardiner". the Guardian. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
45. "VWML Online :: George Barnet Gardiner (c.1852–1910)". Library.efdss.org. 19 January 1910. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
46. "John Eliot Gardiner Biography". Musicianguide.com. Retrieved 15 February2014.
47. "Howard Hodgkin". Tate. 10 September 2006. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
48. See many entries in the Times Digital Archive between 1933 and 1971
49. "The 1960s? Sell-outs. Radical youth means the 1930s" by Ben Hoyle, The Times, 9 October 2008
• Baker, Colin (1993). Seeds of Trouble: Government Policy and Land Rights in Nyasaland, 1946-1964. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-85043-615-7.
• Barberis, Peter; McHugh, John; Tyldesley, Mike (2000). Encyclopedia of British and Irish Political Organizations: Parties, Groups and Movements of the 20th Century. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0-8264-5814-8.
• Brocken, Michael (2003). The British Folk Revival, 1944-2002. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-3281-8.
• Collis, John Stewart (2009). The Worm Forgives the Plough. Random House. ISBN 978-1-4090-8840-0.
• Ebbatson, Roger (2005). An Imaginary England: Nation, Landscape and Literature, 1840-1920. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-5092-8.
• Ellis, David (1998). D. H. Lawrence: Dying Game 1922-1930: The Cambridge Biography of D. H. Lawrence. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-25421-2.
• Gottlieb, Julie V.; Linehan, Thomas P. (2004). The Culture of Fascism: Visions of the Far Right in Britain. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-798-7.
• Griffiths, Richard (1980). Fellow travellers of the Right: British enthusiasts for Nazi Germany, 1933-9. Constable.
• Mangan, J. A. (1999). Shaping the Superman: Fascist Body as Political Icon : Aryan Fascism. Frank Cass. ISBN 978-0-7146-4954-2.
• Moore-Colyer, R. J. (2001a). "Rolf Gardiner, English Patriot and the Council for the Church and Countryside" (PDF). The Agricultural History Review. British Agricultural History Society Stable. 49 (2): 187–209. JSTOR 40275726. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2007.
• Moore-Colyer, R. J. (2001b). "Back To Basics: Rolf Gardiner, H. J. Massingham and 'A Kinship in Husbandry'". Rural History. 12 (01): 85. doi:10.1017/S0956793300002284. ISSN 0956-7933.
• Moore-Colyer, Richard; Conford, Philip (2004). "A 'Secret Society'? The Internal and External Relations of the Kinship in Husbandry, 1941–52". Rural History. 15 (2): 189–206. doi:10.1017/S0956793303001110. ISSN 0956-7933.
• Moore-Colyer, Richard (2003). "A Northern Federation? Henry Rolf Gardiner and British and European Youth". Paedagogica Historica. 39 (3): 306–324. doi:10.1080/00309230307468. ISSN 0030-9230.
• Pepper, David (1996). Modern Environmentalism: An Introduction. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-05745-5.
• Stone, Dan (2002). Breeding Superman: Nietzsche, Race and Eugenics in Edwardian and Interwar Britain. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 978-0-85323-997-0.
• Pugh, Martin (2013). Hurrah For The Blackshirts!: Fascists and Fascism in Britain Between the Wars. Random House. ISBN 978-1-4481-6287-1.
• Tyldesley, Mike (2006). "The German Youth Movement and National Socialism: Some Views from Britain". Journal of Contemporary History. 41 (1): 21–34. doi:10.1177/0022009406058670. ISSN 0022-0094.
• Tyldesley, Mike (2016a). Rolf Gardiner: Folk, Nature and Culture in Interwar Britain. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-06192-2.
• Wright, Patrick (1995). The Village That Died for England: The Strange Story of Tyneham. Jonathan Cape. ISBN 978-0-224-03886-7.

External links

• Springhead Trust, Dorset
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 4:48 am

Organic nationalism
by Utopia Britannica
Accessed: 8/16/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

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Gazatteer entry

Springhead 1933 -
FOUNDER/ LEADER : Rolf Gardiner
Base of the Springhead Ring founded to promote the revival of rural life. Pioneered work in organic farming and reforestation alongside reviving countryside festivals and traditional song and dance. Became target of rumour of Nazi sympathys during WW2. Is now run by the Springhead Trust as a conference centre.
GRID REF: Gore Farm.Melbury Abbas.
REF: The Village that Died for England. http://freespace.virgin.net/springhead.trust/aboutf.htm


" We must plant ourselves again in the Universe."

-- D.H. Lawrence


From far and wide they came bearing salt, earth, sulphur and lavender to the edge of Cranbourne Chase to dedicate 'a centre for the gathering and training of men and women for the weal of Wessex.' The Springhead Ring, centred around the young blond Rolf Gardiner, wished to spark off a rural revival, 'from herb to the hymn', to restore England from the perilous state it had fallen into since the end of the First World War. Springhead consisted of a group of mill buildings arranged around a courtyard on the edge of Gore Farm owned by Gardiner's uncle. This was no romantic rustic revival that was envisaged - this was hard-nosed pragmatism. The plan was to `rebuild a hill-and-vale economy along modern organic lines', restoring the ancient breeds of sheep to the Downs and reviving rural industries along with the traditional rural festivals.

From Austro-Hungarian/Jewish/Scandinavian background on his mother's side and with a British father, the young Rolf Gardiner was educated at the Bedales co-educational school in Derbyshire and as a young man became involved in the thriving Europe-wide youth movement of the time, having contact with the German Wandervogel and becoming something of a roving European ambassador for the Kibbo Kift. He saw hope for a renewed Europe in the "self-supporting communities" of young people that he saw "springing up all over Europe today." He met and corresponded with the novelist D.H. Lawrence.

'I'm sure you are doing the right thing, with hikes and dances and songs. But somehow it needs a central clue, or it will fizzle away again. There needs a centre of silence, and a heart of darkness--to borrow from Rider Haggard. We'll have to establish some spot on earth, that will be the fissure into the underworld, like the oracle at Delphos, where one can always come to. I will try to do it myself. I will try to come to England and make a place - some quiet house in the country - where one can begin - and from which the hiker, maybe, can branch out. Some place with a big barn and a bit of land--if one has enough money. Don't you think that is what it needs? And then one must set out and learn a deep discipline--and learn dances from all the world, and take whatsoever we can make into our own. And learn music the same.'

-- D.H. Lawrence Letter To Rolf Gardiner.3 December, 1926.


English social leadership

Image
Springhead camp

Gardiner set up the Gore Kinship and organised study groups and camps. This little group would turn into the Springhead Ring upon the purchase of Springhead Mill by his uncle and the work of building a movement for the revival of rural England could begin in earnest. Throughout the 1930s the Springhead Ring ran numerous camps with the aim of combating the effects of the depression years by creating a `reinvigorated stock of countrymen' from the unused material of the towns. Gardiner wrote a report for the Minister of Labour on the camps in which he gave details of a 'Harvest Camp' at Springhead. Sixty-nine young men and women `from different walks of life' spent a number of weeks gaining `a direct experience of community by thinking, playing and working on the land'. The 'different walks' included; teachers and social workers, one farm girl, three public schoolboys, six university lecturers, two house painters, two miners, a brass engraver and a cinema operator. Also taking part were twelve members of the German Youth Movement. Quite what this cross section of the nations unemployed made of the heady mix of activities on offer at the camp we are not told. As they progressed the camps developed a regular pattern. Rising at 6.30 to `the rhythmic beating of a mellow-toned gong' the campers would run barefoot behind the camp chiefs in single file snaking in and out of the tents in `circular evolutions' mimicking the twisting and turning rays of the rising sun coming to a rest around a central flagstaff where they sang a hymn to the dawn, whilst the Cross of St George with a Wessex Dragon emblazoned across it, flew above. After breakfast they worked on the farm, clearing neglected woodland, dredging the silted up millpond or planting willow for the revival of rural basket making. The afternoon was for quiet study and contemplation with singing or folk dancing at 4.30. An early evening lecture would be held on the subject chosen as a theme for the camp such as the Tradition of English Social Leadership or Land Settlement and Regional Reconstruction. The day would end by torchlight with everyone standing arm in arm singing:

The Earth has turned us from the sun,
And let us close our circle now to light,
But open it to darkness, and each one
Warm with this circle's warming,
Go in good darkness to good sleep
Good night.


At which point the camp herald would extinguish his torch and the members of the 'ring' would retire to their tents.

The camps were successful and attended by a wide variety of people including the comedian Jimmy Edwards and the composer Michael Tippet who provided music for some of the camps. Music and dance were important features of the camps with a strong emphasis on English folk songs. For a couple of years from 1932 the camps were extended to East Cleveland where Gardiner ran them for unemployed Ironstone miners creating allotments. Gardiner was highly critical of the other major example of rural revivalism of the time at Dartington Hall where he himself had been educated in silviculture, bemoaning its lack of soul and suggesting that it needed to "add an expert in social affection, an engineer in community joy" to its collection of experts on rural regeneration.

Phantom swastikas in the woods

Other more shadowy organisations were active in the Dorset countryside at the same time with similar aims as the Springhead Ring. The combative sounding Wessex Agricultural Defence Association and the much more overtly nationalistic English Array each with links to Oswald Moseley's British Union of Fascists. Each tried to woo Gardiner into their ranks. But whilst Gardiner was sympathetic with their talk of regenerating `English stock' and praise for unpasteurised milk and the cottage pig, he disagreed with the methods they chose to pursue their dream of an English revival and repeatedly distanced himself from their activities. This did not stop his name becoming associated with far-right politics and this along with his connections with the German Youth Movement, which he continued to support even after it was overrun by the Hitler Youth, meant that he became the target of rumours and smears at the outbreak of the Second World War. The most persistent rumour was that he had planted trees in the shape of a swastika to guide German bombers. And perhaps because of his blond hair and Scandinavian good looks and fondness for wearing lederhosen it was reputed that Hitler had him marked out as a local dictator for Wessex following an invasion. The great irony in all these myths and rumours was of course that given his mother’s Jewish heritage Gardiner would not have lasted long at all under Nazi rule. He himself considered the Nazis to be figures from some Wagnerian nightmare and later admitted he had been mistaken and misguided in his pre-war views of Germany.

Work camps continued at Springhead during the war years and groups of German prisoners came to work the farm. Gardiner inadvertently adding to the rumour mongering by greeting them in German when they arrived. The war also threw up an opportunity for a further venture in rural revival. In 1929 Gardiner became involved in developing the Wessex flax industry utilising a derelict flax mill at Slape in West Dorset. From this base Gardiner oversaw nearly 400 people as the government’s agent for flax production in the West Country. With a core of experienced flax workers and a host of school children, Women's Land Army members and even troops drafted in at harvest time, he tried to create a thriving rural craft industry based on independent growers, processors, spinners and weavers with the aim of organising them into a regional guild under the slogan `Wessex fabrics from Wessex fields'. He tried to instigate flax feasts and harvest festivals with accompanying folk song and dance, but was thwarted in his attempts by the Home Flax Directorate who wanted to see a highly mechanised, centrally controlled flax industry and in the end left Gardiner no choice but to part company with them in 1942.

Rolf Gardiner's achievements on his uncle's farm were impressive. He had taken over the running of the farm in 1927 aged only 25 and carried out a mass reforestation programme planting in total some 3 million trees. He believed that upland planting would raise the falling water table even on the porous chalk downs: a belief borne out when in the 1970s drought years Gore farm remained green whilst all around turned brown. His forestry management was way ahead of its time with methods pioneered on the Dorset Downs in the 1920s only recently being taken up by the Forestry Commission as good practice. The farm was (and still is) managed on organic lines long before it was fashionable and Rolf Gardiner was a founding member of the Soil Association on its establishment in 1945. Springhead is now owned by the Springhead Trust, set up by Gardiner's widow with the help and encouragement of Fritz Schumacher after her husband’s death in 1971 and is run as a conference centre hosting the like of the Other Economic Summit, the Soil Association and Voluntary Services Overseas.

Rolf Gardiner never did manage to totally shake off the tag of being a Nazi sympathiser with Springhead visitors still asking, 'Is this where the Nazi lived?' He never planted a swastika in trees on the Dorset Downs. How could he have done? He had carried out his reforestation programme in the 1920s long before the rise of the Nazis. He did however plant a different symbol on a Wessex hillside, Balflour's Circle, a ring of evergreen trees, each one a different North European species, marking the site of his uncle Balfour Gardiner's interred ashes and perhaps marking in the circle of diversity a different vision of Europe.

Links : See also http://www.springheadtrust.co.uk
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Granville Stanley Hall
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Image
G. Stanley Hall
Granville Stanley Hall by Frederick Gutekunst, circa 1910
Born Granville Stanley Hall
February 1, 1846
Ashfield, Massachusetts
Died April 24, 1924 (aged 78)
Worcester, Massachusetts
Nationality American
Alma mater
Williams College
Harvard University
Clark University
Scientific career
Fields Psychologist
Institutions
Antioch College
Johns Hopkins University
Doctoral advisor William James
Doctoral students William Lowe Bryan

Granville Stanley Hall (February 1, 1846 – April 24, 1924[1]) was a pioneering American psychologist and educator. His interests focused on childhood development and evolutionary theory. Hall was the first president of the American Psychological Association and the first president of Clark University. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Hall as the 72nd most cited psychologist of the 20th century, in a tie with Lewis Terman.[2]

Biography

Childhood


Born in Ashfield, Massachusetts, Hall grew up on a farm with his parents, Granville Bascom Hall, who served on the Massachusetts legislature, and Abigail Beals, who attended school at Albany Female Seminary and went on to become a teacher herself. During his time as a child he spent much of his time reading and taking advantage of the educational advantages he could gain from his parents and the local schools. At a young age he was interested in animals and bodily skills.[3] At the age of 16 he began to teach other students, most of whom were older than he was.

Teacher

Hall attended Williston Seminary and graduated from Williams College in 1867, then studied at the Union Theological Seminary. Inspired by Wilhelm Wundt's Principles of Physiological Psychology, Hall pursued doctoral studies at Harvard University where he met William James, an adjunct professor who had just taught the nation's first psychology class. In 1878, Hall earned the first psychology doctorate awarded in America.[4] After Hall graduated with his doctorate, there were no academic jobs available in psychology, so he went to Europe to study at the University of Berlin, and spent a brief time in Wundt's Leipzig laboratory in 1879.

He began his career by teaching English and philosophy at Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio, and then teaching history of philosophy at Williams College in Massachusetts. Following successful lecture series at Harvard and Johns Hopkins University, Hall secured a position in the philosophy department at Johns Hopkins, teaching psychology and pedagogy. He remained at Johns Hopkins from 1882 to 1888 and, in 1883, began what is considered by some to be the first formal American psychology laboratory.[5] There, Hall objected vehemently to the emphasis on teaching traditional subjects, e.g., Latin, mathematics, science and history, in high school, arguing instead that high school should focus more on the education of adolescents than on preparing students for college.

Hall was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1888.[6]

New discipline of psychology

In 1887, Hall founded the American Journal of Psychology, and in 1892 was appointed as the first president of the American Psychological Association.[5] In 1889 he was named the first president of Clark University, a post he filled until 1920. During his 31 years as president, Hall remained intellectually active. He was instrumental in the development of educational psychology, and attempted to determine the effect adolescence has on education. He was also responsible for inviting Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung to visit and deliver a lecture series in 1909 at the Clark Conference. Hall and Freud shared the same beliefs on sex and adolescence. Hall promised Freud an Honorary Degree from Clark University. This was Freud's first and only visit to America. It was the biggest conference held at Clark University. It was the most controversial conference because Freud's research was based on theories that Hall's colleagues criticized as non-scientific.[7]

In 1888, when he was tapped for the Clark presidency from the faculty of Johns Hopkins University, the 44 year-old Hall was already well on his way to eminence in the then emerging field of psychology. His establishment of experimental laboratories at Johns Hopkins, the first in the discipline, quickly became the measure of the fully modern psychology department. Over his 32 years as a scholar/teacher president at Clark, he had an influence over the future shape of the field of psychology.[8]

What attracted some to Hall and his ideas, and alienated others, were his "music man" propensities. He was the promoter, the impresario par excellence. Hall could "put on a party," as he did with the extraordinary celebrations in 1899 and 1909, on the occasions of the 10th and 20th anniversaries of the opening of Clark University. He did so with an incomparable sense of daring—inviting major figures with unconventional, unpopular, or even scandalous ideas, and then promoting them with the press. He seemed always to be founding new journals or scholarly associations to disseminate his ideas and those of scholars whose perspectives were consistent with his own. Among his creations were the widely respected American Journal of Psychology and the American Psychological Association. He also helped found the Association of American Universities. Ross described this side of Hall as journalist, entrepreneur, and preacher.[8]

In 1917, Hall published a book on religious psychology, "Jesus the Christ in the Light of Psychology." The book was written in two volumes to define Jesus Christ in psychological terms. Hall thoroughly discussed all that is written about Christ, and the probable mental mechanisms of Christ and all of those who believed in him and wrote about him. He analyzes the myths, the magic, etc., built up about the name and life of Christ. He dissects the parables and discusses the miracles, the death and the resurrection of Jesus. He endeavors to reduce all possible expressions or trends which he finds in Jesus and his followers to their genetic origins, and with that aid in comparative psychology, especially the knowledge of anthropology and childhood tendencies, he points out here and there certain universal trends which are at the bottom of it all.[9] This was his least successful work. In 1922, at the age of 78, he published the book "Senescence," a book on aging.[7]

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Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, Granville Stanley Hall, C. G. Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, Sándor Ferenczi.

Darwin's theory of evolution and Ernst Haeckel's recapitulation theory were large influences on Hall's career. These ideas prompted Hall to examine aspects of childhood development in order to learn about the inheritance of behavior. The subjective character of these studies made their validation impossible. He believed that as children develop, their mental capabilities resemble those of their ancestors and so they develop over a lifetime the same way that species develop over eons.[10] Hall believed that the process of recapitulation could be sped up through education and force children to reach modern standards of mental capabilities in a shorter amount of time.[11] His work also delved into controversial portrayals of the differences between women and men, as well as the concept of racial eugenics.[5] While Hall was a proponent of racial eugenics, his views were less severe in terms of creating and keeping distinct separations between races. Hall believed in giving “lower races” a chance to accept and adapt to the “superior white civilization”.[11] Hall even commended high ranking African Americans in society as being “exception to the Negro’s diminished evolutionary inheritance”.[12] Hall viewed civilization in a similar fashion he viewed biological development. Humans must allow civilization to “run its natural evolution”.[12] Hall saw those that did not accept the superior civilization as being primitive and consisting of savages. Hall viewed these civilizations in a similar fashion that he viewed children stating that “their faults and their virtues are those of childhood and youth”.[11] Hall believed that men and women should be separated into their own schools during puberty because it allowed them to be able to grow within their own gender. Women could be educated with motherhood in mind and the men could be educated in more hands-on projects, helping them to become leaders of their homes. Hall believed that schools with both sexes limited the way they could learn and softened the boys earlier than they should be.[11] "It is a period of equilibrium, but with the onset of puberty the equilibrium is disturbed and new tendencies arise. Modifications in the reproductive organs take place and bring about secondary sexual characteristics. Extroversion gives way slowly to introversion, and more definitely social instincts begin to play an increasing role."

Hall was also influenced by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and his theory of evolution. Hall found the idea of passing on memories from parent to offspring was a plausible mode of inheritance.[13]

Anomalistic psychology

Hall was one of the founding members and a vice President of the American Society for Psychical Research.[14] The early members of the society were skeptical of paranormal phenomena.[15] Hall took a psychological approach to psychical phenomena. By 1890 he had resigned from the society.[16] He became an outspoken critic of parapsychology.[17]

Hall was an early psychologist in the field of anomalistic psychology.[18] Hall and his assistant Amy Tanner from Clark University were notable debunkers of spiritualism and carried out psychological and physiological tests on mediums. Tanner published Studies in Spiritism (1910) with an introduction by Hall.[19] The book documented the tests carried out by Hall and Tanner in the séance sittings held with the medium Leonora Piper.[20] Hall and Tanner had proven by tests that the personalities of Piper were fictitious creations and not discarnate spirits.[21]

Social views

Hall was deeply wedded to the German concept of Volk, an anti-individualist and authoritarian romanticism in which the individual is dissolved into a transcendental collective. Hall believed that humans are by nature non-reasoning and instinct driven, requiring a charismatic leader to manipulate their herd instincts for the well-being of society. He predicted that the American emphasis on individual human right and dignity would lead to a fall that he analogized to the sinking of Atlantis.

Hall was one of the founders of the child-study movement in the 1880s. A national network of study groups called Hall Clubs existed to spread his teaching. He is popularly known today for supervising the 1896 study Of Peculiar and Exceptional Children, which described a series of only child eccentrics as permanent misfits. For decades, academics and advice columnists alike disseminated his conclusion that an only child could not be expected to go through life with the same capacity for adjustment that siblings possessed. "Being an only child is a disease in itself," he claimed.[22]

Hall argued that child development recapitulates his highly racialized conception of the history of human evolutionary development. He characterized pre-adolescent children as savages and therefore rationalized that reasoning was a waste of time with children. He believed that children must simply be led to fear God, love country, and develop a strong body. As the child burns out the vestiges of evil in his nature, he needs a good dose of authoritarian discipline, including corporal punishment.[7] He believed that adolescents are characterized by more altruistic natures than pre-adolescents and that high schools should indoctrinate students into selfless ideals of service, patriotism, body culture, military discipline, love of authority, awe of nature, and devotion to the state and the well being of others.[23] Hall consistently argued against intellectual attainment at all levels of public education. Open discussion and critical opinions were not to be tolerated. Students needed indoctrination to save them from the individualism that was so damaging to the progress of American culture.

Hall popularised the phrase "storm and stress" with reference to adolescence, taken from the German Sturm und Drang movement. His colleague William Burnham had published this phrase in relation to adolescence in an 1889 article titled 'Economy in Intellectual Work'.[24] The concept's three key aspects are conflict with parents, mood disruptions, and risky behavior. As was later the case with the work of Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget, public interest in this phrase, as well as with Hall's role, faded. Recent research has led to some reconsideration of the phrase and its denotation. In its three aspects, recent evidence supports storm and stress, but only when modified to take into account individual differences and cultural variations. Currently, psychologists do not accept storm and stress as universal, but do acknowledge the possibility in brief passing. Not all adolescents experience storm and stress, but storm and stress is more likely during adolescence than at other ages.

Hall had no sympathy for the poor, the sick, or those with developmental differences or disabilities. A firm believer in selective breeding and forced sterilization, he believed that any respect or charity toward those he viewed as physically, emotionally, or intellectually weak or "defective" simply interfered with the movement of natural selection toward the development of a super-race.[11]

Hall's major books were Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime and Religion (1904) and Aspects of Child Life and Education (1921). In his book Adolescence, which was based on the results of the child-study movement, Hall described his system of psychology (which he called "genetic psychology") and the evolutionary benefits of development from the womb to adolescence. The book comprises six sections: biological and anthropological standpoint, medical standpoint, health and its tests, nubility of educated women, fecundity of educated women, and education. Hall hoped that this book would become a guide for teachers and social workers in the education system. His most direct influence in shaping our view of humankind came from his theories about adolescence.[8]

In 1904, Hall published Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relation to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion, and Education. In this 2-volume study, based on the idea that child development recapitulates human evolution,Hall took on a variety of issues and synthesized scholarship from a wide range of disciplines.[25] After his retirement in 1920, Hall wrote a companion volume on aging. This important account has been labeled “prophetic” in its recognition of an emerging “crisis of aging” in the 20th century, in which longer lifespan, narrowing family roles, and expulsion from the workforce combined to dramatically isolate the elderly and restrict their active participation in public life.[26] Hall railed against this process, arguing that the wisdom conferred by old age meant that the elderly had valuable and creative contributions to make to society. Yet, the stigma of aging meant that, instead, many were engaged in the foolish pursuit of youth, trying to avoid being excluded from full participation in their communities. In the conclusion of the book, Hall expressed a tangible sense of personal anger against this form of discrimination.[27] His stirring call for a better understanding of the aging process anticipated the development of gerontology, and his critique of the marginalization of the elderly still resonates today.[25]

Hall was a transitional figure between Victorian conservatism and early 20th Century modernism—reflecting major intellectual characteristics of each. As might be expected, that combination was not always well received by advocates from either camp. His controversial Adolescence was banned from some libraries because of its lengthy and sometimes lyrical treatment of sex. Yet, the book was also characterized by urgent religious strictures on behavior. A contemporary of Hall, E.L. Thorndike, described him as a man "whose doctrines I often attack, but whose genius I always admire." When commenting on Adolescence to another noted psychologist, Thorndike said that Hall's magnum opus was "chock full of errors, masturbation, and Jesus. He is a mad man." [8]

Hall viewed masturbation as an immoral act and a blemish of the human race that interfered with moral and intellectual growth. Hall discussed masturbation in reference to men and did not discuss it in terms of women. It is not known whether he knew this act occurred in women or that Hall believed adolescent boys must go through what he described as “conversion”. This conversion releases the boys from biological sins that were passed onto them by their ancestors. This passing on of sins through generations is guided by Lamarckian evolution.[13] He claimed that conversion occurred as naturally as a “blossoming flower”.[11] Instead of masturbation, Hall viewed spontaneous emissions as a natural and acceptable alternative to forced ejaculation.[13] Hall believed that he went through conversion during his freshman year at Williams College.[12]

Hall also coined the technical words describing types of tickling: knismesis, or feather-like tickling; and gargalesis, for the harder, laughter inducing type.

Hall's voracious appetite for learning and prodigious work habits, his insistence on building theory from experience, and his penchant for bringing different fields of study together, would themselves have made him a formidable figure. But the force of his personality, his taste for controversy, and his untiring will added to the mix. Dorothy Ross, his biographer, wrote that from his extraordinary efforts came the "formative impulses of progressive education, child development, educational psychology, clinical psychology, school hygiene, and mental testing." Among his many students who made significant future contributions in fields he stimulated were the philosopher John Dewey (when Hall was at Johns Hopkins) and the famous psychologists Lewis Terman, Henry Goddard, and Arnold Gesell (when Hall was at Clark). By his very prominence and productivity, Hall created a demand for the scientific study of children and the field of child psychology.[8] Hall is best remembered for his contributions to psychology, for his support of applied psychology, and for his success in advising many doctoral students who have made great contributions to psychology. Hall also mentored the first African American to get a Ph.D. in psychology, Francis Cecil Sumner in 1920.[7]

Hall is listed in the Cambridge Companion to Atheism as having been an atheist.[28]

Eugenic Views

Hall expressed openly eugenic views in many of his writings. He was listed in numerous American eugenic organizations as its leader. The Eugenical News (1916-1922) celebrated the development of new American eugenic scholarly organization by highlighting that it roster included such as in the following announcement about "new active members of Eugenics Research Association… C. C. Brigham, Psychological Laboratory, Princeton, N. J., G. Stanley Hall, Clark University, C. E. Seashore, State University of Iowa, Lewis, M. Terman, Stanford University, Calif., John B. Watson, Johns Hopkins Hospital" (p. 53). Although Hall is credited with bringing notable psychoanalytic scholars to the U.S., including S. Freud and C. Jung, Hall expressed openly anti-psychoanalytic views in his writings that emphasized his eugenic commitments. For example, in the first issue of the Journal of Applied Psychology, of which Stanley G. Hall (1917) was an editor, his opening article proclaimed that the U.S. psychology had to “draw any lesson… from the present war, in which the great Nordic race which embraces the dominant elements of all the belligerent nations is committing suicide” (p. 9) The most significant of these lessons, according to Hall, was for American psychology to fight against the “revisionary conceptions of Freud…that it is… normal for man at times to plunge back and down the evolutionary ladder” (p. 12). Hall included openly anti-Semitic statements in his writings such as in his book "On the Aspects of German Culture" in which he discussed the supposed destruction of Western civilization by "rapacious Jews." Consistent with typical anti-Semitic stereotypes promoted by eugenicists such as Charles Davenport Hall remarked that the psychoanalytic focus on “sex” in addition to this approach’s “rapid growth… found outside the circle of specialists [academic experimental psychologists]” made psychoanalysis and “the number of out-and-out disciples” to be a form of a “cult” (p. 412). Moreover, Hall stated that the “Freudian theory of therapy… is mistaken” (p. 12), giving a warning example of how an individual’s culturally unacceptable sexual desires and behaviors could be justified through psychoanalytic interpretations rather than “cured by the very modesty” based on cultural or religious norms (p. 13). As noted in this article, Hall promoted heteronormative Christian moral views in regard to sexuality which vilified all divergent sexual experiences as amoral, including masturbation, same sex sexuality, sex outside of marriage, and so forth. Hall claimed that psychoanalytic treatment would “destroy” this religious “morality” during the process of analysis (p. 13). In his book "Jesus, the Christ, In the Light of Psychology" Hall openly praised eugenics and discussed that the presence of supposedly evolutionary unfit people (i.e., the poor, racial minorities, immigrants) served the purpose of teaching the evolutionary fit people (i.e., Nordic wealthy Whites) virtues of caring for the lower classes. Other openly eugenic writings by Hall include his 1903 article entitled "The White Man's Burden versus Indigenous Development of the Lower Races" in The Journal of Education. Majority of American eugenic organizations listed Hall as its leader (e.g., American Eugenic Society, American Eugenic Research Organization). His students included many notable eugenicists, including H. H. Goddard, Robert Yerkes, Lewis Terman, and many others.

Literary activities

An important contributor to educational literature, and a leading authority in that field, he founded and was editor of the American Journal of Psychology. In addition, he edited the Pedagogical Seminary (after 1892),[29][30] the American Journal of Religious Psychology and Education (after 1904), and the Journal of Race Development (after 1910). Hall was, from his student days to his death, interested in philosophy, psychology, education and religion in every one of their aspects which did not involve detailed experimentation, intricate quantitative treatment of results, or rigor and subtlety of analysis. There was, however, an order of emphasis, the years from '80 to '90 being devoted to problems of general psychology and education, those from 1890 to 1905 being especially devoted to the concrete details of human life, particularly the life of children and adolescents, and those from 1905 on being more devoted to wide-reaching problems of man's emotional, ethical and religious life.[31]

Hall's work applied today

Hall contributed a large amount of work in understand adolescent development, some of which still holds true today. Hall observed that males tend to have an increase in sensation seeking and aggression during adolescence.[13] Hall also observed an increase in crime rates during the adolescent years.[11] This increase in crime rates have been observed in adolescents today as well. The United States Justice Department released crime statistics on a number of crimes between 1990 and 2010. The statistics show an increase in crimes such as drug sales, murder, theft, assault, burglary, etc., for those aged 10 to 18, particularly in males.[32] Hall noted that in terms of aggression there are two types; relational aggression and physical aggression. Relational aggression relates to gossiping, rumor spreading, and exclusions of others. Hall noted that relational aggression occurs more frequently in females while physical aggression occurs more often in males.[11]

Much of the mark that Hall left behind was from his expansion of psychology as a field in the United States. He did a lot of work to bring psychology to the United States as a legitimate form of study and science. He began the first journal dedicated only to psychology in the United States of America, called the American Journal of Psychology. He was also the first president of the American Psychological Association. All of the work that Hall did in the field of psychology and for psychology in the United States of America allowed for all the other psychologists to follow in his foot steps and to become psychologists in the United States. Without the effort from Hall it could have taken many more years for psychology to become a field in the United States.[33]

Publications

• Aspects of German Culture (1881)
• Hints toward a Select and Descriptive Bibliography of Education (1886), with John M. Mansfield
• The Contents of Children's Minds on Entering School (1893)
• Supervised the study Of Peculiar and Exceptional Children by E. W. Bohannon, Fellow in Pedagogy at Clark University (1896)
• A Study of Dolls (1897)
• Confessions of a Psychologist (1900)
• Hall, G. S. (1903). The white man's burden versus indigenous development of the lower races. The Journal of Education, 58(4,1438), 83-83.
• Adolescence (Volume 1, Volume 2 1907)
• Spooks and Telepathy (1908)
• Youth: Its Education, Regimen, and Hygiene (1909)
• Introduction to Studies in Spiritism by Amy Tanner (1910)
• Educational Problems (Volume 1, Volume 2 1911)
• Hall, G. S. (1917b). Practical relations between psychology and the war. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1(1), 9-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0070238
• Jesus, the Christ, in the Light of Psychology (Volume 1, Volume 2 1917)
• Founders of Modern Psychology (1912)
• Morale, The Supreme Standard of Life and Conduct (1920)
• Aspects of Child Life and Education (1921)
• Senescence, The Last Half of Life (1922)

See also

• Developmental psychology
• Recapitulation theory
• Theory of evolution
• Eugenics

Notes

1. Thorndike, Edward L. (1925). National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir of Granville Stanley Hall (PDF). National Academy of Sciences.
2. Haggbloom, Steven J.; Powell, John L., III; Warnick, Jason E.; Jones, Vinessa K.; Yarbrough, Gary L.; Russell, Tenea M.; Borecky, Chris M.; McGahhey, Reagan; et al. (2002). "The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century". Review of General Psychology. 6 (2): 139–152. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.139.
3. Thorndike, Edward (1925). Biographical Memoir of Granville Stanley Hall. National Academy of Sciences. pp. 135–136.
4. Thorne, B. Michael & Henley, Tracy B. (2001). Connections in the History and Systems of Psychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-04535-X.
5. "A Brief Biographical Sketch of G. Stanley Hall". Ithaca.edu. December 19, 2003. Retrieved June 27, 2012.
6. American Antiquarian Society Members Directory
7. Benjamin, Ludy (2007). A Brief History of Modern Psychology. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 63–68. ISBN 978-1-4051-3205-3.
8. "About Clark | Clark University". http://www.clarku.edu. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
9. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Old Corner Bookstore, Incorporated. January 1, 1919.
10. Wegner, Daniel L. Schacter, Daniel T. Gilbert, Daniel M. (2010). Psychology (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4-292-3719-2.
11. Hall, G. Stanley (1904). "Adolescence: ITS PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS RELATIONS TO PHYSIOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, SOCIOLOGY, SEX, CRIME, RELIGION AND EDUCATION". Classics in the History of Psychology. 2. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
12. Youniss, James (2006). "G. Stanley Hall and his times: Too much so, yet not enough". History of Psychology. 9 (3): 224–235. doi:10.1037/1093-4510.9.3.224. PMID 17153145.
13. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen (2006). "G. Stanley Hall's Adolescence: Brilliance and nonsense". History of Psychology. 9 (3): 186–197. doi:10.1037/1093-4510.9.3.186. PMID 17153143.
14. Eugene Taylor. (2009). The Mystery of Personality: A History of Psychodynamic Theories. Springer. p. 30. ISBN 978-0387981031
15. John Melton. (1996). Psychical Research in Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. Gale Group. ISBN 978-0810394865
16. Wade Pickren, Alexandra Rutherford. (2010). A History of Modern Psychology in Context. Wiley. ISBN 978-0470276099
17. Paul Kurtz. A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. p. 551. ISBN 978-0879753009
18. Leonard Zusne, Warren H. Jones. (1989). Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking. Psychology Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0805805086
19. Amy Tanner with an introduction by G. Stanley Hall. (1910). Studies in Spiritism. New York and London: D. Appleton and Company
20. David J. Hess. (1993). Science in the New Age: The Paranormal, Its Defenders and Debunkers, and American Culture. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0299138240
21. Rodger Anderson. (2006). Psychics, Sensitives And Somnambules: A Biographical Dictionary With Bibliographies. McFarland & Company. p. 238. ISBN 978-0786427703
22. One and Done by Lauren Sandler, TIME July 19, 2010, pp. 35-41.
23. Hall, G. Stanley (1904). "Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion and Education". Classics in the History of Psychology. 2. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
24. Burnham, William. "Economy in Intellectual Work". Scribner's Magazine.
25. Parry, Manon (July 1, 2006). "G. Stanley Hall: Psychologist and Early Gerontologist". American Journal of Public Health. 96 (7): 1161. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2006.090647. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 1483855. PMID 16735608.
26. Cole, TR (1984). "The prophecy of Senescence: G. Stanley Hall and the reconstruction of old age in America". American Journal of Public Health. 96 (7): 1161. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2006.090647. PMC 1483855. PMID 16735608.
27. Woodward, K (2003). "Against wisdom: the social politics of anger and aging". American Journal of Public Health. 96 (7): 1161. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2006.090647. PMC 1483855. PMID 16735608.
28. Martin, Michael, ed. (2006). The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 310. ISBN 978-1-1398-2739-3.
29. "The Pedagogical Seminary archives". onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
30. The Pedagogical seminary. Worcester, Mass. : J.H. Orpha. January 1, 1891.
31. Thorndike, Edward (1925). Biographical Memoir of Granville Stanley Hall. National Academy of Sciences.
32. Snyder, Howard (October 2012). "Arrest in the United States, 1990-2010"(PDF). http://www.bjs.gov. U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
33. Parry, Manon (July 2006). "G. Stanley Hall: Psychologist and Early Gerontologist". American Journal of Public Health. 96 (7): 1161. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2006.090647. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 1483855. PMID 16735608.
References[edit]
• Clarence Karier, 1986, The Individual Society and Education, 2nd edition. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
• Biography and bibliography in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science
• Eugenical News. (1916-1922). Monthly publication of the Eugenics Record Office, Cold Springs, NY. Retrieved on February 22, 2018 at https://babel.hathitrust.org/ cgi/pt?id=coo.31924063788834

Further reading

• G. E. Partridge, Genetic Philosophy of Education: An Epitome of the Published Writings of G. Stanley Hall (New York, 1912) New International Encyclopedia
• Gail Bederman, Manliness & Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917 (Chicago, 1995)
• Jill Lepore (March 11, 2011). "American Chronicles: Twilight". The New Yorker. 87 (4): 30–35.
• Lorine Pruette, G. Stanley Hall: A Biography of a Mind. (D. Appleton, 1926)

External links

• Media from Wikimedia Commons
• Quotations from Wikiquote
• Texts from Wikisource
• National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
• Works by G. Stanley Hall at Project Gutenberg
• Works by or about G. Stanley Hall at Internet Archive
• Works by G. Stanley Hall at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
• G. Stanley Hall at Find a Grave
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 5:07 am

Theosophical Educational Trust
by Theosophy Wiki
Accessed: 10/19/19

Under Construction

The Theosophical Educational Trust was organized by Annie Besant during her presidency of the Theosophical Society based in Adyar, Chennai, India.

The Fourth Annual Report of the Theosophical Educational Trust in Great Britain and Ireland was issued in 1921:


The account shows a decided growth and a splendid outlook for this educational work along theosophic lines. One of the marked accomplishments of the past year was the formal opening, by C. Jinarajadasa, of the St. Christopher School, at Letchworth, for which, in 1919, Mrs. Besant had laid the corner stone. In addition, Mrs. Douglas-Hamilton has established a little Home School near by for a number of children whom she has adopted and whom she intends to educate at St. Christopher School.

The report proclaims again the two main objects of the trust, and its policies. The illustrations in the booklet show five delightfully situated schools in England; and two in Scotland, the latter under the Scottish Educational trust.

A review is also given of the growth of the International Theosophical Fraternity in Education. During the past year Belgium, France, Mexico and Sweden have organized Fraternities; and the American and Holland sections have each their established schools, the School of the Open Gate and the Pythagoras School respectively.


School of the Open Gate

Image
Announcement in August, 1937 issue of The American Theosophist
THE GATEWAY
An unsectarian school under Theosophical auspices in the Ojai Valley, California, dedicated to the building of character, the international viewpoint, and the will to peace.
The day school has been running two years. On September 15, 1937, the boarding department will open for boys and girls over five and under twelve years of age.
For further information apply to
MRS. ROLAND GRAY
OJAI, CALIFORNIA


Image
Julia K. Sommer and schoolchildren on Mt. Wilson in 1922

The School of the Open Gate was a Theosophical school near Krotona in Hollywood, California, founded in 1918 by Mary Gray of Boston.[1] In the General Report of the T. S. of that year it was introduced:

The School of the Open Gate is a new T. S. venture within a charming little hill-side glen almost adjoining Krotona. Here the Theosophical principles of education will be employed by a corps of teachers trained in the best modern methods. The faces of the children who have come from far and wide show a quality which makes any effort worth while on their behalf. The organization known as the Theosophical Fraternity in Education is growing throughout the Section and is engaged in spreading the ideals of Theosophical education where they will do the most good in American public educational systems.[2]


The Handbook of Private Schools described it as "a modern open air school of the Theosophical cult for children from kindergarten to high school."[3]

In 1919 the responsibility for the school was transferred to the Theosophical Fraternity in Education, based in Chicago. Bonds were offered for $25 at 7% interest to finance school land and buildings, and donations were requested for a scholarship fund.[4]

Julia K. Sommer served as principal of the school from 1920-1925. She wrote:

Eight o'clock in the morning and a merry crowd of children dressed as for a hike were waiting expectantly in front of the main building of the School of the Open Gate one sunny day. Why so early? Soon the school bus drove up and all piled in and were driven off toward the boulevard. "We're going to Mt. Wilson" they shouted to a passerby who looked questioningly at the past disappearing bus. Their answer explains the early start. And a tired but happy lot of children and teachers came back just before bedtime that night. Some of them had that day seen snow for the first time in this life. A few of the more hardy ones had climbed to the very top of the mountain and had seen the observatory. They had gained first hand information of much that hitherto had been mere book knowledge to them.

This is the educational theory according to which the work of the School of the Open Gate is carried on - to get the children into intimate touch with that which they are studying, to make the world and life a real and living experience to them. Later the students of Shakespeare in the more advanced grades formed a theatre party with several members of the faculty and attended Robert Mantell's presentation of "As You Like It."

The geography of nearby fields, canyons and hills; the arithmetic required to keep score in games, to carry on a store, to sell the vegetables raised by them in the school gardens; and that necessary in the school shops all help to make lessons vivid and lasting in their effect upon young minds.[5]


Among the children who attended the school were Grayson and Stanley Rogers, the sons of L. W. Rogers, and the sons of Col. Bustillo of the Cuban army.[6] On April 7, 1922, students demonstrated their Theosophical attitudes with a generous project:

On Friday, April 7th, some of the pupils of the School of the Open Gate, gave an original entertainment for the benefit of the Panchama Free Schools of India. None of the faculty had been asked for either suggestions or help, and it was a great surprise to all who attended, both for the beauty of the entertainment and the fine spirit of helpfulness that prompted it...

The following children took part: Robert White, Genevieve Doolittle, Hari Cruz, Bernard Sacks, Etheleon Stanton, Dorothy White, Margaret Ann Veeck, and Dana Cruz. Miss irene Doolittle helped the children by giving a very beautiful dance.[7]


Notes

• "Coeducational Schools," The Handbook of Private Schools Volume 7 (Boston: Porter Sargent, 1922), 272. Available at Google Books.
• A. P. Warrington, "Report of the T.S. in America: Education," General Report of the T. S., 1918 (Adyar, Madras, India: Theosophical Publishing House, 1919), 40.
• "Coeducational Schools," The Handbook of Private Schools Volume 7 (Boston: Porter Sargent, 1922), 272. Available at Google Books.
• Julia K. Sommer, "The School of the Open Gate" The Messenger 9.4 (September 1921), 83.
• "The School of the Open Gate," The Messenger 8.10 (March 1921), 632.
• Anonymous, "The Cuban Section and the Next Congress" The Messenger 9.10 (March 1922), 224.
• Anonymous, "For the Panchama Fund" The Messenger 9.12 (May, 1922), 266.

-- School of the Open Gate, by Theosophy Wiki


Mrs. Robert [Beatrice] Ensor is Director-Secretary and Organizer of the Theosophical Education Trust in Great Britain and Ireland, and Capt. Ensor is the Business Manager."[1]


Additional resources

SEE ALSO Mary K. Neff, George S. Arundale

Notes

1. "The Theosophical Educational Trust," The Messenger 8.10 (March, 1921), 632.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 5:33 am

G. R. S. Mead
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/16/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

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G. R. S. Mead.

George Robert Stowe Mead (22 March 1863 in Peckham, Surrey[1] (Nuneaton, Warwickshire?)[2] – 28 September 1933 in London)[3]) was an English historian, writer, editor, translator, and an influential member of the Theosophical Society, as well as the founder of the Quest Society. His scholarly works dealt mainly with the Hermetic and Gnostic religions of Late Antiquity, and were exhaustive for the time period.

Birth and family

Mead was born in Peckham, Surrey, England to British Army Colonel Robert Mead and his wife Mary (née Stowe), who had received a traditional education at Rochester Cathedral School.

Mead, a highly intuitive and insightful scholar, whose literary activities fall into the latter part of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century must be regarded as a pioneer of the first order in the field of Gnostic and Hermetic studies[citation needed]. As the late poet and esoteric student Kenneth Rexroth accurately stated In his introduction to the late 1950s University Books edition of Mead’s Fragments of a Faith Forgotten, the only reason for Mead’s continued neglect on the part of many academicians is the fact that he was a Theosophist. When in 1887 the redoubtable Madame Blavatsky settled in London, the young Mead joined the company of her close associates. In her circle he learned of the profound mysteries of the Gnostics and of the votaries of Hermes, soon becoming an indefatigable worker in his capacity of translator of Gnostic and Hermetic writings. [1] Admittedly, many of his translations were from other modern languages as he was not trained in Coptic.[4]

Education at Cambridge University

Having shown academic potential, Mead began studying mathematics at St John's College, Cambridge.[5] Eventually shifting his education towards the study of Classics, he gained much knowledge of Greek and Latin. In 1884 he completed a BA degree; in the same year he became a public school master.

Activity with the Theosophical Society

While still at Cambridge University Mead read Esoteric Buddhism (1883) by Alfred Percy Sinnett. This comprehensive theosophical account of the Eastern religion prompted Mead to contact two theosophists in London named Bertam Keightly and Mohini Chatterji, which eventually led him to join Helena Petrovna Blavatsky's Theosophical Society in 1884.

In 1889 he abandoned his teaching profession to become Blavatsky's private secretary, and also became a joint-secretary of the Esoteric Section (E.S.) of the Theosophical Society, reserved for those deemed more advanced.

Mead received Blavatsky's Six Esoteric Instructions and other teachings at 22 meetings headed by Blavatsky which were only attended by the Inner Group of the Theosophical Society. It was because of the intimacy Mead felt with the Inner Group that he married Laura Cooper in 1899.

Contributing intellectually to the Theosophical Society, at first most interested in Eastern religions, he quickly became more and more attracted to Western esotericism in religion and philosophy, particularly Neoplatonism, Gnosticism, and Hermeticism, although his scholarship and publications continued to engage with Eastern religion. Making many contributions to the Theosophical Society's Lucifer as joint editor, he eventually became the sole editor of The Theosophical Review in 1907 (as Lucifer was renamed in 1897).

As of February 1909 Mead and some 700 members of the Theosophical Society's British Section resigned in protest at Annie Besant's reinstatement of Charles Webster Leadbeater to membership in the society. Leadbeater had been a prominent member of the Theosophical Society until he was accused in 1906 of teaching masturbation to the sons of some American Theosophists under the guise of occult training. While this prompted Mead's resignation, his frustration at the dogmatism of the Theosophical Society may also have been a major contributor to his break after 25 years.

The Quest Society

In March 1909 Mead founded the Quest Society, composed of 150 defectors of the Theosophical Society and 100 other new members. Very intentionally this new society was planned to be an undogmatic approach to the comparative study and investigation of religion, philosophy, and science. The Quest Society had lectures at Kensington Town Hall in central London but its most focused effort was in its publishing of The Quest: A Quarterly Review which ran from 1909-1931 with many contributors.

Influence

Notable persons influenced by Mead include Ezra Pound, W.B. Yeats, Hermann Hesse, Kenneth Rexroth, and Robert Duncan. The seminal influence of G.R.S. Mead on Carl Gustav Jung, confirmed by the scholar of Gnosticism Gilles Quispel, a friend of Jung's, has been documented by several scholars. [6] [7] The popularity of a 20th-century Theosophical or esoteric interpretation of "gnosis" and the "Gnostics" led to an influential conception among scholars of an essential doctrinal and practicing commonality among the various groups deemed "Gnostic," which has been criticized by scholars such as Michael Allen Williams in his book Rethinking Gnosticism[8] and by Karen L. King[9] in recent decades.

Works

• Address read at H.P. Blavatsky's cremation (1891)
• Simon Magus (1892)
• Orpheus (1895/6)
• Pistis Sophia (1896; 2nd ed. 1921)
• Fragments of a Faith Forgotten (1900)
• Apollonius of Tyana (1901)
• Did Jesus Live 100 BC? (1903)
• Concerning H.P.B. (1904)
• Thrice Greatest Hermes, vol. 1 (London: Theosophical Publishing Society, 1906)
• Thrice Greatest Hermes, vol. 2 (London: Theosophical Publishing Society, 1906)
• Thrice Greatest Hermes, vol. 3 (London: Theosophical Publishing Society, 1906)
• Echoes from The Gnosis (1906-1907). A collection of 11 volumes, which includes:
• The Hymns of Hermes
• The Gnosis of the Mind (1906)
• The Gnostic Crucifixion (1907)
• Some Mystical Adventures (1910)
• Quests Old and New (1913)
• The Vision Of Aridæus
• The Hymn Of Jesus
• The Mysteries Of Mithra
• A Mithraic Ritual
• The Chaldæan Oracles Vol. 1
• The Chaldæan Oracles Vol. 2
• The Hymn of the Robe Of Glory
• The Wedding Song Of Wisdom
• Gnostic John the Baptizer: Selections from the Mandæan John-Book (1924)
• Commentary on "Pœmandres"
• Introduction to Pistis Sophia
• Introduction to Marcion
• Doctrine of the Subtle Body in Western Tradition

See also

• Poemandres
• Gospel of Marcion
• Pistis Sophia
• Thomas Taylor
• Hermetica
• Acts of John
• Mandaeanism
• Marcionism
• Mohini Mohun Chatterji
• Hymn of the Pearl

Footnotes

1. GRO index of births 1863 Q2 vol 1d page 525 Camberwell
2. G.R.S. Mead and the Gnostic Quest by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke and Clare Goodrick-Clarke
3. Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, Clare Goodrick-Clarke (eds), G. R. S. Mead and the Gnostic Quest, North Atlantic Books, 2005, p. 32.
4. See the Bibliographical Note in the Dover edition of his Pistis Sophia, which states "Mead's English Translation does not derive from the original Coptic, but from the 1851 Latin translation by M. G. Scwartze, the 1895 French translation by E. Amelineau, and the 1905 German translation by Carl Schmidt."
5. "Mead, George Robert Stow (MT881GR)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
6. Tilton, Hereward (2017). "Gnosis of the Eternal Æon: Jung, G. R. S. Mead and the Serpentine Path of the Soul" (PDF). Quaderni di Studi Indo-Mediterranei. 10: 243–261.
7. Goodrick-Clarke, Clare and Nicholas (2005). G.R.S. Mead and the Gnostic Quest. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic books. pp. 27–31, 176. ISBN 1-55643-572-X.
8. Williams, Michael Allen (1996). Rethinking "Gnosticism:" An Argument for Dismantling a Dubious Category. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
9. King, Karen L. (2003). What is Gnosticism?. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

External links

• Works by G. R. S. Mead at Project Gutenberg
• Extensive on-line collection of the writings of GRS Mead (at the Gnosis Archive)
• Brief bio with poor picture
• Same picture, but much larger and clearer
• Later Picture with no text
• Long biography
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 5:41 am

Mary Esther Harding
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/16/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


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Mary Esther Harding (1888–1971) was a British-American Jungian analyst who was the first significant Jungian psychoanalyst in the United States.

Personal life

Mary Esther Harding was born in Shropshire, England as the fourth of six daughters of a dental surgeon. She was an avid reader and was home schooled until the age of eleven. Pursuing her goal of becoming a missionary doctor, she attended the London School of Medicine for Women, where she graduated in 1914 in a class of nine students. She was then an intern at the Royal Infirmary in London, the first hospital in London to accept women interns. At that time she wrote her first book, The Circulatory Failure of Diphtheria and later herself contracted the disease. After her recovery a friend named Constance Long gave her Beatrice Hinkle's translation of Psychology of the Unconscious by Carl Gustav Jung, which led her to move to Switzerland and enter analysis with him, along with a small group of other students attending Jung's Küsnacht home near Zurich.

Psychoanalyst

In 1919, Eleanor Bertine and Kristine Mann traveled to Zurich following an International Conference of Medical Women. Eleanor Bertine and Esther Harding developed a close relationship there and, in 1924, decided to relocate to New York City. Each year they would travel to Zurich for two months of analysis and spend summers at Bailey Island, Maine, the ancestral summer home of Kristine Mann. There they saw analysands from the United States and Canada in a quiet, comfortable setting away from the distractions of daily life and conducive to profound experiences of the unconscious.

Jungian Community

Mary Esther Harding became influential in the New York City Jungian Analytical psychology community. She was a prodigious writer and a frequent lecturer in the United States and Canada. Her first book on analytical psychology, entitled The Way of All Women, was an instant-best seller and has been translated into many languages and introduced many people to Jung's psychology. Harding wrote many other well-known books, including: Psychic Energy, Women's Mysteries, The Parental Image, and The I and not I, along with numerous papers on a variety of subjects from depression to religion.

Harding helped to found many Jungian organizations, such as the Analytical Psychology Club of New York in 1936, the Medical Society for Analytical Psychology - Eastern Division in 1946, and the C.G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology in 1963. She died in 1971.

Books by Mary Esther Harding

• M. Esther Harding, The Circulatory Failure of Diphtheria: A thesis for the degree of Doctor of Medicine in the University of London, University of London Press, 1920, ASIN B00087EDZI
• M. Esther Harding, Woman's Mysteries. Ancient and modern: A psychological interpretation of the feminine principle as portrayed in myth, story, and dreams(London: Longmans, Green 1936; rev'd ed., New York: Pantheon 1955), ASIN B0006AU8SI
• M. Esther Harding, The Way of All Women, Putnam Publishing, (New York: 1970 ISBN 1-57062-627-8
• M. Esther Harding, Psychic Energy, its source and goal, New York, Pantheon, 1947, Bollingen Series No. 10, ASIN B00005XR4E
• M. Esther Harding, Psychic Energy: Its Source and Its Transformation, foreword by C.G. Jung, 1963, Paper 0-691-01790-5
• M. Esther Harding, The Parental Image;: Its injury and reconstruction; a study in analytical psychology, Published by Putnam for the C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology (1965), ASIN B0006BMVIM
• Mary Esther Harding, The I and the Not-I, Bollingen: 1 January 1974, ISBN 0-691-01796-4
• Esther M. Harding, The Value and Meaning of Depression, Analytical Psychology Club, June, 1985, ISBN 0-318-04660-1
• M. Esther Harding, A short review of Dr. Jung's article Redemption ideas in alchemy, ASIN B0008C5SP2
• M. Esther Harding, The mother archetype and its functioning in life, Analytical Psychology Club of New York City, 1939, ASIN B00089E47S
• M. Esther Harding, Afterthoughts on The Pilgrim, Analytical Psychology Club of New York, 1957, ASIN B0006RJAD0
• M. Esther Harding, Inward Journey, Sigo; 2nd edition, October, 1991, ISBN 0-938434-61-6
• M. Esther Harding, Way of All Women: a Psychological Interpretation, HarperCollins, 1 January 1975, ISBN 0-609-03996-2
• M. Esther Harding, Journey Into Self, Longman Green & Co., 1956
• M. Esther Harding, Woman's Mysteries: Ancient & Modern, Longmans Green & Co., 1935
• M. Esther Harding, The Way of All Women, Longman Green & Co., 1933

References

• Thomas B Kirsch, The Jungians, Routledge 1 Jan 2000, ISBN 0-415-15861-3
• Ronald Hayman, A Life of Jung, W. W. Norton & Company, 1 June 2002, ISBN 0-393-32322-6

Further reading

Anthony, M. (1990). The Valkyries: The Women around Jung. Shaftesbury, Dorset: Element Books
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 5:52 am

Edward L. Gardner
by Theosophy Wiki
Accessed: 8/16/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
E. L. Gardner in 1927

Image
E. L. Gardner as member of Exec Committee of TS in England

Image
N. Sri Ram and E. L. Gardner at Tekels Park. © Theosophical Society in England Archives.

Edward Lewis Gardner (1869-1969) was a noted writer and lecturer from the English Section of the Theosophical Society based in Adyar, India.

Personal life

Gardner was born at Coggeshall, Essex, England in 1869. He was first married to Clara Beard in 1892. She died in 1920, and he later, in 1922, married Eliza Adelaide Draper, a respected Theosophical writer and lecturer who was born in the United States.

Theosophical Society involvement

Gardner joined the TS on April 17, 1907. He served as General Secretary of the English Section from 1924-28. According to Theosopedia,

Gardner traveled widely as an International Lecturer for the Theosophical Society. In 1926 he founded the theosophical community at Stamford House, Wimbledon, London, and presided over it until 1940. Gardner was one of a group that bought Tekels Park, now vested in the English section of the TS. [1]


In 1918 Gardner had the honor of delivering the inaugural Blavatsky Lecture on the subject of "Matter is the Shadow of Spirit," followed by "The Nature and Function of the Soul" in 1946, and "Whence Come the Gods? and Related Studies" in 1959.

Later years

Image
Bookmark featuring Gardner, issued by TS in England

Image
Book cover, 1962.

Writings

Gardner was much known for his writings. The Union Index of Theosophical Periodicals lists 74 articles under the name EL Gardner, 3 under E L Gardner, and 14 under Edward L Gardner.

In 1940 he was awarded the Subba Row Medal for his contributions to Theosophical literature. These are books and pamphlets that he wrote:

• The Fourth Creative Hierarchy, Matter is the Shadow of Spirits, and The Web of the Universe. Madras, India: F.E. Philp & Sons, 1913. Reprinted 1936, rev. Ed. 1938.
• The Web of the Universe. 1936.
• The Play of Consciousness. 1939.
• Fairies; A book of Real Fairies. 1945.
• Fairies: The Cottingley Photographs and Their Sequel. 1945.
• The Mysteries. 1945.
• The Nature and the Function of the Soul. 1946.
• The Imperishable Body. 1949.
• The Heavenly Man. 1952.
• The Wider View & Studies in the Secret Doctrine. 1962. Håkan Blomqvist describes this as "a collection of articles published between 1944-1959. In several of these articles Gardner tries to understand the UFO enigma from a Theosophical viewpoint. His theory is that they represent either etheric Venusians or deva materializations."[2]
• There Is No Religion Higher Than Truth. 1964. Booklet.
• A Mind to Embrace the Universe. 1965.
• Thyself Both Heaven and Hell. 1966.

Notes

1. "Gardner, Edward Lewis" in Theosopedia.
2. Håkan Blomqvist at at UFOArchives.blogspot.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 6:01 am

Adolphe Ferrière
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/16/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

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Adolphe Emmanuel Ferrière
Born 30 August 1879
Geneva, Switzerland
Died 16 June 1960 (aged 80)
Geneva, Switzerland
Nationality Swiss
Education University of Geneva
Occupation Educator, Author
Known for pedagogy

Adolphe Ferrière (Geneva, 1879 - Geneva, 1960) was one of the founders of the movement of the progressive education. He shortly worked in a school in Glarisegg (TG,CH) and later founded an experimental school ('La Forge') in Lausanne, Switzerland, but Adolphe Ferrière had to quickly abandon teaching due to his deafness. In 1921, he founded the New Education Fellowship, in which he wrote the charter. The congress of this league until the Second World War included a number of other teachers: Maria Montessori, Célestin Freinet, Gisèle de Failly and Roger Cousinet. He worked as a humanist and an editor from 1919 to 1922 on the pacifist journal 'l'Essor' (The Rise). [1] He was one of the founding members of the International Bureau of Education (IBE) in 1925, and served as its first Deputy Director alongside Elisabeth Rotten.[2] He was also a member of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).[1] · [3] Throughout his life, he has published a substantial number of books, some of which were done with Karl-Ernst Krafft.[1] · [4]

He is listed as one of the 100 most famous educators, by the International Bureau of Education (IBE).[5]

Publications

• Science and faith, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1912
• The law of progress in biology and sociology, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1915
• Transforming schools, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1920 (reprint 1948)
• The autonomy of students, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1921 (reprint 1950)
• The spontaneous activity in children, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1922
• Education in the family, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1920
• The practice of active school, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1922 (reprint 1929)
• The active school, 1920 (reprint 1953)
• The coééducation gender, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1926. (included in "Transforming Schools", 1948)
• Spiritual progress, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1926
• Bakula and his work educator, 1926
• The maternal heart Pestalozzi, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1928
• The psychological types in children, in adults and in the course of education, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1922
• The future of genetic psychology, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1931
• The school measure, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1931
• Characterological typocosmique, Geneva and Paris, 1932.
• In collaboration with Karl-Ernst Krafft
• Our children and the future of the country, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1942
• Human liberation, Éditions du Mont Blanc, Geneva, 1943
• Towards a natural classification of psychological types, Nice, 1943
• Children's Home after the war, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1945
• The school workforce across Europe, Michon, Paris, 1948
• Brief introduction to the new education, Bourrelier, Paris, 1951
• The mystery of the person, Rigois, Turin, 1955

See also

• Pedagogy

References

1. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/use ... rriere.pdf
2. IBE (2015). IBE In Focus: 90 years of excellence in education (PDF). UNESCO. p. 22.
3. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2011-07-07.
4. http://74.125.19.132/translate_c?hl=en& ... 5PPzheEKIw[permanent dead link]
5. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/en/services/o ... ation.html
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