Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Sep 03, 2019 8:35 am

Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/3/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


TIBETAN REFUGEES

Sir. – Recent devastating events in Tibet caused over 15,000 Tibetans to cross the perilous Himalayas into India. It may be a long time before these unfortunate people can safely return to their overrun country. Our own consciences should allow us neither to neglect nor forget them.

The Indian Government has manfully coped with this addition to its own problems at home. In this country we are bound in honour to help relieve needs of the Tibetan refugees, because from 1905 to 1947 there was a special relationship between Tibet and the United Kingdom – a relationship handed on to the new India.

On balance we think it wisest to concentrate chiefly on collecting money which can be used for the benefit of the refugees, not least in the purchase of necessary antibiotics and other medicaments. The Tibet Society has opened a Tibet Relief Fund for which we now appeal in the hope of a generous response. Donations should be sent to the address below or direct to the National Bank Ltd. (Belgravia Branch), 21 Grosvenor Gardens, S.W.I.

Yours faithfully,

... Harmsworth ... The Tibet Relief Fund, 58 Eccleston Square, S.W. I., Letter to the Times, July 28, 1959.

-- Tibet Society, by tibetsociety.com




Image
The Right Honourable The Viscount Rothermere PC
Lord Rothermere
President of the Air Council
In office
26 November 1917 – 1918
Preceded by The Viscount Cowdray
Succeeded by The Lord Weir
Personal details
Born 26 April 1868
London
Died 26 November 1940 (aged 72)
Bermuda
Nationality British
Spouse(s) Mary Lilian Share
Children
Harold Alfred Vyvyan St. George Harmsworth (1894–1918)
Vere Sidney Tudor Harmsworth (1895–1916)
Esmond Cecil Harmsworth (1898–1978)
Parents
Alfred Harmsworth (barrister)
Geraldine Mary Maffett
Relatives
Cecil Harmsworth (brother)
Alfred Harmsworth (brother)
Leicester Harmsworth (brother)
Occupation Publisher

Harold Sidney Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere, PC (26 April 1868 – 26 November 1940) was a leading British newspaper proprietor, owner of Associated Newspapers Ltd. He is known in particular, with his brother Alfred Harmsworth, the later Viscount Northcliffe, for the development of the Daily Mail and Daily Mirror. He was a pioneer of popular journalism.

During the 1930s, he was known to be a supporter of Nazi Germany, purportedly having become convinced that the National Socialist Party would help restore the German monarchy. He cultivated contacts to promote British support for Germany.

Background

Harmsworth was the son of Alfred Harmsworth, a barrister, and the brother of Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe, Cecil Harmsworth, 1st Baron Harmsworth, Sir Leicester Harmsworth, 1st Baronet, and Sir Hildebrand Harmsworth, 1st Baronet.

Alfred Harmsworth (3 July 1837 – 16 July 1889) was a British barrister, and the father of several of the United Kingdom's leading newspaper proprietors, five of whom were honoured with hereditary titles – two viscounts, one baron and two baronets. Another son designed the iconic bulbous Perrier mineral water bottle.[1]

Alfred Harmsworth was born on 3 July 1837 in Marylebone, London, the only son of Charles Harmsworth and Hannah Carter.[2]

On 21 September 1864, at St Stephen's Church, Dublin, he married Geraldine Mary Maffett (1838–1925), one of the eight children of William Maffett, a land agent in County Down, and his second wife Margaret Finlayson. They lived in Dublin until 1867, when they moved to London, initially to St John's Wood, and later to Hampstead when the family's fortunes declined, in part due to Harmsworth's "fondness for alcohol", although they were always short of money, in part due to having so many children.[2][3]

The Harmsworths had 14 children, three of whom died in infancy:[4]

Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe (1865–1922)
Geraldine Adelaide Hamilton Harmsworth (1866–1945), married Sir Lucas White King, mother of Cecil Harmsworth King[4]
Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere (1868–1940)
Cecil Harmsworth, 1st Baron Harmsworth (1869–1948)
Sir Leicester Harmsworth, 1st Baronet (1870–1937)
Sir Hildebrand Harmsworth, 1st Baronet (1872–1929)
Violet Grace Harmsworth (1873–1961), married William Wild[3]
Charles Harmsworth (1874–1942)
St John Harmsworth (1876–1933)
Maud Harmsworth (1877–187?)
Christabel Rose Harmsworth (1880–1967)
Vyvyan George Harmsworth (1881–1957)
Muriel Harmsworth (1882–188?)
Harry Stanley Giffard Harmsworth (1885–188?)

Christabel was named after the suffragette Christabel Pankhurst, as Harmsworth was an ardent believer in women's suffrage.[3] In 1939, there were five Lady Harmsworths.[4]

Harmsworth was a barrister of the Middle Temple and one of the standing counsel for the Great Northern Railway.[5] He has been described as an "unsuccessful" barrister.[6] It was not until after his death that the press empire created by his sons "really took off".[4] Harmsworth was the founder of the Sylvan Debating Club, for which he served as Secretary for a number of years.

Harmsworth died on 16 July 1889.[2] He is buried at East Finchley Cemetery. He died of cirrhosis of the liver, as did his son Hildebrand, both in their 50s.[3]

-- Alfred Harmsworth (Barrister), by Wikipedia


Harmsworth was educated at St Marylebone Grammar School, which he left to become a clerk for the Board of Trade. In 1888 he joined his elder brother Alfred's newspaper company, and in 1894 he and his brother purchased the Evening News for £25,000.

Career

In 1896 Harmsworth and his brother Alfred together founded the Daily Mail, and subsequently also launched the Daily Mirror. In 1910 Harmsworth bought the Glasgow Record and Mail, and in 1915 the Sunday Pictorial. By 1921 he was owner of the Daily Mirror, Sunday Pictorial, Glasgow Daily Record, Evening News, and Sunday Mail, and shared ownership of the company Associated Newspapers with his brother Alfred, who had been made Viscount Northcliffe in 1918. His greatest success came with the Daily Mirror, which had a circulation of three million by 1922.

When his elder brother died in 1922 without an heir, Harmsworth acquired his controlling interest in Associated Newspapers for £1.6 million, and the next year bought the Hulton newspaper chain, which gave him control of three national morning newspapers, three national Sunday newspapers, two London evening papers, four provincial daily newspapers, and three provincial Sunday newspapers.

In 1926 Harmsworth sold his magazine concern, Amalgamated Newspapers, and moved into the field of provincial newspaper publishing. In 1928 he founded Northcliffe Newspapers Ltd and announced that he intended to launch a chain of evening newspapers in the main provincial cities. There then ensued the so-called "newspaper war" of 1928–29, which culminated in Harmsworth establishing new evening papers in Bristol and Derby, and gaining a controlling interest in Cardiff's newspapers. By the end of 1929 his empire consisted of fourteen daily and Sunday newspapers, with a substantial holding in another three.


Rothermere's descendants continue to control the Daily Mail and General Trust.

Rothermere was an active member of the Sylvan Debating Club, founded by his father. He first attended as a visitor in 1882 and later served as Treasurer.

Viscount Rothermere used the Daily Mail to heavily campaign for a free trade area covering the British Empire, coupled with high tariffs from elsewhere. He even founded his own party to promote this objective, the United Empire Party.[1]

Honours

Harmsworth was created a baronet, of Horsey in the County of Norfolk, in 1910.[2] He was raised to the peerage as Baron Rothermere, of Hempstead in the County of Kent, in 1914.[3]

Public life

Rothermere served as President of the Air Council in the government of David Lloyd George for a time during World War I, and was made Viscount Rothermere, of Hampstead in the County of Kent, in 1919.[4] In 1921, he founded the Anti-Waste League to combat what he saw as excessive government spending.

In 1930, Rothermere purchased the freehold of the old site of the Bethlem Hospital in Southwark. He donated it to the London County Council to be made into a public open space, to be known as the Geraldine Mary Harmsworth Park in memory of his mother,[5] for the benefit of the "splendid struggling mothers of Southwark".[6]

Revision of the post-World War I treaties

Rothermere strongly supported revision of the Treaty of Trianon in favour of Hungary. On 21 June 1927, he published an editorial in the Daily Mail, entitled "Hungary's Place in the Sun", in which he supported a detailed plan to restore to Hungary large pieces of territory it lost at the end of the First World War. This boldly pro-Hungarian stance was greeted with ecstatic gratitude in Hungary.

Image
Transatlantic flight of Endresz György with Justice for Hungary – 15th of July, 1931

Many in England were caught off-guard by Rothermere's impassioned endorsement of the Hungarian cause; it was rumoured that the press baron had been convinced to support it by the charms of a Hungarian seductress, later identified as the Austrian Stephanie von Hohenlohe, a princess by marriage. Rothermere's son Esmond was received with royal pomp during a visit to Budapest, and some political actors in Hungary later went so far as to inquire about Rothermere's interest in being placed on the Hungarian throne. Rothermere later insisted he did not invite these overtures, and that he quietly deflected them. His private correspondence indicates otherwise.[7] He purchased estates in Hungary in case Britain should fall to a Soviet invasion. There is a memorial to Rothermere in Budapest.

Appeasement

Image
The "Hurrah for the Blackshirts" article by Lord Rothermere
"Blackshirts proclaim a fact which politicians dating from pre-war days will never face -- that the new age requires new methods and new men."


In the 1930s Rothermere used his newspapers to try to influence British politics, particularly reflecting his strong support of the appeasement of Nazi Germany, and is considered "perhaps the most influential single propagandist for fascism between the wars" by historian Martin Pugh.[8] For a time in 1934, the Rothermere papers championed the British Union of Fascists (BUF), and were again the only major papers to do so. On 15 January 1934 the Daily Mail published a Rothermere-written editorial entitled "Hurrah for the Blackshirts", praising Oswald Mosley for his "sound, commonsense, Conservative doctrine".[9]

Rothermere visited and corresponded with Hitler on multiple occasions, such as after the 1930 elections that saw the Nazi Party dramatically increase its seats in the Reichstag, which Rothermere welcomed.[10] In gratitude for this foreign support, Hitler granted Rothermere an exclusive interview.[10] On another occasion, On 1 October 1938, Rothermere sent Hitler a telegram in support of Germany's invasion of the Sudetenland, and expressing the hope that "Adolf the Great" would become a popular figure in Britain.[11]

He was also aware of the military threat from the resurgent Germany. He warned J. C. C. Davidson, then Chairman of the Conservative Party, about it. In the 1930s Rothermere fought for increased defence spending by Britain. He wrote about it in his 1939 book My Fight to Rearm Britain.[10] His interest in the Fascist movement seems to have been chiefly as a bulwark against Bolshevism, while apparently being blind to some of the movement's dangers.[10]

Numerous secret British MI5 papers related to the war years were declassified and released in 2005. They show that Rothermere wrote to Adolf Hitler in 1939 congratulating him for the annexation of Czechoslovakia, and encouraging him to invade Romania. He described Hitler's work as "great and superhuman".[11][12]

The MI5 papers also show that at the time Rothermere was paying an annual retainer of £5,000 per year to Stephanie von Hohenlohe, suspected by the French, British and Americans of being a German spy, as he wanted her to bring him closer to Hitler's inner circle. Rothermere also encouraged her to promote Germany to her circle of influential English contacts. She was known as "London's leading Nazi hostess". The secret services had been monitoring her since her arrival in Britain in the 1920s and regarded her as "an extremely dangerous person".
As the Second World War loomed, Rothermere stopped the payments and their relationship deteriorated into threats and lawsuits, which she lost.[11] [12]

He appears in Dennis Wheatley's 1934 novel Black August about an attempted Communist takeover of Britain, under the name of "Lord Badgerlake" (mere is another word for lake). Badgerlake supports a paramilitary force called the "Greyshirts", which backs the government during the uprising. Any connection with Fascism is disclaimed, and the novel does not end with a dictatorship. (In fact, the new Government repeals the Defence of the Realm Act to guarantee the liberty of the subject.)

Interest in aviation

In 1934, Rothermere ordered a Mercury-engined version of the Bristol Type 135 cabin monoplane for his own use as part of a campaign to popularise commercial aviation. First flying in 1935, the Bristol Type 142 caused great interest in Air Ministry circles because its top speed of 307 mph was higher than that of any Royal Air Force fighter in service. Lord Rothermere presented the aircraft (named "Britain First") to the nation for evaluation as a bomber, and in early 1936 the modified design was taken into production as the Blenheim Mk. I.

Grand Falls, Newfoundland

In 1904, on behalf of his elder brother Alfred, Harmsworth and Mayson Beeton, son of Isabella Beeton, the famed author of Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management, travelled to Newfoundland to search for a supply of timber and to look for a site to build and operate a pulp and paper mill. While searching along the Exploits River they came across Grand Falls, named by John Cartwright in 1768. After the two British men purchased the land, they had a company town built to support the lumber workers. It developed as Grand Falls-Windsor.[13][14]

Family

Lord Rothermere married Lilian Share, daughter of George Wade Share, on 4 July 1893. They had three sons, the two elder of whom were killed in the First World War:

• Captain The Hon. Harold Alfred Vyvyan St George Harmsworth MC (born 2 August 1894), died of wounds on 12 February 1918, aged 23, after serving with the 2nd Bn. Irish Guards in France. A week after his death he was awarded the Military Cross. He is buried in Hampstead Cemetery.[15]
• Lieutenant The Hon. Vere Sidney Tudor Harmsworth (born 25 September 1895), killed in action during the first day of the Battle of the Ancre on 13 November 1916, aged 21, while serving with the Hawke Bn. 63rd (Royal Naval) Division, Royal Naval Reserve. He is buried in the Ancre British Cemetery at Beaumont-Hamel on the Somme.[16]
Esmond Harmsworth, 2nd Viscount Rothermere (29 May 1898 – 12 July 1978)

Viscountess Rothermere, as she had become, died on 16 March 1937.[17]

Bibliography

• Rothermere, Harold S.H., Warnings and Predictions, Eyre & Spottiswoode Ltd., 1939
• Viscount Rothermere, My Fight to Rearm Britain, London: Eyre & Spottiswoode Ltd., 1939

References

1. Twitter, Dominic Ponsford (16 February 2017). "Hitler, the Daily Mail and how Lord Rothermere showed he has learned the lessons of history". Press Gazette. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
2. "No. 28400". The London Gazette. 26 July 1910. p. 5392.
3. "No. 28797". The London Gazette. 30 January 1914. p. 810.
4. "No. 31427". The London Gazette. 1 July 1919. p. 8221.
5. "Bethlem Hospital (Imperial War Museum) | Survey of London: volume 25 (pp. 76-80)". British-history.ac.uk. 22 June 2003. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
6. "Geraldine Mary Harmsworth Park - Southwark Council". Southwark.gov.uk. 17 February 2010. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
7. Romsics, Ignác (2004), "Hungary's Place in the Sun: A British Newspaper Article and its Hungarian Repercussions", in Péter, László (ed.), British-Hungarian Relations since 1848, London: University of London. School of Slavonic and East European Studies, pp. 195–204
8. Pugh, Martin (2006). Hurrah For The Blackshirts!: Fascists and Fascism in Britain Between the Wars. Random House. p. 41. ISBN 1844130878.
9. Sassoon, Donald (2006). Culture of the Europeans: From 1800 to the Present. HarperCollins. p. 1062.
10. Philpot, Robert. "How Britain's Nazi-loving press baron made the case for Hitler". http://www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
11. Norton-Taylor, Richard (1 April 2005). "Months before war, Rothermere said Hitler's work was superhuman". the Guardian. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
12. Tweedie, Neil and Day, Peter. "When Rothermere urged Hitler to invade Romania", The Daily Telegraph (1 March 2005)
13. Address to Kiwanis and Rotary Club of Grand Falls-Windsor Archived 11 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
14. "Grand Falls-Windsor Heritage Society". Grandfallswindsor.com. Archived from the original on 5 July 2007. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
15. "Casualty". http://www.cwgc.org.
16. "Casualty". http://www.cwgc.org.
17. "Person Page". thepeerage.com.
• Ignác Romsics. Hungary’s Place in the Sun. A British Newspaper Article and its Hungarian Repercussions.
http://www.ssees.ucl.ac.uk/confhung/romsics.pdf

Further reading

• Boyce, D. George (May 2008). "Harmsworth, Harold Sidney, first Viscount Rothermere (1868–1940)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 12 December 2008.

External links

• Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Viscount Rothermere
• Page at Spartacus
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Harmsworth family.
• Newspaper clippings about Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Sep 03, 2019 9:04 am

Esmond Harmsworth, 2nd Viscount Rothermere
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/3/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


TIBETAN REFUGEES

Sir. – Recent devastating events in Tibet caused over 15,000 Tibetans to cross the perilous Himalayas into India. It may be a long time before these unfortunate people can safely return to their overrun country. Our own consciences should allow us neither to neglect nor forget them.

The Indian Government has manfully coped with this addition to its own problems at home. In this country we are bound in honour to help relieve needs of the Tibetan refugees, because from 1905 to 1947 there was a special relationship between Tibet and the United Kingdom – a relationship handed on to the new India.

On balance we think it wisest to concentrate chiefly on collecting money which can be used for the benefit of the refugees, not least in the purchase of necessary antibiotics and other medicaments. The Tibet Society has opened a Tibet Relief Fund for which we now appeal in the hope of a generous response. Donations should be sent to the address below or direct to the National Bank Ltd. (Belgravia Branch), 21 Grosvenor Gardens, S.W.I.

Yours faithfully,

... Harmsworth ... The Tibet Relief Fund, 58 Eccleston Square, S.W. I., Letter to the Times, July 28, 1959.

-- Tibet Society, by tibetsociety.com




Image
The Right Honourable
The Viscount Rothermere
Born 29 May 1898
Died 12 July 1978 (aged 80)
Nationality British
Education Eton College
Occupation Politician, Publisher
Title 2nd Viscount Rothermere
Spouse(s) Margaret Hunam Redhead (1920–1938)
Ann Geraldine Mary Charteris (1945–1952)
Mary Murchison (1966–1978)
Children With Margaret:
* Lorna Peggy Vyvyan Harmsworth (1920–2014)
* Esmé Mary Gabrielle Harmsworth (1922–2011)
* Vere Harmsworth, 3rd Viscount Rothermere (1925–1998)
With Mary:
* Esmond Vyvyan Harmsworth (b. 1967)
Parent(s) Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere & Mary Lilian Share

Esmond Cecil Harmsworth, 2nd Viscount Rothermere (29 May 1898 – 12 July 1978) was a British Conservative politician and press magnate.

Image

Early life

Harmsworth was the son of Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere, who had founded the Daily Mail in partnership with his brother Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe. He was educated at Eton College and commissioned into the Royal Marine Artillery in World War I. His two older brothers were both killed in action. Esmond served as Aide-de-Camp to the Prime Minister at the Paris Peace Conference. In 1919, he was elected as a Unionist Member of Parliament for the Isle of Thanet, one of the youngest MPs ever. He served until 1929.

Press career

Image

After 1922, the Daily Mail and General Trust company was created to control the newspapers that Lord Rothermere retained after Lord Northcliffe's death (The Times, for example, was sold). As his father dabbled in association with the Nazis and a flirtation with becoming King of Hungary, it fell to Harmsworth to manage the businesses. His father retired as chairman of Associated Newspapers in 1932 at the age of 64, and Harmsworth took over that role.[1] He served as chairman until 1971, after which he assumed the titles of President and Director of Group Finance, and chairman of Daily Mail & General Trust Ltd, the parent company, from 1938 until his death.

Harmsworth ran the businesses with sufficient skill that they remain firmly under family control today, majority ownership being voted by his grandson, the 4th Viscount Rothermere, and a significant minority by Vyvyan Harmsworth, the 2nd Viscount's son by his third marriage. Never as flamboyant as his father or his son, he wielded his power on Fleet Street alongside other press lords whose families have all relinquished control of their holdings today.

Harmsworth also had a significant impact on the development of Memorial University of Newfoundland (the family has had a long-standing interest in Newfoundland, having built a paper mill in Grand Falls before the outbreak of the First World War). The University's first residence in Paton College, known as Rothermere House, is named after the Viscount. Harmsworth was the first Chancellor of Memorial University and the benefactor who provided the funds to construct Rothermere House.

Personal life

Image

Lord Rothermere succeeded his father in the viscountcy in 1940. He married three times and had four children:.[2] His first marriage was to Margaret Hunam Redhead, daughter of William Lancelot Redhead, on 12 January 1920 (divorced 1938). They had three children:

• Hon. Lorna Peggy Vyvyan Harmsworth (1920–2014) who married Neill Cooper-Key MP (1907–1981), and had issue two sons and two daughters; her younger and only surviving son was the first husband of Lady Mary-Gaye Curzon-Howe (mother by later marriages of actress Isabella Calthorpe and society beauty Cressida Bonas).
• Hon. Esmé Mary Gabrielle Harmsworth (1922–2011) who married Rowland Baring, 3rd Earl of Cromer, and had issue two sons and one daughter by her first marriage.
• Vere Harmsworth, 3rd Viscount Rothermere (1925–1998)

He married, secondly, Ann Geraldine Mary Charteris, widow of Shane Edward Robert O'Neill, 3rd Baron O'Neill, who was killed in action in 1944 in Italy. She also was the daughter of Captain Hon. Guy Lawrence Charteris and Frances Lucy Tennant and granddaughter of Hugo Richard Charteris, 11th Earl of Wemyss, on 28 June 1945 (divorced 1952). Ann Charteris then married the writer Ian Fleming in 1952.[3]

Lord Rothermere married, thirdly, Mary Murchison, daughter of Kenneth Murchison, on 28 March 1966, by whom he had a second son:[4]

• Hon. Esmond Vyvyan Harmsworth (b. 1967), who moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1993.[4]
Lord Rothermere died on 12 July 1978, aged 80, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Vere Harmsworth.

References

1. "A Newspaper Magnate Railway Service Fire Alarms Banditry in East and West". The Times of India. 21 October 1932.
2. http://thepeerage.com/p1377.htm#i13767
3. Jennet Conant, The Irregulars: Roald Dahl and the British Spy Ring in Wartime Washington, 2008. p. 332
4. "Viscountess Rothermere, Socialite, Is Dead". The New York Times. 7 April 1993. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
• Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs

External links

• Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Viscount Rothermere
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Sep 03, 2019 9:29 am

Peter Fleming (writer)
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/3/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


TIBETAN REFUGEES

Sir. – Recent devastating events in Tibet caused over 15,000 Tibetans to cross the perilous Himalayas into India. It may be a long time before these unfortunate people can safely return to their overrun country. Our own consciences should allow us neither to neglect nor forget them.

The Indian Government has manfully coped with this addition to its own problems at home. In this country we are bound in honour to help relieve needs of the Tibetan refugees, because from 1905 to 1947 there was a special relationship between Tibet and the United Kingdom – a relationship handed on to the new India.

On balance we think it wisest to concentrate chiefly on collecting money which can be used for the benefit of the refugees, not least in the purchase of necessary antibiotics and other medicaments. The Tibet Society has opened a Tibet Relief Fund for which we now appeal in the hope of a generous response. Donations should be sent to the address below or direct to the National Bank Ltd. (Belgravia Branch), 21 Grosvenor Gardens, S.W.I.

Yours faithfully,

... Peter Fleming ... The Tibet Relief Fund, 58 Eccleston Square, S.W. I., Letter to the Times, July 28, 1959.

-- Tibet Society, by tibetsociety.com


Image
Peter Fleming
OBE DL
Peter Fleming.jpg
Born Robert Peter Fleming
31 May 1907
Mayfair, London, England
Died 18 August 1971 (aged 64)
Black Mount, Argyllshire, Scotland[1]
Resting place St. Bartholomew's Churchyard, Nettlebed
Education Eton College
Alma mater Christ Church, Oxford
Occupation Writer, adventurer
Spouse(s) Celia Johnson (m. 1935)
Children 3
Relatives Ian Fleming (brother)

Lieutenant Colonel Robert Peter Fleming OBE DL (31 May 1907 – 18 August 1971) was a British adventurer, soldier and travel writer.[2] He was the elder brother of Ian Fleming,[3] creator of James Bond.

Lord Rothermere succeeded his father in the viscountcy in 1940. He married three times and had four children ....

He married, secondly, Ann Geraldine Mary Charteris, widow of Shane Edward Robert O'Neill, 3rd Baron O'Neill, who was killed in action in 1944 in Italy. She also was the daughter of Captain Hon. Guy Lawrence Charteris and Frances Lucy Tennant and granddaughter of Hugo Richard Charteris, 11th Earl of Wemyss, on 28 June 1945 (divorced 1952). Ann Charteris then married the writer Ian Fleming in 1952.[3]

-- Esmond Harmsworth, 2nd Viscount Rothermere, by Wikipedia


Early life

Peter Fleming was one of four sons of the barrister and MP Valentine Fleming, who was killed in action in 1917, having served as MP for Henley from 1910. Fleming was educated at Eton, where he edited the Eton College Chronicle. The Peter Fleming Owl (the English meaning of "Strix", the name under which he later wrote for The Spectator) is still awarded every year to the best contributor to the Chronicle.[4] He went on from Eton to Christ Church, Oxford, and graduated with a first-class degree in English.

Fleming was a member of the Bullingdon Club during his time at Oxford.[5] On 10 December 1935 he married the actress Celia Johnson (1908–1982), best known for her roles in the films Brief Encounter and The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie.[6]

Travels

In Brazil


In April 1932 Fleming replied to an advertisement in the personal columns of The Times: "Exploring and sporting expedition, under experienced guidance, leaving England June to explore rivers central Brazil, if possible ascertain fate Colonel Percy Fawcett; abundant game, big and small; exceptional fishing; room two more guns; highest references expected and given." He then joined the expedition, organised by Robert Churchward, to São Paulo, then overland to the rivers Araguaia and Tapirapé, heading towards the last-known position of the Fawcett expedition.

During the inward journey the expedition was riven by increasing disagreements as to its objectives and plans, centred particularly on its local leader, whom Fleming disguised as "Major Pingle" when he wrote about the expedition. Fleming and Roger Pettiward (a school and university friend recruited onto the expedition as a result of a chance encounter with Fleming) led a breakaway group.

This group continued for several days up the Tapirapé to São Domingo, from where Fleming, Pettiward, Neville Priestley and one of the Brazilians hired by the expedition set out to find evidence of Fawcett's fate on their own. After acquiring two Tapirapé guides the party began a march to the area where Fawcett was reported to have last been seen. They made slow progress for several days, losing the Indian guides and Neville to foot infection, before admitting defeat.

The expedition's return journey was made down the River Araguaia to Belém. It became a closely fought race between Fleming's party and "Major Pingle", the prize being to be the first to report home, and thus to gain the upper hand in the battles over blame and finances that were to come. Fleming's party narrowly won. The expedition returned to England in November 1932.

Fleming's book about the expedition, Brazilian Adventure, has sold well ever since it was first published in 1933, and is still in print.

In Asia

Fleming travelled from Moscow to Peking via the Caucasus, the Caspian, Samarkand, Tashkent, the Turksib Railway and the Trans-Siberian Railway to Peking as a special correspondent of The Times. His experiences were written up in One's Company (1934). He then went overland in company of Ella Maillart from China via Tunganistan to India on a journey written up in News from Tartary (1936). These two books were combined as Travels in Tartary: One's Company and News from Tartary (1941). All three volumes were published by Jonathan Cape.

According to Nicolas Clifford, for Fleming China “had the aspect of a comic opera land whose quirks and oddities became grist for the writer, rather than deserving any respect or sympathy in themselves”.[7] In One's Company, for example, Fleming reports that Beijing was “lacking in charm”, Harbin was a city of “no easily definable character”. Changchun was “entirely characterless”, and Shenyang was “non-descript and suburban". However, Fleming also provides insights into Manchukuo, the Japanese puppet state in Manchuria, which helped contemporary readers to understand Chinese resentment and resistance, and the aftermath of the Kumul Rebellion. In the course of these travels Fleming met and interviewed many prominent figures in Central Asia and China, including the Chinese Muslim General Ma Hushan, the Chinese Muslim Taoyin of Kashgar, Ma Shaowu, and Pu Yi.

Of Travels in Tartary, Owen Lattimore remarked that Fleming, who "passes for an easy-going amateur, is in fact an inspired amateur whose quick appreciation, especially of people, and original turn of phrase, echoing P. G. Wodehouse in only a very distant and cultured way, have created a unique kind of travel book". Lattimore added that it "is only in the political news from Tartary that there is a disappointment," as, in his view, Fleming offers "a simplified explanation, in terms of Red intrigue and Bolshevik villains, which does not make sense."[8]

Stuart Stevens retraced Peter Fleming's route and wrote his own travel book.[9]

World War II

Just before war was declared, Peter Fleming, then a reserve officer in the Grenadier Guards, was recruited by the War Office research section investigating the potential of irregular warfare (MIR). His initial task was to develop ideas to assist the Chinese guerrillas fighting the Japanese. He served in the Norwegian campaign with the prototype commando units – Independent Companies – but in May 1940 he was tasked with research into the potential use of the new Local Defence Volunteers (later the Home Guard) as guerrilla troops. His ideas were first incorporated into General Thorne's XII Corps Observation Unit, forerunner of the GHQ Auxiliary Units. Fleming recruited his brother, Richard, then serving in the Faroe Islands, to provide a core of Lovat Scout instructors to his teams of LDV volunteers.

When Colin Gubbins was appointed to head the new Auxiliary Units, he incorporated many of Peter's ideas, which aimed to create secret commando teams of Home Guard in the coastal districts most liable to the risk of invasion. Their role was to launch sabotage raids on the flanks and rear of any invading army, in support of regular troops, but they were never intended as a post-occupation 'resistance' force, having a life expectancy of only two weeks.[10]

Peter Fleming later served in Greece, but his principal service, from 1942 to the end of the war, was as head of D Division,[11] in charge of military deception operations in Southeast Asia, based in New Delhi, India.

Fleming was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 1945 Birthday Honours and in 1948 he was awarded the Order of the Cloud and Banner with Special Rosette by the Republic of China.[12][13]

Later life

After the war Peter Fleming retired to squiredom at Nettlebed, Oxfordshire and was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant for Oxfordshire on 31 July 1970.[14]

Death

Fleming died on 18 August 1971 from a heart attack while on a shooting expedition near Glen Coe in Scotland. His body was buried in Nettlebed Churchyard, where a stained glass window was later installed in the church dedicated to his memory.[15] The gravestone reads:

He travelled widely in far places;
Wrote, and was widely read.
Soldiered, saw some of danger's faces,
Came home to Nettlebed.

The squire lies here, his journeys ended –
Dust, and a name on a stone –
Content, amid the lands he tended,
To keep this rendezvous alone.


Family

After the death of his brother Ian, Peter Fleming served on the board of Glidrose, Ltd, the company purchased by Ian to hold the literary rights to his professional writing, particularly the James Bond novels and short stories. Peter also tried to become a substitute father for Ian's surviving son, Caspar, who overdosed on narcotics in his twenties.

Peter and Celia Fleming remained married until his death in 1971. He was survived by their three children:

• Nicholas Peter Val Fleming (1939–1995), writer and squire of Nettlebed. He deposited Peter Fleming's papers for public access at the University of Reading in 1975. These include several unpublished works, as well as the manuscripts of several of his books that are now out of print. Nichol Fleming's partner for many years was the merchant banker Christopher Roxburghe Balfour (b. 1941), brother of Neil Balfour, second husband (1969–78) of Princess Jelizaveta of Yugoslavia. Nettlebed is now jointly owned by his sisters.
• (Roberta) Katherine Fleming (b. 1946), writer and publisher, is now Kate Grimond, wife of Johnny Grimond, foreign editor of The Economist. Johnny is the elder surviving son of the late British Liberal Party leader Jo Grimond, and grandson maternally of Violet Bonham-Carter, herself daughter of the British Prime Minister H. H. Asquith. Kate and John have three children, Jessie (a journalist), Rose (an actress turned organic foods entrepreneur) and Georgia (a journalist at The Economist online).
• Lucy Fleming (born 1947), now Lucy Williams, is an actress. In the 1970s she starred as Jenny in the BBC's apocalyptic fiction series Survivors. She was first married in 1971 to Joseph "Joe" Laycock (d. 1980), son of a family friend Robert Laycock and his wife Angela Dudley Ward, and was on honeymoon at the time of her father's sudden death in Argyllshire. Lucy and Joe had two sons and a daughter, Flora. Flora and her father, Joe, were drowned in a boating accident in 1980. At the time of their deaths Lucy and Joe were separated on good terms. Lucy later married the actor and writer Simon Williams. Her sons are Diggory and Robert Laycock.

Peter Fleming was the godfather of the British author and journalist Duff Hart-Davis, who wrote Peter Fleming: A Biography (published by Jonathan Cape in 1974). Duff's father Rupert Hart-Davis, a publisher, was good friends with Peter, who gave him a home on the Nettlebed estate for many years and gave financial backing to his publishing ventures.

Legacy

The Peter Fleming Award, worth £9,000, is given by the Royal Geographical Society for a "research project that seeks to advance geographical science".[16]
Fleming's book about the British military expedition to Tibet in 1903 to 1904 is credited in the Chinese film Red River Valley (1997).

Quotations

• "São Paulo is like Reading, only much farther away." – Brazilian Adventure
• "Public opinion in England is sharply divided on the subject of Russia. On the one hand you have the crusty majority, who believe it to be a hell on earth; on the other you have the half-baked minority who believe it to be a terrestrial paradise in the making. Both cling to their opinions with the tenacity, respectively, of the die-hard and the fanatic. Both are hopelessly wrong." – One's Company
• The recorded history of Chinese civilisation covers a period of four thousand years.
The Population of China is estimated at 450 million.
China is larger than Europe.
The author of this book is twenty-six years old.
He has spent, altogether, about seven months in China.
He does not speak Chinese.
Preface, One's Company

Fleming's works

Fleming was a special correspondent for The Times and often wrote under the pen-name "Strix" (Latin for "screech owl") an essayist for The Spectator.

Non-fiction

• 1933 Brazilian Adventure – Exploring the Brazilian jungle in search of the lost Colonel Percy Fawcett.
• 1934 One's Company: A Journey to China in 1933 – Travels through the USSR, Manchuria and China. Later reissued as half of Travels in Tartary.
• 1936 News from Tartary: A Journey from Peking to Kashmir – Journey from Peking to Srinagar via Sinkiang. He was accompanied on this journey by Ella Maillart (Kini). Later reissued as half of Travels in Tartary.
• 1952 A Forgotten Journey – A diary Fleming kept during a journey through Russia and Manchuria in 1934. Reprinted as To Peking: A Forgotten Journey from Moscow to Manchuria (2009, ISBN 978-1-84511-996-6)
1953 Introduction to Seven Years in Tibet by Heinrich Harrer published by Rupert Hart-Davis, London[17]
1955 Tibetan Marches – A translation from French of Caravane vers Bouddha by André Migot
• 1956 My Aunt's Rhinoceros: And Other Reflections — A collection of essays written (as "Strix") for The Spectator.
• 1957 Invasion 1940 — an account of the planned Nazi invasion of Britain and British anti-invasion preparations of the Second World War. Published in the United States as Operation Sea Lion
• 1957 With the Guards to Mexico: And Other Excursions — A collection of essays written for The Spectator.
• 1958 The Gower Street Poltergeist — A collection of essays written for The Spectator.
• 1959 The Siege at Peking — An account of the Boxer Rebellion and the European-led siege of the Imperial capital.
1961 Bayonets to Lhasa: The First Full Account of the British Invasion of Tibet in 1904
• 1961 Goodbye to the Bombay Bowler — A collection of essays written for The Spectator as 'Strix'.
• 1963 The Fate of Admiral Kolchak — a study of the White Army leader Admiral Kolchak who attempted to save the Imperial Russian family at Ekaterinburg in 1918.
Fiction[edit]
Books
• 1940 The Flying Visit – A humorous novel about an unintended visit to Britain by Adolf Hitler. Illustrated by David Low.
• 1942 A Story to Tell: And Other Tales — A collection of short stories.
• 1952 The Sixth Column: A Singular Tale of Our Times
• The Sett (unfinished, unpublished)[18]
Short fiction
• "The Kill" (1931)[19]
• "Felipe" (1937)[20]
References[edit]
Notes
1. "Peter Fleming, 64, a British writer". New York Times. Special to the New York Times. 20 August 1971. p. 36.
2. "Obituary Colonel Peter Fleming, Author and explorer". The Times, 20 August 1971 p14 column F.
3. "Authors". webcache.googleusercontent.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
4. "Captain Peter Fleming". http://www.coleshillhouse.com. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
5. "Expedition Fleming: Writer, Traveller, Soldier, Spy". Artistic Licence Renewed. 5 October 2017. Retrieved 13 May2019.
6. "The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography". 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31289.
7. Nicholas J. Clifford. "A Truthful Impression of the Country": British and American Travel Writing in China, 1880–1949.Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001. pp. 132–33
8. Pacific Affairs 9.4 (1936): 605–606 [1]
9. Stuart Stevens (1988). Night Train to Turkistan: Modern Adventures Along China's Ancient Silk Road. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 978-0-87113-190-4.
10. Atkin, Malcolm (2015). Fighting Nazi Occupation: british Resistance 1939 – 1945. Barnsley: Pen and Sword. pp. 24, 26, 31, –2, 56–61, 66, 72, 76–7, 87, 172, 181. ISBN 978-1-47383-377-7.
11. "Captain Peter Fleming". coleshillhouse.com. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
12. "No. 37119". The London Gazette (Supplement). 8 June 1945. p. 2943.
13. "No. 38288". The London Gazette (Supplement). 11 May 1948. p. 2921.
14. "No. 45170". The London Gazette. 11 August 1970. p. 8872.
15. 'Grave of Capt. Peter Fleming', film of Fleming's grave, published on Youtube, 26 July 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h2Xsy3YgqlY
16. "Peter Fleming Award". Rgs.org. Archived from the original on 25 January 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
17. Harrer, Heinrich. "Seven Years in Tibet". The Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 29 June 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
18. Hart-Davis 1974, p. 316.
19. "Bibliography: The Kill". Internet Speculative Fiction Database.
20. "Bibliography: Felipe". Internet Speculative Fiction Database.
Cited works
• Hart-Davis, Duff (1974). Peter Fleming: A Biography. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-01028-X.
• Clifford, Nicholas J (2001). A Truthful Impression of the Country: British and American Travel Writing in China, 1880–1949. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472111973.
• La Gazette des Français du Paraguay – Peter Fleming Un Aventurier au Brésil – Peter Fleming Un Aventurero en Brasil – Numéro 5 Année 1, Asuncion Paraguay.
External links[edit]
• A short biography provided by the University of Reading
• A profile stressing his travel writing
• Peter Fleming genealogy. Retrieved 21 September 2007.
• Peter Fleming's daughters
• Source for the death date of his son Nicholas Fleming at ianfleming.org
• Peter Fleming's rook rifle – a correspondence
• Peter Fleming on IMDb
• Bleiler, Everett (1948). The Checklist of Fantastic Literature. Chicago: Shasta Publishers.
• Podcast talk and live blogging at the Shanghai International Book Festival with Paul French's talk on Peter Fleming
• Paul French, "Peter Fleming" [2]
• "Archival material relating to Peter Fleming". UK National Archives.
• Portraits of (Robert) Peter Fleming at the National Portrait Gallery, London
• Translated Penguin Book – at Penguin First Editions reference site of early first edition Penguin Books.
I.B. Tauris published Fleming's To Peking: A Forgotten Journey from Moscow to Manchuria (out of stock 4/18), News from Tartary and Bayonets to Lhasa: The British Invasion of Tibet; also its A Dance with the Dragon: The Vanished World of Peking's Foreign Colony by Julia Boyd includes Fleming among its subjects.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Fri Sep 06, 2019 6:34 am

Robert Ford, who has died aged 90, was a career diplomat who, as a young RAF radio officer in Tibet, was imprisoned and brainwashed by the Chinese.
by The Telegraph
6:32PM BST 06 Oct 2013

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Image
Robert Ford with the Dalai Lama

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Robert Ford after his arrest

Image
Robert Ford being greeted by his mother on his return to Britain in 1955

Captured on the Tibet-China border in 1950 by the invading Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Ford was imprisoned for nearly five years, also undergoing “re-education” and “thought reform”. He was one of only 86 westerners to reach Lhasa between the British invasion of 1904 and 1950, when China annexed Tibet. After retiring from the Foreign Office he took up the cause of the Tibetan people, by whom he was revered as “Phodo Kusho” – “Ford Esquire”. He became a close friend of the Dalai Lama .

Robert Webster Ford was born on March 27 1923 at Burton-on-Trent, the only child of an engine mechanic. Educated at Alleyne’s Grammar School, Uttoxeter, in 1939 he took an RAF exam to become a radio technician and was accepted by RAF Cranwell. Eighteen months later he was sent to the No 1 Polish Flying Training School at RAF Hucknall, near Nottingham, and in 1943 was posted to India, helping to establish the No 1 Indian Air Force Signals School near Lahore. The unit relocated to an airbase at Secunderabad, where Ford was promoted to sergeant.

But Ford wanted more action; and when in June 1945 he had the opportunity to go to Lhasa, capital of Tibet, he grasped it. His role was to relieve, for three months, the resident radio operator at the British Mission, Reginald Fox.


Ford later recalled his first impressions of Tibet, “travelling by pony up a hot and sticky valley to above the leech line at Karponang with thinning vegetation. The undulating, craggy path was a botanist’s dream. Crossing the Natu La pass from Sikkim at 14,300ft, I got a view into Tibet. At the top the sky cleared and I saw the incredibly beautiful peak of Chomolhari towering to 24,000ft ... [I] did not realise then that it was the start of a lifelong attachment to Tibet.”

Fox left within 48 hours, and Ford had only a brief introduction as to how everything worked. Coded diplomatic reports were transmitted twice daily to the External Affairs Department in India. At the time there were only two transmitting radios in the entire country, the other being at the Chinese Mission. Immediately the world war ended, however, “ham” radio was again permitted, and a radio contact with Tibet was the most sought-after in the world: “We were our own licensing authority and I gave myself the call sign AC4RF (AC4 was the radio country code for Tibet, RF was for Robert Ford).”

During his sojourn in the capital, Ford attended many social functions thrown by the Tibetans, who loved picnics, partying, drinking, singing and dancing; a keen dancer himself, Ford introduced the samba to Lhasa. Then, after three months, Fox came back and Ford went to the Political Mission in Sikkim, where he served as radio operator until 1947. During this period he encountered Dmitri Nedbailof, a White Russian who had fled across Siberia to China and thence walked to India, where he had been interned during the war. He had escaped to Tibet but was turned back to Sikkim. Later, under the patronage of a Tibetan noble, he would be employed in Lhasa for his electrical skills, where Ford would meet him again.

When India achieved Independence, Ford was invited by the Tibetan government to install and develop the country’s first broadcasting station, Radio Lhasa. Accordingly, he became the first of five foreigners to be formally employed by the Tibetans from 1947 to 1950 (Heinrich Harrer was among the other four). After a year in Lhasa (having on one occasion been blessed by the 14-year-old Dalai Lama, an honour normally reserved for the highest ranking officials) he was requested to go to Chamdo, 100 miles from the Chinese border, to improve internal political and trade communications.

Along with four Indo-Tibetan radio trainees, Ford travelled in a caravan of 100 animals, 40 porters and 12 soldiers. He was the fourth westerner known to have made the journey. “What worried me most was the Tibetans’ habit of stacking cans containing 400 gallons of petrol for the radio generators as wind breaks next to their camp fires,” he recalled. By the time he arrived in Chamdo, at 10,500ft above sea level, Ford was sporting a red beard; he shaved it off, and a rumour spread that two Englishmen had arrived: “The whole town had turned out to look at my blue eyes and long nose.”

For several months Ford lived on the upper floor of the former Summer Palace of the Governor-general of the province. One day, while searching amateur radio wavebands, he made contact with a Mr Jeffries who by chance lived in his home town of Burton-on-Trent, and he was soon able to enjoy a weekly conversation with his parents by radio-telephone.

His agreeable life in Chamdo, where there were lavish summer parties, was soon disrupted by threats of Chinese invasion, broadcast by Radio Peking in January 1950. By mid-October the Red Army was on the doorstep, and panic ensued. The Governor, Ngabo Shape, fled to Lhasa, and Ford — having removed the crystals from his radio sets to render them useless — planned to escape south to India; but all the mountain tracks had been obliterated by an earthquake, and he followed the Governor. Both were captured by the Chinese at a monastery near Lamda. Taken back to Chamdo, Ford was interrogated and accused of being a British spy, spreading anti-communist propaganda and of being involved in the murder of a Chinese official.

For five months he was not allowed to wash; in solitary confinement in rat-infested cells, he was sometimes forced to sit motionless for 16 hours a day. “I was never struck a single blow,” he remembered, “but mentally it was no holds barred. I thought I would go mad.”

For three years he underwent intensive interrogation and “re-education”. Eventually he signed a false confession, and in May 1954 he was permitted to write to his parents. In December he was sentenced to 10 years’ imprisonment, then told he was to be deported — a process which took a further six months.

On May 27 1955 he was deported to Hong Kong with six HK dollars in his pocket: “I had to walk 50 yards across a rickety wooden railway bridge — I didn’t know whether I would get a bullet in my back.”

Ford was flown back to London, where he was offered the job of Marconi’s representative in Asia. Instead he decided to spend 10 months recuperating and writing a book, Captured in Tibet, which was published in 1957. Although in demand for interviews and lectures, and for occasional journalism, Ford still needed a regular income.

His chance came when he was offered a temporary job in the Foreign Office, analysing Chinese propaganda in a covert department. He was twice sent to Saigon in South Vietnam, then to Laos and Cambodia. On his return to Britain he passed an exam for a permanent job in the Diplomatic Service.

In 1959 Ford was appointed senior branch information officer in Jakarta, Indonesia
, where “two air force pilots attacked the Presidential Palace; our Embassy was next door, and they strafed the road outside. I was holed up for two days.”

From 1960 to 1962 he served as First Secretary at the British Embassy in Washington, DC. He later had postings in London, Tangier, Angola, São Tomé and Principe, Bordeaux and Gothenburg. He ended his career as Consul General in Geneva, retiring in 1983, a year after being appointed CBE.

Having settled in London, Ford renewed his interest in Tibet, and particularly his contact with the Dalai Lama, whom he met whenever the opportunity arose.

In the spring of this year the Office of Tibet in London organised a reception for Ford’s 90th birthday.
He had earlier joked that he had not received his back pay, so he was presented with the last of his salary, a 100-srang bank note, with apologies for the delay “due to extenuating circumstances”. The respect shown to him by the Tibetan community in exile on this occasion moved him deeply.

Robert Ford married, in 1956, Monica Tebbett, whom he had known since his school days. They had met again in 1955 after Ford’s release when she was on leave from the United Nations in New York, where she worked in the office of the Secretary General, Dag Hammarskjold. She died last year, and he is survived by two sons.

Robert Ford, born March 27 1923, died September 20 2013
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Fri Sep 06, 2019 6:37 am

Phuntsog Wangyal - obituary
by The Telegraph
6:56PM BST 02 Jul 2014

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Phuntsog Wangyal was the co-founder of the Tibetan Communist Party who fell in with China only to fall foul of Mao’s mandarins

Phuntsog Wangyal, who has died aged 92, co-founded the Tibetan Communist Party in the 1940s; but despite giving up on an independent Tibet and unifying his party with that in China, he was jailed in Beijing and kept in solitary confinement for almost two decades.

Phunwang — as he was commonly known — might have appeared the ideal Chinese stooge in Tibet. But though he considered the country’s independence less important than the success of socialism, he was eventually unable to turn a blind eye to the corruption of Chinese officials.

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Phuntsog Wangyal (far left) with the Dalai Lama, Chen Yi, and the Panchen Lama in Lhasa,1956

“Phunwang showed that you could be a true Communist while at the same time proud of your Tibetan heritage,” stated the Dalai Lama. Phunwang’s stance, however, made him persona non grata in China. He was purged, finding himself locked up in Qincheng Prison, a maximum-security facility near Beijing notorious for its harsh conditions and detention of political prisoners.

Phuntsog Wangyal Goranangpa was born in 1922 in Batang, in the province of Kham in eastern Tibet (now part of western Sichuan Province). The area was terrorised by the Chinese warlord Liu Wenhui, an ally of the Chinese nationalist Kuomintang. As a young boy out collecting walnuts, Phunwang witnessed Wenhui’s troops carry out a brutal reprisal attack following a local uprising.

In his youth he was involved with the Tibetan Democratic Youth League, out of which he formed, in 1942, with Ngawang Kesang, the Tibetan Communist Party. Initially the party concerned itself with opposing the Kuomintang. But as a committed Marxist, Phunwang later proposed socialist reforms and the dismantling of Tibet’s feudal structures.


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Phuntsog Wangyal (left) with Ngawang Kesang, in Kalimpong,1944

Shortly before the Chinese invasion of Tibet in 1950, Phunwang announced a merger of his party with the Communist Party in China. As a result many Tibetans called him a traitor.

After the invasion, Phunwang become integral to the Chinese administration in Tibet, having been assigned to accompany Zhang Guohua, commander of the Chinese Eighteenth Army, to Lhasa. He was also the official translator for the young Dalai Lama during his meetings with Mao Tse-tung in 1954-55.


By the end of the Fifties, however, the tide had turned. Mao’s Leftist movement targeted Phunwang as a potential agitator due to his criticism of ethnic Han officials. In 1958 he was placed under house arrest and obliged to undergo “self-criticism”. He was jailed two years later, along with most of his family.

During his incarceration he was subjected to beatings, sound torture, poisonings and repetitive and intensive interrogation that was Kafkaesque in its obscurity. “They said they wanted me to confess my crimes,” he recalled, “but spoke of them only in general, so I never knew exactly what they were accusing me of.” Of all the horrors, “the total isolation was the hardest”.

He was released from Qincheng Prison in 1978, after which he went through a process of official rehabilitation before settling into life in Beijing, cut-off from the outside world. In a placatory move the Chinese authorities later offered him the position of Chairman of the Tibet Autonomous Region government, which he declined. He kept away from the political stage for many years, instead choosing to immerse himself in academia. His books included New Exploration of Dialectics (1990) and Liquid Water Does Exist on the Moon (1994) in which he explored the science of philosophical dialectics.

In later life Phunwang worked to promote better relations between Tibet and China, campaigning for the return of the Dalai Lama to Lhasa, which he claimed would be “good for stabilising Tibet”.


Then, in 2006, he returned to the political limelight with a series of letters to Hu Jintao, general secretary of the Chinese Communist party. In them Phunwang warned that if a permanent agreement was not found to solve “the Tibet Problem”, it would become increasingly dangerous. “Comrade Jintao,” he noted in one letter, “a single matchstick is enough for the arsonist but putting out the fire would take a great effort.” The language turned out to be appallingly apt: since then a wave of young monks and nuns in Tibet have protested against persecution under Chinese rule by setting themselves on fire.

In 2004 he provided an epilogue to a book on his life, entitled A Tibetan Revolutionary. “I worked hard for the liberation of the Tibetan nation and for national unity in the new China,” Phunwang concluded. “That work that brought unendurable difficulties, but as Beethoven said: 'I will seize fate by the throat. It won’t lay me low.’ That is what I believe I did. I did not let my suffering lay me low. I did not disgrace my dear parents, countrymen, and the Tibetans of the Land of Snow.”

Phunwang married, firstly, Tsilila. She died in prison in 1969. He is survived by his second wife, Tseten Yangdron, and by four children of his first marriage.

Phuntsog Wangyal, born 1922, died March 30 2014
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Fri Sep 06, 2019 7:28 am

The Office Of Tibet London
by The Office of Tibet
Accessed: 9/6/19

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Establishment year: 1981

Representative: Mr. Chonpel Tsering

Jurisdiction: (Representative for Northern Europe) U.K, Ireland, Sweden, Iceland, Norway, Denmark (including autonomous Greenland), Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Poland

Mailing:

The Office of Tibet
Tibet House
1 Culworth Street
London NW8 7AF U.K.


Tel: +44-20-7722-5378
Fax: +44-20-7722-0362
E-mail: rep.uk@tibet.net | info@otlondon.org
Website: http://officeoftibetlondon.net/
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Fri Sep 06, 2019 8:31 am

Tsarong Dundul Namgyal, b.1920 - d.2011
by Tenzin Dickyi
The Treasury of Lives
October, 2016

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Tsarong Dundul Namgyal (bdud 'dul rnam rgyal tsha rong), also known as George, was born in Lhasa in 1920. His father was Dasang Damdul Tsarong (tsha rong zla bzang dgra 'dul, 1888-1959) who took over the Tsarong estates in the early twentieth century and married several members of the household. An ardent modernizer, he served as Commander General of the Tibetan army. His mother was Dasang Damdul's second wife, Pema Dolkar (pad+ma sgrol dkar), who was the daughter of the disgraced Kalon Wangchuk Gyelpo Tsarong (bka' blon dbang phyug rgyal po, 1866-1912).

He had a sister by the same parents, named Kunzang Lhakyi (kun bzang lha skyid), born in 1923, and seven siblings born to different mothers. The Tsarong (tsha rong) was an aristocratic family that claims to originate from the famed medical master Yutok Yonten Gonpo (g.yu thog yon tan mgon po, 790-833). They took the name of Tsarong when the newly ennobled family of the Tenth Dalai Lama Tsultrim Gyatso (ta la'i bla ma 10 tshul khrims rgya mtsho, 1816-1837) adopted the family name of Yuthok.

Dundul Namgyal was one of the first Tibetans to receive a modern education. His family sent him to St. Joseph’s College, a Jesuit boys' school in Darjeeling, India, from the years 1935-1940.

Returning to Tibet to serve in the Tibetan government, he worked at the Drapchi Mint (gra phyi) along with Reginald Fox (1881-1943) a junior British officer working in the Indian Mission in Lhasa who later joined the service of the Tibetan government. They successfully powered the printing machines using a ten horse-power diesel engine that Dundul had himself brought over from India. Then Dundul joined the project to build the first-ever hydroelectric power station in Lhasa. Besides Reginald Fox and Dundul himself, the project included his father Tsarong Dasang Damdul and Peter Aufschnaiter (1899-1973), the Austrian survey engineer who had escaped to Tibet from a British prison camp in India with Heinrich Harrer (1912-2006). In 1944 he began instructions in Wireless Telegraphy at the British Mission.


Dundul was later promoted to the rank of Rimshi (rim bzhi), fourth rank, and appointed as an assistant to the Drapchi office. There were seven ranks in the Tibetan government with the Dalai Lama holding the first rank; the fourth rank was considered a high rank. During his tenure as a fourth rank official, Dundul also held the position of Yaso General (ya so mda' dpon), a commander of a cavalry of 500 men.

Dundul Namgyal married Yangchen Dolkar (dbyangs can sgrol dkar) from the aristocratic Ragashar family (ra ga shar, also known as Dokhar) and had five children. Their second youngest son Tseten Gyurme was recognized as the Seventh Drigung Chetsang, Tendzin Trinle Lhundrub ('bri gung che tshang 07 bstan 'dzin 'phrin las lhun grub, b. 1946), one of the two heads of the Drigung Kagyu tradition.

Following the invasion of Tibet by the People's Liberation Army in 1949-1959, Dundul and his wife and children left Lhasa and resettled in Kalimpong, India. His father remained in Tibet. Following the March 10, 1959, popular revolt of Lhasa, his father and other leaders of the National Assembly were jailed in the Chinese army headquarters. His father died in jail three months later.

In India, Dundul Namgyal served in the newly established Central Tibetan Administration. He was recruited at first to work at the Tibetan Bureau in New Delhi, and then transferred to work under the Dalai Lama's older brother Gyalo Thondup (rgya lo don grub, b. 1928), making investments with the Tibetan government's gold and silver reserves. He also served as English translator to Wangchuk Deden Shakabpa (dbang phyug bde ldan zhwa sgab pa, 1908-1989), the former finance minister of Tibet.

Gyalo Thondup, the key link with the CIA, had stayed away from the resistance since 1969. Not until late 1978, with the Chinese government apparently loosening its constraints on Tibet, did he rejoin the cause and lead a negotiating team to Beijing; results from this trip ultimately proved scant. Gyalo currently shuttles between residences in New Delhi and Hong Kong.....

Once the CIA decided to bypass the Sikkimese in late 1956, the royals grew somewhat annoyed. The crown prince, in particular, sniped at Gyalo Thondup and gradually came to oppose the idea of armed resistance against the Chinese. "He felt angry and used," said one of his closest confidants, "and thought the U.S. had only been toying with the Tibetans." ...

Even after the arrival of Knaus, Grimsley still retained responsibility for contact with the Tibetan refugee community in India; he also maintained close ties with Gyalo Thondup and channeled the CIA's stipend to the Dalai Lama's entourage at Dharamsala.

-- The CIA's Secret War in Tibet, by Kenneth Conboy and James Morrison


Dundul Namgyal wrote a biography of his father In the Service of His Country: The Biography of Dasang Damdul Tsarong, Commander General of Tibet, published in 2000. He was one of Tibet's first and most important photographers and his photographs of early twentieth century Tibet are still an invaluable resource. He published a book of his photographs of Tibet, What Tibet Was: As Seen by a Native Photographer, in 1990.

Dundul Namgyal and his wife moved for some years to the United States where their daughter Namgyal Lhamo (rnam rgyal lha mo) and her husband Lobsang Samten (blo bzang bsam gtan), another brother of the Dalai Lama, had immigrated. He spent some time in Maryland working as companion to an elderly physician.

He spent the last years of his life in Kalimpong and Dehradun in northern India. He died in a Dehradun hospital on June 18th, 2011.

_______________________________________

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Dundul Namgyal Tsarong in 1950

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Dundul Namgyal Tsarong, Yangchen Dolkar Tsarong (his wife) and Tsewang Jigme Tsarong (his son) in 1986 at Kalimpong

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Trabshi Lekhung, Lhasa, Tibet, 1933

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Trabshi Lekhung, Lhasa, Tibet, 1933
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Fri Sep 06, 2019 8:39 am

Tsarong Wangchuk Gyelpo, b.1866 - d.1912
by Tenzin Dickyi
The Treasury of Lives
October, 2016

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Tsarong Wangchuk Gyelpo (tsha rong dbang phyug rgyal po) was the son of Tsarong Tsipon Kelzang Damdul (tsha rong rtsis dpon bskal bzang dgra 'dul). The Tsarong (tsha rong) family was an influential aristocratic family that had many generations of its sons serving in various ranks of the Ganden Podrang government. The family claims to originate from Yutok Yonten Gonpo (g.yu thog yon tan mgon po), the famous physician who is said to have lived in the 12th century. They stopped using the name Yutok/Yuthok and became Tsarong in 1827 after the family of the Tenth Dalai Lama, Tsultrim Gyatso (ta la'i bla ma 10 tshul khrims rgya mtsho) took the name Yuthok.

There is little information about Wangchuk Gyelpo prior to 1903, when, as the General of U Province (dbus mda' dpon), he was sent to negotiate trade with the British at the Chumbi border, known in Tibetan as Dromo (gro mo), along with Khendrung Lepar Lobzang Trinle (mkhan drung las par blo bzang 'phrin las). The talks in Dromo failed. Nevertheless, in 1903 he was appointed Minister in the Kashag (bka' shag), the council of ministers, which was the highest office beneath the Dalai Lama and the Prime Minister.

In January 1904, the British launched an invasion of Tibet led by Colonel Francis Younghusband (1863-1942). The Tibetans collapsed in the face of the superior British army, and the Thirteenth Dalai Lama Tubten Gyatso (ta la'i bla ma 13 thub bstan rgya mtsho, 1856-1875), was forced to flee to Mongolia. Wangchuk Gyelpo participated in the negotiation of the settlement treaty which gave Great Britain the right to trade markets at Gyantse (rgyal rtse), Gartok (sgar thog) and Yatung (gro mo rdzong), and determined that the Tibetan government should pay a humiliating indemnity to the British government, an amount equal to seventy-five lakh rupees (Rs. 7,500,000), as reparations for the breach of treaty obligations and the expenses of the Younghusband invasion.

In 1908 Wangchuk Gyelpo was the authorized Tibetan representative at the trade talks held between Great Britain, China and Tibet signed in Calcutta on 20 April 1908 and ratified in Peking on 14 October 1908, titled the "Agreement Between Great Britain, China and Tibet Amending Trade Regulations of 1893." However, Tibet was not an equal partner in the talks: the agreement stated that Wangchuk Gyelpo was taking part in the negotiations under the directions of the Chinese Special Commissioner Chang Yin Tang. The agreement specified the boundaries of the Gyantse (rgyal rtse) trade mart, declared that Tibetan officers will administer the trade marts under the supervision of the Chinese officers, and detailed how disputes between British subjects and Tibetan and Chinese nationalities shall be handled.

In 1909 the Thirteenth Dalai Lama returned to Lhasa after five years of exile. But in February 1910 he fled again, this time to exile in India, when the Manchu general Zhao Erfeng (趙爾豊, 1845-1911) arrived in Lhasa with his army. During the two years that the Manchu forces occupied Lhasa Wangchuk Gyelpo, as Minister of the Kashag, worked with them. In 1912, shortly before the Dalai Lama returned to Lhasa, the Tibetan leaders executed Wangchuk Gyelpo and his elder son Samdrub Tsering (bsam grub tshe ring, c. 1887-1912) for collaborating with the Manchus
. Some Tibetan authors have attempted to absolve him of blame, stating that he was unjustly accused out of personal jealousies.

The Tsarong family estates were given to Dasang Damdul (zla bzang dgra 'dul, 1888 – 1959), the famous modernizing general, who married into Tsarong House by taking Wangchuk Gyelpo’s daughter Pema Dolkar (pad+ma sgrol dkar) and Samdrub Tsering's widow Rinzin Chodron (rin 'dzin chos sgron) as his wives.

Wangchuk Gyelpo had twelve children with his wife Yangchen Dolma (dbyang can sgrol ma) from the Yuthok family, ten of whom survived infancy, including Taring Rinchen Dolma (phreng ring rin chen sgrol ma, 1910-2000).

Tenzin Dickyi is an Editor at the Treasury of Lives. She is also English Editor of Tibet Web Digest, a project of Columbia University's Modern Tibetan Studies program.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Fri Sep 06, 2019 9:23 am

In the Service of His Country: The Biography of Dasang Damdul Tsarong, Commander General of Tibet, by D.N. Tsarong
by Snow Lion / Shambhala
Summer, 2000

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

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164 pp., 50 b&w photos, Oct., #SEHICO $14.95

This is the fascinating life story of the Tibetan aristocrat, politician, and general Dasang Damdrul Tsarong, who served as Commander-in-Chief of the Tibetan Army and Cabinet Minister. Tsarong was known as an advocate for modernization of Tibet's national government. This biography, by Tsarong's son, D.N. Tsarong, is a first-hand account of the most important events of the twentieth century, leading up to the period of Chinese occupation. It provides insight into the history and causes of the tragic loss of Tibet's power of self-government as seen through the life of one of the country's foremost leaders.

The following are excerpts from In the Service of His Country.

A seventeen-year-old boy turned his horse up the mountain, sensing an attack by a group of Golok men armed with spears. These men from Amdo Province annually traveled from their homeland to visit the holy city of Lhasa and make offerings to the sacred image of Jowo Rinpoche, an image of the Lord Buddha in the Central Temple, or Tsuglak Khang. Having shot a few rounds with his Mauser pistol in the air to discourage the assumed attackers, he resumed his journey towards Lhasa. He was on leave from the Dalai Lama's court and was now returning to resume his duties at the Norbu Lingka Palace. This was my father, Dasang Damdul Tsarong, who was to serve Tibet faithfully throughout his life. He was born in a house named Khakhor Shi in Phenpo Province. It stood in a small village situated to the north of Lhasa.

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Peter Aufshnaiter, D.D. Tsarong, Tsepon Shakabpa and Heinrich Harrer inspecting a newly proposed hydroelectric site.

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Pema Dolkar, the wife of D.D. Tsarong; Yangchun Dolkar, the wife of the author; the author, and D.D. Tsarong.

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D.D. Tsarong.

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D.D. Tsarong using his skill at photography.

In the family of Khakhor Shi were my grandparents, their three sons, and their daughter. The eldest was a son named Thondup Norbu, the second was Nangang (my father), the third was a son named Phuntsok Wangdu, and the youngest was a daughter, Yangchen Dolkar. Nangang was the first name of my father because he was born on New Year's eve. The last day of each month is called nangang in Tibetan. Since the conception of my father, good luck had fallen on his parents and the house prospered; therefore, he was considered to be the source of this luck.

My grandfather died of a sudden illness when my father was five years old. Since my grandmother was left to care for the land and the young children, she experienced much difficulty and hardship. She then married my grandfather's cousin, Lhundup La. Lhundup La was a hot-tempered man who used to beat both mother and children. Soon the elder sister of lhundup, Somo Nyila, came from Lhasa to live with the family in Phenpo, and after having stayed there for some time, she saw the difficulties in the home. Out of pity for the children, who were harshly treated by their stepfather, she took the three sons to Lhasa to live with her. She lived in the apartment of a mansion named Karma Sharchen, which is in the center of the city. Somo Nyila was a kind and religious woman. She shared her wealth with her relatives and friends, and often distributed food, clothing, and money to the poor of the city. It was the custom for the proud Phenpo Tibetans to visit the major temples in their home town during the religious festivals as well as on the eighth, fifteenth, and the last day of the month. Somo Nyila never forgot her offerings and her visits to the temples in Lhasa City. She brought up the children with kindness, love, and understanding. The children were sent in 1895 to a private school in the city, Phalai Labtra. When Thondup Norbu, the eldest, came of age, she gave him in marriage to one of her friend's daughters, and he left her home. In 1900, a monk official of the Tibetan Government, Khangnyi Jinpa La, who was also a close and faithful friend and family adviser of Somo Nyila, took my father as his pupil. Khangnyi Jinpa La was in charge of Norbu Lingka, the summer palace of the Dalai Lama, and was also one of the older personal attendants of His Holiness the Thirteenth Dalai Lama. A couple of years passed while my father was trained in household work, as well as Tibetan literature and scriptures, and he earned the trust of his master and tutor.

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Located on the western edge of Lhasa at the bank of River Kyichu and just a kilometer from the famous Potala Palace, Norbulingka Palace offers the best landscapes in the region. Spread over an area of 360,000 square meters, [approx. 4 million square feet] Norbulingka features the summer palaces of the Dalai Lamas with 374 rooms, and the largest, most beautiful, and well-preserved gardens in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Palaces of Norbulingka: Norbulingka has five distinct sections: Kelsang Palace, Tsokyil Palace, Golden Linka, Takten Migyur Palace, and Lake Heart Palace. Each palace has three main sections: the palace area, the forest area, and the area in front of the palace. (Note: the Tibetan word for “Palace” is “Potrang”.)

Kelsang Palace: This palace was built by the 7th Dalai Lama in typical Tibetan style and consists of worship rooms, reading rooms, and bedrooms. The main hall features the throne of the 7th Dalai Lama amidst statues of Guanyin Bodhisattva and Longevity Buddha.

Tsokyil Palace: It lies to the northwest of Kelsang Palace in the midst of the lake and is the most attractive pavilion built by the 8th Dalai Lama.

Golden Linka and Chensel Palace: To the northwest of Kelsang Phodrong lies also the Chensel Palace and on the west side of Norbulingka is the Golden Phodron. Both these were built in 1922 by a benefactor for the 13th Dalai Lama.

Lake Heart Palace: The most beautiful area in southwest Norbulingka, the Lake Heart Palace was built by the 8th Dalai Lama to hold parties with dignitaries.

Takten Migyur Palace: Completed by 1956, Takten Migyur Palace was built by the 14th Dalai Lama and is also referred to as the New Summer Palace. More magnificent and larger than the other palaces, the New Palace features exquisite murals of Sakyamuni and his eight contemplative disciples, and also those related to the development of Tibet.


-- Norbulingka Summer Palace, by Tibetpedia.com


It was on one of these days while my father was in the service of Khangnyi Jinpa La that His Holiness the Thirteenth Dalai Lama came to the house and noticed him. The Dalai Lama was a most observant man, who took care to make routine checks in and around his palace, stables, and compounds. On one such occasion, when he surprised his personal attendants in their quarters, he saw my father and was struck by an unusual air of intelligence in the young boy. After finding out about the background of the boy from Jinpa La, he recruited him as one of his servants. Father was twelve years old when he left Jinpa La's service to join the Dalai Lama's personal staff. He served well in the palace and soon came to have the confidence of the Dalai Lama and the confidence and respect of the other members of the staff as well.

Father adored his grandchildren; no matter how busy he was, he always found time to be with them, especially in the evenings when he told them bedtime stories, which they loved. As he did with his children, he insisted that his grandchildren all have an equal opportunity to go to the British schools in Darjeeling, and many of them did. Between 1942 and 1949, my wife and I had our five children, two daughters and three sons, and four of them went on to finish their secondary schooling in Darjeeling.

My second youngest son, who was born in 1946, was recognized as the incarnation of Drikung Chetsang Rinpoche, one of the two heads of the Drikung Kagyu lineage. As mentioned, even after the passing of his friend, the previous Drikung Rinpoche, Tsarong kept a close relationship with that monastery. It so happened that as administrators and attendants of the previous Rinpoche came to Tsarong House to discuss different matters, my son, at the age of only two years, exhibited an unusual attraction to these monks. He constantly wanted to be close to them and when they left, he wished to go away with them. The monks of Drikung were highly observant of this and noted his actions carefully. They began occasionally dropping by Tsarong House under false pretenses, without calling on the parents but simply asking the servants to bring the young child out to play. Eventually he was put to several tests to which all candidates are subjected for recognition as reincarnate lamas are are subjected, namely identifying among many objects the specific ones which belonged to the previous incarnation. After reviewing all the candidates and consulting the master astrologers, as well as the Takdhak Regent, who had final word, it was decided that my son was indeed the true incarnation of Drikung Chetsang Rinpoche.

As the predecessor was his close personal friend, Tsarong felt very pleased having the incarnation born into his own family, and of course my wife and I were quite surprised as well.
My wife Yangchen does not remember any special incidences during the pregnancy, but there were some auspicious circumstances regarding his birth. Close to the time our child was due, preparations were being made for Drukpa Tseshi, an annual holiday celebrating the day Lord Buddha first taught, or turned the Wheel of Dharma. On this occasion all Buddhists go on short pilgrimages to sacred places in Lhasa. It is felt to be a highly auspicious day and, therefore, the Takdhak Regent decided to offer a full set of new ornaments to the image of Jowo Rinpoche at the Tsuglak Khang. Jowo Rinpoche is a sacred symbol of the Lord Buddha, but is also believed by many to be more than just a symbol. It is regarded by most Buddhists of Tibet and neighboring countries to be one of the most sacred images in existence. The Regent must somehow have been aware that Tsarong was in possession of a beautiful eighteen-carat diamond that he had purchased in India on one of his many trips. He sent his close friend Tsepon Shakabpa to our home to request that father sell it to him. Shakabpa explained that they were in need of a very precious stone to be the centerpiece of the ornamental headdress they were offering to Jowo Rinpoche on Drukpa Tseshi. Father agreed and sold it at cost.

Days later, my wife went into labor and after twenty-four hours, the baby still had not come. We were fortunate to have the assistance of Dr. Guthrie from the British Mission in Lhasa. Everyone became concerned as the labor was so prolonged. Strangely enough, many hours later, on the auspicious day of Drukpa Tseshi, during the precise time at which the ornaments were being offered to Jowo Rinpoche, our son was finally delivered. He was born not breathing, and most of the relatives gave up hope that he would live, but through the perseverance of Dr. Guthrie who, confident in his skills, slapped and tossed the baby about, his breathing finally started.

About three years later, our son was formally recognized as Drikung Rinpoche, but because of his young age, he remained at home with the family until 1950. At that time, the Regent and representatives of the Drikung Monastery came to Tsarong House to fetch Rinpoche. He was brought back to Drikung Monastery in a ceremonial procession and officially took the seat as successor of the Drikung Kagyu lineage.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Sep 07, 2019 5:17 am

Princess Coocoola of Sikkim, Beauty who championed her northern Indian homeland and charmed the writer Heinrich Harrer in Tibet
by telegraph.co.uk
6:18PM GMT 11 Dec 2008

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"Princess Coocoola of Sikkim, who has died aged 84, was the beautiful widow of a Tibetan governor and a champion of the distinct culture of the northern Indian state of Sikkim.

Embodying a combination of oriental charm and western sophistication, she relayed messages to the outside world as the Chinese invasion of Tibet began in 1950, then devoted 10 years to running a rehabilitation centre for Tibetan refugees in Sikkim. Twenty-five years later, when Sikkim became an Indian state, she played an active role in trying to retain its separate political status and unique character, giving a press conference in Hong Kong to protest at its loss of independence.

Acting as the hostess for her brother, the Chogyal (King) of Sikkim, at State functions until he married his American wife, she travelled widely to lobby politicians in New Delhi. She mixed with John Kenneth Galbraith, Senator Edward Kennedy and presidential aides in Washington and presented an 18-in high Buddha to a Tibetan children's village at Sedlescome, Sussex.

When the Indian president Pandit Nehru offered her a pension, the princess turned it down, and asked instead for trading rights. Working from a single room in Calcutta, she and her younger sister Kula started a business importing turquoise from Iran. Later she joined the boards of a company which produced jewels for watches and of the State Bank of Sikkim.


Princess Pema Tsedeun Yapshi Pheunkhang Lacham Kusho (known as Coocoola) was the daughter of Sir Tashi Namgyal, KCSI, KCIE, the 11th Chogyal, and the granddaughter of a Tibetan general. She was born at Darjeeling on September 6, 1924, when the Himalayan kingdom, which had been established in the 1640s, was a protectorate of the British Empire.

Young Coocoola was educated by the nuns of St Joseph's convent at Kalimpong, a hill station near Darjeeling. The Tibetan Pheunkhang family then wrote to the palace, saying that they wanted a Sikkimese princess to marry their 23-year-old eldest son. Her father did not force her to accept, and she asked a secretary to reply that she wanted to go to university first. On being pressed, she accepted Sey Kusho Gompo Tsering Yapshi Pheunkhang, the governor of the Tibetan city of Gyantse and a son of one of the four ministers of Tibet. But she broke precedent by declining to marry both the bridegroom and his brother, as was the custom. "I replied that I would only marry the eldest," she recalled in later life.

In 1941 the princess duly set off on the three-week journey to Lhasa with two maids, one bearer and two horses. She rode while going through the countryside, but retreated to her palanquin when passing through towns. When she arrived she found the two sons sitting next to her at the wedding ceremony, but repeated to her intended that she would marry only him. She and her husband settled down to enjoy the leisured life of the Tibetan gentry, with parties, picnics and festivals. The few visitors who arrived in Tibet – known as "the roof of the world" – were mesmerised by her.


In his book Seven Years in Tibet Heinrich Harrer hailed her as the most beautiful woman he had ever seen, and more interesting than her husband: "She possessed the indescribable charm of Asian women and the stamp of age-old oriental culture. At the same time she was clever, well-educated, and thoroughly modern... In conversation she was the equal of the most intelligent woman you would be likely to meet in a European salon. She was interested in politics, culture and all that was happening in the world. She often talked about equal rights for women… but Tibet has a long way to go before reaching that point."

Another visitor compared her to an exotic butterfly, saying her qualities showed in the quizzical way she looked up through her long lashes, and in the slow manner in which she exhaled her cigarette smoke or murmured a few words in her low, clear, musical voice. She entertained far more regally than her homely brother, the Chogyal, offering sparkling conversation as the best French wines were poured from heavy decanters. Her place at table was set with golden coasters and cutlery to remind even the most honoured guests of their inferior rank. Nevertheless, she liked to say: "Money didn't make me – I made money."

When travelling the dangerous trade route between Tibet and Gangtok, the largest town in Sikkim, with her small children bundled up in windowed boxes on horses or mules, she insisted on riding a horse with a rifle slung across her shoulder and a revolver in her pocket to repel bandits.

Princess Coocoola and her husband were founding members of the Namgyal Institute of Tibetology, to which they donated manuscripts and a large silver-plated stupa to hold the relics of two Ashokan monks, which were a gift from the Indian government. She allowed the institute to scan her photographic collection.

In her last years she lived in a modest cottage on the outskirts of Gangtok, keeping up with events in Sikkim and world politics and continuing to enjoy discussions with scholars who came knocking at her door. When one completed a book on Sikkimese village religion she insisted they celebrate with a bottle of champagne.

Princess Coocoola was widowed in 1973, and is survived by three of her children. When she died on December 2 four tremors were felt in Sikkim, which, according to local belief, signals the passing of a great soul.
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