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Martin Buber
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/17/19



For his 70th birthday, in 1952, Walter Robert Corti wrote an article in the Neue Zürcher Zeitung of February 15th for the birthday of Elisabeth Rotten, describing this meeting which brings together the faithful of the "educational province" ... ie: John Dewey, Maria Montessori, Martin Buber, Adolphe Ferriere and Bernard Drzewieski.

-- Elisabeth Rotten (1882-1964): A frantic activist of the humanitarian and educational cause and citizen of the world, by Martine Ruchat

The most moving anecdote about Buber was that which his educator friend Elisabeth Rotten related in the introduction to her selection from the revelations of Sister Mechtild von Magdeburg. Speaking directly to Buber, she reminded him of how, six years before, a small circle of his close friends were gathered at his house in lively conversation around his table and how this conversation elicited from Buber a statement that she often found illuminating her way in the years since. "'One must also love the evil,' you said to us, 'yes -- but in the way that the evil wants to be loved.' Your glance said to us still more than your words alone could have said. We had been speaking of the Quakers' belief in the good in all men and of our strong attraction to it but also of the danger of losing sight of the reality of evil.... Your simple words, your embracing glance solved this dark and tormenting riddle of life that had oppressed us."

A significant counterpart to Buber's statement on evil narrated by Elisabeth Rotten is found in his comment on Max Brod's contribution to the special Buber issue of Der Jude. Speaking to Brod of three of his novels, Buber protested: "One may not voluntarily accept evil into one's life. Evil enters our lives entirely willy nilly. To defend ourselves against it, we should always will only to penetrate the impure with the pure. The result will probably be an interpenetration of both elements; still one ought not anticipate that result by saying 'Yes' to the evil in advance." Hermann Hesse testified to the enormous impact on his life of Buber's Hasidic tales; the Christian theologian Friedrich Thieberger wrote of the new biblical belief that he and Buber shared, and many prominent Zionists, such as Leo Hermann, Adolf Bohm, Markus Reiner, Robert Weltsch, Ernst Simon, Viktor Kellner, Felix Weltsch, and Siegfried Lehmann, founder of the Jewish National Home, wrote of Buber's contributions to Zionism and Judaism. Hugo Bergmann contributed a philosophical study of "Concept and Reality" in the thought of Buber and the German Idealist philosopher J.G. Fichte. Several letters from the early correspondence between Buber and Chaim Weizmann were also published in this issue. One contributor even told of how Buber at fifty outran his companions when they left his house for a spontaneous run in the night! "The life of people in this age sucks dry with mighty drafts, strikes out with mighty thrusts," reflected the distinguished writer Arnold Zweig. "But it would have no depth were there not here and there on the earth persons who sit like this man Buber in Heppenheim and give it that tiy injection of iodine without which its fire, spirit, and central creativity would be a mere mechanical process."

-- Martin Buber's Life and Work, by Maurice Friedman

Martin Buber
Born February 8, 1878
Vienna, Austria-Hungary
Died June 13, 1965 (aged 87)
Jerusalem, Israel
Era 20th-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Continental philosophy
Main interests
Ontologyphilosophical anthropology
Notable ideas
Ich-Du (I–Thou) and Ich-Es (I–It)
Influences: Immanuel KantZhuangziSøren KierkegaardFriedrich NietzscheLudwig FeuerbachRalph Waldo EmersonPierre-Joseph ProudhonSigmund FreudJacob L. MorenoWilhelm DiltheyGeorg SimmelRudolf Bultmann
Influenced: Abraham Joshua HeschelWalter KaufmannGabriel MarcelFranz RosenzweigHans Urs von BalthasarFritz PerlsLaura PerlsJohn BergerEmil Brunner[1]

Martin Buber (Hebrew: מרטין בּוּבֶּר‎; German: Martin Buber; Yiddish: מארטין בובער‎‎; February 8, 1878 – June 13, 1965) was an Austrian philosopher best known for his philosophy of dialogue, a form of existentialism centered on the distinction between the I–Thou relationship and the I–It relationship.[2] Born in Vienna, Buber came from a family of observant Jews, but broke with Jewish custom to pursue secular studies in philosophy. In 1902, he became the editor of the weekly Die Welt, the central organ of the Zionist movement, although he later withdrew from organizational work in Zionism. In 1923, Buber wrote his famous essay on existence, Ich und Du (later translated into English as I and Thou), and in 1925, he began translating the Hebrew Bible into the German language.

He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature ten times, and Nobel Peace Prize seven times.[3]


Martin (Hebrew name: מָרְדֳּכַי, Mordechaj) Buber was born in Der Franz-Josefs-Kai 45 [de]/Heinrichsgasse 8 [de][4][5][6][7][8], der Innere Stadt [de] (1 Wien), City of Vienna, to an Orthodox Jewish family. He was a son of Castiel "Karl" Salomon Buber (Hebrew: קסטיאל "קאַרל" שְׁלֹמֹה בּוּבּר‎‎, Yiddish: קסטיאל בּן-שְׁלֹמֹה בּוּבּער‎‎, 1848, Lemberg–1935, Lemberg[9][10]), the son of Salomon Buber, and Elise Wurgast (Yiddish: עליזע וווּרגאַסט‎‎, 1858, Odessa–?[11]). Buber was a direct descendant of the 16th-century rabbi Meir Katzenellenbogen, known as the Maharam of Padua. Karl Marx is another notable relative.[12] After the divorce of his parents when he was three years old, he was raised by his grandfather in Lvov.[12] His grandfather Salomon Buber (1827, Lemberg–1906, Lemberg[13]), was a scholar of Midrash and Rabbinic Literature. At home, Buber spoke Yiddish and German. In 1892, Buber returned to his father's house in Lemberg, today's Lviv, Ukraine.

Despite Buber's connection to the Davidic line as a descendant of Katzenellenbogen, a personal religious crisis led him to break with Jewish religious customs. He began reading Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, and Friedrich Nietzsche.[14] The latter two, in particular, inspired him to pursue studies in philosophy. In 1896, Buber went to study in Vienna (philosophy, art history, German studies, philology).

In 1898, he joined the Zionist movement, participating in congresses and organizational work. In 1899, while studying in Zürich, Buber met his future wife, Paula (Judith) Buber [de] (née Winkler[15]), a "brilliant Catholic writer from a Bavarian peasant family"[16] who later converted to Judaism.[17]

Buber, initially, supported and celebrated the Great War as a 'world historical mission' for Germany along with Jewish intellectuals to civilize the Near East.[18] While in Vienna, during and after World War I, some researchers claim he was influenced by the writings of Jacob L. Moreno, particularly the use of the term ‘encounter’.[19][20]

In 1930, Buber became an honorary professor at the University of Frankfurt am Main, but resigned from his professorship in protest immediately after Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933. He then founded the Central Office for Jewish Adult Education, which became an increasingly important body as the German government forbade Jews from public education. In 1938, Buber left Germany and settled in Jerusalem, Mandate Palestine, receiving a professorship at Hebrew University and lecturing in anthropology and introductory sociology.

Buber's wife Paula died in 1958, and he died at his home in the Talbiya neighborhood of Jerusalem on June 13, 1965. They had two children: a son, Rafael Buber (husband of Margarete Buber-Neumann née Thüring [de]), and a daughter, Eva Strauss-Steinitz (wife of Ludwig Strauß [de]).[12]

Major themes

Buber's evocative, sometimes poetic, writing style marked the major themes in his work: the retelling of Hasidic and Chinese tales, Biblical commentary, and metaphysical dialogue. A cultural Zionist, Buber was active in the Jewish and educational communities of Germany and Israel.[21] He was also a staunch supporter of a binational solution in Palestine, and, after the establishment of the Jewish state of Israel, of a regional federation of Israel and Arab states. His influence extends across the humanities, particularly in the fields of social psychology, social philosophy, and religious existentialism.[22]

Buber's attitude toward Zionism was tied to his desire to promote a vision of "Hebrew humanism".[23] According to Laurence J. Silberstein, the terminology of "Hebrew humanism" was coined to "distinguish [Buber's] form of nationalism from that of the official Zionist movement" and to point to how "Israel's problem was but a distinct form of the universal human problem. Accordingly, the task of Israel as a distinct nation was inexorably linked to the task of humanity in general".[24]

Zionist views

Approaching Zionism from his own personal viewpoint, Buber disagreed with Theodor Herzl about the political and cultural direction of Zionism. Herzl envisioned the goal of Zionism in a nation-state, but did not consider Jewish culture or religion necessary. In contrast, Buber believed the potential of Zionism was for social and spiritual enrichment. For example, Buber argued that following the formation of the Israeli state, there would need to be reforms to Judaism: "We need someone who would do for Judaism what Pope John XXIII has done for the Catholic Church".[25] Herzl and Buber would continue, in mutual respect and disagreement, to work towards their respective goals for the rest of their lives.

In 1902, Buber became the editor of the weekly Die Welt, the central organ of the Zionist movement. However, a year later he became involved with the Jewish Hasidim movement. Buber admired how the Hasidic communities actualized their religion in daily life and culture. In stark contrast to the busy Zionist organizations, which were always mulling political concerns, the Hasidim were focused on the values which Buber had long advocated for Zionism to adopt. In 1904, he withdrew from much of his Zionist organizational work, and devoted himself to study and writing. In that year, he published his thesis, Beiträge zur Geschichte des Individuationsproblems, on Jakob Böhme and Nikolaus Cusanus.[26]

In the early 1920s, Martin Buber started advocating a binational Jewish-Arab state, stating that the Jewish people should proclaim "its desire to live in peace and brotherhood with the Arab people, and to develop the common homeland into a republic in which both peoples will have the possibility of free development".[27]

Buber rejected the idea of Zionism as just another national movement, and wanted instead to see the creation of an exemplary society; a society which would not, he said, be characterized by Jewish domination of the Arabs. It was necessary for the Zionist movement to reach a consensus with the Arabs even at the cost of the Jews remaining a minority in the country. In 1925, he was involved in the creation of the organization Brit Shalom (Covenant of Peace), which advocated the creation of a binational state, and throughout the rest of his life, he hoped and believed that Jews and Arabs one day would live in peace in a joint nation. In 1942, he co‑founded the Ihud party, which advocated a bi-nationalist program. Nevertheless, he was connected with decades of friendship to Zionists and philosophers such as Chaim Weizmann, Max Brod, Hugo Bergman, and Felix Weltsch, who were close friends of his from old European times in Prague, Berlin, and Vienna to the Jerusalem of the 1940s through the 1960s.

After the establishment of Israel in 1948, Buber advocated Israel's participation in a federation of "Near East" states wider than just Palestine.[28]

Literary and academic career

Martin Buber's house (1916–38) in Heppenheim, Germany. Now the headquarters of the ICCJ.

Martin Buber and Rabbi Binyamin in Palestine (1920–30)

Buber (left) and Judah Leon Magnes testifying before the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry in Jerusalem (1946)

Buber in the Jewish Quarter in Jerusalem, prior to 1948

From 1906 until 1914, Buber published editions of Hasidic, mystical, and mythic texts from Jewish and world sources. In 1916, he moved from Berlin to Heppenheim.

During World War I, he helped establish the Jewish National Committee[29] to improve the condition of Eastern European Jews. During that period he became the editor of Der Jude (German for "The Jew"), a Jewish monthly (until 1924). In 1921, Buber began his close relationship with Franz Rosenzweig. In 1922, he and Rosenzweig co-operated in Rosenzweig's House of Jewish Learning, known in Germany as Lehrhaus.[30]

In 1923, Buber wrote his famous essay on existence, Ich und Du (later translated into English as I and Thou). Though he edited the work later in his life, he refused to make substantial changes. In 1925, he began, in conjunction with Franz Rosenzweig, translating the Hebrew Bible into German. He himself called this translation Verdeutschung ("Germanification"), since it does not always use literary German language, but instead attempts to find new dynamic (often newly invented) equivalent phrasing to respect the multivalent Hebrew original. Between 1926 and 1930, Buber co-edited the quarterly Die Kreatur ("The Creature").[31]

In 1930, Buber became an honorary professor at the University of Frankfurt am Main. He resigned in protest from his professorship immediately after Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933. On October 4, 1933, the Nazi authorities forbade him to lecture. In 1935, he was expelled from the Reichsschrifttumskammer (the National Socialist authors' association). He then founded the Central Office for Jewish Adult Education, which became an increasingly important body, as the German government forbade Jews to attend public education.[32] The Nazi administration increasingly obstructed this body.

Finally, in 1938, Buber left Germany, and settled in Jerusalem, then capital of Mandate Palestine. He received a professorship at Hebrew University, there lecturing in anthropology and introductory sociology. The lectures he gave during the first semester were published in the book The problem of man (Das Problem des Menschen);[33][34] in these lectures he discusses how the question "What is Man?" became the central one in philosophical anthropology.[35] He participated in the discussion of the Jews' problems in Palestine and of the Arab question – working out of his Biblical, philosophic, and Hasidic work.

He became a member of the group Ihud, which aimed at a bi-national state for Arabs and Jews in Palestine. Such a binational confederation was viewed by Buber as a more proper fulfillment of Zionism than a solely Jewish state. In 1946, he published his work Paths in Utopia,[36] in which he detailed his communitarian socialist views and his theory of the "dialogical community" founded upon interpersonal "dialogical relationships".

After World War II, Buber began lecture tours in Europe and the United States. In 1952, he argued with Jung over the existence of God.[37]


Buber is famous for his thesis of dialogical existence, as he described in the book I and Thou. However, his work dealt with a range of issues including religious consciousness, modernity, the concept of evil, ethics, education, and Biblical hermeneutics.[38]

Buber rejected the label of "philosopher" or "theologian", claiming he was not interested in ideas, only personal experience, and could not discuss God, but only relationships to God.[39]

Politically, Buber's social philosophy on points of prefiguration aligns with that of anarchism, though Buber explicitly disavowed the affiliation in his lifetime and justified the existence of a state under limited conditions.[40][41]

Dialogue and existence

In I and Thou, Buber introduced his thesis on human existence. Inspired by Feuerbach's The Essence of Christianity and Kierkegaard's Single One, Buber worked upon the premise of existence as encounter.[42] He explained this philosophy using the word pairs of Ich-Du and Ich-Es to categorize the modes of consciousness, interaction, and being through which an individual engages with other individuals, inanimate objects, and all reality in general. Theologically, he associated the first with the Jewish Jesus and the second with the apostle Paul (formerly Saul of Tarsus, a Jew).[43] Philosophically, these word pairs express complex ideas about modes of being—particularly how a person exists and actualizes that existence. As Buber argues in I and Thou, a person is at all times engaged with the world in one of these modes.

The generic motif Buber employs to describe the dual modes of being is one of dialogue (Ich-Du) and monologue (Ich-Es).[44] The concept of communication, particularly language-oriented communication, is used both in describing dialogue/monologue through metaphors and expressing the interpersonal nature of human existence.


Ich‑Du ("I‑Thou" or "I‑You") is a relationship that stresses the mutual, holistic existence of two beings. It is a concrete encounter, because these beings meet one another in their authentic existence, without any qualification or objectification of one another. Even imagination and ideas do not play a role in this relation. In an I–Thou encounter, infinity and universality are made actual (rather than being merely concepts).[44] Buber stressed that an Ich‑Du relationship lacks any composition (e. g., structure) and communicates no content (e. g., information). Despite the fact that Ich‑Du cannot be proven to happen as an event (e. g., it cannot be measured), Buber stressed that it is real and perceivable. A variety of examples are used to illustrate Ich‑Du relationships in daily life—two lovers, an observer and a cat, the author and a tree, and two strangers on a train. Common English words used to describe the Ich‑Du relationship include encounter, meeting, dialogue, mutuality, and exchange.

One key Ich‑Du relationship Buber identified was that which can exist between a human being and God. Buber argued that this is the only way in which it is possible to interact with God, and that an Ich‑Du relationship with anything or anyone connects in some way with the eternal relation to God.

To create this I–Thou relationship with God, a person has to be open to the idea of such a relationship, but not actively pursue it. The pursuit of such a relation creates qualities associated with It‑ness, and so would prevent an I‑You relation, limiting it to I‑It. Buber claims that if we are open to the I–Thou, God eventually comes to us in response to our welcome. Also, because the God Buber describes is completely devoid of qualities, this I–Thou relationship lasts as long as the individual wills it. When the individual finally returns to the I‑It way of relating, this acts as a barrier to deeper relationship and community.


The Ich-Es ("I‑It") relationship is nearly the opposite of Ich‑Du.[44] Whereas in Ich‑Du the two beings encounter one another, in an Ich‑Es relationship the beings do not actually meet. Instead, the "I" confronts and qualifies an idea, or conceptualization, of the being in its presence and treats that being as an object. All such objects are considered merely mental representations, created and sustained by the individual mind. This is based partly on Kant's theory of phenomenon, in that these objects reside in the cognitive agent’s mind, existing only as thoughts. Therefore, the Ich‑Es relationship is in fact a relationship with oneself; it is not a dialogue, but a monologue.

In the Ich-Es relationship, an individual treats other things, people, etc., as objects to be used and experienced. Essentially, this form of objectivity relates to the world in terms of the self – how an object can serve the individual’s interest.

Buber argued that human life consists of an oscillation between Ich‑Du and Ich‑Es, and that in fact Ich‑Du experiences are rather few and far between. In diagnosing the various perceived ills of modernity (e. g., isolation, dehumanization, etc.), Buber believed that the expansion of a purely analytic, material view of existence was at heart an advocation of Ich‑Es relations - even between human beings. Buber argued that this paradigm devalued not only existents, but the meaning of all existence.

Hasidism and mysticism

Buber was a scholar, interpreter, and translator of Hasidic lore. He viewed Hasidism as a source of cultural renewal for Judaism, frequently citing examples from the Hasidic tradition that emphasized community, interpersonal life, and meaning in common activities (e. g., a worker's relation to his tools). The Hasidic ideal, according to Buber, emphasized a life lived in the unconditional presence of God, where there was no distinct separation between daily habits and religious experience. This was a major influence on Buber's philosophy of anthropology, which considered the basis of human existence as dialogical.

In 1906, Buber published Die Geschichten des Rabbi Nachman, a collection of the tales of the Rabbi Nachman of Breslov, a renowned Hasidic rebbe, as interpreted and retold in a Neo-Hasidic fashion by Buber. Two years later, Buber published Die Legende des Baalschem (stories of the Baal Shem Tov), the founder of Hasidism.[30]

Buber's interpretation of the Hasidic tradition, however, has been criticized by Chaim Potok for its romanticization. In the introduction to Buber's Tales of the Hasidim, Potok claims that Buber overlooked Hasidism's "charlatanism, obscurantism, internecine quarrels, its heavy freight of folk superstition and pietistic excesses, its tzadik worship, its vulgarized and attenuated reading of Lurianic Kabbalah". Even more severe is the criticism that Buber de-emphasized the importance of the Jewish Law in Hasidism.

Awards and recognition

• In 1951, Buber received the Goethe award of the University of Hamburg.
• In 1953, he received the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade.
• In 1958, he was awarded the Israel Prize in the humanities.[45]
• In 1961, he was awarded the Bialik Prize for Jewish thought.[46]
• In 1963, he won the Erasmus Prize in Amsterdam.

Published works

Original writings (German)

• Die Geschichten des Rabbi Nachman (1906)
• Die fünfzigste Pforte (1907)
• Die Legende des Baalschem (1908)
• Ekstatische Konfessionen (1909)
• Chinesische Geister- und Liebesgeschichten (1911)
• Daniel – Gespräche von der Verwirklichung (1913)
• Die jüdische Bewegung – gesammelte Aufsätze und Ansprachen 1900–1915(1916)
• Vom Geist des Judentums – Reden und Geleitworte (1916)
• Die Rede, die Lehre und das Lied – drei Beispiele (1917)
• Ereignisse und Begegnungen (1917)
• Der grosse Maggid und seine Nachfolge(1922)
• Reden über das Judentum (1923)
• Ich und Du (1923)
o Translation: I and Thou by Walter Kaufmann (Touchstone: 1970)
• Das Verborgene Licht (1924)
• Die chassidischen Bücher (1928)
• Aus unbekannten Schriften (1928)
• Zwiesprache (1932)
• Kampf um Israel – Reden und Schriften 1921–1932 (1933)
• Hundert chassidische Geschichten (1933)
• Die Troestung Israels : aus Jeschajahu, Kapitel 40 bis 55 (1933); with Franz Rosenzweig
• Erzählungen von Engeln, Geistern und Dämonen (1934)
• Das Buch der Preisungen (1935); with Franz Rosenzweig
• Deutung des Chassidismus – drei Versuche (1935)
• Die Josefslegende in aquarellierten Zeichnungen eines unbekannten russischen Juden der Biedermeierzeit (1935)
• Die Schrift und ihre Verdeutschung (1936); with Franz Rosenzweig
• Aus Tiefen rufe ich Dich – dreiundzwanzig Psalmen in der Urschrift (1936)
• Das Kommende : Untersuchungen zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Messianischen Glaubens – 1. Königtum Gottes (1936 ?)
• Die Stunde und die Erkenntnis – Reden und Aufsätze 1933–1935 (1936)
• Zion als Ziel und als Aufgabe – Gedanken aus drei Jahrzehnten – mit einer Rede über Nationalismus als Anhang (1936)
• Worte an die Jugend (1938)
• Moseh (1945)
• Dialogisches Leben – gesammelte philosophische und pädagogische Schriften (1947)
• Der Weg des Menschen : nach der chassidischen Lehre (1948)
• Das Problem des Menschen (1948, Hebrew text 1942)
• Die Erzählungen der Chassidim (1949)
• Gog und Magog – eine Chronik (1949, Hebrew text 1943)
• Israel und Palästina – zur Geschichte einer Idee (1950, Hebrew text 1944)
• Der Glaube der Propheten (1950)
• Pfade in Utopia (1950)
• Zwei Glaubensweisen (1950)
• Urdistanz und Beziehung (1951)
• Der utopische Sozialismus (1952)
• Bilder von Gut und Böse (1952)
• Die Chassidische Botschaft (1952)
• Recht und Unrecht – Deutung einiger Psalmen (1952)
• An der Wende – Reden über das Judentum (1952)
• Zwischen Gesellschaft und Staat (1952)
• Das echte Gespräch und die Möglichkeiten des Friedens (1953)
• Einsichten : aus den Schriften gesammelt (1953)
• Reden über Erziehung (1953)
• Gottesfinsternis – Betrachtungen zur Beziehung zwischen Religion und Philosophie (1953)
o Translation Eclipse of God: Studies in the Relation Between Religion and Philosophy (Harper and Row: 1952)
• Hinweise – gesammelte Essays (1953)
• Die fünf Bücher der Weisung – Zu einer neuen Verdeutschung der Schrift(1954); with Franz Rosenzweig
• Die Schriften über das dialogische Prinzip (Ich und Du, Zwiesprache, Die Frage an den Einzelnen, Elemente des Zwischenmenschlichen) (1954)
• Sehertum – Anfang und Ausgang (1955)
• Der Mensch und sein Gebild (1955)
• Schuld und Schuldgefühle (1958)
• Begegnung – autobiographische Fragmente (1960)
• Logos : zwei Reden (1962)
• Nachlese (1965)
Chinesische Geister- und Liebesgeschichten included the first German translation ever made of Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio. Alex Page translated the Chinesische Geister- und Liebesgeschichten as "Chinese Tales", published in 1991 by Humanities Press.[47]

Collected works

Werke 3 volumes (1962–1964)
• I Schriften zur Philosophie (1962)
• II Schriften zur Bibel (1964)
• III Schriften zum Chassidismus (1963)
Martin Buber Werkausgabe (MBW). Berliner Akademie der Wissenschaften / Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, ed. Paul Mendes-Flohr & Peter Schäfer with Martina Urban; 21 volumes planned (2001–)


Briefwechsel aus sieben Jahrzehnten 1897–1965 (1972–1975)
• I : 1897–1918 (1972)
• II : 1918–1938 (1973)
• III : 1938–1965 (1975)
Several of his original writings, including his personal archives, are preserved in the National Library of Israel, formerly the Jewish National and University Library, located on the campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem[48]

See also

• Existential therapy
• Guilt
• Humanistic psychology
• Intersubjectivity
• Contextual therapy
• André Neher
• List of Israel Prize recipients
• List of Bialik Prize recipients
• Jewish existentialism


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28. Buber, Martin (2005) [1954]. "We Need The Arabs, They Need Us!". In Mendes-Flohr, Paul (ed.). A Land of Two Peoples. University of Chicago. ISBN 0-226-07802-7.
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30. Jump up to:a b Zank, Michael (31 August 2006). New perspectives on Martin Buber. Mohr Siebeck. p. 20. ISBN 978-3-16-148998-3.
31. Buber, Martin; Biemann, Asher D (2002). The Martin Buber reader: essential writings. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-312-29290-4.
32. Buber, Martin (15 February 2005). Mendes-Flohr, Paul R (ed.). A land of two peoples: Martin Buber on Jews and Arabs. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-07802-1.
33. Buber, Martin (1991), "Martin Buber: A Biographical Sketch", in Schaeder, Grete (ed.), The letters of Martin Buber: a life of dialogue, p. 52, ISBN 978-0-8156-0420-4
34. Buber, Martin, Biemann, Asher D (ed.), The Martin Buber reader: essential writings, p. 12
35. Schaeder, Grete (1973), The Hebrew humanism of Martin Buber, p. 29
36. Buber, Martín (September 1996). Paths in Utopia. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-0421-1.
37. Schneider, Herbert W, "The historical significance of Buber's philosophy", The philosophy of Martin Buber, p. 471, ...the retort he actually made, namely, that a scientist should not make judgments beyond his science. Such an insistence on hard and fast boundaries among sciences is not in the spirit of Buber's empiricism
38. Friedman, Maurice S (July 1996). Martin Buber and the human sciences. SUNY Press. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-7914-2876-4.
39. Vermes, Pamela (1988). Buber. London: Peter Hablan. p. vii. ISBN 1-870015-08-8.
40. Brody, Samuel Hayim (2018). "The True Front: Buber and Landauer on Anarchism and Revolution". Martin Buber's Theopolitics. Indiana University Press. pp. 37–40. ISBN 978-0-253-03537-0.
41. Silberstein, Laurence J. (1990). Martin Buber's Social and Religious Thought: Alienation and the Quest for Meaning. NYU Press. p. 281. ISBN 978-0-8147-7910-1.
42. Buber, Martin (2002) [1947]. Between Man and Man. Routledge. pp. 250–51.
43. Langton, Daniel (2010). The Apostle Paul in the Jewish Imagination. Cambridge University Press. pp. 67–71.
44. Jump up to:a b c Kramer, Kenneth; Gawlick, Mechthild (November 2003). Martin Buber's I and thou: practicing living dialogue. Paulist Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-8091-4158-6.
45. "Recipients" (in Hebrew). Israel Prize. 1958. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012.
46. "List of Bialik Prize recipients 1933–2004" (PDF) (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv Municipality. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-12-17.
47. Chiang, Lydia Sing-Chen. Collecting The Self: Body And Identity In Strange Tale Collections Of Late Imperial China (Volume 67 of Sinica Leidensia). BRILL, 2005. ISBN 9004142037, 9789004142039. p. 62.
48. "Archivbestände in der Jewish National and University Library" (PDF). Retrieved 9 August 2019.



• Zink, Wolfgang (1978), Martin Buber – 1878/1978.
• Coen, Clara Levi (1991), Martin Buber.
• Friedman, Maurice (1981), Martin Buber’s Life and Work: The Early Years, 1878-1923.
• Friedman, Maurice (1983), Martin Buber’s Life and Work: The Middle Years, 1923-1945.
• Friedman, Maurice (1984), Martin Buber’s Life and Work: The Later Years, 1945-1965.

Further reading

• Schilpp, Paul Arthur; Friedman, Maurice (1967), The philosophy of Martin Buber.
• Horwitz, Rivka (1978), Buber's way to "I and thou" – an historical analysis and the first publication of Martin Buber's lectures "Religion als Gegenwart".
• Cohn, Margot; Buber, Rafael (1980), Martin Buber – a bibliography of his writings, 1897–1978.
• Israel, Joachim (2010), Martin Buber – Dialogphilosophie in Theorie und Praxis.
• Margulies, Hune (2017), Will and Grace: Meditations on the Dialogical Philosophy of Martin Buber.
• Nelson, Eric S. (2017). Chinese and Buddhist Philosophy in Early Twentieth-Century German Thought London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 9781350002555.

External links

• Literature by and about Martin Buber in University Library JCS Frankfurt am Main: Digital Collections Judaica
• Martin Buber at Curlie
• Martin Buber Homepage
• Martin Buber – The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy article by Sarah Scott
• Zank, Michael. "Martin Buber". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
• Martin Buber, the Anarchist
• Spiritual Community dedicated to Buber's I–Thou philosophy
• Martin Buber's Utopian Israel
• Martin Buber's Final Legacy: "The Knowledge of Man"; by Maurice Friedman.
• Buber's Philosophy as the Basis for Dialogical Psychotherapy and Contextual Therapy; by Maurice Friedman.
• I, thou, and we: A dialogical approach to couples therapy
• Dialogical and Person-Centred Approach to Psychotherapy
• Communitarian Elements in Select Works of Martin Buber
• The Martin Buber Institute for Dialogical Ecology
• Martin Buber speaks at the Drew University Convocation in 1957. Use the Selected Speakers drop-down to choose Buber, Martin
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John Dewey
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/17/19



Memorandum Number Seven: The Order's Objectives For Education

We can deduce The Order's objectives for education from evidence already presented and by examining the work and influence of John Dewey, the arch creator of modern educational theory.

How do we do this? We first need to examine Dewey's relationship with The Order. Then compare Dewey's philosophy with Hegel and with the philosophy and objectives of modern educational practice.

These educational objectives have not, by and large, been brought about by governmental action. In fact, if the present state of education had been brought about by legislation, it would have been challenged on the grounds of unconstitutionality.

On the contrary, the philosophy and practice of today's system has been achieved by injection of massive private funds by foundations under influence, and sometimes control, of The Order. This implementation we will describe in a future volume, How The Order Controls Foundations. In fact, the history of the implementation of Dewey's objectives is also the history of the larger foundations, i.e., Ford, Carnegie, Rockefeller, Peabody, Sloan, Slater and Twentieth Century.

How John Dewey Relates To The Order

John Dewey worked for his doctorate at Johns Hopkins University from 1882-86 under Hegelian philosopher George Sylvester Morris. Morris in turn had his doctorate from University of Berlin and studied under the same teachers as Daniel Gilman, i.e., Adolph Trendelenberg and Hermann Ulrici.

Neither Morris nor Dewey were members of The Order, but the link is clear. Gilman hired Morris, knowing full well that Hegelianism is a totally integrated body of knowledge and easy to recognize. It is as different from the British empirical school of John Stuart Mill as night and day.

John Dewey's psychology was taken from G. Stanley Hall, the first American student to receive a doctorate from Wilhelm Wundt at University of Leipzig. Gilman knew exactly what he was getting when he hired Hall. With only a dozen faculty members, all were hired personally by the President.

In brief, philosophy and psychology came to Dewey from academics hand-picked by The Order.

From Johns Hopkins Dewey went as Professor of Philosophy to University of Michigan and in 1886 published Psychology, a blend of Hegelian philosophy applied to Wundtian experimental psychology. It sold well. In 1894 Dewey went to University of Chicago and in 1902 was appointed Director of the newly founded -- with Rockefeller money -- School of Education.

The University of Chicago itself had been founded in 1890 with Rockefeller funds -- and in a future volume we will trace this through Frederick Gates (of Hartford, Connecticut), and the Pillsbury family (The Order). The University of Chicago and Columbia Teachers' College were the key training schools for modern education.

The Influence Of Dewey

Looking back at John Dewey after 80 years of his influence, he can be recognized as the pre-eminent factor in the collectivization, or Hegelianization, of American Schools.
Dewey was consistently a philosopher of social change. That's why his impact has been so deep and pervasive. And it is in the work and implementation of the ideas of John Dewey that we can find the objective of The Order.

When The Order brought G. Stanley Hall from Leipzig to Johns Hopkins University, John Dewey was already there, waiting to write his doctoral dissertation on "The Psychology of Kant." Already a Hegelian in philosophy, he acquired and adapted the experimental psychology of Wundt and Hall to his concept of education for social change. To illustrate this, here's a quote from John Dewey in My Pedagogic Creed:

"The school is primarily a social institution. Education being a social process, the school is simply that form of community life in which all those agencies are concentrated that will be most effective in bringing the child to share in the inherited resources of the race, and to use his own powers for social ends. Education, therefore, is a process of living and not a preparation for future living."

What we learn from this is that Dewey's education is not child centered but State centered, because for the Hegelian, "social ends" are always State ends.

This is where the gulf of misunderstanding between modern parents and the educational system begins. Parents believe a child goes to school to learn skills to use in the adult world, but Dewey states specifically that education is "not a preparation for future living." The Dewey educational system does not accept the role of developing a child's talents but, contrarily, only to prepare the child to function as a unit in an organic whole -- in blunt terms a cog in the wheel of an organic society. Whereas most Americans have moral values rooted in the individual, the values of the school system are rooted in the Hegelian concept of the State as the absolute. No wonder there is misunderstanding!

The Individual Child

When we compare Hegel, John Dewey, and today's educational thinkers and doers, we find an extraordinary similarity.

For Hegel the individual has no value except as he or she performs a function for society:

"The State is the absolute reality and the individual himself has objective existence, truth and morality only in his capacity as a member of the State."

John Dewey tried to brush the freedom of the individual to one side. In an article, "Democracy and Educational Administration" (School & Society, XVL, 1937, p. 457) Dewey talks about the "lost individual," and then restates Hegel in the following way: "freedom is the participation of every mature human being in formation of the values that regulate the living of men together." This is pure Hegel, i.e., man finds freedom only in obedience to the State. As one critic, Horace M. Kallen stated, John Dewey had a "blindness to the sheer individuality of individuals."

In other words, for Dewey man has no individual rights. Man exists only to serve the State. This is directly contradictory to the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution with the preamble "We the people." They then go on to define the rights of the state which are always subordinate and subject to the will of "We the people."

This, of course, is why modern educationists have great difficulty in introducing the Constitution into school work. Their ideas follow Hegel and Dewey and indirectly the objectives of The Order. For example:

"An attempt should be made to redress the present overemphasis on individualism in current programs ... students need to develop a sense of community and collective identity." (Educational Leadership, May 1982, William B. Stanley, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Curriculum and Instruction, Louisiana State University).

The Purpose Of Education

What then is the purpose of education, if the individual has no rights and exists only for the State?

There was no need for Hegel to describe education, and so far as we know there is no statement purely on education in Hegel's writings. It is unnecessary. For Hegel every quality of an individual exists only at the mercy and will of the State. This approach is reflected in political systems based on Hegel whether it be Soviet Communism or Hitlerian national socialism. John Dewey follows Hegel's organic view of society. For example:

"Education consists either in the ability to use one's powers in a social direction or else in ability to share in the experience of others and thus widen the individual consciousness to that of the race" (Lectures For The First Course In Pedagogy).

This last sentence is reminiscent of the Hitlerian philosophy of race (i.e., right Hegelianism).

And today's educators reflect this approach. Here's a quote from Assemblyman John Vasconcellos of California, who also happens to be Chairman of the Joint Committee on the Master Plan for Higher Education and the Education Goals Committee for the California State Assembly -- a key post:

"It is now time for a new vision of ourselves, of man, of human nature and of human potential, and a new theory of politics and institutions premised upon that vision. What is that vision of Man? That the natural, whole, organismic human being is loving ... that man's basic thrust is towards community" (quoted in Rex Myles, Brotherhood and Darkness, p. 347).

What is this "widen(ing) the individual consciousness" (Dewey) and "thrust ... towards community" (Vasconcellos)?

Stripped of the pedantic language it is new world order, a world organic society. But there is no provision for a global organic order within the Constitution. In fact, it is illegal for any government officer or elected official to move the United States towards such an order as it would clearly be inconsistent with the Constitution. To be sure, Dewey was not a government official, but Vasconcellos has taken an oath of allegiance to the Constitution.

The popular view of a global order is probably that we had better look after our problems at home before we get involved in these esoteric ideas. Political corruption, pitifully low educational standards, and insensitive bureaucracy are probably of more concern to Americans.

It's difficult to see what the new world order has to do with education of children, but it's there in the literature. Fichte, Hegel's predecessor from whom many of his philosophical ideas originated, had a definite concept of a League of Nations (Volkerbund) and the idea of a league to enforce peace. Fichte asserted "As this federation spreads further and gradually embraces the whole earth, perpetual peace begins, the only lawful relation among states ..."

The National Education Association, the lobby for education, produced a program for the 1976 Bicentennial entitled "A Declaration Of Interdependence: Education For A Global Community."

On page 6 of this document we find:

"We are committed to the idea of Education for Global Community. You are invited to help turn the commitment into action and mobilizing world education for development of a world community."

An objective almost parallel to Hegel is in Self Knowledge And Social Action by Obadiah Silas Harris, Associate Professor of Educational Management and Development New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico:

"When community educators say that community education takes into consideration the total individual and his total environment, they mean precisely this: the field of community education includes the individual in his total psycho-physical structure and his entire ecological climate with all its ramifications -- social, political, economical, cultural, spiritual, etc. It seeks to integrate the individual within himself (sic) and within his community until the individual becomes a cosmic soul and the community the world."

And on page 84 of the same book:

"The Cosmic soul ... the whole human race is going to evolve an effective soul of its own -- the cosmic soul of the race. That is the future of human evolution. As a result of the emergence of the universal soul, there will be a great unification of the entire human race, ushering into existence a new era, a new dawn of unique world power."

This last quote sounds even more like Adolph Hitler than Assemblyman John Vasconcellos. It has the same blend of the occult, the ethnic and absolutism.

In conclusion we need only quote the Constitution, the basic body of law under which the United States is governed.

The generally held understanding of the Constitution on the relationship between the individual and the State is that the individual is Supreme, the State exists only to serve individuals and the State has no power except by express permission of the people.

This is guaranteed by Amendments IX and X of the Constitution.

Amendment IX reads,

"The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the People."

Note, the "retained". And,

Amendment X reads,

"The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."

In brief, the proposals of John Dewey and his followers are unconstitutional. They would never have seen the light of day in American schoolrooms unless they had been promoted by The Order with its enormous power.

Mind Blank - The Order's Objective For Education

-- America's Secret Establishment: An Introduction to the Order of Skull and Bones, by Antony C. Sutton

John Dewey
Born October 20, 1859
Burlington, Vermont, United States
Died June 1, 1952 (aged 92)
New York, New York, United States
Alma mater University of Vermont
Johns Hopkins University
Era 20th-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Pragmatism
Institutions University of Michigan
University of Chicago
University of Chicago Laboratory Schools
Columbia University
Main interests
Philosophy of education, epistemology, journalism, ethics
Notable ideas
Reflective thinking[2]
American Association of University Professors
Immediate empiricism
Inquiry into Moscow show trials about Trotsky
Educational progressivism
Occupational psychosis
Influences: Plato · Locke · Rousseau · Kant · Hegel · Darwin · Peirce · Green · William James · Mead · George · Ward · Wundt · Parker
Influenced: Influenced[hide]
Veblen · B.R. Ambedkar · Santayana · Martin · Kaplan · Hu Shih · Hook · Greene · Richard McKeon · Margaret Naumburg · Putnam · Chomsky · Habermas · Rorty · West · Park · Durkheim · Herbert Schneider · Mills

John Dewey (/ˈduːi/; October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey is one of the primary figures associated with the philosophy of pragmatism and is considered one of the fathers of functional psychology. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Dewey as the 93rd most cited psychologist of the 20th century.[3] A well-known public intellectual, he was also a major voice of progressive education and liberalism.[4][5] Although Dewey is known best for his publications about education, he also wrote about many other topics, including epistemology, metaphysics, aesthetics, art, logic, social theory, and ethics. He was a major educational reformer for the 20th century.

The overriding theme of Dewey's works was his profound belief in democracy, be it in politics, education, or communication and journalism. As Dewey himself stated in 1888, while still at the University of Michigan, "Democracy and the one, ultimate, ethical ideal of humanity are to my mind synonymous."[6]

Known for his advocacy of democracy, Dewey considered two fundamental elements—schools and civil society—to be major topics needing attention and reconstruction to encourage experimental intelligence and plurality. Dewey asserted that complete democracy was to be obtained not just by extending voting rights but also by ensuring that there exists a fully formed public opinion, accomplished by communication among citizens, experts, and politicians, with the latter being accountable for the policies they adopt.

Life and works

John Dewey was born in Burlington, Vermont to a family of modest means.[7] He was one of four boys born to Archibald Sprague Dewey and Lucina Artemisia Rich Dewey. Their second son was also named John, but he died in an accident on January 17, 1859. The second John Dewey was born October 20, 1859, forty weeks after the death of his older brother. Like his older, surviving brother, Davis Rich Dewey, he attended the University of Vermont, where he was initiated into Delta Psi, and graduated Phi Beta Kappa[8] in 1879. A significant professor of Dewey's at the University of Vermont was Henry Augustus Pearson Torrey (H. A. P. Torrey), the son-in-law and nephew of former University of Vermont president Joseph Torrey. Dewey studied privately with Torrey between his graduation from Vermont and his enrollment at Johns Hopkins University.[9][10]

After two years as a high-school teacher in Oil City, Pennsylvania and one year as an elementary-school teacher in the small town of Charlotte, Vermont, Dewey decided that he was unsuited for teaching primary or secondary school. After studying with George Sylvester Morris, Charles Sanders Peirce, Herbert Baxter Adams, and G. Stanley Hall, Dewey received his Ph.D. from the School of Arts & Sciences at Johns Hopkins University. In 1884, he accepted a faculty position at the University of Michigan (1884–88 and 1889–94) with the help of George Sylvester Morris. His unpublished and now lost dissertation was titled "The Psychology of Kant." In 1894 Dewey joined the newly founded University of Chicago (1894–1904) where he developed his belief in Rational Empiricism, becoming associated with the newly emerging Pragmatic philosophy. His time at the University of Chicago resulted in four essays collectively entitled Thought and its Subject-Matter, which was published with collected works from his colleagues at Chicago under the collective title Studies in Logical Theory (1903). During that time Dewey also initiated the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools, where he was able to actualize the pedagogical beliefs that provided material for his first major work on education, The School and Society (1899). Disagreements with the administration ultimately caused his resignation from the university, and soon thereafter he relocated near the East Coast. In 1899, Dewey was elected president of the American Psychological Association (A.P.A.). From 1904 until his retirement in 1930 he was professor of philosophy at Columbia University.[11] In 1905 he became president of the American Philosophical Association. He was a longtime member of the American Federation of Teachers.

Along with the historians Charles A. Beard and James Harvey Robinson, and the economist Thorstein Veblen, Dewey is one of the founders of The New School. Dewey's most significant writings were "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology" (1896), a critique of a standard psychological concept and the basis of all his further work; Democracy and Education (1916), his celebrated work on progressive education; Human Nature and Conduct (1922), a study of the function of habit in human behavior;[12] The Public and its Problems (1927), a defense of democracy written in response to Walter Lippmann's The Phantom Public (1925); Experience and Nature (1925), Dewey's most "metaphysical" statement; Impressions of Soviet Russia and the Revolutionary World (1929), a glowing travelogue from the nascent USSR;[13] Art as Experience (1934), Dewey's major work on aesthetics; A Common Faith (1934), a humanistic study of religion originally delivered as the Dwight H. Terry Lectureship at Yale; Logic: The Theory of Inquiry (1938), a statement of Dewey's unusual conception of logic; Freedom and Culture (1939), a political work examining the roots of fascism; and Knowing and the Known (1949), a book written in conjunction with Arthur F. Bentley that systematically outlines the concept of trans-action, which is central to his other works (see Transactionalism). While each of these works focuses on one particular philosophical theme, Dewey included his major themes in most of what he published. He published more than 700 articles in 140 journals, and approximately 40 books.

Reflecting his immense influence on 20th-century thought, Hilda Neatby wrote "Dewey has been to our age what Aristotle was to the later Middle Ages, not a philosopher, but the philosopher."[14]

Dewey married Alice Chipman in 1886 shortly after Chipman graduated with her PhB from the University of Michigan. The two had six children: Frederick Archibald Dewey, Evelyn Riggs Dewey, Morris (who died young), Gordon Chipman Dewey, Lucy Alice Chipman Dewey, and Jane Mary Dewey.[15][16] Alice Chipman died in 1927 at the age of 68; weakened by a case of malaria contracted during a trip to Turkey in 1924 and a heart attack during a trip to Mexico City in 1926, she died from cerebral thrombosis on July 13, 1927.[17] Dewey married Estelle Roberta Lowitz Grant, "a longtime friend and companion for several years before their marriage" on December 11, 1946.[18][19] At Roberta's behest, the couple adopted two siblings, Lewis (changed to John, Jr.) and Shirley.[20] John Dewey died of pneumonia on June 1, 1952 at his home in New York City after years of ill-health.[21][22] and was cremated the next day.[23]

The United States Postal Service honored Dewey with a Prominent Americans series 30¢ postage stamp in 1968.[24]

Visits to China and Japan

John Dewey and Hu Shih, circa 1938–1942.

In 1919, Dewey and his wife traveled to Japan on sabbatical leave. Though Dewey and his wife were well received by the people of Japan during this trip, Dewey was also critical of the nation's governing system and claimed that the nation's path towards democracy was "ambitious but weak in many respects in which her competitors are strong."[25] He also stated that "the real test has not yet come. But if the nominally democratic world should go back on the professions so profusely uttered during war days, the shock will be enormous, and bureaucracy and militarism might come back."[25]

During his trip to Japan, Dewey was invited by Peking University to visit China, probably at the behest of his former students, Hu Shih and Chiang Monlin. Dewey and his wife Alice arrived in Shanghai on April 30, 1919,[26] just days before student demonstrators took to the streets of Peking to protest the decision of the Allies in Paris to cede the German held territories in Shandong province to Japan. Their demonstrations on May Fourth excited and energized Dewey, and he ended up staying in China for two years, leaving in July 1921.[27]

In these two years, Dewey gave nearly 200 lectures to Chinese audiences and wrote nearly monthly articles for Americans in The New Republic and other magazines. Well aware of both Japanese expansionism into China and the attraction of Bolshevism to some Chinese, Dewey advocated that Americans support China's transformation and that Chinese base this transformation in education and social reforms, not revolution. Hundreds and sometimes thousands of people attended the lectures, which were interpreted by Hu Shih. For these audiences, Dewey represented "Mr. Democracy" and "Mr. Science," the two personifications which they thought of representing modern values and hailed him as "Second Confucius". Perhaps Dewey's biggest impact, however, was on the forces for progressive education in China, such as Hu Shih and Chiang Monlin, who had studied with him, and Tao Xingzhi, who had studied at Teachers College, Columbia University.[28]

Their letters from China and Japan describing their experiences to their family were published in 1920, edited by their daughter Evelyn.[29] During and after his visit his commentaries on China would be published in such periodicals as the New Republic, Asia, the China Review, and sometimes in newspapers like the Baltimore Sun. Though discussing Chinese philosophy but rarely, one article in 1922, "As the Chinese Think", discusses the teachings of Laozi and Confucius in an attempt to improve understanding of the Chinese in international business relations.[30]

Visit to Southern Africa

Dewey and his daughter Jane went to South Africa in July 1934, at the invitation of the World Conference of New Education Fellowship in Cape Town and Johannesburg, where he delivered several talks. The conference was opened by the South African Minister of Education Jan Hofmeyr, and Deputy Prime Minister Jan Smuts. Other speakers at the conference included Max Eiselen and Hendrik Verwoerd, who would later become prime minister of the Nationalist government that introduced Apartheid.[31] John and Jane's expenses were paid by the Carnegie Foundation. He also traveled to Durban, Pretoria and Victoria Falls in what was then Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and looked at schools, talked to pupils, and gave lectures to the administrators and teachers. In August 1934, Dewey accepted an honorary degree from the University of the Witwatersrand.[32]

Functional psychology

See also: History of psychology

At the University of Michigan, Dewey published his first two books, Psychology (1887), and Leibniz's New Essays Concerning the Human Understanding (1888), both of which expressed Dewey's early commitment to British neo-Hegelianism. In Psychology, Dewey attempted a synthesis between idealism and experimental science.[1]

While still professor of philosophy at Michigan, Dewey and his junior colleagues, James Hayden Tufts and George Herbert Mead, together with his student James Rowland Angell, all influenced strongly by the recent publication of William James' Principles of Psychology (1890), began to reformulate psychology, emphasizing the social environment on the activity of mind and behavior rather than the physiological psychology of Wilhelm Wundt and his followers.

By 1894, Dewey had joined Tufts, with whom he would later write Ethics (1908) at the recently founded University of Chicago and invited Mead and Angell to follow him, the four men forming the basis of the so-called "Chicago group" of psychology.

Their new style of psychology, later dubbed functional psychology, had a practical emphasis on action and application. In Dewey's article "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology" which appeared in Psychological Review in 1896, he reasons against the traditional stimulus-response understanding of the reflex arc in favor of a "circular" account in which what serves as "stimulus" and what as "response" depends on how one considers the situation, and defends the unitary nature of the sensory motor circuit. While he does not deny the existence of stimulus, sensation, and response, he disagreed that they were separate, juxtaposed events happening like links in a chain. He developed the idea that there is a coordination by which the stimulation is enriched by the results of previous experiences. The response is modulated by sensorial experience.

Dewey was elected president of the American Psychological Association in 1899.


In 1984, the American Psychological Association announced that Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878–1972) had become the first psychologist to be commemorated on a United States postage stamp. However, psychologists Gary Brucato and John D. Hogan later made the case that this distinction actually belonged to John Dewey, who had been celebrated on an American stamp 17 years earlier. While some psychology historians consider Dewey more of a philosopher than a bona fide psychologist,[33] the authors noted that Dewey was a founding member of the A.P.A., served as the A.P.A.'s eighth president in 1899, and was the author of an 1896 article on the reflex arc which is now considered a basis of American functional psychology.[34]

Dewey also expressed interest in work in the psychology of visual perception performed by Dartmouth research professor Adelbert Ames Jr. He had great trouble with listening, however, because it is known Dewey could not distinguish musical pitches—in other words was tone deaf.[35]

Pragmatism, instrumentalism, consequentialism

Dewey sometimes referred to his philosophy as instrumentalism rather than pragmatism, and would have recognized the similarity of these two schools to the newer school named consequentialism. He defined with precise brevity the criterion of validity common to these three schools, which lack agreed-upon definitions:

But in the proper interpretation of "pragmatic," namely the function of consequences as necessary tests of the validity of propositions, provided these consequences are operationally instituted and are such as to resolve the specific problem evoking the operations, the text that follows is thoroughly pragmatic.[36]

His concern for precise definition led him to detailed analysis of careless word usage, reported in Knowing and the Known in 1949.


Main article: Knowing and the Known

The terminology problem in the fields of epistemology and logic is partially due, according to Dewey and Bentley,[37] to inefficient and imprecise use of words and concepts that reflect three historic levels of organization and presentation.[38] In the order of chronological appearance, these are:

• Self-Action: Prescientific concepts regarded humans, animals, and things as possessing powers of their own which initiated or caused their actions.
• Interaction: as described by Newton, where things, living and inorganic, are balanced against something in a system of interaction, for example, the third law of motion states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
• Transaction: where modern systems of descriptions and naming are employed to deal with multiple aspects and phases of action without any attribution to ultimate, final, or independent entities, essences, or realities.

A series of characterizations of Transactions indicate the wide range of considerations involved.[39]

Logic and method

Dewey sees paradox in contemporary logical theory. Proximate subject matter garners general agreement and advancement, while the ultimate subject matter of logic generates unremitting controversy. In other words, he challenges confident logicians to answer the question of the truth of logical operators. Do they function merely as abstractions (e.g., pure mathematics) or do they connect in some essential way with their objects, and therefore alter or bring them to light?[40]

Grave of Dewey and his wife in an alcove on the north side of the Ira Allen Chapel in Burlington, Vermont. The only grave on the University of Vermont campus

Logical positivism also figured in Dewey's thought. About the movement he wrote that it "eschews the use of 'propositions' and 'terms', substituting 'sentences' and 'words'." ("General Theory of Propositions", in Logic: The Theory of Inquiry) He welcomes this changing of referents "in as far as it fixes attention upon the symbolic structure and content of propositions." However, he registers a small complaint against the use of "sentence" and "words" in that without careful interpretation the act or process of transposition "narrows unduly the scope of symbols and language, since it is not customary to treat gestures and diagrams (maps, blueprints, etc.) as words or sentences." In other words, sentences and words, considered in isolation, do not disclose intent, which may be inferred or "adjudged only by means of context."[40]

Yet Dewey was not entirely opposed to modern logical trends. Concerning traditional logic, he states:

Aristotelian logic, which still passes current nominally, is a logic based upon the idea that qualitative objects are existential in the fullest sense. To retain logical principles based on this conception along with the acceptance of theories of existence and knowledge based on an opposite conception is not, to say the least, conductive to clearness—a consideration that has a good deal to do with existing dualism between traditional and the newer relational logics.

Louis Menand argues in The Metaphysical Club that Jane Addams had been critical of Dewey's emphasis on antagonism in the context of a discussion of the Pullman strike of 1894. In a later letter to his wife, Dewey confessed that Addams' argument was:

... the most magnificent exhibition of intellectual & moral faith I ever saw. She converted me internally, but not really, I fear. ... When you think that Miss Addams does not think this as a philosophy, but believes it in all her senses & muscles—Great God ... I guess I'll have to give it [all] up & start over again.

He went on to add:

I can see that I have always been interpreting dialectic wrong end up, the unity as the reconciliation of opposites, instead of the opposites as the unity in its growth, and thus translated the physical tension into a moral thing ... I don't know as I give the reality of this at all, ... it seems so natural & commonplace now, but I never had anything take hold of me so.[41]

In a letter to Addams, clearly influenced by his conversation with her, Dewey wrote:

Not only is actual antagonizing bad, but the assumption that there is or may be antagonism is bad—in fact, the real first antagonism always comes back to the assumption.


Main article: Art as Experience

Art as Experience (1934) is Dewey's major writing on aesthetics.

It is, in accordance with his place in the Pragmatist tradition that emphasizes community, a study of the individual art object as embedded in (and inextricable from) the experiences of a local culture. In the original illustrated edition, Dewey drew on the modern art and world cultures collection assembled by Albert C. Barnes at the Barnes Foundation, whose own ideas on the application of art to one's way of life was influenced by Dewey's writing. Barnes was particularly influenced by "Democracy and Education" (1916) and then attended Dewey's seminar on political philosophy at Columbia University in the fall semester of 1918

On philanthropy, women and democracy

Dewey founded the University of Chicago laboratory school, supported educational organizations, and supported settlement houses especially Jane Addams' Hull House.[42]

Through his work at the Hull House serving on its first board of trustees, Dewey was not only an activist for the cause but also a partner working to serve the large immigrant community of Chicago and women's suffrage. Dewey experienced the lack of children's education while contributing in the classroom at the Hull House and the lack of education and skills of immigrant women.[43] Stengel argues:

Addams is unquestionably a maker of democratic community and pragmatic education; Dewey is just as unquestionably a reflector. Through her work at Hull House, Addams discerned the shape of democracy as a mode of associated living and uncovered the outlines of an experimental approach to knowledge and understanding; Dewey analyzed and classified the social, psychological and educational processes Addams lived.[42]

His leading views on democracy included:

First, Dewey believed that democracy is an ethical ideal rather than merely a political arrangement. Second, he considered participation, not representation, the essence of democracy. Third, he insisted on the harmony between democracy and the scientific method: ever-expanding and self-critical communities of inquiry, operating on pragmatic principles and constantly revising their beliefs in light of new evidence, provided Dewey with a model for democratic decision making ... Finally, Dewey called for extending democracy, conceived as an ethical project, from politics to industry and society.[44]

This helped to shape his understanding of human action and the unity of human experience.

Dewey believed that a woman's place in society was determined by her environment and not just her biology. On women he says, "You think too much of women in terms of sex. Think of them as human individuals for a while, dropping out the sex qualification, and you won't be so sure of some of your generalizations about what they should and shouldn't do".[43] John Dewey's support helped to increase the support and popularity of Jane Addams' Hull House and other settlement houses as well. With growing support, involvement of the community grew as well as the support for the women's suffrage movement.

As commonly argued by Dewey's greatest critics, he was not able to come up with strategies in order to fulfill his ideas that would lead to a successful democracy, educational system, and a successful women's suffrage movement. While knowing that traditional beliefs, customs, and practices needed to be examined in order to find out what worked and what needed improved upon, it was never done in a systematic way.[43] "Dewey became increasingly aware of the obstacles presented by entrenched power and alert to the intricacy of the problems facing modern cultures".[44] With the complex of society at the time, Dewey was criticized for his lack of effort in fixing the problems.

With respect to technological developments in a democracy:

Persons do not become a society by living in physical proximity any more than a man ceases to be socially influenced by being so many feet or miles removed from others.

His work on democracy influenced B.R. Ambedkar, one of his students, who later became one of the founding fathers of independent India.[45][46][47][48]

On education and teacher education

Main article: Democracy and Education

Dewey's educational theories were presented in My Pedagogic Creed (1897), The School and Society (1900), The Child and the Curriculum (1902), Democracy and Education (1916), Schools of To-morrow (c1915) with Evelyn Dewey, and Experience and Education (1938). Several themes recur throughout these writings. Dewey continually argues that education and learning are social and interactive processes, and thus the school itself is a social institution through which social reform can and should take place. In addition, he believed that students thrive in an environment where they are allowed to experience and interact with the curriculum, and all students should have the opportunity to take part in their own learning.

The ideas of democracy and social reform are continually discussed in Dewey's writings on education. Dewey makes a strong case for the importance of education not only as a place to gain content knowledge, but also as a place to learn how to live. In his eyes, the purpose of education should not revolve around the acquisition of a pre-determined set of skills, but rather the realization of one's full potential and the ability to use those skills for the greater good. He notes that "to prepare him for the future life means to give him command of himself; it means so to train him that he will have the full and ready use of all his capacities" (My Pedagogic Creed, Dewey, 1897). In addition to helping students realize their full potential, Dewey goes on to acknowledge that education and schooling are instrumental in creating social change and reform. He notes that "education is a regulation of the process of coming to share in the social consciousness; and that the adjustment of individual activity on the basis of this social consciousness is the only sure method of social reconstruction".

In addition to his ideas regarding what education is and what effect it should have on society, Dewey also had specific notions regarding how education should take place within the classroom. In The Child and the Curriculum (1902), Dewey discusses two major conflicting schools of thought regarding educational pedagogy. The first is centered on the curriculum and focuses almost solely on the subject matter to be taught. Dewey argues that the major flaw in this methodology is the inactivity of the student; within this particular framework, "the child is simply the immature being who is to be matured; he is the superficial being who is to be deepened" (1902, p. 13).[49] He argues that in order for education to be most effective, content must be presented in a way that allows the student to relate the information to prior experiences, thus deepening the connection with this new knowledge.

At the same time, Dewey was alarmed by many of the "child-centered" excesses of educational-school pedagogues who claimed to be his followers, and he argued that too much reliance on the child could be equally detrimental to the learning process. In this second school of thought, "we must take our stand with the child and our departure from him. It is he and not the subject-matter which determines both quality and quantity of learning" (Dewey, 1902, pp. 13–14). According to Dewey, the potential flaw in this line of thinking is that it minimizes the importance of the content as well as the role of the teacher.

In order to rectify this dilemma, Dewey advocated for an educational structure that strikes a balance between delivering knowledge while also taking into account the interests and experiences of the student. He notes that "the child and the curriculum are simply two limits which define a single process. Just as two points define a straight line, so the present standpoint of the child and the facts and truths of studies define instruction" (Dewey, 1902, p. 16). It is through this reasoning that Dewey became one of the most famous proponents of hands-on learning or experiential education, which is related to, but not synonymous with experiential learning. He argued that "if knowledge comes from the impressions made upon us by natural objects, it is impossible to procure knowledge without the use of objects which impress the mind" (Dewey, 1916/2009, pp. 217–18).[50] Dewey's ideas went on to influence many other influential experiential models and advocates. Problem-Based Learning (PBL), for example, a method used widely in education today, incorporates Dewey's ideas pertaining to learning through active inquiry.[51]

Dewey not only re-imagined the way that the learning process should take place, but also the role that the teacher should play within that process. Throughout the history of American schooling, education's purpose has been to train students for work by providing the student with a limited set of skills and information to do a particular job. The works of John Dewey provide the most prolific examples of how this limited vocational view of education has been applied to both the K–12 public education system and to the teacher training schools who attempted to quickly produce proficient and practical teachers with a limited set of instructional and discipline-specific skills needed to meet the needs of the employer and demands of the workforce. In The School and Society (Dewey, 1899) and Democracy of Education (Dewey, 1916), Dewey claims that rather than preparing citizens for ethical participation in society, schools cultivate passive pupils via insistence upon mastery of facts and disciplining of bodies. Rather than preparing students to be reflective, autonomous and ethical beings capable of arriving at social truths through critical and intersubjective discourse, schools prepare students for docile compliance with authoritarian work and political structures, discourage the pursuit of individual and communal inquiry, and perceive higher learning as a monopoly of the institution of education (Dewey, 1899; 1916).

For Dewey and his philosophical followers, education stifles individual autonomy when learners are taught that knowledge is transmitted in one direction, from the expert to the learner. Dewey not only re-imagined the way that the learning process should take place, but also the role that the teacher should play within that process. For Dewey, "The thing needful is improvement of education, not simply by turning out teachers who can do better the things that are not necessary to do, but rather by changing the conception of what constitutes education" (Dewey, 1904, p. 18). Dewey's qualifications for teaching—a natural love for working with young children, a natural propensity to inquire about the subjects, methods and other social issues related to the profession, and a desire to share this acquired knowledge with others—are not a set of outwardly displayed mechanical skills. Rather, they may be viewed as internalized principles or habits which "work automatically, unconsciously" (Dewey, 1904, p. 15). Turning to Dewey's essays and public addresses regarding the teaching profession, followed by his analysis of the teacher as a person and a professional, as well as his beliefs regarding the responsibilities of teacher education programs to cultivate the attributes addressed, teacher educators can begin to reimagine the successful classroom teacher Dewey envisioned.

Professionalization of teaching as a social service

For many, education's purpose is to train students for work by providing the student with a limited set of skills and information to do a particular job. As Dewey notes, this limited vocational view is also applied to teacher training schools who attempt to quickly produce proficient and practical teachers with a limited set of instructional and discipline skills needed to meet the needs of the employer and demands of the workforce (Dewey, 1904). For Dewey, the school and the classroom teacher, as a workforce and provider of a social service, have a unique responsibility to produce psychological and social goods that will lead to both present and future social progress. As Dewey notes, "The business of the teacher is to produce a higher standard of intelligence in the community, and the object of the public school system is to make as large as possible the number of those who possess this intelligence. Skill, ability to act wisely and effectively in a great variety of occupations and situations, is a sign and a criterion of the degree of civilization that a society has reached. It is the business of teachers to help in producing the many kinds of skill needed in contemporary life. If teachers are up to their work, they also aid in the production of character."(Dewey, TAP, 2010, pp. 241–42).

According to Dewey, the emphasis is placed on producing these attributes in children for use in their contemporary life because it is "impossible to foretell definitely just what civilization will be twenty years from now" (Dewey, MPC, 2010, p. 25). However, although Dewey is steadfast in his beliefs that education serves an immediate purpose (Dewey, DRT, 2010; Dewey, MPC, 2010; Dewey, TTP, 2010), he is not ignorant of the impact imparting these qualities of intelligence, skill, and character on young children in their present life will have on the future society. While addressing the state of educative and economic affairs during a 1935 radio broadcast, Dewey linked the ensuing economic depression to a "lack of sufficient production of intelligence, skill, and character" (Dewey, TAP, 2010, p. 242) of the nation's workforce. As Dewey notes, there is a lack of these goods in the present society and teachers have a responsibility to create them in their students, who, we can assume, will grow into the adults who will ultimately go on to participate in whatever industrial or economical civilization awaits them. According to Dewey, the profession of the classroom teacher is to produce the intelligence, skill, and character within each student so that the democratic community is composed of citizens who can think, do and act intelligently and morally.
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Part 2 of 2

A teacher's knowledge

Dewey believed that the successful classroom teacher possesses a passion for knowledge and an intellectual curiosity in the materials and methods they teach. For Dewey, this propensity is an inherent curiosity and love for learning that differs from one's ability to acquire, recite and reproduce textbook knowledge. "No one," according to Dewey, "can be really successful in performing the duties and meeting these demands [of teaching] who does not retain [her] intellectual curiosity intact throughout [her] entire career" (Dewey, APT, 2010, p. 34). According to Dewey, it is not that the "teacher ought to strive to be a high-class scholar in all the subjects he or she has to teach," rather, "a teacher ought to have an unusual love and aptitude in some one subject: history, mathematics, literature, science, a fine art, or whatever" (Dewey, APT, 2010, p. 35). The classroom teacher does not have to be a scholar in all subjects; rather, a genuine love in one will elicit a feel for genuine information and insight in all subjects taught.

In addition to this propensity for study into the subjects taught, the classroom teacher "is possessed by a recognition of the responsibility for the constant study of school room work, the constant study of children, of methods, of subject matter in its various adaptations to pupils" (Dewey, PST, 2010, p. 37). For Dewey, this desire for the lifelong pursuit of learning is inherent in other professions (e.g. the architectural, legal and medical fields; Dewey, 1904 & Dewey, PST, 2010), and has particular importance for the field of teaching. As Dewey notes, "this further study is not a side line but something which fits directly into the demands and opportunities of the vocation" (Dewey, APT, 2010, p. 34).

According to Dewey, this propensity and passion for intellectual growth in the profession must be accompanied by a natural desire to communicate one's knowledge with others. "There are scholars who have [the knowledge] in a marked degree but who lack enthusiasm for imparting it. To the 'natural born' teacher learning is incomplete unless it is shared" (Dewey, APT, 2010, p. 35). For Dewey, it is not enough for the classroom teacher to be a lifelong learner of the techniques and subject-matter of education; she must aspire to share what she knows with others in her learning community.

A teacher's skill

The best indicator of teacher quality, according to Dewey, is the ability to watch and respond to the movement of the mind with keen awareness of the signs and quality of the responses he or her students exhibit with regard to the subject-matter presented (Dewey, APT, 2010; Dewey, 1904). As Dewey notes, "I have often been asked how it was that some teachers who have never studied the art of teaching are still extraordinarily good teachers. The explanation is simple. They have a quick, sure and unflagging sympathy with the operations and process of the minds they are in contact with. Their own minds move in harmony with those of others, appreciating their difficulties, entering into their problems, sharing their intellectual victories" (Dewey, APT, 2010, p. 36). Such a teacher is genuinely aware of the complexities of this mind to mind transfer, and she has the intellectual fortitude to identify the successes and failures of this process, as well as how to appropriately reproduce or correct it in the future.

A teacher's disposition

As a result of the direct influence teachers have in shaping the mental, moral and spiritual lives of children during their most formative years, Dewey holds the profession of teaching in high esteem, often equating its social value to that of the ministry and to parenting (Dewey, APT, 2010; Dewey, DRT, 2010; Dewey, MPC, 2010; Dewey, PST, 2010; Dewey, TTC, 2010; Dewey, TTP, 2010). Perhaps the most important attributes, according to Dewey, are those personal inherent qualities which the teacher brings to the classroom. As Dewey notes, "no amount of learning or even of acquired pedagogical skill makes up for the deficiency" (Dewey, TLS, p. 25) of the personal traits needed to be most successful in the profession.

According to Dewey, the successful classroom teacher occupies an indispensable passion for promoting the intellectual growth of young children. In addition, they know that their career, in comparison to other professions, entails stressful situations, long hours and limited financial reward; all of which have the potential to overcome their genuine love and sympathy for their students. For Dewey, "One of the most depressing phases of the vocation is the number of care worn teachers one sees, with anxiety depicted on the lines of their faces, reflected in their strained high pitched voices and sharp manners. While contact with the young is a privilege for some temperaments, it is a tax on others, and a tax which they do not bear up under very well. And in some schools, there are too many pupils to a teacher, too many subjects to teach, and adjustments to pupils are made in a mechanical rather than a human way. Human nature reacts against such unnatural conditions" (Dewey, APT, 2010, p. 35).

It is essential, according to Dewey, that the classroom teacher has the mental propensity to overcome the demands and stressors placed on them because the students can sense when their teacher is not genuinely invested in promoting their learning (Dewey, PST, 2010). Such negative demeanors, according to Dewey, prevent children from pursuing their own propensities for learning and intellectual growth. It can therefore be assumed that if teachers want their students to engage with the educational process and employ their natural curiosities for knowledge, teachers must be aware of how their reactions to young children and the stresses of teaching influence this process.

The role of teacher education to cultivate the professional classroom teacher

Dewey's passions for teaching—a natural love for working with young children, a natural propensity to inquire about the subjects, methods and other social issues related to the profession, and a desire to share this acquired knowledge with others—are not a set of outwardly displayed mechanical skills. Rather, they may be viewed as internalized principles or habits which "work automatically, unconsciously" (Dewey, 1904, p. 15). According to Dewey, teacher education programs must turn away from focusing on producing proficient practitioners because such practical skills related to instruction and discipline (e.g. creating and delivering lesson plans, classroom management, implementation of an assortment of content-specific methods) can be learned over time during their everyday school work with their students (Dewey, PST, 2010). As Dewey notes, "The teacher who leaves the professional school with power in managing a class of children may appear to superior advantage the first day, the first week, the first month, or even the first year, as compared with some other teacher who has a much more vital command of the psychology, logic and ethics of development. But later 'progress' may with such consist only in perfecting and refining skill already possessed. Such persons seem to know how to teach, but they are not students of teaching. Even though they go on studying books of pedagogy, reading teachers' journals, attending teachers' institutes, etc., yet the root of the matter is not in them, unless they continue to be students of subject-matter, and students of mind-activity. Unless a teacher is such a student, he may continue to improve in the mechanics of school management, but he cannot grow as a teacher, an inspirer and director of soul-life" (Dewey, 1904, p. 15). For Dewey, teacher education should focus not on producing persons who know how to teach as soon as they leave the program; rather, teacher education should be concerned with producing professional students of education who have the propensity to inquire about the subjects they teach, the methods used, and the activity of the mind as it gives and receives knowledge. According to Dewey, such a student is not superficially engaging with these materials, rather, the professional student of education has a genuine passion to inquire about the subjects of education, knowing that doing so ultimately leads to acquisitions of the skills related to teaching. Such students of education aspire for the intellectual growth within the profession that can only be achieved by immersing one's self in the lifelong pursuit of the intelligence, skills and character Dewey linked to the profession.

As Dewey notes, other professional fields, such as law and medicine cultivate a professional spirit in their fields to constantly study their work, their methods of their work, and a perpetual need for intellectual growth and concern for issues related to their profession. Teacher education, as a profession, has these same obligations (Dewey, 1904; Dewey, PST, 2010). As Dewey notes, "An intellectual responsibility has got to be distributed to every human being who is concerned in carrying out the work in question, and to attempt to concentrate intellectual responsibility for a work that has to be done, with their brains and their hearts, by hundreds or thousands of people in a dozen or so at the top, no matter how wise and skillful they are, is not to concentrate responsibility—it is to diffuse irresponsibility" (Dewey, PST, 2010, p. 39). For Dewey, the professional spirit of teacher education requires of its students a constant study of school room work, constant study of children, of methods, of subject matter in its various adaptations to pupils. Such study will lead to professional enlightenment with regard to the daily operations of classroom teaching.

As well as his very active and direct involvement in setting up educational institutions such as the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools (1896) and The New School for Social Research (1919), many of Dewey's ideas influenced the founding of Bennington College and Goddard College in Vermont, where he served on the Board of Trustees. Dewey's works and philosophy also held great influence in the creation of the short-lived Black Mountain College in North Carolina, an experimental college focused on interdisciplinary study, and whose faculty included Buckminster Fuller, Willem de Kooning, Charles Olson, Franz Kline, Robert Duncan, Robert Creeley, and Paul Goodman, among others. Black Mountain College was the locus of the "Black Mountain Poets" a group of avant-garde poets closely linked with the Beat Generation and the San Francisco Renaissance.

On journalism

Main article: The Public and its Problems

Caricature of Dewey by André Koehne, 2006

Since the mid-1980s, Deweyan ideas have experienced revival as a major source of inspiration for the public journalism movement. Dewey's definition of "public," as described in The Public and its Problems, has profound implications for the significance of journalism in society. As suggested by the title of the book, his concern was of the transactional relationship between publics and problems. Also implicit in its name, public journalism seeks to orient communication away from elite, corporate hegemony toward a civic public sphere. "The 'public' of public journalists is Dewey's public."

Dewey gives a concrete definition to the formation of a public. Publics are spontaneous groups of citizens who share the indirect effects of a particular action. Anyone affected by the indirect consequences of a specific action will automatically share a common interest in controlling those consequences, i.e., solving a common problem.[52]
Since every action generates unintended consequences, publics continuously emerge, overlap, and disintegrate.

In The Public and its Problems, Dewey presents a rebuttal to Walter Lippmann's treatise on the role of journalism in democracy. Lippmann's model was a basic transmission model in which journalists took information given to them by experts and elites, repackaged that information in simple terms, and transmitted the information to the public, whose role was to react emotionally to the news. In his model, Lippmann supposed that the public was incapable of thought or action, and that all thought and action should be left to the experts and elites.

Dewey refutes this model by assuming that politics is the work and duty of each individual in the course of his daily routine. The knowledge needed to be involved in politics, in this model, was to be generated by the interaction of citizens, elites, experts, through the mediation and facilitation of journalism. In this model, not just the government is accountable, but the citizens, experts, and other actors as well.

Dewey also said that journalism should conform to this ideal by changing its emphasis from actions or happenings (choosing a winner of a given situation) to alternatives, choices, consequences, and conditions,[53] in order to foster conversation and improve the generation of knowledge. Journalism would not just produce a static product that told what had already happened, but the news would be in a constant state of evolution as the public added value by generating knowledge. The "audience" would end, to be replaced by citizens and collaborators who would essentially be users, doing more with the news than simply reading it. Concerning his effort to change journalism, he wrote in The Public and Its Problems: "Till the Great Society is converted in to a Great Community, the Public will remain in eclipse. Communication can alone create a great community" (Dewey, p. 142).

Dewey believed that communication creates a great community, and citizens who participate actively with public life contribute to that community. "The clear consciousness of a communal life, in all its implications, constitutes the idea of democracy." (The Public and its Problems, p. 149). This Great Community can only occur with "free and full intercommunication." (p. 211) Communication can be understood as journalism.

On humanism

As an atheist[54] and a secular humanist in his later life, Dewey participated with a variety of humanistic activities from the 1930s into the 1950s, which included sitting on the advisory board of Charles Francis Potter's First Humanist Society of New York (1929); being one of the original 34 signatories of the first Humanist Manifesto (1933) and being elected an honorary member of the Humanist Press Association (1936).[55]

His opinion of humanism is summarized in his own words from an article titled "What Humanism Means to Me", published in the June 1930 edition of Thinker 2:

What Humanism means to me is an expansion, not a contraction, of human life, an expansion in which nature and the science of nature are made the willing servants of human good.[56]

Social and political activism

While Dewey was at the University of Chicago, his letters to his wife Alice and his colleague Jane Addams reveal that he closely followed the 1894 Pullman Strike, in which the employees of the Pullman Palace Car Factory in Chicago decided to go on strike after industrialist George Pullman refused to lower rents in his company town after cutting his workers’ wages by nearly 30 percent. On May 11, 1894, the strike became official, later gaining the support of the members of the American Railway Union, whose leader Eugene V. Debs called for a nationwide boycott of all trains including Pullman sleeping cars. Considering most trains had Pullman cars, the main 24 lines out of Chicago were halted and the mail was stopped as the workers destroyed trains all over the United States. President Grover Cleveland used the mail as a justification to send in the National Guard, and ARU leader Eugene Debs was arrested. Dewey wrote to Alice: “The only wonder is that when the ‘higher classes’ – damn them – take such views there aren’t more downright socialists…. [T]hat a representative journal of the upper classes – damn them again – can take the attitude of that harper’s weekly,” referring to headlines such as “Monopoly” and “Repress the Rebellion,” which claimed, in Dewey’s words, to support the sensational belief that Debs was a “criminal” inspiring hate and violence in the equally “criminal” working classes. He concluded: “It shows what it is to be a higher class. And I fear Chicago Univ. is a capitalistic institution – that is, it too belongs to the higher classes.”[57] Dewey was not a socialist like Debs, but he believed that Pullman and the workers must strive toward a community of shared ends following the work of Jane Addams and George Herbert Mead.

As a major advocate for academic freedom, in 1935 Dewey, together with Albert Einstein and Alvin Johnson, became a member of the United States section of the International League for Academic Freedom,[58] and in 1940, together with Horace M Kallen, edited a series of articles related to the Bertrand Russell Case.

As well as defending the independence of teachers and opposing a communist takeover of the New York Teachers' Union,[citation needed] Dewey was involved in the organization that eventually became the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, sitting as an executive on the NAACP's early executive board[59]. He was an avid supporter of Henry George's proposal for taxing land values. Of George, he wrote, "No man, no graduate of a higher educational institution, has a right to regard himself as an educated man in social thought unless he has some first-hand acquaintance with the theoretical contribution of this great American thinker."[60] As honorary president of the Henry George School of Social Science, he wrote a letter to Henry Ford urging him to support the school.[61]

He directed the famous Dewey Commission held in Mexico in 1937, which cleared Leon Trotsky of the charges made against him by Joseph Stalin,[62] and marched for women's rights, among many other causes.

In 1939, John Dewey was elected President of the League for Industrial Democracy, an organization with the goal of educating college students about the labor movement. The Student Branch of the L.I.D. would later become Students for a Democratic Society.[63]

Other interests

Dewey's interests and writings included many topics, and according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "a substantial part of his published output consisted of commentary on current domestic and international politics, and public statements on behalf of many causes. (He is probably the only philosopher in this encyclopedia to have published both on the Treaty of Versailles and on the value of displaying art in post offices.)"[64]

In 1917, Dewey met F. M. Alexander in New York City and later wrote introductions to Alexander's Man's Supreme Inheritance (1918), Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (1923) and The Use of the Self (1932). Alexander's influence is referenced in "Human Nature and Conduct" and "Experience and Nature."[65]

As well as his contacts with people mentioned elsewhere in the article, he also maintained correspondence with Henri Bergson, William M. Brown, Martin Buber, George S. Counts, William Rainey Harper, Sidney Hook, and George Santayana.


Dewey is considered the epitome of liberalism by historians,[66][67] and sometimes was portrayed as "dangerously radical."[68] Meanwhile, Dewey was critiqued strongly by American communists because he argued against Stalinism and had philosophical differences with Marx, identifying himself as a democratic socialist.[69]

Historians have examined his religious beliefs. Biographer Steven C. Rockefeller traced Dewey's democratic convictions to his childhood attendance at the Congregational Church, with its strong proclamation of social ideals and the Social Gospel.[70] Historian Edward A. White suggested in Science and Religion in American Thought (1952) that Dewey's work led to the 20th-century rift between religion and science.

Academic awards

• Copernican Citation (1943)
• Doctor "honoris causa" – University of Oslo (1946)
• Doctor "honoris causa" – University of Pennsylvania (1946)
• Doctor "honoris causa" – Yale University (1951)
• Doctor "honoris causa" – University of Rome (1951)


• John Dewey High School in Brooklyn, New York is named after him.
• John Dewey Academy of Learning in Green Bay, Wisconsin is a charter school named after him.
• The John Dewey Academy in Great Barrington, MA is a college preparatory therapeutic boarding school for troubled adolescents.
• John Dewey Elementary School in Warrensville Hts., Ohio, an Eastern Suburb of Cleveland, Ohio, is named after him.
• John Dewey Elementary School in Flint, Michigan was named after him but the school is now a career training center – the Sylvester Broom Center.
• John Dewey Middle School in Adams County in Denver, Colorado is a junior high school named after him.


Besides publishing prolifically himself, Dewey also sat on the boards of scientific publications such as Sociometry (advisory board, 1942) and Journal of Social Psychology (editorial board, 1942), as well as having posts at other publications such as New Leader (contributing editor, 1949).

The following publications by John Dewey are referenced or mentioned in this article. A more complete list of his publications may be found at List of publications by John Dewey.

• "The New Psychology", Andover Review, 2, 278–89 (1884)
• Psychology (1887)
• Leibniz's New Essays Concerning the Human Understanding (1888)
• "The Ego as Cause" Philosophical Review, 3, 337–41 (1894)
• "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology" (1896)
• "My Pedagogic Creed" (1897)
• The School and Society (1899)
• The Child and the Curriculum (1902)
• The Relation of Theory to Practice in Education (1904)
• "The Postulate of Immediate Empiricism" (1905)
• Moral Principles in Education (1909), The Riverside Press Cambridge, Project Gutenberg
• How We Think (1910)
• German Philosophy and Politics (1915)
• Democracy and Education: an introduction to the philosophy of education (1916)
• Reconstruction in Philosophy (1919)
• China, Japan and the U.S.A. (1921)
• Human Nature and Conduct: An Introduction to Social Psychology (1922)
• Experience and Nature (1925)
• The Public and its Problems (1927)
• The Quest for Certainty, Gifford Lectures (1929)
• The Sources of a Science of Education (1929), The Kappa Delta Pi Lecture Series
• Individualism Old and New (1930)
• Philosophy and Civilization (1931)
• Ethics, second edition (with James Hayden Tufts) (1932)
• Art as Experience (1934)
• A Common Faith (1934)
• Liberalism and Social Action (1935)
• Experience and Education (1938)
• Logic: The Theory of Inquiry (1938)
• Freedom and Culture (1939)
• Theory of Valuation (1939). ISBN 0-226-57594-2
• Knowing and the Known (1949)
• Unmodern Philosophy and Modern Philosophy ISBN 0809330792 (Lost in 1947, finally published in 2012)[71]

See also

• The Philosophy of John Dewey, Edited by John J. McDermott. University of Chicago Press, 1981.
• The Essential Dewey: Volumes 1 and 2. Edited by Larry Hickman and Thomas Alexander. Indiana University Press, 1998.
• To those who aspire to the profession of teaching (APT). In Simpson, D.J., & Stack, S.F. (eds.), Teachers, leaders and schools: Essays by John Dewey (33–36). Carbonale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2010.
• The classroom teacher (CRT). In Simpson, D.J., & Stack, S.F. (eds.), Teachers, leaders and schools: Essays by John Dewey (153–60). Carbonale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2010.
• The duties and responsibilities of the teaching profession (DRT). In Simpson, D.J., & Stack, S.F. (eds.), Teachers, leaders and schools: Essays by John Dewey (245–48). Carbonale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2010.
• The educational balance, efficiency and thinking (EET). In Simpson, D.J., & Stack, S.F. (eds.), Teachers, leaders and schools: Essays by John Dewey (41–45). Carbonale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2010.
• My pedagogic creed (MPC). In Simpson, D.J., & Stack, S.F. (eds.), Teachers, leaders and schools: Essays by John Dewey (24–32). Carbonale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2010.
• Professional spirit among teachers (PST). In Simpson, D.J., & Stack, S.F. (eds.), Teachers, leaders and schools: Essays by John Dewey (37–40). Carbonale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2010.
• The teacher and the public (TAP). In Simpson, D.J., & Stack, S.F. (eds.), Teachers, leaders and schools: Essays by John Dewey (214–44). Carbonale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2010.

Dewey's Complete Writings is available in 4 multi-volume sets (38 volumes in all) from Southern Illinois University Press:

• The Early Works: 1892–1898 (5 volumes)
• The Middle Works: 1899–1924 (15 volumes)
• The Later Works: 1925–1953 (17 volumes)
• Supplementary Volume 1: 1884–1951

The Collected Works of John Dewey: 1882–1953', The Correspondence of John Dewey 1871–1952, and The Lectures of John Dewey are available online via monographic purchase to academic institutions and via subscription to individuals, and also in TEI format for university servers in the Past Masters series. (The CD-ROM has been discontinued).

See also

• Center for Dewey Studies
• Democratic education
• Dewey Commission
• Inquiry-based learning
• Instrumental and value-rational action
• John Dewey bibliography
• John Dewey Society
• League for Independent Political Action
• Learning by teaching
• List of American philosophers
• Malting House School
• Pragmatic ethics


1. Field, Richard. John Dewey in The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Northwest Missouri State University. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
2. John Dewey, How we think (1910), p. 9.
3. Haggbloom, Steven J.; Warnick, Renee; Warnick, Jason E.; Jones, Vinessa K.; Yarbrough, Gary L.; Russell, Tenea M.; Borecky, Chris M.; McGahhey, Reagan; Powell, John L., III; Beavers, Jamie; Monte, Emmanuelle (2002). "The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century". Review of General Psychology. 6 (2): 139–52. CiteSeerX doi:10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.139.
4. Alan Ryan, John Dewey and the High Tide of American Liberalism, (1995), p. 32
5. Violas, Paul C.; Tozer, Steven; Senese, Guy B. (September 2004). School and Society: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-07-298556-6.
6. Early Works, 1:128 (Southern Illinois University Press) op cited in Douglas R. Anderson, AAR, The Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 61, No. 2 (1993), p. 383
7. Gutek, Gerald L. (2005). Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Education: A Biographical Introduction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc. p. 338. ISBN 978-0-13-113809-4.
8. Who Belongs To Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Beta Kappa website, accessed Oct 4, 2009
9. bio of Dewey from Bowling Green State University Archived 2011-01-02 at the Wayback Machine
10. Louis Menand, The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in the United States. New York: Farrar, Staus and Giroux, 2002.
11. The New York Timesedition of January 19, 1953, page 27
12. John Dewey (1922). Human Nature and Conduct: An Introduction to Social Psychology. Henry Holt & Company. Retrieved February 2, 2018 – via Internet Archive.
13. John Dewey (1929), Impressons of Soviet Russia and the Revolutionary World, The New Republic. Also at Google Books
14. Hilda M. Neatby, So Little for the Mind (Toronto: Clarke Irwin & Co. Ltd., 1953), pp. 22–23.
15. Biography at Muskingum College Archived 2009-03-31 at the Wayback Machine
16. from The Dictionary of Women Worldwide: 25,000 Women Through the Ages
17. Simpson, Douglas J.; Foley, Kathleen C. (2004). "John Dewey and Hubbards, Nova Scotia". Education and Culture. 20 (2): 43–44.
18. Douglas J. Simpson and Kathleen C. Foley, "John Dewey and Hubbards, Nova Scotia," Education and Culture 20(2) (2004): 42, 52
19. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2005-12-31. Retrieved 2006-01-21.
20. Simpson, Douglas J.; Foley, Kathleen C. (2004). "John Dewey and Hubbards, Nova Scotia". Education and Culture. 20 (2): 55–56.
21. "Dr. John Dewey Dead at 92; Philosopher a Noted Liberal – The Father of Progressive Education Succumbs in Home to Pneumonia". New York Times. June 2, 1952. p. 1. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
22. Douglas J. Simpson and Kathleen C. Foley, "John Dewey and Hubbards, Nova Scotia," Education and Culture 20(2) (2004): 58–59
23. "John Dewey Chronology" 1952.06.02
24. Brody, Roger S. "30-cent Dewey". Smithsonian National Postal Museum. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
25. b
26. Letters from China and Japan by Harriet Alice Chipman Dewey and John Dewey
27. Jessica Ching-Sze Wang. John Dewey in China: To Teach and to Learn. Albany: State University of New York Press, Suny Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture, 2007. ISBN 9780791472033 pp. 3–5.
28. Wang, pp. 8–10, 13–14.
29. John Dewey, Harriet Alice Chipman Dewey Letters from China and Japan. New York,: E.P. Dutton, 1920; rpr. Project Guttenberg
30. ... 390561.pdf Published by University of Hawai'i Press. Philosophy East and West, Volume 61, Number 3, July 2011, pp. 468–91. Sor-hoon Tan. The Dao of Politics: Li (Rituals/Rites) and Laws as Pragmatic Tools of Government(Article).
31. Kraak, Andre; Young, Michael (2001). Education in Retrospect: Policy and Implementation since 1990. Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria. ISBN 978-0-7969-1988-5.
32. Martin, Jay (2002). The Education of John Dewey. Columbia University Press. p. 406. ISBN 978-0231116763.
33. Benjamin, L.T. (2003). "Why Can't Psychology Get a Stamp?". Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies. 5 (4): 443–54. doi:10.1023/A:1026071631669.
34. Brucato, G. & Hogan, J.D. (1999, Spring). "Psychologists on postage stamps" The General Psychologist, 34(1):65
35. Zeltner, Philip N. (1975). John Dewey's Aesthetic Philosophy. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 93. ISBN 90-6032-029-8.
36. Dewey, john (1938). Logic: The theory of Inquiry. NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. p. iv.
37. John Dewey, Arthur Bentley, (1949). Knowing and the Known. Beacon Press, Boston.
38. John Dewey, Arthur Bentley, (1949). Knowing and the Known. Beacon Press, Boston, pp. 107–09.
39. John Dewey, Arthur Bentley, (1949). Knowing and the Known. Beacon Press, Boston, pp. 121–39.
40. Jump up to:a b Dewey, John (1938). "The Problem of Logical Subject Matter". Logic: The Theory of Inquiry.
41. Louis Menand. The Metaphysical Club p. 313
42. Stengel, Barbara. "Dewey's Pragmatic Poet: Reconstructing Jane Addams's Philosophical Impact". Project Muse: 29–39. Retrieved November 30, 2014.
43. Upin, Jane S. (1993). ""Charlotte Perkins Gilman": Instrumentalism beyond Dewey:Hypatia". Hypatia. 8 (2): 38–63. doi:10.1111/j.1527-2001.1993.tb00090.x. JSTOR 3810336.
44. Westbrook, Robert B. (1992). "John Dewey and American Democracy". The American Historical Review. 97 (3): 919–20. doi:10.2307/2164912. JSTOR 2164912.
45. Ambedkar, Bhimrao. Annihilation of castes. Critical Quest. p. 64. ISBN 978-81-89524-21-0.
46. Behar, Anurag (2016-03-31). "Ambedkar's teacher".
47. "The like-mindedness of Dewey and Ambedkar". Forward Press. 2017-05-19. Retrieved 2018-05-17.
48. "Ambedkar's pragmatism drew heavily on the 1908 'Ethics'". Forward Press. 2018-01-05. Retrieved 2018-05-17.
49. Dewey, J. (1902). The child and the curriculum. Retrieved from
50. Dewey, J. (2009). Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. New York: WLC Books. (Original work published 1916)
51. Savery, J. R. (2006). Overview of Problem-based Learning: Definitions and Distinctions. Journal of Problem-based Learning, 1(1).
52. Dewey, J. 1927. The Public and its Problems. Henry Holt & Co., New York. p. 126.
53. John Corcoran . Conditions and Consequences. American Philosophy: an Encyclopedia. 2007. Eds. John Lachs and Robert Talisse. New York: Routledge. pp. 124–27.
54. A. G. Rud; Jim Garrison; Lynda Stone, eds. (2009). Dewey at One Hundred Fifty. Purdue University Press. p. 22. ISBN 9781557535504. With respect to his personal beliefs, Dewey wrote to Max Otto that "I feel the gods are pretty dead, tho I suppose I ought to know that however, to be somewhat more philosophical in the matter, if atheism means simply not being a theist, then of course I'm an atheist. But the popular if not the etymological significance of the word is much wider. ... Although he described himself as an atheist in one sense of the term, it is also clear that Dewey was opposed to militant atheism for the same reason that he was opposed to supernaturalism: he thought both positions dogmatic.
55. "John Dewey Chronology" 1934.04.08, 1936.03.12, 1940.09, and 1950.09.11.
56. "What Humanism Means to Me," first published in Thinker 2 (June 1930): 9–12, as part of a series. Dewey: p. lw.5.266 [The Collected Works of John Dewey, 1882–1953, The Electronic Edition]
57. Louis Menand, The Metaphysical Club, (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001), 285-333.
58. American Institute of Physics
59. ... anization/. Missing or empty |title= (help)
60. Dewey, J. (1927) An Appreciation of Henry George
61. Dewey, J. (1939) A Letter to Henry Ford Archived 2015-01-13 at the Wayback Machine
62. "Dewey Commission Report"
63. The Cambridge Companion to Dewey, edited by Molly Cochran. Cambridge University Press, 2010. p. xvii.
64. "Dewey's Political Philosophy" Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
65. F. M. Alexander Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual, E. P. Dutton & Co., 1923 ISBN 0-913111-11-2
66. Alan Ryan, John Dewey and the high tide of American liberalism
67. William Paringer, John Dewey and the paradox of liberal reform (1990) p. 13
68. William R. Caspary, Dewey on Democracy. (2000)
69. Westbrook, Robert B (1993). John Dewey and American Democracy. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-8111-6.
70. Stephen Rockefeller, John Dewey: Religious Faith and Democratic Humanism, (1994), p. 13
71. Dewey worked on this book from 1939 before its loss in 1947. For a full account of this publication's history, see Philosophy Now magazine, here (link), accessed 3 June 2014.


• Caspary, William R. Dewey on Democracy (2000). Cornell University Press.
• Martin, Jay. The Education of John Dewey. (2003). Columbia University Press
• Rockefeller, Stephen. John Dewey: Religious Faith and Democratic Humanism. (1994). Columbia University Press
• Rud, A. G., Garrison, Jim, and Stone, Lynda (eds.) John Dewey at 150: Reflections for a New Century. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2009.
• Ryan, Alan. John Dewey and the High Tide of American Liberalism. (1995). W.W. Norton.
• Westbrook, Robert B. John Dewey and American Democracy. (1993). Cornell University Press.

Further reading

• Alexander, Thomas. John Dewey's Theory of Art, Experience, and Nature (1987). SUNY Press
• Bernstein, Richard J. John Dewey (1966) Washington Square Press.
• Boisvert, Raymond. John Dewey: Rethinking Our Time. (1997). SUNY Press
• Campbell, James. Understanding John Dewey: Nature and Cooperative Intelligence. (1995) Open Court Publishing Company
• Crick, Nathan. Democracy & Rhetoric: John Dewey on the Arts of Becoming (2010) University of South Carolina Press.
• Fishman, Stephen M. and Lucille McCarthy. John Dewey and the Philosophy and Practice of Hope (2007). University of Illinois Press.
• Garrison, Jim. Dewey and Eros: Wisdom and Desire in the Art of Teaching. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, 2010. Original published 1997 by Teachers College Press.
• Good, James (2006). A Search for Unity in Diversity: The "Permanent Hegelian Deposit" in the Philosophy of John Dewey. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-1061-4.
• Hickman, Larry A. John Dewey's Pragmatic Technology (1992). Indiana University Press.
• Hook, Sidney. John Dewey: An Intellectual Portrait (1939)
• Howlett, Charles F., and Audrey Cohan, eds. John Dewey: America's Peace-Minded Educator (Southern Illinois UP, 2016), 305 pp.
• Kannegiesser, H. J. "Knowledge and Science" (1977). The Macmillan Company of Australia PTY Ltd.
• Kengor, Paul (2010). Dupes: How America's Adversaries Have Manipulated Progressives for a Century. Intercollegiate Studies Institute. ISBN 978-1-4976-2085-8.
• Knoll, Michael (2009) From Kidd to Dewey: The Origin and Meaning of "Social Efficiency". Journal of Curriculum Studies 41 (June), 3, pp. 361–91.
• Knoll, Michael (2014) Laboratory School, University of Chicago. D. C. Phillips (ed) Encyclopaedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy, Vol. 2 (London: Sage), pp. 455–58.
• Knoll, Michael (2014) John Dewey as Administrator: The Inglorious End of the Laboratory School in Chicago. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 47 (April), 2, pp. 203–52.
• Lamont, Corliss (1959), (ed., with the assistance of Mary Redmer). Dialogue on John Dewey. Horizon Press
• Morse, Donald J. Faith in Life: John Dewey's Early Philosophy. (2011). Fordham University Press
• Pappas, Gregory. John Dewey's Ethics: Democracy as Experience. (2008) Indiana University Press.
• Pring, Richard (2007). John Dewey: Continuum Library of Educational Thought. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-8403-1.
• Popkewitz, Thomas S. (ed). Inventing the Modern Self and John Dewey: Modernities and the Traveling of Pragmatism in Education. (2005) New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
• Putnam, Hilary. "Dewey's Logic: Epistemology as Hypothesis". In Words and Life, ed. James Conant. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994.
• Ralston, Shane. John Dewey's Great Debates-Reconstructed. (2011). Information Age Publishing.
• Richardson, Henry S (1998). "Truth and ends in Dewey". Canadian Journal of Philosophy. 28 (Supplement 1): 109–47. doi:10.1080/00455091.1998.10717497.
• Rogers, Melvin. The Undiscovered Dewey: Religion, Morality, and the Ethos of Democracy (2008). Columbia University Press.
• Roth, Robert J. John Dewey and Self-Realization. (1962). Prentice Hall
• Rorty, Richard. "Dewey's Metaphysics". In The Consequences of Pragmatism: Essays 1972–1980. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982.
• Seigfried, Charlene Haddock, (ed.). Feminist Interpretations of John Dewey (2001). Pennsylvania State University Press
• Shook, John. Dewey's Empirical Theory of Knowledge and Reality. (2000). The Vanderbilt Library of American Philosophy
• Sleeper, R.W. The Necessity of Pragmatism: John Dewey's Conception of Philosophy. Introduction by Tom Burke. (2001). University of Illinois Press.
• Talisse, Robert B. A Pragmatist Philosophy of Democracy (2007). Routledge
• Michel Weber and Will Desmond (eds.). Handbook of Whiteheadian Process Thought (Frankfurt / Lancaster, Ontos Verlag, Process Thought X1 & X2, 2008.
• White, Morton. The Origin of Dewey's Instrumentalism. (1943). Columbia University Press.

External links

• Wikilivres has original media or text related to this article: John Dewey (in the public domain in New Zealand)
• Center for Dewey Studies
o John Dewey Papers, 1858–1970 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Special Collections Research Center
o John Dewey Chronology at Southern Illinois University
• Works by John Dewey at Project Gutenberg
• Works by or about John Dewey at Internet Archive
• Works by John Dewey at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
• Dewey in German education – a bibliography
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Paul Geheeb: German reform teacher
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Accessed: 8/17/19



Paul Geheeb ca. 1906

Paul Geheeb (born October 10, 1870 in Geisa / Rhön, † May 1, 1961 in Hasliberg -Goldern / Switzerland ) was a German reformist educator . As the founder of the Odenwald School and the Ecole d'Humanité , he is an important person in the Land Education Home Movement .


Childhood and Youth (1870-1889)

Birthplace of Geheeb in Geisa

Paul Geheeb was the second of five children of the pharmacist and moss researcher Adalbert Geheeb (1842-1909) and his wife Adolphine, nee Calmberg (1841-1884). Paul Geheeb attended high schools in Fulda and Eisenach , where his aunt lived and cared for him. When he was 14 years old, his mother died unexpectedly. At almost 90, Geheeb said:

"I was more likely to hold the end of the world possible than that the good, heavenly Father to whom I prayed daily would have made my mother die ... Even today, I must call death the greatest catastrophe of my catastrophic life. I became mentally ill for a couple of years afterwards, so today I would have been put in a psychiatric home and I was often going to end my life. While until the death of my mother my interests had been exclusively in the natural sciences, especially in the botanical field, I turned now to philosophical and religious questions and had, under the influence of an excellent religion teacher at the Eisenacher Gymnasium, (he was later to the University in Tokyo) [1] the first very violent clash with the personality of Jesus of Nazareth. From then on, all my longing was to help the poor, unhappy people to become better and happier. " [2]

Studies and pedagogical years of study and travel (1889-1909)

In 1889/90 Geheeb completed his military service as a one-year volunteer in Gießen. He then studied in Berlin and Jena. Among his teachers were u. a. the theologians Otto Pfleiderer , Richard Adelbert Lipsius and the young leader of the theological left Otto Baumgarten .

From March 1889 to October 1890 Geheeb was a member of the Gießen fraternity Arminia and fraternity Neogermania Berlin . In a brochure published in 1891 under the pseudonym Paul Freimut, Geheeb criticizes the nonsense of dueling and the excessive consumption of alcohol as well as the empty sociability of the fraternities and - especially striking in his time - the disrespectful treatment of women in the academic youth , It is not only sad to hear, but also a sign of great danger, "when German sons of muses call woman the most miserable and miserable of all creatures, calling the female sex merely passive, and paying more and more to the view that women have no higher purpose as serving the man for the satisfaction of his sensual desires and as a machine for the reproduction of man. " [3]

In April 1893 Geheeb submitted the first theological exam to the Saxon-Weimar church authority. His liberal interpretation of the healing of the blind by Jesus Christ was met with criticism by some functionaries of the church. This experience intensified his doubts about the meaning of the path he had embarked on, leading him to turn more to medical, psychological, pedagogical and philological subjects. He continued his studies of theology alternately in Jena and Berlin, but graduated after twelve semesters in 1899 not with the second ecclesiastical exam, but with the senior teacher exam. [4]

Since his family could not finance his studies and maintenance, Geheeb worked from April 1893 to June 1894 in addition to studying as a teacher and educator in Johannes Trüpers Institute for Psychopathic Children on the Sophienhöhe near Jena and then looked after for another year and a half an epilepsy ill boy Jenaer Civil family - activities by which he and a. also with the then head of the Psychiatric University Hospital of Jena Otto Binswanger and his senior physician Theodor draw , whose patients at that time also Friedrich Nietzsche belonged, came in connection. Throughout his studies Geheeb was also involved in the fight against alcoholism; he was a member of the Guttempler and associated in the German Society for Ethical Culture and in the circle Moritz von Egidys . Particularly noteworthy for a man of his generation was Geheeb's strong interest in the concerns of the women's movement , with which he was personally associated through his friendship with Minna Cauer , Anita Augsburg , Lily Braun , Jeannette Schwerin during the 1890s.

In 1892 Geheeb made friends with Hermann Lietz (1868-1919), who after a thorough pedagogical training with Wilhelm Rein in Jena and some school experience (including one year at Cecil Reddies 1889 New School of Abbotsholme ) 1898, the first German land education home in Ilsenburg am Harz opened. In 1930 Geheeb wrote about this central meeting for his further development:

"Between Lietz and me an intimate and immensely fruitful friendship soon arose; Together we deepened in the philosophy of Fichte and developed our educational ideas. We had lived a lot in cities, spent part of our study time in Berlin, where the social misery of the big city filled us with horror; and penetrated by the conviction that not only a hundred years ago the world had been more or less corrupt, we became in the strong feelings for the antagonism between true humanity and the evils of civilization enthusiastic disciples Fichte. So we were not really concerned with the questions of school reform, which at that time gradually came into flux [...] On the contrary, man was interested in his totality; With warm interest in our dealings with August Bebel and other socialist leaders, we followed the increasingly powerful Social Democratic movement at that time, and it was mainly the unkempt partisan activity that prevented us from joining it. We were dealing with the problem of putting people's entire lives on a completely new, healthier footing, through a fundamentally new upbringing, as Spruce preached in his speeches to the German nation . " [6]

Although Lietz would have liked to have his friend Geheeb in Ilsenburg, in 1899 he first accepted a position as a teacher in the newly opened sanatorium of Carl Gmelin in Wyk auf Föhr . In 1902 he finally followed the pressure of his friend Lietz and went as a teacher to Haubinda , Lietzens second school founded in 1901. After the founding of a third country education home in castle Bieberstein (Hesse) near Fulda Geheeb 1904 took over the leadership of Haubinda, but separated in the June 1906 in the dispute of Lietz and opened in September of the same year together with Gustav Wyneken , Martin Luserke and some other employees and students of Haubinda located near the Thuringian Saalfeld free school community Wickersdorf .

Despite the success of the new school Geheeb Wickersdorf left in February 1909, as he - struck nervously due to the grueling years at Lietz and struck by an unfortunate first marriage - with his co-director Wyneken could not cope. In the search for a location for their own school Geheeb negotiated during the next months u. a. with Wolf Dohrn , the managing director of Gartenstadtgesellschaft Hellerau , about the takeover of the planned school there; He considered briefly the establishment of a country education home together with Ludwig Gurlitt (1855-1931) and asked in Bavaria without success for the concession to the guidance of a private boarding school. [8th]

Foundation of the Odenwald School - national and international notoriety (1910-1934)

Edith and Paul Geheeb, 1909

After the divorce of his first wife Helene Merck married Geheeb in October 1909 Edith Cassirer (1885-1982), whom he had met as an intern in Wickersdorf, and in April 1910 he and Edith Geheeb opened the Odenwald School in Ober-Hambach , near Heppenheim .

Through the coeducation of boys and girls practiced in her, the organization of lessons within the framework of a flexible course system and through the student participation realized in it, the Odenwald School aroused considerable interest in educated people from the very beginning. During the period of the Weimar Republic , the school, generously funded by Geheeb's father-in-law, the Charlottenburg local politician and industrialist Max Cassirer , was one of Germany's most internationally renowned reform schools. As early as 1911/12, the school was significantly expanded by the construction of four new houses, designed by Bensheim architect Heinrich Metzendorf . The houses bore the names of the school's heroes : Goethe , Fichte , Herder , Humboldt and Schiller . These names also mark Geheeb's spiritual roots.

The First World War and the first years of the Weimar Republic were also materially difficult times for the Odenwaldschule. In contrast to the majority of German intellectuals, Geheeb was opposed to the First World War from the beginning. Geheeb refused to celebrate the German victories or the birthday of the German Emperor; instead they celebrated the birthdays of the school's heroes and other important people. This indifference to the symbol of German power and this apparent lack of national enthusiasm regularly led to friction with authorities and patriotic friends during the war. In early 1918, even at short notice threatened the closure of the school.

Although Geheeb regretted the end of the independent pre-war German principalities with their individual character and their partly great cultural charisma and did not immediately find their way into the new era, he soon made friends with the Weimar Republic . In the course of the following years, as a participant in numerous conferences, he established many valuable connections for the development of the school. He was involved - albeit often with considerable reluctance because of the purely material aims of this association - in the context of the Association of Free Schools and Provincial Homes of Germany , founded in October 1924 in the Odenwald School, whose "left wing" included the Odenwald School. From 1925, he and his wife - with much more enjoyment - also regularly attended the major New Education Fellowships , held every few years, and helped build the German section of this international education movement.

Hermann Hesse , Romain Rolland , Martin Buber , Georg Kerschensteiner , Elisabeth Rotten , Adolphe Ferrière and Pierre Bovet , Peter Petersen and Eduard Spranger , Alexander Neill , Bernhard Uffrecht , Beatrice Ensor , Kuniyoshi Obara and others were among the (educational) friends and acquaintances of Geheebs Charleton W. Washburn . Among the prominent pupils of the greek Odenwaldschule belonged u. a. Klaus Mann , Geno and Felix Hartlaub , Wolfgang Hildesheimer , Wolfgang Porsche and Beate Uhse . A highlight of the international recognition of the Geheebs was a three-day visit by the Indian politician, poet and philosopher Rabindranath Tagore in early August 1930 in their at that time about 200 students counting Odenwaldschule. This visit was also an expression of the diverse relationships that the Geheebs since the early 1920s connected with India.

Emigration to Switzerland and establishment of the Ecole d'Humanité (1934-1961)

After the seizure of power by the National Socialists, the Odenwald School was attacked twice by local SA groups. There was violence against Jewish employees. Although Geheeb had called the new government in Berlin before the assembled school as a "gang of criminals" and Edith Geheeb came from a Jewish house, the Geheebs were left alone. Unlike the free school and work community of his friend Bernhard Uffrecht , which was closed by the Nazis in April 1933, limited themselves in the case of Geheebs - probably not least also out of consideration for the high international prestige of the Odenwaldschule - on it, the largest part to replace the current employee of the school by politically reliable young assessors. In addition, boys and girls, who had until then always lived together in the same houses, should be housed in separate houses from April 1933. After further clashes with the new rulers and after further interventions in their school, the Geheebs finally decided to close their school and move to Switzerland.

To avoid unpleasant repression of former and future Odenwald school graduates and the school's own Edith Geheeb's father Max Cassirer , they disguised school closure as an economic necessity by asking trusted parents to deregister their children during the summer and fall of 1933. Finally, Paul and Edith Geheeb moved with the blessing of the Berlin rulers in April 1934 with two or three employees and two dozen students to Switzerland, where they initially continued their work as a quasi bankrupt, located above Versoix near Geneva Institut Monnier, while Werner Meier and Heinrich Sachs , two former employees, on the grounds of the "old" Odenwald School opened the community of Odenwaldschule .

Although Geheeb had expressly agreed to the project - not least because of his father-in-law's economic interests - Meier and Sachs endeavored to run the new school in the spirit of the old Odenwald School, Geheeb regarded the fast-growing community of Odenwaldschule with suspicion from the start. After the closure of the school by the Americans in the summer of 1945 Sachs tried in vain to restore contact with Geheeb. Geheeb rejected any attempt to reach agreement. His ruggedness contributed significantly to the splitting of the people associated with the Odenwald School into a pro and an anti-Sachs camp, which made it difficult to work through the history of the second Odenwald School for a long time. [11]

On the occasion of the opening of his new school in April 1934, Geheeb emphasized that this was not simply about continuing the previous work. Given the political situation, it is more important than ever to strengthen the connection between people. Therefore, the new school should not become a German or French or Swiss school, but a supranational school, a "school of humanity".

"In the humble setting of our small school on Lake Geneva French and Swiss and German, hopefully soon also English culture in fruitful, mutually enriching dispute to interact, want to meet evening and morning land each other; and if we succeed in realizing what I have in mind, in a few years' time we will not be a French, a German, an English or a Swiss school, but the school of humanity, "said Geheeb on the occasion of the opening of the April 17, 1934. [12]

After initial successes, however, it became increasingly difficult from 1936/37 to materially keep the school, which was now largely attended by Jewish and half-Jewish children from Germany and children of emigrated Germans. Due to their own financial situation, more and more parents had to resort to generous school-fee reductions, and the transfer of funds from abroad became more and more difficult due to increasing restrictions where parents themselves could still have paid. These problems led to conflicts with the owner of the Institut Monnier and with the Association of Swiss private schools , in which one was anything other than enthusiastic about the prominent competitors from Germany in view of the suffering from the economic crisis own schools.

After two more or less involuntary changes of location, the Geheebs settled in October 1939 with the remains of their meanwhile impoverished school in Schwarzsee , a small village in the Friborg Alps, where they survived the war in extremely cramped conditions.

On 7 October 1941, the German Reichsanzeiger published expatriation decisions of the Reich Ministry of the Interior in the form of expatriation list 257 of the German Reich, by which Paul Geheeb and his wife were legally expatriated by the German Reich . [13]

After the number of pupils declined from around 60 in 1936 to 25 in 1939 and 7 in 1940, and the closure of the school seemed inevitable, the Geheebs began to work more closely with the then Swiss relief organizations, in particular the Swiss relief organization for emigrant children . together. At the end of the war, the number of students at the Ecole d'Humanité had risen again to around 40. Most of the new students were traumatized war victims, refugee children from France and other European countries as well as isolated children from the liberated concentration camps. Thus, the social situation of the school had changed radically compared to earlier. From an educational institution for the children of the left and liberal bourgeoisie and an avant-garde artist bohemia, it had become a reservoir for social emergencies of all kinds.

Asked after the war, whether they wanted to return to Germany to take over the management of the newly opened Odenwald School, the Geheebs refused despite their difficult situation and recommended instead, Minna Woodpecker , former emigrated to England former colleague Leonhard Nelsons , until 1933 the Landerziehungsheim Walkemühle had headed to entrust the task. Forced to give up her domicile at the Schwarzsee, the Geheebs moved again in May 1946. It was her fifth move in Switzerland. They settled in Hasliberg-Goldern in the Bernese Oberland, now the site of the Ecole d'Humanité . Conditions were also extremely difficult there at first, but Geheeb did not give up the hope of finally being able to realize his idea of ​​a school of humankind that embraced all cultural communities on a large scale. For the first time in two or three years, he found some interest within Switzerland for the first time. Geheeb and Walter Robert Corti , the founder of Pestalozzi , a children's village opened in 1948, temporarily considered cooperation and other similar plans, but ultimately lacked the determination and the money to do more than handle the difficult day-to-day life of the existing school ,

Thanks to the energy of Edith Geheeb and some newly arrived staff, the school gradually stabilized during the 1950s. [14]

Geheeb, who received an honorary doctorate from the University of Tübingen and Tagore-founded Visuna Bharati University in Shantiniketan, India on the occasion of his 90th birthday and was formally honored by the Conference of Ministers of Education of the Federal Republic of Germany, died on May 1, 1961 at his school ,

Despite the honors from around the world Geheeb after the war seemed to have made the connection to the new time with their seemingly new questions no longer. The attempt of a critically self-critical dialogue between Geheeb and the Odenwaldschule, reopened in 1946 under the direction of Minna Specht, which she had undertaken on the occasion of her 40th birthday in the summer of 1950, had basically failed, and otherwise Geheeb had more and more after the war withdrawn from international work. His ideals survived, and his language was no longer understood.

After the death Geheebs Armin and Natalie Lüthi-Peterson, supported by the now 76-year-old Edith Geheeb, took over the management of the school. Edith Geheeb, the strong woman behind Geheeb, who had cared for the economic survival of his schools for all these years, died on April 29, 1982, almost exactly 21 years after her husband.

There are some educators who have gone through Geheeb's school , carrying and carrying his principles from there to other places. Even single, directly inspired by Geheeb school foundations can be detected, especially in 1937 founded by two former employees of Geheebs Childrens Garden School in Madras, India. And of course there are the schools founded by Paul and Edith Geheeb themselves.

Geheebs educational position

General information on the movement of German rural education homes

The movement of the German rural education centers or the New Schools or Ecoles Nouvelles à la Campagne, as the same movement was called in the English and French-speaking areas, was part of the culture-critical and life-reforming protest movements with which the end of the 19th century in Europe and the United States Industrialization and the accompanying social changes. The rural education movement wanted to catch and overcome the diagnosed crisis "by means of a fundamentally new education". In this sense, Geheeb wrote in 1930:

"The youth should be educated to brave fighter crowds, who do not cowardly into the world, which is always corrupt in many ways, but have learned to swim against the stream, the fashion and convention in outer and spiritual areas and everything, Every youth, every girl, learns to live in the country education center as a responsible member of a small community, to serve as a citizen later with full dedication for the good of the nation. Thus, the new youth should work far beyond the scope of their homes for the complete transformation of human society! " [17]

Instead of urban day schools, the youth should grow up in manageable, based on a partnership of young and old rural education communities. In spite of this common starting point, one can hardly speak of a pedagogy of the land education centers, as of a uniform reform pedagogy: While physical services - long bike rides, work in the forest and field or sporting commitment in the service of society - Hermann Lietz or Kurt Hahn For example, the softer Geheeb, Martin Luserke , Max Bondy and other landowning founders put more emphasis on arts and crafts activities and a more contemplative relationship with nature. There were similar, more or less large differences in student participation and teaching organization or in the question of coeducation.

The question of coeducation

Here Geheeb was perhaps more pioneer than in any other field, because the Odenwald School was the first coeducational (boarding) school in Germany, which really deserved this name. Geheeb, who experienced a mixed (curative) boarding school with Johannes Trüper and had made further experiences with coeducation in Wyk auf Föhr in 1899/1900, felt that the separation of the sexes prevailing in the then state and non-state schools was the most profoundly unpopular reduction of natural world. While he did not understand Lietz's concerns, and coeducation in Wickersdorf, where she was part of the school program from 1906, was carried out only halfheartedly, she became the real hallmark of Odenwaldschule from 1910 onwards. Fritz Karsen writes about his impressions of the Odenwald School after a short visit in 1921:

"The personal-human environment has the greatest possible wealth. All ages from the small child, who still needs the nanny, and the child in the play age (kindergarten) up to the adult students and finally also the teacher of different ages live together here. Both sexes, among the students and among the teachers, are equal and equally committed. This means that there is an attempt to abolish the complete separation of the sexes that is customary in state schools and to let the youth live a natural community life. - The Odenwald School is undoubtedly the only school in Germany that has real coeducation. One could still think of Wickersdorf, but when comparing both institutions, a difference catches the eye. [...] As well as the coexistence of the sexes unfolded there, a certain external separation has always been preserved. The girls have their own building, the so-called "mansion," which is no longer open to the boys from a certain time of day. Wickersdorf's most accurate connoisseurs also assert that boys and girls in Wickersdorf are equal but not equally determinative, and that the boys essentially give the tone and style essentially. There are no external divorces in the Odenwald School. Boys and girls live in the individual rooms in the rooms, visit each other whenever they want, without any kind of petty supervision. [...] As much as I could observe in the short time, the relationship between the sexes is simple and natural, as in a family, and I have the impression that coeducation is the characteristic feature of the Odenwaldschule and its pupils. " [18]

Although the joint education of boys and girls after the First World War was not quite as new and exotic as it was in 1910, in the German-speaking world it was often an exception until the 1960s. (The Nazi regime even forced previous coeducational schools into separate classes.) The Odenwald School was therefore also considered the coeducation school par excellence during the Weimar Republic. [19] Geheeb was considered one of the most prominent experts in the matter until the Nazis seized power. He was convinced that the joint education of boys and girls not only has a positive effect on their individual development and their later relationship to each other. He also saw coeducation as an important means of "overcoming one-sided male culture". [20] Basically for him, in this political-cultural area, the real meaning of coeducation lay for him.

Flexible courses instead of rigid grades

Developed under the auspices of the young employee of the school Otto Erdmann during the first three years of its existence, 1914 for the first time publicly presented, special work organization of the Odenwald school was a second reason for the great interest in Geheebs work with domestic and foreign professionals already soon after the school opens. In this area too, the Odenwald School went further than in most of the reform schools of those years, including the Lietzian rural education centers and the motley crew of their successors. After having experimented with various forms of organization, a system of freely selectable, flexible courses was established in January 1913, replacing the traditional year classes. Advising adults, the children (with the exception of primary students who continue to work as a group) each chose two or three courses, which they attended each morning during a course month or a so-called course period. At the end of each course month, the work on the various courses was reported as part of a final school year . After that, a new one was chosen, whereby a course could occasionally be continued over two or more course months. The grades were confirmed by written course reports and by periodic discussions about one's own achievements, the climate in a course and the like. ä. replaced. The afternoons - that was an integral part of the new structure - were reserved for artisan and artistic activities and own projects, thus, as Geheeb wrote in his first school leaflet, "the most critical of our time ills, one-sided intellectualism and the associated unethical overestimation to counteract the technology [...] ". [22] -

While the Odenwald School returned to conventional structures after 1934 under the pressure of National Socialism, the school work in the Ecole d'Humanité still took place within the framework of this course system .

School community

Finally, the Odenwaldschule became known through Geheeb's style in dealing with the "school community". The "school community", d. H. the whole school, which lasted for one to three weeks - at least 200 children and adolescents and around 100 adults at the beginning of the 1930s - was for Geheeb the real heart of his school. In these meetings, large and small occurrences were informed and discussed, here basic questions related to the school or the world outside were rolled and decisions were taken or rejected. This gathering was basically the only structure that had helped his school in 1910 as a motor and living center on their way. All other facilities were secondary and in principle were always at disposition. "Become who you are," this sentence borrowed from Pindar, was for Geheeb "the supreme maxim of human development" and the "epitome of the highest pedagogical wisdom." The sentence was an invitation to each individual. He was also true for the school as a whole. In this sense, Geheeb wrote in 1924: "In fact, we subject the manifold forms in which the community comes to real expression and effect time and time again to a revision from the point of view of those highest maxims, so that the forms and institutions of the social life of our community are in constant flux ". Although Näf 2006 points to some major flaws in the theoretical conception of the school community - so u. a. the lack of clearly defined competences or the fact that the "staff" of the Odenwaldschule, d. H. the staff in the office, kitchen, etc. - was never counted as a matter of course to the school community [24] - it is still judged by the majority very positive. [25]

Develop instead of educate, Geheebs criticizing the conventional understanding of education and

Geheeb recognizes the value of good, d. H. human-oriented structures, but ultimately it's about more. What he wants is the change in the relationship between adults and children. Instead of submission, command and obedience, as before, this should be based on mutual respect and dialogue. For Geheeb, any attempt to educate people according to a particular plan is ultimately an illusory enterprise, during which people develop into "miserable caricatures of what they should have become according to their individual purpose." [6]

For Geheeb it is clear that real education can not be established and mediated, but that it is and must be the result of personal experiences and dedication. In this connection he likes to refer to the pithy sentences of Fichte, who wrote in 1793:

"No one is cultivated; Everyone has to cultivate themselves. All-suffering behavior is the very opposite of culture! Education happens through self-activity and aims at self-activity. " [26]

In a lecture held in Holland, Geheeb added in 1936: "I would prefer not to use the terms" education "and" educate "any more, but prefer to speak of human development. [...] What is reasonably tenable in the process of 'education' is the process of development, in which every human being is from birth to death - and hopefully far beyond that - the process of ongoing, at first unconscious, gradually becoming conscious confrontation in which each individual is with his surroundings, with people and things, with nature and culture, processing the impressions received, partly fruitful and assimilating as educational materials to build up their own individuality, but sometimes rejecting them. "- The distinction between teachers and pupils as well as the educational museum, as well as the cane, which has long since landed there. Instead, adults should live as kind of older friends with children and adolescents: "You really have to live together; The adults not only have to play, work and wander with the children and share all the interests and small and big joys and sorrows of the child, but also, depending on their maturity, allow the latter to participate in their own experiences and creations, so that more or less intimate ones personal relationships develop. "Adults should never act as superior legislators or leaders. The adolescents should "learn to walk independently," and the adult must always be aware that one's own path can never be the other's, that it can "help a young person, at best," to find his own way. These considerations lead to the requirement for Geheeb "to transform all schools into communities in which people of all ages live together naturally and freely." [27] This demand corresponds to what Hartmut von Hentig and others have since called " De-schooling ". In doing so, the development of one's own interests and the pursuit of one's own goals and projects take the place of the centrally organized mediation of a subject matter specified from above. Teachers become learning guides in the sense of Carl Rogers or Paolo Freire .

For Geheeb, the transformation of the school is part of a major social change that seems to him more and more urgent in the course of his life. He wrote in 1936: "A tremendous and complete disarmament must take place in the camp of the adults, a disarmament of the vast physical and intellectual, economic and technical superiority that the adult has so far taken for granted to the most imaginative and oppressive creature on God's corrupted earth use, so used to abusing. " [28]

This "disarmament" is not an end in itself for Geheeb. Rather, it is an important, if not the central, precondition for humanity not dying from the crises it has itself committed. In this sense, Geheeb 1939 warns: "Salvation comes from the children [...] If today's humanity understood and knew how to apply this ancient wisdom in all its greatness and depth, it would mean the salvation of countless millions of tortured people all over the world who are today, with more or less clear consciousness, at the end of their adult wisdom. Mankind is seriously ill. [...] Where do we go? there is disastrous confusion about that. Apparently insoluble political, economic, cultural problems everywhere; new catastrophes are threatening from all sides; As far as the responsible leaders, the politicians and economists, the generals and even the philosophers are still honest, they confess to be at the end of their wisdom. "So Geheeb is not just about" that our time finally gives the child, what the child is ", but also that" out of the children, out of the youth come streams of new life, which save us adults who are helpless and desperate from chaos, out of misery. " [29]


In 1999 and 2010 it became known that many students of the Odenwaldschule were exposed to sexual abuse by their teachers. Even at times Geheebs there were signs of abuse cases by educators. Parents' letters to boarding school students received in the school archive were evaluated in a 1998 dissertation. [30] It emerges from this dissertation that Paul Geheeb seems to have ignored or not taken seriously sexual assaults brought to his attention. [31]

Assessment and timeliness

Experts such as Adolphe Ferrière or Peter Petersen , the founder of Jenaplan pedagogy , described the Odenwald School as the most successful form of the German Landing Home in the 1920s, an opinion that was also approved by Fritz Karsen , a co-founder of the federal school reformer , and other educators , Thus Karsen wrote in 1921: "Here the external compulsion to learn all sorts of science, which does not awaken the forces, but in many ways almost suppressed, completely ceases. Individual investments can be awakened and developed; the absurd variety of knowledge and the unnatural change from subject to subject (five to six times in a morning) stops in favor of a meaningful concentration of the tasks to be mastered at once. In addition, the surrounding community world, to which the individual is committed, protects from boundless individualism and spiritual one-sided aberration. " [18] Even in Herder's encyclopedia of pedagogy of the present , which was more critical of Geheeb's pedagogy because of its Catholic standpoint, it said 1930: "To acknowledge G. is the confidence in the sound sense of our youth, the seriousness with which he takes them seriously, u. his courageous, consistent action, which perhaps makes his work the most comprehensive and The most daring school experiment in Germany, perhaps even in Europe, has turned into a place of pilgrimage for seekers from all over the world. " [32] In a comprehensive study of the theory and practice of child and adolescent self-determination, Johannes Martin Kamp finally arrived in 1995 concluded that the Odenwaldschule der Geheebs was rightly regarded as "the most modern, pedagogically most progressive and most radical new school in Germany". [33]

In recent years, Näf has pointed out the political significance of Geheeb's pedagogy. In his thinking, Geheeb anticipates many things that have since been taken up by the anti-pedagogy , the child rights movement or the secular liberal part of the home or non-school movement. His position of "nobody is cultivated, everyone has to cultivate himself" is not just the learning psychology of humanistic psychology developed in the 1950s. It has been confirmed for some time by natural scientists such as the Swiss pediatrician Remo H. Largo or the brain researcher Gerald Hüther . Geheeb's skepticism about the "adult wisdom" of the West and the self-evidentness and stubbornness with which it is recorded in its passing on is equally topical.

Despite their explosiveness and topicality, the theoretical statements of Geheeb, according to Näf in an overview of the corresponding secondary literature, have hardly been discussed from research to recent times. Instead, Geheeb is usually perceived only as the head of a well-known reform school and as a prominent advocate of coeducation. This means a reduction and trivialization of the local pedagogy, which does not do justice to it. [34]


• The Odenwald School 1909-1934. Texts by Paul Geheeb. Reports and discussions of employees and students. ed. by Ulrich Herrmann. Jena 2010, ISBN 978-3-941854-15-4 .
• Speech for the opening of the Odenwaldschule . 1910. (ao published in: D. Benner, H. Kemper (ed.): Source texts on the theory and history of reform pedagogy) Part two: the pedagogical movement from the turn of the century to the end of the Weimar Republic Weinheim et al., 2001, p -160)
• The Odenwaldschule (program and advertisement) . Darmstadt, spring 1911. (reprinted in: W. Flitner et al. (Ed.): The German reform pedagogy, Volume 1, Dusseldorf / Munich 1961, pp. 88-93)
• The Odenwald School. Your mental basics. In: Franz Hilker (ed.): German school experiments. Berlin 1924, p. 91-101. (Reprinted in: Eva Cassirer (ed.) 1960, 154-165)
• with Edith Geheeb: The Odenwaldschule . 1925. (prospectus, among other things reprinted in: Inge Hansen Schaberg , Bruno Schonig (Hrsg.): Land education home education. (= Reformpaedagogische school concepts., Volume 2). Baltmannsweiler 2002, P. 142-150.
• Coeducation and female education. A problem. In: The new education. 8. Jg. H. 2, Berlin, Febr. 1926, P. 107-110. (Again reprinted in: Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Bruno Schonig (ed.): Land Education Home Education. (= Reform paedagogische school concepts, Volume 2) Baltmannsweiler 2002, pp. 26-31.
• The Odenwald School in the light of the educational tasks of the present . Lecture at the adult education center in Halle a. S. on June 2, 1930. (Printed in: D. Benner, H. Kemper (ed.): Source texts on the theory and history of reform education.) Part two: The pedagogical movement from the turn of the century to the end of the Weimar Republic et al. 2001, pp. 153-157)
• Speech by Paul Geheeb to his co-workers and pupils on the occasion of the beginning of his educational work in Versoix on 17 April 1934 .(Published in: Hans Näf (ed.): A Human School The Ecole d'Humanité seen from inside Zytglogge, Oberhofen bei Thun 2009, pp. 32-37)
• Living and working with children . Lecture in Utrecht, April 18, 1936, on the occasion of the conference of the Dutch section of the New Education Fellowship on the topic How do we learn to live together? Private printing 1936. (Copy and others in the Geheeb archive of the Ecole d'Humanité)
• Unpublished manuscript in response to Hans Stricker's essay The Century of the Child - A Misery in the National Newspaper of February 16, 1939. First published in: Walter Schäfer (ed.): Paul Geheeb. Letters. Stuttgart 1970, pp. 195-197.
• Psycho-hygiene in the Odenwald School and in the Ecole d'Humanité. In: Maria Pfister-Ammende (Hrsg.): Spiritual hygiene. Research and practice. Benno Schwabe and Co. Verlag, Basel 1955, pp. 73-82.
• Letters . Edited by Walter Schäfer. Stuttgart 1970.


• Elisabeth Badry: Educational ingenuity in education for non-adaptation and commitment. Studies on founders of the early German rural education home movement: Hermann Lietz and Gustav Wyneken. Bonn 1976.
• Roland Bast: Cultural criticism and education. Claim and limits of reform education. Dortmund 1996.
• Otto Friedrich Bollnow: Geheeb, Paul Hermann Albert Heinrich. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 6, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1964, ISBN 3-428-00187-7 , p. 131 f. ( Digitized ).
• Judith Büschel: Edith Geheeb. A reform teacher between pedagogical ideal and practical school management. Berlin 2004.
• Eva Cassirer u. a. (Ed.): The idea of a school in the mirror of time. 40 years Odenwald School . Heidelberg 1950.
• Eva Cassirer u. a. (Ed.): Education for humanity. Paul Geheeb's 90th birthday. Heidelberg 1960.
• Henry R. Cassirer: And everything turned out differently ... A journalist remembers . Constance 1992.
• Theo Dietrich (ed.): The Landerziehungsheim movement. Klinkhardt's pedagogical source texts, Bad Heilbrunn 1967.
• Inge Hansen-Schaberg: Minna woodpecker. A socialist in the Landerziehungsheim movement from 1918 to 1951. Frankfurt am Main 1992.
• Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Bruno Schonig (ed.): Land education home pedagogy. (= Reform educational school concepts, volume 2).Baltmannsweiler 2002.
• Barbara Hanusa: The Religious Dimension of the Reformed Education Paul Geheebs. The question of religion in reform education. Leipzig 2006.
• Johannes-Martin Kamp: children's republics. History, Practice and Theory of Radical Self-Government in Children's and Youth Homes.Opladen 1995.
• Wolfgang Keim (ed.): Course Lessons. Justifications, models, experiences. Darmstadt 1997.
• Friedrich Koch : The departure of pedagogy. Worlds in the head: Bettelheim, Freinet, Geheeb, Korczak, Montessori, Neill, Petersen, Zulliger.Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-434-53026-6 .
• Birte Lembke-Ibold: Paul Geheeb: Community and Family at the Land Education Home. Hamburg 2010.
• Armin Lüthi, Margot Schiller (ed.): Edith Geheeb-Cassirer on her 90th birthday . Meiringen 1975.
• Martin Näf: Paul Geheeb. Its development until the founding of the Odenwaldschule . Weinheim 1998, ISBN 3-89271-730-3 .
• Martin Näf: Paul and Edith Geheeb-Cassirer. Founder of the Odenwald School and the Ecole d'Humanité. German, international and Swiss reform pedagogy 1910-1961. Weinheim 2006, ISBN 3-407-32071-X .
• Martin Näf: Reform education is not equal to reform education. Online version of Wyneken and Geheeb: Common beginnings - separate ways - contrary goals. From Wynekens Freier school community Wickersdorf to Geheebs Odenwaldschule Oberhambach and the Ecole d'Humanite in Goldern CH. In: Yearbook of the Archive of the German Youth Movement. 3/2006, Schwalbach / Ts 2007, pp. 119-146.
• Martin Näf: The liberation of the children. Paul Geheeb's educational ideas in our time. A fictitious letter. In: Hans Näf (ed.): A human school.The Ecole d'Humanite seen from the inside. Zytglogge, 2009, pp. 291-303.
• Thomas Nitschke: The Garden City Hellerau as a pedagogical province. Dresden 2003.
• Walter Schäfer: Education in an emergency. The Odenwald School 1946-1972. Frankfurt am Main 1979.
• Walter Schäfer: Paul Geheeb. Man and educator. (= From the German Land Education Homes, Issue 4). Stuttgart around 1960.
• Ulrich Schwert: Land education home movement. In: Handbook of German Reform Movements 1880 to 1933. Wuppertal 1998, p. 395-409.
• Ellen Schwitalski: Become who you are - pioneers of reform education. The Odenwald School in the German Empire and in the Weimar Republic. Bielefeld 2004.
• Dennis Shirley: The politics of progressive education. The Odenwald School in Nazi Germany. Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass.1992. (2010 under the title "Reformpädagogik in the national socialism: the Odenwald school 1910 to 1945" in German in the Juventa publishing house Weinheim appeared).
• Ehrenhard Skiera: Reform education in history and present. A critical introduction. Munich / Vienna 2003.
• Christel Stark: Idea and form of a school in the judgment of the parents. A documentary about the Odenwald School at the time of its founder and director Paul Geheeb - 1910-34 . Dissertation. Heidelberg 1998.
• Martin Wagenschein: Memories for tomorrow. Weinheim / Basel 1983.

Web links

• Literature by and about Paul Geheeb in the catalog of the German National Library
• Paul Geheeb: The Odenwaldschule in the light of the educational tasks of the present . 1930 ... geheeb.htm
• Homepage of the Ecole d'Humanite
• Sound recordings by Paul and Edith Geheeb-Cassirer, Minna Woodpecker, Beatrice Ensor and others from the environment of the Gehebs.
• Paul Geheeb in the Munzinger Archive ( article beginning free)

Single proofs

1. This refers to Otto Schmiedel (1858-1926), who went to Japan in the fall of 1887 on behalf of the General Protestant Evangelical Missionary Association for about 7 years and then until 1924 again as a teacher at the Eisenacher Gymnasium was active. See the corresponding correspondence in the Geheeb archive of the Ecole d'Humanité. and in relation to Schmiedel's work in Japan: Heyo Erke Hamer: Mission and Politics. Mainz 2002.
2. Paul Geheeb dictates Ida Harth from his life. Bavarian cell 1958; in the correspondence Geheeb / Philipp and Ida Harth in the Geheeb archive of the Ecole d'Humanité; unpublished.
3. Paul Freimut: The importance of the student corporation and the true task of the German student. Ideas for the assessment of student relations. Herm. Rifel & Cie., Hagen iW 1891, citation p. 34.
4. For Geheeb's relationship to church and religion, see next to the corresponding sections in Näf 1998 and 2006 especially Barbara Hanusa: The Religious Dimension of Reformed Education Paul Geheebs ; Leipzig 2006.
6. Paul Geheeb: The Odenwald School in the light of the educational tasks of Gegenwahrt . 1930th
7. For conflict with Wyneken see next Näf 1998 Heinrich Kupffer: Gustav Wyneken. Stuttgart 1970, p. 55 ff. As well as Martin Näf: Wyneken and Geheeb: Common beginnings - separate ways - contrary goals. In: Yearbook of the Archive of the German Youth Movement.3/2006, Schwalbach / Ts 2007, pp. 119-146, available online under the title Reformpädagogik is not equal to reform education
8. See Näf 1998 and Hellerau specifically Thomas Nitschke: The educational province. Schools and school experiments in Hellerau. In: Dresdner notebooks. 15 Jg., H. 3 1997, P. 65-72 and the .: The garden city Hellerau as a pedagogic province. Dresden 2003.
9. From the "Haubinder Judenkrach" over the Odenwaldschule. called on January 11, 2015.
10. Walter Schäfer (ed.): The Association of German rural education homes. In: Reports from the Odenwaldschule. 6th issue, 2nd edition, July 1960, pp. 70-84. Walter Schäfer (ed.): Paul Geheeb Letters. Stuttgart 1970; especially p. 119 ff.
11. See also
• Hartmut Alphei (ed.): Reading book with sources on the history of the Odenwald School in the period from 1933 to 1946. In: Archive of the Odenwaldschule. Unpublished Documentation, September 1993, unpaginated
• Hartmut Alphei: The Odenwald School in transition (1945/46). In: Reiner Lehberger (ed.): Schools of reform education after 1945.Hamburg 1995, pp. 95-116.
• Hartmut Alphei: Education in responsibility before history. The Odenwald School in National Socialism. In: Helmut Arndt, Henner Müller-Holtz (ed.): School experience - life experiences. Demand and reality of education today. Reform education on the test.Frankfurt u. a. 1996, pp. 99-118. (online) ( Memento of May 1, 2006 in the web archive )
12. Paul Geheeb: Address on the occasion of the beginning of educational work in Switzerland on April 17, 1934. In: Hans Näf (ed.): A human school. The Ecole d'Humanité seen from the inside. Zytgloggeverlag, Oberhoven am Thunersee 2009, p. 32 ff., Cit. Pp. 34-35.
13. Michael Hepp (ed.): The expatriation of German national 1933-45 after the lists published in the Reichsanzeiger . tape 1 : Lists in chronological order . de Gruyter Saur, Munich / New York / London / Paris 2010, ISBN 978-3-11-095062-5 , S. 575 (reprint of the 1985 edition).
14. See the memories of Rosemarie Varga and Armin and Natalie Lüthi-Peterson in Hans Näf (ed.): A human school. The Ecole d'Humanité seen from the inside. Zytgloggeverlag, Oberhoven am Thunersee 2009.
15. These include z. B. Otto Friedrich Bollnow and in particular Martin Wagenschein , who worked in Geheebs Odenwaldschule from 1924 to 1933 and became known in German-speaking countries since the 1950s through his work on an exemplary Socratic-genetic teaching and learning.
16. , retrieved on 18 October 2015.
17. Paul Geheeb: The Odenwald School in the light of the educational tasks of Gegenwahrt. 1930th
18. Fritz Karsen: A visit to the Odenwaldschule. In: The parents' council. 2, Berlin 1921, p. 457 ff.
19. See also u. a. the (source) texts on co-education in Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Bruno Schonig (ed.): Land Education Home Pedagogy. (= Reformpädagogische Schulkonzepte, Volume 2). Baltmannsweiler 2002; Edith Glumpler (ed.): Coeducation. Developments and perspectives. Bad Heilbrunn 1994; Inge Hansen-Schaberg: The educational reform movement and its handling of coeducation. In: E. Kleinau, C. Opitz (ed.): History of girls and women in Germany. Volume 2, Frankfurt am Main 1996, pp. 219-229; As well as Marianne Horstkemper: The Coeducation debate at the turn of the century. In: E. Kleinau, C. Opitz (ed.): History of girls and women in Germany.Volume 2, Frankfurt am Main 1996, pp. 203-218.
20. Paul Geheeb: coeducation as a way of life. First appeared in The Act . Here cited after the reprint in: Eva Cassirer (ed.): Education to humanity. Heidelberg 1960, p. 116 ff., Citation p. 122.
21. Otto Erdmann: The work organization of the Odenwald school. In: The act. 5, 1914, pp. 1284-1288, reprinted in: Wolfgang Keim (ed.): Course Lessons. Justifications, models, experiences. Darmstadt 1997, pp. 151-159.
22. Paul Geheeb: Prospectus of the Odenwald School. 3. Edition. March 1911.
23. Paul Geheeb: The Odenwald School. Your mental basics. In: Franz Hilker (ed.): German school experiments. Berlin 1924, pp. 91-101, citation on p. 97.
24. Näf 2006, p. 150 ff.
25. Cf. about Helmwart Hierdeis: The "school community" in the Odenwald School under Paul Geheeb. In: Lenz Kriss-Rettenbeck, Max Liedtke (ed.): Regional school development in the 19th and 20th centuries. Bad Heilbrunn 1984, pp. 273-283; Franz-Michael Konrad: The School Community: A Reform-Educational Model for the Promotion of Social-Moral Learning in School and Childcare. In: Educational Forum. Issue 4, 1995, pp. 181-193.
26. The sentences frequently cited by Geheeb can be found in Fichte's contribution to the correction of the judgments of the public about the French Revolution published in Gdansk in 1793.
27. Paul Geheeb: Living and working with children. Lecture given in Utrecht on April 18, 1936, pp. 6-7.
28. Paul Geheeb: Living and working with children. Lecture given in Utrecht on April 18, 1936, p. 8.
29. Paul Geheeb: Unpublished manuscript in response to Hans Stricker's essay The century of the child - a wrong way. first in the national newspaper of February 16, 1939; First published in: W. Schäfer: Paul Geheeb. Letters. Stuttgart 1970, pp. 195-197, citations 195f.
30. Christl Stark: Idea and form of a school in the judgment of the parents. Dissertation. Heidelberg University of Education, 1998.
31. Matthias Bartsch, Markus Verbeet: The roots of abuse . Spiegel Online , July 19, 2010.
32. Josef Player u. a. (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Pedagogy of the Present. Herder, Freiburg i. B. 1930, pp. 890-891.
33. Johannes-Martin Kamp: children's republics. History, Practice and Theory of Radical Self-Government in Children's and Youth Homes.Opladen 1995, p. 345.
34. Näf 2006, p. 48.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 4:41 am

Drzewieski to Tell UNESCO Plans Tonight: Reconstruction Director Will Speak at Fogg Museum on UNESCO Role in Education
by The Harvard Crimson
March 20, 1947



Director Bernard Drzewieski of the UNESCO Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Section will speak to the College on "Educational Reconstruction as a Project of UNESCO" at 8 o'clock tonight in the Fogg Large Lecture Hall.

The meeting is being held under the auspices of the Commission for International Educational Reconstruction, and is sponsored locally by the Graduate School of Education and the International Activities Committee of the Student Council.

Drzewieski, a noted Polish educator, fled his country before the Nazi advance, but continued his educational work in exile. A former Vice-President of the Executive Committee of the Preparatory Commission of UNESCO, he has recently been elected Reconstruction and Rehabilitation director. He is currently in the United States on a brief tour.

Conference in Afternoon

Before his public appearance in the evening, he will participate in a joint faculty-student discussion meeting under the direction of the International Activities Committee of the Council and the Faculty Conference on Public Issues. This meeting will be limited to invited students and faculty members form Harvard and a dozen other colleges in the Boston area.

Discussion at the afternoon meeting will be centered on practical methods by which American colleges can assist UNESCO's work in such matters as the present Food Relief Drive and the promotion of student and faculty exchanges. His evening talk will center on UNESCO's present projects of educational reconstruction.

Previous to the afternoon session, Drzewieski will attend a luncheon sponsored by the International Activities Committee.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 4:49 am

Bernard Drzewieski (1888-1953): A Pole engaged in educational reconstruction
by Mathias Gardet
Published on 04/03/2018





Nothing predisposed Bernard Drzewieski to work at Unesco or to take an interest in children's villages. Born on August 2, 1888 in Poland in the city of Lublin in the south-east of the country, he attended school until 1905.


A fervent patriot, he received an international education from an early age: he continued his studies at a secondary school in Odessa in 1906, then, between 1907 and 1908, he left for Switzerland at the University of Geneva and finally in 1909- 1910 at Paris Sorbonne before returning to the University of Warsaw where he graduated from secondary school in 1919, specializing in comparative literature. He worked as a teacher in schools until 1934 , then as headmaster of a college in Warsaw from 1934 to 1939; a profession that is close to his heart and that he militarily seeks to defend values, becoming president of the Polish Union of Secondary School Teachers, then Vice-President of the National Union of Teachers. This national anchorage does not prevent him from attending at this period the network of pedagogues of the International League of New Education for which he writes several articles in the magazine The new Era , becoming itself the secretary general of the Polish branch. In this context he intervenes in Paris at the International Congress of Primary Education and Popular Education organized by the National Union of Teachers and Teachers of France and colonies at the Palace of Mutuality, July 23-31, 1937.

His destiny flips like so many others with war. In September 1939, according to the plan defined by the German-Soviet pact, the German and Soviet armies invaded Poland. Drzewieski first retired to Romania where he became an education advisor for the Polish Refugee Committee, before fleeing with his wife Wanda Schoeneich in 1940 to England, joining the Władysław Raczkiewicz government in exile in London. He then holds the position of Head of the Department of Education within the Ministry of Social Affairs, although his activities are primarily strategic-military in connection with the resistance movement in Poland.

Joint Meeting of the Government of the Republic of Poland and the National Council with the participation of the President of the Republic of Poland Władysław Raczkiewicz in London. 1940 - 1943. Fot. NAC

In addition to learning English, this trip to London is crucial for the future UN career of Drzewieski. It collaborates with the Council of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME), created in 1942 and is already beginning to prepare a plan to rebuild education in devastated countries; a theme dear to Drzewieski given his past as a teacher and echoes that come to him destruction in his country.

Speech by B. Dzrewieski at the 10th Plenary Assembly of the Conference of Allied Ministers for Education in London on November 16, 1946

In particular, he is invited to give lectures on education throughout the Kingdom. On this occasion he wrote a long article in the English magazine New Era of the International League of New Education on Schools in Poland before the war.



In 1945, he was appointed Cultural Attaché of the Polish Embassy in London, which means he followed the line of his political leader, Stanisław Mikołajczyk (successor of Raczkiewicz after his death in a plane crash in 1943). who agrees to return to Poland to unite with the Polish National Liberation Committee or "Lublin Committee", the provisional governmental body formed on 23 July 1944 on the initiative of the Soviet Union. A dissident Polish government continues to exist at the same time , but the United States and Great Britain withdraw its approval on July 6, 1945, and they must evacuate the Polish Embassy from Portland Place. Most of its members, unable to return safely to communist Poland, settled in other countries.

It was therefore as a cultural attaché that Drzewieski was appointed member of the Polish delegation to the November 1945 conference which preceded the Preparatory Commission for Unesco, of which he would later become Vice-President.

@UNESCO, Ellen Wilkinson, Minister of Education of Great Britain, reading the UNESCO Constitutive Act aloud at the 1945 conference

He made a fiery speech during which he proclaimed in the name of the European continent his pride of being poor, a poverty due to the refusal to submit to the laws of fascism and made himself the apostle of the needs for educational reconstruction:

Our schools - he says - are homeless, our teachers are failing because they are hungry and exhausted. Of course, we hear people say, "Listen, we can not get money." I am a teacher myself and I know that far too many people who do not know anything about education are discussing education. We teachers do not see enough people to discuss with equal enthusiasm a salary increase, or an improvement in the social status of teachers, or how to build good schools for our children and establish a democratic education system. But, believe me, you can get money.

He cites as an example the initiative undertaken by British children who, under the auspices of the Council for Education for Global Citizenship, would have managed to gather in less than a year with their pocket money the sum of five thousand books to help their distressed counterparts on the continent.

On October 16, 1946, he received a letter from Julian Huxley, the Executive Secretary of Unesco House, located at 19 Avenue Kleber in Paris, proposing that he join the reconstruction section of the same commission; offers that it is obliged to postpone temporarily, given its role as representative of the Polish government, until the holding of the first general conference of 16 November 1946 in London which officially gives birth to Unesco.

Stamp issued on the occasion of the first UNESCO Conference in Paris in 1946

However, he agrees to start informal contacts with the various bodies involved in the reconstruction. At the general conference, Drzewieski represents both the Polish delegation and is rapporteur at the first session of the commission for the reconstitution of education, art and culture. It defines the role of Unesco in the following way: it is responsible for stimulating both the relief provided by governmental and non-governmental agencies of donor countries as well as the production of educational supplies and equipment. ; it is even envisaged that it can undertake and finance certain projects itself.

A few days later, during the meeting held in Paris at Unesco House, 19 Avenue Kleber on November 25, 1946, he was elected president of this commission and declared that from now on he would cease to represent his country to be as the representative of the Unesco Conference. He stressed the coordinating role that Unesco could play between governmental organizations and private non-governmental organizations. A discussion then begins as to whether it should be a clearing house for information and propaganda, but also for receiving and distributing money and materials for aid to devastated countries, or a mere liaison between organizations, works, universities, schools.

Unesco in the walls of the Majestic Hotel, Paris (Unesco photo)

He held this position until January 1947, when he officially joined the Unesco Secretariat as Head of the Department of Reconstruction and Rehabilitation of the Education System. On his job description, he says he speaks fluent Polish and Russian, although French, Italian and English, correctly German. He moved to Paris at 44 rue Hamelin in the 16th arrondissement, although he made many tours abroad. For the year 1947 alone, he traveled to the United States from 25 February to 8 April, to Switzerland from 5 to 16 July, to Czechoslovakia and Poland from 7 August to 11 September, and again to the United States from December 7th to 17th.


Excerpt from B. Dzrewieski's Confidential Mission Report for Poland, August 7 to September 11, 1947

These journeys consist primarily of establishing diplomatic relations: to see how governments perceive Unesco and whether a national commission exists; explain the purpose of the latter; contact schools and their administrators, groups of teachers, publishers and distributors of educational books and various national or international self-help organizations such as the International Bureau of Education, CIER (American Commission for Rebuilding) the International Children's Fund , UNRRA, UIPE, to better coordinate fundraising or school materials; or, in devastated countries, assess the needs in terms of rebuilding schools and helping teachers. It was also during these trips that he visited not only the reconstruction camps, of which he admired the phenomenon of solidarity and international understanding , but also successively the Pestalozzi children's village of Trogen, which he described as the most astonishing and inspiring. business of post-war Europe.

Drzewieski points out the difficulty of such an undertaking when it comes to bringing together Polish children and German children, but optimistically asserts that the organizers are well prepared to provoke these encounters between children of former enemy countries by showing them for example, photos of cities in ruins in their respective countries , in order to awaken in them a community of suffering and experiences. He emphasizes the need to provide the founders of the village with substantial assistance , so that they can build more houses to accommodate another two hundred children and thus become an "experimental laboratory" for the establishment of other international villages in the area. 'other countries. Following a suggestion by the organizers of Trogen who would like Unesco to have some sort of patronage, Drzewieski proposes to organize as soon as possible a conference, under the auspices of his department, bringing together the leaders of different villages of children. which , it seems , already exist in several countries such as Germany, Denmark, France, Hungary, Poland, to reflect on a general pattern for this movement.

The following month, he notes with satisfaction that such is indeed the case in his own country in which he finally has the opportunity to return. He visits the village of Otwook, where 600 children are housed in a former sanatorium near Warsaw, also financed by the Swiss Don. According to him, such a concentration of homeless children rests on the question of the educational orientation that must be offered to them and the urgency of organizing as soon as possible a debate about a possible program to be built in the spirit or not. from Trogen.

Moreover, in order to meet the first objective of coordinating the collection activities carried out by the various non-governmental organizations, Drzewieski organizes three meetings which end up giving birth, during the last one which takes place in Paris on 23-24 September 1947 at the Unesco House, at the International Temporary Council for the Rehabilitation of Education (Ticer).

Unesco Archives 361.9 A 01

If he presides over this meeting, he wishes to mark the difference between his section of reconstruction and the new private status coordinating body thus created and withdraws from the elected board of directors after having given the final chairmanship to George E. Haynes , president of the international conference of the social service. However, he continues to provide the secretariat.

If during his presentation of the work undertaken by his service in 1947, Drzewieski announced his visit to the village Pestalozzi, he insists especially on the task of educational reconstruction in the field of education that he believes must lead urgently Ticer he thus mentions the situation in Poland and Czechoslovakia, where he has seen eleven different classes operate on a rotating basis in a single room, and for this reason have been obliged to abolish classes in music, singing, physical education and drawing, or There are also courses in cellars, schools with roofs destroyed or ancient mass graves used as playgrounds for children.

At the second session of the Unesco General Conference in Mexico City on 17 November 1947, Drzewieski resumed the idea of ​​collecting precise information on successful experiences in the rehabilitation of children during the war and asked that the Provides support to international children's villages, which it says are "a new and growing initiative"; he proposes again to convene a conference of leaders of these villages to "study ways of integrating them into the official education system of the different countries" .

Just after the Mexico City conference and throughout the first half of 1948, Drzewieski became one of the masters of the convocation of children's village directors and several experts who Trogen on 4-18 July.

Arrival of the first delegates, including Bernard Drzewieski (3rd from right) in Trogen in July 1948

Bernard Drzewieski and Carleton Washburne at the Trogen Conference in July 1948

These experiences thus become for him an important axis of educational reconstruction, as shown by the introduction of this theme of children's villages through him in Ticer's resolutions and plans of action from March 1948. Although he was called to order by his supervisory ministry, who informed him in 1949 that the free leave granted by Foreign Affairs was coming to an end and that he had to return to a position in the latter, Bernard Drzewieski decided to stay in function at Unesco. In this capacity, he participates in many events organized by FICE, such as international youth camps.

Visit of Bernard Dzrewieski during the Second International Children's Camp at Château de Sanem (Luxembourg), 1950

Visit of Bernard Dzrewieski during the Second International Children's Camp at Sanem Castle in July 1950

Once his first contract is over in the rebuilding department, he is recruited as a program specialist for the Education Department on the subject of education for international understanding , and as special advisor to the section " education for living in a global community.

Bernard Drzewieski (1st on the left) at the FICE Congress in Florence in March 1952

He died at this post in Paris, August 13, 1953, his funeral taking place on Saturday, August 18 in the strictest intimacy.

Bernard Dzrewieski's grave at Père Lachaise Cemetery

His Wanda wife who has always been at his side as a "housewife" and faithful secretary without attribution, finds herself in great economic difficulty given the meager pension she receives on the death of her husband, housed first by colleagues of the latter, she finally left Paris to return to Poland in 1956 thanks to exceptional aid from Unesco.


Unesco Archives, Paris:

• Staff file of B. Dzrewieski. Box 106 PER / REC.1 / 106, 1965
• X07.83 Missions of B. Dzrewieski.
• 371.95 A 06 (494) "48". Conference on War Handicapped Children (Trogen 5-10 / VII / 48).

Archives of the Institute of Education in London

• dossier on the Polish section of the New Education Fellowship, WEF / A / II / 144


Boussion (Samuel), Gardet (Mathias), Ruchat (Martine), "Bringing everyone to Trogen: Unesco and the Promotion of an International Model of Children's Communities after World War II", Duedhal (Poul) (eds.), A History of Unesco.Global Actions and Impacts , London, Palgrave MacMillan, 2016, p. 99-115.

Unesco, The Book of Needs of Fifteen War-Devastated Countries in Education, Science and Culture , c. 1, Paris, Unesco, 1947, 111 p.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 6:35 am

International School of Geneva
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/17/19



International School of Geneva
Ecole Internationale de Genève
Grand Saconnex
Type Day School
Established 1924
Director-General Dr David Hawley
Enrollment 4500
Color(s) Navy Blue and White
Track and Field
Table Tennis

The International School of Geneva (in French: Ecole Internationale de Genève), also known as "Ecolint" or "The International School", is a private international school based in Geneva, Switzerland. Founded in 1924 in the service of the League of Nations, it is the oldest and largest operating international school in the world.[citation needed] In the mid-1960s, a group of teachers from Ecolint (Campus La Grande Boissière) created the International Schools Examinations Syndicate (ISES), which later became the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) and then the International Baccalaureate (IB).[1]

Ecolint is composed of three campuses in and around Geneva, each with its own principal working under the Director General of the Foundation of the International School of Geneva (currently Dr David Hawley) and a Governing Board elected by parents and staff with co-opted members from the UN and Swiss Government.[2] Ecolint is a bilingual school, with instruction primarily in English and French. In addition to the IB, it is a testing centre for the US college boards (SAT and ACT) and the British IGCSE (CIE).[2]

Ecolint is a member of the G20 Schools Group. In 2006, the British Guardian newspaper listed Ecolint as one of the best international schools in the world for those seeking a UK-style curriculum (a reference to Campus La Châtaigneraie).[3] According to the Good Schools Guide International, "the International School of Geneva (Ecolint) turns out well-educated, happy students who are comfortable with themselves and ready to move on to tertiary education around the world."[4]



Ecolint's (upper) secondary education (Middle and High School) is not approved as a Mittelschule/Collège/Liceo by the Swiss Federal State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI).[5]


Ecolint's various programmes are accredited by the Council of International Schools (CIS) and the Middle States Association (MSA).[citation needed] The last full accreditation was conducted in 2011, with an interim assessment in 2016.[citation needed]

Ecolint has satisfied the authorization procedures of the International Baccalaureate (IB) to offer the PYP, MYP, IBDP, and IBCP.[citation needed]

Campus La Châtaigneraie is an approved Cambridge Assessment school, offering IGCSEs.


From 1920 to 1921 the League of Nations and the International Labor Office established their headquarters in Geneva. In 1924 the International School of Geneva was founded by senior members of two international organizations, in conjunction with Adolphe Ferrière and Elisabeth Rotten.[2] Ever since its inception, the school has pursued a mission to educate for peace and to inculcate strong humanitarian values of inclusiveness, respect and inter-cultural understanding. As their website states, "Resolutely not-for-profit, mankind is the only beneficiary of our work, not corporate shareholders or private equity firms."

Ferrière housed the first class in his family's chalet. He was also technical adviser to the school from 1924 to 1926. Other prominent individuals involved in the creation of the School were Arthur Sweetser and Dr. Ludwik Rajchman. They were supported by William Rappard, Rector of the University of Geneva and Sir Arthur Salter, a senior official of the League of Nations.

The foundation continued to evolve as it acquired new campuses in the Vaud countryside at La Châtaigneraie (also called "La Chât") near Founex and at Pregny (near the European Headquarters of the United Nations). A sports hall was built in 1977 and a new primary building was built in 2011 on the La Châtaigneraie campus. In 1993 a sciences building was built and in 2002 the old "La Ferme" building, which used to house the girls' boarding lodgings, became the music building. The new multimedia library (known as Multi Media Center or MMC) was finished in September 2001, adding a third floor to what is known as the "New Building" (NB). In September 2008, the new sports hall was opened, replacing the long-defunct swimming pool, the aging "Bubble", which was inflated in 2000 to protect from harsh climates, and the old PTA offices. This was achieved with the financial help of the Hans Wilsdorf Foundation. A state of the art primary school building was opened in September 2011, bringing the total capacity of the campus to 1600 students.

The third campus, Campus des Nations has had two beginnings. The first was in the 1940s with Rigot which became Pregny-Rigot, the second in 2005 with the closure of Rigot and the opening of Saconnex. The Pregny-Rigot campus was a pre-K through year 6 school that adopted the International Baccalaureate Primary Years Program in 2002. This campus had two buildings, Rigot which was an old Swiss farmhouse just off Place des Nations housing the early childhood classes, the other a unique architectural structure up the hill from the United Nations and Red Cross which hosted the primary school and learning center. In 2005, Pregny-Rigot shifted with the opening of a new building, Saconnex, near the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization. The early childhood classes at Rigot were moved to a renovated Pregny and Rigot was returned to the city of Geneva. Years 3-6 were moved from Pregny to the new building, Saconnex, which also opened a secondary school. The Secondary school offers the IB's Middle Years Programme, the IB Diploma and the IB Career Related Programme (IBCP).


La Grande Boissière (also called "LGB") is the oldest and largest of the three. The primary school (beginning from age three) has approximately 550 students, and runs through grade 4. The middle school also has about 550 students, and runs from grade 5 to grade 8. The secondary school has around 800 students, beginning with 9th grade and going to grade 12 or 13. All three stages offer bilingual programmes. The Primary School Principal is Mr Duff Gyr, the Middle School Principal is Ms Shona Wright and the Campus and Secondary School Principal is Dr Conrad Hughes.[citation needed][6] (46°11′55″N 6°10′21″E)

La Châtaigneraie (also called "La Chât") became part of Ecolint in 1971 and is located in the Vaud countryside, near Founex, overlooking the Alps and Lake Léman. It has a primary and a secondary school, and has approximately 1600 students. The oldest building on campus is the main secondary building which was completed in 1908, when La Châtaigneraie first opened. The Primary School Principal is Mrs Jennifer Armstrong and Campus and Secondary School Principal is Mr David Woods.[citation needed] (46°20′23″N 6°10′18″E)

Campus des Nations, (also simply called "Nations") opened in 2005 and operates on two locations in and in the vicinity of Grand Saconnex. It has around 1000 students. Campus des Nations is the only campus to offer all four IB programmes (PYP, MYP, IBDP and IBCP). The Early Years (Pregny) Principal is Ms Isla Gordon, the Primary School Principal is Ms Christelle Lonez and the Secondary School Principal is Mr Jamie Williams:

• Saconnex is located near the International Labour Organization and World Health Organization headquarters. Saconnex offers classes to 800 students from years 3 through 13. All classes taught at Nations follow the IB curriculum, consisting of PYP, MYP and DP or CP.[2]( 46°13′51″N6°07′46″E)
• Pregny (in Pregny-Chambésy) is located near the United Nations and Red Cross HQ and is a school of 200 students from pre-school and kindergarten to year 2.[2]( 46°13′51″N 6°08′20″E)

Notable Alumni

• Harry Albright - Journalist and former Editor of The Friend, shared in the Michener Award in 1991.
• Anjum Anand - British Indian food writer and TV chef of Indian cuisine.
• Shadi Bartsch - Ann L. and Lawrence B. Buttenwieser Professor of Classics at the University of Chicago.
• Roger Boylan - American novelist and critic.
• Gail Carpenter - Professor, Boston University, Director of the Cognitive and Neural Systems Technology Laboratory.[7][8]
• David Chardavoyne - American attorney, professor, and author.
• Chehab Family Members - Prominent Lebanese aristocracy, descendants of the last Emirs of Lebanon, closely related to Lebanese President Fuad Chehab.
• Richard Corbett - Member of the European Parliament and Labour Party (UK) leader in the Parliament.
• Milein Cosman - German-born portrait artist, based in England; founder of the Cosman Keller Art and Music Trust.
• Joe Dassin - French-speaking American musician, famous for singing Les Champs-Élysées.
• Maya Deren (born Eleonora Derenkowska) - Cinema director, avant-garde filmmaker and actress in the 1940s and 1950s.
• Hernando de Soto Polar - Peruvian economist and his brother Álvaro de Soto, Peruvian and UN diplomat
• Michael Douglas - Oscar-winning and Emmy Award-nominated American actor and producer.
• Elizabeth Frank - Pulitzer Prize winning author.
• Harold Furth - Austrian-American physicist and former director of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.[9]
• Indira Gandhi- Former Prime Minister of India.
• Ronald M. George - Chief Justice, California Supreme Court.
• Douglas Hofstadter - Pulitzer Prize winning author, College of Arts and Sciences Distinguished Professor of Cognitive Science, Indiana University in Bloomington, Director of the Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition.
• Mieko Kamiya - Japanese psychiatrist and writer.
• Yasmin Aga Khan - Daughter of Prince Aly Khan and Rita Hayworth.
• Rami G. Khouri - Journalist, internationally syndicated columnist, director of the Issam Fares Institute at the American University of Beirut, editor-at-large of the Beirut-based Daily Star and co-laureate of the 2006 Pax Christi International Peace Award.[7][10]
• Riad al Khouri - Economist; former Dean of the Business School, Lebanese French University, Erbil; currently Director, Middle East, GeoEconomica GmbH, Amman & Geneva [11]
• Christopher Lambert - French actor famous for films such as Highlander and Greystoke.
• Lori Lieberman - singer-songwriter and first to record the song Killing Me Softly with His Song,[12] which is based on a poem she wrote. Attended the school from 1961 to 1969.
• Eric Margolis - prominent journalist.
• Olivier Perez - Swiss actor
• Bob Rae - 21st Premier of Ontario, and the first leader of the Ontario New Democratic Party (NDP) to serve in that capacity.
• Edouard van Remoortel - former conductor of the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra.[9]
• Baron Edmond Adolphe de Rothschild - financier and philanthropist.[9]
• Tatiana Santo Domingo - Colombian socialite heiress to a beer and airline empire.
• H. Norman Schwarzkopf - Retired U.S. Army General and Commander of U.S. and coalition forces for Operation Desert Storm. Attended high school for one year, in which he mastered the French language, a language that later got him a key advisor job in the South Vietnam Airborne in 1965-66.
• David Shaffer - child psychologist, attended International School of Geneva from 1953 to 1955.
• Her Majesty Queen Sirikit of Thailand (Srikit Kitiyakara).
• Albert Sjoerdsma, Jr. - Playwright; some of his plays have been produced on Broadway.[13]
• Kellogg Stelle - Professor of Physics, Theoretical Physics Group, Imperial College, London.[14]
• Maya Stojan - actress who plays the role of Tory Ellis in Castle (TV series).[15][16]
• Simone, stage name of Lisa Celeste Stroud - American singer and actress, daughter of Nina Simone, attended La Châtaigneraie campus in mid 1970s.
• Mark Trueblood - American engineer and astronomer. He is noted for early pioneering work in the development of robotic telescopes.
• Her Royal Highness Princess Galyani Vadhana Princess of Thailand and the elder sister of King Ananda Mahidol and King Bhumibol Adulyadej

Languages offered

Ecolint offers its core curriculum in English and French to varying degrees depending on the campus and section.
Ecolint also offers many other modern languages such as German, Italian, Mandarin and Spanish as part of its curriculum. Arabic, Dutch, Finnish, Japanese, Norwegian, Swahili, Swedish and many other languages are available via private tuition but can be counted towards credits or as IB programmes; this route is often chosen by students who have little other opportunity to formally study their mother tongue.


1. Elisabeth Fox (2001). "The Emergence of the International Baccalaureate as an Impetus to Curriculum Reform". In Mary Hayden and Jeff Thompson (eds.). International Education: Principles and Practice (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 141. ISBN 9780749436162.
2. "Ecolint - International School of Geneva". Retrieved 26 January 2019.
3. A guide to schools abroad that offer a British curriculum, Education Guardian, December 12, 2006
4. "Geneva international schools: education overview". 7 October 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
5. "Maturität - Maturité - Maturità" (official site) (in German, French, and Italian). Berne, Switzerland: Swiss Federal State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation, SERI. 1 March 2018. Retrieved 2018-04-22.
6. "La Grande Boissière". Ecolint | International School of Geneva. 2016-03-20. Retrieved 2019-05-08.
7. "Search Results - Ecolint Alumni Office". Retrieved 26 January 2019.
8. "Adobe Web Photo Gallery". Retrieved 26 January2019.
9. Jump up to:a b c "Souvenirs and vignettes of my Ecolint stay (1939-47) - Ecolint Alumni Office". Retrieved 26 January 2019.
10. "Rami G. Khouri". Archived from the original on 2008-09-18. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
11. "Riad al Khouri Visiting Scholar, Middle East Center Carnegie Endowment for International Peace". Retrieved 3 November 2013.
12. "Lori Lieberman". Retrieved 26 January 2019.
13. "Vital Theatre Company". Retrieved 26 January2019.
14. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-07-07. Retrieved 2007-06-12.
15. Interview in Télétop Matin magazine (Switzerland), 21 September 2014
16. "Ecolint Alumni: Maya Stojan". International School of Geneva. Retrieved 2016-09-17.

External links

• International School of Geneva
• International School of Geneva: Libraries and Library Catalogues
• Ecolint Alumni Web Community
• International Baccalaureate Organization
• Programmes Offered
• La Châtaigneraie
• La Grande Boissiere
• Campus des Nations
• Review from the Good Schools Guide International
• International School of Geneva Arts Centre
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 7:01 am

International Bureau of Education
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/17/19



International Bureau of Education
Emblem of the United Nations.svg
Abbreviation IBE
Formation 1925
Type Specialized agency
Legal status Active
Headquarters Geneva, Switzerland
Mmantsetsa Marope
Parent organization

The International Bureau of Education (IBE-UNESCO) is a UNESCO category 1 institute mandated as the Centre of Excellence in curriculum and related matters. Consistent with the declaration of the decision of the 36th session of the General Conference and to ensure a higher effectiveness and a sharper focus, the IBE has defined the scope of its work as pertaining to: curriculum, learning, teaching, and assessment. The IBE-UNESCO provides tailored technical support and expertise to all UNESCO Member States facilitating the provision and delivery of equitable, inclusive, high quality education within the framework of Education 2030 Agenda.

The current mandate and program areas of the IBE are particularly of significance and relevance to the Education 2030 and the fourth Sustainable Development Goal (SDG4) that commit UNESCO Member States to "Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and to promote lifelong learning opportunities for all". The IBE is, therefore, strategically positioned to support Member States’ efforts at the optimal achievement of SDG4, and by implication, the realization of the other 16 SDGs that depend on provision and delivery of equitable and development-relevant quality education and lifelong learning opportunities.


Pierre Bovet (left) and Jean Piaget in front of the Rousseau Institute in Geneva, 1925

The IBE was a private organization created in 1925 by prominent psychologists and pedagogues in Geneva, including Edouard Claparède, Adolphe Ferrière and Pierre Bovet, the latter of whom served as the Director of the IBE from 1925-1929. Initially, the IBE was a small non-governmental organization focused on public and private education, and scientific research. During this time, an external initiative committee consisting of notable academics, educators and thinkers of the day, including Albert Einstein, provided support to the organization.[1] In 1929, it became the first intergovernmental organization dedicated to the field of education. Accordingly, in 1929, the well known epistemologist and professor Jean Piaget was appointed director of the organization. Piaget stayed on as Director until 1967.[2][3]

Service of Intellectual Assistance to Prisoners of War (SIAP)

Preparation of books and parcels to be sent to prisoners during World War II as part of the IBE's SIAP project

In 1939, the IBE created the Service of Intellectual Assistance to Prisoners of War (SIAP), which was based on Article 39 of the Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. SIAP was initiated with the intention of sending books and providing intellectual services to prisoners during World War II. The IBE collaborated with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), who provided intelligence for the service. The project quickly grew in scale, and by the end of the war the IBE had provided over half a million books to prisoners. SIAP also organized so-called “Internment Universities” and study groups in prison camps. The service was initially funded by the Swiss Federal Council, but increased demand required the search for other funding alternatives. As a result, the IBE began to issue postal stamps in 1940, which were sold in order to raise money to fund the project.[1]

Relationship and integration with UNESCO

The IBE was an independent organization for the first 44 years of its existence. When UNESCO was created in 1945, the IBE helped develop its education programs, thus establishing the first of many collaborations with the nascent UN agency. By 1952, a permanent joint commission was established to ensure effective cooperation between the IBE and UNESCO, and they began to jointly organize the International Conference on Public Education. After 20 years of collaboration, an agreement was signed which would integrate the IBE with UNESCO. In 1969, the IBE joined UNESCO; however, it maintained intellectual and functional autonomy. The IBE is the oldest of UNESCO's category 1 institutes.[2]

Main area of development

Originally, the IBE was developed to provide support and research regarding all aspects of education; however, it gradually became more specialized. Today, under the direction of Dr. Mmantsetsa Marope, the main initiative of the IBE is to set the global standard for quality curricula, especially in the context of promoting education for development. Other areas of focus include neuroscience of learning and future competencies.[4]

The IBE works primarily in 6 programmatic areas in the context of the IBE's three main areas of focus: Curriculum, Learning, and Assessment. Those 6 programmes are: Innovation and Leadership; Current and Critical Issues; Knowledge Creation and Management; Systemic Strengthening of Quality and Development Relevance; Leadership for Global Dialogue; and, Institutional and Organizational Development.[5]

International Conference on Education (ICE)

Seventh International Conference on Public Education in 1938. The IBE organized the ICE from 1934-2008.

From 1934-2008, the IBE organized the International Conference on Public Education (later known as the International Conference on Education).[2] Jean Piaget and Deputy Director Pedro Rosselló developed the conference in order to bring together Ministers of Education with researchers and practitioners in the field of education. A total of 48 sessions took place with themes including Inclusive Education, quality education, and strengthening teachers.[6]


Since 1970, the IBE has edited the academic comparative journal Prospects, which focuses on curriculum, learning, and assessment, particularly in the domains of culture, development, economics, ethics, gender, inclusion, politics, sociology, sustainability, and education. It is published by Springer Netherlands, and available in English, Arabic, and Mandarin Chinese.[7]

The IBE Library

The IBE Library at the Palais Wilson in 1937

The IBE Library (also known as the IBE-UNESCO Documentation Centre) has serviced educators, psychologists, and researchers for nine decades. Originally located in the rue des Maraichers, it was also quartered in the historic Palais Wilson in Geneva. The Library was initiated when the IBE began transferring educational journals to the former Library of the League of Nations in the late 1930s. Notable collections of the IBE Library include the IBE Historical Textbook Collection and the IBE Historical Archives 1925-1969.[8]

The IBE Historical Textbook Collection

The IBE Historical Textbook Collection consists of over 20,000 primary and secondary education textbooks and atlases from as early as the 18th century, from over 140 countries, in over 100 languages. The collection also features a number of textbooks in rare languages, such as Guarao, Luvale, Maori, and Irish Gaelic.[8]

The IBE Historical Archives 1925-1969

The IBE Historical Archives 1925-1969 is a unique collection that traces the evolution of education from the early 20th century to the modern and creative learning methods of the 1960s. It includes photographs, letters, manuscripts, notes, etc. that belonged to the renowned Swiss educators such as Pierre Bovet and Adolphe Ferrière. Specifically, the archives provide an introspective look at the development and evolution of the New Education movement, of which many of the IBE's founders were integral contributors.[8]

See also

• Rousseau Institute
• List of international organizations based in Geneva
• Marie Butts


1. Avanzini, Guy; Darcy de Oliviera, Rosiska; Egger, Eugen; Roller, Samuel; Stock, Rodney; Suchodolski, Bogdan (1979). The International Bureau of Education in the service of educational development. UNESCO. pp. 51, 80. ISBN 978-92-3-101733-9.
2. "UNESCO International Bureau of Education. Bureau international d'éducation. Oficina Internacional de Educacion. IBE. BIE. OIE. | : History". Retrieved 2014-08-12.
3. "Historical note by Pedro Rossello" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-02-28.
4. "International Bureau of Education: Lead innovation in curriculum and learning". International Bureau of Education. 2015-05-10.
5. UNESCO-IBE (2017). Report of the Director of the International Bureau of Education to the 67th Session of the Council: Implementation of Activities for 2017. UNESCO-IBE. p. 3.
6. IBE (2010-07-23). "The International Conference on Education". International Bureau of Education.
7. "Springer Link: Prospects". Springer Link.
8. Jump up to:a b c IBE (2015). IBE In Focus: 90 years of excellence in education. UNESCO. pp. 34, 39.

External links

• Official website
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 7:09 am

Édouard Claparède
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/18/19



Édouard Claparède
Born 24 March 1873
Died 29 September 1940 (aged 67)
Residence Geneva
Nationality Switzerland
Alma mater University of Geneva
Known for Genevan School
Scientific career
Fields Neurology
Institutions Rousseau Institute, International Bureau of Education

Édouard Claparède (24 March 1873 – 29 September 1940) was a Swiss neurologist, child psychologist, and educator.


Claparède studied science and medicine, receiving in 1897 an MD from the University of Geneva, and working 1897–98 at La Salpêtrière hospital in Paris. In 1901 he founded the Archives de psychologie with his cousin, Théodore Flournoy,[1] which he edited until his death. He was based from 1904 onward at the University of Geneva, where he became director of the experimental psychology lab.[2]

Among the positions he held were: 1904 General Secretary at the Second International Congress of Psychology; 1909 General Secretary at the Sixth International Congress of Psychology; 1912 founder of the Rousseau Institute; co-founder of the International Bureau of Education (IBE) in 1925;[3] 1915-1940 professor of psychology at the University of Geneva in succession to Flournoy; Permanent Secretary at the International Congress of Psychology; Life President of the Comité de l'Association Internationale des Conferences de Psychotechnique.

Claparède was married to Hélène Spir, daughter of the Russian philosopher African Spir.

Trauma experiment

Claparède performed an influential experiment demonstrating how the trauma of a painful event could be retained even if short term memory was lost.[4] His experiment involved a woman who suffered from a form of amnesia. She had all of her old memories as well as her basic reasoning skills, but the recent past was not remembered. Claparède had greeted her every day, each time she could not remember his face at all. Then during one session of the experiment, Claparède hid a pin in his hand and reached to shake the woman's hand, pricking her. The next day, sure enough, she did not remember him. But when Claparède went to shake her hand, he found that she hesitated, recognizing a threat when her memory had been severely damaged.[5]


Claparède was briefly a member of the Zurich Freud Group marshalled by C. G. Jung,[6] but he shunned what he saw as the movement's dogmatism, and in 1909 joined Pierre Janet in differentiating the clinical concept of the subconscious from what was termed Freud's philosophical concept of the unconscious.[7] However he retained an interest in psychoanalysis in general, and in 1926 provided an introduction to the first French translation of Freud's Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis.[8]


Claparède wrote several books concerning the fields he studied including the following:[9]

• L’association des idées (1903)
• Psychologie de l’enfant et pédagogie expérimentale (1909)
• L’éducation fonctionnelle (1931)
• La genèse de l’hypothèse (1933)

See also

• Cryptamnesia
• Operant conditioning


1. R. Gregory ed., The Oxford Companion to the Mind (1987) p. 149
2. R. Gregory ed., The Oxford Companion to the Mind (1987) p. 149
3. IBE (2015). IBE In Focus: 90 years of excellence in education(PDF). UNESCO. p. 22.
4. Claperede's Pinprick Experiment
5. R. Gregory ed., The Oxford Companion to the Mind (1987) p. 21
6. Ernest Jones, The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud (1962) p. 331
7. F. McLynn, Carl Gustav Jung (1996) p. 154
8. E. Ewin ed., Freud Encyclopedia (2002) p. 471
9. Hameline, Daniel (2000). "ÉDOUARD CLAPARÈDE (1873–1940)"(PDF).

Further reading

• Eustache, F.; Desgranges, B.; Messerli, P. (1996). "Edouard Claparède and human memory". Revue neurologique. 152 (10): 602–610. PMID 9033952.
• Boake, C. (2000). "Édouard Claparède and the Auditory Verbal Learning Test". Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (Neuropsychology, Development and Cognition: Section A). 22 (2): 286–292. doi:10.1076/1380-3395(200004)22:2;1-1;FT286. PMID 10779842.

External links

• Short biography, bibliography, and links on digitized sources in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 7:22 am

Pierre Bovet, IBE Director 1925 - 1929
by International Bureau of Education
Accessed: 8/18/19




Pierre Bovet was born on 5 June 1878 in Grandchamp, Switzerland. He studied in Neuchâtel and Geneva and received his doctorate degree in 1902. From 1903-1912, Bovet taught philosophy in Neuchâtel. In 1920, he became professor of Educational sciences and experimental pedagogy at the Faculty of Arts of the University of Geneva. In 1913, he was called to Geneva by Edouard Claparède to direct the Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute.

Bovet is seen as a significant figure in the international movement of the League for the New Education. Besides numerous articles, he has published 'The fighting instinct' (1917) and 'The religious sense and child psychology' (1925). Pierre Bovet played an important role in the development of education and is one of the founders of the International Bureau of Education. He became the Director in 1925 and held this post until 1929.
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