Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

This is a broad, catch-all category of works that fit best here and not elsewhere. If you haven't found it someplace else, you might want to look here.

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 12:07 am

Part 1 of 2

Henri Bergson
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/17/19

Notes on Recent Books: The Progress of Eugenics. By Caleb Williams Saleeby, M.D. Funk & Wagnalls Co., New York and London. 8vo, 459 pp. Price, $1.50 net.

Of all the current writers on the new science of Eugenics, Dr. Saleeby easily ranks first in the rare combination of scientific knowledge, humanitarian breadth and enthusiasm, and power of popular exposition. This is not the first book that has come from his hand which is likely to become a classic for a very large circle of readers. His Parenthood and Race Culture has won a numerous body of readers here in the United States, and now this book will be welcomed by all these as a further exposition of the subjects he so ably treats and a clarion call to larger privileges and duties in the great era of racial regeneration that is just being ushered in.

Dr. Saleeby’s dedication of this book to the French philosopher Henri Bergson strikes the keynote of the work. Herein he refers to eugenics as creative evolution become self-conscious. A more accurate and more stimulating conception it would be difficult to formulate. Bergson’s work “Creative Evolution” has thrilled the modern world with a new sense of the grandeur of life and man’s own part in the process. And now Saleeby’s conception of the control of life through the intelligence and conscience that eugenics would supply, as the conscious participation in the creation-process, rounds out the massive enterprise that humanity is now prepared to contemplate.

The book is in four parts, and has the following chapter-headings: The People Called Eugenists, Nature and Nurture, The Rights of Mothers, The Care of Infancy and the Home Child, Real Education – a Soldier to the Rescue, Adolescence and Eugenic Education, The Homing Problem; The National Birth-rate Commission, The Foundations of Eugenics; Positive Eugenics – the Encouragement of Worthy Parenthood, Negative Eugenics – the Discouragement of Unworthy Parenthood, Preventive Eugenics and the Racial Poisons; The Eastward Window. All these chapters, as their titles suggest, are bristling with facts, acute interpretative insight, and eager application to human needs. When one reads such a book, he wonders how so many, even among religious leaders, can sneer at eugenics and oppose its popular advance.

-- The Homiletic Review: An International Magazine of Religion, Theology, and Philosophy Treats Every Phase of the Minister’s Work, Volume 68, From July to December, 1914.

Henri Bergson
Bergson in 1927
Born Henri-Louis Bergson
18 October 1859
Paris, France
Died 4 January 1941 (aged 81)
Paris, France
Alma mater
École Normale Supérieure
University of Paris
Notable work
Time and Free Will (1889)
Matter and Memory (1896)
Creative Evolution (1907)
Spouse(s) Louise Neuberger (m. 1891)
Awards Nobel Prize in Literature (1927)
Era 20th-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
Continental philosophyFrench spiritualismphilosophy of life[1]
Institutions Collège de France
Main interests
Metaphysicsepistemologyphilosophy of languagephilosophy of mathematicsstudies of immediate experience
Notable ideas
Durationintuitionaffectionélan vitalopen society
Influences: Spinoza[2][3]Immanuel KantArthur SchopenhauerWilliam JamesCharles DarwinFélix Ravaisson-MollienHerbert SpencerGottfried Wilhelm LeibnizMaine de BiranPlotinus[4]
Influenced: Michel AflaqÉmile BréhierGuy DebordGilles DeleuzeMuhammad IqbalJawaharlal NehruVladimir JankélévitchNikos KazantzakisNecip Fazıl KısakürekÉdouard Le RoyEmmanuel LevinasGabriel MarcelJacques MaritainMaurice Merleau-PontyEmmanuel Mounier[5]Jean-Paul SartreMarcel ProustAlfred SchützLiang ShumingAnna-Teresa TymienieckaAlfred North Whitehead

Henri-Louis Bergson (French: [bɛʁksɔn]; 18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until the Second World War.[6] Bergson is known for his arguments that processes of immediate experience and intuition are more significant than abstract rationalism and science for understanding reality.

He was awarded the 1927 Nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented".[7] In 1930 France awarded him its highest honour, the Grand-Croix de la Legion d'honneur.

Bergson's great popularity created a controversy in France where his views were seen as opposing the secular and scientific attitude adopted by the Republic's officials.[8]



Bergson was born in the Rue Lamartine in Paris, not far from the Palais Garnier (the old Paris opera house) in 1859. His father, the pianist Michał Bergson, was of a Polish Jewish background (originally bearing the name Bereksohn). His great-grandmother, Temerl Bergson, was a well-known patroness and benefactor of Polish Jewry, especially those associated with the Hasidic movement.[9][10] His mother, Katherine Levison, daughter of a Yorkshire doctor, was from an English and Irish Jewish background. The Bereksohns were a famous Jewish entrepreneurial family[11] of Polish descent. Henri Bergson's great-great-grandfather, Szmul Jakubowicz Sonnenberg, called Zbytkower, was a prominent banker and a protégé of Stanisław II Augustus,[12][13] King of Poland from 1764 to 1795.

Henri Bergson's family lived in London for a few years after his birth, and he obtained an early familiarity with the English language from his mother. Before he was nine, his parents settled in France, Henri becoming a naturalized French citizen.

Henri Bergson married Louise Neuberger, a cousin of Marcel Proust, in 1891. (The novelist served as best man at Bergson's wedding.)[14] Henri and Louise Bergson had a daughter, Jeanne, born deaf in 1896. Bergson's sister, Mina Bergson (also known as Moina Mathers), married the English occult author Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, a founder of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, and the couple later relocated to Paris as well.

Bergson lived the quiet life of a French professor, marked by the publication of his four principal works:

1. in 1889, Time and Free Will (Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience)
2. in 1896, Matter and Memory (Matière et mémoire)
3. in 1907, Creative Evolution (L'Évolution créatrice)
4. in 1932, The Two Sources of Morality and Religion (Les deux sources de la morale et de la religion)

In 1900 the Collège de France selected Bergson to a Chair of Greek and Roman Philosophy, which he held until 1904. He then replaced Gabriel Tarde in the Chair of Modern Philosophy, which he held until 1920. The public attended his open courses in large numbers.

Education and career

Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience (Dissertation, 1889)

Quid Aristoteles de loco senserit (Dissertation, 1889)

Bergson attended the Lycée Fontanes (known as the Lycée Condorcet 1870–1874 and 1883–present) in Paris from 1868 to 1878. He had previously received a Jewish religious education.[15] Between 14 and 16, however, he lost his faith. According to Hude (1990), this moral crisis is tied to his discovery of the theory of evolution, according to which humanity shares common ancestry with modern primates, a process sometimes construed as not needing a creative deity.[16]

While at the lycée Bergson won a prize for his scientific work and another, in 1877 when he was eighteen, for the solution of a mathematical problem. His solution was published the following year in Nouvelles Annales de Mathématiques.[17] It was his first published work. After some hesitation as to whether his career should lie in the sphere of the sciences or that of the humanities, he decided in favour of the latter, to the dismay of his teachers.[18] When he was nineteen, he entered the École Normale Supérieure. During this period, he read Herbert Spencer.[18] He obtained there the degree of licence ès lettres, and this was followed by that of agrégation de philosophie in 1881 from the University of Paris.

The same year he received a teaching appointment at the lycée in Angers, the ancient capital of Anjou. Two years later he settled at the Lycée Blaise-Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand) [fr] in Clermont-Ferrand, capital of the Puy-de-Dôme département.

The year after his arrival at Clermont-Ferrand Bergson displayed his ability in the humanities by the publication of an edition of extracts from Lucretius, with a critical study of the text and of the materialist cosmology of the poet (1884), a work whose repeated editions[which?] attest to its value in promoting Classics among French youth. While teaching and lecturing in this part of his country (the Auvergne region), Bergson found time for private study and original work. He crafted his dissertation Time and Free Will, which was submitted, along with a short Latin thesis on Aristotle (Quid Aristoteles de loco senserit, "On the Concept of Place in Aristotle"), for his doctoral degree which was awarded by the University of Paris in 1889. The work was published in the same year by Félix Alcan. He also gave courses in Clermont-Ferrand on the Pre-Socratics, in particular on Heraclitus.[18]

Bergson dedicated Time and Free Will to Jules Lachelier [fr] (1832–1918), then public education minister, a disciple of Félix Ravaisson (1813–1900) and the author of a philosophical work On the Founding of Induction (Du fondement de l'induction, 1871). Lachelier endeavoured "to substitute everywhere force for inertia, life for death, and liberty for fatalism". (Bergson owed much to both of these teachers of the École Normale Supérieure. Compare his memorial address on Ravaisson, who died in 1900.)

Bergson settled again in Paris in 1888,[19] and after teaching for some months at the municipal college, known as the College Rollin, he received an appointment at the Lycée Henri-Quatre, where he remained for eight years. There, he read Darwin and gave a course on his theories.[18] Although Bergson had previously endorsed Lamarckism and its theory of the heritability of acquired characteristics, he came to prefer Darwin's hypothesis of gradual variations, which were more compatible with his continual vision of life.[18]

In 1896 he published his second major work, entitled Matter and Memory. This rather difficult work investigates the function of the brain and undertakes an analysis of perception and memory, leading up to a careful consideration of the problems of the relation of body and mind. Bergson had spent years of research in preparation for each of his three large works. This is especially obvious in Matter and Memory, where he showed a thorough acquaintance with the extensive pathological investigations which had been carried out during the period.

In 1898 Bergson became maître de conférences at his alma mater, École Normale Supérieure, and later in the same year received a promotion to a Professorship. The year 1900 saw him installed as Professor at the Collège de France, where he accepted the Chair of Greek and Roman Philosophy in succession to Charles Lévêque [fr].

At the first International Congress of Philosophy, held in Paris during the first five days of August 1900, Bergson read a short, but important, paper, "Psychological Origins of the Belief in the Law of Causality" (Sur les origines psychologiques de notre croyance à la loi de causalité). In 1900 Felix Alcan published a work which had previously appeared in the Revue de Paris, entitled Laughter (Le rire), one of the most important of Bergson's minor productions. This essay on the meaning of comedy stemmed from a lecture which he had given in his early days in the Auvergne. The study of it is essential to an understanding of Bergson's views of life, and its passages dealing with the place of the artistic in life are valuable. The main thesis of the work is that laughter is a corrective evolved to make social life possible for human beings. We laugh at people who fail to adapt to the demands of society if it seems their failure is akin to an inflexible mechanism. Comic authors have exploited this human tendency to laugh in various ways, and what is common to them is the idea that the comic consists in there being "something mechanical encrusted on the living".[20][21]

In 1901 the Académie des sciences morales et politiques elected Bergson as a member, and he became a member of the Institute. In 1903 he contributed to the Revue de métaphysique et de morale a very important essay entitled Introduction to Metaphysics (Introduction à la metaphysique), which is useful as a preface to the study of his three large books. He detailed in this essay his philosophical program, realized in the Creative Evolution.[18]

On the death of Gabriel Tarde, the sociologist and philosopher, in 1904, Bergson succeeded him in the Chair of Modern Philosophy. From 4 to 8 September of that year he visited Geneva, attending the Second International Congress of Philosophy, when he lectured on The Mind and Thought: A Philosophical Illusion (Le cerveau et la pensée: une illusion philosophique). An illness prevented his visiting Germany from attending the Third Congress held at Heidelberg.

His third major work, Creative Evolution, the most widely known and most discussed of his books, appeared in 1907. Pierre Imbart de la Tour remarked that Creative Evolution was a milestone of new direction in thought.[citation needed] By 1918, Alcan, the publisher, had issued twenty-one editions, making an average of two editions per annum for ten years. Following the appearance of this book, Bergson's popularity increased enormously, not only in academic circles but among the general reading public.

At that time, Bergson had already made an extensive study of biology including the theory of fecundation (as shown in the first chapter of the Creative Evolution), which had only recently emerged, ca. 1885 – no small feat for a philosopher specializing in the history of philosophy, in particular Greek and Roman philosophy.[18] He also most certainly had read, apart from Darwin, Haeckel, from whom he retained his idea of a unity of life and of the ecological solidarity between all living beings,[18] as well as Hugo de Vries, from whom he quoted his mutation theory of evolution (which he opposed, preferring Darwin's gradualism).[18] He also quoted Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard, the successor of Claude Bernard at the Chair of Experimental Medicine in the Collège de France, etc.

Bergson served as a juror with Florence Meyer Blumenthal in awarding the Prix Blumenthal, a grant given between 1919 and 1954 to painters, sculptors, decorators, engravers, writers, and musicians.[22]

Relationship with James and pragmatism

Bergson traveled to London in 1908 and met there with William James, the Harvard philosopher who was Bergson's senior by seventeen years, and who was instrumental in calling the attention of the Anglo-American public to the work of the French professor. The two became great friends. James's impression of Bergson is given in his Letters under date of 4 October 1908:

So modest and unpretending a man but such a genius intellectually! I have the strongest suspicions that the tendency which he has brought to a focus, will end by prevailing, and that the present epoch will be a sort of turning point in the history of philosophy.

As early as 1880, James had contributed an article in French to the periodical La Critique philosophique, of Renouvier and Pillon, entitled Le Sentiment de l'Effort. Four years later, a couple of articles by him appeared in the journal Mind: "What is an Emotion?" and "On some Omissions of Introspective Psychology". Bergson quoted the first two of these articles in his 1889 work, Time and Free Will. In the following years, 1890–91 appeared the two volumes of James's monumental work, The Principles of Psychology, in which he refers to a pathological phenomenon observed by Bergson. Some writers, taking merely these dates into consideration and overlooking the fact that James's investigations had been proceeding since 1870 (registered from time to time by various articles which culminated in "The Principles"), have mistakenly dated Bergson's ideas as earlier than James's.

It has been suggested[by whom?] that Bergson owes the root ideas of his first book to the 1884 article by James, "On Some Omissions of Introspective Psychology," which he neither refers to nor quotes. This article deals with the conception of thought as a stream of consciousness, which intellect distorts by framing into concepts. Bergson replied to this insinuation by denying that he had any knowledge of the article by James when he wrote Les données immédiates de la conscience.[citation needed] The two thinkers appear to have developed independently until almost the close of the century. They are further apart in their intellectual position than is frequently supposed. Both have succeeded in appealing to audiences far beyond the purely academic sphere, but only in their mutual rejection of "intellectualism" as decisive as their actual agreement. Although James was slightly ahead in the development and enunciation of his ideas, he confessed that he was baffled by many of Bergson's notions. James certainly neglected many of the deeper metaphysical aspects of Bergson's thought, which did not harmonize with his own, and are even in direct contradiction. In addition to this, Bergson can hardly be considered a pragmatist. For him, "utility," far from being a test of truth, was, in fact, the reverse: a synonym for error.

Nevertheless, William James hailed Bergson as an ally. In 1903, he wrote:

I have been re-reading Bergson's books, and nothing that I have read for years has so excited and stimulated my thoughts. I am sure that his philosophy has a great future; it breaks through old frameworks and brings things to a solution from which new crystallizations can be reached.[23]

The most noteworthy tributes James paid to Bergson come in the Hibbert Lectures (A Pluralistic Universe), which James gave at Manchester College, Oxford, shortly after meeting Bergson in London. He remarks on the encouragement he gained from Bergson's thought, and refers to his confidence in being "able to lean on Bergson's authority." (See further James's reservations about Bergson, below.)

The influence of Bergson had led James "to renounce the intellectualist method and the current notion that logic is an adequate measure of what can or cannot be". It had induced him, he continued, "to give up logic, squarely and irrevocably" as a method, for he found that "reality, life, experience, concreteness, immediacy, use what word you will, exceeds our logic, overflows, and surrounds it".

These remarks, which appeared in James's book A Pluralistic Universe in 1909, impelled many English and American readers to investigate Bergson's philosophy for themselves, but no English translations of Bergson's major work had yet appeared. James, however, encouraged and assisted Arthur Mitchell in preparing an English translation of Creative Evolution. In August 1910, James died. It was his intention, had he lived to see the translation finished, to introduce it to the English reading public by a prefatory note of appreciation. In the following year, the translation was completed and still greater interest in Bergson and his work was the result. By coincidence, in that same year (1911), Bergson penned a preface of sixteen pages entitled Truth and Reality for the French translation of James's book, Pragmatism. In it, he expressed sympathetic appreciation of James's work, together with certain important reservations.

From 5 to 11 April, Bergson attended the Fourth International Congress of Philosophy held at Bologna, in Italy, where he gave an address on "Philosophical Intuition". In response to invitations he visited England in May of that year, and on several subsequent occasions. These visits were well received.[by whom?] His speeches offered new perspectives[which?] and elucidated many passages in his three major works: Time and Free Will, Matter and Memory, and Creative Evolution. Although necessarily brief statements, they developed and enriched the ideas in his books and clarified for English audiences the fundamental principles of his philosophy.

Lectures on change

In May 1911 Bergson gave two lectures entitled The Perception of Change (La perception du changement) at the University of Oxford. The Clarendon Press published these in French in the same year.[24] His talks were concise and lucid, leading students and the general reader to his other, longer writings. Oxford later conferred on him the degree of Doctor of Science.

Two days later he delivered the Huxley Lecture at the University of Birmingham, taking for his subject Life and Consciousness. This subsequently appeared in The Hibbert Journal (October 1911), and since revised, is the first essay in the collected volume Mind-Energy (L'Énergie spirituelle). In October he again traveled to England, where he had an enthusiastic reception, and delivered at University College London four lectures on La Nature de l'Âme [The nature of the soul].

In 1913 Bergson visited the United States of America at the invitation of Columbia University, New York, and lectured in several American cities, where very large audiences welcomed him. In February, at Columbia University, he lectured both in French and English, taking as his subjects: Spirituality and Freedom and The Method of Philosophy. Being again in England in May of the same year, he accepted the Presidency of the British Society for Psychical Research, and delivered to the Society an address on Phantoms of Life and Psychic Research (Fantômes des vivants et recherche psychique).

Meanwhile, his popularity increased, and translations of his works began to appear in a number of languages: English, German, Italian, Danish, Swedish, Hungarian, Polish, and Russian. In 1914 Bergson's fellow-countrymen honoured him by his election as a member of the Académie française. He was also made President of the Académie des Sciences morales et politiques, and in addition, he became Officier de la Légion d'honneur, and Officier de l'Instruction publique.

Bergson found disciples of many types. In France movements such as neo-Catholicism and Modernism on the one hand and syndicalism on the other endeavoured to absorb and appropriate for their own ends some central ideas of his teaching. The continental organ of socialist and syndicalist theory, Le Mouvement socialiste,[25] portrayed the realism of Karl Marx and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon as hostile to all forms of intellectualism, and argued, therefore, that supporters of Marxist socialism should welcome a philosophy such as that of Bergson.[citation needed] Other writers, in their eagerness, claimed that the thought of the holder of the Chair of Philosophy at the Collège de France, and the aims of the Confédération Générale du Travail and the Industrial Workers of the World were in essential agreement.

While social revolutionaries endeavoured to make the most out of Bergson, many religious leaders, particularly the more liberal-minded theologians of all creeds, e.g., the Modernists and Neo-Catholic Party in his own country, showed a keen interest in his writings, and many of them found encouragement and stimulus in his work. The Roman Catholic Church, however, banned Bergson's three books on the charge of pantheism (that is, of conceiving of God as immanent to his Creation and of being himself created in the process of the Creation).[18] They were placed on the Index of prohibited books (Decree of 1 June 1914).

Later years

In 1914 the Scottish universities arranged for Bergson to give the famous Gifford Lectures, planning one course for the spring and another for the autumn. Bergson delivered the first course, consisting of eleven lectures, under the title of The Problem of Personality, at the University of Edinburgh in the spring of that year. The course of lectures planned for the autumn months had to be abandoned because of the outbreak of war. Bergson was not, however, silent during the conflict, and he gave some inspiring addresses. As early as 4 November 1914, he wrote an article entitled Wearing and Nonwearing forces (La force qui s'use et celle qui ne s'use pas), which appeared in that unique and interesting periodical of the poilus, Le Bulletin des Armées de la République Française. A presidential address, The Meaning of the War, was delivered in December 1914, to the Académie des sciences morales et politiques.

Bergson contributed also to the publication arranged by The Daily Telegraph in honour of King Albert I of the Belgians, King Albert's Book (Christmas, 1914).[26] In 1915 he was succeeded in the office of President of the Académie des Sciences morales et politiques by Alexandre Ribot, and then delivered a discourse on "The Evolution of German Imperialism". Meanwhile, he found time to issue at the request of the Minister of Public Instruction a brief summary of French Philosophy. Bergson did a large amount of traveling and lecturing in America during the war. He participated in the negotiations which led to the entry of the United States in the war. He was there when the French Mission under René Viviani paid a visit in April and May 1917, following upon America's entry into the conflict. Viviani's book La Mission française en Amérique (1917), contains a preface by Bergson.

Early in 1918 the Académie française received Bergson officially when he took his seat among "The Select Forty" as successor to Emile Ollivier (the author of the historical work L'Empire libéral). A session was held in January in his honour at which he delivered an address on Ollivier. In the war, Bergson saw the conflict of Mind and Matter, or rather of Life and Mechanism; and thus he shows us the central idea of his own philosophy in action. To no other philosopher has it fallen, during his lifetime, to have his philosophical principles so vividly and so terribly tested.

As many of Bergson's contributions to French periodicals remained relatively inaccessible, he agreed to the request of his friends[which?] to have such works collected and published in two volumes. The first of these was being planned when war broke out. The conclusion of strife was marked by the appearance of a delayed volume in 1919. It bears the title Spiritual Energy: Essays and Lectures (reprinted as Mind-Energy – L'Énergie spirituelle: essais et conférences). The advocate of Bergson's philosophy in England, Wildon Carr, prepared an English translation under the title Mind-Energy. The volume opens with the Huxley Memorial Lecture of 1911, "Life and Consciousness", in a revised and developed form under the title "Consciousness and Life". Signs of Bergson's growing interest in social ethics and in the idea of a future life of personal survival are manifested. The lecture before the Society for Psychical Research is included, as is also the one given in France, L'Âme et le Corps, which contains the substance of the four London lectures on the Soul. The seventh and last article is a reprint of Bergson's famous lecture to the Congress of Philosophy at Geneva in 1904, The Psycho-Physiological Paralogism (Le paralogisme psycho-physiologique), which now appears as Le cerveau et la pensée: une illusion philosophique. Other articles are on the False Recognition, on Dreams, and Intellectual Effort. The volume is a most welcome production and serves to bring together what Bergson wrote on the concept of mental force, and on his view of "tension" and "detension" as applied to the relation of matter and mind.

In June 1920, the University of Cambridge honoured him with the degree of Doctor of Letters. In order that he might devote his full-time to the great new work he was preparing on ethics, religion, and sociology, the Collège de France relieved Bergson of the duties attached to the Chair of Modern Philosophy there. He retained the chair, but no longer delivered lectures, his place being taken by his disciple, the mathematician and philosopher Édouard Le Roy, who supported a conventionalist stance on the foundations of mathematics, which was adopted by Bergson.[27] Le Roy, who also succeeded to Bergson at the Académie française and was a fervent Catholic, extended to revealed truth his conventionalism, leading him to privilege faith, heart and sentiment to dogmas, speculative theology and abstract reasoning. Like Bergson's, his writings were placed on the Index by the Vatican.

Debate with Albert Einstein

In the fall of 1922 Bergson's book Durée et simultanéité, a propos de la theorie d'Einstein (Duration and Simultaneity: Bergson and the Einsteinian Universe) was published.[28] Earlier in the spring Einstein had come to the French Society of Philosophy and briefly replied to a short speech made by Bergson.[29] The book has been often considered as one of his worst, many alleging that his knowledge of physics was insufficient, and that the book did not follow up contemporary developments on physics.[18] (But in "Einstein and the Crisis of Reason", a leading French philosopher, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, accused Einstein of failing to grasp Bergson's argument. This argument, Merleau-Ponty says, which concerns not the physics of special relativity but its philosophical foundations, addresses paradoxes caused by popular interpretations and misconceptions about the theory, including Einstein's own.[30]) It was not published in the 1951 Edition du Centenaire in French, which contained all of his other works, and was only published later in a work gathering different essays, titled Mélanges. Duration and simultaneity took advantage of Bergson's experience at the League of Nations, where he presided from 1920 to 1925 over the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (the ancestor of UNESCO, and which included Einstein, Marie Curie, etc.).[31].

Later years and death

While living with his wife and daughter in a modest house in a quiet street near the Porte d'Auteuil in Paris, Bergson won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1927 for having written The Creative Evolution. Because of serious rheumatics ailments, he could not travel to Stockholm, and sent instead a text subsequently published in La Pensée et le mouvant.[18] He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1928.[32]

After his retirement from the Collège, Bergson began to fade into obscurity: he suffered from a degenerative illness (rheumatism, which left him half paralyzed[18]). He completed his new work, The Two Sources of Morality and Religion, which extended his philosophical theories to the realms of morality, religion, and art, in 1935. It was respectfully received by the public and the philosophical community, but all by that time realized that Bergson's days as a philosophical luminary were past. He was, however, able to reiterate his core beliefs near the end of his life, by renouncing all of the posts and honours previously awarded him, rather than accept exemption from the antisemitic laws imposed by the Vichy government.

Bergson inclined to convert to Catholicism, writing in his will on 7 February 1937: "My thinking has always brought me nearer to Catholicism, in which I saw the perfect complement to Judaism."[33] Though wishing to convert to Catholicism, as stated in his will, he did not convert in view of the travails inflicted on the Jewish people by the rise of Nazism and anti-Semitism in Europe in the 1930s; he did not want to appear to want to leave the persecuted. After the fall of France in 1940, Jews in occupied France were required to register at police stations. When completing his police form, Bergson made the following entry: ‘Academic. Philosopher. Nobel Prize winner. Jew.’[34]

On 3 January 1941 Bergson died in occupied Paris from bronchitis.[35]

A Roman Catholic priest said prayers at his funeral per his request. Bergson is buried in the Cimetière de Garches, Hauts-de-Seine.


Bergson rejected what he saw as the overly mechanistic predominant view of causality (as expressed in, say, finalism). He argued that we must allow space for free will to unfold in an autonomous and unpredictable fashion. While Kant saw free will as something beyond time and space and therefore ultimately a matter of faith, Bergson attempted to redefine the modern conceptions of time, space, and causality in his concept of Duration, making room for a tangible marriage of free will with causality. Seeing Duration as a mobile and fluid concept, Bergson argued that one cannot understand Duration through "immobile" analysis, but only through experiential, first-person intuition.
Site Admin
Posts: 32013
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 12:08 am

Part 2 of 2


Bergson considers the appearance of novelty as a result of pure undetermined creation, instead of as the predetermined result of mechanistic forces. His philosophy emphasises pure mobility, unforeseeable novelty, creativity and freedom; thus one can characterize his system as a process philosophy. It touches upon such topics as time and identity, free will, perception, change, memory, consciousness, language, the foundation of mathematics and the limits of reason.[36]

Criticizing Kant's theory of knowledge exposed in the Critique of Pure Reason and his conception of truth – which he compares to Plato's conception of truth as its symmetrical inversion (order of nature/order of thought) – Bergson attempted to redefine the relations between science and metaphysics, intelligence and intuition, and insisted on the necessity of increasing thought's possibility through the use of intuition, which, according to him, alone approached a knowledge of the absolute and of real life, understood as pure duration. Because of his (relative) criticism of intelligence, he makes a frequent use of images and metaphors in his writings in order to avoid the use of concepts, which (he considers) fail to touch the whole of reality, being only a sort of abstract net thrown on things. For instance, he says in The Creative Evolution (chap. III) that thought in itself would never have thought it possible for the human being to swim, as it cannot deduce swimming from walking. For swimming to be possible, man must throw itself in water, and only then can thought consider swimming as possible. Intelligence, for Bergson, is a practical faculty rather than a pure speculative faculty, a product of evolution used by man to survive. If metaphysics is to avoid "false problems", it should not extend the abstract concepts of intelligence to pure speculation, but rather use intuition.[37]

The Creative Evolution in particular attempted to think through the continuous creation of life, and explicitly pitted itself against Herbert Spencer's evolutionary philosophy. Spencer had attempted to transpose Charles Darwin's theory of evolution in philosophy and to construct a cosmology based on this theory (Spencer also coined the expression "survival of the fittest"). Bergson disputed what he saw as Spencer's mechanistic philosophy.[38]

Bergson's Lebensphilosophie (philosophy of life) can be seen as a response to the mechanistic philosophies of his time,[39] but also to the failure of finalism.[18] Indeed, he considers that finalism is unable to explain "duration" and the "continuous creation of life", as it only explains life as the progressive development of an initially determined program – a notion which remains, for example, in the expression of a "genetic program";[18] such a description of finalism was adopted, for instance, by Leibniz.[18] It clearly announces Alfred North Whitehead's.

Bergson regarded planning beforehand for the future as impossible, since time itself unravels unforeseen possibilities. Indeed, one could always explain a historical event retrospectively by its conditions of possibility. But, in the introduction to the Pensée et le mouvant, he explains that such an event created retrospectively its causes, taking the example of the creation of a work of art, for example a symphony: it was impossible to predict what would be the symphony of the future, as if the musician knew what symphony would be the best for his time, he would realize it. In his words, the effect created its cause. Henceforth, he attempted to find a third way between mechanism and finalism, through the notion of an original impulse, the élan vital, in life, which dispersed itself through evolution into contradictory tendencies (he substituted to the finalist notion of a teleological aim a notion of an original impulse).


See also: Duration (philosophy)

The foundation of Henri Bergson's philosophy, his theory of Duration, he discovered when trying to improve the inadequacies of Herbert Spencer's philosophy.[39] Bergson introduced Duration as a theory of time and consciousness in his doctoral thesis Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness as a response to another of his influences: Immanuel Kant.[40]

Kant believed that free will (better perceived as The Will) could only exist outside of time and space, indeed the only non-determined aspect of our private existence in the universe, separate to water cycles, mathematics and mortality. However, we could therefore not know whether or not it exists, and that it is nothing but a pragmatic faith.[40] Bergson responded that Kant, along with many other philosophers, had confused time with its spatial representation.[41] In reality, Bergson argued, Duration is unextended yet heterogeneous, and so its parts cannot be juxtaposed as a succession of distinct parts, with one causing the other. Based on this he concluded that determinism is an impossibility and free will pure mobility, which is what Bergson identified as being the Duration.[42]


See also: Intuition (Bergson)

Duration, as defined by Bergson, then is a unity and a multiplicity, but, being mobile, it cannot be grasped through immobile concepts. Bergson hence argues that one can grasp it only through his method of intuition. Two images from Henri Bergson's An Introduction to Metaphysics may help one to grasp Bergson's term intuition, the limits of concepts, and the ability of intuition to grasp the absolute. The first image is that of a city. Analysis, or the creation of concepts through the divisions of points of view, can only ever give us a model of the city through a construction of photographs taken from every possible point of view, yet it can never give us the dimensional value of walking in the city itself. One can only grasp this through intuition; likewise the experience of reading a line of Homer. One may translate the line and pile commentary upon commentary, but this commentary too shall never grasp the simple dimensional value of experiencing the poem in its originality itself. The method of intuition, then, is that of getting back to the things themselves.[43]

Élan vital

See also: Élan vital

Élan vital ranks as Bergson's third essential concept, after Duration and intuition. An idea with the goal of explaining evolution, the élan vital first appeared in 1907's Creative Evolution. Bergson portrays élan vital as a kind of vital impetus which explains evolution in a less mechanical and more lively manner, as well as accounting for the creative impulse of mankind. This concept led several authors to characterize Bergson as a supporter of vitalism—although he criticized it explicitly in The Creative Evolution, as he thought, against Driesch and Johannes Reinke (whom he cited) that there is neither "purely internal finality nor clearly cut individuality in nature":[44]

Hereby lies the stumbling block of vitalist theories ... It is thus in vain that one pretends to reduce finality to the individuality of the living being. If there is finality in the world of life, it encompasses the whole of life in one indivisible embrace.[45]


In Laughter: An Essay on the Meaning of the Comic, Bergson develops a theory not of laughter itself but of how laughter can be provoked (see his objection to Delage, published in the 23rd edition of the essay).[18] He describes the process of laughter (refusing to give a conceptual definition which would not approach its reality[18]), used in particular by comics and clowns, as caricature of the mechanistic nature of humans (habits, automatic acts, etc.), one of the two tendencies of life (degradation towards inert matter and mechanism, and continual creation of new forms).[18] However, Bergson warns us that laughter's criterion of what should be laughed at is not a moral criterion and that it can in fact cause serious damage to a person's self-esteem.[46] This essay made his opposition to the Cartesian theory of the animal-machine obvious.[18]


From his first publications, Bergson's philosophy attracted strong criticism from different quarters, although he also became very popular and durably influenced French philosophy. The mathematician Édouard Le Roy became Bergson's main disciple. Nonetheless, Suzanne Guerlac has argued that his institutional position at the Collège de France, delivering lectures to a general audience, may have retarded the systematic reception of his thought: "Bergson achieved enormous popular success in this context, often due to the emotional appeal of his ideas. But he did not have the equivalent of graduate students who might have become rigorous interpreters of his thought. Thus Bergson's philosophy—in principle open and nonsystematic—was easily borrowed piecemeal and altered by enthusiastic admirers".[47]

Alfred North Whitehead acknowledged Bergson's influence on his process philosophy in his 1929 Process and Reality.[48] However, Bertrand Russell, Whitehead's collaborator on Principia Mathematica, was not so entranced by Bergson's philosophy. Although acknowledging Bergson's literary skills, Russell saw Bergson's arguments at best as persuasive or emotive speculation but not at all as any worthwhile example of sound reasoning or philosophical insight.[49] The epistemologist Gaston Bachelard explicitly alluded to him in the last pages of his 1938 book The Formation of the Scientific Mind. Others influenced by Bergson include Vladimir Jankélévitch, who wrote a book on him in 1931,[50] Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, and Gilles Deleuze who wrote Le bergsonisme in 1966.[51] Bergson also influenced the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Emmanuel Levinas,[52] although Merleau-Ponty had reservations about Bergson's philosophy.[53] The Greek author Nikos Kazantzakis studied under Bergson in Paris and his writing and philosophy were profoundly influenced as a result.[54]

Many writers of the early 20th century criticized Bergson's intuitionism, indeterminism, psychologism and interpretation of the scientific impulse. Those who explicitly criticized Bergson, either in published articles or in letters, included Bertrand Russell[55] George Santayana,[56] G. E. Moore, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Martin Heidegger,[57] Julien Benda,[58] T. S. Eliot, Wyndham Lewis,[59] Wallace Stevens,[60] Paul Valéry, André Gide, Jean Piaget,[61] Marxist philosophers Theodor W. Adorno,[62] Lucio Colletti,[63] Jean-Paul Sartre,[64] and Georges Politzer,[65] as well as Maurice Blanchot,[66] American philosophers such as Irving Babbitt, Arthur Lovejoy, Josiah Royce, The New Realists (Ralph B. Perry, E. B. Holt, and William Pepperell Montague), The Critical Realists (Durant Drake, Roy W. Sellars, C. A. Strong, and A. K. Rogers), Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, Roger Fry (see his letters), Julian Huxley (in Evolution: The Modern Synthesis) and Virginia Woolf (for the latter, see Ann Banfield, The Phantom Table).[citation needed]

The Vatican accused Bergson of pantheism, while free-thinkers[who?] (who formed a large part of the teachers and professors of the French Third Republic) accused him of spiritualism. Still others have characterized his philosophy as a materialist emergentism – Samuel Alexander and C. Lloyd Morgan explicitly claimed Bergson as their forebear.[18] According to Henri Hude (1990, II, p. 142), who supports himself on the whole of Bergson's works as well as his now published courses, accusing him of pantheism is a "counter-sense". Hude alleges that a mystical experience, roughly outlined at the end of Les Deux sources de la morale et de la religion, is the inner principle of his whole philosophy, although this has been contested by other commentators.

Charles Sanders Peirce took strong exception to those who associated him with Bergson. In response to a letter comparing his work with that of Bergson he wrote, "a man who seeks to further science can hardly commit a greater sin than to use the terms of his science without anxious care to use them with strict accuracy; it is not very gratifying to my feelings to be classed along with a Bergson who seems to be doing his utmost to muddle all distinctions." William James's students resisted the assimilation of his work to that of Bergson. See, for example, Horace Kallen's book on the subject James and Bergson. As Jean Wahl described the "ultimate disagreement" between James and Bergson in his System of Metaphysics: "for James, the consideration of action is necessary for the definition of truth, according to Bergson, action ... must be kept from our mind if we want to see the truth"[page needed]. Gide even went so far as to say that future historians will overestimate Bergson's influence on art and philosophy just because he was the self-appointed spokesman for "the spirit of the age".

As early as the 1890s, Santayana attacked certain key concepts in Bergson's philosophy, above all his view of the New and the indeterminate:

the possibility of a new and unaccountable fact appearing at any time," he writes in his book on Hermann Lotze, "does not practically affect the method of investigation; ... the only thing given up is the hope that these hypotheses may ever be adequate to the reality and cover the process of nature without leaving a remainder. This is no great renunciation; for that consummation of science ... is by no one really expected.

According to Santayana and Russell, Bergson projected false claims onto the aspirations of scientific method, claims which Bergson needed to make in order to justify his prior moral commitment to freedom. Russell takes particular exception to Bergson's understanding of number in chapter two of Time and Free-will. According to Russell, Bergson uses an outmoded spatial metaphor ("extended images") to describe the nature of mathematics as well as logic in general. "Bergson only succeeds in making his theory of number possible by confusing a particular collection with the number of its terms, and this again with number in general", writes Russell (see The Philosophy of Bergson[page needed] and A History of Western Philosophy[page needed]).

Furthermore, writers such as Russell, Wittgenstein, and James saw élan vital as a projection of subjectivity onto the world. The external world, according to certain[which?] theories of probability, provides less and less indeterminism with further refinement of scientific method. In brief, one should not confuse the moral, psychological, subjective demand for the new, the underivable and the unexplained with the universe.[citation needed] One's subjective sense of duration differs the (non-human) world, a difference which, according to the ancient materialist Lucretius should not be characterized as either one of becoming or being, creation or destruction (De Rerum Natura).

Suzanne Guerlac has argued that the more recent resurgence of scholarly interest in Bergson is related to the growing influence of his follower Deleuze within continental philosophy: "If there is a return to Bergson today, then, it is largely due to Gilles Deleuze whose own work has etched the contours of the New Bergson. This is not only because Deleuze wrote about Bergson; it is also because Deleuze's own thought is deeply engaged with that of his predecessor, even when Bergson is not explicitly mentioned."[67] Leonard Lawlor and Valentine Moulard agree with Guerlac that "the recent revitalization of Bergsonism ... is almost entirely due to Deleuze." They explain that Bergson's concept of multiplicity "is at the very heart of Deleuze's thought, and duration is the model for all of Deleuze's 'becomings.' The other aspect that attracted Deleuze, which is indeed connected to the first, is Bergson's criticism of the concept of negation in Creative Evolution. ... Thus Bergson became a resource in the criticism of the Hegelian dialectic, the negative."[68]

Ilya Prigogine acknowledged Bergson's influence at his Nobel Prize reception lecture: "Since my adolescence, I have read many philosophical texts, and I still remember the spell L’évolution créatrice cast on me. More specifically, I felt that some essential message was embedded, still to be made explicit, in Bergson‘s remark: 'The more deeply we study the nature of time, the better we understand that duration means invention, creation of forms, continuous elaboration of the absolutely new.'"[69]

Comparison to Indian philosophies

Several Hindu authors have found parallels to Hindu philosophy in Bergson's thought. The integrative evolutionism of Sri Aurobindo, an Indian philosopher from the early 20th century, has many similarities to Bergson's philosophy. Whether this represents a direct influence of Bergson is disputed, although Aurobindo was familiar with many Western philosophers.[70] K Narayanaswami Aiyer, a member of the Theosophical Society, published a pamphlet titled "Professor Bergson and the Hindu Vedanta", where he argued that Bergson's ideas on matter, consciousness, and evolution were in agreement with Vedantic and Puranic explanations.[71] Nalini Kanta Brahma, Marie Tudor Garland and Hope Fitz are other authors who have comparatively evaluated Hindu and Bergsonian philosophies, especially in relation to intuition, consciousness and evolution.[72][73][74]


• Bergson, H.; The Philosophy of Poetry: The Genius of Lucretius (La Philosophie de la Poesie: le Génie de Lucrèce, 1884), Philosophical Library 1959: ISBN 978-1-4976-7566-7
• Bergson, H.; Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness (Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience, 1889). Allen & Unwin 1910, Dover Publications 2001: ISBN 0-486-41767-0 – Bergson's doctoral dissertation.
• Bergson, H.; Matter and Memory (Matière et mémoire, 1896). Swan Sonnenschein 1911, Zone Books 1990: ISBN 0-942299-05-1, Dover Publications 2004: ISBN 0-486-43415-X.
• Bergson, H.; Laughter: An Essay on the Meaning of the Comic (Le rire, 1900). Green Integer 1998: ISBN 1-892295-02-4, Dover Publications 2005: ISBN 0-486-44380-9.
• Bergson, H.; Creative Evolution (L'Évolution créatrice, 1907). Henry Holt and Company 1911, University Press of America 1983: ISBN 0-8191-3553-4, Dover Publications 1998: ISBN 0-486-40036-0, Kessinger Publishing 2003: ISBN 0-7661-4732-0, Cosimo 2005: ISBN 1-59605-309-7.
• Bergson, H.; Mind-energy (L'Énergie spirituelle, 1919). McMillan 1920. – a collection of essays and lectures. On
• Bergson, H.; Duration and Simultaneity: Bergson and the Einsteinian Universe (Durée et simultanéité, 1922). Clinamen Press Ltd 1999. ISBN 1-903083-01-X.
• Bergson, H.; The Two Sources of Morality and Religion (Les Deux Sources de la Morale et de la Religion, 1932). University of Notre Dame Press 1977. ISBN 0-268-01835-9. On
• Bergson, H.; The Creative Mind: An Introduction to Metaphysics (La Pensée et le mouvant, 1934). Citadel Press 1946: ISBN 0-8065-2326-3 – essay collection, sequel to Mind-Energy, including 1903's "An Introduction to Metaphysics."

See also

• Philosophy of biology
• Psychosophy
• Intuition (Bergson)
• Duration (philosophy)
• List of Jewish Nobel laureates


1. John Ó Maoilearca, Beth Lord (eds.), The Continuum Companion to Continental Philosophy, Bloomsbury Academic, 2009, p. 204.
2. Ford, Russell (2004), 'Immanence and Method: Bergson's Early Reading of Spinoza,'. The Southern Journal of Philosophy 42(2): 171–92. doi:10.1111/j.2041-6962.2004.tb00995.x
3. Astesiano, Lionel: Joie et liberté chez Bergson et Spinoza. (Paris: CNRS Éditions, 2016)
4. Hancock, Curtis L. (May 1995). "The Influence of Plotinus on Berson's Critique of Empirical Science". In R. Baine Harris (ed.). Neoplatonism and Contemporary Thought. Congress of the International Society for Neoplatonic Studies held in May 1995 at Vanderbilt University. 10. International Society for Neoplatonic Studies. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 139ff. ISBN 978-0-7914-5275-2. Retrieved 10 May 2010. That the philosophy of Henri Bergson is significantly influenced by the doctrines of Plotinus is indicated by the many years Bergson devoted to teaching Plotinus and the many parallels in their respective philosophies. This influence has been discussed at some length by Bergson's contemporaries, such as Emile Bréhier and Rose-Marie Rossé-Bastide. ...
5. R. William Rauch, Politics and Belief in Contemporary France: Emmanuel Mounier and Christian Democracy, 1932–1950, Springer, 2012, p. 67.
6. Merquior, J. G. (1987). Foucault (Fontana Modern Masters series), University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-06062-8.
7. "The Nobel prize in Literature". Retrieved 15 November 2010.
8. Robert C. Grogin, The Bergsonian Controversy in France, 1900–1914, Univ of Calgary Press (May 1988), ISBN 0919813305
9. Gelber, Nathan Michael (1 January 2007). "Bergson". Encyclopaedia Judaica. Archived from the original on 29 March 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
10. Dynner, Glenn (2008). Men of Silk: The Hasidic Conquest of Polish Jewish Society. Oxford University Press. pp. 104–105. ISBN 019538265X.
11. Henri Bergson. 2014. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 13 August 2014, from ... ri-Bergson
12. "Z ziemi polskiej do Nobla" [From the Polish lands to the Nobel Prize]. Wprost(in Polish). Warsaw: Agencja Wydawniczo-Reklamowa Wprost. 4 January 2008. Retrieved 10 May 2010. Polskie korzenie ma Henri Bergson, jeden z najwybitniejszych pisarzy, fizyk i filozof francuski żydowskiego pochodzenia. Jego ojcem był Michał Bergson z Warszawy, prawnuk Szmula Jakubowicza Sonnenberga, zwanego Zbytkowerem (1756–1801), żydowskiego kupca i bankiera. [Translation: Henri Bergson, one of the greatest French writers, physicists and philosophers of Jewish ancestry, had Polish roots. His father was Michael Bergson from Warsaw, the great-grandson of Szmul Jakubowicz Sonnenberg – known as Zbytkower – (1756–1801), a Jewish merchant and banker.]
13. Testament starozakonnego Berka Szmula Sonnenberga z 1818 roku Archived28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
14. Suzanne Guerlac, Thinking in Time: An Introduction to Henri Bergson, Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2007, p. 9.
15. Lawlor, Leonard and Moulard Leonard, Valentine, "Henri Bergson", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2016 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <>
16. Henri Hude, Bergson, Paris, Editions Universitaires, 1990, 2 volumes, quoted by Anne Fagot-Largeau in her 21 December 2006 course at the College of France
17. "Nouvelles Annales de Mathématiques". 2 (17). Paris. 1878: 268. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
18. Anne Fagot-Largeau, 21 December 2006 course Archived 6 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine at the College of France (audio file of the course)
19. Henri Bergson: Key Writings, ed. Keith Ansell Pearson and John Mullarkey. London: Continuum, 2002, p. ix.
20. p. 39
22. "Florence Meyer Blumenthal". Jewish Women's Archive, Michele Siegel.
23. Bergson and his philosophy Chapter 1: Life of Bergson
24. Bergson, Henri (1911). La perception du changement; conférences faites à l'Université d'Oxford les 26 et 27 mai 1911 [The perception of change: lectures delivered at the University of Oxford on 26 and 27 May 1911] (in French). Oxford: Clarendon. p. 37.
25. Reberioux, M. (January – March 1964). "La gauche socialiste française: La Guerre Sociale et Le Mouvement Socialiste face au problème colonial" [French right-wing socialism: La Guerre Sociale and Le Mouvement Socialiste in the face of the colonial problem]. Le Mouvement social (in French). Editions l'Atelier/Association Le Mouvement Social (46): 91–103. JSTOR 3777267. ... deux organes, d'ailleurs si dissembables, ou s'exprime l'extrême-gauche du courant socialiste français: le Mouvement socialiste d'Hubert Lagardelle et la Guerre sociale de Gustave Hervé. Jeune publications – le Mouvement socialiste est fondé en janvier 1899, la Guerre sociale en décembre 1906 –, dirigées par de jeunes équipes qui faisaient profession de rejeter le chauvinisme, d'être attentives au nouveau et de ne pas reculer devant les prises de position les plus véhémentes, ...
26. King Albert's book: a tribute to the Belgian king and people from representative men and women throughout the world. London: The Daily Telegraph. 1914. p. 187.
27. See Chapter III of The Creative Evolution
28. Canales J., The Physicist and the Philosopher: Einstein, Bergson and the Debate That Changed Our Understanding of Time, Princeton, Princeton Press, 2015.
29. Minutes of the meeting:Séance du 6 Avril 1922
30. Signs, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, trans. Richard C. McCleary, Northwestern Univ. Press, 1964.
31. On the relation between Einstein and Bergson in this Committee, see Einstein, Bergson and the Experiment that Failed: Intellectual Cooperation at the League of Nations. On the involvement of Bergson (and Einstein) in the Committee in general, see Grandjean, Martin (2018). Les réseaux de la coopération intellectuelle. La Société des Nations comme actrice des échanges scientifiques et culturels dans l'entre-deux-guerres [The Networks of Intellectual Cooperation. The League of Nations as an Actor of the Scientific and Cultural Exchanges in the Inter-War Period] (in French). Lausanne: Université de Lausanne..
32. "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
33. Quoted in: Zolli, Eugenio (2008) [1954]. Before the Dawn. Ignatius Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-58617-287-9.
34. Gilbert, Martin. The Second World War: A Complete History (p. 129). Rosetta Books. Kindle Edition.
35. "Henri Bergson – Philosopher – Biography". 3 January 1941. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2010.
36. Bergson explores these topics in Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness, in Matter and Memory, in Creative Evolution, and in The Creative Mind: An Introduction to Metaphysics.
37. Elie During, « Fantômes de problèmes », published by the Centre International d'Etudes de la Philosophie Française Contemporaine (short version first published in Le magazine littéraire, n°386, April 2000 (issue dedicated to Bergson)
38. The Creative Mind: An Introduction to Metaphysics, pages 11 to 14
39. Henri Bergson, The Creative Mind: An Introduction to Metaphysics, pages 11 to 13.
40. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Henri Bergson": "'Time and Free Will' has to be seen as an attack on Kant, for whom freedom belongs to a realm outside of space and time."
41. Henri Bergson, Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness, Author's Preface.
42. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Henri Bergson": "For Bergson – and perhaps this is his greatest insight – freedom is mobility."
43. Henri Bergson, The Creative Mind: An Introduction to Metaphysics, pages 160 to 161. For a Whiteheadian use of Bergsonian intuition, see Michel Weber's Whitehead’s Pancreativism. The Basics. Foreword by Nicholas Rescher, Frankfurt / Paris, Ontos Verlag, 2006.
44. L'Évolution créatrice, pp. 42–44; pp. 226–227
45. L'Évolution créatrice, pp. 42–43
46. Henri Bergson's theory of laughter. A brief summary.
47. Suzanne Guerlac, Thinking in Time: An Introduction to Henri Bergson, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006, p. 10
48. Cf. Ronny Desmet and Michel Weber (edited by), Whitehead. The Algebra of Metaphysics. Applied Process Metaphysics Summer Institute Memorandum, Louvain-la-Neuve, Éditions Chromatika, 2010 & Michel Weber, Whitehead’s Pancreativism. The Basics. Foreword by Nicholas Rescher, Frankfurt / Paris, ontos verlag, 2006.
49. Russell, B.; "The Philosophy of Bergson," The Monist 1912 vol. 22 pp. 321–347
50. entitled Henri Bergson.
51. transl. 1988.
52. Dermot Moran, Introduction to Phenomenology, 2000, pp. 322 and 393.
53. Merleau-Ponty, Maurice (2001). Bjelland, Andrew G.; Burke, Patrick (eds.). The incarnate subject : Malebranche, Biran, and Bergson on the union of body and soul. preface by Jacques Taminiaux ; translation by Paul B. Milan. Amherst, N.Y.: Humanity Books. p. 152. ISBN 1-57392-915-8.
54. Peter Bien, Three Generations of Greek Writers, Published by Efstathiadis Group, Athens, 1983
55. see his short book Russell, Bertrand (1977). The philosophy of Bergson. Folcroft, Pa.: Folcroft Library Editions. p. 36. ISBN 0-8414-7371-4.on the subject).
56. see his study on the author in "Winds of Doctrine"
57. see Being and Time, esp. sections 5, 10, and 82.
58. see his two books on the subject
59. Wyndham Lewis, Time and Western Man (1927), ed. Paul Edwards, Santa Rosa, CA: Black Sparrow, 1993.
60. "The Irrational Element in Poetry." 1936. Opus Posthumous. 1957. Ed. Milton J. Bates. New York: Random House, 1990.
61. see his book Insights and Illusions of Philosophy 1972
62. see "Against Epistemology"
63. see "Hegel and Marxism"
64. see his early book Imagination – although Sartre also appropriated himself Bergsonian thesis on novelty as pure creation – see Situations I Gallimard 1947, p. 314
65. see the latter's two books on the subject: Le Bergsonisme, une Mystification Philosophique and La fin d'une parade philosophique: le Bergsonisme both of which had a tremendous effect on French existential phenomenology
66. see Bergson and Symbolism
67. Suzanne Guerlac, Thinking in Time: An Introduction to Henri Bergson, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006, p. 175.
68. Leonard Lawlor and Valentine Moulard (12 July 2011) [18 May 2004], "The revitalization of Bergsonism", Henri Bergson, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, retrieved 20 August 2012
69. ... graphical/
70. K Mackenzie Brown. "Hindu perspectives on evolution: Darwin, Dharma, and Design". Routledge, Jan 2012. Page 164-166
71. KN Aiyer. "Professor Bergson and the Hindu Vedanta". Vasanta Press. 1910. Pages 36 – 37.
72. Marie Tudor Garland. "Hindu Mind Training". Longmans, Green and Company, 1917. Page 20.
73. Nalini Kanta Brahma. "Philosophy of Hindu Sadhana". PHI Learning Private Ltd 2008.
74. Hope K Fitz. "Intuition: Its nature and uses in human experience." Motilal Banarsidass publishers 2000. Pages 22–30.

Further reading

• Ansell-Pearson, Keith. Philosophy and the Adventure of the Virtual: Bergson and the Time of Life. London: Routledge, 2002.
• Bachelard, Gaston. The Dialectic of Duration. Trans. Mary Mcallester Jones. Manchester: Clinamen Press, 2000.
• Bianco, Giuseppe. Après Bergson. Portrait de groupe avec philosophe. Paris, PUF, 2015.
• Canales, Jimena. The Physicist and the Philosopher: Einstein, Bergson and the Debate That Changed Our Understanding of Time. Princeton, Princeton Press, 2015.
• Deleuze, Gilles. Bergsonism. Trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Barbara Habberjam. New York: Zone Books, 1988.
• Deleuze, Gilles. Cinema 1: The Movement-Image. Trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Barbara Habberjam. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1986.
• Deleuze, Gilles. Cinema 2: The Time-Image. Trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Robert Galeta. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989.
• Fradet, Pierre-Alexandre, Derrida-Bergson. Sur l'immédiateté, Hermann, Paris, coll. "Hermann Philosophie", 2014. ISBN 978-2-7056-8831-8
• Grosz, Elizabeth. The Nick of Time: Politics, Evolution, and the Untimely. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004.
• Guerlac, Suzanne. Thinking in Time: An Introduction to Henri Bergson. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006.
• Horkheimer, Max. "On Bergson's Metaphysics of Time." Trans. Peter Thomas, revised by Stewart Martin. Radical Philosophy 131 (2005) 9–19.
• James, William. "Bergson and his Critique of Intellectualism." In A Pluralistic Universe. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1996. 223–74.
• Lawlor, Leonard. The Challenge of Bergsonism: Phenomenology, Ontology, Ethics. London: Continuum Press, 2003.
• Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. "Bergson." In In Praise of Philosophy and Other Essays. Trans. John O'Neill. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1963. 9–32.
• Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. "Bergson in the Making." In Signs. Trans. Richard McCleary. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1964. 182–91.
• Mullarkey, John. "Bergson and Philosophy." Edinburgh University Press, 1999.
• Mullarkey, John, ed. The New Bergson. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1999.
• Russell, Bertrand "The Philosophy of Bergson". The Monist 22 (1912): 321–47.

External links

Henri Bergsonat Wikipedia's sister projects

• Definitions from Wiktionary
• Media from Wikimedia Commons
• News from Wikinews
• Quotations from Wikiquote
• Texts from Wikisource
• Textbooks from Wikibooks
• Resources from Wikiversity
• Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry
• Henri Bergson's theory of laughter. A brief summary.
• « 'A History of Problems' : Bergson and the French Epistemological Tradition », by Elie During
• Gontarski, Stanley E.: Bergson, Henri, in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War.
• M. C. Sanchez Rey « The Bergsonian Philosophy of the Intelligence » translation
• Newspaper clippings about Henri Bergson in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
• Henri Bergson, Nobel Luminaries - Jewish Nobel Prize Winners, on the Beit Hatfutsot-The Museum of the Jewish People Website.

Works online

• Works by Henri Bergson at Project Gutenberg
• Works by or about Henri Bergson at Internet Archive
• Works by Henri Bergson at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
• Works by Henri Bergson at Open Library
• Works by Henri Bergson in French at "La Philosophie"
• Complete works in French on the "Classiques des sciences sociales" website
• L'Évolution créatrice (in the original French, 1907)
o 1911 English translation at the Wayback Machine (archived 23 April 2006) of Creative Evolution (html)
o multiple formats at Internet Archive
• 1910 English translation of Time and Free Will at the Wayback Machine (archived 24 April 2006) (HTML)
o multiple formats at Internet Archive
• 1911 English translation of Matter and Memory at the Wayback Machine (archived 24 April 2006) (HTML)
o multiple formats at Internet Archive
Site Admin
Posts: 32013
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 12:35 am

Elisabeth Rotten
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/17/19




Elisabeth Friederike Rotten (15 February 1882, Berlin - 2 May 1964) was a Quaker peace activist and educational progressive.


As daughter to the Swiss couple Moritz and Luise Rotten, she attended the "höhere Mädchenschule Luisenschule" during 1888-1898, later studying at the Victorialyzeum Berlin from 1904. In September 1906 she took the Reifeprüfung at the Kaiserin Augusta-Gymnasium Charlottenburg. She graduated in her studies in philosophy and German language and literature in Heidelberg, Berlin, Marburg and Montpellier. In Marburg she met with Hermann Lietz and Gustav Wyneken, which was vital to the future development of her thinking. In 1913 she published her PhD thesis under the title "Goethes Urphänomen und die platonische Idee" (Goethe's "Urphänomen" and the Platonic ideal) in Marburg.

In 1913 she began lecturing at the University of Cambridge on German literature. In 1914 she returned to Berlin and worked in the "Auskunfts- und Hilfsstelle für Deutsche im Ausland und Ausländer in Deutschland" with professor Friedrich Siegmund-Schultze. In the same year she co-founded the "Bund Neues Vaterland", later the "German League for Human Rights". In 1915 she travelled as a representative to the 1st International Women's Congress in The Hague and worked for the foundation of the "Internationalen Frauenliga für Frieden und Freiheit" (International Women's League for Peace and Freedom").

In 1922, together with Beatrice Ensor and Adolphe Ferrière she founded the New Education Fellowship becoming its vice-chair for German-speaking countries and editor, of its German language journal which eventually came to be called Das Werdende Zeitalter.[1] From 1922 she was associated with the school farm, Schulfarm Insel Scharfenberg, begun by Wilhelm Blume in Berlin and was a frequent visitor to the Odenwaldschule founded in 1910 by the educational reformer Paul Geheeb.

In 1925, Rotten and Adolphe Ferrière became the first Deputy Directors of the International Bureau of Education (IBE), where they provided support to Director Pierre Bovet.[2]

She was also a friend of the anarchist, Gustav Landauer, who was Minister of Culture in the short-lived Munich Soviet (or “Council Republic”) of 1919 before being murdered after it was violently suppressed. From 1926 until 1932, Rotten shared the editorship of the journal Das Werdende Zeitalter with Karl Wilker, an exponent of social pedagogy who transformed the Lindenhof in Berlin. The title of this journal was inspired by that given to a collection of essays by Landauer, which his friend, the philosopher Martin Buber, published in 1921.

The most moving anecdote about Buber was that which his educator friend Elisabeth Rotten related in the introduction to her selection from the revelations of Sister Mechtild von Magdeburg. Speaking directly to Buber, she reminded him of how, six years before, a small circle of his close friends were gathered at his house in lively conversation around his table and how this conversation elicited from Buber a statement that she often found illuminating her way in the years since. "'One must also love the evil,' you said to us, 'yes -- but in the way that the evil wants to be loved.' Your glance said to us still more than your words alone could have said. We had been speaking of the Quakers' belief in the good in all men and of our strong attraction to it but also of the danger of losing sight of the reality of evil.... Your simple words, your embracing glance solved this dark and tormenting riddle of life that had oppressed us."

A significant counterpart to Buber's statement on evil narrated by Elisabeth Rotten is found in his comment on Max Brod's contribution to the special Buber issue of Der Jude. Speaking to Brod of three of his novels, Buber protested: "One may not voluntarily accept evil into one's life. Evil enters our lives entirely willy nilly. To defend ourselves against it, we should always will only to penetrate the impure with the pure. The result will probably be an interpenetration of both elements; still one ought not anticipate that result by saying 'Yes' to the evil in advance." Hermann Hesse testified to the enormous impact on his life of Buber's Hasidic tales; the Christian theologian Friedrich Thieberger wrote of the new biblical belief that he and Buber shared, and many prominent Zionists, such as Leo Hermann, Adolf Bohm, Markus Reiner, Robert Weltsch, Ernst Simon, Viktor Kellner, Felix Weltsch, and Siegfried Lehmann, founder of the Jewish National Home, wrote of Buber's contributions to Zionism and Judaism. Hugo Bergmann contributed a philosophical study of "Concept and Reality" in the thought of Buber and the German Idealist philosopher J.G. Fichte. Several letters from the early correspondence between Buber and Chaim Weizmann were also published in this issue. One contributor even told of how Buber at fifty outran his companions when they left his house for a spontaneous run in the night! "The life of people in this age sucks dry with mighty drafts, strikes out with mighty thrusts," reflected the distinguished writer Arnold Zweig. "But it would have no depth were there not here and there on the earth persons who sit like this man Buber in Heppenheim and give it that tiy injection of iodine without which its fire, spirit, and central creativity would be a mere mechanical process."

-- Martin Buber's Life and Work, by Maurice Friedman

In 1930, Rotten co-founded a school at Hellerau just outside Dresden, where a garden city was established shortly after 1900 as part of a reform movement advocating modern housing.[3]


1. Brehony, K. J. (2004). "A New Education for a New Era: Creating International Fellowship Through Conferences 1921-1938." Paedagogica Historica 40(5 & 6): 733-755.
2. IBE (2015). IBE In Focus: 90 years of excellence in education (PDF). UNESCO. p. 22.
3. Brehony, K. J. (2004). "A New Education for a New Era: Creating International Fellowship Through Conferences 1921-1938." Paedagogica Historica 40(5 & 6): 733-755.


• Dietmar Haubfleisch: Schulfarm Insel Scharfenberg. Mikroanalyse der reformpädagogischen Unterrichts- und Erziehungsrealität einer demokratischen Versuchsschule im Berlin der Weimarer Republik (=Studien zur Bildungsreform, 40). Frankfurt u.a. 2001. ISBN 3-631-34724-3
Inhaltsverzeichnis und Vorwort des Herausgebers der Reihe "Studien zur Bildungsreform"
• Dietmar Haubfleisch: Elisabeth Rotten (1882 - 1964) - eine (fast) vergessene Reformpädagogin. In: Inge Hansen-Schaberg (Hrsg.): „etwas erzählen“. Die lebensgeschichtliche Dimension in der Pädagogik. Bruno Schonig zum 60. Geburtstag. Baltmannsweiler 1997, S. 114-131. - Überarb. Ausg. unter Weglassung der Abb.: Marburg 1997:
• Dietmar Haubfleisch: Elisabeth Rotten (1882 - 1964) - ein Quellen- und Literaturverzeichnis. Marburg 1997.
• Das Werdende Zeitalter (Internationale Erziehungs-Rundschau). Register sämtlicher Aufsätze und Rezensionen einer reformpädagogischen Zeitschrift in der Weimarer Republik. Zusammengestellt und eingeleitet von Dietmar Haubfleisch und Jörg-W. Link (=Archivhilfe, 8), Oer-Erkenschwick 1994; Auszug der Einleitung (S. 5-16) wieder in: Mitteilungen & Materialien. Arbeitsgruppe Pädagogisches Museum e.V., Berlin, Heft Nr. 42/1994, S. 97-99; Einleitung in leicht korr. Fassung u.d.T.: 'Dietmar Haubfleisch und Jörg-W. Link: Einleitung zum Register der reformpädagogischen Zeitschrift 'Das Werdende Zeitalter' ('Internationale Erziehungs-Rundschau')' wieder: Marburg 1996:

External links

• Elisabeth Rotten in the German National Library catalogue (1)
• Elisabeth Rotten in the German National Library catalogue (2)
• Lebenslauf, ausgewählte Quellen und Literatur zu Elisabeth Rotten bei
• Elisabeth Rotten im Frauenwiki
• Data
• Claus Bernet (2006). "Elisabeth Rotten". In Bautz, Traugott (ed.). Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German). 26. Nordhausen: Bautz. cols. 1283–1310. ISBN 3-88309-354-8.
Site Admin
Posts: 32013
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 12:40 am

by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/17/19



Odenwaldschule in Heppenheim

Political instruction at the Odenwaldschule during the Nazi era

The Odenwaldschule was a German school located in Heppenheim in the Odenwald. Founded in 1910, it was Germany's oldest Landerziehungsheim [de], a private boarding school located in a rural setting. Edith and Paul Geheeb [de] established it using their concept of progressive education, which integrated the work of the head and hand. The school went bankrupt and was closed in 2015, following the revelation of numerous cases of sexual abuse of students.

History and educational concept

The Goethehaus at the Odenwaldschule

The Odenwaldschule emerged as part of the reformed education movement at the beginning of the 20th century. It was founded by Paul Geheeb on 14 April 1910. Edith Geheeb's father, the town council member for Berlin, Max Cassirer, who supported the Odenwaldschule from that time onwards, financed the land purchase and the buildings.

Geheeb felt inspired by the sentence "be who you are" (Γένοιο οἷος ἔσσι.) from the Greek poet Pindar. Thus the school should promote the community, personality and self-determined actions. At this point in time there were only 14 students. They were all housed in the Goethehaus.

The founders' concept was originally coined by the fundamentals of the work schools, for example in the introduction of a course system and the dispensation with year groups. All students should be able to co-create, participate and be equally responsible. The Odenwaldschule is a free community, in which the different generations treat each other impartially and can learn from each other, was the school's rules. Children and adolescents should when possible get individual learning stimuli such as intellectual, practical, musical and artistic learning methods. Learning was connected with vocational training. They lived in a mix-age living area, the families, whose head was the teacher and every year they were rearranged differently. Being on first name basis with the teacher belonged to the further characteristics of the school's educational concept, long before the emergence of anti-authoritarian schooling.

In the 1920s the school was internationally recognised and until 1938 teachers from other countries, such as England and the USA, taught there. From 1924 until 1932 the educator Martin Wagenschein worked at the school. In 1934 Paul and Edith Geheeb emigrated to Switzerland with around 25 students and some teachers and formed the Ecole d’Humanité there. In 1939 the Reicharbeitsdienst (Reich Labour Service) requested the takeover of the Odenwaldschule because it contradicted the "concept of the national socialistic schooling community." The school was run by Minna Specht from 1946 to 1951.[1]

After the Second World War, the school's teaching system was reformed many times. In 1963 it became a UNESCO ASPNet project. The school was a member of the Schulverbund Blick über den Zaun (literally: School Union - view over the fence).

Integrated Comprehensive School

The Odenwaldschule was an integrated comprehensive school. It was possible to pass through a joiner or a metalwork vocational course with a state qualification alongside the technical diploma or the full A Level equivalent. It was also possible to do an information technician assistant course or a chemistry technician assistant course alongside the German equivalent to an A Level.

Life at the Odenwaldschule

There was 250 school places. At the end of 2011 there was roughly 200 students at the Odenwaldschule. In 2010 almost half of the students came from the state of Hesse, one fifth came directly from the Bergstraße district, "almost a third were state supported children."[2] Most of them lived at the boarding school in family-like living groups of six to ten people. The average class size was 17 students. Roughly half of the 120 employees were teachers at the school.


For a boarding school place £1,670 (2.370 €) had to be paid (as of the 2012/13 academic year). There was additional fees for vocational courses. External students paid a lower amount.

Abuse Cases

In 1998 reports from former students were made public, according to which the then at the time headmaster Gerold Becker had sexually abused multiple students from the 1970s to the 1980s.[2] Andreas Huckele, a former student, who went to the Odenwaldschule from 1981 to 1988 and was later protected by the Frankfurter Rundschau with the pseudonym Jürgen Dehmers, had sent two letters to headmaster Wolfgang Harder in June 1998.

The school explained in 1998, the former headmaster had never contradicted "the victim's statements when he had to meet with the board of directors and vacated his functions and duties of the Odenwaldschule's sponsoring organisation". In 1998 the victims of sexual abuse met with the former headteacher Harder and the former SPD-MP Peter Conradi as the vice-president of the sponsoring organisation and agreed on reviewing the abuse cases, but this did not take place.[3]

In the late 1990s, and again in 2010, the school became the center of national attention, when an investigation revealed the sexual abuse of more than 130 pupils by at least 8 teachers in the 1970s and 1980s.[4][5]


One year late the penal case review was dismissed by the Darmstadt prosecution service due to statutory limitation. When Jörg Schindler reported about it in the Frankfurter Rundschau in November 1999, Florian Lindermann, the former spokesman for the former students, criticised the coverage as over the top.[6]

In 2010 Margarita Kaufmann, who since 2007 served as headmistress, called for a new enquiry into the sex abuse cases. Kaufmann spoke of 33 victims that she knew of and eight teachers, who supposedly are guilty of sexual assault between 1966 and 1991. In the meantime it was assumed that more than ten teachers were perpetrators. The music teacher Wolfgang Held, who died in 2006, was the main perpetrator alongside Becker.[7] The Frankfurter Rundschau daily newspaper reported on 6 March 2010 in a top priority article, that there was an assumption there is between 50 and 100 sex abuse victims. In total, the Darmstadt prosecution service once more dismissed six of the 13 preliminary proceedings until 2 May 2010. At the end of May 2010 the prosecution service investigated against six former teachers and one student.[8] There was no court ruling until the end of 2012.

In a letter sent by Gerold Becker to the Odenwaldschule in March 2010, he asked his victims for forgiveness and wrote he renewed his expressed desire to come forward to speak to the victims, which he wanted to do since the first reports came out in 1999. Becker died on 7 July 2010 without having been made penally responsible.[9]

The board of directors at the Odenwaldschule at first rejected a compensation in a letter to the victims in July 2010.[10] In September 2010 the board of directors promised a financial compensation for 50 former students who were affected. In addition there are more unresolved cases, which are still to be reviewed.[11]

The lawyers Claudia Burgsmüller and Brigitte Tilmann were entrusted with the task of reviewing the sex abuse cases in the early part of 2010. According to the final report from 17 December 2010 at least 132 students were victims of attack by teachers between 1965 and 1998. The lawyers said the documentation was incomplete.[12][13]

Official school letters, found in archive and reviewed in a dissertation, point a fact that there already was sex abuse cases on girls and boys under the management of Paul and Edith Geheeb. However no one contacted the police.[14][15]

In March 2011 Christian Füller's monograph, entitled Sündenfall. Wie die Reformschule ihre Ideale missbrauchte (literally- The Fall of Man. How the reform school abused its ideals), was published. Füller calls the school, when it was under Becker's management, a "reformed education paradise with a torture chamber in the basement" based on the model of a "aristocratic patriarchy". He speaks of paedophiles and "robbers of childhood", which had systematically taken over the part of the school.[16]

Tilman Jens, a former student and up until the early part of summer in 2014 was a member of the Odenwaldschule's sponsoring organisation, published two months later the book Freiwild. Die Odenwaldschule - Ein Lehrstück von Tätern und Opfern. (literally - Fair game. The Odenwaldschule - a lesson of attackers and victims.) Jens demanded a balanced coverage: contrary to the customs of the constitutional state also innocent people were denounced as assailants or co-assailants.[17] In October 2014 he summarised according to an article of the Deutschlandfunk that even if the film Die Auserwählten (The Favoured Few) was filmed at the Odenwaldschule which showed the willingness of the school's management at this time to face the history of misconduct, in the years before further resolutions are said to have faltered multiple times.[18]

In September 2010 several victims formed a group called Glasbrechen (literally - breaking of glass), who had the goal of helping people, who had experienced sexual, physical and psychological attacks.[19][20]

In July 2011 the former headmistress Kaufmann resigned from her office to solely deal with the review of the sexual abuse cases.[21]

Without any media presence the club Odenwaldschule e.V. with the Altschülervereinigung und Förderkreis der Odenwaldschule e.V. (literally - Association of former students and society for promotion of the Odenwaldschule) formed the foundation "Brücken bauen" (literally - building bridges).[22][23] According to its charter the foundation should be responsible for carrying out and supporting measures for those, who had suffered from sexual violence and physical and psychological abuse at the Odenwaldschule.[24]

A fierce critic of the review is Andreas Huckele, known for his book Wie laut soll ich denn noch schreien?, which he wrote under his pseudonym. In his acceptance speech for winning the Geschwister-Scholl-Preis in 2012 he criticised about the lack of action taken by the school since the first article was published in the Frankfurter Runschau in 1999.[25]

Teachers and management dismissed because of child pornography

On 9 April 2014 a teacher, who taught and lived there from 2011, had their room searched through by the authorities. The teacher admitted to having downloaded from the internet child pornography before his appointment at the Odenwaldschule. He was immediately dismissed from teaching at the school. The district administrator Matthias Wilkes criticised the school's management because they had not adhered to promised transparency.

After this incident in June 2014, the headmaster Däschler-Seiler handed in his resignation. In July 2014, the sponsoring organisation dismissed the entire management.

Attempts to save the Odenwaldschule

In February 2015, Gerhard Herbert, as chairman of the sponsoring organisation, introduced a new management team consisting of the boarding school's headteacher Sonya Mayoufi, born in 1973, and manager Marcus Halfen-Kieper, born in 1967. The new management team tried to rebuild trust in the Odenwaldschule and put an end to the organisation's failures from the last couple of years. Additionally the school's sponsorship was to be transferred to a foundation and to a not-for-profit private limited company. The new management team should take over the running of the company after they received permission, however the sponsoring organisation dismissed the team on 27 July 2015 after having disputed with them.

Closure of the school

The sponsoring organisation publicly announced on 25 April 2015 that it had not succeeded in securing the finances for the next couple of years, after a large part of the trust founded by banks and former students had been squandered. This meant the definite end of the school. The remaining time until the next academic year was used to gradually disintegrate all school operations and to move the students to other schools, according to Vice District Administrator Schimpf. "The school is where it is now through its own mistakes, its own structures, by turning a blind eye and ducking away, through its own non-action", the head of the management team, Marcus Halfen-Kieper, explained. "We could and should neither try to blame the responsibility for the situation on the media nor the regulators or the politics nor even the victims of sexual assault at the school."

Parents and students fought for keeping the school open. On 30 May 2015, the chairman of the sponsoring organisation resigned after temporarily giving up the reigns to the new management team on 17 May 2015. The school, parents and former students hoped to win over investors for financing the next two academic years by setting up a trust, which would have to be proven for permission to reopen the school. The lack of permission blocked the active acquisition of new students.

On 15 May 2015, the board of directors declared that its financial means for the maintenance of the school had been used up. On 16 June 2015, the sponsoring organisation declared itself bankrupt and in September 2015, the school was permanently closed.

In 2016, the inventory of the school (furniture, tools and also the library) were sold by public auction, the archive was given to a public archive in Darmstadt for preservation. Months later, the buildings were sold to an entrepreneur from Mannheim. Also in 2016, a group consisting of parents and donors who wanted to reopen the school under a new name ("Schuldorf Lindenstein") declared the end of their efforts.

Future plans

According to the purchaser of the school's buildings, the buildings are planned to be renovated and established as a housing complex, a holiday park and a historical museum following the acquisition of adjacent land. The new amenities are planned to provide space for 300 people and will be named "Wohnpark Ober-Hambach".[26]

Notable alumni

• Hans Bethe
• Daniel Cohn-Bendit
• Nathan Clark
• Nigel Dennis
• Amelie Fried
• Klaus Gysi
• Wolfgang Hildesheimer
• Felicitas Kukuck
• Klaus Mann
• Sandra Nettelbeck (daughter of Uwe Nettelbeck)
• Konstantin Neven DuMont
• Rosalinda von Ossietzky-Palm [de] (daughter of Carl von Ossietzky)
• Wolfgang Porsche
• Dankwart Rustow
• Rudolf Ritsema
• Andreas von Weizsäcker (son of Richard von Weizsäcker)[27]
• Oda Schottmüller

Notable staff and teachers

• Fridolin Friedmann
• Alois Kottmann
• Alfred Landé
• Peter Suhrkamp
• Minna Specht
• Martin Wagenschein

See also

• Landschulheim Herrlingen

In film

• Und wir sind nicht die Einzigen [de]. Director: Christoph Röhl; Produzenten: Dirk Wilutzky, Anja Wedell; Redakteure: Inge Classen, Udo Bremer. Eine Produktion von Herbstfilm im Auftrag von 3Sat 2011, 85 min
• Geschlossene Gesellschaft.[28]
• Die Auserwählten. Director: Christoph Röhl [29]
Further reading[edit]
• Detmers, Jürgen (2011). Wie laut soll ich denn noch schreien? Die Odenwaldschule und der sexuelle Missbrauch (in German). Rowohlt, Reinbek. ISBN 978-3-498-01332-5.


1. Dr. Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Erinnerung an Minna SpechtArchived 21 October 2008 at the Wayback MachinePhilosophical-Political Academy. Retrieved July 19, 2010 (in German)
2. Jump up to:a b "Sonder- und Videomaut". Retrieved 12 February 2015.
3. Jörg Schindler (17 November 1999). "Der Lack ist ab". Frankfurter Rundschau. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
4. Menke, Birger (1 March 2010). "Diskret ins Desaster". Spiegel Online.
5. Burgsmüller, Claudia; Tilmann, Brigitte. "Abschlussbericht über die bisherigen Mitteilungen über sexuelle Ausbeutung von Schülern und Schülerinnen an der Odenwaldschule im Zeitraum 1960 bis 2010" ((PDF; 395 kB)).
6. Duden. Das große Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache in zehn Bänden. Mannheim 1999, ISBN 3-411-04743-7, s. v. ahoi
7. z. B. "OED" s. v. ahoy
8. see quote in the retrospective language
9. "Ex-Direktor der Odenwaldschule gestorben". DIE WELT. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
10. Wille, Joachim (8 July 2010). "Odenwaldschule lehnt Entschädigung ab: "Es gibt nichts zu feiern"". German). Retrieved 4 December 2015.
11. Wille, Joachim (27 September 2010). "Odenwaldschule: Missbrauchsopfer müssen warten". (in German). Retrieved 4 December 2015.
12. Claudia Burgsmüller, Brigitte Tilmann Abschlussbericht über die bisherigen Mitteilungen über sexuelle Ausbeutung von Schülern und Schülerinnen an der Odenwaldschule im Zeitraum 1960 bis 2010 (PDF; 395 kB)
14. Matthias Bartsch, Markus Verbeet (2010), "Die Wurzeln des Missbrauchs", Der Spiegel, 19. Juli 2010 (29)
15. Christl Stark: Idee und Gestalt einer Schule im Urteil des Elternhauses. Dissertation, Pädagogische Hochschule Heidelberg 1998
16. "Paradies mit Folterkeller". undatiert. Retrieved 7 December 2014. Check date values in: |date=(help)
17. Tilman Jens im Gespräch mit Joachim Scholl: "Wir haben nicht genau hingeguckt". Odenwaldschule: Tilman Jens beklagt "Hatz" auf nachweislich unschuldige Lehrer.Deutschlandradio Kultur, Radiofeuilleton, 16. Mai 2011, 15.07 Uhr, abgerufen am 17. Mai 2011
18. "Deutschlandfunk – Film über Odenwaldschule Stockende Aufklärung". Retrieved 3 October 2014.
19. Adrian Koerfer: Erneut versagt die Schule, Frankfurter Rundschau, 17. September 2011
20. Satzung des Vereins "Glasbrechen". (PDF; 99 kB) Stand 24. Oktober 2012
21. dpa (9 June 2011). "Missbrauchsskandal: Leiterin der Odenwaldschule tritt zurück". Retrieved 7 December 2014.
22. Die Stifter. Website der Stiftung "Brücken bauen", abgerufen am 30. April 2013.
23. "Sexueller Missbrauch: 7.000 Euro für Opfer der Odenwaldschule". 18 January 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
24. Stiftungszweck und Förderrahmen. Website der Stiftung "Brücken bauen", abgerufen am 30. April 2013.
25. Jürgen Detmers: Wie laut soll ich denn noch schreien? Die Odenwaldschule und der sexuelle Missbrauch. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2011, ISBN 978-3-498-01332-5
26. "Odenwaldschule soll Ferienpark werden". 20 April 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
27. "Odenwaldschule: Familie Weizsäcker bricht Schweigen". Spiegel Online. 27 March 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
28. Tobias Büchner. "zero one film: Inhalt". Retrieved 2 October 2014.
29. "Film zum Missbrauchsskandal an der Odenwaldschule". 5 July 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
Site Admin
Posts: 32013
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 12:48 am

by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/17/19



Psychometrics is a field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement. As defined by the US National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME), psychometrics refers to psychological measurement. Generally, it refers to the field in psychology and education that is devoted to testing, measurement, assessment, and related activities.[1]

The field is concerned with the objective measurement of skills and knowledge, abilities, attitudes, personality traits, and educational achievement. Some psychometric researchers focus on the construction and validation of assessment instruments such as questionnaires, tests, raters' judgments, and personality tests. Others focus on research relating to measurement theory (e.g., item response theory; intraclass correlation).

Practitioners are described as psychometricians. Psychometricians usually possess a specific qualification, and most are psychologists with advanced graduate training. In addition to traditional academic institutions, many psychometricians work for the government or in human resources departments. Others specialize as learning and development professionals.

Historical foundation

Psychological testing has come from two streams of thought: the first, from Darwin, Galton, and Cattell on the measurement of individual differences, and the second, from Herbart, Weber, Fechner, and Wundt and their psychophysical measurements of a similar construct. The second set of individuals and their research is what has led to the development of experimental psychology, and standardized testing.[2]

Victorian stream

Charles Darwin was the inspiration behind Sir Francis Galton who led to the creation of psychometrics. In 1859, Darwin published his book "The Origin of Species", which pertained to individual differences in animals. This book discussed how individual members in a species differ and how they possess characteristics that are more adaptive and successful or less adaptive and less successful. Those who are adaptive and successful are the ones that survive and give way to the next generation, who would be just as or more adaptive and successful. This idea, studied previously in animals, led to Galton's interest and study of human beings and how they differ one from another, and more importantly, how to measure those differences.

Galton wrote a book entitled "Hereditary Genius" about different characteristics that people possess and how those characteristics make them more "fit" than others. Today these differences, such as sensory and motor functioning (reaction time, visual acuity, and physical strength) are important domains of scientific psychology. Much of the early theoretical and applied work in psychometrics was undertaken in an attempt to measure intelligence. Galton, often referred to as "the father of psychometrics," devised and included mental tests among his anthropometric measures. James McKeen Cattell, who is considered a pioneer of psychometrics went on to extend Galton's work. Cattell also coined the term mental test, and is responsible for the research and knowledge which ultimately led to the development of modern tests. (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2010)

German stream

The origin of psychometrics also has connections to the related field of psychophysics. Around the same time that Darwin, Galton, and Cattell were making their discoveries, Herbart was also interested in "unlocking the mysteries of human consciousness" through the scientific method. (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2010) Herbart was responsible for creating mathematical models of the mind, which were influential in educational practices in years to come.

E.H. Weber built upon Herbart's work and tried to prove the existence of a psychological threshold, saying that a minimum stimulus was necessary to activate a sensory system. After Weber, G.T. Fechner expanded upon the knowledge he gleaned from Herbart and Weber, to devise the law that the strength of a sensation grows as the logarithm of the stimulus intensity. A follower of Weber and Fechner, Wilhelm Wundt is credited with founding the science of psychology. It is Wundt's influence that paved the way for others to develop psychological testing.[2]

20th century

The psychometrician L. L. Thurstone, founder and first president of the Psychometric Society in 1936, developed and applied a theoretical approach to measurement referred to as the law of comparative judgment, an approach that has close connections to the psychophysical theory of Ernst Heinrich Weber and Gustav Fechner. In addition, Spearman and Thurstone both made important contributions to the theory and application of factor analysis, a statistical method developed and used extensively in psychometrics.[citation needed] In the late 1950s, Leopold Szondi made an historical and epistemological assessment of the impact of statistical thinking onto psychology during previous few decades: "in the last decades, the specifically psychological thinking has been almost completely suppressed and removed, and replaced by a statistical thinking. Precisely here we see the cancer of testology and testomania of today."[3]

More recently, psychometric theory has been applied in the measurement of personality, attitudes, and beliefs, and academic achievement. Measurement of these unobservable phenomena is difficult, and much of the research and accumulated science in this discipline has been developed in an attempt to properly define and quantify such phenomena. Critics, including practitioners in the physical sciences and social activists, have argued that such definition and quantification is impossibly difficult, and that such measurements are often misused, such as with psychometric personality tests used in employment procedures:

"For example, an employer wanting someone for a role requiring consistent attention to repetitive detail will probably not want to give that job to someone who is very creative and gets bored easily."[4]

Figures who made significant contributions to psychometrics include Karl Pearson, Henry F. Kaiser, Carl Brigham, L. L. Thurstone, Anne Anastasi, Georg Rasch, Eugene Galanter, Johnson O'Connor, Frederic M. Lord, Ledyard R Tucker, Arthur Jensen, and David Andrich.

Definition of measurement in the social sciences

The definition of measurement in the social sciences has a long history. A currently widespread definition, proposed by Stanley Smith Stevens (1946), is that measurement is "the assignment of numerals to objects or events according to some rule." This definition was introduced in the paper in which Stevens proposed four levels of measurement. Although widely adopted, this definition differs in important respects from the more classical definition of measurement adopted in the physical sciences, namely that scientific measurement entails "the estimation or discovery of the ratio of some magnitude of a quantitative attribute to a unit of the same attribute" (p. 358)[5]

Indeed, Stevens's definition of measurement was put forward in response to the British Ferguson Committee, whose chair, A. Ferguson, was a physicist. The committee was appointed in 1932 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science to investigate the possibility of quantitatively estimating sensory events. Although its chair and other members were physicists, the committee also included several psychologists. The committee's report highlighted the importance of the definition of measurement. While Stevens's response was to propose a new definition, which has had considerable influence in the field, this was by no means the only response to the report. Another, notably different, response was to accept the classical definition, as reflected in the following statement:

Measurement in psychology and physics are in no sense different. Physicists can measure when they can find the operations by which they may meet the necessary criteria; psychologists have but to do the same. They need not worry about the mysterious differences between the meaning of measurement in the two sciences. (Reese, 1943, p. 49)

These divergent responses are reflected in alternative approaches to measurement. For example, methods based on covariance matrices are typically employed on the premise that numbers, such as raw scores derived from assessments, are measurements. Such approaches implicitly entail Stevens's definition of measurement, which requires only that numbers are assigned according to some rule. The main research task, then, is generally considered to be the discovery of associations between scores, and of factors posited to underlie such associations.[citation needed]

On the other hand, when measurement models such as the Rasch model are employed, numbers are not assigned based on a rule. Instead, in keeping with Reese's statement above, specific criteria for measurement are stated, and the goal is to construct procedures or operations that provide data that meet the relevant criteria. Measurements are estimated based on the models, and tests are conducted to ascertain whether the relevant criteria have been met.[citation needed]

Instruments and procedures

The first[citation needed]psychometric instruments were designed to measure the concept of intelligence.[6] One historical approach involved the Stanford-Binet IQ test, developed originally by the French psychologist Alfred Binet. Intelligence tests are useful tools for various purposes. An alternative conception of intelligence is that cognitive capacities within individuals are a manifestation of a general component, or general intelligence factor, as well as cognitive capacity specific to a given domain.[citation needed]

Another major focus in psychometrics has been on personality testing. There have been a range of theoretical approaches to conceptualizing and measuring personality. Some of the better known instruments include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Five-Factor Model (or "Big 5") and tools such as Personality and Preference Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Attitudes have also been studied extensively using psychometric approaches.[citation needed] A common method in the measurement of attitudes is the use of the Likert scale. An alternative method involves the application of unfolding measurement models, the most general being the Hyperbolic Cosine Model (Andrich & Luo, 1993).[7]

Theoretical approaches

Psychometricians have developed a number of different measurement theories. These include classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT).[8][9] An approach which seems mathematically to be similar to IRT but also quite distinctive, in terms of its origins and features, is represented by the Rasch model for measurement. The development of the Rasch model, and the broader class of models to which it belongs, was explicitly founded on requirements of measurement in the physical sciences.[10]

Psychometricians have also developed methods for working with large matrices of correlations and covariances. Techniques in this general tradition include: factor analysis,[11] a method of determining the underlying dimensions of data; multidimensional scaling,[12] a method for finding a simple representation for data with a large number of latent dimensions; and data clustering, an approach to finding objects that are like each other. All these multivariate descriptive methods try to distill large amounts of data into simpler structures. More recently, structural equation modeling[13] and path analysis represent more sophisticated approaches to working with large covariance matrices. These methods allow statistically sophisticated models to be fitted to data and tested to determine if they are adequate fits.

One of the main deficiencies in various factor analyses is a lack of consensus in cutting points for determining the number of latent factors. A usual procedure is to stop factoring when eigenvalues drop below one because the original sphere shrinks. The lack of the cutting points concerns other multivariate methods, also.[citation needed]

Key concepts

Key concepts in classical test theory are reliability and validity. A reliable measure is one that measures a construct consistently across time, individuals, and situations. A valid measure is one that measures what it is intended to measure. Reliability is necessary, but not sufficient, for validity.

Both reliability and validity can be assessed statistically. Consistency over repeated measures of the same test can be assessed with the Pearson correlation coefficient, and is often called test-retest reliability.[14] Similarly, the equivalence of different versions of the same measure can be indexed by a Pearson correlation, and is called equivalent forms reliability or a similar term.[14]

Internal consistency, which addresses the homogeneity of a single test form, may be assessed by correlating performance on two halves of a test, which is termed split-half reliability; the value of this Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient for two half-tests is adjusted with the Spearman–Brown prediction formula to correspond to the correlation between two full-length tests.[14] Perhaps the most commonly used index of reliability is Cronbach's α, which is equivalent to the mean of all possible split-half coefficients. Other approaches include the intra-class correlation, which is the ratio of variance of measurements of a given target to the variance of all targets.

There are a number of different forms of validity. Criterion-related validity can be assessed by correlating a measure with a criterion measure theoretically expected to be related. When the criterion measure is collected at the same time as the measure being validated the goal is to establish concurrent validity; when the criterion is collected later the goal is to establish predictive validity. A measure has construct validity if it is related to measures of other constructs as required by theory. Content validity is a demonstration that the items of a test do an adequate job of covering the domain being measured. In a personnel selection example, test content is based on a defined statement or set of statements of knowledge, skill, ability, or other characteristics obtained from a job analysis.

Item response theory models the relationship between latent traits and responses to test items. Among other advantages, IRT provides a basis for obtaining an estimate of the location of a test-taker on a given latent trait as well as the standard error of measurement of that location. For example, a university student's knowledge of history can be deduced from his or her score on a university test and then be compared reliably with a high school student's knowledge deduced from a less difficult test. Scores derived by classical test theory do not have this characteristic, and assessment of actual ability (rather than ability relative to other test-takers) must be assessed by comparing scores to those of a "norm group" randomly selected from the population. In fact, all measures derived from classical test theory are dependent on the sample tested, while, in principle, those derived from item response theory are not.

Many psychometricians are also concerned with finding and eliminating test bias from their psychological tests. Test bias is a form of systematic (i.e., non-random) error which leads to examinees from one demographic group having an unwarranted advantage over examinees from another demographic group.[15] According to leading experts, test bias may cause differences in average scores across demographic groups, but differences in group scores are not sufficient evidence that test bias is actually present because the test could be measuring real differences among groups.[16][15] Psychometricians use sophisticated scientific methods to search for test bias and eliminate it. Research shows that it is usually impossible for people reading a test item to accurately determine whether it is biased or not.[17]

Standards of quality

The considerations of validity and reliability typically are viewed as essential elements for determining the quality of any test. However, professional and practitioner associations frequently have placed these concerns within broader contexts when developing standards and making overall judgments about the quality of any test as a whole within a given context. A consideration of concern in many applied research settings is whether or not the metric of a given psychological inventory is meaningful or arbitrary.[18]

Testing standards

In 2014, the American Educational Research Association (AERA), American Psychological Association (APA), and National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) published a revision of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing,[19] which describes standards for test development, evaluation, and use. The Standards cover essential topics in testing including validity, reliability/errors of measurement, and fairness in testing. The book also establishes standards related to testing operations including test design and development, scores, scales, norms, score linking, cut scores, test administration, scoring, reporting, score interpretation, test documentation, and rights and responsibilities of test takers and test users. Finally, the Standards cover topics related to testing applications, including psychological testing and assessment, workplace testing and credentialing, educational testing and assessment, and testing in program evaluation and public policy.

Evaluation standards

In the field of evaluation, and in particular educational evaluation, the Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation[20] has published three sets of standards for evaluations. The Personnel Evaluation Standards[21] was published in 1988, The Program Evaluation Standards (2nd edition)[22] was published in 1994, and The Student Evaluation Standards[23] was published in 2003.

Each publication presents and elaborates a set of standards for use in a variety of educational settings. The standards provide guidelines for designing, implementing, assessing and improving the identified form of evaluation.[24] Each of the standards has been placed in one of four fundamental categories to promote educational evaluations that are proper, useful, feasible, and accurate. In these sets of standards, validity and reliability considerations are covered under the accuracy topic. For example, the student accuracy standards help ensure that student evaluations will provide sound, accurate, and credible information about student learning and performance.

Non-human: animals and machines

Psychometrics addresses human abilities, attitudes, traits and educational evolution. Notably, the study of behavior, mental processes and abilities of non-human animals is usually addressed by comparative psychology, or with a continuum between non-human animals and the rest of animals by evolutionary psychology. Nonetheless there are some advocators for a more gradual transition between the approach taken for humans and the approach taken for (non-human) animals.[25][26][27] [28]

The evaluation of abilities, traits and learning evolution of machines has been mostly unrelated to the case of humans and non-human animals, with specific approaches in the area of artificial intelligence. A more integrated approach, under the name of universal psychometrics, has also been proposed.[29]

See also

• Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory
• Classical test theory
• Computational psychometrics
• Concept inventory
• Cronbach's alpha
• Data mining
• Educational assessment
• Educational psychology
• Factor analysis
• Item response theory
• List of psychometric software
• List of schools for psychometrics
• Operationalisation
• Quantitative psychology
• Psychometric Society
• Rasch model
• Scale (social sciences)
• School counselor
• School psychology
• Standardized test



• Andrich, D. & Luo, G. (1993). "A hyperbolic cosine model for unfolding dichotomous single-stimulus responses" (PDF). Applied Psychological Measurement. 17 (3): 253–276. CiteSeerX doi:10.1177/014662169301700307.[permanent dead link]
• Michell, J. (1999). Measurement in Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511490040
• Rasch, G. (1960/1980). Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests. Copenhagen, Danish Institute for Educational Research), expanded edition (1980) with foreword and afterword by B.D. Wright. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
• Reese, T.W. (1943). "The application of the theory of physical measurement to the measurement of psychological magnitudes, with three experimental examples". Psychological Monographs. 55: 1–89.
• Stevens, S. S. (1946). "On the theory of scales of measurement". Science. 103 (2684): 677–80. Bibcode:1946Sci...103..677S. doi:10.1126/science.103.2684.677. PMID 17750512.
• Thurstone, L.L. (1927). "A law of comparative judgement". Psychological Review. 34 (4): 278–286. doi:10.1037/h0070288.
• Thurstone, L.L. (1929). The Measurement of Psychological Value. In T.V. Smith and W.K. Wright (Eds.), Essays in Philosophy by Seventeen Doctors of Philosophy of the University of Chicago. Chicago: Open Court.
• Thurstone, L.L. (1959). The Measurement of Values. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
• S.F. Blinkhorn (1997). "Past imperfect, future conditional: fifty years of test theory". Br. J. Math. Statist. Psychol. 50 (2): 175–185. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8317.1997.tb01139.x.


1. National Council on Measurement in Education ... rPArchived 2017-07-22 at the Wayback Machine
2. Kaplan, R.M., & Saccuzzo, D.P. (2010). Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications, and Issues. (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
3. Leopold Szondi (1960) Das zweite Buch: Lehrbuch der Experimentellen Triebdiagnostik. Huber, Bern und Stuttgart, 2nd edition. Ch.27, From the Spanish translation, B)II Las condiciones estadisticas, p.396. Quotation:
el pensamiento psicologico especifico, en las ultima decadas, fue suprimido y eliminado casi totalmente, siendo sustituido por un pensamiento estadistico. Precisamente aqui vemos el cáncer de la testología y testomania de hoy.
4. Psychometric Assessments. Psychometric Assessments . University of Melbourne.
5. Michell, Joel (August 1997). "Quantitative science and the definition of measurement in psychology". British Journal of Psychology. 88 (3): 355–383. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1997.tb02641.x.
6. "Los diferentes tipos de tests psicometricos - examen psicometrico".
7. Andrich, D. & Luo, G. (1993). A hyperbolic cosine latent trait model for unfolding dichotomous single-stimulus responses. Applied Psychological Measurement, 17, 253-276.
8. Embretson, S.E., & Reise, S.P. (2000). Item Response Theory for Psychologists. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
9. Hambleton, R.K., & Swaminathan, H. (1985). Item Response Theory: Principles and Applications. Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff.
10. Rasch, G. (1960/1980). Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests. Copenhagen, Danish Institute for Educational Research, expanded edition (1980) with foreword and afterword by B.D. Wright. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
11. Thompson, B.R. (2004). Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Understanding Concepts and Applications. American Psychological Association.
12. Davison, M.L. (1992). Multidimensional Scaling. Krieger.
13. Kaplan, D. (2008). Structural Equation Modeling: Foundations and Extensions, 2nd ed. Sage.
14. "Home - Educational Research Basics by Del Siegle".
15. Warne, Russell T.; Yoon, Myeongsun; Price, Chris J. (2014). "Exploring the various interpretations of "test bias"". Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 20 (4): 570–582. doi:10.1037/a0036503. PMID 25313435.
16. Reynolds, C. R. (2000). Why is psychometric research on bias in mental testing so often ignored? Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6, 144-150. doi:10.1037/1076-8971.6.1.144
17. Reschly, D. J. (1980) Psychological evidence in the Larry P. opinion: A case of right problem-wrong solution? School Psychology Review, 9, 123-125.
18. Blanton, H., & Jaccard, J. (2006). Arbitrary metrics in psychology. Archived2006-05-10 at the Wayback Machine American Psychologist, 61(1), 27-41.
19. "The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing". External link in |website= (help)
20. Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation Archived 2009-10-15 at the Wayback Machine
21. Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation. (1988). The Personnel Evaluation Standards: How to Assess Systems for Evaluating Educators.Archived 2005-12-12 at the Wayback Machine Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
22. Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation. (1994). The Program Evaluation Standards, 2nd Edition. Archived 2006-02-22 at the Wayback Machine Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
23. Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation. (2003). The Student Evaluation Standards: How to Improve Evaluations of Students. Archived 2006-05-24 at the Wayback Machine Newbury Park, CA: Corwin Press.
24. [E. Cabrera-Nguyen. "Author guidelines for reporting scale development and validation results in the Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research]". 1 (2): 99–103.
25. Humphreys, L.G. (1987). "Psychometrics considerations in the evaluation of intraspecies differences in intelligence". Behav Brain Sci. 10 (4): 668–669. doi:10.1017/s0140525x0005514x.
26. Eysenck, H.J. (1987). "The several meanings of intelligence". Behav Brain Sci. 10(4): 663. doi:10.1017/s0140525x00055060.
27. Locurto, C. & Scanlon, C (1987). "Individual differences and spatial learning factor in two strains of mice". Behav Brain Sci. 112: 344–352.
28. King, James E & Figueredo, Aurelio Jose (1997). "The five-factor model plus dominance in chimpanzee personality". Journal of Research in Personality. 31 (2): 257–271. doi:10.1006/jrpe.1997.2179.
29. J. Hernández-Orallo; D.L. Dowe; M.V. Hernández-Lloreda (2013). "Universal Psychometrics: Measuring Cognitive Abilities in the Machine Kingdom". Cognitive Systems Research. 27: 50–74. doi:10.1016/j.cogsys.2013.06.001. hdl:10251/50244.
Further reading[edit]
• Robert F. DeVellis (2016). Scale Development: Theory and Applications. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-5063-4158-3.
• Borsboom, Denny (2005). Measuring the Mind: Conceptual Issues in Contemporary Psychometrics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84463-5. Lay summary (28 June 2010).
• Leslie A. Miller; Robert L. Lovler (2015). Foundations of Psychological Testing: A Practical Approach. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-4833-6927-3.
• Roderick P. McDonald (2013). Test Theory: A Unified Treatment. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-1-135-67530-1.
• Paul Kline (2000). The Handbook of Psychological Testing. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-21158-1.
• Rush AJ Jr; First MB; Blacker D (2008). Handbook of Psychiatric Measures. American Psychiatric Publishing. ISBN 978-1-58562-218-4. OCLC 85885343.
• Ann C Silverlake (2016). Comprehending Test Manuals: A Guide and Workbook. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-351-97086-0.
• Fenton H (2019). "Top 10 Tips on how to prepare for a psychometric test to get that job!". Business Optimization Training Institute.
• Dr. Snigdha Rai (2018). "An Ultimate Guide to Psychometric Tests". Mercer Mettl.

External links

• APA Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing
• International Personality Item Pool
• Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation
• The Psychometrics Centre, University of Cambridge [1]
• Psychometric Society and Psychometrika homepage
• London Psychometric Laboratory
Site Admin
Posts: 32013
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 12:58 am

Part 1 of 2

by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/17/19



The N.E.F. [New Education Fellowship] and Unesco

Just as theosophy had a profound influence on the N.E.F. so the N.E.F. had a profound influence on the creation of UNESCO[9]. It was described as "the midwife at the birth of UNESCO" (Kobayashi) and has been an NGO[10] of UNESCO since 1966 (Hiroshi Iwama). It changed its name to W.E.F. [World Education Fellowship] that year.

-- Beatrice Ensor, by Wikipedia

Abbreviation UNESCO
Formation 4 November 1946; 72 years ago
Type United Nations specialised agency
Legal status Active
Headquarters Paris, France
Audrey Azoulay
Parent organization
United Nations Economic and Social Council
UN emblem blue.svg United Nations portal

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO[1]; French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to promoting international collaboration in education, sciences, and culture in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter.[2] It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.[3]

UNESCO has 193 member states and 11 associate members.[4] Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; national and regional offices also exist.

UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, culture and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, technical, and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press, regional and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites) and to preserve human rights, and attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.[5]

UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information".[6] Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication.[7]

The broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)—underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities.


Flag of UNESCO

UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility.[8][9] This new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC) was indeed created in 1922. On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education (IBE) began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development.[10] However, the onset of World War II largely interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations.

After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME) began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR. This was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO), held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization (ECO/CONF) was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented. The idea of UNESCO was largely developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development.[11] At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, and a Preparatory Commission was established.[12] The Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, and 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state.[13]

The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, and elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General.[14] The Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity.[15] This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence. As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate, political and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, and the dissolution of the USSR.

Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists (among them was Claude Lévi-Strauss) and other scientists in 1950[16] and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice.[17] In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems."[18] South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela.

UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, Haiti, started in 1947.[19] This project was followed by expert missions to other countries, including, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.[20] In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal.[21] In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, Thailand, launched a global movement to provide basic education for all children, youths and adults.[22] Ten years later, the 2000 World Education Forum held in Dakar, Senegal, led member governments to commit to achieving basic education for all by 2015.[23]

UNESCO's early activities in culture included, for example, the Nubia Campaign, launched in 1960.[24] The purpose of the campaign was to move the Great Temple of Abu Simbel to keep it from being swamped by the Nile after construction of the Aswan Dam. During the 20-year campaign, 22 monuments and architectural complexes were relocated. This was the first and largest in a series of campaigns including Mohenjo-daro (Pakistan), Fes (Morocco), Kathmandu (Nepal), Borobudur (Indonesia) and the Acropolis (Greece). The organization's work on heritage led to the adoption, in 1972, of the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.[25] The World Heritage Committee was established in 1976 and the first sites inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1978.[26] Since then important legal instruments on cultural heritage and diversity have been adopted by UNESCO member states in 2003 (Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage[27]) and 2005 (Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions[28]).

An intergovernmental meeting of UNESCO in Paris in December 1951 led to the creation of the European Council for Nuclear Research, which was responsible for establishing the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)[29] later on, in 1954.

Arid Zone programming, 1948–1966, is another example of an early major UNESCO project in the field of natural sciences.[30] In 1968, UNESCO organized the first intergovernmental conference aimed at reconciling the environment and development, a problem which continues to be addressed in the field of sustainable development. The main outcome of the 1968 conference was the creation of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme.[31]

In the field of communication, the "free flow of ideas by word and image" has been in UNESCO's constitution from its beginnings, following the experience of the Second World War when control of information was a factor in indoctrinating populations for aggression.[32] In the years immediately following World War II, efforts were concentrated on reconstruction and on the identification of needs for means of mass communication around the world. UNESCO started organizing training and education for journalists in the 1950s.[33] In response to calls for a "New World Information and Communication Order" in the late 1970s, UNESCO established the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems,[34] which produced the 1980 MacBride report (named after the Chair of the Commission, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Seán MacBride).[35] The same year, UNESCO created the International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC), a multilateral forum designed to promote media development in developing countries.[36][37] In 1991, UNESCO's General Conference endorsed the Windhoek Declaration on media independence and pluralism, which led the UN General Assembly to declare the date of its adoption, 3 May, as World Press Freedom Day.[38] Since 1997, UNESCO has awarded the UNESCO / Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize every 3 May. In the lead up to the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003 (Geneva) and 2005 (Tunis), UNESCO introduced the Information for All Programme.

UNESCO admitted Palestine as a member in 2011.[39][40] Laws passed in the United States in 1990 and 1994 mean that it cannot contribute financially to any UN organisation that accepts Palestine as a full member.[41] As a result, it withdrew its funding which accounted for about 22% of UNESCO's budget.[42] Israel also reacted to Palestine's admittance to UNESCO by freezing Israeli payments to the UNESCO and imposing sanctions to the Palestinian Authority,[43] stating that Palestine's admittance would be detrimental "to potential peace talks".[44] Two years after they stopped paying their dues to UNESCO, US and Israel lost UNESCO voting rights in 2013 without losing the right to be elected; thus, the US was elected as a member of the Executive Board for the period 2016–19.[45]


UNESCO offices in Brasília

UNESCO implements its activities through the five programme areas: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information.

• Education: UNESCO supports research in comparative education; and provide expertise and fosters partnerships to strengthen national educational leadership and the capacity of countries to offer quality education for all. This includes the
o UNESCO Chairs, an international network of 644 UNESCO Chairs, involving over 770 institutions in 126 countries
o Environmental Conservation Organisation
o Convention against Discrimination in Education adopted in 1960
o Organization of the International Conference on Adult Education (CONFINTEA) in an interval of 12 years
o Publication of the Education for All Global Monitoring Report
o Publication of the Four Pillars of Learning seminal document
o UNESCO ASPNet, an international network of 8,000 schools in 170 countries

UNESCO does not accredit institutions of higher learning.[46]

• UNESCO also issues public statements to educate the public:
o Seville Statement on Violence: A statement adopted by UNESCO in 1989 to refute the notion that humans are biologically predisposed to organised violence.
• Designating projects and places of cultural and scientific significance, such as:
o Global Geoparks Network
o Biosphere reserves, through the Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB), since 1971
o City of Literature; in 2007, the first city to be given this title was Edinburgh, the site of Scotland's first circulating library.[47] In 2008, Iowa City, Iowa became the City of Literature.
o Endangered languages and linguistic diversity projects
o Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
o Memory of the World International Register, since 1997
o Water resources management, through the International Hydrological Programme (IHP), since 1965
o World Heritage Sites
o World Digital Library
• Encouraging the "free flow of ideas by images and words" by:
o Promoting freedom of expression, including freedom of the press and freedom of information legislation, through the Division of Freedom of Expression and Media Development,[48] including the International Programme for the Development of Communication[49]
o Promoting the safety of journalists and combatting impunity for those who attack them,[50] through coordination of the UN Plan of Action on the Safety of Journalists and the Issue of Impunity[51]
o Promoting universal access to and preservation of information and open solutions for sustainable development through the Knowledge Societies Division,[52]including the Memory of the World Programme[53] and Information for All Programme[54]
o Promoting pluralism, gender equality and cultural diversity in the media
o Promoting Internet Universality and its principles, that the Internet should be (I) human Rights-based, (ii) Open, (iii) Accessible to all, and (iv) nurtured by Multi-stakeholder participation (summarized as the acronym R.O.A.M.)[55]
o Generating knowledge through publications such as World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development,[56] the UNESCO Series on Internet Freedom,[57] and the Media Development Indicators,[58] as well as other indicator-based studies.
• Promoting events, such as:
o International Decade for the Promotion of a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World: 2001–2010, proclaimed by the UN in 1998
o World Press Freedom Day, 3 May each year, to promote freedom of expression and freedom of the press as a basic human right and as crucial components of any healthy, democratic and free society.
o Criança Esperança in Brazil, in partnership with Rede Globo, to raise funds for community-based projects that foster social integration and violence prevention.
o International Literacy Day
o International Year for the Culture of Peace
o Health Education for Behavior Change program in partnership with the Ministry of Education of Kenya which was financially supported by the Government of Azerbaijan to promote health education among 10-19-year-old young people who live in informal camp in Kibera, Nairobi. The project was carried out between September 2014 - December 2016.[59]
• Founding and funding projects, such as:
o Migration Museums Initiative: Promoting the establishment of museums for cultural dialogue with migrant populations.[60]
o UNESCO-CEPES, the European Centre for Higher Education: established in 1972 in Bucharest, Romania, as a de-centralized office to promote international co-operation in higher education in Europe as well as Canada, USA and Israel. Higher Education in Europe is its official journal.
o Free Software Directory: since 1998 UNESCO and the Free Software Foundation have jointly funded this project cataloguing free software.
o FRESH Focussing Resources on Effective School Health.[61]
o OANA, Organization of Asia-Pacific News Agencies
o International Council of Science
o UNESCO Goodwill Ambassadors
o ASOMPS, Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices, a series of scientific conferences held in Asia
o Botany 2000, a programme supporting taxonomy, and biological and cultural diversity of medicinal and ornamental plants, and their protection against environmental pollution
o The UNESCO Collection of Representative Works, translating works of world literature both to and from multiple languages, from 1948 to 2005
o GoUNESCO, an umbrella of initiatives to make heritage fun supported by UNESCO, New Delhi Office[62]

The UNESCO transparency portal has been designed to enable public access to information regarding Organization's activities, such as its aggregate budget for a biennium, as well as links to relevant programmatic and financial documents. These two distinct sets of information are published on the IATI registry, respectively based on the IATI Activity Standard and the IATI Organization Standard.

There have been proposals to establish two new UNESCO lists. The first proposed list will focus on movable cultural heritage such as artifacts, paintings, and biofacts. The list may include cultural objects, such as the Jōmon Venus of Japan, the Mona Lisa of France, the Gebel el-Arak Knife of Egypt, The Ninth Wave of Russia, the Seated Woman of Çatalhöyük of Turkey, the David (Michelangelo) of Italy, the Mathura Herakles of India, the Manunggul Jar of the Philippines, the Crown of Baekje of South Korea, The Hay Wain of the United Kingdom and the Benin Bronzes of Nigeria. The second proposed list will focus on the world's living species, such as the Komodo Dragon of Indonesia, the Panda of China, the Bald eagle of North American countries, the Aye-aye of Madagascar, the Asiatic Lion of India, the Kakapo of New Zealand, and the Mountain tapir of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.[63][64]


UNESCO and its specialized institutions issue a number of magazines.

The UNESCO Courier magazine states its mission to "promote UNESCO's ideals, maintain a platform for the dialogue between cultures and provide a forum for international debate." Since March 2006 it is available online, with limited printed issues. Its articles express the opinions of the authors which are not necessarily the opinions of UNESCO. There was a hiatus in publishing between 2012 and 2017.[65]

In 1950, UNESCO initiated the quarterly review Impact of Science on Society (also known as Impact) to discuss the influence of science on society. The journal ceased publication in 1992.[66] UNESCO also published Museum International Quarterly from the year 1948.

Official UNESCO NGOs

UNESCO has official relations with 322 international non-governmental organizations (NGOs).[67] Most of these are what UNESCO calls "operational"; a select few are "formal".[68] The highest form of affiliation to UNESCO is "formal associate", and the 22 NGOs[69] with formal associate (ASC) relations occupying offices at UNESCO are:

Abbr / Organization

IB International Baccalaureate
CCIVS Co-ordinating Committee for International Voluntary Service
EI Education International
IAU International Association of Universities
IFTC International Council for Film, Television and Audiovisual Communication
ICPHS International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies which publishes Diogenes
ICSU International Council for Science
ICOM International Council of Museums
ICSSPE International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education
ICA International Council on Archives
ICOMOS International Council on Monuments and Sites
IFJ International Federation of Journalists
IFLA International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions
IFPA International Federation of Poetry Associations
IMC International Music Council
IPA International Police Association
INSULA International Scientific Council for Island Development
ISSC International Social Science Council
ITI International Theatre Institute
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
IUTAO International Union of Technical Associations and Organizations
UIA Union of International Associations
WAN World Association of Newspapers
WFEO World Federation of Engineering Organizations
WFUCA World Federation of UNESCO Clubs, Centres and Associations

UNESCO Institute for Water Education in Delft

Institutes and centres

The institutes are specialized departments of the organization that support UNESCO's programme, providing specialized support for cluster and national offices.

Abbr / Name / Location

IBE International Bureau of Education Geneva[70]
UIL UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning Hamburg[71]
IIEP UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning Paris (headquarters) and Buenos Aires and Dakar (regional offices)[72]
IITE UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education Moscow[73]
IICBA UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa Addis Ababa[74]
IESALC UNESCO International Institute for Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean Caracas[75]
UNESCO-UNEVOC UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training Bonn[76]
UNESCO-IHE UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education Delft[77]
ICTP International Centre for Theoretical Physics Trieste[78]
UIS UNESCO Institute for Statistics Montreal[79]


UNESCO awards 22 prizes[80] in education, science, culture and peace:

• Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize
• L'Oréal-UNESCO Awards for Women in Science
• UNESCO/King Sejong Literacy Prize
• UNESCO/Confucius Prize for Literacy
• UNESCO/Emir Jaber al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah Prize to promote Quality Education for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities
• UNESCO King Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa Prize for the Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Education
• UNESCO/Hamdan Bin Rashid Al-Maktoum Prize for Outstanding Practice and Performance in Enhancing the Effectiveness of Teachers
• UNESCO/Kalinga Prize for the Popularization of Science
• UNESCO/Institut Pasteur Medal for an outstanding contribution to the development of scientific knowledge that has a beneficial impact on human health
• UNESCO/Sultan Qaboos Prize for Environmental Preservation
• Great Man-Made River International Water Prize for Water Resources in Arid Zones presented by UNESCO (title to be reconsidered)
• Michel Batisse Award for Biosphere Reserve Management
• UNESCO/Bilbao Prize for the Promotion of a Culture of Human Rights
• UNESCO Prize for Peace Education
• UNESCO-Madanjeet Singh Prize for the Promotion of Tolerance and Non-Violence
• UNESCO/International José Martí Prize
• UNESCO/Avicenna Prize for Ethics in Science
• UNESCO/Juan Bosch Prize for the Promotion of Social Science Research in Latin America and the Caribbean
• Sharjah Prize for Arab Culture
• Melina Mercouri International Prize for the Safeguarding and Management of Cultural Landscapes (UNESCO-Greece)
• IPDC-UNESCO Prize for Rural Communication
• UNESCO/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize
• UNESCO/Jikji Memory of the World Prize
• UNESCO-Equatorial Guinea International Prize for Research in the Life Sciences
• Carlos J. Finlay Prize for Microbiology

Inactive prizes

• International Simón Bolívar Prize (inactive since 2004)
• UNESCO Prize for Human Rights Education
• UNESCO/Obiang Nguema Mbasogo International Prize for Research in the Life Sciences (inactive since 2010)
• UNESCO Prize for the Promotion of the Arts

International Days observed at UNESCO

International Days observed at UNESCO is provided in the table given below[81]

Date / Name

27 January International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust
13 February World Radio Day
21 February International Mother Language Day
8 March International Women's Day
20 March International Francophonie Day
21 March International Day of Nowruz
21 March World Poetry Day
21 March International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
22 March World Day for Water
23 April World Book and Copyright Day
30 April International Jazz Day
3 May World Press Freedom Day
21 May World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development
22 May International Day for Biological Diversity
25 May Africa Day / Africa Week
5 June World Environment Day
8 June World Oceans Day
17 June World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought
9 August International Day of the World's Indigenous People
12 August International Youth Day
23 August International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition
8 September International Literacy Day
15 September International Day of Democracy
21 September International Day of Peace
28 September International Day for the Universal Access to Information
2 October International Day of Non-Violence
5 October World Teachers' Day
2nd Wednesday in October International Day for Disaster Reduction
17 October International Day for the Eradication of Poverty
20 October World Statistics Day
27 October World Day for Audiovisual Heritage
2 November International Day to End Impunity for Crimes Against Journalists[82]
10 November World Science Day for Peace and Development
3rd Thursday in November World Philosophy Day
16 November International Day for Tolerance
19 November International Men's Day
25 November International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women
29 November International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People
1 December World AIDS Day
10 December Human Rights Day
18 December International Migrants Day

Member states

Main article: Member states of UNESCO

As of January 2019, UNESCO has 193 member states and 11 associate members.[83] Some members are not independent states and some members have additional National Organizing Committees from some of their dependent territories.[84] UNESCO state parties are the United Nations member states (except Liechtenstein, United States[85] and Israel[86]), as well as Cook Islands, Niue and Palestine.[87][88] The United States and Israel left UNESCO on 31 December 2018.[89]

Governing bodies


There has been no elected UNESCO Director-General from Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central and North Asia, Middle East, North Africa, East Africa, Central Africa, South Africa, Australia-Oceania, and South America since inception.

The Directors-General of UNESCO came from West Europe (5), Central America (1), North America (2), West Africa (1), East Asia (1), and East Europe (1). Out of the 11 Directors-General since inception, women have held the position only twice. Qatar, the Philippines, and Iran are proposing for a Director-General bid by 2021 or 2025. There have never been a Middle Eastern or Southeast Asian UNESCO Director-General since inception. The ASEAN bloc and some Pacific and Latin American nations support the possible bid of the Philippines, which is culturally Asian, Oceanic, and Latin. Qatar and Iran, on the other hand, have fragmented support in the Middle East. Egypt, Israel, and Madagascar are also vying for the position but have yet to express a direct or indirect proposal. Both Qatar and Egypt lost in the 2017 bid against France.

The list of the Directors-General of UNESCO since its establishment in 1946 is as follows:[90]

Name / Country / Term

Audrey Azoulay France 2017–present
Irina Bokova Bulgaria 2009–2017
Koïchiro Matsuura Japan 1999–2009
Federico Mayor Zaragoza Spain 1987–99
Amadou-Mahtar M'Bow Senegal 1974–87
René Maheu France 1961–74; acting 1961
Vittorino Veronese Italy 1958–61
Luther Evans United States 1953–58
John Wilkinson Taylor United States acting 1952–53
Jaime Torres Bodet Mexico 1948–52
Julian Huxley United Kingdom 1946–48

General Conference

This is the list of the sessions of the UNESCO General Conference held since 1946:[91]

Session / Location / Year / Chaired by / from

39th Paris 2017 Zohour Alaoui[92] Morocco
38th Paris 2015 Stanley Mutumba Simataa[93] Namibia
37th[94] Paris 2013 Hao Ping China
36th Paris 2011 Katalin Bogyay Hungary
35th Paris 2009 Davidson Hepburn Bahamas
34th Paris 2007 George N. Anastassopoulos Greece
33rd Paris 2005 Musa Bin Jaafar Bin Hassan Oman
32nd Paris 2003 Michael Omolewa Nigeria
31st Paris 2001 Ahmad Jalali Iran
30th Paris 1999 Jaroslava Moserová Czech Republic
29th Paris 1997 Eduardo Portella Brazil
28th Paris 1995 Torben Krogh Denmark
27th Paris 1993 Ahmed Saleh Sayyad Yemen
26th Paris 1991 Bethwell Allan Ogot Kenya
25th Paris 1989 Anwar Ibrahim Malaysia
24th Paris 1987 Guillermo Putzeys Alvarez Guatemala
23rd Sofia 1985 Nikolai Todorov Bulgaria
22nd Paris 1983 Saïd Tell Jordan
4th extraordinary Paris 1982
21st Belgrade 1980 Ivo Margan Yugoslavia
20th Paris 1978 Napoléon LeBlanc Canada
19th Nairobi 1976 Taaita Toweett Kenya
18th Paris 1974 Magda Jóború Hungary
3rd extraordinary Paris 1973
17th Paris 1972 Toru Haguiwara Japan
16th Paris 1970 Atilio Dell'Oro Maini Argentina
15th Paris 1968 William Eteki Mboumoua Cameroon
14th Paris 1966 Bedrettin Tuncel Turkey
13th Paris 1964 Norair Sisakian Soviet Union
12th Paris 1962 Paulo de Berrêdo Carneiro Brazil
11th Paris 1960 Akale-Work Abte-Wold Ethiopia
10th Paris 1958 Jean Berthoin France
9th New Delhi 1956 Abul Kalam Azad India
8th Montevideo 1954 Justino Zavala Muñiz Uruguay
2nd extraordinary Paris 1953
7th Paris 1952 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan India
6th Paris 1951 Howland H. Sargeant United States
5th Florence 1950 Stefano Jacini Italy
4th Paris 1949 Edward Ronald Walker Australia
1st extraordinary Paris 1948
3rd Beirut 1948 Hamid Bey Frangie Lebanon
2nd Mexico City 1947 Manuel Gual Vidal Mexico
1st Paris 1946 Léon Blum France
Site Admin
Posts: 32013
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 1:08 am

Part 2 of 2

Executive Board

Term: 2017–19[95]

Group I (9 seats)
United Kingdom

Group II (7 seats)

Group III (10 seats)

Group IV (12 seats)
South Korea
Sri Lanka

Group V(a) (13 seats)
Ivory Coast
South Africa

Group V(b) (7 seats)


Group I (9 seats)

Group II (7 seats)

Group III (10 seats)
Dominican Republic
El Salvador
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Trinidad and Tobago

Group IV (12 seats)

Group V(a) (13 seats)

Group V(b) (7 seats)


Group I (9 seats)
United Kingdom
United States

Group II (7 seats)
Czech Republic
North Macedonia

Group III (10 seats)

Group IV (12 seats)
Papua New Guinea
South Korea

Group V(a) (13 seats)

Group V(b) (7 seats)
United Arab Emirates

Offices and headquarters

The Garden of Peace, UNESCO headquarters, Paris. Donated by the Government of Japan, this garden was designed by American-Japanese sculptor artist Isamu Noguchi in 1958 and installed by Japanese gardener Toemon Sano.

UNESCO headquarters are located at Place de Fontenoy in Paris, France.

UNESCO's field offices across the globe are categorized into four primary office types based upon their function and geographic coverage: cluster offices, national offices, regional bureaus and liaison offices.

Field offices by region

The following list of all UNESCO Field Offices is organized geographically by UNESCO Region and identifies the members states and associate members of UNESCO which are served by each office.[97]


• Abidjan – National Office to Côte d'Ivoire
• Abuja – National Office to Nigeria
• Accra – Cluster Office for Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Togo
• Addis Ababa – Liaison Office with the African Union and with the Economic Commission for Africa
• Bamako – Cluster Office for Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali and Niger
• Brazzaville – National Office to the Republic of the Congo
• Bujumbura – National Office to Burundi
• Dakar – Regional Bureau for Education in Africa and Cluster Office for Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, and Senegal
• Dar es Salaam – Cluster Office for Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and Tanzania
• Harare – Cluster Office for Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe
• Juba – National Office to South Sudan
• Kinshasa – National Office to the Democratic Republic of the Congo
• Libreville – Cluster Office for the Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Sao Tome and Principe
• Maputo – National Office to Mozambique
• Nairobi – Regional Bureau for Sciences in Africa and Cluster Office for Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan and Uganda
• Windhoek – National Office to Namibia
• Yaoundé – Cluster Office to Cameroon, Central African Republic and Chad

Arab States

• Amman – National Office to Jordan
• Beirut – Regional Bureau for Education in the Arab States and Cluster Office to Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Palestine
• Cairo – Regional Bureau for Sciences in the Arab States and Cluster Office for Egypt, Libya and Sudan
• Doha – Cluster Office to Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen
• Iraq – National Office for Iraq (currently located in Amman, Jordan)
• Khartoum – National Office to Sudan
• Manama - Arab Regional Centre for World Heritage
• Rabat – Cluster Office to Algeria, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia
• Ramallah – National Office to the Palestinian Territories

Asia and Pacific

See also: UNESCO Asia Pacific Heritage Awards

• Apia – Cluster Office to Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Tokelau (Associate Member)
• Bangkok – Regional Bureau for Education in Asia and the Pacific and Cluster Office to Thailand, Burma, Laos, Singapore and Vietnam
• Beijing – Cluster Office to North Korea, Japan, Mongolia, the People's Republic of China and South Korea
• Dhaka – National Office to Bangladesh
• Hanoi – National Office to Vietnam
• Islamabad – National Office to Pakistan
• Jakarta – Regional Bureau for Sciences in Asia and the Pacific and Cluster Office to the Philippines, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and East Timor
• Manila - National Office to the Philippines
• Kabul – National Office to Afghanistan
• Kathmandu – National Office to Nepal
• New Delhi – Cluster Office to Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives and Sri Lanka
• Phnom Penh – National Office to Cambodia
• Tashkent – National Office to Uzbekistan
• Tehran – Cluster Office to Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and Turkmenistan

Europe and North America

• Almaty – Cluster Office to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan
• Brussels – Liaison Office to the European Union and its subsidiary bodies in Brussels
• Geneva – Liaison Office to the United Nations in Geneva
• New York City – Liaison Office to the United Nations in New York
• Moscow – Cluster Office to Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Moldova and Russia
• Venice – Regional Bureau for Sciences and Culture in Europe

Latin America and the Caribbean

Carondelet Palace, Presidential Palace – with changing of the guards. The Historic Center of Quito, Ecuador, is one of the largest, least-altered and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas.[98] This center was, together with the historic centre of Kraków in Poland, the first to be declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO on 18 September 1978.

• Brasilia – National Office to Brazil[99]
• Guatemala City – National Office to Guatemala
• Havana – Regional Bureau for Culture in Latin America and the Caribbean and Cluster Office to Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Aruba
• Kingston – Cluster Office to Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago as well as the associate member states of British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Curaçao and Sint Maarten
• Lima – National Office to Peru
• Mexico City – National Office to Mexico
• Montevideo – Regional Bureau for Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean and Cluster Office to Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay
• Port-au-Prince – National Office to Haiti
• Quito – Cluster Office to Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela[100]
• San José – Cluster Office to Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama
• Santiago de Chile – Regional Bureau for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean and National Office to Chile


New World Information and Communication order

UNESCO has been the centre of controversy in the past, particularly in its relationships with the United States, the United Kingdom, Singapore and the former Soviet Union. During the 1970s and 1980s, UNESCO's support for a "New World Information and Communication Order" and its MacBride report calling for democratization of the media and more egalitarian access to information was condemned in these countries as attempts to curb freedom of the press. UNESCO was perceived as a platform for communists and Third World dictators to attack the West, in contrast to accusations made by the USSR in the late 1940s and early 1950s.[101] In 1984, the United States withheld its contributions and withdrew from the organization in protest, followed by the United Kingdom in 1985.[102] Singapore withdrew also at the end of 1985, citing rising membership fees.[103] Following a change of government in 1997, the UK rejoined. The United States rejoined in 2003, followed by Singapore on 8 October 2007.[104]


Israel was admitted to UNESCO in 1949, one year after its creation. Israel has maintained its membership since 1949. In 2010, Israel designated the Cave of the Patriarchs, Hebron and Rachel's Tomb, Bethlehem as National Heritage Sites and announced restoration work, prompting criticism from the Obama administration and protests from Palestinians.[105] In October 2010, UNESCO's Executive Board voted to declare the sites as "al-Haram al-Ibrahimi/Tomb of the Patriarchs" and "Bilal bin Rabah Mosque/Rachel's Tomb" and stated that they were "an integral part of the occupied Palestinian Territories" and any unilateral Israeli action was a violation of international law.[106] UNESCO described the sites as significant to "people of the Muslim, Christian and Jewish traditions", and accused Israel of highlighting only the Jewish character of the sites.[107] Israel in turn accused UNESCO of "detach[ing] the Nation of Israel from its heritage", and accused it of being politically motivated.[108] The Rabbi of the Western Wall said that Rachel's tomb had not previously been declared a holy Muslim site.[109] Israel partially suspended ties with UNESCO. Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister Danny Ayalon declared that the resolution was a "part of Palestinian escalation". Zevulun Orlev, chairman of the Knesset Education and Culture Committee, referred to the resolutions as an attempt to undermine the mission of UNESCO as a scientific and cultural organization that promotes cooperation throughout the world.[110][111]

On 28 June 2011, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee, at Jordan's insistence, censured[clarification needed] Israel's decision to demolish and rebuild the Mughrabi Gate Bridge in Jerusalem for safety reasons. Israel stated that Jordan had signed an agreement with Israel stipulating that the existing bridge must be dismantled for safety reasons; Jordan disputed the agreement, saying that it was only signed under U.S. pressure. Israel was also unable to address the UNESCO committee over objections from Egypt.[112]

In January 2014, days before it was scheduled to open, UNESCO Director-General, Irina Bokova, "indefinitely postponed" and effectively cancelled an exhibit created by the Simon Wiesenthal Center entitled "The People, The Book, The Land: The 3,500-year relationship between the Jewish people and the Land of Israel." The event was scheduled to run from 21 January through 30 January in Paris. Bokova cancelled the event after representatives of Arab states at UNESCO argued that its display would "harm the peace process".[113] The author of the exhibition, Professor Robert Wistrich of the Hebrew University's Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism, called the cancellation an "appalling act," and characterized Bokova's decision as "an arbitrary act of total cynicism and, really, contempt for the Jewish people and its history." UNESCO amended the decision to cancel the exhibit within the year, and it quickly achieved popularity and was viewed as a great success.[114]

On January 1, 2019, Israel formally left UNESCO in pursuance of the US withdrawal over the perceived continuous anti-Israel bias.

Occupied Palestine Resolution

Main article: Occupied Palestine Resolution

On 13 October 2016, UNESCO passed a resolution on East Jerusalem that condemned Israel for "aggressions" by Israeli police and soldiers and "illegal measures" against the freedom of worship and Muslims' access to their holy sites, while also recognizing Israel as the occupying power. Palestinian leaders welcomed the decision.[115] While the text acknowledged the "importance of the Old City of Jerusalem and its walls for the three monotheistic religions", it referred to the sacred hilltop compound in Jerusalem's Old City only by its Muslim name "Al-Haram al-Sharif", Arabic for Noble Sanctuary. In response, Israel denounced the UNESCO resolution for its omission of the words "Temple Mount" or "Har HaBayit," stating that it denies Jewish ties to the key holy site.[115][116] After receiving criticism from numerous Israeli politicians and diplomats, including Benjamin Netanyahu and Ayelet Shaked, Israel froze all ties with the organization.[117][118] The resolution was condemned by Ban Ki-moon and the Director-General of UNESCO, Irina Bokova, who said that Judaism, Islam and Christianity have clear historical connections to Jerusalem and "to deny, conceal or erase any of the Jewish, Christian or Muslim traditions undermines the integrity of the site.[119][120] Al-Aqsa Mosque is also Temple Mount, whose Western Wall is the holiest place in Judaism."[121] It was also rejected by the Czech Parliament which said the resolution reflects a "hateful anti-Israel sentiment",[122] and hundreds of Italian Jews demonstrated in Rome over Italy's abstention.[122] On 26 October, UNESCO approved a reviewed version of the resolution, which also criticized Israel for its continuous "refusal to let the body's experts access Jerusalem's holy sites to determine their conservation status."[123] Despite containing some softening of language following Israeli protests over a previous version, Israel continued to denounce the text.[124] The resolution refers to the site Jews and Christians refer to as the Temple Mount, or Har HaBayit in Hebrew, only by its Arab name — a significant semantic decision also adopted by UNESCO's executive board, triggering condemnation from Israel and its allies. U.S. Ambassador Crystal Nix Hines stated: "This item should have been defeated. These politicized and one-sided resolutions are damaging the credibility of UNESCO."[125]

In October 2017, the United States and Israel announced they would withdraw from the organization, citing in-part anti-Israel bias.[126][127]


Palestinian youth magazine controversy

In February 2011, an article was published in a Palestinian youth magazine in which a teenage girl described one of her four role-models as Adolf Hitler. In December 2011, UNESCO, which partly funded the magazine, condemned the material and subsequently withdrew support.[128]

Islamic University of Gaza controversy

In 2012, UNESCO decided to establish a chair at the Islamic University of Gaza in the field of astronomy, astrophysics, and space sciences,[129] fueling controversy and criticism. Israel bombed the school in 2008 stating that they develop and store weapons there, which Israel restated in criticizing UNESCO's move.[130][131]

The head, Kamalain Shaath, defended UNESCO, stating that "the Islamic University is a purely academic university that is interested only in education and its development".[132][133][134] Israeli ambassador to UNESCO Nimrod Barkan planned to submit a letter of protest with information about the university's ties to Hamas, especially angry that this was the first Palestinian university that UNESCO chose to cooperate with.[135] The Jewish organization B'nai B'rith criticized the move as well.[136]


On 16 and 17 February 2012, UNESCO held a conference entitled "The Media World after WikiLeaks and News of the World."[137] Despite all six panels being focused on WikiLeaks, no member of WikiLeaks staff was invited to speak. After receiving a complaint from WikiLeaks spokesman Kristinn Hrafnsson, UNESCO invited him to attend, but did not offer a place on any panels.[citation needed] The offer also came only a week before the conference, which was held in Paris, France. Many of the speakers featured, including David Leigh and Heather Brooke, had spoken out openly against WikiLeaks and its founder Julian Assange in the past.[138] WikiLeaks released a press statement on 15 February 2012 denouncing UNESCO which stated, "UNESCO has made itself an international human rights joke. To use 'freedom of expression' to censor WikiLeaks from a conference about WikiLeaks is an Orwellian absurdity beyond words."[139]

Che Guevara

In 2013, UNESCO announced that the collection "The Life and Works of Ernesto Che Guevara" became part of the Memory of the World Register. US Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen condemned this decision, saying that the organization acts against its own ideals:[140]

This decision is more than an insult to the families of those Cubans who were lined up and summarily executed by Che and his merciless cronies but it also serves as a direct contradiction to the UNESCO ideals of encouraging peace and universal respect for human rights.

UN Watch also condemned this selection by UNESCO.[141]

Listing Nanjing Massacre documents

In 2015, Japan threatened to halt funding for UNESCO over the organization's decision to include documents relating to the 1937 Nanjing massacre in the latest listing for its "Memory of the World" program.[142] In October 2016, Japanese Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida confirmed that Japan's 2016 annual funding of ¥4.4 billion had been suspended although denied any direct link with the Nanjing document controversy.[143]

US withdrawals

The United States withdrew from UNESCO in 1984, citing the "highly politicized" nature of the organisation, its ostensible "hostility toward the basic institutions of a free society, especially a free market and a free press," as well as its "unrestrained budgetary expansion," and poor management under then Director General Amadou-Mahter M'Bow of Senegal.[144]

On 19 September 1989, former U.S. Congressman Jim Leach stated before a Congressional subcommittee:[145]

The reasons for the withdrawal of the United States from UNESCO in 1984 are well-known; my view is that we overreacted to the calls of some who wanted to radicalize UNESCO, and the calls of others who wanted the United States to lead in emasculating the UN system. The fact is UNESCO is one of the least dangerous international institutions ever created. While some member countries within UNESCO attempted to push journalistic views antithetical to the values of the west, and engage in Israel bashing, UNESCO itself never adopted such radical postures. The U.S. opted for empty-chair diplomacy, after winning, not losing, the battles we engaged in… It was nuts to get out, and would be nuttier not to rejoin.

Leach concluded that the record showed Israel bashing, a call for a new world information order, money management, and arms control policy to be the impetus behind the withdrawal; he asserted that before departing from UNESCO, a withdrawal from the IAEA had been pushed on him.[145] On 1 October 2003, the U.S. rejoined UNESCO.[144]

On 12 October 2017, the United States notified UNESCO that it will again withdraw from the organization on 31 December 2018 and will seek to establish a permanent observer mission beginning in 2019. The Department of State cited "mounting arrears at UNESCO, the need for fundamental reform in the organization, and continuing anti-Israel bias at UNESCO."[126] Israel praised the withdrawal decision as "brave" and "moral."[144]

The United States has not paid over $600 million in dues[146] since it stopped paying its $80 million annual UNESCO dues when Palestine became a full member in 2011. Israel and the US were among the 14 votes against the membership out of 194 member countries.[147]

Turkish–Kurdish conflict

On May 25, 2016, the noted Turkish poet and human rights activist Zülfü Livaneli resigned as Turkey's only UNESCO goodwill ambassador. He highlighted human rights situation in Turkey and destruction of historical Sur district of Diyarbakir, the largest city in Kurdish-majority southeast Turkey, during fighting between the Turkish army and Kurdish militants as the main reasons for his resignation. Livaneli said: "To pontificate on peace while remaining silent against such violations is a contradiction of the fundamental ideals of UNESCO."[148]


In 1981, UNESCO and the UN celebrated the Atatürk Centennial, despite his involvement in the Greek genocide and in suppressing the Dersim rebellion.

Products and services

• UNESDOC[149] – Contains over 146,000 UNESCO documents in full text published since 1945 as well as metadata from the collections of the UNESCO Library and documentation centres in field offices and institutes.

Information processing tools

UNESCO develops, maintains and disseminates, free of charge, two interrelated software packages for database management (CDS/ISIS [not to be confused with UK police software package ISIS]) and data mining/statistical analysis (IDAMS).[150]

• CDS/ISIS – a generalised information storage and retrieval system. The Windows version may run on a single computer or in a local area network. The JavaISIS client/server components allow remote database management over the Internet and are available for Windows, Linux and Macintosh. Furthermore, GenISIS allows the user to produce HTML Web forms for CDS/ISIS database searching. The ISIS_DLL provides an API for developing CDS/ISIS based applications.
• OpenIDAMS – a software package for processing and analysing numerical data developed, maintained and disseminated by UNESCO. The original package was proprietary but UNESCO has initiated a project to provide it as open-source.[151]
• IDIS – a tool for direct data exchange between CDS/ISIS and IDAMS

See also

• United Nations portal
• Academic Mobility Network
• UNESCO Reclining Figure 1957–58, sculpture by Henry Moore
• UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists
• WikiProject UNESCO


1. "UNESCO". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
2. "UNESCO history". UNESCO. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
3. Grandjean, Martin (2018). Les réseaux de la coopération intellectuelle. La Société des Nations comme actrice des échanges scientifiques et culturels dans l'entre-deux-guerres [The Networks of Intellectual Cooperation. The League of Nations as an Actor of the Scientific and Cultural Exchanges in the Inter-War Period]. Lausanne: Université de Lausanne. (English summary).
4. "List of UNESCO members and associates". UNESCO. Retrieved 11 March2019.
5. "UNDG Members". United Nations Development Group. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
6. "Introducing UNESCO". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
7. "UNESCO • General Conference; 34th; Medium-term Strategy, 2008–2013; 2007" (PDF). Retrieved 8 August 2011.
8. Plenary Meetings, Records of the Second Assembly, Geneva: League of Nations, 5 September – 5 October 1921.
9. A Chronology of UNESCO: 1945–1987 (PDF), UNESDOC database, Paris, December 1987, LAD.85/WS/4 Rev, The International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC) was officially created on 4 January 1922, as a consultative organ composed of individuals elected based on their personal qualifications. The International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (IIIC) was then created in Paris on 9 August 1925, to act as the executing agency for the ICIC.
10. UNESCO 1987.
11. The work of U.N.E.S.C.O. (Hansard, 26 January 1949). Millbank systems. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
12. "United Nations Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation" (PDF). UNESDOC database. The Institute of Civil Engineers, London. 1–16 November 1945. ECO/Conf./29. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
13. Unesco 1945.
14. "General Conference, First Session" (PDF). UNESDOC database. UNESCO House, Paris, from 20 November to 10 December 1946. UNESCO/C/30 [1 C/Resolutions] Item 14, p. 73: UNESCO. 1947. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
15. "Records of the General Conference, Eighth Session" (PDF).
16. "UNESCO. (1950). Statement by experts on race problems. Paris, 20 July 1950. UNESCO/SS/1. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
17. "UNESCO. General Conference, 20th Session. (1979). Records of the General Conference, Twentieth Session, Paris, 24 October to 28 November 1978. 20 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution 3/1.1/2, p. 61. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
18. UNESCO. Executive Board, 42nd Session. (1955). Report of the Director-General on the Activities of the Organization (March–November 1955). Paris, 9 November 1955. 42 EX/43. Part I Relations with Member States, paragraph 3.
19. The Haiti pilot project: phase one, 1947–1949. (1951). Monographs on Fundamental Education IV. UNESCO: Paris.
20. "Debiesse, J., Benjamin, H. and Abbot, W. (1952). Report of the mission to Afghanistan. Educational Missions IV. ED.51/VIII.A. (Paris.) UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
21. "UNESCO. General Conference, 2nd Session. (1948). Resolutions adopted by the General Conference during its second session, Mexico, November–December 1947. 2 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution 3.4.1, p. 17. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
22. "UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, and The World Bank. (1990). Final Report. World Conference on Education for All: Meeting Basic Education Needs. 5–9 March 1990, Jomtien, Thailand. (WCEFA Inter-agency Commission: New York). UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
23. "UNESCO. (2000). The Dakar Framework for Action. Education for All: meeting our collective commitments (including six regional frameworks for action). World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal, 26–28 April 2000. ED.2000/WS/27. (Paris). UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
24. "UNESCO. General Conference, 21st Session. (1980). International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia: Report of the Executive Committee of the Campaign and of the Director-General. 26 August 1980. 21 C/82. UNESDOC database"(PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
25. "Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Paris, 16 November 1972. UNESCO. General Conference, 17th Session. Records of the General Conference, Seventeenth Session, Paris, 17 October to 21 November 1972. Volume I: Resolutions, Recommendations. 17 C/Resolution 29. Chapter IX Conventions and Recommendations, p. 135. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
26. "UNESCO. Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Second Session. Final Report. Washington, DC, 5–8 September 1978. CC-78/CONF.010/10 Rev. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
27. "Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Paris, 17 October 2003. UNESCO. General Conference, 32nd Session. Records of the General Conference, Thirty-second Session, Paris, 29 September to 17 October 2003. Volume I: Resolutions. 32 C/Resolution 32. Chapter IV Programme for 2004–2005, Major Programme IV – Culture, p. 53. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
28. "Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. Paris, 20 October 2005. UNESCO. General Conference, 33rd Session. Records of the General Conference. Thirty-third Session, Paris, 3–21 October 2005. Volume I: Resolutions. 33 C/Resolution 41. Chapter V Programme for 2006–2007, p. 83. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
29. "UNESCO. Executive Board, 26th Session. Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its twenty-sixth session. (7 June to 9 July 1951). Paris, 27 July 1951. 26 EX/Decisions. Item 7 Programme, Resolution, p. 9. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
30. "UNESCO. General Conference, 3rd Session. (1949). Records of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Third Session. Beirut, 1948. Volume II: Resolutions. (UNESCO: Paris). 2 C/Resolution 3.7, page 23. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
31. ""Use and conservation of the biosphere: Proceedings of the intergovernmental conference of experts on the scientific basis for rational use and conservation of the resources of the biosphere. Paris, 4–13 September 1968." (1970.) In Natural Resources Research, Volume X. SC.69/XIL.16/A. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
32. "Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization" (PDF).
33. "UNESCO. (1955). International Expert Meeting on Professional Training for Journalism. Unesco House, 9–13 April 1956. Purpose and Scope. Paris, 18 November 1955. UNESCO/MC/PT.1. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
34. "UNESCO. General Conference, 19th Session. (1977). Approved Programme and budget for 1977–1978. Paris, February 1977. 19 C/5, p. 332, paragraphs 4154 and 4155. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
35. "MacBride, S. (1980). Many voices, one world: towards a new, more just, and more efficient world information and communication order. (UNESCO: Paris). UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.
36. "About IPDC | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Retrieved 15 December 2016.
37. "International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC) | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Retrieved 19 December 2016.
38. "World Press Freedom Day 2016". UNESCO. 2 February 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
39. "General Conference admits Palestine as UNESCO Member". 31 October 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
40. Blomfield, Adrian (31 October 2011). "US withdraws Unesco funding after it accepts Palestinian membership". The Telegraph. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
41. "Limitation on Contributions to the United Nations and Affiliated Organizations"(PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
42. Erlanger, Steven; Sayare, Scott (31 October 2011). "Unesco Approves Full Membership for Palestinians". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
43. "After UNESCO vote, Israeli sanctions on Palestinian Authority anger U.S."Haaretz. 4 November 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
44. "Israel freezes UNESCO funds". CNN. 3 December 2011. Archived from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
45. "U.S., Israel lose voting rights at UNESCO over Palestine row". Reuters. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
46. Because diploma mills have claimed false UNESCO accreditation, UNESCO itself has published warnings against education organizations that claim UNESCO recognition or affiliation. See Luca Lantero, Degree Mills: non-accredited and irregular higher education institutions Archived 13 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Information Centre on Academic Mobility and Equivalence (CIMEA), Italy. and UNESCO "Alert: Misuse of UNESCO Name by Bogus Institutions"
47. Varga, Susan (2006). Edinburgh Old Town (Images of Scotland). The History Press Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7524-4083-5.
48. "Fostering Freedom of Expression". UNESCO. 30 January 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
49. "International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC) | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Retrieved 19 December 2016.
50. "Safety of Journalists". UNESCO. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
51. "UN Plan of Action | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Retrieved 19 December 2016.
52. "Building Knowledge Societies". UNESCO. 18 June 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
53. "Memory of the World | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Retrieved 19 December 2016.
54. "Information for All Programme (IFAP) | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Retrieved 19 December 2016.
55. "Internet Universality | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Retrieved 19 December 2016.
56. "World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Retrieved 19 December 2016.
57. "UNESCO Series on Internet Freedom | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Retrieved 19 December 2016.
58. "Media Development Indicators (MDIs) | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Retrieved 19 December 2016.
59. "Promouvoir l'éducation à la santé chez les jeunes du campement informel de Kibera à Nairobi | Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture". (in French). Retrieved 18 August 2017.
60. "Migration Institutions – Home". Archived from the original on 5 March 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
61. "Education | EDUCATION –". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 6 October 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
62. "Official support for GoUNESCO from UNESCO New Delhi". GoUNESCO - Make Heritage Fun!. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
63. "Tangible Cultural Heritage - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization".
64. Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "UNESCO World Heritage Centre - Document - Discovered artifacts under preservation, Archaeological Site, 18 Hoang Dieu street".
65. "Archives". The UNESCO Courier. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 20 April 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
66. "Science and Technology Education" (PDF). UNESCO. 1998.
67. "Quoted on UNESCO official site". Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
68. "Full list of NGOs that have official relations with UNESCO". UNESCO. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
69. "UNESCO Headquarters Committee 107th session 13 Feb 2009". Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 1 July2012.
70. "International Bureau of Education". UNESCO. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
71. "About the Institute". UIL - UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. 29 October 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
72. "IIEP UNESCO". Retrieved 14 November 2018.
73. "Contact Us". UNESCO IITE. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
74. "Contact Us". IICBA. UNESCO. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
75. "Contact Us". IESALC (in Spanish). UNESCO.
76. "UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre". Retrieved 14 November 2018.
77. "Home". IHE Delft Institute for Water Education. UNESCO. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
78. "Mission & History". ICTP - International Centre for Theoretical Physics. UNESCO. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
79. "Contact Us". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. 21 November 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
80. UNESCO Executive Board Document 185 EX/38, Paris, 10 September 2010
81. International Days | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. UNESCO. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
82. "International Day to End Impunity for Crimes against Journalists". UNESCO. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
83. "List of UNESCO members and associates". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 November2011.
84. "Summary update on Government progress to become a State Party to the UNESCO International Convention against Doping in Sport" (PDF). WADA. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
85. UNESCO (12 October 2017), Statement by Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO, on the occasion of the Withdrawal by the United States of America from UNESCO (Press release.), retrieved 21 February 2019
86. UNESCO (29 December 2017), Declaration by UNESCO Director-General Audrey Azoulay on the withdrawal of Israel from the Organization (Press release.), retrieved 21 February 2019
87. "State Parties". UNESCO. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
88. "Member States of the United Nations". United Nations. Retrieved 31 October2011.
89. TOVAH LAZAROFF (31 December 2018). "ISRAEL, U.S. SLATED TO LEAVE UNESCO TODAY TO PROTEST ANTI-ISRAEL BIAS". JPost. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
90. UNESCO official site: Directors-General
91. UNESCO official site: Previous Sessions of the General Conference
92. "President of the 39th session of the General Conference". UNESCO. 5 October 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
93. "President of the 38th session of the General Conference". UNESCO. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
94. "General Conference 37th | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Retrieved 25 September 2015.
95. Executive Board – Results of elections. UNESCO General Conference, November 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
96. Table_2013-2015.pdf UNESCO Membership by Electoral Groups. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
97. "List of All UNESCO Field Offices by Region with Descriptions of Member State Coverage". UNESCO.
98. "City of Quito – UNESCO World Heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
99. "UNESCO Office in Brasilia | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Retrieved 24 September 2015.
100. "Oficina de la UNESCO en Quito | Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura". Retrieved 24 September2015.
101. Grahm, S. E. (April 2006). "The (Real)politiks of Culture: U.S. Cultural Diplomacy in UNESCO, 1946–1954". Diplomatic History. 30 (2): 231–51. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.2006.00548.x.
102. "UNESCO asks states considering withdrawal to 'reconsider their position'", UN Chronicle, January 1986
103. "Singapore to withdraw from UNESCO", The Telegraph, 28 December 1984.
104. "UNESCO", Encyclopedia Britannica, 14 February 2018
105. "Hebron clashes over Israel's West Bank heritage list". BBC News. 26 February 2010.
106. "Executive Board adopts five decisions concerning UNESCO's work in the occupied Palestinian and Arab Territories". UNESCO. 21 October 2010.
108. Hillel Fendel (1 November 2010). "UNESCO Erases Israeli Protests from Rachel's Tomb Protocol". Arutz Sheva.
109. Maayana Miskin (29 October 2010). "UN Org.: Rachel's Tomb is a Mosque". Arutz Sheva.
110. "Ayalon: Israel will no longer cooperate with UNESCO". The Jerusalem Post. 3 November 2010.
111. Shalom, Rabbi. "Cooperation with UNESCO only partially suspended". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
112. "UNESCO censures Israel over Mughrabi Bridge – Israel News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
113. Berman, Lazar (17 January 2014). "UNESCO cancels event on Jewish ties to Land of Israel". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
114. Ahren, Raphael (21 January 2014). "Author of UNESCO's nixed Israel exhibit decries 'appalling betrayal'". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
115. Jump up to:a b "UNESCO adopts anti-Israel resolution on al-Aqsa Mosque".
116. "Commission report" (PDF).
117. "UNESCO fails to acknowledge Jewish ties to Temple Mount". 13 October 2016.
118. "Netanyahu leads angry denunciations of 'absurd' UNESCO decision".
119. "UNESCO chief 'received death threats' for opposing Jerusalem motion". Times of Israel. 17 October 2016.
120. "Statement by the Director-General of UNESCO on the Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls on the occasion of the 40th session of the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO in Istanbul - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization".
121. "UNESCO Director Criticizes Resolution: Temple Mount Sacred to Both Jews, Muslims". Haaretz. 14 October 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
122. "Czech MPs slam 'hateful' UNESCO Jerusalem resolution".
123. "UNESCO approves new Jerusalem resolution".
124. Beaumont, Peter (26 October 2016). "Unesco adopts controversial resolution on Jerusalem holy sites". The Guardian.
125. "UNESCO resolution on Jerusalem holy sites draws criticism from U.S., Israel". CBC/Radio-Canada. 26 October 2016.
126. "The United States Withdraws From UNESCO". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
127. Harris, Gardiner; Erlangeroct, Steven (12 October 2017). "U.S. Will Withdraw From Unesco, Citing Its 'Anti-Israel Bias'". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 April2018.
128. "Unesco cuts funding for Palestinian youth magazine over Hitler praise". The Daily Telegraph. 23 December 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
129. "UNESCO Chair in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences (964), established in 2012 at The Islamic University of Gaza (Palestine)". UNESCO. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
130. The Goldstone Report: The Legacy of the Landmark Investigation of the Gaza Conflict By Adam Horowitz, Lizzy Ratner and Philip Weiss (2011). Google Books.
131. "Israel shocked by UNESCO Chair at Gaza Islamic University" (Press release). Israel ministry of foreign affairs. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
132. Higgins, Michael (12 July 2012). "UNESCO establishes chair at Gaza university accused of housing Hamas bomb labs". National Post. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
133. "Fatah: Shalit was held at Gaza Islamic University". Yedioth Ahronot. 6 February 2007. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
134. Cambanis, Thanassis (28 February 2010). "Hamas University". Boston Globe. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
135. Ravid, Barak (12 July 2012). "Israel furious at UNESCO decision to back science chair at Islamic University of Gaza". Haaretz. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
136. Yaakov, Yifa (14 July 2012). "B'nai Brith slams UNESCO affiliation with Gaza University". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
137. "News journalism in a digital world". UNESCO. 10 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
138. "The Guardian's hatchet job on Julian Assange". World Socialist Web Site. 10 March 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
139. "WikiLeaks denounces UNESCO after WikiLeaks banned from UNESCO conference on WikiLeaks". WikiLeaks. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February2012.
140. UNESCO Once Again Makes a Mockery of its Own Ideals by Glorifying Mass Murderer Che Guevara, Says Ros-Lehtinen (press release), House of representatives, 22 July 2013.
141. UNESCO honors executioner Che Guevara, UN Watch, 21 July 2013 (retrieved 11 July 2016)
142. (, Deutsche Welle. "Japan furious at UNESCO listing Nanjing Massacre documents - Asia - DW.COM - 19.10.2015".
143. "Japan halts Unesco funding following Nanjing massacre row". The Guardian. Agence France-Presse. 14 October 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
144. "UNESCO Membership: Issues for Congress". Congressional Research Service reports. 20 November 2003. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
145. "United States & UNESCO, Part 1". Starting from 05:08. C-SPAN.
146. Rosenberg, Eli; Morello, Carol (12 October 2017). "U.S. withdraws from UNESCO, the U.N.'s cultural organization, citing anti-Israel bias". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
147. Irish, John (13 October 2017). "U.S., Israel quit UNESCO over alleged bias". Reuters. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
148. "Turkish writer quits UNESCO to protest damage to heritage, rights abuse". Reuters. May 26, 2016.
149. "UNESDOC Database - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization".
150. "Information Processing Tools". Unesco. Archived from the original on 8 January 2015.
151. "OpenIDAMS". Unesco. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015.

External links

• Official website
Site Admin
Posts: 32013
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 2:49 am

Elisabeth Rotten (1882-1964): A frantic activist of the humanitarian and educational cause and citizen of the world
by Martine Ruchat
Published on 09/04/2018




For his 70th birthday, in 1952, Walter Robert Corti wrote an article in the Neue Zürcher Zeitung of February 15th for the birthday of Elisabeth Rotten, describing this meeting which brings together the faithful of the "educational province" - a nod to Goethe and his book The Life of Wilhelm Meister - ie: John Dewey, Maria Montessori, Martin Buber, Adolphe Ferriere and Bernard Drzewieski. At first, he wears a fighter, a courageous, who holds the "torch of this pedagogy", but also a modest, tender and fragile soul of this "citizen of freedom and freedom". mind. It is therefore necessary to explain his progress, his covenants, his support (and they are very present that day), his sorrows as well. Through her correspondence, she is also an active woman or even an activist who reveals herself, great letter-writer who does not spend a day without writing letters if not articles (early morning until past midnight) at the risk of disturbing her sleep as she often tells her friend Corti. In a letter of August 30, 1946 to Corti she speaks of her as being hektisch, a word that could be translated as hectic, over-excited, frantic or feverish.

Elisabeth Friederike was born February 15, 1882 in Berlin of Swiss and Protestant parents. His father is an engineer. Their house is open to Swiss students in difficulty. She went to school in this city. Then she undertakes studies in German, philosophy and modern languages ​​(she speaks perfect German, French and English: her correspondence attests!). During her training she has the opportunity to hear lectures by two great German pedagogues: Hermann Lietz and Gustav Wynecken. She also studied in Heidelberg, Montpellier and Marburg, where she defended her doctoral thesis in philosophy on Goethe's archetypes and the Platonic idea, and in 1913 she went on to teach at the University of Cambridge, which is already a prestigious university.

Explodes the First World War; She then settled in Switzerland in Saanen, in the Bernese Pre-Alps, from where she wrote a large part of her correspondence.


She works with the Swiss Red Cross in the prisoner of war agency set up by Dr. Frédéric Ferrière to help prisoners of war, before returning to Berlin and managing the Office for Relief for "Alien enemies" (Office relief for "foreign enemies") set up by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). There, she devoted herself to assisting German prisoners of war and founded, with Professor Friedrich Siegmund-Schultze, the Office of Assistance and Information to expatriate Germans and foreigners in Germany. In 1915, she participated in The Hague in the creation of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom). Also in 1915, she attended the International Women's Congress in The Hague and collaborated on the founding of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.

Congress of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom in The Hague in 1915

She keeps contacts with this association by participating in several of its congresses, notably in 1919 in Zurich. That year she co-founded (notably with Albert Einstein) an important German pacifist organization, the Bund Neues Vaterland, which later became the German League for Human Rights (Deutsche Liga für Menschenrechte). She took over the management of the small monthly magazine Der Neue Bund "to help out", as she wrote to Corti from her house in Saanen on December 5, 1944. She took part, after the first world war, in international aid. Quakers as a young Swiss girl from abroad.

In 1919, she was in Geneva for the International Conference on Education giving a lecture on "The Essays of a New Education in Germany", which caused a sensation. That same year she became a member of the presidium of the German League for the League of Nations (Deutsche Liga für Völkerbund) until 1933, a pacifist association that advocated for the project of a future League of Nations. She collaborated closely with the Society of Friends, the Quakers, from 1919 to 1923, in a large Quakerspeisung (Quakerspeisung) program in Central Europe.

"Quakerspeisung" (Quaker feedings) Food Relief Program, after the first war, especially for children

She joined society in 1930: she became Quaker. She participates in Hans Wehberg's review, Friedenswarte, giving her the benefit, writes Corti again in her 1952 article, of her "amazing ability as a translator".

In this pacifist and social spirit, Elisabeth Rotten engages in the post-war educational movements aiming at a renewal of education, notably in the Bund entschiedener Schulreformer (Union of Radical School Reformers) movement. It will work until 1933 to several attempts of educational reforms in Germany. In 1920, she was editor of the militant journal for reform, Internationale Erziehungs-Rundschau. She also directed the Deutschen Liga für Völkerbund until 1921, as well as the International Journal of Education of the 1920s and 1921s.


She thus meets many great figures of the pedagogy with which she initiates epistolary exchanges provided. She is a friend of Carleton Washburne. In 1921, she founded, at the first congress of the new education in Calais in 1921, with Adolphe Ferrière, Beatrice Ensor, John Dewey, Maria Montessori and Alexander Sutherland Neill to name only them, the International League for Education New, of which she will be vice-president until 1949, which brings together progressive educators and pedagogues.


She is founder and editor of the German version of the magazine For the New Era, Das werdende Zeitalter, and English, The New Era, with Ensor and Neil. In 1924, she participated in the creation of the International School of Geneva and the following year of the International Bureau of Education (BIE) with Adolphe Ferrière, Édouard Claparède and Pierre Bovet in particular. She will be the first assistant director with Adolphe Ferrière. She established contacts with several women involved in pacifist and childhood causes, including Marie Butts, secretary general of the BIE, also a member of the Society of Friends (Quakers). It is logically at the center of the group photo of the seventh international conference of the International League for New Education (or New Education Fellowship) in 1936 that she appears alongside Ferrière:



And in 1937, she founded the Swiss Montessori Association with Jean Piaget; she was vice-president until her death in 1964. She said she was "Montessorian". It is impossible to name all the names of the "greatest of the time" with which she was linked, notes Corti again in her article of 1952. She is the author of many articles and books.

In 1934, from Berlin, she returned to settle in Saanen, from where she pursued all her militant engagements (feminist, pacifist, pedagogical) by giving lectures (especially on the pacifist dimension of education), writing articles and abundant correspondence with certain personalities and organizations. Many of his letters are real action programs, numbered point by point and with strong color underlining.


In December 1944, by a letter to Corti, she proposes to enter this adventure of the creation of the Village Pestalozzi occupying there very quickly an essential place, not only of promoter and publicist, but also of support to the one who will become her Great friend: Walter Robert Corti. But also with Marie Meierhofer.

In 1947, she was found at 60, a teacher at the High School of Education in Berlin and in 1948, delegate of the Swiss Don for Victims of War for Germany from the office for cultural exchange of the "Swiss Don". From this place, she particularly looks after the children's communities that are sponsored by the Swiss Don: Children's village Pax; Gaudiopolis; Otwock and Ziros in Greece. In April 1948, in a letter to Bernard Drzewieski of Unesco, she wrote the list of communities in the perspective of the conference (list found in the archives of Adolphe Ferrière at the Fondation Archives J.-J. Rousseau Foundation in Geneva). She took part in the Trogen Conferences of July 1948 and promoted the headquarters of FICE, of which she was briefly secretary. In 1950 with Marie Meierhofer and Walter Corti, they initiate the national committee of the FICE.

Elisabeth Rotten taking notes during the Children's Village Directors Conference in Trogen in July 1948

She will continue to present the children's village Pestalozzi in articles, conferences and participate by a greedy correspondence to all developments in its history, until his death.

Elisabeth Rotten's visit to Trogen in the 1950s

Elisabeth Rotten's visit to Trogen in the 1950s

Elisabeth Rotten's visit to Trogen in the 1950s

Upon the resignation of Corti from the Presidency of the Pestalozzi Village Association, and the creation of the Pestalozzi Village Foundation headed by Walter Stampfli, Corti in his address (transcribed in the 1950 annual report) will say about Elisabeth Rotten "The happiness of having met her is one of the most precious favors that life has bestowed on me. She has become, in my advanced days, my greatest master. How good it was to be able to preside over a circle of friends so admirable! ".

She died in London on May 2, 1964 at the age of 82. She is buried in Saanen.



Sources [1]

Manuscript, Zentralbibliothek, Zurich

Nachl. Rotten 4.1.1

Nachlass Elisabeth Rotten (im Walter Nachlass Robert Corti) 15.2.1882 - 2.5.1964

Fondation Archives J.-J. Rousseau Foundation

Corti, WR Elisabeth Rotten siebzigjährig, Neue Zurcher Zeitung 15 February 1952 AdF / C / 1/17

IOE Archives, London

WEF / A / II / 64 Elisabeth Rotten, 1928, 1949-1964


Annual report Pestalozzi Children's Village , 1950

Haenggeli-Jenni, Béatrice, "The International League for New Education: a militant network at the crossroads of pacifist and feminist networks of the inter-war period (1920-1940)", in Carole Carribon , Dominique Picco e al ., Networks of women, women in networks (XVI-XXI century) , Bordeaux University Press, 2017, p. 295-314

Haenggeli-Jenni, Beatrice, For the New Era: a journal-crossroads between science and activist (1922-1940) . Doctoral Thesis: Univ. Geneva, 2011.


Elisabeth Friederike Rotten, Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. ... th-rotten/

[1] Articles and letters in German have been freely translated by Bernard Walter (Orient, Vaud, Switzerland).
Site Admin
Posts: 32013
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 3:12 am

Martin Buber
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/17/19



For his 70th birthday, in 1952, Walter Robert Corti wrote an article in the Neue Zürcher Zeitung of February 15th for the birthday of Elisabeth Rotten, describing this meeting which brings together the faithful of the "educational province" ... ie: John Dewey, Maria Montessori, Martin Buber, Adolphe Ferriere and Bernard Drzewieski.

-- Elisabeth Rotten (1882-1964): A frantic activist of the humanitarian and educational cause and citizen of the world, by Martine Ruchat

The most moving anecdote about Buber was that which his educator friend Elisabeth Rotten related in the introduction to her selection from the revelations of Sister Mechtild von Magdeburg. Speaking directly to Buber, she reminded him of how, six years before, a small circle of his close friends were gathered at his house in lively conversation around his table and how this conversation elicited from Buber a statement that she often found illuminating her way in the years since. "'One must also love the evil,' you said to us, 'yes -- but in the way that the evil wants to be loved.' Your glance said to us still more than your words alone could have said. We had been speaking of the Quakers' belief in the good in all men and of our strong attraction to it but also of the danger of losing sight of the reality of evil.... Your simple words, your embracing glance solved this dark and tormenting riddle of life that had oppressed us."

A significant counterpart to Buber's statement on evil narrated by Elisabeth Rotten is found in his comment on Max Brod's contribution to the special Buber issue of Der Jude. Speaking to Brod of three of his novels, Buber protested: "One may not voluntarily accept evil into one's life. Evil enters our lives entirely willy nilly. To defend ourselves against it, we should always will only to penetrate the impure with the pure. The result will probably be an interpenetration of both elements; still one ought not anticipate that result by saying 'Yes' to the evil in advance." Hermann Hesse testified to the enormous impact on his life of Buber's Hasidic tales; the Christian theologian Friedrich Thieberger wrote of the new biblical belief that he and Buber shared, and many prominent Zionists, such as Leo Hermann, Adolf Bohm, Markus Reiner, Robert Weltsch, Ernst Simon, Viktor Kellner, Felix Weltsch, and Siegfried Lehmann, founder of the Jewish National Home, wrote of Buber's contributions to Zionism and Judaism. Hugo Bergmann contributed a philosophical study of "Concept and Reality" in the thought of Buber and the German Idealist philosopher J.G. Fichte. Several letters from the early correspondence between Buber and Chaim Weizmann were also published in this issue. One contributor even told of how Buber at fifty outran his companions when they left his house for a spontaneous run in the night! "The life of people in this age sucks dry with mighty drafts, strikes out with mighty thrusts," reflected the distinguished writer Arnold Zweig. "But it would have no depth were there not here and there on the earth persons who sit like this man Buber in Heppenheim and give it that tiy injection of iodine without which its fire, spirit, and central creativity would be a mere mechanical process."

-- Martin Buber's Life and Work, by Maurice Friedman

Martin Buber
Born February 8, 1878
Vienna, Austria-Hungary
Died June 13, 1965 (aged 87)
Jerusalem, Israel
Era 20th-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Continental philosophy
Main interests
Ontologyphilosophical anthropology
Notable ideas
Ich-Du (I–Thou) and Ich-Es (I–It)
Influences: Immanuel KantZhuangziSøren KierkegaardFriedrich NietzscheLudwig FeuerbachRalph Waldo EmersonPierre-Joseph ProudhonSigmund FreudJacob L. MorenoWilhelm DiltheyGeorg SimmelRudolf Bultmann
Influenced: Abraham Joshua HeschelWalter KaufmannGabriel MarcelFranz RosenzweigHans Urs von BalthasarFritz PerlsLaura PerlsJohn BergerEmil Brunner[1]

Martin Buber (Hebrew: מרטין בּוּבֶּר‎; German: Martin Buber; Yiddish: מארטין בובער‎‎; February 8, 1878 – June 13, 1965) was an Austrian philosopher best known for his philosophy of dialogue, a form of existentialism centered on the distinction between the I–Thou relationship and the I–It relationship.[2] Born in Vienna, Buber came from a family of observant Jews, but broke with Jewish custom to pursue secular studies in philosophy. In 1902, he became the editor of the weekly Die Welt, the central organ of the Zionist movement, although he later withdrew from organizational work in Zionism. In 1923, Buber wrote his famous essay on existence, Ich und Du (later translated into English as I and Thou), and in 1925, he began translating the Hebrew Bible into the German language.

He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature ten times, and Nobel Peace Prize seven times.[3]


Martin (Hebrew name: מָרְדֳּכַי, Mordechaj) Buber was born in Der Franz-Josefs-Kai 45 [de]/Heinrichsgasse 8 [de][4][5][6][7][8], der Innere Stadt [de] (1 Wien), City of Vienna, to an Orthodox Jewish family. He was a son of Castiel "Karl" Salomon Buber (Hebrew: קסטיאל "קאַרל" שְׁלֹמֹה בּוּבּר‎‎, Yiddish: קסטיאל בּן-שְׁלֹמֹה בּוּבּער‎‎, 1848, Lemberg–1935, Lemberg[9][10]), the son of Salomon Buber, and Elise Wurgast (Yiddish: עליזע וווּרגאַסט‎‎, 1858, Odessa–?[11]). Buber was a direct descendant of the 16th-century rabbi Meir Katzenellenbogen, known as the Maharam of Padua. Karl Marx is another notable relative.[12] After the divorce of his parents when he was three years old, he was raised by his grandfather in Lvov.[12] His grandfather Salomon Buber (1827, Lemberg–1906, Lemberg[13]), was a scholar of Midrash and Rabbinic Literature. At home, Buber spoke Yiddish and German. In 1892, Buber returned to his father's house in Lemberg, today's Lviv, Ukraine.

Despite Buber's connection to the Davidic line as a descendant of Katzenellenbogen, a personal religious crisis led him to break with Jewish religious customs. He began reading Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, and Friedrich Nietzsche.[14] The latter two, in particular, inspired him to pursue studies in philosophy. In 1896, Buber went to study in Vienna (philosophy, art history, German studies, philology).

In 1898, he joined the Zionist movement, participating in congresses and organizational work. In 1899, while studying in Zürich, Buber met his future wife, Paula (Judith) Buber [de] (née Winkler[15]), a "brilliant Catholic writer from a Bavarian peasant family"[16] who later converted to Judaism.[17]

Buber, initially, supported and celebrated the Great War as a 'world historical mission' for Germany along with Jewish intellectuals to civilize the Near East.[18] While in Vienna, during and after World War I, some researchers claim he was influenced by the writings of Jacob L. Moreno, particularly the use of the term ‘encounter’.[19][20]

In 1930, Buber became an honorary professor at the University of Frankfurt am Main, but resigned from his professorship in protest immediately after Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933. He then founded the Central Office for Jewish Adult Education, which became an increasingly important body as the German government forbade Jews from public education. In 1938, Buber left Germany and settled in Jerusalem, Mandate Palestine, receiving a professorship at Hebrew University and lecturing in anthropology and introductory sociology.

Buber's wife Paula died in 1958, and he died at his home in the Talbiya neighborhood of Jerusalem on June 13, 1965. They had two children: a son, Rafael Buber (husband of Margarete Buber-Neumann née Thüring [de]), and a daughter, Eva Strauss-Steinitz (wife of Ludwig Strauß [de]).[12]

Major themes

Buber's evocative, sometimes poetic, writing style marked the major themes in his work: the retelling of Hasidic and Chinese tales, Biblical commentary, and metaphysical dialogue. A cultural Zionist, Buber was active in the Jewish and educational communities of Germany and Israel.[21] He was also a staunch supporter of a binational solution in Palestine, and, after the establishment of the Jewish state of Israel, of a regional federation of Israel and Arab states. His influence extends across the humanities, particularly in the fields of social psychology, social philosophy, and religious existentialism.[22]

Buber's attitude toward Zionism was tied to his desire to promote a vision of "Hebrew humanism".[23] According to Laurence J. Silberstein, the terminology of "Hebrew humanism" was coined to "distinguish [Buber's] form of nationalism from that of the official Zionist movement" and to point to how "Israel's problem was but a distinct form of the universal human problem. Accordingly, the task of Israel as a distinct nation was inexorably linked to the task of humanity in general".[24]

Zionist views

Approaching Zionism from his own personal viewpoint, Buber disagreed with Theodor Herzl about the political and cultural direction of Zionism. Herzl envisioned the goal of Zionism in a nation-state, but did not consider Jewish culture or religion necessary. In contrast, Buber believed the potential of Zionism was for social and spiritual enrichment. For example, Buber argued that following the formation of the Israeli state, there would need to be reforms to Judaism: "We need someone who would do for Judaism what Pope John XXIII has done for the Catholic Church".[25] Herzl and Buber would continue, in mutual respect and disagreement, to work towards their respective goals for the rest of their lives.

In 1902, Buber became the editor of the weekly Die Welt, the central organ of the Zionist movement. However, a year later he became involved with the Jewish Hasidim movement. Buber admired how the Hasidic communities actualized their religion in daily life and culture. In stark contrast to the busy Zionist organizations, which were always mulling political concerns, the Hasidim were focused on the values which Buber had long advocated for Zionism to adopt. In 1904, he withdrew from much of his Zionist organizational work, and devoted himself to study and writing. In that year, he published his thesis, Beiträge zur Geschichte des Individuationsproblems, on Jakob Böhme and Nikolaus Cusanus.[26]

In the early 1920s, Martin Buber started advocating a binational Jewish-Arab state, stating that the Jewish people should proclaim "its desire to live in peace and brotherhood with the Arab people, and to develop the common homeland into a republic in which both peoples will have the possibility of free development".[27]

Buber rejected the idea of Zionism as just another national movement, and wanted instead to see the creation of an exemplary society; a society which would not, he said, be characterized by Jewish domination of the Arabs. It was necessary for the Zionist movement to reach a consensus with the Arabs even at the cost of the Jews remaining a minority in the country. In 1925, he was involved in the creation of the organization Brit Shalom (Covenant of Peace), which advocated the creation of a binational state, and throughout the rest of his life, he hoped and believed that Jews and Arabs one day would live in peace in a joint nation. In 1942, he co‑founded the Ihud party, which advocated a bi-nationalist program. Nevertheless, he was connected with decades of friendship to Zionists and philosophers such as Chaim Weizmann, Max Brod, Hugo Bergman, and Felix Weltsch, who were close friends of his from old European times in Prague, Berlin, and Vienna to the Jerusalem of the 1940s through the 1960s.

After the establishment of Israel in 1948, Buber advocated Israel's participation in a federation of "Near East" states wider than just Palestine.[28]

Literary and academic career

Martin Buber's house (1916–38) in Heppenheim, Germany. Now the headquarters of the ICCJ.

Martin Buber and Rabbi Binyamin in Palestine (1920–30)

Buber (left) and Judah Leon Magnes testifying before the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry in Jerusalem (1946)

Buber in the Jewish Quarter in Jerusalem, prior to 1948

From 1906 until 1914, Buber published editions of Hasidic, mystical, and mythic texts from Jewish and world sources. In 1916, he moved from Berlin to Heppenheim.

During World War I, he helped establish the Jewish National Committee[29] to improve the condition of Eastern European Jews. During that period he became the editor of Der Jude (German for "The Jew"), a Jewish monthly (until 1924). In 1921, Buber began his close relationship with Franz Rosenzweig. In 1922, he and Rosenzweig co-operated in Rosenzweig's House of Jewish Learning, known in Germany as Lehrhaus.[30]

In 1923, Buber wrote his famous essay on existence, Ich und Du (later translated into English as I and Thou). Though he edited the work later in his life, he refused to make substantial changes. In 1925, he began, in conjunction with Franz Rosenzweig, translating the Hebrew Bible into German. He himself called this translation Verdeutschung ("Germanification"), since it does not always use literary German language, but instead attempts to find new dynamic (often newly invented) equivalent phrasing to respect the multivalent Hebrew original. Between 1926 and 1930, Buber co-edited the quarterly Die Kreatur ("The Creature").[31]

In 1930, Buber became an honorary professor at the University of Frankfurt am Main. He resigned in protest from his professorship immediately after Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933. On October 4, 1933, the Nazi authorities forbade him to lecture. In 1935, he was expelled from the Reichsschrifttumskammer (the National Socialist authors' association). He then founded the Central Office for Jewish Adult Education, which became an increasingly important body, as the German government forbade Jews to attend public education.[32] The Nazi administration increasingly obstructed this body.

Finally, in 1938, Buber left Germany, and settled in Jerusalem, then capital of Mandate Palestine. He received a professorship at Hebrew University, there lecturing in anthropology and introductory sociology. The lectures he gave during the first semester were published in the book The problem of man (Das Problem des Menschen);[33][34] in these lectures he discusses how the question "What is Man?" became the central one in philosophical anthropology.[35] He participated in the discussion of the Jews' problems in Palestine and of the Arab question – working out of his Biblical, philosophic, and Hasidic work.

He became a member of the group Ihud, which aimed at a bi-national state for Arabs and Jews in Palestine. Such a binational confederation was viewed by Buber as a more proper fulfillment of Zionism than a solely Jewish state. In 1946, he published his work Paths in Utopia,[36] in which he detailed his communitarian socialist views and his theory of the "dialogical community" founded upon interpersonal "dialogical relationships".

After World War II, Buber began lecture tours in Europe and the United States. In 1952, he argued with Jung over the existence of God.[37]


Buber is famous for his thesis of dialogical existence, as he described in the book I and Thou. However, his work dealt with a range of issues including religious consciousness, modernity, the concept of evil, ethics, education, and Biblical hermeneutics.[38]

Buber rejected the label of "philosopher" or "theologian", claiming he was not interested in ideas, only personal experience, and could not discuss God, but only relationships to God.[39]

Politically, Buber's social philosophy on points of prefiguration aligns with that of anarchism, though Buber explicitly disavowed the affiliation in his lifetime and justified the existence of a state under limited conditions.[40][41]

Dialogue and existence

In I and Thou, Buber introduced his thesis on human existence. Inspired by Feuerbach's The Essence of Christianity and Kierkegaard's Single One, Buber worked upon the premise of existence as encounter.[42] He explained this philosophy using the word pairs of Ich-Du and Ich-Es to categorize the modes of consciousness, interaction, and being through which an individual engages with other individuals, inanimate objects, and all reality in general. Theologically, he associated the first with the Jewish Jesus and the second with the apostle Paul (formerly Saul of Tarsus, a Jew).[43] Philosophically, these word pairs express complex ideas about modes of being—particularly how a person exists and actualizes that existence. As Buber argues in I and Thou, a person is at all times engaged with the world in one of these modes.

The generic motif Buber employs to describe the dual modes of being is one of dialogue (Ich-Du) and monologue (Ich-Es).[44] The concept of communication, particularly language-oriented communication, is used both in describing dialogue/monologue through metaphors and expressing the interpersonal nature of human existence.


Ich‑Du ("I‑Thou" or "I‑You") is a relationship that stresses the mutual, holistic existence of two beings. It is a concrete encounter, because these beings meet one another in their authentic existence, without any qualification or objectification of one another. Even imagination and ideas do not play a role in this relation. In an I–Thou encounter, infinity and universality are made actual (rather than being merely concepts).[44] Buber stressed that an Ich‑Du relationship lacks any composition (e. g., structure) and communicates no content (e. g., information). Despite the fact that Ich‑Du cannot be proven to happen as an event (e. g., it cannot be measured), Buber stressed that it is real and perceivable. A variety of examples are used to illustrate Ich‑Du relationships in daily life—two lovers, an observer and a cat, the author and a tree, and two strangers on a train. Common English words used to describe the Ich‑Du relationship include encounter, meeting, dialogue, mutuality, and exchange.

One key Ich‑Du relationship Buber identified was that which can exist between a human being and God. Buber argued that this is the only way in which it is possible to interact with God, and that an Ich‑Du relationship with anything or anyone connects in some way with the eternal relation to God.

To create this I–Thou relationship with God, a person has to be open to the idea of such a relationship, but not actively pursue it. The pursuit of such a relation creates qualities associated with It‑ness, and so would prevent an I‑You relation, limiting it to I‑It. Buber claims that if we are open to the I–Thou, God eventually comes to us in response to our welcome. Also, because the God Buber describes is completely devoid of qualities, this I–Thou relationship lasts as long as the individual wills it. When the individual finally returns to the I‑It way of relating, this acts as a barrier to deeper relationship and community.


The Ich-Es ("I‑It") relationship is nearly the opposite of Ich‑Du.[44] Whereas in Ich‑Du the two beings encounter one another, in an Ich‑Es relationship the beings do not actually meet. Instead, the "I" confronts and qualifies an idea, or conceptualization, of the being in its presence and treats that being as an object. All such objects are considered merely mental representations, created and sustained by the individual mind. This is based partly on Kant's theory of phenomenon, in that these objects reside in the cognitive agent’s mind, existing only as thoughts. Therefore, the Ich‑Es relationship is in fact a relationship with oneself; it is not a dialogue, but a monologue.

In the Ich-Es relationship, an individual treats other things, people, etc., as objects to be used and experienced. Essentially, this form of objectivity relates to the world in terms of the self – how an object can serve the individual’s interest.

Buber argued that human life consists of an oscillation between Ich‑Du and Ich‑Es, and that in fact Ich‑Du experiences are rather few and far between. In diagnosing the various perceived ills of modernity (e. g., isolation, dehumanization, etc.), Buber believed that the expansion of a purely analytic, material view of existence was at heart an advocation of Ich‑Es relations - even between human beings. Buber argued that this paradigm devalued not only existents, but the meaning of all existence.

Hasidism and mysticism

Buber was a scholar, interpreter, and translator of Hasidic lore. He viewed Hasidism as a source of cultural renewal for Judaism, frequently citing examples from the Hasidic tradition that emphasized community, interpersonal life, and meaning in common activities (e. g., a worker's relation to his tools). The Hasidic ideal, according to Buber, emphasized a life lived in the unconditional presence of God, where there was no distinct separation between daily habits and religious experience. This was a major influence on Buber's philosophy of anthropology, which considered the basis of human existence as dialogical.

In 1906, Buber published Die Geschichten des Rabbi Nachman, a collection of the tales of the Rabbi Nachman of Breslov, a renowned Hasidic rebbe, as interpreted and retold in a Neo-Hasidic fashion by Buber. Two years later, Buber published Die Legende des Baalschem (stories of the Baal Shem Tov), the founder of Hasidism.[30]

Buber's interpretation of the Hasidic tradition, however, has been criticized by Chaim Potok for its romanticization. In the introduction to Buber's Tales of the Hasidim, Potok claims that Buber overlooked Hasidism's "charlatanism, obscurantism, internecine quarrels, its heavy freight of folk superstition and pietistic excesses, its tzadik worship, its vulgarized and attenuated reading of Lurianic Kabbalah". Even more severe is the criticism that Buber de-emphasized the importance of the Jewish Law in Hasidism.

Awards and recognition

• In 1951, Buber received the Goethe award of the University of Hamburg.
• In 1953, he received the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade.
• In 1958, he was awarded the Israel Prize in the humanities.[45]
• In 1961, he was awarded the Bialik Prize for Jewish thought.[46]
• In 1963, he won the Erasmus Prize in Amsterdam.

Published works

Original writings (German)

• Die Geschichten des Rabbi Nachman (1906)
• Die fünfzigste Pforte (1907)
• Die Legende des Baalschem (1908)
• Ekstatische Konfessionen (1909)
• Chinesische Geister- und Liebesgeschichten (1911)
• Daniel – Gespräche von der Verwirklichung (1913)
• Die jüdische Bewegung – gesammelte Aufsätze und Ansprachen 1900–1915(1916)
• Vom Geist des Judentums – Reden und Geleitworte (1916)
• Die Rede, die Lehre und das Lied – drei Beispiele (1917)
• Ereignisse und Begegnungen (1917)
• Der grosse Maggid und seine Nachfolge(1922)
• Reden über das Judentum (1923)
• Ich und Du (1923)
o Translation: I and Thou by Walter Kaufmann (Touchstone: 1970)
• Das Verborgene Licht (1924)
• Die chassidischen Bücher (1928)
• Aus unbekannten Schriften (1928)
• Zwiesprache (1932)
• Kampf um Israel – Reden und Schriften 1921–1932 (1933)
• Hundert chassidische Geschichten (1933)
• Die Troestung Israels : aus Jeschajahu, Kapitel 40 bis 55 (1933); with Franz Rosenzweig
• Erzählungen von Engeln, Geistern und Dämonen (1934)
• Das Buch der Preisungen (1935); with Franz Rosenzweig
• Deutung des Chassidismus – drei Versuche (1935)
• Die Josefslegende in aquarellierten Zeichnungen eines unbekannten russischen Juden der Biedermeierzeit (1935)
• Die Schrift und ihre Verdeutschung (1936); with Franz Rosenzweig
• Aus Tiefen rufe ich Dich – dreiundzwanzig Psalmen in der Urschrift (1936)
• Das Kommende : Untersuchungen zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Messianischen Glaubens – 1. Königtum Gottes (1936 ?)
• Die Stunde und die Erkenntnis – Reden und Aufsätze 1933–1935 (1936)
• Zion als Ziel und als Aufgabe – Gedanken aus drei Jahrzehnten – mit einer Rede über Nationalismus als Anhang (1936)
• Worte an die Jugend (1938)
• Moseh (1945)
• Dialogisches Leben – gesammelte philosophische und pädagogische Schriften (1947)
• Der Weg des Menschen : nach der chassidischen Lehre (1948)
• Das Problem des Menschen (1948, Hebrew text 1942)
• Die Erzählungen der Chassidim (1949)
• Gog und Magog – eine Chronik (1949, Hebrew text 1943)
• Israel und Palästina – zur Geschichte einer Idee (1950, Hebrew text 1944)
• Der Glaube der Propheten (1950)
• Pfade in Utopia (1950)
• Zwei Glaubensweisen (1950)
• Urdistanz und Beziehung (1951)
• Der utopische Sozialismus (1952)
• Bilder von Gut und Böse (1952)
• Die Chassidische Botschaft (1952)
• Recht und Unrecht – Deutung einiger Psalmen (1952)
• An der Wende – Reden über das Judentum (1952)
• Zwischen Gesellschaft und Staat (1952)
• Das echte Gespräch und die Möglichkeiten des Friedens (1953)
• Einsichten : aus den Schriften gesammelt (1953)
• Reden über Erziehung (1953)
• Gottesfinsternis – Betrachtungen zur Beziehung zwischen Religion und Philosophie (1953)
o Translation Eclipse of God: Studies in the Relation Between Religion and Philosophy (Harper and Row: 1952)
• Hinweise – gesammelte Essays (1953)
• Die fünf Bücher der Weisung – Zu einer neuen Verdeutschung der Schrift(1954); with Franz Rosenzweig
• Die Schriften über das dialogische Prinzip (Ich und Du, Zwiesprache, Die Frage an den Einzelnen, Elemente des Zwischenmenschlichen) (1954)
• Sehertum – Anfang und Ausgang (1955)
• Der Mensch und sein Gebild (1955)
• Schuld und Schuldgefühle (1958)
• Begegnung – autobiographische Fragmente (1960)
• Logos : zwei Reden (1962)
• Nachlese (1965)
Chinesische Geister- und Liebesgeschichten included the first German translation ever made of Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio. Alex Page translated the Chinesische Geister- und Liebesgeschichten as "Chinese Tales", published in 1991 by Humanities Press.[47]

Collected works

Werke 3 volumes (1962–1964)
• I Schriften zur Philosophie (1962)
• II Schriften zur Bibel (1964)
• III Schriften zum Chassidismus (1963)
Martin Buber Werkausgabe (MBW). Berliner Akademie der Wissenschaften / Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, ed. Paul Mendes-Flohr & Peter Schäfer with Martina Urban; 21 volumes planned (2001–)


Briefwechsel aus sieben Jahrzehnten 1897–1965 (1972–1975)
• I : 1897–1918 (1972)
• II : 1918–1938 (1973)
• III : 1938–1965 (1975)
Several of his original writings, including his personal archives, are preserved in the National Library of Israel, formerly the Jewish National and University Library, located on the campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem[48]

See also

• Existential therapy
• Guilt
• Humanistic psychology
• Intersubjectivity
• Contextual therapy
• André Neher
• List of Israel Prize recipients
• List of Bialik Prize recipients
• Jewish existentialism


1. Livingstone, E. A. (2013). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church(3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 79. doi:10.1093/acref/9780199659623.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-965962-3.
2. "Island of Freedom - Martin Buber".
3. "Nomination Database". Retrieved 2017-01-24.
4. "Gedenktafel Martin Buber – Wien Geschichte Wiki".
5. "Buber Gedenktafel".
6. "Martin Buber und Wien".
7. "Franz-Josefs-Kai 45 – City ABC".
8. "Bild der Woche – Martin-Buber-Geburtshaus". Retrieved 9 August2019.
9. "Kalman Carl Buber". Retrieved 9 August 2019.
10. "Martin Buber". Retrieved 9 August 2019.
11. "Elise Buber". Retrieved 9 August 2019.
12. Neil Rosenstein (1990), The Unbroken Chain: Biographical Sketches and Genealogy of Illustrious Jewish Families from the 15th–20th Century, 1, 2 (revised ed.), New York: CIS, ISBN 0-9610578-4-X
13. "Salomon (Solomon) Buber". Retrieved 9 August 2019.
14. Wood, Robert E (1 December 1969). Martin Buber's Ontology: An Analysis of I and Thou. Northwestern University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-8101-0650-5.
15. "Paula Judith Buber". Retrieved 9 August 2019.
16. The Pity of It All: A History of Jews in Germany 1743-1933. P. 238. (2002) ISBN 0-8050-5964-4
17. "The Existential Primer". Tameri. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
18. Elon, Amos. (2002). The Pity of It All: A History of Jews in Germany, 1743–1933. New York: Metropolitan Books. Henry Holt and Company. pp. 318-319. ISBN 0-8050-5964-4.
19. "Jacob Levy Moreno's encounter term: a part of a social drama" (PDF). pp. 9–10. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
20. "Moreno's Influence on Martin Buber's Dialogical Philosophy". Retrieved 9 August 2019.
21. Buber 1996, p. 92.
22. Buber 1996, p. 34.
23. Schaeder, Grete (1973). The Hebrew humanism of Martin Buber. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. p. 11. ISBN 0-8143-1483-X.
24. Silberstein, Laurence J (1989). Martin Buber's Social and Religious Thought: Alienation and the quest for meaning. New York: New York University Press. p. 100. ISBN 0-8147-7886-0.
25. Hodes, Aubrey (1971). Martin Buber: An Intimate Portrait. p. 174. ISBN 0-670-45904-6.
26. Stewart, Jon (1 May 2011). Kierkegaard and Existentialism. Ashgate. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-4094-2641-7.
27. "Jewish Zionist Education". IL: Jafi. May 15, 2005. Archived from the originalon December 22, 2009. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
28. Buber, Martin (2005) [1954]. "We Need The Arabs, They Need Us!". In Mendes-Flohr, Paul (ed.). A Land of Two Peoples. University of Chicago. ISBN 0-226-07802-7.
29. "Martin Buber". Retrieved 9 August 2019.
30. Jump up to:a b Zank, Michael (31 August 2006). New perspectives on Martin Buber. Mohr Siebeck. p. 20. ISBN 978-3-16-148998-3.
31. Buber, Martin; Biemann, Asher D (2002). The Martin Buber reader: essential writings. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-312-29290-4.
32. Buber, Martin (15 February 2005). Mendes-Flohr, Paul R (ed.). A land of two peoples: Martin Buber on Jews and Arabs. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-07802-1.
33. Buber, Martin (1991), "Martin Buber: A Biographical Sketch", in Schaeder, Grete (ed.), The letters of Martin Buber: a life of dialogue, p. 52, ISBN 978-0-8156-0420-4
34. Buber, Martin, Biemann, Asher D (ed.), The Martin Buber reader: essential writings, p. 12
35. Schaeder, Grete (1973), The Hebrew humanism of Martin Buber, p. 29
36. Buber, Martín (September 1996). Paths in Utopia. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-0421-1.
37. Schneider, Herbert W, "The historical significance of Buber's philosophy", The philosophy of Martin Buber, p. 471, ...the retort he actually made, namely, that a scientist should not make judgments beyond his science. Such an insistence on hard and fast boundaries among sciences is not in the spirit of Buber's empiricism
38. Friedman, Maurice S (July 1996). Martin Buber and the human sciences. SUNY Press. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-7914-2876-4.
39. Vermes, Pamela (1988). Buber. London: Peter Hablan. p. vii. ISBN 1-870015-08-8.
40. Brody, Samuel Hayim (2018). "The True Front: Buber and Landauer on Anarchism and Revolution". Martin Buber's Theopolitics. Indiana University Press. pp. 37–40. ISBN 978-0-253-03537-0.
41. Silberstein, Laurence J. (1990). Martin Buber's Social and Religious Thought: Alienation and the Quest for Meaning. NYU Press. p. 281. ISBN 978-0-8147-7910-1.
42. Buber, Martin (2002) [1947]. Between Man and Man. Routledge. pp. 250–51.
43. Langton, Daniel (2010). The Apostle Paul in the Jewish Imagination. Cambridge University Press. pp. 67–71.
44. Jump up to:a b c Kramer, Kenneth; Gawlick, Mechthild (November 2003). Martin Buber's I and thou: practicing living dialogue. Paulist Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-8091-4158-6.
45. "Recipients" (in Hebrew). Israel Prize. 1958. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012.
46. "List of Bialik Prize recipients 1933–2004" (PDF) (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv Municipality. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-12-17.
47. Chiang, Lydia Sing-Chen. Collecting The Self: Body And Identity In Strange Tale Collections Of Late Imperial China (Volume 67 of Sinica Leidensia). BRILL, 2005. ISBN 9004142037, 9789004142039. p. 62.
48. "Archivbestände in der Jewish National and University Library" (PDF). Retrieved 9 August 2019.



• Zink, Wolfgang (1978), Martin Buber – 1878/1978.
• Coen, Clara Levi (1991), Martin Buber.
• Friedman, Maurice (1981), Martin Buber’s Life and Work: The Early Years, 1878-1923.
• Friedman, Maurice (1983), Martin Buber’s Life and Work: The Middle Years, 1923-1945.
• Friedman, Maurice (1984), Martin Buber’s Life and Work: The Later Years, 1945-1965.

Further reading

• Schilpp, Paul Arthur; Friedman, Maurice (1967), The philosophy of Martin Buber.
• Horwitz, Rivka (1978), Buber's way to "I and thou" – an historical analysis and the first publication of Martin Buber's lectures "Religion als Gegenwart".
• Cohn, Margot; Buber, Rafael (1980), Martin Buber – a bibliography of his writings, 1897–1978.
• Israel, Joachim (2010), Martin Buber – Dialogphilosophie in Theorie und Praxis.
• Margulies, Hune (2017), Will and Grace: Meditations on the Dialogical Philosophy of Martin Buber.
• Nelson, Eric S. (2017). Chinese and Buddhist Philosophy in Early Twentieth-Century German Thought London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 9781350002555.

External links

• Literature by and about Martin Buber in University Library JCS Frankfurt am Main: Digital Collections Judaica
• Martin Buber at Curlie
• Martin Buber Homepage
• Martin Buber – The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy article by Sarah Scott
• Zank, Michael. "Martin Buber". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
• Martin Buber, the Anarchist
• Spiritual Community dedicated to Buber's I–Thou philosophy
• Martin Buber's Utopian Israel
• Martin Buber's Final Legacy: "The Knowledge of Man"; by Maurice Friedman.
• Buber's Philosophy as the Basis for Dialogical Psychotherapy and Contextual Therapy; by Maurice Friedman.
• I, thou, and we: A dialogical approach to couples therapy
• Dialogical and Person-Centred Approach to Psychotherapy
• Communitarian Elements in Select Works of Martin Buber
• The Martin Buber Institute for Dialogical Ecology
• Martin Buber speaks at the Drew University Convocation in 1957. Use the Selected Speakers drop-down to choose Buber, Martin
Site Admin
Posts: 32013
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 3:21 am

Part 1 of 2

John Dewey
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/17/19



Memorandum Number Seven: The Order's Objectives For Education

We can deduce The Order's objectives for education from evidence already presented and by examining the work and influence of John Dewey, the arch creator of modern educational theory.

How do we do this? We first need to examine Dewey's relationship with The Order. Then compare Dewey's philosophy with Hegel and with the philosophy and objectives of modern educational practice.

These educational objectives have not, by and large, been brought about by governmental action. In fact, if the present state of education had been brought about by legislation, it would have been challenged on the grounds of unconstitutionality.

On the contrary, the philosophy and practice of today's system has been achieved by injection of massive private funds by foundations under influence, and sometimes control, of The Order. This implementation we will describe in a future volume, How The Order Controls Foundations. In fact, the history of the implementation of Dewey's objectives is also the history of the larger foundations, i.e., Ford, Carnegie, Rockefeller, Peabody, Sloan, Slater and Twentieth Century.

How John Dewey Relates To The Order

John Dewey worked for his doctorate at Johns Hopkins University from 1882-86 under Hegelian philosopher George Sylvester Morris. Morris in turn had his doctorate from University of Berlin and studied under the same teachers as Daniel Gilman, i.e., Adolph Trendelenberg and Hermann Ulrici.

Neither Morris nor Dewey were members of The Order, but the link is clear. Gilman hired Morris, knowing full well that Hegelianism is a totally integrated body of knowledge and easy to recognize. It is as different from the British empirical school of John Stuart Mill as night and day.

John Dewey's psychology was taken from G. Stanley Hall, the first American student to receive a doctorate from Wilhelm Wundt at University of Leipzig. Gilman knew exactly what he was getting when he hired Hall. With only a dozen faculty members, all were hired personally by the President.

In brief, philosophy and psychology came to Dewey from academics hand-picked by The Order.

From Johns Hopkins Dewey went as Professor of Philosophy to University of Michigan and in 1886 published Psychology, a blend of Hegelian philosophy applied to Wundtian experimental psychology. It sold well. In 1894 Dewey went to University of Chicago and in 1902 was appointed Director of the newly founded -- with Rockefeller money -- School of Education.

The University of Chicago itself had been founded in 1890 with Rockefeller funds -- and in a future volume we will trace this through Frederick Gates (of Hartford, Connecticut), and the Pillsbury family (The Order). The University of Chicago and Columbia Teachers' College were the key training schools for modern education.

The Influence Of Dewey

Looking back at John Dewey after 80 years of his influence, he can be recognized as the pre-eminent factor in the collectivization, or Hegelianization, of American Schools.
Dewey was consistently a philosopher of social change. That's why his impact has been so deep and pervasive. And it is in the work and implementation of the ideas of John Dewey that we can find the objective of The Order.

When The Order brought G. Stanley Hall from Leipzig to Johns Hopkins University, John Dewey was already there, waiting to write his doctoral dissertation on "The Psychology of Kant." Already a Hegelian in philosophy, he acquired and adapted the experimental psychology of Wundt and Hall to his concept of education for social change. To illustrate this, here's a quote from John Dewey in My Pedagogic Creed:

"The school is primarily a social institution. Education being a social process, the school is simply that form of community life in which all those agencies are concentrated that will be most effective in bringing the child to share in the inherited resources of the race, and to use his own powers for social ends. Education, therefore, is a process of living and not a preparation for future living."

What we learn from this is that Dewey's education is not child centered but State centered, because for the Hegelian, "social ends" are always State ends.

This is where the gulf of misunderstanding between modern parents and the educational system begins. Parents believe a child goes to school to learn skills to use in the adult world, but Dewey states specifically that education is "not a preparation for future living." The Dewey educational system does not accept the role of developing a child's talents but, contrarily, only to prepare the child to function as a unit in an organic whole -- in blunt terms a cog in the wheel of an organic society. Whereas most Americans have moral values rooted in the individual, the values of the school system are rooted in the Hegelian concept of the State as the absolute. No wonder there is misunderstanding!

The Individual Child

When we compare Hegel, John Dewey, and today's educational thinkers and doers, we find an extraordinary similarity.

For Hegel the individual has no value except as he or she performs a function for society:

"The State is the absolute reality and the individual himself has objective existence, truth and morality only in his capacity as a member of the State."

John Dewey tried to brush the freedom of the individual to one side. In an article, "Democracy and Educational Administration" (School & Society, XVL, 1937, p. 457) Dewey talks about the "lost individual," and then restates Hegel in the following way: "freedom is the participation of every mature human being in formation of the values that regulate the living of men together." This is pure Hegel, i.e., man finds freedom only in obedience to the State. As one critic, Horace M. Kallen stated, John Dewey had a "blindness to the sheer individuality of individuals."

In other words, for Dewey man has no individual rights. Man exists only to serve the State. This is directly contradictory to the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution with the preamble "We the people." They then go on to define the rights of the state which are always subordinate and subject to the will of "We the people."

This, of course, is why modern educationists have great difficulty in introducing the Constitution into school work. Their ideas follow Hegel and Dewey and indirectly the objectives of The Order. For example:

"An attempt should be made to redress the present overemphasis on individualism in current programs ... students need to develop a sense of community and collective identity." (Educational Leadership, May 1982, William B. Stanley, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Curriculum and Instruction, Louisiana State University).

The Purpose Of Education

What then is the purpose of education, if the individual has no rights and exists only for the State?

There was no need for Hegel to describe education, and so far as we know there is no statement purely on education in Hegel's writings. It is unnecessary. For Hegel every quality of an individual exists only at the mercy and will of the State. This approach is reflected in political systems based on Hegel whether it be Soviet Communism or Hitlerian national socialism. John Dewey follows Hegel's organic view of society. For example:

"Education consists either in the ability to use one's powers in a social direction or else in ability to share in the experience of others and thus widen the individual consciousness to that of the race" (Lectures For The First Course In Pedagogy).

This last sentence is reminiscent of the Hitlerian philosophy of race (i.e., right Hegelianism).

And today's educators reflect this approach. Here's a quote from Assemblyman John Vasconcellos of California, who also happens to be Chairman of the Joint Committee on the Master Plan for Higher Education and the Education Goals Committee for the California State Assembly -- a key post:

"It is now time for a new vision of ourselves, of man, of human nature and of human potential, and a new theory of politics and institutions premised upon that vision. What is that vision of Man? That the natural, whole, organismic human being is loving ... that man's basic thrust is towards community" (quoted in Rex Myles, Brotherhood and Darkness, p. 347).

What is this "widen(ing) the individual consciousness" (Dewey) and "thrust ... towards community" (Vasconcellos)?

Stripped of the pedantic language it is new world order, a world organic society. But there is no provision for a global organic order within the Constitution. In fact, it is illegal for any government officer or elected official to move the United States towards such an order as it would clearly be inconsistent with the Constitution. To be sure, Dewey was not a government official, but Vasconcellos has taken an oath of allegiance to the Constitution.

The popular view of a global order is probably that we had better look after our problems at home before we get involved in these esoteric ideas. Political corruption, pitifully low educational standards, and insensitive bureaucracy are probably of more concern to Americans.

It's difficult to see what the new world order has to do with education of children, but it's there in the literature. Fichte, Hegel's predecessor from whom many of his philosophical ideas originated, had a definite concept of a League of Nations (Volkerbund) and the idea of a league to enforce peace. Fichte asserted "As this federation spreads further and gradually embraces the whole earth, perpetual peace begins, the only lawful relation among states ..."

The National Education Association, the lobby for education, produced a program for the 1976 Bicentennial entitled "A Declaration Of Interdependence: Education For A Global Community."

On page 6 of this document we find:

"We are committed to the idea of Education for Global Community. You are invited to help turn the commitment into action and mobilizing world education for development of a world community."

An objective almost parallel to Hegel is in Self Knowledge And Social Action by Obadiah Silas Harris, Associate Professor of Educational Management and Development New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico:

"When community educators say that community education takes into consideration the total individual and his total environment, they mean precisely this: the field of community education includes the individual in his total psycho-physical structure and his entire ecological climate with all its ramifications -- social, political, economical, cultural, spiritual, etc. It seeks to integrate the individual within himself (sic) and within his community until the individual becomes a cosmic soul and the community the world."

And on page 84 of the same book:

"The Cosmic soul ... the whole human race is going to evolve an effective soul of its own -- the cosmic soul of the race. That is the future of human evolution. As a result of the emergence of the universal soul, there will be a great unification of the entire human race, ushering into existence a new era, a new dawn of unique world power."

This last quote sounds even more like Adolph Hitler than Assemblyman John Vasconcellos. It has the same blend of the occult, the ethnic and absolutism.

In conclusion we need only quote the Constitution, the basic body of law under which the United States is governed.

The generally held understanding of the Constitution on the relationship between the individual and the State is that the individual is Supreme, the State exists only to serve individuals and the State has no power except by express permission of the people.

This is guaranteed by Amendments IX and X of the Constitution.

Amendment IX reads,

"The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the People."

Note, the "retained". And,

Amendment X reads,

"The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."

In brief, the proposals of John Dewey and his followers are unconstitutional. They would never have seen the light of day in American schoolrooms unless they had been promoted by The Order with its enormous power.

Mind Blank - The Order's Objective For Education

-- America's Secret Establishment: An Introduction to the Order of Skull and Bones, by Antony C. Sutton

John Dewey
Born October 20, 1859
Burlington, Vermont, United States
Died June 1, 1952 (aged 92)
New York, New York, United States
Alma mater University of Vermont
Johns Hopkins University
Era 20th-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Pragmatism
Institutions University of Michigan
University of Chicago
University of Chicago Laboratory Schools
Columbia University
Main interests
Philosophy of education, epistemology, journalism, ethics
Notable ideas
Reflective thinking[2]
American Association of University Professors
Immediate empiricism
Inquiry into Moscow show trials about Trotsky
Educational progressivism
Occupational psychosis
Influences: Plato · Locke · Rousseau · Kant · Hegel · Darwin · Peirce · Green · William James · Mead · George · Ward · Wundt · Parker
Influenced: Influenced[hide]
Veblen · B.R. Ambedkar · Santayana · Martin · Kaplan · Hu Shih · Hook · Greene · Richard McKeon · Margaret Naumburg · Putnam · Chomsky · Habermas · Rorty · West · Park · Durkheim · Herbert Schneider · Mills

John Dewey (/ˈduːi/; October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey is one of the primary figures associated with the philosophy of pragmatism and is considered one of the fathers of functional psychology. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Dewey as the 93rd most cited psychologist of the 20th century.[3] A well-known public intellectual, he was also a major voice of progressive education and liberalism.[4][5] Although Dewey is known best for his publications about education, he also wrote about many other topics, including epistemology, metaphysics, aesthetics, art, logic, social theory, and ethics. He was a major educational reformer for the 20th century.

The overriding theme of Dewey's works was his profound belief in democracy, be it in politics, education, or communication and journalism. As Dewey himself stated in 1888, while still at the University of Michigan, "Democracy and the one, ultimate, ethical ideal of humanity are to my mind synonymous."[6]

Known for his advocacy of democracy, Dewey considered two fundamental elements—schools and civil society—to be major topics needing attention and reconstruction to encourage experimental intelligence and plurality. Dewey asserted that complete democracy was to be obtained not just by extending voting rights but also by ensuring that there exists a fully formed public opinion, accomplished by communication among citizens, experts, and politicians, with the latter being accountable for the policies they adopt.

Life and works

John Dewey was born in Burlington, Vermont to a family of modest means.[7] He was one of four boys born to Archibald Sprague Dewey and Lucina Artemisia Rich Dewey. Their second son was also named John, but he died in an accident on January 17, 1859. The second John Dewey was born October 20, 1859, forty weeks after the death of his older brother. Like his older, surviving brother, Davis Rich Dewey, he attended the University of Vermont, where he was initiated into Delta Psi, and graduated Phi Beta Kappa[8] in 1879. A significant professor of Dewey's at the University of Vermont was Henry Augustus Pearson Torrey (H. A. P. Torrey), the son-in-law and nephew of former University of Vermont president Joseph Torrey. Dewey studied privately with Torrey between his graduation from Vermont and his enrollment at Johns Hopkins University.[9][10]

After two years as a high-school teacher in Oil City, Pennsylvania and one year as an elementary-school teacher in the small town of Charlotte, Vermont, Dewey decided that he was unsuited for teaching primary or secondary school. After studying with George Sylvester Morris, Charles Sanders Peirce, Herbert Baxter Adams, and G. Stanley Hall, Dewey received his Ph.D. from the School of Arts & Sciences at Johns Hopkins University. In 1884, he accepted a faculty position at the University of Michigan (1884–88 and 1889–94) with the help of George Sylvester Morris. His unpublished and now lost dissertation was titled "The Psychology of Kant." In 1894 Dewey joined the newly founded University of Chicago (1894–1904) where he developed his belief in Rational Empiricism, becoming associated with the newly emerging Pragmatic philosophy. His time at the University of Chicago resulted in four essays collectively entitled Thought and its Subject-Matter, which was published with collected works from his colleagues at Chicago under the collective title Studies in Logical Theory (1903). During that time Dewey also initiated the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools, where he was able to actualize the pedagogical beliefs that provided material for his first major work on education, The School and Society (1899). Disagreements with the administration ultimately caused his resignation from the university, and soon thereafter he relocated near the East Coast. In 1899, Dewey was elected president of the American Psychological Association (A.P.A.). From 1904 until his retirement in 1930 he was professor of philosophy at Columbia University.[11] In 1905 he became president of the American Philosophical Association. He was a longtime member of the American Federation of Teachers.

Along with the historians Charles A. Beard and James Harvey Robinson, and the economist Thorstein Veblen, Dewey is one of the founders of The New School. Dewey's most significant writings were "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology" (1896), a critique of a standard psychological concept and the basis of all his further work; Democracy and Education (1916), his celebrated work on progressive education; Human Nature and Conduct (1922), a study of the function of habit in human behavior;[12] The Public and its Problems (1927), a defense of democracy written in response to Walter Lippmann's The Phantom Public (1925); Experience and Nature (1925), Dewey's most "metaphysical" statement; Impressions of Soviet Russia and the Revolutionary World (1929), a glowing travelogue from the nascent USSR;[13] Art as Experience (1934), Dewey's major work on aesthetics; A Common Faith (1934), a humanistic study of religion originally delivered as the Dwight H. Terry Lectureship at Yale; Logic: The Theory of Inquiry (1938), a statement of Dewey's unusual conception of logic; Freedom and Culture (1939), a political work examining the roots of fascism; and Knowing and the Known (1949), a book written in conjunction with Arthur F. Bentley that systematically outlines the concept of trans-action, which is central to his other works (see Transactionalism). While each of these works focuses on one particular philosophical theme, Dewey included his major themes in most of what he published. He published more than 700 articles in 140 journals, and approximately 40 books.

Reflecting his immense influence on 20th-century thought, Hilda Neatby wrote "Dewey has been to our age what Aristotle was to the later Middle Ages, not a philosopher, but the philosopher."[14]

Dewey married Alice Chipman in 1886 shortly after Chipman graduated with her PhB from the University of Michigan. The two had six children: Frederick Archibald Dewey, Evelyn Riggs Dewey, Morris (who died young), Gordon Chipman Dewey, Lucy Alice Chipman Dewey, and Jane Mary Dewey.[15][16] Alice Chipman died in 1927 at the age of 68; weakened by a case of malaria contracted during a trip to Turkey in 1924 and a heart attack during a trip to Mexico City in 1926, she died from cerebral thrombosis on July 13, 1927.[17] Dewey married Estelle Roberta Lowitz Grant, "a longtime friend and companion for several years before their marriage" on December 11, 1946.[18][19] At Roberta's behest, the couple adopted two siblings, Lewis (changed to John, Jr.) and Shirley.[20] John Dewey died of pneumonia on June 1, 1952 at his home in New York City after years of ill-health.[21][22] and was cremated the next day.[23]

The United States Postal Service honored Dewey with a Prominent Americans series 30¢ postage stamp in 1968.[24]

Visits to China and Japan

John Dewey and Hu Shih, circa 1938–1942.

In 1919, Dewey and his wife traveled to Japan on sabbatical leave. Though Dewey and his wife were well received by the people of Japan during this trip, Dewey was also critical of the nation's governing system and claimed that the nation's path towards democracy was "ambitious but weak in many respects in which her competitors are strong."[25] He also stated that "the real test has not yet come. But if the nominally democratic world should go back on the professions so profusely uttered during war days, the shock will be enormous, and bureaucracy and militarism might come back."[25]

During his trip to Japan, Dewey was invited by Peking University to visit China, probably at the behest of his former students, Hu Shih and Chiang Monlin. Dewey and his wife Alice arrived in Shanghai on April 30, 1919,[26] just days before student demonstrators took to the streets of Peking to protest the decision of the Allies in Paris to cede the German held territories in Shandong province to Japan. Their demonstrations on May Fourth excited and energized Dewey, and he ended up staying in China for two years, leaving in July 1921.[27]

In these two years, Dewey gave nearly 200 lectures to Chinese audiences and wrote nearly monthly articles for Americans in The New Republic and other magazines. Well aware of both Japanese expansionism into China and the attraction of Bolshevism to some Chinese, Dewey advocated that Americans support China's transformation and that Chinese base this transformation in education and social reforms, not revolution. Hundreds and sometimes thousands of people attended the lectures, which were interpreted by Hu Shih. For these audiences, Dewey represented "Mr. Democracy" and "Mr. Science," the two personifications which they thought of representing modern values and hailed him as "Second Confucius". Perhaps Dewey's biggest impact, however, was on the forces for progressive education in China, such as Hu Shih and Chiang Monlin, who had studied with him, and Tao Xingzhi, who had studied at Teachers College, Columbia University.[28]

Their letters from China and Japan describing their experiences to their family were published in 1920, edited by their daughter Evelyn.[29] During and after his visit his commentaries on China would be published in such periodicals as the New Republic, Asia, the China Review, and sometimes in newspapers like the Baltimore Sun. Though discussing Chinese philosophy but rarely, one article in 1922, "As the Chinese Think", discusses the teachings of Laozi and Confucius in an attempt to improve understanding of the Chinese in international business relations.[30]

Visit to Southern Africa

Dewey and his daughter Jane went to South Africa in July 1934, at the invitation of the World Conference of New Education Fellowship in Cape Town and Johannesburg, where he delivered several talks. The conference was opened by the South African Minister of Education Jan Hofmeyr, and Deputy Prime Minister Jan Smuts. Other speakers at the conference included Max Eiselen and Hendrik Verwoerd, who would later become prime minister of the Nationalist government that introduced Apartheid.[31] John and Jane's expenses were paid by the Carnegie Foundation. He also traveled to Durban, Pretoria and Victoria Falls in what was then Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and looked at schools, talked to pupils, and gave lectures to the administrators and teachers. In August 1934, Dewey accepted an honorary degree from the University of the Witwatersrand.[32]

Functional psychology

See also: History of psychology

At the University of Michigan, Dewey published his first two books, Psychology (1887), and Leibniz's New Essays Concerning the Human Understanding (1888), both of which expressed Dewey's early commitment to British neo-Hegelianism. In Psychology, Dewey attempted a synthesis between idealism and experimental science.[1]

While still professor of philosophy at Michigan, Dewey and his junior colleagues, James Hayden Tufts and George Herbert Mead, together with his student James Rowland Angell, all influenced strongly by the recent publication of William James' Principles of Psychology (1890), began to reformulate psychology, emphasizing the social environment on the activity of mind and behavior rather than the physiological psychology of Wilhelm Wundt and his followers.

By 1894, Dewey had joined Tufts, with whom he would later write Ethics (1908) at the recently founded University of Chicago and invited Mead and Angell to follow him, the four men forming the basis of the so-called "Chicago group" of psychology.

Their new style of psychology, later dubbed functional psychology, had a practical emphasis on action and application. In Dewey's article "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology" which appeared in Psychological Review in 1896, he reasons against the traditional stimulus-response understanding of the reflex arc in favor of a "circular" account in which what serves as "stimulus" and what as "response" depends on how one considers the situation, and defends the unitary nature of the sensory motor circuit. While he does not deny the existence of stimulus, sensation, and response, he disagreed that they were separate, juxtaposed events happening like links in a chain. He developed the idea that there is a coordination by which the stimulation is enriched by the results of previous experiences. The response is modulated by sensorial experience.

Dewey was elected president of the American Psychological Association in 1899.


In 1984, the American Psychological Association announced that Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878–1972) had become the first psychologist to be commemorated on a United States postage stamp. However, psychologists Gary Brucato and John D. Hogan later made the case that this distinction actually belonged to John Dewey, who had been celebrated on an American stamp 17 years earlier. While some psychology historians consider Dewey more of a philosopher than a bona fide psychologist,[33] the authors noted that Dewey was a founding member of the A.P.A., served as the A.P.A.'s eighth president in 1899, and was the author of an 1896 article on the reflex arc which is now considered a basis of American functional psychology.[34]

Dewey also expressed interest in work in the psychology of visual perception performed by Dartmouth research professor Adelbert Ames Jr. He had great trouble with listening, however, because it is known Dewey could not distinguish musical pitches—in other words was tone deaf.[35]

Pragmatism, instrumentalism, consequentialism

Dewey sometimes referred to his philosophy as instrumentalism rather than pragmatism, and would have recognized the similarity of these two schools to the newer school named consequentialism. He defined with precise brevity the criterion of validity common to these three schools, which lack agreed-upon definitions:

But in the proper interpretation of "pragmatic," namely the function of consequences as necessary tests of the validity of propositions, provided these consequences are operationally instituted and are such as to resolve the specific problem evoking the operations, the text that follows is thoroughly pragmatic.[36]

His concern for precise definition led him to detailed analysis of careless word usage, reported in Knowing and the Known in 1949.


Main article: Knowing and the Known

The terminology problem in the fields of epistemology and logic is partially due, according to Dewey and Bentley,[37] to inefficient and imprecise use of words and concepts that reflect three historic levels of organization and presentation.[38] In the order of chronological appearance, these are:

• Self-Action: Prescientific concepts regarded humans, animals, and things as possessing powers of their own which initiated or caused their actions.
• Interaction: as described by Newton, where things, living and inorganic, are balanced against something in a system of interaction, for example, the third law of motion states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
• Transaction: where modern systems of descriptions and naming are employed to deal with multiple aspects and phases of action without any attribution to ultimate, final, or independent entities, essences, or realities.

A series of characterizations of Transactions indicate the wide range of considerations involved.[39]

Logic and method

Dewey sees paradox in contemporary logical theory. Proximate subject matter garners general agreement and advancement, while the ultimate subject matter of logic generates unremitting controversy. In other words, he challenges confident logicians to answer the question of the truth of logical operators. Do they function merely as abstractions (e.g., pure mathematics) or do they connect in some essential way with their objects, and therefore alter or bring them to light?[40]

Grave of Dewey and his wife in an alcove on the north side of the Ira Allen Chapel in Burlington, Vermont. The only grave on the University of Vermont campus

Logical positivism also figured in Dewey's thought. About the movement he wrote that it "eschews the use of 'propositions' and 'terms', substituting 'sentences' and 'words'." ("General Theory of Propositions", in Logic: The Theory of Inquiry) He welcomes this changing of referents "in as far as it fixes attention upon the symbolic structure and content of propositions." However, he registers a small complaint against the use of "sentence" and "words" in that without careful interpretation the act or process of transposition "narrows unduly the scope of symbols and language, since it is not customary to treat gestures and diagrams (maps, blueprints, etc.) as words or sentences." In other words, sentences and words, considered in isolation, do not disclose intent, which may be inferred or "adjudged only by means of context."[40]

Yet Dewey was not entirely opposed to modern logical trends. Concerning traditional logic, he states:

Aristotelian logic, which still passes current nominally, is a logic based upon the idea that qualitative objects are existential in the fullest sense. To retain logical principles based on this conception along with the acceptance of theories of existence and knowledge based on an opposite conception is not, to say the least, conductive to clearness—a consideration that has a good deal to do with existing dualism between traditional and the newer relational logics.

Louis Menand argues in The Metaphysical Club that Jane Addams had been critical of Dewey's emphasis on antagonism in the context of a discussion of the Pullman strike of 1894. In a later letter to his wife, Dewey confessed that Addams' argument was:

... the most magnificent exhibition of intellectual & moral faith I ever saw. She converted me internally, but not really, I fear. ... When you think that Miss Addams does not think this as a philosophy, but believes it in all her senses & muscles—Great God ... I guess I'll have to give it [all] up & start over again.

He went on to add:

I can see that I have always been interpreting dialectic wrong end up, the unity as the reconciliation of opposites, instead of the opposites as the unity in its growth, and thus translated the physical tension into a moral thing ... I don't know as I give the reality of this at all, ... it seems so natural & commonplace now, but I never had anything take hold of me so.[41]

In a letter to Addams, clearly influenced by his conversation with her, Dewey wrote:

Not only is actual antagonizing bad, but the assumption that there is or may be antagonism is bad—in fact, the real first antagonism always comes back to the assumption.


Main article: Art as Experience

Art as Experience (1934) is Dewey's major writing on aesthetics.

It is, in accordance with his place in the Pragmatist tradition that emphasizes community, a study of the individual art object as embedded in (and inextricable from) the experiences of a local culture. In the original illustrated edition, Dewey drew on the modern art and world cultures collection assembled by Albert C. Barnes at the Barnes Foundation, whose own ideas on the application of art to one's way of life was influenced by Dewey's writing. Barnes was particularly influenced by "Democracy and Education" (1916) and then attended Dewey's seminar on political philosophy at Columbia University in the fall semester of 1918

On philanthropy, women and democracy

Dewey founded the University of Chicago laboratory school, supported educational organizations, and supported settlement houses especially Jane Addams' Hull House.[42]

Through his work at the Hull House serving on its first board of trustees, Dewey was not only an activist for the cause but also a partner working to serve the large immigrant community of Chicago and women's suffrage. Dewey experienced the lack of children's education while contributing in the classroom at the Hull House and the lack of education and skills of immigrant women.[43] Stengel argues:

Addams is unquestionably a maker of democratic community and pragmatic education; Dewey is just as unquestionably a reflector. Through her work at Hull House, Addams discerned the shape of democracy as a mode of associated living and uncovered the outlines of an experimental approach to knowledge and understanding; Dewey analyzed and classified the social, psychological and educational processes Addams lived.[42]

His leading views on democracy included:

First, Dewey believed that democracy is an ethical ideal rather than merely a political arrangement. Second, he considered participation, not representation, the essence of democracy. Third, he insisted on the harmony between democracy and the scientific method: ever-expanding and self-critical communities of inquiry, operating on pragmatic principles and constantly revising their beliefs in light of new evidence, provided Dewey with a model for democratic decision making ... Finally, Dewey called for extending democracy, conceived as an ethical project, from politics to industry and society.[44]

This helped to shape his understanding of human action and the unity of human experience.

Dewey believed that a woman's place in society was determined by her environment and not just her biology. On women he says, "You think too much of women in terms of sex. Think of them as human individuals for a while, dropping out the sex qualification, and you won't be so sure of some of your generalizations about what they should and shouldn't do".[43] John Dewey's support helped to increase the support and popularity of Jane Addams' Hull House and other settlement houses as well. With growing support, involvement of the community grew as well as the support for the women's suffrage movement.

As commonly argued by Dewey's greatest critics, he was not able to come up with strategies in order to fulfill his ideas that would lead to a successful democracy, educational system, and a successful women's suffrage movement. While knowing that traditional beliefs, customs, and practices needed to be examined in order to find out what worked and what needed improved upon, it was never done in a systematic way.[43] "Dewey became increasingly aware of the obstacles presented by entrenched power and alert to the intricacy of the problems facing modern cultures".[44] With the complex of society at the time, Dewey was criticized for his lack of effort in fixing the problems.

With respect to technological developments in a democracy:

Persons do not become a society by living in physical proximity any more than a man ceases to be socially influenced by being so many feet or miles removed from others.

His work on democracy influenced B.R. Ambedkar, one of his students, who later became one of the founding fathers of independent India.[45][46][47][48]

On education and teacher education

Main article: Democracy and Education

Dewey's educational theories were presented in My Pedagogic Creed (1897), The School and Society (1900), The Child and the Curriculum (1902), Democracy and Education (1916), Schools of To-morrow (c1915) with Evelyn Dewey, and Experience and Education (1938). Several themes recur throughout these writings. Dewey continually argues that education and learning are social and interactive processes, and thus the school itself is a social institution through which social reform can and should take place. In addition, he believed that students thrive in an environment where they are allowed to experience and interact with the curriculum, and all students should have the opportunity to take part in their own learning.

The ideas of democracy and social reform are continually discussed in Dewey's writings on education. Dewey makes a strong case for the importance of education not only as a place to gain content knowledge, but also as a place to learn how to live. In his eyes, the purpose of education should not revolve around the acquisition of a pre-determined set of skills, but rather the realization of one's full potential and the ability to use those skills for the greater good. He notes that "to prepare him for the future life means to give him command of himself; it means so to train him that he will have the full and ready use of all his capacities" (My Pedagogic Creed, Dewey, 1897). In addition to helping students realize their full potential, Dewey goes on to acknowledge that education and schooling are instrumental in creating social change and reform. He notes that "education is a regulation of the process of coming to share in the social consciousness; and that the adjustment of individual activity on the basis of this social consciousness is the only sure method of social reconstruction".

In addition to his ideas regarding what education is and what effect it should have on society, Dewey also had specific notions regarding how education should take place within the classroom. In The Child and the Curriculum (1902), Dewey discusses two major conflicting schools of thought regarding educational pedagogy. The first is centered on the curriculum and focuses almost solely on the subject matter to be taught. Dewey argues that the major flaw in this methodology is the inactivity of the student; within this particular framework, "the child is simply the immature being who is to be matured; he is the superficial being who is to be deepened" (1902, p. 13).[49] He argues that in order for education to be most effective, content must be presented in a way that allows the student to relate the information to prior experiences, thus deepening the connection with this new knowledge.

At the same time, Dewey was alarmed by many of the "child-centered" excesses of educational-school pedagogues who claimed to be his followers, and he argued that too much reliance on the child could be equally detrimental to the learning process. In this second school of thought, "we must take our stand with the child and our departure from him. It is he and not the subject-matter which determines both quality and quantity of learning" (Dewey, 1902, pp. 13–14). According to Dewey, the potential flaw in this line of thinking is that it minimizes the importance of the content as well as the role of the teacher.

In order to rectify this dilemma, Dewey advocated for an educational structure that strikes a balance between delivering knowledge while also taking into account the interests and experiences of the student. He notes that "the child and the curriculum are simply two limits which define a single process. Just as two points define a straight line, so the present standpoint of the child and the facts and truths of studies define instruction" (Dewey, 1902, p. 16). It is through this reasoning that Dewey became one of the most famous proponents of hands-on learning or experiential education, which is related to, but not synonymous with experiential learning. He argued that "if knowledge comes from the impressions made upon us by natural objects, it is impossible to procure knowledge without the use of objects which impress the mind" (Dewey, 1916/2009, pp. 217–18).[50] Dewey's ideas went on to influence many other influential experiential models and advocates. Problem-Based Learning (PBL), for example, a method used widely in education today, incorporates Dewey's ideas pertaining to learning through active inquiry.[51]

Dewey not only re-imagined the way that the learning process should take place, but also the role that the teacher should play within that process. Throughout the history of American schooling, education's purpose has been to train students for work by providing the student with a limited set of skills and information to do a particular job. The works of John Dewey provide the most prolific examples of how this limited vocational view of education has been applied to both the K–12 public education system and to the teacher training schools who attempted to quickly produce proficient and practical teachers with a limited set of instructional and discipline-specific skills needed to meet the needs of the employer and demands of the workforce. In The School and Society (Dewey, 1899) and Democracy of Education (Dewey, 1916), Dewey claims that rather than preparing citizens for ethical participation in society, schools cultivate passive pupils via insistence upon mastery of facts and disciplining of bodies. Rather than preparing students to be reflective, autonomous and ethical beings capable of arriving at social truths through critical and intersubjective discourse, schools prepare students for docile compliance with authoritarian work and political structures, discourage the pursuit of individual and communal inquiry, and perceive higher learning as a monopoly of the institution of education (Dewey, 1899; 1916).

For Dewey and his philosophical followers, education stifles individual autonomy when learners are taught that knowledge is transmitted in one direction, from the expert to the learner. Dewey not only re-imagined the way that the learning process should take place, but also the role that the teacher should play within that process. For Dewey, "The thing needful is improvement of education, not simply by turning out teachers who can do better the things that are not necessary to do, but rather by changing the conception of what constitutes education" (Dewey, 1904, p. 18). Dewey's qualifications for teaching—a natural love for working with young children, a natural propensity to inquire about the subjects, methods and other social issues related to the profession, and a desire to share this acquired knowledge with others—are not a set of outwardly displayed mechanical skills. Rather, they may be viewed as internalized principles or habits which "work automatically, unconsciously" (Dewey, 1904, p. 15). Turning to Dewey's essays and public addresses regarding the teaching profession, followed by his analysis of the teacher as a person and a professional, as well as his beliefs regarding the responsibilities of teacher education programs to cultivate the attributes addressed, teacher educators can begin to reimagine the successful classroom teacher Dewey envisioned.

Professionalization of teaching as a social service

For many, education's purpose is to train students for work by providing the student with a limited set of skills and information to do a particular job. As Dewey notes, this limited vocational view is also applied to teacher training schools who attempt to quickly produce proficient and practical teachers with a limited set of instructional and discipline skills needed to meet the needs of the employer and demands of the workforce (Dewey, 1904). For Dewey, the school and the classroom teacher, as a workforce and provider of a social service, have a unique responsibility to produce psychological and social goods that will lead to both present and future social progress. As Dewey notes, "The business of the teacher is to produce a higher standard of intelligence in the community, and the object of the public school system is to make as large as possible the number of those who possess this intelligence. Skill, ability to act wisely and effectively in a great variety of occupations and situations, is a sign and a criterion of the degree of civilization that a society has reached. It is the business of teachers to help in producing the many kinds of skill needed in contemporary life. If teachers are up to their work, they also aid in the production of character."(Dewey, TAP, 2010, pp. 241–42).

According to Dewey, the emphasis is placed on producing these attributes in children for use in their contemporary life because it is "impossible to foretell definitely just what civilization will be twenty years from now" (Dewey, MPC, 2010, p. 25). However, although Dewey is steadfast in his beliefs that education serves an immediate purpose (Dewey, DRT, 2010; Dewey, MPC, 2010; Dewey, TTP, 2010), he is not ignorant of the impact imparting these qualities of intelligence, skill, and character on young children in their present life will have on the future society. While addressing the state of educative and economic affairs during a 1935 radio broadcast, Dewey linked the ensuing economic depression to a "lack of sufficient production of intelligence, skill, and character" (Dewey, TAP, 2010, p. 242) of the nation's workforce. As Dewey notes, there is a lack of these goods in the present society and teachers have a responsibility to create them in their students, who, we can assume, will grow into the adults who will ultimately go on to participate in whatever industrial or economical civilization awaits them. According to Dewey, the profession of the classroom teacher is to produce the intelligence, skill, and character within each student so that the democratic community is composed of citizens who can think, do and act intelligently and morally.
Site Admin
Posts: 32013
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am


Return to Articles & Essays

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 3 guests