Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 4:48 am

Organic nationalism
by Utopia Britannica
Accessed: 8/16/19

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Gazatteer entry

Springhead 1933 -
FOUNDER/ LEADER : Rolf Gardiner
Base of the Springhead Ring founded to promote the revival of rural life. Pioneered work in organic farming and reforestation alongside reviving countryside festivals and traditional song and dance. Became target of rumour of Nazi sympathys during WW2. Is now run by the Springhead Trust as a conference centre.
GRID REF: Gore Farm.Melbury Abbas.
REF: The Village that Died for England. http://freespace.virgin.net/springhead.trust/aboutf.htm


" We must plant ourselves again in the Universe."

-- D.H. Lawrence


From far and wide they came bearing salt, earth, sulphur and lavender to the edge of Cranbourne Chase to dedicate 'a centre for the gathering and training of men and women for the weal of Wessex.' The Springhead Ring, centred around the young blond Rolf Gardiner, wished to spark off a rural revival, 'from herb to the hymn', to restore England from the perilous state it had fallen into since the end of the First World War. Springhead consisted of a group of mill buildings arranged around a courtyard on the edge of Gore Farm owned by Gardiner's uncle. This was no romantic rustic revival that was envisaged - this was hard-nosed pragmatism. The plan was to `rebuild a hill-and-vale economy along modern organic lines', restoring the ancient breeds of sheep to the Downs and reviving rural industries along with the traditional rural festivals.

From Austro-Hungarian/Jewish/Scandinavian background on his mother's side and with a British father, the young Rolf Gardiner was educated at the Bedales co-educational school in Derbyshire and as a young man became involved in the thriving Europe-wide youth movement of the time, having contact with the German Wandervogel and becoming something of a roving European ambassador for the Kibbo Kift. He saw hope for a renewed Europe in the "self-supporting communities" of young people that he saw "springing up all over Europe today." He met and corresponded with the novelist D.H. Lawrence.

'I'm sure you are doing the right thing, with hikes and dances and songs. But somehow it needs a central clue, or it will fizzle away again. There needs a centre of silence, and a heart of darkness--to borrow from Rider Haggard. We'll have to establish some spot on earth, that will be the fissure into the underworld, like the oracle at Delphos, where one can always come to. I will try to do it myself. I will try to come to England and make a place - some quiet house in the country - where one can begin - and from which the hiker, maybe, can branch out. Some place with a big barn and a bit of land--if one has enough money. Don't you think that is what it needs? And then one must set out and learn a deep discipline--and learn dances from all the world, and take whatsoever we can make into our own. And learn music the same.'

-- D.H. Lawrence Letter To Rolf Gardiner.3 December, 1926.


English social leadership

Image
Springhead camp

Gardiner set up the Gore Kinship and organised study groups and camps. This little group would turn into the Springhead Ring upon the purchase of Springhead Mill by his uncle and the work of building a movement for the revival of rural England could begin in earnest. Throughout the 1930s the Springhead Ring ran numerous camps with the aim of combating the effects of the depression years by creating a `reinvigorated stock of countrymen' from the unused material of the towns. Gardiner wrote a report for the Minister of Labour on the camps in which he gave details of a 'Harvest Camp' at Springhead. Sixty-nine young men and women `from different walks of life' spent a number of weeks gaining `a direct experience of community by thinking, playing and working on the land'. The 'different walks' included; teachers and social workers, one farm girl, three public schoolboys, six university lecturers, two house painters, two miners, a brass engraver and a cinema operator. Also taking part were twelve members of the German Youth Movement. Quite what this cross section of the nations unemployed made of the heady mix of activities on offer at the camp we are not told. As they progressed the camps developed a regular pattern. Rising at 6.30 to `the rhythmic beating of a mellow-toned gong' the campers would run barefoot behind the camp chiefs in single file snaking in and out of the tents in `circular evolutions' mimicking the twisting and turning rays of the rising sun coming to a rest around a central flagstaff where they sang a hymn to the dawn, whilst the Cross of St George with a Wessex Dragon emblazoned across it, flew above. After breakfast they worked on the farm, clearing neglected woodland, dredging the silted up millpond or planting willow for the revival of rural basket making. The afternoon was for quiet study and contemplation with singing or folk dancing at 4.30. An early evening lecture would be held on the subject chosen as a theme for the camp such as the Tradition of English Social Leadership or Land Settlement and Regional Reconstruction. The day would end by torchlight with everyone standing arm in arm singing:

The Earth has turned us from the sun,
And let us close our circle now to light,
But open it to darkness, and each one
Warm with this circle's warming,
Go in good darkness to good sleep
Good night.


At which point the camp herald would extinguish his torch and the members of the 'ring' would retire to their tents.

The camps were successful and attended by a wide variety of people including the comedian Jimmy Edwards and the composer Michael Tippet who provided music for some of the camps. Music and dance were important features of the camps with a strong emphasis on English folk songs. For a couple of years from 1932 the camps were extended to East Cleveland where Gardiner ran them for unemployed Ironstone miners creating allotments. Gardiner was highly critical of the other major example of rural revivalism of the time at Dartington Hall where he himself had been educated in silviculture, bemoaning its lack of soul and suggesting that it needed to "add an expert in social affection, an engineer in community joy" to its collection of experts on rural regeneration.

Phantom swastikas in the woods

Other more shadowy organisations were active in the Dorset countryside at the same time with similar aims as the Springhead Ring. The combative sounding Wessex Agricultural Defence Association and the much more overtly nationalistic English Array each with links to Oswald Moseley's British Union of Fascists. Each tried to woo Gardiner into their ranks. But whilst Gardiner was sympathetic with their talk of regenerating `English stock' and praise for unpasteurised milk and the cottage pig, he disagreed with the methods they chose to pursue their dream of an English revival and repeatedly distanced himself from their activities. This did not stop his name becoming associated with far-right politics and this along with his connections with the German Youth Movement, which he continued to support even after it was overrun by the Hitler Youth, meant that he became the target of rumours and smears at the outbreak of the Second World War. The most persistent rumour was that he had planted trees in the shape of a swastika to guide German bombers. And perhaps because of his blond hair and Scandinavian good looks and fondness for wearing lederhosen it was reputed that Hitler had him marked out as a local dictator for Wessex following an invasion. The great irony in all these myths and rumours was of course that given his mother’s Jewish heritage Gardiner would not have lasted long at all under Nazi rule. He himself considered the Nazis to be figures from some Wagnerian nightmare and later admitted he had been mistaken and misguided in his pre-war views of Germany.

Work camps continued at Springhead during the war years and groups of German prisoners came to work the farm. Gardiner inadvertently adding to the rumour mongering by greeting them in German when they arrived. The war also threw up an opportunity for a further venture in rural revival. In 1929 Gardiner became involved in developing the Wessex flax industry utilising a derelict flax mill at Slape in West Dorset. From this base Gardiner oversaw nearly 400 people as the government’s agent for flax production in the West Country. With a core of experienced flax workers and a host of school children, Women's Land Army members and even troops drafted in at harvest time, he tried to create a thriving rural craft industry based on independent growers, processors, spinners and weavers with the aim of organising them into a regional guild under the slogan `Wessex fabrics from Wessex fields'. He tried to instigate flax feasts and harvest festivals with accompanying folk song and dance, but was thwarted in his attempts by the Home Flax Directorate who wanted to see a highly mechanised, centrally controlled flax industry and in the end left Gardiner no choice but to part company with them in 1942.

Rolf Gardiner's achievements on his uncle's farm were impressive. He had taken over the running of the farm in 1927 aged only 25 and carried out a mass reforestation programme planting in total some 3 million trees. He believed that upland planting would raise the falling water table even on the porous chalk downs: a belief borne out when in the 1970s drought years Gore farm remained green whilst all around turned brown. His forestry management was way ahead of its time with methods pioneered on the Dorset Downs in the 1920s only recently being taken up by the Forestry Commission as good practice. The farm was (and still is) managed on organic lines long before it was fashionable and Rolf Gardiner was a founding member of the Soil Association on its establishment in 1945. Springhead is now owned by the Springhead Trust, set up by Gardiner's widow with the help and encouragement of Fritz Schumacher after her husband’s death in 1971 and is run as a conference centre hosting the like of the Other Economic Summit, the Soil Association and Voluntary Services Overseas.

Rolf Gardiner never did manage to totally shake off the tag of being a Nazi sympathiser with Springhead visitors still asking, 'Is this where the Nazi lived?' He never planted a swastika in trees on the Dorset Downs. How could he have done? He had carried out his reforestation programme in the 1920s long before the rise of the Nazis. He did however plant a different symbol on a Wessex hillside, Balflour's Circle, a ring of evergreen trees, each one a different North European species, marking the site of his uncle Balfour Gardiner's interred ashes and perhaps marking in the circle of diversity a different vision of Europe.

Links : See also http://www.springheadtrust.co.uk
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 4:57 am

Granville Stanley Hall
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/16/19

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Image
G. Stanley Hall
Granville Stanley Hall by Frederick Gutekunst, circa 1910
Born Granville Stanley Hall
February 1, 1846
Ashfield, Massachusetts
Died April 24, 1924 (aged 78)
Worcester, Massachusetts
Nationality American
Alma mater
Williams College
Harvard University
Clark University
Scientific career
Fields Psychologist
Institutions
Antioch College
Johns Hopkins University
Doctoral advisor William James
Doctoral students William Lowe Bryan

Granville Stanley Hall (February 1, 1846 – April 24, 1924[1]) was a pioneering American psychologist and educator. His interests focused on childhood development and evolutionary theory. Hall was the first president of the American Psychological Association and the first president of Clark University. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Hall as the 72nd most cited psychologist of the 20th century, in a tie with Lewis Terman.[2]

Biography

Childhood


Born in Ashfield, Massachusetts, Hall grew up on a farm with his parents, Granville Bascom Hall, who served on the Massachusetts legislature, and Abigail Beals, who attended school at Albany Female Seminary and went on to become a teacher herself. During his time as a child he spent much of his time reading and taking advantage of the educational advantages he could gain from his parents and the local schools. At a young age he was interested in animals and bodily skills.[3] At the age of 16 he began to teach other students, most of whom were older than he was.

Teacher

Hall attended Williston Seminary and graduated from Williams College in 1867, then studied at the Union Theological Seminary. Inspired by Wilhelm Wundt's Principles of Physiological Psychology, Hall pursued doctoral studies at Harvard University where he met William James, an adjunct professor who had just taught the nation's first psychology class. In 1878, Hall earned the first psychology doctorate awarded in America.[4] After Hall graduated with his doctorate, there were no academic jobs available in psychology, so he went to Europe to study at the University of Berlin, and spent a brief time in Wundt's Leipzig laboratory in 1879.

He began his career by teaching English and philosophy at Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio, and then teaching history of philosophy at Williams College in Massachusetts. Following successful lecture series at Harvard and Johns Hopkins University, Hall secured a position in the philosophy department at Johns Hopkins, teaching psychology and pedagogy. He remained at Johns Hopkins from 1882 to 1888 and, in 1883, began what is considered by some to be the first formal American psychology laboratory.[5] There, Hall objected vehemently to the emphasis on teaching traditional subjects, e.g., Latin, mathematics, science and history, in high school, arguing instead that high school should focus more on the education of adolescents than on preparing students for college.

Hall was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1888.[6]

New discipline of psychology

In 1887, Hall founded the American Journal of Psychology, and in 1892 was appointed as the first president of the American Psychological Association.[5] In 1889 he was named the first president of Clark University, a post he filled until 1920. During his 31 years as president, Hall remained intellectually active. He was instrumental in the development of educational psychology, and attempted to determine the effect adolescence has on education. He was also responsible for inviting Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung to visit and deliver a lecture series in 1909 at the Clark Conference. Hall and Freud shared the same beliefs on sex and adolescence. Hall promised Freud an Honorary Degree from Clark University. This was Freud's first and only visit to America. It was the biggest conference held at Clark University. It was the most controversial conference because Freud's research was based on theories that Hall's colleagues criticized as non-scientific.[7]

In 1888, when he was tapped for the Clark presidency from the faculty of Johns Hopkins University, the 44 year-old Hall was already well on his way to eminence in the then emerging field of psychology. His establishment of experimental laboratories at Johns Hopkins, the first in the discipline, quickly became the measure of the fully modern psychology department. Over his 32 years as a scholar/teacher president at Clark, he had an influence over the future shape of the field of psychology.[8]

What attracted some to Hall and his ideas, and alienated others, were his "music man" propensities. He was the promoter, the impresario par excellence. Hall could "put on a party," as he did with the extraordinary celebrations in 1899 and 1909, on the occasions of the 10th and 20th anniversaries of the opening of Clark University. He did so with an incomparable sense of daring—inviting major figures with unconventional, unpopular, or even scandalous ideas, and then promoting them with the press. He seemed always to be founding new journals or scholarly associations to disseminate his ideas and those of scholars whose perspectives were consistent with his own. Among his creations were the widely respected American Journal of Psychology and the American Psychological Association. He also helped found the Association of American Universities. Ross described this side of Hall as journalist, entrepreneur, and preacher.[8]

In 1917, Hall published a book on religious psychology, "Jesus the Christ in the Light of Psychology." The book was written in two volumes to define Jesus Christ in psychological terms. Hall thoroughly discussed all that is written about Christ, and the probable mental mechanisms of Christ and all of those who believed in him and wrote about him. He analyzes the myths, the magic, etc., built up about the name and life of Christ. He dissects the parables and discusses the miracles, the death and the resurrection of Jesus. He endeavors to reduce all possible expressions or trends which he finds in Jesus and his followers to their genetic origins, and with that aid in comparative psychology, especially the knowledge of anthropology and childhood tendencies, he points out here and there certain universal trends which are at the bottom of it all.[9] This was his least successful work. In 1922, at the age of 78, he published the book "Senescence," a book on aging.[7]

Image
Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, Granville Stanley Hall, C. G. Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, Sándor Ferenczi.

Darwin's theory of evolution and Ernst Haeckel's recapitulation theory were large influences on Hall's career. These ideas prompted Hall to examine aspects of childhood development in order to learn about the inheritance of behavior. The subjective character of these studies made their validation impossible. He believed that as children develop, their mental capabilities resemble those of their ancestors and so they develop over a lifetime the same way that species develop over eons.[10] Hall believed that the process of recapitulation could be sped up through education and force children to reach modern standards of mental capabilities in a shorter amount of time.[11] His work also delved into controversial portrayals of the differences between women and men, as well as the concept of racial eugenics.[5] While Hall was a proponent of racial eugenics, his views were less severe in terms of creating and keeping distinct separations between races. Hall believed in giving “lower races” a chance to accept and adapt to the “superior white civilization”.[11] Hall even commended high ranking African Americans in society as being “exception to the Negro’s diminished evolutionary inheritance”.[12] Hall viewed civilization in a similar fashion he viewed biological development. Humans must allow civilization to “run its natural evolution”.[12] Hall saw those that did not accept the superior civilization as being primitive and consisting of savages. Hall viewed these civilizations in a similar fashion that he viewed children stating that “their faults and their virtues are those of childhood and youth”.[11] Hall believed that men and women should be separated into their own schools during puberty because it allowed them to be able to grow within their own gender. Women could be educated with motherhood in mind and the men could be educated in more hands-on projects, helping them to become leaders of their homes. Hall believed that schools with both sexes limited the way they could learn and softened the boys earlier than they should be.[11] "It is a period of equilibrium, but with the onset of puberty the equilibrium is disturbed and new tendencies arise. Modifications in the reproductive organs take place and bring about secondary sexual characteristics. Extroversion gives way slowly to introversion, and more definitely social instincts begin to play an increasing role."

Hall was also influenced by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and his theory of evolution. Hall found the idea of passing on memories from parent to offspring was a plausible mode of inheritance.[13]

Anomalistic psychology

Hall was one of the founding members and a vice President of the American Society for Psychical Research.[14] The early members of the society were skeptical of paranormal phenomena.[15] Hall took a psychological approach to psychical phenomena. By 1890 he had resigned from the society.[16] He became an outspoken critic of parapsychology.[17]

Hall was an early psychologist in the field of anomalistic psychology.[18] Hall and his assistant Amy Tanner from Clark University were notable debunkers of spiritualism and carried out psychological and physiological tests on mediums. Tanner published Studies in Spiritism (1910) with an introduction by Hall.[19] The book documented the tests carried out by Hall and Tanner in the séance sittings held with the medium Leonora Piper.[20] Hall and Tanner had proven by tests that the personalities of Piper were fictitious creations and not discarnate spirits.[21]

Social views

Hall was deeply wedded to the German concept of Volk, an anti-individualist and authoritarian romanticism in which the individual is dissolved into a transcendental collective. Hall believed that humans are by nature non-reasoning and instinct driven, requiring a charismatic leader to manipulate their herd instincts for the well-being of society. He predicted that the American emphasis on individual human right and dignity would lead to a fall that he analogized to the sinking of Atlantis.

Hall was one of the founders of the child-study movement in the 1880s. A national network of study groups called Hall Clubs existed to spread his teaching. He is popularly known today for supervising the 1896 study Of Peculiar and Exceptional Children, which described a series of only child eccentrics as permanent misfits. For decades, academics and advice columnists alike disseminated his conclusion that an only child could not be expected to go through life with the same capacity for adjustment that siblings possessed. "Being an only child is a disease in itself," he claimed.[22]

Hall argued that child development recapitulates his highly racialized conception of the history of human evolutionary development. He characterized pre-adolescent children as savages and therefore rationalized that reasoning was a waste of time with children. He believed that children must simply be led to fear God, love country, and develop a strong body. As the child burns out the vestiges of evil in his nature, he needs a good dose of authoritarian discipline, including corporal punishment.[7] He believed that adolescents are characterized by more altruistic natures than pre-adolescents and that high schools should indoctrinate students into selfless ideals of service, patriotism, body culture, military discipline, love of authority, awe of nature, and devotion to the state and the well being of others.[23] Hall consistently argued against intellectual attainment at all levels of public education. Open discussion and critical opinions were not to be tolerated. Students needed indoctrination to save them from the individualism that was so damaging to the progress of American culture.

Hall popularised the phrase "storm and stress" with reference to adolescence, taken from the German Sturm und Drang movement. His colleague William Burnham had published this phrase in relation to adolescence in an 1889 article titled 'Economy in Intellectual Work'.[24] The concept's three key aspects are conflict with parents, mood disruptions, and risky behavior. As was later the case with the work of Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget, public interest in this phrase, as well as with Hall's role, faded. Recent research has led to some reconsideration of the phrase and its denotation. In its three aspects, recent evidence supports storm and stress, but only when modified to take into account individual differences and cultural variations. Currently, psychologists do not accept storm and stress as universal, but do acknowledge the possibility in brief passing. Not all adolescents experience storm and stress, but storm and stress is more likely during adolescence than at other ages.

Hall had no sympathy for the poor, the sick, or those with developmental differences or disabilities. A firm believer in selective breeding and forced sterilization, he believed that any respect or charity toward those he viewed as physically, emotionally, or intellectually weak or "defective" simply interfered with the movement of natural selection toward the development of a super-race.[11]

Hall's major books were Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime and Religion (1904) and Aspects of Child Life and Education (1921). In his book Adolescence, which was based on the results of the child-study movement, Hall described his system of psychology (which he called "genetic psychology") and the evolutionary benefits of development from the womb to adolescence. The book comprises six sections: biological and anthropological standpoint, medical standpoint, health and its tests, nubility of educated women, fecundity of educated women, and education. Hall hoped that this book would become a guide for teachers and social workers in the education system. His most direct influence in shaping our view of humankind came from his theories about adolescence.[8]

In 1904, Hall published Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relation to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion, and Education. In this 2-volume study, based on the idea that child development recapitulates human evolution,Hall took on a variety of issues and synthesized scholarship from a wide range of disciplines.[25] After his retirement in 1920, Hall wrote a companion volume on aging. This important account has been labeled “prophetic” in its recognition of an emerging “crisis of aging” in the 20th century, in which longer lifespan, narrowing family roles, and expulsion from the workforce combined to dramatically isolate the elderly and restrict their active participation in public life.[26] Hall railed against this process, arguing that the wisdom conferred by old age meant that the elderly had valuable and creative contributions to make to society. Yet, the stigma of aging meant that, instead, many were engaged in the foolish pursuit of youth, trying to avoid being excluded from full participation in their communities. In the conclusion of the book, Hall expressed a tangible sense of personal anger against this form of discrimination.[27] His stirring call for a better understanding of the aging process anticipated the development of gerontology, and his critique of the marginalization of the elderly still resonates today.[25]

Hall was a transitional figure between Victorian conservatism and early 20th Century modernism—reflecting major intellectual characteristics of each. As might be expected, that combination was not always well received by advocates from either camp. His controversial Adolescence was banned from some libraries because of its lengthy and sometimes lyrical treatment of sex. Yet, the book was also characterized by urgent religious strictures on behavior. A contemporary of Hall, E.L. Thorndike, described him as a man "whose doctrines I often attack, but whose genius I always admire." When commenting on Adolescence to another noted psychologist, Thorndike said that Hall's magnum opus was "chock full of errors, masturbation, and Jesus. He is a mad man." [8]

Hall viewed masturbation as an immoral act and a blemish of the human race that interfered with moral and intellectual growth. Hall discussed masturbation in reference to men and did not discuss it in terms of women. It is not known whether he knew this act occurred in women or that Hall believed adolescent boys must go through what he described as “conversion”. This conversion releases the boys from biological sins that were passed onto them by their ancestors. This passing on of sins through generations is guided by Lamarckian evolution.[13] He claimed that conversion occurred as naturally as a “blossoming flower”.[11] Instead of masturbation, Hall viewed spontaneous emissions as a natural and acceptable alternative to forced ejaculation.[13] Hall believed that he went through conversion during his freshman year at Williams College.[12]

Hall also coined the technical words describing types of tickling: knismesis, or feather-like tickling; and gargalesis, for the harder, laughter inducing type.

Hall's voracious appetite for learning and prodigious work habits, his insistence on building theory from experience, and his penchant for bringing different fields of study together, would themselves have made him a formidable figure. But the force of his personality, his taste for controversy, and his untiring will added to the mix. Dorothy Ross, his biographer, wrote that from his extraordinary efforts came the "formative impulses of progressive education, child development, educational psychology, clinical psychology, school hygiene, and mental testing." Among his many students who made significant future contributions in fields he stimulated were the philosopher John Dewey (when Hall was at Johns Hopkins) and the famous psychologists Lewis Terman, Henry Goddard, and Arnold Gesell (when Hall was at Clark). By his very prominence and productivity, Hall created a demand for the scientific study of children and the field of child psychology.[8] Hall is best remembered for his contributions to psychology, for his support of applied psychology, and for his success in advising many doctoral students who have made great contributions to psychology. Hall also mentored the first African American to get a Ph.D. in psychology, Francis Cecil Sumner in 1920.[7]

Hall is listed in the Cambridge Companion to Atheism as having been an atheist.[28]

Eugenic Views

Hall expressed openly eugenic views in many of his writings. He was listed in numerous American eugenic organizations as its leader. The Eugenical News (1916-1922) celebrated the development of new American eugenic scholarly organization by highlighting that it roster included such as in the following announcement about "new active members of Eugenics Research Association… C. C. Brigham, Psychological Laboratory, Princeton, N. J., G. Stanley Hall, Clark University, C. E. Seashore, State University of Iowa, Lewis, M. Terman, Stanford University, Calif., John B. Watson, Johns Hopkins Hospital" (p. 53). Although Hall is credited with bringing notable psychoanalytic scholars to the U.S., including S. Freud and C. Jung, Hall expressed openly anti-psychoanalytic views in his writings that emphasized his eugenic commitments. For example, in the first issue of the Journal of Applied Psychology, of which Stanley G. Hall (1917) was an editor, his opening article proclaimed that the U.S. psychology had to “draw any lesson… from the present war, in which the great Nordic race which embraces the dominant elements of all the belligerent nations is committing suicide” (p. 9) The most significant of these lessons, according to Hall, was for American psychology to fight against the “revisionary conceptions of Freud…that it is… normal for man at times to plunge back and down the evolutionary ladder” (p. 12). Hall included openly anti-Semitic statements in his writings such as in his book "On the Aspects of German Culture" in which he discussed the supposed destruction of Western civilization by "rapacious Jews." Consistent with typical anti-Semitic stereotypes promoted by eugenicists such as Charles Davenport Hall remarked that the psychoanalytic focus on “sex” in addition to this approach’s “rapid growth… found outside the circle of specialists [academic experimental psychologists]” made psychoanalysis and “the number of out-and-out disciples” to be a form of a “cult” (p. 412). Moreover, Hall stated that the “Freudian theory of therapy… is mistaken” (p. 12), giving a warning example of how an individual’s culturally unacceptable sexual desires and behaviors could be justified through psychoanalytic interpretations rather than “cured by the very modesty” based on cultural or religious norms (p. 13). As noted in this article, Hall promoted heteronormative Christian moral views in regard to sexuality which vilified all divergent sexual experiences as amoral, including masturbation, same sex sexuality, sex outside of marriage, and so forth. Hall claimed that psychoanalytic treatment would “destroy” this religious “morality” during the process of analysis (p. 13). In his book "Jesus, the Christ, In the Light of Psychology" Hall openly praised eugenics and discussed that the presence of supposedly evolutionary unfit people (i.e., the poor, racial minorities, immigrants) served the purpose of teaching the evolutionary fit people (i.e., Nordic wealthy Whites) virtues of caring for the lower classes. Other openly eugenic writings by Hall include his 1903 article entitled "The White Man's Burden versus Indigenous Development of the Lower Races" in The Journal of Education. Majority of American eugenic organizations listed Hall as its leader (e.g., American Eugenic Society, American Eugenic Research Organization). His students included many notable eugenicists, including H. H. Goddard, Robert Yerkes, Lewis Terman, and many others.

Literary activities

An important contributor to educational literature, and a leading authority in that field, he founded and was editor of the American Journal of Psychology. In addition, he edited the Pedagogical Seminary (after 1892),[29][30] the American Journal of Religious Psychology and Education (after 1904), and the Journal of Race Development (after 1910). Hall was, from his student days to his death, interested in philosophy, psychology, education and religion in every one of their aspects which did not involve detailed experimentation, intricate quantitative treatment of results, or rigor and subtlety of analysis. There was, however, an order of emphasis, the years from '80 to '90 being devoted to problems of general psychology and education, those from 1890 to 1905 being especially devoted to the concrete details of human life, particularly the life of children and adolescents, and those from 1905 on being more devoted to wide-reaching problems of man's emotional, ethical and religious life.[31]

Hall's work applied today

Hall contributed a large amount of work in understand adolescent development, some of which still holds true today. Hall observed that males tend to have an increase in sensation seeking and aggression during adolescence.[13] Hall also observed an increase in crime rates during the adolescent years.[11] This increase in crime rates have been observed in adolescents today as well. The United States Justice Department released crime statistics on a number of crimes between 1990 and 2010. The statistics show an increase in crimes such as drug sales, murder, theft, assault, burglary, etc., for those aged 10 to 18, particularly in males.[32] Hall noted that in terms of aggression there are two types; relational aggression and physical aggression. Relational aggression relates to gossiping, rumor spreading, and exclusions of others. Hall noted that relational aggression occurs more frequently in females while physical aggression occurs more often in males.[11]

Much of the mark that Hall left behind was from his expansion of psychology as a field in the United States. He did a lot of work to bring psychology to the United States as a legitimate form of study and science. He began the first journal dedicated only to psychology in the United States of America, called the American Journal of Psychology. He was also the first president of the American Psychological Association. All of the work that Hall did in the field of psychology and for psychology in the United States of America allowed for all the other psychologists to follow in his foot steps and to become psychologists in the United States. Without the effort from Hall it could have taken many more years for psychology to become a field in the United States.[33]

Publications

• Aspects of German Culture (1881)
• Hints toward a Select and Descriptive Bibliography of Education (1886), with John M. Mansfield
• The Contents of Children's Minds on Entering School (1893)
• Supervised the study Of Peculiar and Exceptional Children by E. W. Bohannon, Fellow in Pedagogy at Clark University (1896)
• A Study of Dolls (1897)
• Confessions of a Psychologist (1900)
• Hall, G. S. (1903). The white man's burden versus indigenous development of the lower races. The Journal of Education, 58(4,1438), 83-83.
• Adolescence (Volume 1, Volume 2 1907)
• Spooks and Telepathy (1908)
• Youth: Its Education, Regimen, and Hygiene (1909)
• Introduction to Studies in Spiritism by Amy Tanner (1910)
• Educational Problems (Volume 1, Volume 2 1911)
• Hall, G. S. (1917b). Practical relations between psychology and the war. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1(1), 9-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0070238
• Jesus, the Christ, in the Light of Psychology (Volume 1, Volume 2 1917)
• Founders of Modern Psychology (1912)
• Morale, The Supreme Standard of Life and Conduct (1920)
• Aspects of Child Life and Education (1921)
• Senescence, The Last Half of Life (1922)

See also

• Developmental psychology
• Recapitulation theory
• Theory of evolution
• Eugenics

Notes

1. Thorndike, Edward L. (1925). National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir of Granville Stanley Hall (PDF). National Academy of Sciences.
2. Haggbloom, Steven J.; Powell, John L., III; Warnick, Jason E.; Jones, Vinessa K.; Yarbrough, Gary L.; Russell, Tenea M.; Borecky, Chris M.; McGahhey, Reagan; et al. (2002). "The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century". Review of General Psychology. 6 (2): 139–152. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.139.
3. Thorndike, Edward (1925). Biographical Memoir of Granville Stanley Hall. National Academy of Sciences. pp. 135–136.
4. Thorne, B. Michael & Henley, Tracy B. (2001). Connections in the History and Systems of Psychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-04535-X.
5. "A Brief Biographical Sketch of G. Stanley Hall". Ithaca.edu. December 19, 2003. Retrieved June 27, 2012.
6. American Antiquarian Society Members Directory
7. Benjamin, Ludy (2007). A Brief History of Modern Psychology. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 63–68. ISBN 978-1-4051-3205-3.
8. "About Clark | Clark University". http://www.clarku.edu. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
9. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Old Corner Bookstore, Incorporated. January 1, 1919.
10. Wegner, Daniel L. Schacter, Daniel T. Gilbert, Daniel M. (2010). Psychology (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4-292-3719-2.
11. Hall, G. Stanley (1904). "Adolescence: ITS PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS RELATIONS TO PHYSIOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, SOCIOLOGY, SEX, CRIME, RELIGION AND EDUCATION". Classics in the History of Psychology. 2. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
12. Youniss, James (2006). "G. Stanley Hall and his times: Too much so, yet not enough". History of Psychology. 9 (3): 224–235. doi:10.1037/1093-4510.9.3.224. PMID 17153145.
13. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen (2006). "G. Stanley Hall's Adolescence: Brilliance and nonsense". History of Psychology. 9 (3): 186–197. doi:10.1037/1093-4510.9.3.186. PMID 17153143.
14. Eugene Taylor. (2009). The Mystery of Personality: A History of Psychodynamic Theories. Springer. p. 30. ISBN 978-0387981031
15. John Melton. (1996). Psychical Research in Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. Gale Group. ISBN 978-0810394865
16. Wade Pickren, Alexandra Rutherford. (2010). A History of Modern Psychology in Context. Wiley. ISBN 978-0470276099
17. Paul Kurtz. A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. p. 551. ISBN 978-0879753009
18. Leonard Zusne, Warren H. Jones. (1989). Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking. Psychology Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0805805086
19. Amy Tanner with an introduction by G. Stanley Hall. (1910). Studies in Spiritism. New York and London: D. Appleton and Company
20. David J. Hess. (1993). Science in the New Age: The Paranormal, Its Defenders and Debunkers, and American Culture. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0299138240
21. Rodger Anderson. (2006). Psychics, Sensitives And Somnambules: A Biographical Dictionary With Bibliographies. McFarland & Company. p. 238. ISBN 978-0786427703
22. One and Done by Lauren Sandler, TIME July 19, 2010, pp. 35-41.
23. Hall, G. Stanley (1904). "Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion and Education". Classics in the History of Psychology. 2. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
24. Burnham, William. "Economy in Intellectual Work". Scribner's Magazine.
25. Parry, Manon (July 1, 2006). "G. Stanley Hall: Psychologist and Early Gerontologist". American Journal of Public Health. 96 (7): 1161. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2006.090647. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 1483855. PMID 16735608.
26. Cole, TR (1984). "The prophecy of Senescence: G. Stanley Hall and the reconstruction of old age in America". American Journal of Public Health. 96 (7): 1161. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2006.090647. PMC 1483855. PMID 16735608.
27. Woodward, K (2003). "Against wisdom: the social politics of anger and aging". American Journal of Public Health. 96 (7): 1161. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2006.090647. PMC 1483855. PMID 16735608.
28. Martin, Michael, ed. (2006). The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 310. ISBN 978-1-1398-2739-3.
29. "The Pedagogical Seminary archives". onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
30. The Pedagogical seminary. Worcester, Mass. : J.H. Orpha. January 1, 1891.
31. Thorndike, Edward (1925). Biographical Memoir of Granville Stanley Hall. National Academy of Sciences.
32. Snyder, Howard (October 2012). "Arrest in the United States, 1990-2010"(PDF). http://www.bjs.gov. U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
33. Parry, Manon (July 2006). "G. Stanley Hall: Psychologist and Early Gerontologist". American Journal of Public Health. 96 (7): 1161. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2006.090647. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 1483855. PMID 16735608.
References[edit]
• Clarence Karier, 1986, The Individual Society and Education, 2nd edition. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
• Biography and bibliography in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science
• Eugenical News. (1916-1922). Monthly publication of the Eugenics Record Office, Cold Springs, NY. Retrieved on February 22, 2018 at https://babel.hathitrust.org/ cgi/pt?id=coo.31924063788834

Further reading

• G. E. Partridge, Genetic Philosophy of Education: An Epitome of the Published Writings of G. Stanley Hall (New York, 1912) New International Encyclopedia
• Gail Bederman, Manliness & Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917 (Chicago, 1995)
• Jill Lepore (March 11, 2011). "American Chronicles: Twilight". The New Yorker. 87 (4): 30–35.
• Lorine Pruette, G. Stanley Hall: A Biography of a Mind. (D. Appleton, 1926)

External links

• Media from Wikimedia Commons
• Quotations from Wikiquote
• Texts from Wikisource
• National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
• Works by G. Stanley Hall at Project Gutenberg
• Works by or about G. Stanley Hall at Internet Archive
• Works by G. Stanley Hall at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
• G. Stanley Hall at Find a Grave
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 5:07 am

Theosophical Educational Trust
by Theosophy Wiki
Accessed: 10/19/19

Under Construction

The Theosophical Educational Trust was organized by Annie Besant during her presidency of the Theosophical Society based in Adyar, Chennai, India.

The Fourth Annual Report of the Theosophical Educational Trust in Great Britain and Ireland was issued in 1921:


The account shows a decided growth and a splendid outlook for this educational work along theosophic lines. One of the marked accomplishments of the past year was the formal opening, by C. Jinarajadasa, of the St. Christopher School, at Letchworth, for which, in 1919, Mrs. Besant had laid the corner stone. In addition, Mrs. Douglas-Hamilton has established a little Home School near by for a number of children whom she has adopted and whom she intends to educate at St. Christopher School.

The report proclaims again the two main objects of the trust, and its policies. The illustrations in the booklet show five delightfully situated schools in England; and two in Scotland, the latter under the Scottish Educational trust.

A review is also given of the growth of the International Theosophical Fraternity in Education. During the past year Belgium, France, Mexico and Sweden have organized Fraternities; and the American and Holland sections have each their established schools, the School of the Open Gate and the Pythagoras School respectively.


School of the Open Gate

Image
Announcement in August, 1937 issue of The American Theosophist
THE GATEWAY
An unsectarian school under Theosophical auspices in the Ojai Valley, California, dedicated to the building of character, the international viewpoint, and the will to peace.
The day school has been running two years. On September 15, 1937, the boarding department will open for boys and girls over five and under twelve years of age.
For further information apply to
MRS. ROLAND GRAY
OJAI, CALIFORNIA


Image
Julia K. Sommer and schoolchildren on Mt. Wilson in 1922

The School of the Open Gate was a Theosophical school near Krotona in Hollywood, California, founded in 1918 by Mary Gray of Boston.[1] In the General Report of the T. S. of that year it was introduced:

The School of the Open Gate is a new T. S. venture within a charming little hill-side glen almost adjoining Krotona. Here the Theosophical principles of education will be employed by a corps of teachers trained in the best modern methods. The faces of the children who have come from far and wide show a quality which makes any effort worth while on their behalf. The organization known as the Theosophical Fraternity in Education is growing throughout the Section and is engaged in spreading the ideals of Theosophical education where they will do the most good in American public educational systems.[2]


The Handbook of Private Schools described it as "a modern open air school of the Theosophical cult for children from kindergarten to high school."[3]

In 1919 the responsibility for the school was transferred to the Theosophical Fraternity in Education, based in Chicago. Bonds were offered for $25 at 7% interest to finance school land and buildings, and donations were requested for a scholarship fund.[4]

Julia K. Sommer served as principal of the school from 1920-1925. She wrote:

Eight o'clock in the morning and a merry crowd of children dressed as for a hike were waiting expectantly in front of the main building of the School of the Open Gate one sunny day. Why so early? Soon the school bus drove up and all piled in and were driven off toward the boulevard. "We're going to Mt. Wilson" they shouted to a passerby who looked questioningly at the past disappearing bus. Their answer explains the early start. And a tired but happy lot of children and teachers came back just before bedtime that night. Some of them had that day seen snow for the first time in this life. A few of the more hardy ones had climbed to the very top of the mountain and had seen the observatory. They had gained first hand information of much that hitherto had been mere book knowledge to them.

This is the educational theory according to which the work of the School of the Open Gate is carried on - to get the children into intimate touch with that which they are studying, to make the world and life a real and living experience to them. Later the students of Shakespeare in the more advanced grades formed a theatre party with several members of the faculty and attended Robert Mantell's presentation of "As You Like It."

The geography of nearby fields, canyons and hills; the arithmetic required to keep score in games, to carry on a store, to sell the vegetables raised by them in the school gardens; and that necessary in the school shops all help to make lessons vivid and lasting in their effect upon young minds.[5]


Among the children who attended the school were Grayson and Stanley Rogers, the sons of L. W. Rogers, and the sons of Col. Bustillo of the Cuban army.[6] On April 7, 1922, students demonstrated their Theosophical attitudes with a generous project:

On Friday, April 7th, some of the pupils of the School of the Open Gate, gave an original entertainment for the benefit of the Panchama Free Schools of India. None of the faculty had been asked for either suggestions or help, and it was a great surprise to all who attended, both for the beauty of the entertainment and the fine spirit of helpfulness that prompted it...

The following children took part: Robert White, Genevieve Doolittle, Hari Cruz, Bernard Sacks, Etheleon Stanton, Dorothy White, Margaret Ann Veeck, and Dana Cruz. Miss irene Doolittle helped the children by giving a very beautiful dance.[7]


Notes

• "Coeducational Schools," The Handbook of Private Schools Volume 7 (Boston: Porter Sargent, 1922), 272. Available at Google Books.
• A. P. Warrington, "Report of the T.S. in America: Education," General Report of the T. S., 1918 (Adyar, Madras, India: Theosophical Publishing House, 1919), 40.
• "Coeducational Schools," The Handbook of Private Schools Volume 7 (Boston: Porter Sargent, 1922), 272. Available at Google Books.
• Julia K. Sommer, "The School of the Open Gate" The Messenger 9.4 (September 1921), 83.
• "The School of the Open Gate," The Messenger 8.10 (March 1921), 632.
• Anonymous, "The Cuban Section and the Next Congress" The Messenger 9.10 (March 1922), 224.
• Anonymous, "For the Panchama Fund" The Messenger 9.12 (May, 1922), 266.

-- School of the Open Gate, by Theosophy Wiki


Mrs. Robert [Beatrice] Ensor is Director-Secretary and Organizer of the Theosophical Education Trust in Great Britain and Ireland, and Capt. Ensor is the Business Manager."[1]


Additional resources

SEE ALSO Mary K. Neff, George S. Arundale

Notes

1. "The Theosophical Educational Trust," The Messenger 8.10 (March, 1921), 632.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 5:33 am

G. R. S. Mead
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/16/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.




Image
G. R. S. Mead.

George Robert Stowe Mead (22 March 1863 in Peckham, Surrey[1] (Nuneaton, Warwickshire?)[2] – 28 September 1933 in London)[3]) was an English historian, writer, editor, translator, and an influential member of the Theosophical Society, as well as the founder of the Quest Society. His scholarly works dealt mainly with the Hermetic and Gnostic religions of Late Antiquity, and were exhaustive for the time period.

Birth and family

Mead was born in Peckham, Surrey, England to British Army Colonel Robert Mead and his wife Mary (née Stowe), who had received a traditional education at Rochester Cathedral School.

Mead, a highly intuitive and insightful scholar, whose literary activities fall into the latter part of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century must be regarded as a pioneer of the first order in the field of Gnostic and Hermetic studies[citation needed]. As the late poet and esoteric student Kenneth Rexroth accurately stated In his introduction to the late 1950s University Books edition of Mead’s Fragments of a Faith Forgotten, the only reason for Mead’s continued neglect on the part of many academicians is the fact that he was a Theosophist. When in 1887 the redoubtable Madame Blavatsky settled in London, the young Mead joined the company of her close associates. In her circle he learned of the profound mysteries of the Gnostics and of the votaries of Hermes, soon becoming an indefatigable worker in his capacity of translator of Gnostic and Hermetic writings. [1] Admittedly, many of his translations were from other modern languages as he was not trained in Coptic.[4]

Education at Cambridge University

Having shown academic potential, Mead began studying mathematics at St John's College, Cambridge.[5] Eventually shifting his education towards the study of Classics, he gained much knowledge of Greek and Latin. In 1884 he completed a BA degree; in the same year he became a public school master.

Activity with the Theosophical Society

While still at Cambridge University Mead read Esoteric Buddhism (1883) by Alfred Percy Sinnett. This comprehensive theosophical account of the Eastern religion prompted Mead to contact two theosophists in London named Bertam Keightly and Mohini Chatterji, which eventually led him to join Helena Petrovna Blavatsky's Theosophical Society in 1884.

In 1889 he abandoned his teaching profession to become Blavatsky's private secretary, and also became a joint-secretary of the Esoteric Section (E.S.) of the Theosophical Society, reserved for those deemed more advanced.

Mead received Blavatsky's Six Esoteric Instructions and other teachings at 22 meetings headed by Blavatsky which were only attended by the Inner Group of the Theosophical Society. It was because of the intimacy Mead felt with the Inner Group that he married Laura Cooper in 1899.

Contributing intellectually to the Theosophical Society, at first most interested in Eastern religions, he quickly became more and more attracted to Western esotericism in religion and philosophy, particularly Neoplatonism, Gnosticism, and Hermeticism, although his scholarship and publications continued to engage with Eastern religion. Making many contributions to the Theosophical Society's Lucifer as joint editor, he eventually became the sole editor of The Theosophical Review in 1907 (as Lucifer was renamed in 1897).

As of February 1909 Mead and some 700 members of the Theosophical Society's British Section resigned in protest at Annie Besant's reinstatement of Charles Webster Leadbeater to membership in the society. Leadbeater had been a prominent member of the Theosophical Society until he was accused in 1906 of teaching masturbation to the sons of some American Theosophists under the guise of occult training. While this prompted Mead's resignation, his frustration at the dogmatism of the Theosophical Society may also have been a major contributor to his break after 25 years.

The Quest Society

In March 1909 Mead founded the Quest Society, composed of 150 defectors of the Theosophical Society and 100 other new members. Very intentionally this new society was planned to be an undogmatic approach to the comparative study and investigation of religion, philosophy, and science. The Quest Society had lectures at Kensington Town Hall in central London but its most focused effort was in its publishing of The Quest: A Quarterly Review which ran from 1909-1931 with many contributors.

Influence

Notable persons influenced by Mead include Ezra Pound, W.B. Yeats, Hermann Hesse, Kenneth Rexroth, and Robert Duncan. The seminal influence of G.R.S. Mead on Carl Gustav Jung, confirmed by the scholar of Gnosticism Gilles Quispel, a friend of Jung's, has been documented by several scholars. [6] [7] The popularity of a 20th-century Theosophical or esoteric interpretation of "gnosis" and the "Gnostics" led to an influential conception among scholars of an essential doctrinal and practicing commonality among the various groups deemed "Gnostic," which has been criticized by scholars such as Michael Allen Williams in his book Rethinking Gnosticism[8] and by Karen L. King[9] in recent decades.

Works

• Address read at H.P. Blavatsky's cremation (1891)
• Simon Magus (1892)
• Orpheus (1895/6)
• Pistis Sophia (1896; 2nd ed. 1921)
• Fragments of a Faith Forgotten (1900)
• Apollonius of Tyana (1901)
• Did Jesus Live 100 BC? (1903)
• Concerning H.P.B. (1904)
• Thrice Greatest Hermes, vol. 1 (London: Theosophical Publishing Society, 1906)
• Thrice Greatest Hermes, vol. 2 (London: Theosophical Publishing Society, 1906)
• Thrice Greatest Hermes, vol. 3 (London: Theosophical Publishing Society, 1906)
• Echoes from The Gnosis (1906-1907). A collection of 11 volumes, which includes:
• The Hymns of Hermes
• The Gnosis of the Mind (1906)
• The Gnostic Crucifixion (1907)
• Some Mystical Adventures (1910)
• Quests Old and New (1913)
• The Vision Of Aridæus
• The Hymn Of Jesus
• The Mysteries Of Mithra
• A Mithraic Ritual
• The Chaldæan Oracles Vol. 1
• The Chaldæan Oracles Vol. 2
• The Hymn of the Robe Of Glory
• The Wedding Song Of Wisdom
• Gnostic John the Baptizer: Selections from the Mandæan John-Book (1924)
• Commentary on "Pœmandres"
• Introduction to Pistis Sophia
• Introduction to Marcion
• Doctrine of the Subtle Body in Western Tradition

See also

• Poemandres
• Gospel of Marcion
• Pistis Sophia
• Thomas Taylor
• Hermetica
• Acts of John
• Mandaeanism
• Marcionism
• Mohini Mohun Chatterji
• Hymn of the Pearl

Footnotes

1. GRO index of births 1863 Q2 vol 1d page 525 Camberwell
2. G.R.S. Mead and the Gnostic Quest by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke and Clare Goodrick-Clarke
3. Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, Clare Goodrick-Clarke (eds), G. R. S. Mead and the Gnostic Quest, North Atlantic Books, 2005, p. 32.
4. See the Bibliographical Note in the Dover edition of his Pistis Sophia, which states "Mead's English Translation does not derive from the original Coptic, but from the 1851 Latin translation by M. G. Scwartze, the 1895 French translation by E. Amelineau, and the 1905 German translation by Carl Schmidt."
5. "Mead, George Robert Stow (MT881GR)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
6. Tilton, Hereward (2017). "Gnosis of the Eternal Æon: Jung, G. R. S. Mead and the Serpentine Path of the Soul" (PDF). Quaderni di Studi Indo-Mediterranei. 10: 243–261.
7. Goodrick-Clarke, Clare and Nicholas (2005). G.R.S. Mead and the Gnostic Quest. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic books. pp. 27–31, 176. ISBN 1-55643-572-X.
8. Williams, Michael Allen (1996). Rethinking "Gnosticism:" An Argument for Dismantling a Dubious Category. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
9. King, Karen L. (2003). What is Gnosticism?. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

External links

• Works by G. R. S. Mead at Project Gutenberg
• Extensive on-line collection of the writings of GRS Mead (at the Gnosis Archive)
• Brief bio with poor picture
• Same picture, but much larger and clearer
• Later Picture with no text
• Long biography
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 5:41 am

Mary Esther Harding
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/16/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


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Mary Esther Harding (1888–1971) was a British-American Jungian analyst who was the first significant Jungian psychoanalyst in the United States.

Personal life

Mary Esther Harding was born in Shropshire, England as the fourth of six daughters of a dental surgeon. She was an avid reader and was home schooled until the age of eleven. Pursuing her goal of becoming a missionary doctor, she attended the London School of Medicine for Women, where she graduated in 1914 in a class of nine students. She was then an intern at the Royal Infirmary in London, the first hospital in London to accept women interns. At that time she wrote her first book, The Circulatory Failure of Diphtheria and later herself contracted the disease. After her recovery a friend named Constance Long gave her Beatrice Hinkle's translation of Psychology of the Unconscious by Carl Gustav Jung, which led her to move to Switzerland and enter analysis with him, along with a small group of other students attending Jung's Küsnacht home near Zurich.

Psychoanalyst

In 1919, Eleanor Bertine and Kristine Mann traveled to Zurich following an International Conference of Medical Women. Eleanor Bertine and Esther Harding developed a close relationship there and, in 1924, decided to relocate to New York City. Each year they would travel to Zurich for two months of analysis and spend summers at Bailey Island, Maine, the ancestral summer home of Kristine Mann. There they saw analysands from the United States and Canada in a quiet, comfortable setting away from the distractions of daily life and conducive to profound experiences of the unconscious.

Jungian Community

Mary Esther Harding became influential in the New York City Jungian Analytical psychology community. She was a prodigious writer and a frequent lecturer in the United States and Canada. Her first book on analytical psychology, entitled The Way of All Women, was an instant-best seller and has been translated into many languages and introduced many people to Jung's psychology. Harding wrote many other well-known books, including: Psychic Energy, Women's Mysteries, The Parental Image, and The I and not I, along with numerous papers on a variety of subjects from depression to religion.

Harding helped to found many Jungian organizations, such as the Analytical Psychology Club of New York in 1936, the Medical Society for Analytical Psychology - Eastern Division in 1946, and the C.G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology in 1963. She died in 1971.

Books by Mary Esther Harding

• M. Esther Harding, The Circulatory Failure of Diphtheria: A thesis for the degree of Doctor of Medicine in the University of London, University of London Press, 1920, ASIN B00087EDZI
• M. Esther Harding, Woman's Mysteries. Ancient and modern: A psychological interpretation of the feminine principle as portrayed in myth, story, and dreams(London: Longmans, Green 1936; rev'd ed., New York: Pantheon 1955), ASIN B0006AU8SI
• M. Esther Harding, The Way of All Women, Putnam Publishing, (New York: 1970 ISBN 1-57062-627-8
• M. Esther Harding, Psychic Energy, its source and goal, New York, Pantheon, 1947, Bollingen Series No. 10, ASIN B00005XR4E
• M. Esther Harding, Psychic Energy: Its Source and Its Transformation, foreword by C.G. Jung, 1963, Paper 0-691-01790-5
• M. Esther Harding, The Parental Image;: Its injury and reconstruction; a study in analytical psychology, Published by Putnam for the C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology (1965), ASIN B0006BMVIM
• Mary Esther Harding, The I and the Not-I, Bollingen: 1 January 1974, ISBN 0-691-01796-4
• Esther M. Harding, The Value and Meaning of Depression, Analytical Psychology Club, June, 1985, ISBN 0-318-04660-1
• M. Esther Harding, A short review of Dr. Jung's article Redemption ideas in alchemy, ASIN B0008C5SP2
• M. Esther Harding, The mother archetype and its functioning in life, Analytical Psychology Club of New York City, 1939, ASIN B00089E47S
• M. Esther Harding, Afterthoughts on The Pilgrim, Analytical Psychology Club of New York, 1957, ASIN B0006RJAD0
• M. Esther Harding, Inward Journey, Sigo; 2nd edition, October, 1991, ISBN 0-938434-61-6
• M. Esther Harding, Way of All Women: a Psychological Interpretation, HarperCollins, 1 January 1975, ISBN 0-609-03996-2
• M. Esther Harding, Journey Into Self, Longman Green & Co., 1956
• M. Esther Harding, Woman's Mysteries: Ancient & Modern, Longmans Green & Co., 1935
• M. Esther Harding, The Way of All Women, Longman Green & Co., 1933

References

• Thomas B Kirsch, The Jungians, Routledge 1 Jan 2000, ISBN 0-415-15861-3
• Ronald Hayman, A Life of Jung, W. W. Norton & Company, 1 June 2002, ISBN 0-393-32322-6

Further reading

Anthony, M. (1990). The Valkyries: The Women around Jung. Shaftesbury, Dorset: Element Books
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 5:52 am

Edward L. Gardner
by Theosophy Wiki
Accessed: 8/16/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
E. L. Gardner in 1927

Image
E. L. Gardner as member of Exec Committee of TS in England

Image
N. Sri Ram and E. L. Gardner at Tekels Park. © Theosophical Society in England Archives.

Edward Lewis Gardner (1869-1969) was a noted writer and lecturer from the English Section of the Theosophical Society based in Adyar, India.

Personal life

Gardner was born at Coggeshall, Essex, England in 1869. He was first married to Clara Beard in 1892. She died in 1920, and he later, in 1922, married Eliza Adelaide Draper, a respected Theosophical writer and lecturer who was born in the United States.

Theosophical Society involvement

Gardner joined the TS on April 17, 1907. He served as General Secretary of the English Section from 1924-28. According to Theosopedia,

Gardner traveled widely as an International Lecturer for the Theosophical Society. In 1926 he founded the theosophical community at Stamford House, Wimbledon, London, and presided over it until 1940. Gardner was one of a group that bought Tekels Park, now vested in the English section of the TS. [1]


In 1918 Gardner had the honor of delivering the inaugural Blavatsky Lecture on the subject of "Matter is the Shadow of Spirit," followed by "The Nature and Function of the Soul" in 1946, and "Whence Come the Gods? and Related Studies" in 1959.

Later years

Image
Bookmark featuring Gardner, issued by TS in England

Image
Book cover, 1962.

Writings

Gardner was much known for his writings. The Union Index of Theosophical Periodicals lists 74 articles under the name EL Gardner, 3 under E L Gardner, and 14 under Edward L Gardner.

In 1940 he was awarded the Subba Row Medal for his contributions to Theosophical literature. These are books and pamphlets that he wrote:

• The Fourth Creative Hierarchy, Matter is the Shadow of Spirits, and The Web of the Universe. Madras, India: F.E. Philp & Sons, 1913. Reprinted 1936, rev. Ed. 1938.
• The Web of the Universe. 1936.
• The Play of Consciousness. 1939.
• Fairies; A book of Real Fairies. 1945.
• Fairies: The Cottingley Photographs and Their Sequel. 1945.
• The Mysteries. 1945.
• The Nature and the Function of the Soul. 1946.
• The Imperishable Body. 1949.
• The Heavenly Man. 1952.
• The Wider View & Studies in the Secret Doctrine. 1962. Håkan Blomqvist describes this as "a collection of articles published between 1944-1959. In several of these articles Gardner tries to understand the UFO enigma from a Theosophical viewpoint. His theory is that they represent either etheric Venusians or deva materializations."[2]
• There Is No Religion Higher Than Truth. 1964. Booklet.
• A Mind to Embrace the Universe. 1965.
• Thyself Both Heaven and Hell. 1966.

Notes

1. "Gardner, Edward Lewis" in Theosopedia.
2. Håkan Blomqvist at at UFOArchives.blogspot.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 6:01 am

Adolphe Ferrière
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Accessed: 8/16/19

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Adolphe Emmanuel Ferrière
Born 30 August 1879
Geneva, Switzerland
Died 16 June 1960 (aged 80)
Geneva, Switzerland
Nationality Swiss
Education University of Geneva
Occupation Educator, Author
Known for pedagogy

Adolphe Ferrière (Geneva, 1879 - Geneva, 1960) was one of the founders of the movement of the progressive education. He shortly worked in a school in Glarisegg (TG,CH) and later founded an experimental school ('La Forge') in Lausanne, Switzerland, but Adolphe Ferrière had to quickly abandon teaching due to his deafness. In 1921, he founded the New Education Fellowship, in which he wrote the charter. The congress of this league until the Second World War included a number of other teachers: Maria Montessori, Célestin Freinet, Gisèle de Failly and Roger Cousinet. He worked as a humanist and an editor from 1919 to 1922 on the pacifist journal 'l'Essor' (The Rise). [1] He was one of the founding members of the International Bureau of Education (IBE) in 1925, and served as its first Deputy Director alongside Elisabeth Rotten.[2] He was also a member of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).[1] · [3] Throughout his life, he has published a substantial number of books, some of which were done with Karl-Ernst Krafft.[1] · [4]

He is listed as one of the 100 most famous educators, by the International Bureau of Education (IBE).[5]

Publications

• Science and faith, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1912
• The law of progress in biology and sociology, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1915
• Transforming schools, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1920 (reprint 1948)
• The autonomy of students, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1921 (reprint 1950)
• The spontaneous activity in children, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1922
• Education in the family, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1920
• The practice of active school, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1922 (reprint 1929)
• The active school, 1920 (reprint 1953)
• The coééducation gender, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1926. (included in "Transforming Schools", 1948)
• Spiritual progress, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1926
• Bakula and his work educator, 1926
• The maternal heart Pestalozzi, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1928
• The psychological types in children, in adults and in the course of education, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1922
• The future of genetic psychology, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1931
• The school measure, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1931
• Characterological typocosmique, Geneva and Paris, 1932.
• In collaboration with Karl-Ernst Krafft
• Our children and the future of the country, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1942
• Human liberation, Éditions du Mont Blanc, Geneva, 1943
• Towards a natural classification of psychological types, Nice, 1943
• Children's Home after the war, Delachaux and Niestlé, Neuchâtel, 1945
• The school workforce across Europe, Michon, Paris, 1948
• Brief introduction to the new education, Bourrelier, Paris, 1951
• The mystery of the person, Rigois, Turin, 1955

See also

• Pedagogy

References

1. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/use ... rriere.pdf
2. IBE (2015). IBE In Focus: 90 years of excellence in education (PDF). UNESCO. p. 22.
3. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2011-07-07.
4. http://74.125.19.132/translate_c?hl=en& ... 5PPzheEKIw[permanent dead link]
5. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/en/services/o ... ation.html
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 6:12 am

Karl Ernst Krafft
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Accessed: 8/16/19

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Karl Ernst Krafft (10 May 1900 – 8 January 1945) was a Swiss astrologer, born in Basel. He worked on the fields of astrology and graphology.[1]

Astrology career

After graduating from university in mathematics, for the best part of ten years he worked on a massive book entitled Traits of Astro-Biology. This expounded his own theory of "Typocosmy": the prediction of the future based on the study of an individual's personality, or type.[1] By the early 1930s, when Hitler had come to power, Krafft enjoyed a unique status among occultists and prophets in Germany. The National Socialists, later to become his patrons, at first posed a threat to him. Occultists, like Freemasons, were among those harassed and vilified by most National Socialists.

While the Nazi state persecuted astrologers, Rudolf Hess and Heinrich Himmler consulted them. Krafft moved into the orbit of the National Socialist elite in November 1939 when he made a remarkable prediction. He predicted that the Führer's life would be in danger between 7 and 10 November.[1] He wrote, on 2 November to a friend, Dr Heinrich Fesel, who worked for Himmler, warning him of an attempt on Hitler's life.[2] Fesel filed the letter away, unwillingly to become enmeshed in something dangerous.[citation needed]

On 8 November, a bomb exploded at the Munich beer hall. There were many injuries but the target, Adolf Hitler, was unscathed because he left the assembly in the hall a few minutes before the explosion. When newspapers reported the near-catastrophe Fesel dispatched a telegram to Hess, drawing attention to Krafft's prediction. Krafft was arrested and brought to Gestapo Headquarters in Berlin. Krafft's proclamation of exacting astrological rules managed to convince the Gestapo that astrology enabled its practitioners to make accurate forecasts of future events resulting in now being employed by the Nazi Propaganda Ministry, the SS and even the Foreign Office to carry out astrological studies of a political nature.[2] After his release he was summoned to the Reich Propaganda ministry, run by Dr Joseph Goebbels. Goebbels had recently taken to poring over Nostradamus, trying to squeeze propaganda from the prophecies. Krafft, he felt, should work on deciphering the cryptic quatrains. In January 1940, Krafft began work on a pro-German evaluation of Nostradamus.[citation needed]

Krafft was convinced that the prophecies of Nostradamus boded well for the Third Reich. Tens of thousands of pamphlets based upon his interpretations of the quatrains were translated and circulated in six languages: French (translated by Krafft himself), Danish, Hungarian, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish[3] and he soon came to the attention of the Führer. In the spring of 1940 he gave a private horoscope reading for Hitler to an aide. but he never met his leader.[4]

British intelligence became so concerned at the thought that their opponent's war was being conducted by a mystic that they, for a time, hired the services of astrologer Louis De Wohl. De Wohl was quietly dropped after several months, having failed to procure any hard evidence about Krafft's work.

Krafft warned the Reich leaders that for victory to be certain, the war must end for Germany in 1943. Krafft's star was still in the ascendancy when Rudolf Hess made his astonishing flight to Scotland in 1941. Hitler was outraged. Hess was the biggest occult supporter of them all. Hitler ordered a purge of astrologers, occultists and other sages. Krafft was caught up in this.[2] He worked on horoscopes of Allied generals and admirals, having informal contacts with Kurd Kisshauer and Amt Rosenberg. One of his predictions when seeing the charts of both Rommel and Bernard Montgomery, adversaries in the desert war, was: "Well this man Montgomery's chart is certainly stronger than Rommel's."[4]

Later life

Krafft was arrested in June 12, 1941 as part of a crackdown on astrologers, faith healers and occultists following Rudolf Hess's flight to England. While imprisoned, Krafft's health began to fail and he developed a persecution complex. He wrote to a senior official predicting that British bombs would very soon destroy the Propaganda ministry in Berlin (another true statement). He contracted typhus, and eventually died on 8 January 1945 en route to the Buchenwald concentration camp.{Howe, Ellic,1967, "Astrology and Psychological Warfare During World War II" Rider & Co 191}[2]

See also

• Nazi mysticism

References

1. T.W.M. van Berkel. "Information on Karl Ernst Krafft". Nostradamus Research., Retrieved 2013-5-30.
2. Wing, Richard (30 April 2012). "Hitler and the secret astrologers". Unexplained Mysteries., Retrieved 2013-5-30.
3. T.W.M. van Berkel. "World War II Krafft". Nostradamus Research., Retrieved 2013-5-30.
4. Currey, Robert (March 1, 2008). "Strange Role of Astrology in World War II". Astrology.co.uk., Retrieved 2013-5-30.
• Zodiac and Swastika by Wilhelm Wulff.
• Mysteries of the Unexplained Section 2 (Karl Ernst Krafft and the Hitler Horoscopes) by Reuben Stone.
• Astrology and Psychological Warfare during World War II by Ellic Howe.

External links

• Karl E.Krafft -photo, bio from Russia
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 6:19 am

Eranos
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Accessed: 8/16/19

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Eranos is an intellectual discussion group dedicated to humanistic and religious studies, as well as to the natural sciences which has met annually in Moscia (Lago Maggiore), the Collegio Papio and on the Monte Verità in Ascona Switzerland since 1933.

It has also been the name for a circle of scholars at Heidelberg (Germany) in the early 20th century. Among others, Max Weber and Ernst Troeltsch were members of the "Heidelberg Eranos".

The name is derived from the Ancient Greek word ἔρανος meaning "a banquet to which the guests bring contributions of food, a no-host dinner." The circle at Moscia was founded by Olga Froebe-Kapteyn[1] in 1933, and these conferences have been held annually on the grounds of her estate (on the shores of Lago Maggiore near Ascona in Switzerland) ever since. For over seventy years this event has served as a point of contact for thinkers from disparate fields of knowledge ranging from depth psychology and comparative religion to history, literary criticism and folklore, and provides a setting and a congenial group within which to discuss all things spiritual. Each conference takes place over eight days, during which time all participants eat, sleep and live together, thereby promoting a camaraderie which fosters an atmosphere of free and open discussion. Each year a new theme is addressed, and each participant scholar delivers a two-hour lecture on a topic of his choice relating to the theme — his/her contribution to the ‘banquet’ of ideas — thereby attempting to draw these multifarious thinkers into productive intellectual discourse.

Eranos’ beginnings

Froebe-Kapteyn established this group at the suggestion of the eminent German religious historian, Rudolf Otto. Froebe-Kapteyn was the Dutch foundress of the literary salon "Table Ronde" (Round Table), which is indicative of the Eranos’ ‘spiritualist’ bent. Indeed Eranos was from its very outset interested in these issues and its first theme, ‘Yoga and Meditation in East and West’, was a truly pioneering subject in the early 1930s. Past themes include Ancient Sun Cults and the Symbolism of Light in the Gnosis and in Early Christianity (1943), Man and Peace (1958), Creation and Organization (1966) and The Truth of Dreams (1995). Participants over the years have included Heinrich Zimmer (Indian religious art), Karl Kerényi (Greek mythology), Mircea Eliade (history of religions), Carl Gustav Jung and Erich Neumann (analytical psychology), Alfons Rosenberg (symbolism), Gilles Quispel (gnostic studies), Gershom Scholem (Jewish mysticism), Henry Corbin (Islamic religion), Gilbert Durand (symbolic anthropology), Adolf Portmann (biology), Herbert Read (art history), Max Knoll (physics), and Joseph Campbell (comparative mythology).[2] The Eranos conferences have resulted in the publication of a number of books.[3] Anyone may attend the lectures upon payment of a small fee.

References

1. Eranos Foundation (History) Archived 2009-02-22 at the Wayback Machine
2. Archive for Research in Archetypal Symbolism Archived 2006-12-06 at the Wayback Machine
3. List of published Eranos Lectures

Further reading

• ERANOS, Neue Folge (New series), 1993ff. Königshausen & Neumann, Wuerzburg, 17 volumes published in 2016.
• HAKL, Hans Thomas, Der verborgene Geist von Eranos – Unbekannte Begegnungen von Wissenschaft und Esoterik – Eine alternative Geistesgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts, Scientia nova-Verlag Neue Wissenschaft, Bretten 2001.
• BERNARDINI, Riccardo, Jung a Eranos. Il progetto della psicologia complessa. FrancoAngeli, Milano 2011, ISBN 978-88-568-3449-9.
• QUAGLINO, Gian Piero, ROMANO, Augusto, & BERNARDINI, Riccardo (Eds.), Carl Gustav Jung a Eranos 1933-1952, Antigone Edizioni, Torino 2007, ISBN 978-88-95283-13-5.
• REIBNITZ, Barbara von, “Der Eranos-Kreis – Religionswissenschaft und Weltanschauung oder der Gelehrte als Laien-Priester", in: FABER, Richard, & HOLSTE, Christine (Ed.), Kreise, Gruppen, Bünde – Zur Soziologie moderner Intellektuellerassoziation, Könighausen + Neumann, Würzburg 2000, pp. 425–440.
• BARONE, Elisabetta, et al., Pioniere, Poeten, Professoren - Eranos und Monte Verità in der Zivilisationsgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts, Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2004 [articles in English, German, Italian].
• SCHABERT, Tilo, "Une herméneutique intercivilisatrice: L`École d`Eranos", in: WEILL, Nicolas (Ed.), Existe-il une Europe philosophique?, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, Rennes 2005, pp. 297–302.
• SCHABERT, Tilo, "The Eranos Experience",in: Barone, Elisabetta et al., Pioniere, Poeten, Professoren, 9-19; online:http://www.eranos.org/content/html/start_english.html
• SCHABERT, Tilo, "In the Fading of Divine Voices: The Song of Eranos", in: Tilo Schabert, Matthias Riedl (Eds.), "Gott oder Götter? - God or Gods?", Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2009, 181-188; online: http://www.eranos.org/content/html/start_english.html
• SCHABERT, Tilo, "On the recent history of the Eranos-Tagungen. From Olga Froebe-Kapteyn to the Amici di Eranos", in: Matthias Riedl, Tilo Schabert, (Eds.), "Die Stadt: Achse und Zentrum der Welt - The City: Axis and Centre of the World", Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2011, 133-142; online: http://www.eranos.org/content/pdf/Histo ... gungen.pdf
• SCHABERT, Tilo (Ed.) "The Eranos Movement. A Story of Hermeneutics", Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg, 2016, 202 p., ISBN 978-3-8260-5855-4.
• WASSERSTROM, Steven M., Religion after religion. Gershom Scholem, Mircea Eliade, and Henry Corbin at Eranos, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1999, ISBN 0-691-00539-7.
• GASSEAU, Maurizio, & BERNARDINI, Riccardo, "Il sogno: prospettive di Eranos", in: GASSEAU, Maurizio, & BERNARDINI, Riccardo (Eds.), Il sogno. Dalla psicologia analitica allo psicodramma junghiano, FrancoAngeli, Milano 2009, pp. 15–55, ISBN 978-88-568-0679-3.
See also: "Selected Bibliography", http://www.eranos.org/content/html/start_english.html

External links

• Eranos Foundation official website
• Eranos Unofficial Site
• Eranos.org
• Who is who in Analytical Psychology?: Eranos Circle
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Aug 17, 2019 6:23 am

Cosmobiology
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/16/19

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Historically, the term 'Kosmobiologie' was used by the German medical astrologer Friedrich Feerhow and Swiss statistician Karl Krafft in a more general sense "to designate that branch of astrology working on scientific foundations and keyed to the natural sciences".[1]

The term cosmobiology was popularized in English after the translation of the writings of Reinhold Ebertin, who based a large part of his techniques on the midpoint-astrology work of Alfred Witte[2] The term most frequently refers to the school of astrology founded by Ebertin. The main difference between Witte's Hamburg School and Ebertin's Cosmobiology is that Cosmobiology rejects the hypothetical Trans-Neptunian objects used by the Hamburg School and practitioners of Uranian astrology. Another difference is the significant expansion of Cosmobiology into medical astrology, Dr. Ebertin being a physician.

Cosmobiology continued Witte's ultimate primary emphasis on the use of astrological midpoints along with the following 8th-harmonic aspects in the natal chart, which both Witte and Ebertin found to be the most potent in terms of personal influence: conjunction (0°), semi-square (45°), square (90°), sesquiquadrate (135°), and opposition (180°).

In cosmobiological analysis, planets are inserted into a special type of horoscope often referred to as a 'Cosmogram' (derived from the Uranian 90° dial chart) and delineated.

The primary reference/research text for Cosmobiology was first published in 1940 by the German astrologer Reinhold Ebertin. The name of the book is The Combination of Stellar Influences. The original German title is Kombination der Gestirneinflusse. Its foundations were derived largely from the early versions of the "Regelwerk für Planetenbilder" by Alfred Witte, and then further built upon by Ebertin and colleagues.

Ebertin defined Cosmobiology as the following:

"Cosmobiology is a scientific discipline concerned with the possible correlation between the cosmos and organic life and the effects of cosmic rhythms and stellar motion on man, with all his potentials and dispositions, his character and the possible turns of fate; it also researches these correlation and effects as mirrored by earth's plant and animal life as a whole. In this endeavor, Cosmobiology utilises modern-day methods of scientific research, such as statistics, analysis, and computer programming. It is of prime importance, however, in view of the scientific effort expended, not to overlook the macrocosmic and microcosmic interrelations incapable of measurement."[3]


What is noteworthy about both Cosmobiology and Uranian astrology, which has developed along a different path technically, is their emphasis on critical analysis and testing by observing more clearly measurable or observable astrological correlations, rather than to simply perpetuate observations or assumptions written in historical astrological texts, a problem leading to widespread criticism of mainstream Classical Astrology. Some have speculated that the term "Cosmobiology" was coined specifically to divorce its precepts from the manifold ambiguities of, and subsequent widespread biases against, Classical Astrology.

Three prominent published Cosmobiological authors in the English language are German-American cosmobiologist Eleonora Kimmel, American cosmobiologist Aren Ober (formerly Savalan), and Australian cosmobiologist Doris Greaves, all of whom have published texts in Cosmobiology based on their own substantial experiences.

References

1. Ebertin acknowledges this in Ebertin 1972 p.11
2. Ebertin acknowledges substantial reference to the earlier work of Alfred Witte in Ebertin 1972, pp.28, although Ebertin differed with Witte on methodological approach.
3. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-07-07. Retrieved 2009-11-21.
• Brau, Jean-Louis: Larousse Encyclopedia of Astrology, McGraw-Hill Books, New York USA, 1977.
• Ebertin, Reinhold: Astrological Healing, Samuel Weiser Books, York Beach ME USA, 1989.
• Ebertin, Reinhold: Combination of Stellar Influences, Ebertin-Verlag, Aalen, Germany, 1972.
• Greaves, Doris: Regulus Ebertin Cosmobiology beyond 2000, Regulus Astrological Publications, Red Hill ACT, Australia, 1999.
• Kimmel, Eleonora: Cosmobiology for the 21st Century, American Federation of Astrologers, Tempe AZ USA, 2000.
• Ober, Aren: Midpoint Interpretation Simplified, 2nd Edition, Cotter Books, Cleveland OH USA, 2009.
• Witte, Alfred: Der Mensch, Ludwig Rudolph Verlag, Hamburg, Germany, 1975.
• Witte, Alfred: Regelwerk für Planetenbilder, Ludwig Rudolph Verlag, Hamburg, Germany, 1928.
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