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Paul Geheeb: German reform teacher
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Paul Geheeb ca. 1906

Paul Geheeb (born October 10, 1870 in Geisa / Rhön, † May 1, 1961 in Hasliberg -Goldern / Switzerland ) was a German reformist educator . As the founder of the Odenwald School and the Ecole d'Humanité , he is an important person in the Land Education Home Movement .


Childhood and Youth (1870-1889)

Birthplace of Geheeb in Geisa

Paul Geheeb was the second of five children of the pharmacist and moss researcher Adalbert Geheeb (1842-1909) and his wife Adolphine, nee Calmberg (1841-1884). Paul Geheeb attended high schools in Fulda and Eisenach , where his aunt lived and cared for him. When he was 14 years old, his mother died unexpectedly. At almost 90, Geheeb said:

"I was more likely to hold the end of the world possible than that the good, heavenly Father to whom I prayed daily would have made my mother die ... Even today, I must call death the greatest catastrophe of my catastrophic life. I became mentally ill for a couple of years afterwards, so today I would have been put in a psychiatric home and I was often going to end my life. While until the death of my mother my interests had been exclusively in the natural sciences, especially in the botanical field, I turned now to philosophical and religious questions and had, under the influence of an excellent religion teacher at the Eisenacher Gymnasium, (he was later to the University in Tokyo) [1] the first very violent clash with the personality of Jesus of Nazareth. From then on, all my longing was to help the poor, unhappy people to become better and happier. " [2]

Studies and pedagogical years of study and travel (1889-1909)

In 1889/90 Geheeb completed his military service as a one-year volunteer in Gießen. He then studied in Berlin and Jena. Among his teachers were u. a. the theologians Otto Pfleiderer , Richard Adelbert Lipsius and the young leader of the theological left Otto Baumgarten .

From March 1889 to October 1890 Geheeb was a member of the Gießen fraternity Arminia and fraternity Neogermania Berlin . In a brochure published in 1891 under the pseudonym Paul Freimut, Geheeb criticizes the nonsense of dueling and the excessive consumption of alcohol as well as the empty sociability of the fraternities and - especially striking in his time - the disrespectful treatment of women in the academic youth , It is not only sad to hear, but also a sign of great danger, "when German sons of muses call woman the most miserable and miserable of all creatures, calling the female sex merely passive, and paying more and more to the view that women have no higher purpose as serving the man for the satisfaction of his sensual desires and as a machine for the reproduction of man. " [3]

In April 1893 Geheeb submitted the first theological exam to the Saxon-Weimar church authority. His liberal interpretation of the healing of the blind by Jesus Christ was met with criticism by some functionaries of the church. This experience intensified his doubts about the meaning of the path he had embarked on, leading him to turn more to medical, psychological, pedagogical and philological subjects. He continued his studies of theology alternately in Jena and Berlin, but graduated after twelve semesters in 1899 not with the second ecclesiastical exam, but with the senior teacher exam. [4]

Since his family could not finance his studies and maintenance, Geheeb worked from April 1893 to June 1894 in addition to studying as a teacher and educator in Johannes Trüpers Institute for Psychopathic Children on the Sophienhöhe near Jena and then looked after for another year and a half an epilepsy ill boy Jenaer Civil family - activities by which he and a. also with the then head of the Psychiatric University Hospital of Jena Otto Binswanger and his senior physician Theodor draw , whose patients at that time also Friedrich Nietzsche belonged, came in connection. Throughout his studies Geheeb was also involved in the fight against alcoholism; he was a member of the Guttempler and associated in the German Society for Ethical Culture and in the circle Moritz von Egidys . Particularly noteworthy for a man of his generation was Geheeb's strong interest in the concerns of the women's movement , with which he was personally associated through his friendship with Minna Cauer , Anita Augsburg , Lily Braun , Jeannette Schwerin during the 1890s.

In 1892 Geheeb made friends with Hermann Lietz (1868-1919), who after a thorough pedagogical training with Wilhelm Rein in Jena and some school experience (including one year at Cecil Reddies 1889 New School of Abbotsholme ) 1898, the first German land education home in Ilsenburg am Harz opened. In 1930 Geheeb wrote about this central meeting for his further development:

"Between Lietz and me an intimate and immensely fruitful friendship soon arose; Together we deepened in the philosophy of Fichte and developed our educational ideas. We had lived a lot in cities, spent part of our study time in Berlin, where the social misery of the big city filled us with horror; and penetrated by the conviction that not only a hundred years ago the world had been more or less corrupt, we became in the strong feelings for the antagonism between true humanity and the evils of civilization enthusiastic disciples Fichte. So we were not really concerned with the questions of school reform, which at that time gradually came into flux [...] On the contrary, man was interested in his totality; With warm interest in our dealings with August Bebel and other socialist leaders, we followed the increasingly powerful Social Democratic movement at that time, and it was mainly the unkempt partisan activity that prevented us from joining it. We were dealing with the problem of putting people's entire lives on a completely new, healthier footing, through a fundamentally new upbringing, as Spruce preached in his speeches to the German nation . " [6]

Although Lietz would have liked to have his friend Geheeb in Ilsenburg, in 1899 he first accepted a position as a teacher in the newly opened sanatorium of Carl Gmelin in Wyk auf Föhr . In 1902 he finally followed the pressure of his friend Lietz and went as a teacher to Haubinda , Lietzens second school founded in 1901. After the founding of a third country education home in castle Bieberstein (Hesse) near Fulda Geheeb 1904 took over the leadership of Haubinda, but separated in the June 1906 in the dispute of Lietz and opened in September of the same year together with Gustav Wyneken , Martin Luserke and some other employees and students of Haubinda located near the Thuringian Saalfeld free school community Wickersdorf .

Despite the success of the new school Geheeb Wickersdorf left in February 1909, as he - struck nervously due to the grueling years at Lietz and struck by an unfortunate first marriage - with his co-director Wyneken could not cope. In the search for a location for their own school Geheeb negotiated during the next months u. a. with Wolf Dohrn , the managing director of Gartenstadtgesellschaft Hellerau , about the takeover of the planned school there; He considered briefly the establishment of a country education home together with Ludwig Gurlitt (1855-1931) and asked in Bavaria without success for the concession to the guidance of a private boarding school. [8th]

Foundation of the Odenwald School - national and international notoriety (1910-1934)

Edith and Paul Geheeb, 1909

After the divorce of his first wife Helene Merck married Geheeb in October 1909 Edith Cassirer (1885-1982), whom he had met as an intern in Wickersdorf, and in April 1910 he and Edith Geheeb opened the Odenwald School in Ober-Hambach , near Heppenheim .

Through the coeducation of boys and girls practiced in her, the organization of lessons within the framework of a flexible course system and through the student participation realized in it, the Odenwald School aroused considerable interest in educated people from the very beginning. During the period of the Weimar Republic , the school, generously funded by Geheeb's father-in-law, the Charlottenburg local politician and industrialist Max Cassirer , was one of Germany's most internationally renowned reform schools. As early as 1911/12, the school was significantly expanded by the construction of four new houses, designed by Bensheim architect Heinrich Metzendorf . The houses bore the names of the school's heroes : Goethe , Fichte , Herder , Humboldt and Schiller . These names also mark Geheeb's spiritual roots.

The First World War and the first years of the Weimar Republic were also materially difficult times for the Odenwaldschule. In contrast to the majority of German intellectuals, Geheeb was opposed to the First World War from the beginning. Geheeb refused to celebrate the German victories or the birthday of the German Emperor; instead they celebrated the birthdays of the school's heroes and other important people. This indifference to the symbol of German power and this apparent lack of national enthusiasm regularly led to friction with authorities and patriotic friends during the war. In early 1918, even at short notice threatened the closure of the school.

Although Geheeb regretted the end of the independent pre-war German principalities with their individual character and their partly great cultural charisma and did not immediately find their way into the new era, he soon made friends with the Weimar Republic . In the course of the following years, as a participant in numerous conferences, he established many valuable connections for the development of the school. He was involved - albeit often with considerable reluctance because of the purely material aims of this association - in the context of the Association of Free Schools and Provincial Homes of Germany , founded in October 1924 in the Odenwald School, whose "left wing" included the Odenwald School. From 1925, he and his wife - with much more enjoyment - also regularly attended the major New Education Fellowships , held every few years, and helped build the German section of this international education movement.

Hermann Hesse , Romain Rolland , Martin Buber , Georg Kerschensteiner , Elisabeth Rotten , Adolphe Ferrière and Pierre Bovet , Peter Petersen and Eduard Spranger , Alexander Neill , Bernhard Uffrecht , Beatrice Ensor , Kuniyoshi Obara and others were among the (educational) friends and acquaintances of Geheebs Charleton W. Washburn . Among the prominent pupils of the greek Odenwaldschule belonged u. a. Klaus Mann , Geno and Felix Hartlaub , Wolfgang Hildesheimer , Wolfgang Porsche and Beate Uhse . A highlight of the international recognition of the Geheebs was a three-day visit by the Indian politician, poet and philosopher Rabindranath Tagore in early August 1930 in their at that time about 200 students counting Odenwaldschule. This visit was also an expression of the diverse relationships that the Geheebs since the early 1920s connected with India.

Emigration to Switzerland and establishment of the Ecole d'Humanité (1934-1961)

After the seizure of power by the National Socialists, the Odenwald School was attacked twice by local SA groups. There was violence against Jewish employees. Although Geheeb had called the new government in Berlin before the assembled school as a "gang of criminals" and Edith Geheeb came from a Jewish house, the Geheebs were left alone. Unlike the free school and work community of his friend Bernhard Uffrecht , which was closed by the Nazis in April 1933, limited themselves in the case of Geheebs - probably not least also out of consideration for the high international prestige of the Odenwaldschule - on it, the largest part to replace the current employee of the school by politically reliable young assessors. In addition, boys and girls, who had until then always lived together in the same houses, should be housed in separate houses from April 1933. After further clashes with the new rulers and after further interventions in their school, the Geheebs finally decided to close their school and move to Switzerland.

To avoid unpleasant repression of former and future Odenwald school graduates and the school's own Edith Geheeb's father Max Cassirer , they disguised school closure as an economic necessity by asking trusted parents to deregister their children during the summer and fall of 1933. Finally, Paul and Edith Geheeb moved with the blessing of the Berlin rulers in April 1934 with two or three employees and two dozen students to Switzerland, where they initially continued their work as a quasi bankrupt, located above Versoix near Geneva Institut Monnier, while Werner Meier and Heinrich Sachs , two former employees, on the grounds of the "old" Odenwald School opened the community of Odenwaldschule .

Although Geheeb had expressly agreed to the project - not least because of his father-in-law's economic interests - Meier and Sachs endeavored to run the new school in the spirit of the old Odenwald School, Geheeb regarded the fast-growing community of Odenwaldschule with suspicion from the start. After the closure of the school by the Americans in the summer of 1945 Sachs tried in vain to restore contact with Geheeb. Geheeb rejected any attempt to reach agreement. His ruggedness contributed significantly to the splitting of the people associated with the Odenwald School into a pro and an anti-Sachs camp, which made it difficult to work through the history of the second Odenwald School for a long time. [11]

On the occasion of the opening of his new school in April 1934, Geheeb emphasized that this was not simply about continuing the previous work. Given the political situation, it is more important than ever to strengthen the connection between people. Therefore, the new school should not become a German or French or Swiss school, but a supranational school, a "school of humanity".

"In the humble setting of our small school on Lake Geneva French and Swiss and German, hopefully soon also English culture in fruitful, mutually enriching dispute to interact, want to meet evening and morning land each other; and if we succeed in realizing what I have in mind, in a few years' time we will not be a French, a German, an English or a Swiss school, but the school of humanity, "said Geheeb on the occasion of the opening of the April 17, 1934. [12]

After initial successes, however, it became increasingly difficult from 1936/37 to materially keep the school, which was now largely attended by Jewish and half-Jewish children from Germany and children of emigrated Germans. Due to their own financial situation, more and more parents had to resort to generous school-fee reductions, and the transfer of funds from abroad became more and more difficult due to increasing restrictions where parents themselves could still have paid. These problems led to conflicts with the owner of the Institut Monnier and with the Association of Swiss private schools , in which one was anything other than enthusiastic about the prominent competitors from Germany in view of the suffering from the economic crisis own schools.

After two more or less involuntary changes of location, the Geheebs settled in October 1939 with the remains of their meanwhile impoverished school in Schwarzsee , a small village in the Friborg Alps, where they survived the war in extremely cramped conditions.

On 7 October 1941, the German Reichsanzeiger published expatriation decisions of the Reich Ministry of the Interior in the form of expatriation list 257 of the German Reich, by which Paul Geheeb and his wife were legally expatriated by the German Reich . [13]

After the number of pupils declined from around 60 in 1936 to 25 in 1939 and 7 in 1940, and the closure of the school seemed inevitable, the Geheebs began to work more closely with the then Swiss relief organizations, in particular the Swiss relief organization for emigrant children . together. At the end of the war, the number of students at the Ecole d'Humanité had risen again to around 40. Most of the new students were traumatized war victims, refugee children from France and other European countries as well as isolated children from the liberated concentration camps. Thus, the social situation of the school had changed radically compared to earlier. From an educational institution for the children of the left and liberal bourgeoisie and an avant-garde artist bohemia, it had become a reservoir for social emergencies of all kinds.

Asked after the war, whether they wanted to return to Germany to take over the management of the newly opened Odenwald School, the Geheebs refused despite their difficult situation and recommended instead, Minna Woodpecker , former emigrated to England former colleague Leonhard Nelsons , until 1933 the Landerziehungsheim Walkemühle had headed to entrust the task. Forced to give up her domicile at the Schwarzsee, the Geheebs moved again in May 1946. It was her fifth move in Switzerland. They settled in Hasliberg-Goldern in the Bernese Oberland, now the site of the Ecole d'Humanité . Conditions were also extremely difficult there at first, but Geheeb did not give up the hope of finally being able to realize his idea of ​​a school of humankind that embraced all cultural communities on a large scale. For the first time in two or three years, he found some interest within Switzerland for the first time. Geheeb and Walter Robert Corti , the founder of Pestalozzi , a children's village opened in 1948, temporarily considered cooperation and other similar plans, but ultimately lacked the determination and the money to do more than handle the difficult day-to-day life of the existing school ,

Thanks to the energy of Edith Geheeb and some newly arrived staff, the school gradually stabilized during the 1950s. [14]

Geheeb, who received an honorary doctorate from the University of Tübingen and Tagore-founded Visuna Bharati University in Shantiniketan, India on the occasion of his 90th birthday and was formally honored by the Conference of Ministers of Education of the Federal Republic of Germany, died on May 1, 1961 at his school ,

Despite the honors from around the world Geheeb after the war seemed to have made the connection to the new time with their seemingly new questions no longer. The attempt of a critically self-critical dialogue between Geheeb and the Odenwaldschule, reopened in 1946 under the direction of Minna Specht, which she had undertaken on the occasion of her 40th birthday in the summer of 1950, had basically failed, and otherwise Geheeb had more and more after the war withdrawn from international work. His ideals survived, and his language was no longer understood.

After the death Geheebs Armin and Natalie Lüthi-Peterson, supported by the now 76-year-old Edith Geheeb, took over the management of the school. Edith Geheeb, the strong woman behind Geheeb, who had cared for the economic survival of his schools for all these years, died on April 29, 1982, almost exactly 21 years after her husband.

There are some educators who have gone through Geheeb's school , carrying and carrying his principles from there to other places. Even single, directly inspired by Geheeb school foundations can be detected, especially in 1937 founded by two former employees of Geheebs Childrens Garden School in Madras, India. And of course there are the schools founded by Paul and Edith Geheeb themselves.

Geheebs educational position

General information on the movement of German rural education homes

The movement of the German rural education centers or the New Schools or Ecoles Nouvelles à la Campagne, as the same movement was called in the English and French-speaking areas, was part of the culture-critical and life-reforming protest movements with which the end of the 19th century in Europe and the United States Industrialization and the accompanying social changes. The rural education movement wanted to catch and overcome the diagnosed crisis "by means of a fundamentally new education". In this sense, Geheeb wrote in 1930:

"The youth should be educated to brave fighter crowds, who do not cowardly into the world, which is always corrupt in many ways, but have learned to swim against the stream, the fashion and convention in outer and spiritual areas and everything, Every youth, every girl, learns to live in the country education center as a responsible member of a small community, to serve as a citizen later with full dedication for the good of the nation. Thus, the new youth should work far beyond the scope of their homes for the complete transformation of human society! " [17]

Instead of urban day schools, the youth should grow up in manageable, based on a partnership of young and old rural education communities. In spite of this common starting point, one can hardly speak of a pedagogy of the land education centers, as of a uniform reform pedagogy: While physical services - long bike rides, work in the forest and field or sporting commitment in the service of society - Hermann Lietz or Kurt Hahn For example, the softer Geheeb, Martin Luserke , Max Bondy and other landowning founders put more emphasis on arts and crafts activities and a more contemplative relationship with nature. There were similar, more or less large differences in student participation and teaching organization or in the question of coeducation.

The question of coeducation

Here Geheeb was perhaps more pioneer than in any other field, because the Odenwald School was the first coeducational (boarding) school in Germany, which really deserved this name. Geheeb, who experienced a mixed (curative) boarding school with Johannes Trüper and had made further experiences with coeducation in Wyk auf Föhr in 1899/1900, felt that the separation of the sexes prevailing in the then state and non-state schools was the most profoundly unpopular reduction of natural world. While he did not understand Lietz's concerns, and coeducation in Wickersdorf, where she was part of the school program from 1906, was carried out only halfheartedly, she became the real hallmark of Odenwaldschule from 1910 onwards. Fritz Karsen writes about his impressions of the Odenwald School after a short visit in 1921:

"The personal-human environment has the greatest possible wealth. All ages from the small child, who still needs the nanny, and the child in the play age (kindergarten) up to the adult students and finally also the teacher of different ages live together here. Both sexes, among the students and among the teachers, are equal and equally committed. This means that there is an attempt to abolish the complete separation of the sexes that is customary in state schools and to let the youth live a natural community life. - The Odenwald School is undoubtedly the only school in Germany that has real coeducation. One could still think of Wickersdorf, but when comparing both institutions, a difference catches the eye. [...] As well as the coexistence of the sexes unfolded there, a certain external separation has always been preserved. The girls have their own building, the so-called "mansion," which is no longer open to the boys from a certain time of day. Wickersdorf's most accurate connoisseurs also assert that boys and girls in Wickersdorf are equal but not equally determinative, and that the boys essentially give the tone and style essentially. There are no external divorces in the Odenwald School. Boys and girls live in the individual rooms in the rooms, visit each other whenever they want, without any kind of petty supervision. [...] As much as I could observe in the short time, the relationship between the sexes is simple and natural, as in a family, and I have the impression that coeducation is the characteristic feature of the Odenwaldschule and its pupils. " [18]

Although the joint education of boys and girls after the First World War was not quite as new and exotic as it was in 1910, in the German-speaking world it was often an exception until the 1960s. (The Nazi regime even forced previous coeducational schools into separate classes.) The Odenwald School was therefore also considered the coeducation school par excellence during the Weimar Republic. [19] Geheeb was considered one of the most prominent experts in the matter until the Nazis seized power. He was convinced that the joint education of boys and girls not only has a positive effect on their individual development and their later relationship to each other. He also saw coeducation as an important means of "overcoming one-sided male culture". [20] Basically for him, in this political-cultural area, the real meaning of coeducation lay for him.

Flexible courses instead of rigid grades

Developed under the auspices of the young employee of the school Otto Erdmann during the first three years of its existence, 1914 for the first time publicly presented, special work organization of the Odenwald school was a second reason for the great interest in Geheebs work with domestic and foreign professionals already soon after the school opens. In this area too, the Odenwald School went further than in most of the reform schools of those years, including the Lietzian rural education centers and the motley crew of their successors. After having experimented with various forms of organization, a system of freely selectable, flexible courses was established in January 1913, replacing the traditional year classes. Advising adults, the children (with the exception of primary students who continue to work as a group) each chose two or three courses, which they attended each morning during a course month or a so-called course period. At the end of each course month, the work on the various courses was reported as part of a final school year . After that, a new one was chosen, whereby a course could occasionally be continued over two or more course months. The grades were confirmed by written course reports and by periodic discussions about one's own achievements, the climate in a course and the like. ä. replaced. The afternoons - that was an integral part of the new structure - were reserved for artisan and artistic activities and own projects, thus, as Geheeb wrote in his first school leaflet, "the most critical of our time ills, one-sided intellectualism and the associated unethical overestimation to counteract the technology [...] ". [22] -

While the Odenwald School returned to conventional structures after 1934 under the pressure of National Socialism, the school work in the Ecole d'Humanité still took place within the framework of this course system .

School community

Finally, the Odenwaldschule became known through Geheeb's style in dealing with the "school community". The "school community", d. H. the whole school, which lasted for one to three weeks - at least 200 children and adolescents and around 100 adults at the beginning of the 1930s - was for Geheeb the real heart of his school. In these meetings, large and small occurrences were informed and discussed, here basic questions related to the school or the world outside were rolled and decisions were taken or rejected. This gathering was basically the only structure that had helped his school in 1910 as a motor and living center on their way. All other facilities were secondary and in principle were always at disposition. "Become who you are," this sentence borrowed from Pindar, was for Geheeb "the supreme maxim of human development" and the "epitome of the highest pedagogical wisdom." The sentence was an invitation to each individual. He was also true for the school as a whole. In this sense, Geheeb wrote in 1924: "In fact, we subject the manifold forms in which the community comes to real expression and effect time and time again to a revision from the point of view of those highest maxims, so that the forms and institutions of the social life of our community are in constant flux ". Although Näf 2006 points to some major flaws in the theoretical conception of the school community - so u. a. the lack of clearly defined competences or the fact that the "staff" of the Odenwaldschule, d. H. the staff in the office, kitchen, etc. - was never counted as a matter of course to the school community [24] - it is still judged by the majority very positive. [25]

Develop instead of educate, Geheebs criticizing the conventional understanding of education and

Geheeb recognizes the value of good, d. H. human-oriented structures, but ultimately it's about more. What he wants is the change in the relationship between adults and children. Instead of submission, command and obedience, as before, this should be based on mutual respect and dialogue. For Geheeb, any attempt to educate people according to a particular plan is ultimately an illusory enterprise, during which people develop into "miserable caricatures of what they should have become according to their individual purpose." [6]

For Geheeb it is clear that real education can not be established and mediated, but that it is and must be the result of personal experiences and dedication. In this connection he likes to refer to the pithy sentences of Fichte, who wrote in 1793:

"No one is cultivated; Everyone has to cultivate themselves. All-suffering behavior is the very opposite of culture! Education happens through self-activity and aims at self-activity. " [26]

In a lecture held in Holland, Geheeb added in 1936: "I would prefer not to use the terms" education "and" educate "any more, but prefer to speak of human development. [...] What is reasonably tenable in the process of 'education' is the process of development, in which every human being is from birth to death - and hopefully far beyond that - the process of ongoing, at first unconscious, gradually becoming conscious confrontation in which each individual is with his surroundings, with people and things, with nature and culture, processing the impressions received, partly fruitful and assimilating as educational materials to build up their own individuality, but sometimes rejecting them. "- The distinction between teachers and pupils as well as the educational museum, as well as the cane, which has long since landed there. Instead, adults should live as kind of older friends with children and adolescents: "You really have to live together; The adults not only have to play, work and wander with the children and share all the interests and small and big joys and sorrows of the child, but also, depending on their maturity, allow the latter to participate in their own experiences and creations, so that more or less intimate ones personal relationships develop. "Adults should never act as superior legislators or leaders. The adolescents should "learn to walk independently," and the adult must always be aware that one's own path can never be the other's, that it can "help a young person, at best," to find his own way. These considerations lead to the requirement for Geheeb "to transform all schools into communities in which people of all ages live together naturally and freely." [27] This demand corresponds to what Hartmut von Hentig and others have since called " De-schooling ". In doing so, the development of one's own interests and the pursuit of one's own goals and projects take the place of the centrally organized mediation of a subject matter specified from above. Teachers become learning guides in the sense of Carl Rogers or Paolo Freire .

For Geheeb, the transformation of the school is part of a major social change that seems to him more and more urgent in the course of his life. He wrote in 1936: "A tremendous and complete disarmament must take place in the camp of the adults, a disarmament of the vast physical and intellectual, economic and technical superiority that the adult has so far taken for granted to the most imaginative and oppressive creature on God's corrupted earth use, so used to abusing. " [28]

This "disarmament" is not an end in itself for Geheeb. Rather, it is an important, if not the central, precondition for humanity not dying from the crises it has itself committed. In this sense, Geheeb 1939 warns: "Salvation comes from the children [...] If today's humanity understood and knew how to apply this ancient wisdom in all its greatness and depth, it would mean the salvation of countless millions of tortured people all over the world who are today, with more or less clear consciousness, at the end of their adult wisdom. Mankind is seriously ill. [...] Where do we go? there is disastrous confusion about that. Apparently insoluble political, economic, cultural problems everywhere; new catastrophes are threatening from all sides; As far as the responsible leaders, the politicians and economists, the generals and even the philosophers are still honest, they confess to be at the end of their wisdom. "So Geheeb is not just about" that our time finally gives the child, what the child is ", but also that" out of the children, out of the youth come streams of new life, which save us adults who are helpless and desperate from chaos, out of misery. " [29]


In 1999 and 2010 it became known that many students of the Odenwaldschule were exposed to sexual abuse by their teachers. Even at times Geheebs there were signs of abuse cases by educators. Parents' letters to boarding school students received in the school archive were evaluated in a 1998 dissertation. [30] It emerges from this dissertation that Paul Geheeb seems to have ignored or not taken seriously sexual assaults brought to his attention. [31]

Assessment and timeliness

Experts such as Adolphe Ferrière or Peter Petersen , the founder of Jenaplan pedagogy , described the Odenwald School as the most successful form of the German Landing Home in the 1920s, an opinion that was also approved by Fritz Karsen , a co-founder of the federal school reformer , and other educators , Thus Karsen wrote in 1921: "Here the external compulsion to learn all sorts of science, which does not awaken the forces, but in many ways almost suppressed, completely ceases. Individual investments can be awakened and developed; the absurd variety of knowledge and the unnatural change from subject to subject (five to six times in a morning) stops in favor of a meaningful concentration of the tasks to be mastered at once. In addition, the surrounding community world, to which the individual is committed, protects from boundless individualism and spiritual one-sided aberration. " [18] Even in Herder's encyclopedia of pedagogy of the present , which was more critical of Geheeb's pedagogy because of its Catholic standpoint, it said 1930: "To acknowledge G. is the confidence in the sound sense of our youth, the seriousness with which he takes them seriously, u. his courageous, consistent action, which perhaps makes his work the most comprehensive and The most daring school experiment in Germany, perhaps even in Europe, has turned into a place of pilgrimage for seekers from all over the world. " [32] In a comprehensive study of the theory and practice of child and adolescent self-determination, Johannes Martin Kamp finally arrived in 1995 concluded that the Odenwaldschule der Geheebs was rightly regarded as "the most modern, pedagogically most progressive and most radical new school in Germany". [33]

In recent years, Näf has pointed out the political significance of Geheeb's pedagogy. In his thinking, Geheeb anticipates many things that have since been taken up by the anti-pedagogy , the child rights movement or the secular liberal part of the home or non-school movement. His position of "nobody is cultivated, everyone has to cultivate himself" is not just the learning psychology of humanistic psychology developed in the 1950s. It has been confirmed for some time by natural scientists such as the Swiss pediatrician Remo H. Largo or the brain researcher Gerald Hüther . Geheeb's skepticism about the "adult wisdom" of the West and the self-evidentness and stubbornness with which it is recorded in its passing on is equally topical.

Despite their explosiveness and topicality, the theoretical statements of Geheeb, according to Näf in an overview of the corresponding secondary literature, have hardly been discussed from research to recent times. Instead, Geheeb is usually perceived only as the head of a well-known reform school and as a prominent advocate of coeducation. This means a reduction and trivialization of the local pedagogy, which does not do justice to it. [34]


• The Odenwald School 1909-1934. Texts by Paul Geheeb. Reports and discussions of employees and students. ed. by Ulrich Herrmann. Jena 2010, ISBN 978-3-941854-15-4 .
• Speech for the opening of the Odenwaldschule . 1910. (ao published in: D. Benner, H. Kemper (ed.): Source texts on the theory and history of reform pedagogy) Part two: the pedagogical movement from the turn of the century to the end of the Weimar Republic Weinheim et al., 2001, p -160)
• The Odenwaldschule (program and advertisement) . Darmstadt, spring 1911. (reprinted in: W. Flitner et al. (Ed.): The German reform pedagogy, Volume 1, Dusseldorf / Munich 1961, pp. 88-93)
• The Odenwald School. Your mental basics. In: Franz Hilker (ed.): German school experiments. Berlin 1924, p. 91-101. (Reprinted in: Eva Cassirer (ed.) 1960, 154-165)
• with Edith Geheeb: The Odenwaldschule . 1925. (prospectus, among other things reprinted in: Inge Hansen Schaberg , Bruno Schonig (Hrsg.): Land education home education. (= Reformpaedagogische school concepts., Volume 2). Baltmannsweiler 2002, P. 142-150.
• Coeducation and female education. A problem. In: The new education. 8. Jg. H. 2, Berlin, Febr. 1926, P. 107-110. (Again reprinted in: Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Bruno Schonig (ed.): Land Education Home Education. (= Reform paedagogische school concepts, Volume 2) Baltmannsweiler 2002, pp. 26-31.
• The Odenwald School in the light of the educational tasks of the present . Lecture at the adult education center in Halle a. S. on June 2, 1930. (Printed in: D. Benner, H. Kemper (ed.): Source texts on the theory and history of reform education.) Part two: The pedagogical movement from the turn of the century to the end of the Weimar Republic et al. 2001, pp. 153-157)
• Speech by Paul Geheeb to his co-workers and pupils on the occasion of the beginning of his educational work in Versoix on 17 April 1934 .(Published in: Hans Näf (ed.): A Human School The Ecole d'Humanité seen from inside Zytglogge, Oberhofen bei Thun 2009, pp. 32-37)
• Living and working with children . Lecture in Utrecht, April 18, 1936, on the occasion of the conference of the Dutch section of the New Education Fellowship on the topic How do we learn to live together? Private printing 1936. (Copy and others in the Geheeb archive of the Ecole d'Humanité)
• Unpublished manuscript in response to Hans Stricker's essay The Century of the Child - A Misery in the National Newspaper of February 16, 1939. First published in: Walter Schäfer (ed.): Paul Geheeb. Letters. Stuttgart 1970, pp. 195-197.
• Psycho-hygiene in the Odenwald School and in the Ecole d'Humanité. In: Maria Pfister-Ammende (Hrsg.): Spiritual hygiene. Research and practice. Benno Schwabe and Co. Verlag, Basel 1955, pp. 73-82.
• Letters . Edited by Walter Schäfer. Stuttgart 1970.


• Elisabeth Badry: Educational ingenuity in education for non-adaptation and commitment. Studies on founders of the early German rural education home movement: Hermann Lietz and Gustav Wyneken. Bonn 1976.
• Roland Bast: Cultural criticism and education. Claim and limits of reform education. Dortmund 1996.
• Otto Friedrich Bollnow: Geheeb, Paul Hermann Albert Heinrich. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 6, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1964, ISBN 3-428-00187-7 , p. 131 f. ( Digitized ).
• Judith Büschel: Edith Geheeb. A reform teacher between pedagogical ideal and practical school management. Berlin 2004.
• Eva Cassirer u. a. (Ed.): The idea of a school in the mirror of time. 40 years Odenwald School . Heidelberg 1950.
• Eva Cassirer u. a. (Ed.): Education for humanity. Paul Geheeb's 90th birthday. Heidelberg 1960.
• Henry R. Cassirer: And everything turned out differently ... A journalist remembers . Constance 1992.
• Theo Dietrich (ed.): The Landerziehungsheim movement. Klinkhardt's pedagogical source texts, Bad Heilbrunn 1967.
• Inge Hansen-Schaberg: Minna woodpecker. A socialist in the Landerziehungsheim movement from 1918 to 1951. Frankfurt am Main 1992.
• Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Bruno Schonig (ed.): Land education home pedagogy. (= Reform educational school concepts, volume 2).Baltmannsweiler 2002.
• Barbara Hanusa: The Religious Dimension of the Reformed Education Paul Geheebs. The question of religion in reform education. Leipzig 2006.
• Johannes-Martin Kamp: children's republics. History, Practice and Theory of Radical Self-Government in Children's and Youth Homes.Opladen 1995.
• Wolfgang Keim (ed.): Course Lessons. Justifications, models, experiences. Darmstadt 1997.
• Friedrich Koch : The departure of pedagogy. Worlds in the head: Bettelheim, Freinet, Geheeb, Korczak, Montessori, Neill, Petersen, Zulliger.Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-434-53026-6 .
• Birte Lembke-Ibold: Paul Geheeb: Community and Family at the Land Education Home. Hamburg 2010.
• Armin Lüthi, Margot Schiller (ed.): Edith Geheeb-Cassirer on her 90th birthday . Meiringen 1975.
• Martin Näf: Paul Geheeb. Its development until the founding of the Odenwaldschule . Weinheim 1998, ISBN 3-89271-730-3 .
• Martin Näf: Paul and Edith Geheeb-Cassirer. Founder of the Odenwald School and the Ecole d'Humanité. German, international and Swiss reform pedagogy 1910-1961. Weinheim 2006, ISBN 3-407-32071-X .
• Martin Näf: Reform education is not equal to reform education. Online version of Wyneken and Geheeb: Common beginnings - separate ways - contrary goals. From Wynekens Freier school community Wickersdorf to Geheebs Odenwaldschule Oberhambach and the Ecole d'Humanite in Goldern CH. In: Yearbook of the Archive of the German Youth Movement. 3/2006, Schwalbach / Ts 2007, pp. 119-146.
• Martin Näf: The liberation of the children. Paul Geheeb's educational ideas in our time. A fictitious letter. In: Hans Näf (ed.): A human school.The Ecole d'Humanite seen from the inside. Zytglogge, 2009, pp. 291-303.
• Thomas Nitschke: The Garden City Hellerau as a pedagogical province. Dresden 2003.
• Walter Schäfer: Education in an emergency. The Odenwald School 1946-1972. Frankfurt am Main 1979.
• Walter Schäfer: Paul Geheeb. Man and educator. (= From the German Land Education Homes, Issue 4). Stuttgart around 1960.
• Ulrich Schwert: Land education home movement. In: Handbook of German Reform Movements 1880 to 1933. Wuppertal 1998, p. 395-409.
• Ellen Schwitalski: Become who you are - pioneers of reform education. The Odenwald School in the German Empire and in the Weimar Republic. Bielefeld 2004.
• Dennis Shirley: The politics of progressive education. The Odenwald School in Nazi Germany. Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass.1992. (2010 under the title "Reformpädagogik in the national socialism: the Odenwald school 1910 to 1945" in German in the Juventa publishing house Weinheim appeared).
• Ehrenhard Skiera: Reform education in history and present. A critical introduction. Munich / Vienna 2003.
• Christel Stark: Idea and form of a school in the judgment of the parents. A documentary about the Odenwald School at the time of its founder and director Paul Geheeb - 1910-34 . Dissertation. Heidelberg 1998.
• Martin Wagenschein: Memories for tomorrow. Weinheim / Basel 1983.

Web links

• Literature by and about Paul Geheeb in the catalog of the German National Library
• Paul Geheeb: The Odenwaldschule in the light of the educational tasks of the present . 1930 ... geheeb.htm
• Homepage of the Ecole d'Humanite
• Sound recordings by Paul and Edith Geheeb-Cassirer, Minna Woodpecker, Beatrice Ensor and others from the environment of the Gehebs.
• Paul Geheeb in the Munzinger Archive ( article beginning free)

Single proofs

1. This refers to Otto Schmiedel (1858-1926), who went to Japan in the fall of 1887 on behalf of the General Protestant Evangelical Missionary Association for about 7 years and then until 1924 again as a teacher at the Eisenacher Gymnasium was active. See the corresponding correspondence in the Geheeb archive of the Ecole d'Humanité. and in relation to Schmiedel's work in Japan: Heyo Erke Hamer: Mission and Politics. Mainz 2002.
2. Paul Geheeb dictates Ida Harth from his life. Bavarian cell 1958; in the correspondence Geheeb / Philipp and Ida Harth in the Geheeb archive of the Ecole d'Humanité; unpublished.
3. Paul Freimut: The importance of the student corporation and the true task of the German student. Ideas for the assessment of student relations. Herm. Rifel & Cie., Hagen iW 1891, citation p. 34.
4. For Geheeb's relationship to church and religion, see next to the corresponding sections in Näf 1998 and 2006 especially Barbara Hanusa: The Religious Dimension of Reformed Education Paul Geheebs ; Leipzig 2006.
6. Paul Geheeb: The Odenwald School in the light of the educational tasks of Gegenwahrt . 1930th
7. For conflict with Wyneken see next Näf 1998 Heinrich Kupffer: Gustav Wyneken. Stuttgart 1970, p. 55 ff. As well as Martin Näf: Wyneken and Geheeb: Common beginnings - separate ways - contrary goals. In: Yearbook of the Archive of the German Youth Movement.3/2006, Schwalbach / Ts 2007, pp. 119-146, available online under the title Reformpädagogik is not equal to reform education
8. See Näf 1998 and Hellerau specifically Thomas Nitschke: The educational province. Schools and school experiments in Hellerau. In: Dresdner notebooks. 15 Jg., H. 3 1997, P. 65-72 and the .: The garden city Hellerau as a pedagogic province. Dresden 2003.
9. From the "Haubinder Judenkrach" over the Odenwaldschule. called on January 11, 2015.
10. Walter Schäfer (ed.): The Association of German rural education homes. In: Reports from the Odenwaldschule. 6th issue, 2nd edition, July 1960, pp. 70-84. Walter Schäfer (ed.): Paul Geheeb Letters. Stuttgart 1970; especially p. 119 ff.
11. See also
• Hartmut Alphei (ed.): Reading book with sources on the history of the Odenwald School in the period from 1933 to 1946. In: Archive of the Odenwaldschule. Unpublished Documentation, September 1993, unpaginated
• Hartmut Alphei: The Odenwald School in transition (1945/46). In: Reiner Lehberger (ed.): Schools of reform education after 1945.Hamburg 1995, pp. 95-116.
• Hartmut Alphei: Education in responsibility before history. The Odenwald School in National Socialism. In: Helmut Arndt, Henner Müller-Holtz (ed.): School experience - life experiences. Demand and reality of education today. Reform education on the test.Frankfurt u. a. 1996, pp. 99-118. (online) ( Memento of May 1, 2006 in the web archive )
12. Paul Geheeb: Address on the occasion of the beginning of educational work in Switzerland on April 17, 1934. In: Hans Näf (ed.): A human school. The Ecole d'Humanité seen from the inside. Zytgloggeverlag, Oberhoven am Thunersee 2009, p. 32 ff., Cit. Pp. 34-35.
13. Michael Hepp (ed.): The expatriation of German national 1933-45 after the lists published in the Reichsanzeiger . tape 1 : Lists in chronological order . de Gruyter Saur, Munich / New York / London / Paris 2010, ISBN 978-3-11-095062-5 , S. 575 (reprint of the 1985 edition).
14. See the memories of Rosemarie Varga and Armin and Natalie Lüthi-Peterson in Hans Näf (ed.): A human school. The Ecole d'Humanité seen from the inside. Zytgloggeverlag, Oberhoven am Thunersee 2009.
15. These include z. B. Otto Friedrich Bollnow and in particular Martin Wagenschein , who worked in Geheebs Odenwaldschule from 1924 to 1933 and became known in German-speaking countries since the 1950s through his work on an exemplary Socratic-genetic teaching and learning.
16. , retrieved on 18 October 2015.
17. Paul Geheeb: The Odenwald School in the light of the educational tasks of Gegenwahrt. 1930th
18. Fritz Karsen: A visit to the Odenwaldschule. In: The parents' council. 2, Berlin 1921, p. 457 ff.
19. See also u. a. the (source) texts on co-education in Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Bruno Schonig (ed.): Land Education Home Pedagogy. (= Reformpädagogische Schulkonzepte, Volume 2). Baltmannsweiler 2002; Edith Glumpler (ed.): Coeducation. Developments and perspectives. Bad Heilbrunn 1994; Inge Hansen-Schaberg: The educational reform movement and its handling of coeducation. In: E. Kleinau, C. Opitz (ed.): History of girls and women in Germany. Volume 2, Frankfurt am Main 1996, pp. 219-229; As well as Marianne Horstkemper: The Coeducation debate at the turn of the century. In: E. Kleinau, C. Opitz (ed.): History of girls and women in Germany.Volume 2, Frankfurt am Main 1996, pp. 203-218.
20. Paul Geheeb: coeducation as a way of life. First appeared in The Act . Here cited after the reprint in: Eva Cassirer (ed.): Education to humanity. Heidelberg 1960, p. 116 ff., Citation p. 122.
21. Otto Erdmann: The work organization of the Odenwald school. In: The act. 5, 1914, pp. 1284-1288, reprinted in: Wolfgang Keim (ed.): Course Lessons. Justifications, models, experiences. Darmstadt 1997, pp. 151-159.
22. Paul Geheeb: Prospectus of the Odenwald School. 3. Edition. March 1911.
23. Paul Geheeb: The Odenwald School. Your mental basics. In: Franz Hilker (ed.): German school experiments. Berlin 1924, pp. 91-101, citation on p. 97.
24. Näf 2006, p. 150 ff.
25. Cf. about Helmwart Hierdeis: The "school community" in the Odenwald School under Paul Geheeb. In: Lenz Kriss-Rettenbeck, Max Liedtke (ed.): Regional school development in the 19th and 20th centuries. Bad Heilbrunn 1984, pp. 273-283; Franz-Michael Konrad: The School Community: A Reform-Educational Model for the Promotion of Social-Moral Learning in School and Childcare. In: Educational Forum. Issue 4, 1995, pp. 181-193.
26. The sentences frequently cited by Geheeb can be found in Fichte's contribution to the correction of the judgments of the public about the French Revolution published in Gdansk in 1793.
27. Paul Geheeb: Living and working with children. Lecture given in Utrecht on April 18, 1936, pp. 6-7.
28. Paul Geheeb: Living and working with children. Lecture given in Utrecht on April 18, 1936, p. 8.
29. Paul Geheeb: Unpublished manuscript in response to Hans Stricker's essay The century of the child - a wrong way. first in the national newspaper of February 16, 1939; First published in: W. Schäfer: Paul Geheeb. Letters. Stuttgart 1970, pp. 195-197, citations 195f.
30. Christl Stark: Idea and form of a school in the judgment of the parents. Dissertation. Heidelberg University of Education, 1998.
31. Matthias Bartsch, Markus Verbeet: The roots of abuse . Spiegel Online , July 19, 2010.
32. Josef Player u. a. (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Pedagogy of the Present. Herder, Freiburg i. B. 1930, pp. 890-891.
33. Johannes-Martin Kamp: children's republics. History, Practice and Theory of Radical Self-Government in Children's and Youth Homes.Opladen 1995, p. 345.
34. Näf 2006, p. 48.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Drzewieski to Tell UNESCO Plans Tonight: Reconstruction Director Will Speak at Fogg Museum on UNESCO Role in Education
by The Harvard Crimson
March 20, 1947



Director Bernard Drzewieski of the UNESCO Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Section will speak to the College on "Educational Reconstruction as a Project of UNESCO" at 8 o'clock tonight in the Fogg Large Lecture Hall.

The meeting is being held under the auspices of the Commission for International Educational Reconstruction, and is sponsored locally by the Graduate School of Education and the International Activities Committee of the Student Council.

Drzewieski, a noted Polish educator, fled his country before the Nazi advance, but continued his educational work in exile. A former Vice-President of the Executive Committee of the Preparatory Commission of UNESCO, he has recently been elected Reconstruction and Rehabilitation director. He is currently in the United States on a brief tour.

Conference in Afternoon

Before his public appearance in the evening, he will participate in a joint faculty-student discussion meeting under the direction of the International Activities Committee of the Council and the Faculty Conference on Public Issues. This meeting will be limited to invited students and faculty members form Harvard and a dozen other colleges in the Boston area.

Discussion at the afternoon meeting will be centered on practical methods by which American colleges can assist UNESCO's work in such matters as the present Food Relief Drive and the promotion of student and faculty exchanges. His evening talk will center on UNESCO's present projects of educational reconstruction.

Previous to the afternoon session, Drzewieski will attend a luncheon sponsored by the International Activities Committee.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Bernard Drzewieski (1888-1953): A Pole engaged in educational reconstruction
by Mathias Gardet
Published on 04/03/2018





Nothing predisposed Bernard Drzewieski to work at Unesco or to take an interest in children's villages. Born on August 2, 1888 in Poland in the city of Lublin in the south-east of the country, he attended school until 1905.


A fervent patriot, he received an international education from an early age: he continued his studies at a secondary school in Odessa in 1906, then, between 1907 and 1908, he left for Switzerland at the University of Geneva and finally in 1909- 1910 at Paris Sorbonne before returning to the University of Warsaw where he graduated from secondary school in 1919, specializing in comparative literature. He worked as a teacher in schools until 1934 , then as headmaster of a college in Warsaw from 1934 to 1939; a profession that is close to his heart and that he militarily seeks to defend values, becoming president of the Polish Union of Secondary School Teachers, then Vice-President of the National Union of Teachers. This national anchorage does not prevent him from attending at this period the network of pedagogues of the International League of New Education for which he writes several articles in the magazine The new Era , becoming itself the secretary general of the Polish branch. In this context he intervenes in Paris at the International Congress of Primary Education and Popular Education organized by the National Union of Teachers and Teachers of France and colonies at the Palace of Mutuality, July 23-31, 1937.

His destiny flips like so many others with war. In September 1939, according to the plan defined by the German-Soviet pact, the German and Soviet armies invaded Poland. Drzewieski first retired to Romania where he became an education advisor for the Polish Refugee Committee, before fleeing with his wife Wanda Schoeneich in 1940 to England, joining the Władysław Raczkiewicz government in exile in London. He then holds the position of Head of the Department of Education within the Ministry of Social Affairs, although his activities are primarily strategic-military in connection with the resistance movement in Poland.

Joint Meeting of the Government of the Republic of Poland and the National Council with the participation of the President of the Republic of Poland Władysław Raczkiewicz in London. 1940 - 1943. Fot. NAC

In addition to learning English, this trip to London is crucial for the future UN career of Drzewieski. It collaborates with the Council of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME), created in 1942 and is already beginning to prepare a plan to rebuild education in devastated countries; a theme dear to Drzewieski given his past as a teacher and echoes that come to him destruction in his country.

Speech by B. Dzrewieski at the 10th Plenary Assembly of the Conference of Allied Ministers for Education in London on November 16, 1946

In particular, he is invited to give lectures on education throughout the Kingdom. On this occasion he wrote a long article in the English magazine New Era of the International League of New Education on Schools in Poland before the war.



In 1945, he was appointed Cultural Attaché of the Polish Embassy in London, which means he followed the line of his political leader, Stanisław Mikołajczyk (successor of Raczkiewicz after his death in a plane crash in 1943). who agrees to return to Poland to unite with the Polish National Liberation Committee or "Lublin Committee", the provisional governmental body formed on 23 July 1944 on the initiative of the Soviet Union. A dissident Polish government continues to exist at the same time , but the United States and Great Britain withdraw its approval on July 6, 1945, and they must evacuate the Polish Embassy from Portland Place. Most of its members, unable to return safely to communist Poland, settled in other countries.

It was therefore as a cultural attaché that Drzewieski was appointed member of the Polish delegation to the November 1945 conference which preceded the Preparatory Commission for Unesco, of which he would later become Vice-President.

@UNESCO, Ellen Wilkinson, Minister of Education of Great Britain, reading the UNESCO Constitutive Act aloud at the 1945 conference

He made a fiery speech during which he proclaimed in the name of the European continent his pride of being poor, a poverty due to the refusal to submit to the laws of fascism and made himself the apostle of the needs for educational reconstruction:

Our schools - he says - are homeless, our teachers are failing because they are hungry and exhausted. Of course, we hear people say, "Listen, we can not get money." I am a teacher myself and I know that far too many people who do not know anything about education are discussing education. We teachers do not see enough people to discuss with equal enthusiasm a salary increase, or an improvement in the social status of teachers, or how to build good schools for our children and establish a democratic education system. But, believe me, you can get money.

He cites as an example the initiative undertaken by British children who, under the auspices of the Council for Education for Global Citizenship, would have managed to gather in less than a year with their pocket money the sum of five thousand books to help their distressed counterparts on the continent.

On October 16, 1946, he received a letter from Julian Huxley, the Executive Secretary of Unesco House, located at 19 Avenue Kleber in Paris, proposing that he join the reconstruction section of the same commission; offers that it is obliged to postpone temporarily, given its role as representative of the Polish government, until the holding of the first general conference of 16 November 1946 in London which officially gives birth to Unesco.

Stamp issued on the occasion of the first UNESCO Conference in Paris in 1946

However, he agrees to start informal contacts with the various bodies involved in the reconstruction. At the general conference, Drzewieski represents both the Polish delegation and is rapporteur at the first session of the commission for the reconstitution of education, art and culture. It defines the role of Unesco in the following way: it is responsible for stimulating both the relief provided by governmental and non-governmental agencies of donor countries as well as the production of educational supplies and equipment. ; it is even envisaged that it can undertake and finance certain projects itself.

A few days later, during the meeting held in Paris at Unesco House, 19 Avenue Kleber on November 25, 1946, he was elected president of this commission and declared that from now on he would cease to represent his country to be as the representative of the Unesco Conference. He stressed the coordinating role that Unesco could play between governmental organizations and private non-governmental organizations. A discussion then begins as to whether it should be a clearing house for information and propaganda, but also for receiving and distributing money and materials for aid to devastated countries, or a mere liaison between organizations, works, universities, schools.

Unesco in the walls of the Majestic Hotel, Paris (Unesco photo)

He held this position until January 1947, when he officially joined the Unesco Secretariat as Head of the Department of Reconstruction and Rehabilitation of the Education System. On his job description, he says he speaks fluent Polish and Russian, although French, Italian and English, correctly German. He moved to Paris at 44 rue Hamelin in the 16th arrondissement, although he made many tours abroad. For the year 1947 alone, he traveled to the United States from 25 February to 8 April, to Switzerland from 5 to 16 July, to Czechoslovakia and Poland from 7 August to 11 September, and again to the United States from December 7th to 17th.


Excerpt from B. Dzrewieski's Confidential Mission Report for Poland, August 7 to September 11, 1947

These journeys consist primarily of establishing diplomatic relations: to see how governments perceive Unesco and whether a national commission exists; explain the purpose of the latter; contact schools and their administrators, groups of teachers, publishers and distributors of educational books and various national or international self-help organizations such as the International Bureau of Education, CIER (American Commission for Rebuilding) the International Children's Fund , UNRRA, UIPE, to better coordinate fundraising or school materials; or, in devastated countries, assess the needs in terms of rebuilding schools and helping teachers. It was also during these trips that he visited not only the reconstruction camps, of which he admired the phenomenon of solidarity and international understanding , but also successively the Pestalozzi children's village of Trogen, which he described as the most astonishing and inspiring. business of post-war Europe.

Drzewieski points out the difficulty of such an undertaking when it comes to bringing together Polish children and German children, but optimistically asserts that the organizers are well prepared to provoke these encounters between children of former enemy countries by showing them for example, photos of cities in ruins in their respective countries , in order to awaken in them a community of suffering and experiences. He emphasizes the need to provide the founders of the village with substantial assistance , so that they can build more houses to accommodate another two hundred children and thus become an "experimental laboratory" for the establishment of other international villages in the area. 'other countries. Following a suggestion by the organizers of Trogen who would like Unesco to have some sort of patronage, Drzewieski proposes to organize as soon as possible a conference, under the auspices of his department, bringing together the leaders of different villages of children. which , it seems , already exist in several countries such as Germany, Denmark, France, Hungary, Poland, to reflect on a general pattern for this movement.

The following month, he notes with satisfaction that such is indeed the case in his own country in which he finally has the opportunity to return. He visits the village of Otwook, where 600 children are housed in a former sanatorium near Warsaw, also financed by the Swiss Don. According to him, such a concentration of homeless children rests on the question of the educational orientation that must be offered to them and the urgency of organizing as soon as possible a debate about a possible program to be built in the spirit or not. from Trogen.

Moreover, in order to meet the first objective of coordinating the collection activities carried out by the various non-governmental organizations, Drzewieski organizes three meetings which end up giving birth, during the last one which takes place in Paris on 23-24 September 1947 at the Unesco House, at the International Temporary Council for the Rehabilitation of Education (Ticer).

Unesco Archives 361.9 A 01

If he presides over this meeting, he wishes to mark the difference between his section of reconstruction and the new private status coordinating body thus created and withdraws from the elected board of directors after having given the final chairmanship to George E. Haynes , president of the international conference of the social service. However, he continues to provide the secretariat.

If during his presentation of the work undertaken by his service in 1947, Drzewieski announced his visit to the village Pestalozzi, he insists especially on the task of educational reconstruction in the field of education that he believes must lead urgently Ticer he thus mentions the situation in Poland and Czechoslovakia, where he has seen eleven different classes operate on a rotating basis in a single room, and for this reason have been obliged to abolish classes in music, singing, physical education and drawing, or There are also courses in cellars, schools with roofs destroyed or ancient mass graves used as playgrounds for children.

At the second session of the Unesco General Conference in Mexico City on 17 November 1947, Drzewieski resumed the idea of ​​collecting precise information on successful experiences in the rehabilitation of children during the war and asked that the Provides support to international children's villages, which it says are "a new and growing initiative"; he proposes again to convene a conference of leaders of these villages to "study ways of integrating them into the official education system of the different countries" .

Just after the Mexico City conference and throughout the first half of 1948, Drzewieski became one of the masters of the convocation of children's village directors and several experts who Trogen on 4-18 July.

Arrival of the first delegates, including Bernard Drzewieski (3rd from right) in Trogen in July 1948

Bernard Drzewieski and Carleton Washburne at the Trogen Conference in July 1948

These experiences thus become for him an important axis of educational reconstruction, as shown by the introduction of this theme of children's villages through him in Ticer's resolutions and plans of action from March 1948. Although he was called to order by his supervisory ministry, who informed him in 1949 that the free leave granted by Foreign Affairs was coming to an end and that he had to return to a position in the latter, Bernard Drzewieski decided to stay in function at Unesco. In this capacity, he participates in many events organized by FICE, such as international youth camps.

Visit of Bernard Dzrewieski during the Second International Children's Camp at Château de Sanem (Luxembourg), 1950

Visit of Bernard Dzrewieski during the Second International Children's Camp at Sanem Castle in July 1950

Once his first contract is over in the rebuilding department, he is recruited as a program specialist for the Education Department on the subject of education for international understanding , and as special advisor to the section " education for living in a global community.

Bernard Drzewieski (1st on the left) at the FICE Congress in Florence in March 1952

He died at this post in Paris, August 13, 1953, his funeral taking place on Saturday, August 18 in the strictest intimacy.

Bernard Dzrewieski's grave at Père Lachaise Cemetery

His Wanda wife who has always been at his side as a "housewife" and faithful secretary without attribution, finds herself in great economic difficulty given the meager pension she receives on the death of her husband, housed first by colleagues of the latter, she finally left Paris to return to Poland in 1956 thanks to exceptional aid from Unesco.


Unesco Archives, Paris:

• Staff file of B. Dzrewieski. Box 106 PER / REC.1 / 106, 1965
• X07.83 Missions of B. Dzrewieski.
• 371.95 A 06 (494) "48". Conference on War Handicapped Children (Trogen 5-10 / VII / 48).

Archives of the Institute of Education in London

• dossier on the Polish section of the New Education Fellowship, WEF / A / II / 144


Boussion (Samuel), Gardet (Mathias), Ruchat (Martine), "Bringing everyone to Trogen: Unesco and the Promotion of an International Model of Children's Communities after World War II", Duedhal (Poul) (eds.), A History of Unesco.Global Actions and Impacts , London, Palgrave MacMillan, 2016, p. 99-115.

Unesco, The Book of Needs of Fifteen War-Devastated Countries in Education, Science and Culture , c. 1, Paris, Unesco, 1947, 111 p.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 6:35 am

International School of Geneva
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/17/19



International School of Geneva
Ecole Internationale de Genève
Grand Saconnex
Type Day School
Established 1924
Director-General Dr David Hawley
Enrollment 4500
Color(s) Navy Blue and White
Track and Field
Table Tennis

The International School of Geneva (in French: Ecole Internationale de Genève), also known as "Ecolint" or "The International School", is a private international school based in Geneva, Switzerland. Founded in 1924 in the service of the League of Nations, it is the oldest and largest operating international school in the world.[citation needed] In the mid-1960s, a group of teachers from Ecolint (Campus La Grande Boissière) created the International Schools Examinations Syndicate (ISES), which later became the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) and then the International Baccalaureate (IB).[1]

Ecolint is composed of three campuses in and around Geneva, each with its own principal working under the Director General of the Foundation of the International School of Geneva (currently Dr David Hawley) and a Governing Board elected by parents and staff with co-opted members from the UN and Swiss Government.[2] Ecolint is a bilingual school, with instruction primarily in English and French. In addition to the IB, it is a testing centre for the US college boards (SAT and ACT) and the British IGCSE (CIE).[2]

Ecolint is a member of the G20 Schools Group. In 2006, the British Guardian newspaper listed Ecolint as one of the best international schools in the world for those seeking a UK-style curriculum (a reference to Campus La Châtaigneraie).[3] According to the Good Schools Guide International, "the International School of Geneva (Ecolint) turns out well-educated, happy students who are comfortable with themselves and ready to move on to tertiary education around the world."[4]



Ecolint's (upper) secondary education (Middle and High School) is not approved as a Mittelschule/Collège/Liceo by the Swiss Federal State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI).[5]


Ecolint's various programmes are accredited by the Council of International Schools (CIS) and the Middle States Association (MSA).[citation needed] The last full accreditation was conducted in 2011, with an interim assessment in 2016.[citation needed]

Ecolint has satisfied the authorization procedures of the International Baccalaureate (IB) to offer the PYP, MYP, IBDP, and IBCP.[citation needed]

Campus La Châtaigneraie is an approved Cambridge Assessment school, offering IGCSEs.


From 1920 to 1921 the League of Nations and the International Labor Office established their headquarters in Geneva. In 1924 the International School of Geneva was founded by senior members of two international organizations, in conjunction with Adolphe Ferrière and Elisabeth Rotten.[2] Ever since its inception, the school has pursued a mission to educate for peace and to inculcate strong humanitarian values of inclusiveness, respect and inter-cultural understanding. As their website states, "Resolutely not-for-profit, mankind is the only beneficiary of our work, not corporate shareholders or private equity firms."

Ferrière housed the first class in his family's chalet. He was also technical adviser to the school from 1924 to 1926. Other prominent individuals involved in the creation of the School were Arthur Sweetser and Dr. Ludwik Rajchman. They were supported by William Rappard, Rector of the University of Geneva and Sir Arthur Salter, a senior official of the League of Nations.

The foundation continued to evolve as it acquired new campuses in the Vaud countryside at La Châtaigneraie (also called "La Chât") near Founex and at Pregny (near the European Headquarters of the United Nations). A sports hall was built in 1977 and a new primary building was built in 2011 on the La Châtaigneraie campus. In 1993 a sciences building was built and in 2002 the old "La Ferme" building, which used to house the girls' boarding lodgings, became the music building. The new multimedia library (known as Multi Media Center or MMC) was finished in September 2001, adding a third floor to what is known as the "New Building" (NB). In September 2008, the new sports hall was opened, replacing the long-defunct swimming pool, the aging "Bubble", which was inflated in 2000 to protect from harsh climates, and the old PTA offices. This was achieved with the financial help of the Hans Wilsdorf Foundation. A state of the art primary school building was opened in September 2011, bringing the total capacity of the campus to 1600 students.

The third campus, Campus des Nations has had two beginnings. The first was in the 1940s with Rigot which became Pregny-Rigot, the second in 2005 with the closure of Rigot and the opening of Saconnex. The Pregny-Rigot campus was a pre-K through year 6 school that adopted the International Baccalaureate Primary Years Program in 2002. This campus had two buildings, Rigot which was an old Swiss farmhouse just off Place des Nations housing the early childhood classes, the other a unique architectural structure up the hill from the United Nations and Red Cross which hosted the primary school and learning center. In 2005, Pregny-Rigot shifted with the opening of a new building, Saconnex, near the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization. The early childhood classes at Rigot were moved to a renovated Pregny and Rigot was returned to the city of Geneva. Years 3-6 were moved from Pregny to the new building, Saconnex, which also opened a secondary school. The Secondary school offers the IB's Middle Years Programme, the IB Diploma and the IB Career Related Programme (IBCP).


La Grande Boissière (also called "LGB") is the oldest and largest of the three. The primary school (beginning from age three) has approximately 550 students, and runs through grade 4. The middle school also has about 550 students, and runs from grade 5 to grade 8. The secondary school has around 800 students, beginning with 9th grade and going to grade 12 or 13. All three stages offer bilingual programmes. The Primary School Principal is Mr Duff Gyr, the Middle School Principal is Ms Shona Wright and the Campus and Secondary School Principal is Dr Conrad Hughes.[citation needed][6] (46°11′55″N 6°10′21″E)

La Châtaigneraie (also called "La Chât") became part of Ecolint in 1971 and is located in the Vaud countryside, near Founex, overlooking the Alps and Lake Léman. It has a primary and a secondary school, and has approximately 1600 students. The oldest building on campus is the main secondary building which was completed in 1908, when La Châtaigneraie first opened. The Primary School Principal is Mrs Jennifer Armstrong and Campus and Secondary School Principal is Mr David Woods.[citation needed] (46°20′23″N 6°10′18″E)

Campus des Nations, (also simply called "Nations") opened in 2005 and operates on two locations in and in the vicinity of Grand Saconnex. It has around 1000 students. Campus des Nations is the only campus to offer all four IB programmes (PYP, MYP, IBDP and IBCP). The Early Years (Pregny) Principal is Ms Isla Gordon, the Primary School Principal is Ms Christelle Lonez and the Secondary School Principal is Mr Jamie Williams:

• Saconnex is located near the International Labour Organization and World Health Organization headquarters. Saconnex offers classes to 800 students from years 3 through 13. All classes taught at Nations follow the IB curriculum, consisting of PYP, MYP and DP or CP.[2]( 46°13′51″N6°07′46″E)
• Pregny (in Pregny-Chambésy) is located near the United Nations and Red Cross HQ and is a school of 200 students from pre-school and kindergarten to year 2.[2]( 46°13′51″N 6°08′20″E)

Notable Alumni

• Harry Albright - Journalist and former Editor of The Friend, shared in the Michener Award in 1991.
• Anjum Anand - British Indian food writer and TV chef of Indian cuisine.
• Shadi Bartsch - Ann L. and Lawrence B. Buttenwieser Professor of Classics at the University of Chicago.
• Roger Boylan - American novelist and critic.
• Gail Carpenter - Professor, Boston University, Director of the Cognitive and Neural Systems Technology Laboratory.[7][8]
• David Chardavoyne - American attorney, professor, and author.
• Chehab Family Members - Prominent Lebanese aristocracy, descendants of the last Emirs of Lebanon, closely related to Lebanese President Fuad Chehab.
• Richard Corbett - Member of the European Parliament and Labour Party (UK) leader in the Parliament.
• Milein Cosman - German-born portrait artist, based in England; founder of the Cosman Keller Art and Music Trust.
• Joe Dassin - French-speaking American musician, famous for singing Les Champs-Élysées.
• Maya Deren (born Eleonora Derenkowska) - Cinema director, avant-garde filmmaker and actress in the 1940s and 1950s.
• Hernando de Soto Polar - Peruvian economist and his brother Álvaro de Soto, Peruvian and UN diplomat
• Michael Douglas - Oscar-winning and Emmy Award-nominated American actor and producer.
• Elizabeth Frank - Pulitzer Prize winning author.
• Harold Furth - Austrian-American physicist and former director of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.[9]
• Indira Gandhi- Former Prime Minister of India.
• Ronald M. George - Chief Justice, California Supreme Court.
• Douglas Hofstadter - Pulitzer Prize winning author, College of Arts and Sciences Distinguished Professor of Cognitive Science, Indiana University in Bloomington, Director of the Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition.
• Mieko Kamiya - Japanese psychiatrist and writer.
• Yasmin Aga Khan - Daughter of Prince Aly Khan and Rita Hayworth.
• Rami G. Khouri - Journalist, internationally syndicated columnist, director of the Issam Fares Institute at the American University of Beirut, editor-at-large of the Beirut-based Daily Star and co-laureate of the 2006 Pax Christi International Peace Award.[7][10]
• Riad al Khouri - Economist; former Dean of the Business School, Lebanese French University, Erbil; currently Director, Middle East, GeoEconomica GmbH, Amman & Geneva [11]
• Christopher Lambert - French actor famous for films such as Highlander and Greystoke.
• Lori Lieberman - singer-songwriter and first to record the song Killing Me Softly with His Song,[12] which is based on a poem she wrote. Attended the school from 1961 to 1969.
• Eric Margolis - prominent journalist.
• Olivier Perez - Swiss actor
• Bob Rae - 21st Premier of Ontario, and the first leader of the Ontario New Democratic Party (NDP) to serve in that capacity.
• Edouard van Remoortel - former conductor of the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra.[9]
• Baron Edmond Adolphe de Rothschild - financier and philanthropist.[9]
• Tatiana Santo Domingo - Colombian socialite heiress to a beer and airline empire.
• H. Norman Schwarzkopf - Retired U.S. Army General and Commander of U.S. and coalition forces for Operation Desert Storm. Attended high school for one year, in which he mastered the French language, a language that later got him a key advisor job in the South Vietnam Airborne in 1965-66.
• David Shaffer - child psychologist, attended International School of Geneva from 1953 to 1955.
• Her Majesty Queen Sirikit of Thailand (Srikit Kitiyakara).
• Albert Sjoerdsma, Jr. - Playwright; some of his plays have been produced on Broadway.[13]
• Kellogg Stelle - Professor of Physics, Theoretical Physics Group, Imperial College, London.[14]
• Maya Stojan - actress who plays the role of Tory Ellis in Castle (TV series).[15][16]
• Simone, stage name of Lisa Celeste Stroud - American singer and actress, daughter of Nina Simone, attended La Châtaigneraie campus in mid 1970s.
• Mark Trueblood - American engineer and astronomer. He is noted for early pioneering work in the development of robotic telescopes.
• Her Royal Highness Princess Galyani Vadhana Princess of Thailand and the elder sister of King Ananda Mahidol and King Bhumibol Adulyadej

Languages offered

Ecolint offers its core curriculum in English and French to varying degrees depending on the campus and section.
Ecolint also offers many other modern languages such as German, Italian, Mandarin and Spanish as part of its curriculum. Arabic, Dutch, Finnish, Japanese, Norwegian, Swahili, Swedish and many other languages are available via private tuition but can be counted towards credits or as IB programmes; this route is often chosen by students who have little other opportunity to formally study their mother tongue.


1. Elisabeth Fox (2001). "The Emergence of the International Baccalaureate as an Impetus to Curriculum Reform". In Mary Hayden and Jeff Thompson (eds.). International Education: Principles and Practice (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 141. ISBN 9780749436162.
2. "Ecolint - International School of Geneva". Retrieved 26 January 2019.
3. A guide to schools abroad that offer a British curriculum, Education Guardian, December 12, 2006
4. "Geneva international schools: education overview". 7 October 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
5. "Maturität - Maturité - Maturità" (official site) (in German, French, and Italian). Berne, Switzerland: Swiss Federal State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation, SERI. 1 March 2018. Retrieved 2018-04-22.
6. "La Grande Boissière". Ecolint | International School of Geneva. 2016-03-20. Retrieved 2019-05-08.
7. "Search Results - Ecolint Alumni Office". Retrieved 26 January 2019.
8. "Adobe Web Photo Gallery". Retrieved 26 January2019.
9. Jump up to:a b c "Souvenirs and vignettes of my Ecolint stay (1939-47) - Ecolint Alumni Office". Retrieved 26 January 2019.
10. "Rami G. Khouri". Archived from the original on 2008-09-18. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
11. "Riad al Khouri Visiting Scholar, Middle East Center Carnegie Endowment for International Peace". Retrieved 3 November 2013.
12. "Lori Lieberman". Retrieved 26 January 2019.
13. "Vital Theatre Company". Retrieved 26 January2019.
14. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-07-07. Retrieved 2007-06-12.
15. Interview in Télétop Matin magazine (Switzerland), 21 September 2014
16. "Ecolint Alumni: Maya Stojan". International School of Geneva. Retrieved 2016-09-17.

External links

• International School of Geneva
• International School of Geneva: Libraries and Library Catalogues
• Ecolint Alumni Web Community
• International Baccalaureate Organization
• Programmes Offered
• La Châtaigneraie
• La Grande Boissiere
• Campus des Nations
• Review from the Good Schools Guide International
• International School of Geneva Arts Centre
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 7:01 am

International Bureau of Education
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/17/19



International Bureau of Education
Emblem of the United Nations.svg
Abbreviation IBE
Formation 1925
Type Specialized agency
Legal status Active
Headquarters Geneva, Switzerland
Mmantsetsa Marope
Parent organization

The International Bureau of Education (IBE-UNESCO) is a UNESCO category 1 institute mandated as the Centre of Excellence in curriculum and related matters. Consistent with the declaration of the decision of the 36th session of the General Conference and to ensure a higher effectiveness and a sharper focus, the IBE has defined the scope of its work as pertaining to: curriculum, learning, teaching, and assessment. The IBE-UNESCO provides tailored technical support and expertise to all UNESCO Member States facilitating the provision and delivery of equitable, inclusive, high quality education within the framework of Education 2030 Agenda.

The current mandate and program areas of the IBE are particularly of significance and relevance to the Education 2030 and the fourth Sustainable Development Goal (SDG4) that commit UNESCO Member States to "Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and to promote lifelong learning opportunities for all". The IBE is, therefore, strategically positioned to support Member States’ efforts at the optimal achievement of SDG4, and by implication, the realization of the other 16 SDGs that depend on provision and delivery of equitable and development-relevant quality education and lifelong learning opportunities.


Pierre Bovet (left) and Jean Piaget in front of the Rousseau Institute in Geneva, 1925

The IBE was a private organization created in 1925 by prominent psychologists and pedagogues in Geneva, including Edouard Claparède, Adolphe Ferrière and Pierre Bovet, the latter of whom served as the Director of the IBE from 1925-1929. Initially, the IBE was a small non-governmental organization focused on public and private education, and scientific research. During this time, an external initiative committee consisting of notable academics, educators and thinkers of the day, including Albert Einstein, provided support to the organization.[1] In 1929, it became the first intergovernmental organization dedicated to the field of education. Accordingly, in 1929, the well known epistemologist and professor Jean Piaget was appointed director of the organization. Piaget stayed on as Director until 1967.[2][3]

Service of Intellectual Assistance to Prisoners of War (SIAP)

Preparation of books and parcels to be sent to prisoners during World War II as part of the IBE's SIAP project

In 1939, the IBE created the Service of Intellectual Assistance to Prisoners of War (SIAP), which was based on Article 39 of the Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. SIAP was initiated with the intention of sending books and providing intellectual services to prisoners during World War II. The IBE collaborated with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), who provided intelligence for the service. The project quickly grew in scale, and by the end of the war the IBE had provided over half a million books to prisoners. SIAP also organized so-called “Internment Universities” and study groups in prison camps. The service was initially funded by the Swiss Federal Council, but increased demand required the search for other funding alternatives. As a result, the IBE began to issue postal stamps in 1940, which were sold in order to raise money to fund the project.[1]

Relationship and integration with UNESCO

The IBE was an independent organization for the first 44 years of its existence. When UNESCO was created in 1945, the IBE helped develop its education programs, thus establishing the first of many collaborations with the nascent UN agency. By 1952, a permanent joint commission was established to ensure effective cooperation between the IBE and UNESCO, and they began to jointly organize the International Conference on Public Education. After 20 years of collaboration, an agreement was signed which would integrate the IBE with UNESCO. In 1969, the IBE joined UNESCO; however, it maintained intellectual and functional autonomy. The IBE is the oldest of UNESCO's category 1 institutes.[2]

Main area of development

Originally, the IBE was developed to provide support and research regarding all aspects of education; however, it gradually became more specialized. Today, under the direction of Dr. Mmantsetsa Marope, the main initiative of the IBE is to set the global standard for quality curricula, especially in the context of promoting education for development. Other areas of focus include neuroscience of learning and future competencies.[4]

The IBE works primarily in 6 programmatic areas in the context of the IBE's three main areas of focus: Curriculum, Learning, and Assessment. Those 6 programmes are: Innovation and Leadership; Current and Critical Issues; Knowledge Creation and Management; Systemic Strengthening of Quality and Development Relevance; Leadership for Global Dialogue; and, Institutional and Organizational Development.[5]

International Conference on Education (ICE)

Seventh International Conference on Public Education in 1938. The IBE organized the ICE from 1934-2008.

From 1934-2008, the IBE organized the International Conference on Public Education (later known as the International Conference on Education).[2] Jean Piaget and Deputy Director Pedro Rosselló developed the conference in order to bring together Ministers of Education with researchers and practitioners in the field of education. A total of 48 sessions took place with themes including Inclusive Education, quality education, and strengthening teachers.[6]


Since 1970, the IBE has edited the academic comparative journal Prospects, which focuses on curriculum, learning, and assessment, particularly in the domains of culture, development, economics, ethics, gender, inclusion, politics, sociology, sustainability, and education. It is published by Springer Netherlands, and available in English, Arabic, and Mandarin Chinese.[7]

The IBE Library

The IBE Library at the Palais Wilson in 1937

The IBE Library (also known as the IBE-UNESCO Documentation Centre) has serviced educators, psychologists, and researchers for nine decades. Originally located in the rue des Maraichers, it was also quartered in the historic Palais Wilson in Geneva. The Library was initiated when the IBE began transferring educational journals to the former Library of the League of Nations in the late 1930s. Notable collections of the IBE Library include the IBE Historical Textbook Collection and the IBE Historical Archives 1925-1969.[8]

The IBE Historical Textbook Collection

The IBE Historical Textbook Collection consists of over 20,000 primary and secondary education textbooks and atlases from as early as the 18th century, from over 140 countries, in over 100 languages. The collection also features a number of textbooks in rare languages, such as Guarao, Luvale, Maori, and Irish Gaelic.[8]

The IBE Historical Archives 1925-1969

The IBE Historical Archives 1925-1969 is a unique collection that traces the evolution of education from the early 20th century to the modern and creative learning methods of the 1960s. It includes photographs, letters, manuscripts, notes, etc. that belonged to the renowned Swiss educators such as Pierre Bovet and Adolphe Ferrière. Specifically, the archives provide an introspective look at the development and evolution of the New Education movement, of which many of the IBE's founders were integral contributors.[8]

See also

• Rousseau Institute
• List of international organizations based in Geneva
• Marie Butts


1. Avanzini, Guy; Darcy de Oliviera, Rosiska; Egger, Eugen; Roller, Samuel; Stock, Rodney; Suchodolski, Bogdan (1979). The International Bureau of Education in the service of educational development. UNESCO. pp. 51, 80. ISBN 978-92-3-101733-9.
2. "UNESCO International Bureau of Education. Bureau international d'éducation. Oficina Internacional de Educacion. IBE. BIE. OIE. | : History". Retrieved 2014-08-12.
3. "Historical note by Pedro Rossello" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-02-28.
4. "International Bureau of Education: Lead innovation in curriculum and learning". International Bureau of Education. 2015-05-10.
5. UNESCO-IBE (2017). Report of the Director of the International Bureau of Education to the 67th Session of the Council: Implementation of Activities for 2017. UNESCO-IBE. p. 3.
6. IBE (2010-07-23). "The International Conference on Education". International Bureau of Education.
7. "Springer Link: Prospects". Springer Link.
8. Jump up to:a b c IBE (2015). IBE In Focus: 90 years of excellence in education. UNESCO. pp. 34, 39.

External links

• Official website
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 7:09 am

Édouard Claparède
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/18/19



Édouard Claparède
Born 24 March 1873
Died 29 September 1940 (aged 67)
Residence Geneva
Nationality Switzerland
Alma mater University of Geneva
Known for Genevan School
Scientific career
Fields Neurology
Institutions Rousseau Institute, International Bureau of Education

Édouard Claparède (24 March 1873 – 29 September 1940) was a Swiss neurologist, child psychologist, and educator.


Claparède studied science and medicine, receiving in 1897 an MD from the University of Geneva, and working 1897–98 at La Salpêtrière hospital in Paris. In 1901 he founded the Archives de psychologie with his cousin, Théodore Flournoy,[1] which he edited until his death. He was based from 1904 onward at the University of Geneva, where he became director of the experimental psychology lab.[2]

Among the positions he held were: 1904 General Secretary at the Second International Congress of Psychology; 1909 General Secretary at the Sixth International Congress of Psychology; 1912 founder of the Rousseau Institute; co-founder of the International Bureau of Education (IBE) in 1925;[3] 1915-1940 professor of psychology at the University of Geneva in succession to Flournoy; Permanent Secretary at the International Congress of Psychology; Life President of the Comité de l'Association Internationale des Conferences de Psychotechnique.

Claparède was married to Hélène Spir, daughter of the Russian philosopher African Spir.

Trauma experiment

Claparède performed an influential experiment demonstrating how the trauma of a painful event could be retained even if short term memory was lost.[4] His experiment involved a woman who suffered from a form of amnesia. She had all of her old memories as well as her basic reasoning skills, but the recent past was not remembered. Claparède had greeted her every day, each time she could not remember his face at all. Then during one session of the experiment, Claparède hid a pin in his hand and reached to shake the woman's hand, pricking her. The next day, sure enough, she did not remember him. But when Claparède went to shake her hand, he found that she hesitated, recognizing a threat when her memory had been severely damaged.[5]


Claparède was briefly a member of the Zurich Freud Group marshalled by C. G. Jung,[6] but he shunned what he saw as the movement's dogmatism, and in 1909 joined Pierre Janet in differentiating the clinical concept of the subconscious from what was termed Freud's philosophical concept of the unconscious.[7] However he retained an interest in psychoanalysis in general, and in 1926 provided an introduction to the first French translation of Freud's Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis.[8]


Claparède wrote several books concerning the fields he studied including the following:[9]

• L’association des idées (1903)
• Psychologie de l’enfant et pédagogie expérimentale (1909)
• L’éducation fonctionnelle (1931)
• La genèse de l’hypothèse (1933)

See also

• Cryptamnesia
• Operant conditioning


1. R. Gregory ed., The Oxford Companion to the Mind (1987) p. 149
2. R. Gregory ed., The Oxford Companion to the Mind (1987) p. 149
3. IBE (2015). IBE In Focus: 90 years of excellence in education(PDF). UNESCO. p. 22.
4. Claperede's Pinprick Experiment
5. R. Gregory ed., The Oxford Companion to the Mind (1987) p. 21
6. Ernest Jones, The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud (1962) p. 331
7. F. McLynn, Carl Gustav Jung (1996) p. 154
8. E. Ewin ed., Freud Encyclopedia (2002) p. 471
9. Hameline, Daniel (2000). "ÉDOUARD CLAPARÈDE (1873–1940)"(PDF).

Further reading

• Eustache, F.; Desgranges, B.; Messerli, P. (1996). "Edouard Claparède and human memory". Revue neurologique. 152 (10): 602–610. PMID 9033952.
• Boake, C. (2000). "Édouard Claparède and the Auditory Verbal Learning Test". Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (Neuropsychology, Development and Cognition: Section A). 22 (2): 286–292. doi:10.1076/1380-3395(200004)22:2;1-1;FT286. PMID 10779842.

External links

• Short biography, bibliography, and links on digitized sources in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 7:22 am

Pierre Bovet, IBE Director 1925 - 1929
by International Bureau of Education
Accessed: 8/18/19




Pierre Bovet was born on 5 June 1878 in Grandchamp, Switzerland. He studied in Neuchâtel and Geneva and received his doctorate degree in 1902. From 1903-1912, Bovet taught philosophy in Neuchâtel. In 1920, he became professor of Educational sciences and experimental pedagogy at the Faculty of Arts of the University of Geneva. In 1913, he was called to Geneva by Edouard Claparède to direct the Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute.

Bovet is seen as a significant figure in the international movement of the League for the New Education. Besides numerous articles, he has published 'The fighting instinct' (1917) and 'The religious sense and child psychology' (1925). Pierre Bovet played an important role in the development of education and is one of the founders of the International Bureau of Education. He became the Director in 1925 and held this post until 1929.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 7:25 am

Pierre Bovet
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/18/19




Pierre Bovet, born on June 5, 1878 in Grandchamp (commune of Boudry) and died in Boudry on December 2, 1965, was a Swiss psychologist and pedagogue.

Swiss psychologist, educationalist and Esperantist
-- Pierre Bovet, by Wikidata

Bovet took up the translation of Scouting for Boys and other Scout books, to make it the first edition in French.[1]


1. Site about the history of Scouting in the canton of Vaud Archived 2007-07-03 at the Wayback Machine (in French)
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Aug 18, 2019 7:34 am

Pierre Bovet, JJ Rousseau Institute Director
by José Paz Rodrigues
September 19, 2018



In some countries of the world, every 21st of September is celebrated the International Day of Peace . But the school day for peace and nonviolence takes place in many places on January 30, which coincides with the day dedicated to the great Indian pacifist Gandhi. In any case, it never hurts to carry out educational, playful and artistic activities in schools for students to acquire feelings and attitudes pacifist, respect, solidarity and tolerance with all cultures and philosophical ideas that exist in the world and that respect people's life. One of the educators and psychologists who worked most for peace and to develop in his class pacifist sentiments was the Swiss Pierre Bovet. For this reason, my testimony 66 of the series dedicated to great personalities of the world that all schoolchildren should appreciate and know, is dedicated to this Genoese psychopedagogue.


Born in Neuchâtel, he will study at the universities of Lausanne and Geneva, as well as at the Neuchâtel Academy and the Paris School of Higher Studies. The teaching activity will be practiced in various institutions of secondary and higher education, until teaching the subjects of Educational Sciences and Experimental Pedagogy at the University of Geneva. Director of the JJ Rousseau Institute from 1912 to 1924. Founder in 1925 and first director of the Bureau International d'Education (BIE) . He will also participate as a collaborator and editor in other international psychological and pedagogical publications. It was one of the synthesizers and diffusers of the broad theoretical and methodological movement of educational reform, called Escola Nova. To him is due to the use in 1917, for the first time, of the term active school , in place of school of work , because the latter was limited. The expression calls for a mainly methodological change in the educational relationship, based on the new psychological, biological and pedagogical knowledge provided by the Social Sciences, regarding the development of childhood.


For twenty years, from 1912 to 1924, Pierre Bovet directed the Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute of Geneva, which had been created by him and Claparède in the first of the years cited. It is a center for pedagogical and psychological studies founded in the city of Geneva and which since 1948 has been the “Institute for the Sciences of Education” at the University of Geneva. His work in the field of education has been considerable, thanks mainly to the management of his collaborators, including, in addition to those mentioned above, Adolfo Ferrière, Alice Descoeudres, Minna Andemars, Jean Piaget, Robert Döttrens, Pedro Roselló, Ernst Schneider, Mercedes Rodrigo, Juan Jaen, Jose Peinado, Jose Mallart and Helena Antipoff.

Pierre BOVET Photo with other educators from Escola Nova

Under the inspiration of the Institute were published the Archives of Psychology and the Collection of Current Affairs in Pedagogy and Psychology . In addition the Institute founded the "House of the Little" (Maison des petits), experimental school that had a great repercussion in the educational field. From the Institute was born the present Bureau International d'Education (BIE), composed of representatives of the governments of many countries and collaborating with UNESCO. Its director after Pierre Bovet was Jean Piaget, and his publications are of great informative value. Unfortunately, because of its semi-official character, the Bureau cannot at the same time do a critical job of education in the world. The Bulletin of the Bureau is a very interesting publication, besides the magazine L'Educateur . In 1932 Pierre Bovet published in Neuchâtel an important book about the JJ Rousseau Institute, which he had directed under the title of L'Institut JJ Rousseau. Vingt ans de vie . A kind of chronicle of the twenties that this entity operated under Bovet's direction.

Pierre BOVET Teachers of the Inst JJ Rousseau


The JJ Rousseau Institute.
Producer: University of Geneva. Duration: 7 minutes.
View at:

The New School and History of the New School.
Duration: 12 minutes.
See at: ... moderna-de -freinet-y-la-institutional-pedagogy

New or Active School.
Duration: 7 minutes.
View at:

History of the New School.
Duration: 12 minutes.
View at:

Traditional school vs New school.
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The Modern and Popular School: From C. Freinet to the present day.
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Traditional School vs New School (Complete).
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Pierre Bovet was born in Gramchamp (Neuchâtel, Switzerland) on June 5, 1878, and died on December 2, 1965 in Boudry. He was the son of Felix Bovet (1824-1903), a cultured and religious man, theologian, friend of Ferdinand Buisson, director of the Neuchâtel library, and professor of French and Hebrew literature at the city's university. Bovet's mother was the director of educational institutions, and in particular of an orphanage in Gramchamp. Pierre married Amy Babut in his day, with whom he had a son named Daniel Bovet, who even won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1957. Between 1896 and 1898 Bovet studied at the Neuchâtel Academy to later graduate in philosophy at Lausanne University (1901). He then left for Paris and joined the School of Higher Studies where he remained between 1902 and 1903. From this last year until 1912 he worked as a professor of philosophy at the Gymnasium and Faculty of Letters of the University of Neuchâtel. At this moment, he leaves for Geneva, where, together with Adolfo Ferrière and Eduardo Claparède, he founded the JJ Rousseau Institute of Educational Sciences, where he worked as director until 1924, a work for which he is mainly remembered. However, Bovet reconciled his position at the head of this Institute with his study and later degree in Letters at the University of Lausanne (1918-1920), his exercise as a professor at the University of Basel, his position as editor of Intermediaires des Educateurs (1912). ) and L'Educateur (1921), a large number of collaborations in L'Année Psychologique and, since 1920, the professor of Educational Sciences and Experimental Pedagogy in Geneva.

Pierre BOVET Photo with Piaget

In 1925, he left the direction of the Rousseau Institute, which he never completely disbanded, to found and direct the Bureau International d'Education (BIE). His two most relevant works: The Combative Instinct (1918) and The Religious Feeling and Child Psychology (1925) mark a whole line of work, with interesting contributions to psychopedagogy and, therefore, the revision of theories and intellectual positions. Bovet's are of vital importance. At his time, in 1906, he even founded a pacifist diary under the name of L'Essor. He cultivated different international relationships and was a close friend of Robindronath Tagore, a topic we will discuss later, and Gandhi, whom he met personally on his 1938 visit to India.

It is very interesting the Universal History of Pedagogy, which came to write and was edited in different languages. His doctoral dissertation was entitled The God of Plato following the Chronology of the Dialogues (1902). Founding in 1925, with Ferrière and Claparède, the Bureau International d'Education (BIE), it was he who was most concerned that this newly created institution should focus especially on promoting peace. In such a way that, under the slogan “ Peace for School” , the first congress of the organization will take place in Prague in 1927. At the same time will attend more than 400 people and the main language will be Esperanto. In the months prior to the congress, Bovet's secretary Henriette Ith-Wille, who was also an Esperantist, will teach this language to future congressional attendees to facilitate communication and the organization of different activities, communications and lectures. More than 20 educational and pacifist organizations participated in this congress. This international conference continues to be held today every two years, co-organized with UNESCO.


Bovet will be a major promoter of the international auxiliary language called Esperanto. Through this language you will make many international contacts. Thus, through the intermediary of Edmundo Privat, who was Quaker and Esperanto, he will meet Gandhi during a trip to India in 1938, as we mentioned before. Bovet was also a friend of Jaume Grau Casas de Catalunya, to whom he will send help on several occasions in the form of food, books and money, when the Catalan Esperantist and poet was in the French concentration camps. In his diaries at that time, Jaume Grau explains that without the help of Esperanto friends like Bovet, he would not have survived the harsh conditions of these roosters. Thanks to Esperanto, Bovet will also be friends with Spanish Republican master Sidónio Pintado.

Pierre BOVET Teachers of the Inst JJ Rousseau

Most of Bovet's writings will be published in French and will reach the Spanish state through the Spanish translation by Domingo Barnés. Some of his books have also been published in Esperanto. Bovet became very close friends with Piaget. Which spoke of Bovet pointing out that he was one of the people he had the most influence on. He will also be friends with pacifist Pierre Céresole. As for his conception of pedagogy, his innovative methods were not based on a concrete textbook, but motivated his students to search for information in dictionaries, encyclopedias and other resources and materials. With the aim and desire to foster children's abilities, in addition to Esperanto, will also interest them by the scout movement. For this reason, he even translated into French the book Exploring for boys of Baden-Powell, and in 1921 will publish the book entitled The genius of Baden-Powell, making known in the French-speaking world the main figure of the scout movement.


One of his main books is the title of The Fighting Instinct , of which there is a Spanish edition published in 2007 on the occasion of the Centenary of the Board of Studies (JAE, 1907-2007). The Castilian translation, entitled El luchador instinct , done in 1922, was the work of Domingo Barnés. The book addresses precisely the problem of moral character formation and pacifist education, aspects that Bovet studies from the instinctive nature of the struggle in children. It also draws the attention of educators about the need to know the manifestations of this struggling instinct to channel it, divert it or sublimate it, putting it at the service of the Good. In the prologue of this 2nd edition of the work, Federico Mayor Zaragoza, who was Director-General of UNESCO, who runs the Foundation for a Culture of Peace, rebuts the idea that there are trends or proclivities for violence in the human condition, but rescues Bovet's idea of ​​the need for education to create a culture of peace. Other of his works were The JJ Rousseau Institute. Twenty years of life (1912-1924) , Esperanto in school (1922), Religious sentiment and child psychology (1925), published in Castilian by Psyche de B. Ares, Freedom in education (1975), O Power of the School of Yesterday and Today (1950), Models of the Mind (1996) and The Originality of Baden-Powell (1956). The Italian Idana Pescioli published in 1979 a book dedicated to Bovet entitled The Child and the Delivery: The Moral-Educational Problem in Pierre Bovet's Investigation .

It should also be noted that Pierre Bovet was a close friend of Robindronath Tagore, and an admirer of his work and pedagogical thinking. Meeting Tagore traveling in Europe in 1921, Bovet invited him to speak at the JJ Rousseau Institute. This conference, under the title My pedagogy, and truly beautiful, was delivered on May 4 of that year. Thanks to Bovet, who collected it in notes, it was later published in its entirety on May 11, 1921 in L'Educateur magazine by Bovet himself.


The Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute is a school of educational sciences founded in Geneva in 1912 by Édouard Claparède and Pierre Bovet and, in its original idea, aims to contribute to the training of educators and the dissemination of new pedagogies , based on the child's scientific knowledge. Rousseau was chosen as patron of the Institute for his defense of the need to know the child to better educate him.

This Institute was founded in 1912 by Édouard Claparède (1873-1940) together with Pierre Bovet . The Institute brought together some of the great names of psychology and psychopedagogy of the time, including Adolphe Ferrière , Ernst Schneider , Jean Piaget and Helena Antipoff . The main objective of the Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute was to train educators, in addition to conducting research in the areas of psychology and pedagogy. In addition, it aimed to encourage educational reforms based on the New School movement. Very quickly it became one of the leading centers of reference for the New School movement in Europe. He was involved in criticizing traditional education and advocating for changes in education that would make school more humane, more meaningful, and interesting to children. Knowledge of human psychology was central to the humanist and pacifist project of the Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute. Eduardo Claparède was one of the leading scholars to propose the deepening of psychological studies, especially from the functionalist point of view.

Linked from 1929-1930 to the Faculty of Letters of the University of Geneva under the name of Institut des sciences de l'éducation , it was later elevated to the status of autonomous university school in 1969 and thereafter under the direct supervision of the Rectorate of the University of Geneva. University of Geneva . From 1975 , it became the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of the University of Geneva.

The icon used as a symbol of the Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute shows a child standing next to a seated adult with a book in his hand. The child points out a window, as actively seeking to know nature through concrete experience. The similar height of the figures suggests a more egalitarian relationship between teacher and student. In other words, the ideal of basing education on nature observation while cultivating a camaraderie relationship with the child is present in the emblem chosen for the Institute. In this emblem is summarized, iconographically, the philosophy of the Institute: to cultivate the scientific spirit through the observation of nature, with the help of the accumulated knowledge in the books; see the child as an equal with the ability to take the initiative and eventually direct the adult; let the child be the guide of the educational process and warmly guide the child in the process of investigation and discovery.

It is noteworthy that already in the twenties the Institute became a basic reference for the progressive educational movements that emerged around the world. Under the coordination of E. Claparède and Pierre Bovet , research was conducted within a functional conception of education and the active child model was advocated. Jean Piaget was its director between 1925-1932.


We see the documentaries mentioned above, and then we developed a Forum Cinema to analyze their form (film language) and background (content and message), as well as their contents.

We have organized in our schools a monographic sample exhibition dedicated to Pierre Bovet, his life, his work, his ideas, his thoughts and his important work directing the JJ Rousseau Institute of Geneva, as well as the Bureau International de ´Education (BIE). In addition, in addition to various works of students, we will include drawings, photos, murals, phrases, texts, legends, books and monographs. The sample will also include a special section dedicated to the JJ Rousseau Institute, its activities and publications.

We will develop a Forum Book involving all students and teachers. The most suitable book to read is titled The Fighting Instinct . They could also be worth Freedom in education (1975) or The power of school yesterday and today (1950).

José Paz Rodrigues: He is Professor of EGB in excess, graduated in Pedagogy and graduated from the Complutense University of Madrid. He obtained his PhD at UNED with Thesis Tagore, pioneer of the new education. He was professor at the Faculty of Education of Ourense (University of Vigo); teacher-tutor of Pedagogy and Didactics at the UNED Associated Center of Ponte Vedra from 1973-74 to the present day; deputy director and later director of the Normal School of Ourense. It carried on a wide range of educational activities and pedagogical renewal. He has published numerous articles on educational themes and Tagore in The Teaching, We, The People's Notebooks, School Life, Educational Community, Fathers and Teachers, BILE, Agalia, Teaching Themes, The Visva Bharati Quarterly, Jignasa (in Bengali). .. Articles on cultural theme, namely about India, in the Galician Language Portal, Our Land, La Región, El Correo Gallego, The Sieve, Weekly Minho, Faro de Vigo, Teima, New Times, Bisbarra, Ourense ... Didactic Units on the Magus, Human Rights, Peace, The Bold, The Trees, The Mayans, The Woman, The Environment; Rodrigues Lapa, Celso Emílio Ferreiro, Carvalho Calero, São Bernardo and Cister in Ourense, as coordinator of the Permanent Curriculum Design Seminar of the MRPGs ASPGP and APJEGP.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Rousseau Institute
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/18/19

Rousseau Institute (also known as Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute or Academy of Geneva; French: Académie De Genève or Institut Jean-Jacques Rousseau) is a private school in Geneva, Switzerland. It is considered the first institute of educational sciences founded in Europe when it opened and gained international influence as the originator of the scientific approach to education phenomena.[1]


In 1912, Édouard Claparède (1873–1940) created an institute to turn educational theory into a science. This new institution was given the name of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, to whom Claparède attributed the "Copernican reversal" of putting the child, rather than the teacher, at the centre of the educational process (cf. Thomas Kuhn's notion of paradigm shift).

The founder of the Institute appointed as director Pierre Bovet (1878–1965), whom he considered to be both a philosophical and rigorously scientific person. Between 1921 and 1925, Jean Piaget (1896–1980) took over the reins, soon conferring on Genevan experimental psychology its far-reaching renown. According to Piaget, he came to organize his research once he arrived at the Institute in such a way that he "gain objectively and inductively knowledge about the elementary structures of intelligence" and use it develop a psychological and biological epistemology.[2] It was to Piaget's dismay, however, that his theoretical work was not as successful. He was the director of the Institute until he died in 1980.[3]

In his eulogy at Claparède's funeral, Bovet highlighted his friend's profound attachment for Geneva and the broad international influence rapidly attained by the institute he had created; his capacity, in short, to be at the same time of a local land and of the greater world.

Connection with the International Bureau of Education (IBE)

In 1925, the governing board of the Rousseau Institute voted to establish the International Bureau of Education (IBE), which is now a category 1 institute of UNESCO. The governing board received a $5000 grant from the Rockefeller Foundation to found the IBE. Rousseau Institute director Pierre Bovet became the first director of the IBE, and fellow governing board members Adolphe Ferriere and Elisabeth Rotten were appointed as his deputies.[4]


1. Lawn, Martin (2008). An Atlantic Crossing?: The Work of the International Examination Inquiry, its Researchers, Methods and Influence. Symposium Books Ltd. p. 84. ISBN 9781873927267.
2. Ash, Mitchell G.; Woodward, William R. (1989). Psychology in Twentieth-Century Thought and Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 283. ISBN 0521325234.
3. Blocher, Donald (2000). The Evolution of Counseling Psychology. Berlin: Springer Publishing Company. p. 181. ISBN 0826113486.
4. IBE (2015). IBE In Focus: 90 years of excellence in education (PDF). UNESCO. p. 22.
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