Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Sep 08, 2019 3:44 am

Esme Barbara Wilson [Wilkinson] [Cramer Roberts]
by The Peerage: A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe
Accessed: 9/7/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


With the great help and inspiration of Esme Cramer Roberts, the first edition of Born in Tibet was published in 1966.

-- Epilogue: Planting the Dharma in the West, from "Born in Tibet," "by" Chogyam Trungpa


Esme Barbara Wilson was born on 28 December 1887.1 She was the daughter of Sir Alexander Wilson and Isabella Adelaide Dunn.1 She married, firstly, Captain Osborn Cecil Wilkinson.1 She married, secondly, Francis William H. Cramer Roberts, son of Charles John Cramer Roberts and Frances Templer Dunn.1 She died on 5 March 1967 at age 79.1
Her married name became Wilkinson.1 Her married name became Cramer Roberts.1

******************

Sir Alexander Wilson1
M, #392647, b. 2 May 1843, d. 6 September 1907
Last Edited=16 Jun 2010
Sir Alexander Wilson was born on 2 May 1843.1 He was the son of Reverend David Wilson and Mary Garioch Skinner.1 He married, firstly, Isabella Adelaide Dunn, daughter of Captain Richard Duckworth Dunn and Isabella Pallmer Massy-Dawson, on 23 April 1874 at Surbiton, Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey, EnglandG.1 He married, secondly, Louisa Benita Poore, daughter of Major Robert Poore and Juliana Benita Lowry-Corry, on 28 November 1896 at St. Luke's, Chelsea, London, EnglandG.2,1 He died on 6 September 1907 at age 64.2 He was buried at Rickling, Essex, EnglandG.1
He was President of the Bengal Chamber of Commerce.2 He was chairman of the Mercantile Bank of India.1 He was Captain Commandant of the Calcutta Light Horse.1 He held the office of High Sheriff of Calcutta in 1887.2 He was appointed Knight on 14 February 1887.1 He held the office of Member of the Legislative Council [India].1 He lived at The Views, Rickling, Essex, EnglandG.1

Children of Sir Alexander Wilson and Isabella Adelaide Dunn
Ada Mary Louisa Wilson1 b. 5 Oct 1876, d. 19 Oct 1943
Charles Skinner Wilson+1 b. 24 Sep 1878, d. 26 Feb 1959
Lina Beatrix Wilson1 b. 30 Aug 1881
Helen Benita Wilson1 b. 2 Nov 1886
Esme Barbara Wilson+1 b. 28 Dec 1887, d. 5 Mar 1967

Citations

[S4061] Re: Dunn Family, "re: Geoff Ayres," e-mail message to Geoff Ayres, 2 November 2009. Hereinafter cited as "re: Dunn Family."
[S37] BP2003 volume 3, page 3173. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]

******************

Lt.-Col. Sir Peter Allix Wilkinson1
M, #225556
Last Edited=2 Nov 2009
Lt.-Col. Sir Peter Allix Wilkinson is the son of Captain Osborn Cecil Wilkinson and Esme Barbara Wilson.1,2 He married Mary Theresa Villiers, daughter of Algernon Hyde Villiers and Beatrix Elinor Paul, on 14 March 1945.1
He was appointed Officer, Order of the British Empire (O.B.E.)1 He gained the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the Royal Fusiliers.1 He was appointed Companion, Order of St. Michael and St. George (C.M.G.)1 He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order (D.S.O.)1 He was Deputy Under-Secretary and Chief Clerk of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1968.1

Foreign & Commonwealth Office: About us

The FCO promotes the United Kingdom's interests overseas, supporting our citizens and businesses around the globe.

Responsibilities

We are responsible for:

• safeguarding the UK’s national security by countering terrorism and weapons proliferation, and working to reduce conflict
• building the UK’s prosperity by increasing exports and investment, opening markets, ensuring access to resources, and promoting sustainable global growth
• supporting British nationals around the world through modern and efficient consular services

Priorities

The Foreign Secretary and the FCO Board of Management have agreed our new Priority Outcomes for 2017 to 2018, which fall under our foreign policy priorities of protecting our people, projecting our global influence and promoting our prosperity.
Read our Single Departmental Plan to find out more about how we are performing against our objectives.

Who we are

The Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO) has a worldwide network of embassies and consulates, employing over 14,000 people in nearly 270 diplomatic offices. We work with international organisations to promote UK interests and global security, including the EU, NATO, the United Nations, the UN Security Council and the Commonwealth.

Programme funds

We use a proportion of our core departmental budget to fund project activity to support the policy priorities detailed in our Single Departmental Plan. This funding includes both Official Development Assistance (ODA), and non-ODA funds, to ensure that we can spent it around the world to promote British interests, including through contributing to the economic development and welfare of developing countries. This small-scale policy programme funding enables us to complement traditional diplomatic activity, respond effectively to changing international situations, and maximise funding from international partners and the private sector. It is used for a wide range of activity designed to protect our people, project our influence and promote our prosperity.

The FCO also plays an important role in delivering programmes and projects funded by 2 major government-wide funds, which support the government’s National Security Strategy, and Aid Strategy:

• the Conflict, Stability and Security Fund (CSSF), established in 2015, supports work to reduce risk arising from conflict or instability in countries where the UK has important interests
• the Prosperity Fund, established in 2016, promotes the economic reform and development needed for growth in partner countries

We also support:

• outstanding scholars with leadership potential to take postgraduate courses in the UK on Chevening scholarships
• young Americans of high ability to study in the UK on Marshall scholarships
• victims of forced marriage with the Domestic Programme Fund
• natural resource management in the Overseas Territories with the Overseas Territories Environment and Climate Fund (Darwin Plus)
• prosperity and growth through the Science and Innovation Network
• some of the government’s work on international development, including through our activities on promoting sustainable global growth, human rights, climate change and conflict prevention. This is supported by Official Development Assistance funding.

-- Foreign & Commonwealth Office, by gov.uk


Children of Lt.-Col. Sir Peter Allix Wilkinson and Mary Theresa Villiers
Virginia Caroline Wilkinson3 b. 3 May 1947
Alexandra Mary Wilkinson3 b. 21 Sep 1953
Citations
[S37] BP2003 volume 1, page 803. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]
[S4061] Re: Dunn Family, "re: Geoff Ayres," e-mail message to Geoff Ayres, 2 November 2009. Hereinafter cited as "re: Dunn Family."
[S37] BP2003. [S37]

******************

Captain Osborn Cecil Wilkinson1
M, #224656
Last Edited=2 Nov 2009
Captain Osborn Cecil Wilkinson married Esme Barbara Wilson, daughter of Sir Alexander Wilson and Isabella Adelaide Dunn.2
He gained the rank of Captain in the 15th Foot (East Yorkshire).1

Child of Captain Osborn Cecil Wilkinson and Esme Barbara Wilson
Lt.-Col. Sir Peter Allix Wilkinson+1

Citations

[S37] BP2003 volume 1, page 803. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]
[S4061] Re: Dunn Family, "re: Geoff Ayres," e-mail message to Geoff Ayres, 2 November 2009. Hereinafter cited as "re: Dunn Family."
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Sep 08, 2019 4:04 am

Ven. Namgyal Rinpoche
Dharma Centre of Winnipeg
Accessed: 9/7/19
https://dharmawpg.com/lineage/

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


With the great help and inspiration of Esme Cramer Roberts, the first edition of Born in Tibet was published in 1966. Nevertheless, there was as yet no situation in which I could begin to make a full and proper presentation of the teachings of Buddhism. This now began to change. Ananda Bodhi, senior incumbent of the English Sangha Vihara and founder of a Buddhist contemplative centre in Scotland called Johnstone House, proposed turning the direction of the House over to myself and Akong. At once the fresh air and beautiful rolling hills of Dumfriesshire invigorated me and filled me with joyous expectation. After a series of further visits, Johnstone House was finally turned over to us and we moved in, giving it the name of Samye-Ling Meditation Centre.

-- Epilogue: Planting the Dharma in the West, from "Born in Tibet," "by" Chogyam Trungpa


Image

Karma Tensing Dorje Namgyal Rinpoche was born Leslie George Dawson in Toronto, Canada, on October 11, 1931 to middle-class parents. His mother was a nurse and his father was a policeman and Freemason. He attended Norway Public School and Malvern Collegiate, where he studied music appreciation with Glenn Gould as a classmate and worked summers at the Connaught Medical Research Laboratories. After graduating from high school he spent a few months at Jarvis Baptist Seminary and then went on to major in Philosophy and Psychology at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbour.



For a time he became involved as a left-wing political activist, ultimately travelling to Russia where he addressed an international youth conference in Moscow. His experiences there resulted in a fundamental disillusionment with politics, and in 1956 he moved to England, where straightened circumstances shortly resulted in his contracting tuberculosis. In London he became interested in Theosophy and afterward in Theravada Buddhist practice. Eventually he decided to ‘go forth’ into the life of a homeless monastic.

At the Buddhist Vihara in London in April, 1958, he met the Burmese Sayadaw U Thila Wunta and requested ordination. The Venerable Sayadaw suggested that they meet at Bodhgaya in India, where, on October 28, Leslie Dawson was ordained as a novice monk, taking the name Ananda. From there they returned to Burma where he received full ordination as Bhikkhu Ananda Bodhi at the Shwe Dagon Pagoda in Rangoon on December 21, 1958. He began an extended period of intensive meditation practice, during which he studied for periods in Sri Lanka and at Wat Paknam and Wat Mahadat (with Chao Khun Phra Rajasiddhimuni) in Thailand, as well as with Sayadaw U Thila Wunta and Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw in Rangoon. He was ultimately given the title Samatha-Vipassana-Kammatthana-Acariya (master of both tranquility and insight meditation) in recognition of his attainments.

Venerable Ananda Bodhi returned to England in the Fall of 1961, at the invitation of the English Sangha Trust, becoming the Resident Teacher of the Camden Town Vihara. He was a special guest speaker at the Fifth International Congress of Psychotherapists in London, where he met Julian Huxley, Anna Freud and R.D.Laing, among others. For the next three years he taught extensively throughout the UK, founding the Hampstead Buddhist Vihara in London and the Johnstone House Contemplative Community—a retreat centre in southern Scotland. During this period he also joined a Masonic lodge. In 1965, when he decided to move to Toronto with two of his British students, Johnstone House was entrusted to Venerable Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche and Akong Tulku, becoming Kagyu Samye Ling—the first Vajrayana centre to be established in the West.

Image
Chogyam Trungpa in Scottish kilt


"It struck me forcibly before I left Zanskar that there must be some unknown relationship between the people of that province and the Scottish Highlanders. The sound of their varieties of language, the brooches which fasten their plaids, the varieties of tartan, even the features of the people, strongly reminded me of the Scotch Highlanders."

-- The Myth of Shangri-La: Tibet, Travel Writing and the Western Creation of Sacred Landscape, by Peter Bishop


The following year Ananda Bodhi and his students founded the Dharma Centre of Canada and purchased a 400-acre forest property near Kinmount, Ontario for a retreat centre. In 1967 he founded the Centennial Lodge of the Theosophical Society. After a couple of years spent teaching mostly in Toronto and at the Dharma Centre, ‘The Bhikkhu’ (as he had become known) initiated an extended period of nearly continuous travel, taking students all over the world. It was on one of these trips, in Sikkim in 1968, that he met and was subsequently recognized by His Holiness the XVIth Gyalwa Karmapa (head of the Karma Kagyu school of Tibetan Vajrayana Buddhism) as an incarnation of the Namgyal Tulku—the first Westerner to be so acknowledged. His formal enthronement as Karma Tensing Dorje Namgyal Rinpoche was performed by Venerable Karma Thinley Rinpoche in the spring of 1972.

Over the next few years Rinpoche received teachings and empowerments from many accomplished lamas—including HH Sakya Trizin, HH Dudjom Rinpoche, HE Chogye Trichen Rinpoche, Venerable Kalu Rinpoche, and Venerable Ling Rinpoche, as well as HH the XVIth Karmapa—and he was instrumental in arranging the latter’s first North American visit in 1974.

He continued to teach and travel widely throughout the world, and for a number of years in the 70s and 80s he took numerous small groups of students on months-long voyages on passenger freighters. Later, he introduced many to the joys of dive charters, polar expeditions and excursions up the Amazon, as well as to gourmet cooking, Teilhard de Chardin and Krishnamurti, Mahler’s music and Rilke’s poetry, the painting of Mondrian…and so much more.

Some addressed what we call “Transformational and Contemplative Ecology,” growing and convening our network of climate, sustainability, spiritual and community leaders to re-conceive our relationship with the natural world and help make environmental advocacy more effective. For example, in 2016 Joanna Macy led a retreat on “Rainer Maria Rilke and the Force of the Storm.” Macy’s “Work that Reconnects” trainings have empowered environmental activists and scientists worldwide, drawing on Buddhist teachings, systems theory and the deep ecological visions of poets like Rilke, whom Macy and Anita Barrows translated, and who foresaw the disruptions of our time over a century ago. You can watch Macy introducing the retreat here.

-- Garrison Institute Biannual Report, by Marc Weiss / Executive Director


In his journeys Rinpoche frequently visited the many centres established by his students in Canada, the United States, Guatemala, England, Ireland, France, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, New Zealand and Australia. His love of travel and more than forty years of teaching inevitably took a toll on his physical condition, and some long-standing health problems finally caught up with him on October 22, 2003 when he passed away at a small private cottage on the Bodensee Lake in Switzerland.

Namgyal Rinpoche devoted his entire life to the welfare of beings, and his dedication to their liberation, his unbounded interest in this planet and all its flora and fauna, was as tireless as it was vast. A master of Mahamudra, he was unique in his ability to encompass and bridge traditional Buddhist forms and western practices, transmitting the path of awakening in universal terms according to beings’ interests and proclivities. His fearless and compassionate example continues to inspire and transform his many students, and their students, all over the world. In the words of Tarchin Hearn, “Rinpoché was many things to many beings. He was an upholder of tradition and, simultaneously, an innovator and integrator of new unfolding pathways…It has been wondrous to have lived so many years knowing him, an extraordinary manifestation of Emptiness and vast compassionate activity. May the wholesomeness of the teachings that he has given freely to so many beings continue to grow and flourish for the sake of all those yet to come. Sarva Mangalam”
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Sep 08, 2019 5:20 am

Sayadaw U Thila Wunta
by Dharma Fellowship of His Holiness the Gyalwa Karmapa
Accessed: 9/7/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
Sayadaw U Thila Wunta with student, U Khema Sera

U Thila Wunta, the teacher of Namgyal Rinpoche, came from the Mon State of Burma. He was born 28 June 1912. He began his training at a monastery school in 1919. At the age of 15 he took the vows of a monk. In May 1932 he received full ordination as a Bhikshu in the Theravada Order under the direction of Kyaw Sayadaw.1 He spent his first three month retreat at Htan-bin Monastery near Wekalaung Village.

Between the years 1933 and 1938 he practiced meditation under the supervision of Sayadaw U Narada of Payagyi Monastery, Sayadaw U Ariya of Ahlei Taik Monastery, and Sayadaw U Pyin Nyein Da of Aung Mye Bonzan Monastery. These three Sayadaws were all renowned scholars and meditators.

U Thila Wunta settled for some time near the great Shve Dagon Pagoda, in Rangoon. It is generally believed by Buddhists that certain holy sites or "power spots" are especially conducive for progress in meditation. Experience has shown that meditation is not only easier, but that insight dawns much faster, when practice is carried out at such places. Further, because many beings over the centuries have themselves realized Enlightenment at these special holy sites, it is felt that a residue vibration of their presences remains there. The Shve Dagon Pagoda at Rangoon is one of the world's most special power places.

In 1941 the war forced U Thila Wunta to leave Rangoon for his native Mon State, where he remained until the end of hostilities. In early 1946 he returned to Rangoon, where he took up residence in a grass hut again not far from the great Shve Dagon Pagoda. In May of 1947 he was given another small meditation hut by some devout lay-people living in Kapili Kwathi on the west side of the Shve Dagon. There he spent the rainy reason practicing meditation with eight fellow monks.

At the end of 1947 he set out for Mandalay so as to pursue further meditation practice at Mahatmya-muni Pagoda, which is a famous holy site in Mandalay.

Image
Sayadaw U Thila Wunta

While struggling with his meditation at Mahatma-muni Pagoda, U Thila Wunta met a disciple of Bodaw Aung Min Gaung. The latter had a reputation as a fully realized Burmese saint.

Bodaw Aung Min Gaung was a great meditator in the Weizzer forest-tradition of Burma. In Burma "weizzers" are known as persons having wisdom, masters of Wisdom (Skt: vidya), or the "Wise Ones". 2

Bodaw Aung Min Gaung was a master who not only knew how to teach meditation but one who had himself acquired full realization. He was a truly liberated being. Inspired by what he heard about Bodaw Aung Min Gaung, U Thila Wunta traveled to Popa to meet the master in person. This meeting brought about a radical change in his understanding. To fully focus on his practice, he went into solitary retreat in the forest, wandering from village to village for food but otherwise living entirely alone.

Upon U Thila Wunta's eventual return to Rangoon, a pious layman named U Pho Nweh donated five acres of land in the hope that U Thila Wunta would restore an ancient, broken stupa (pagoda) on the property. Initially U Thila Wunta thought that this would distract him from his meditation practice, but his guru Bodaw Aung Ming Gaung advised him to go ahead and accept the gift.

U Pho Nweh, his brothers, sisters, and entire extended family, supported the restoration of the old pagoda, both with money and with labour. The work began on 13 January 1949. That was the start of a project that has continued throughout U Thila Wunta's entire life up to the present. Today, surrounding the reconstructed central pagoda, there are now some 174 smaller pagodas. Buildings for monks and lay meditators have also sprung up throughout the grounds. The original five acres has been transformed over the years into a thriving monastic complex, known as Dat Pon Zon Aung Min Gaung Monastery, firmly centered in the Weizzer meditation tradition.

In 1952 U Tilla Wunta went on pilgrimage to Bodh Gaya and other holy sites of Buddhism. In Sri Lanka he visited the great monastery of Anuradhapura. At Mihintali he meditated on the same ground where Mahendra (Mahinda), the princely son of Emperor Asoka, attained enlightenment. He went to Rajgriha, the 'Vulture's Peak, where legend says that Buddha Sakyamuni taught the Prajnaparamita-sutra, the practice of Transcendental Wisdom. From Rajgriha he went to Sarnath, the site where the Buddha spoke his very first teaching on the four Truths and the eightfold Spiritual Path. After that pilgrimage, U Thila Wunta returned to Rangoon and spent the next five years in meditation at the base of a tree on the grounds of Dat Pon Zon Monastery.

Image
Sayadaw U Thila Wunta

After U Thila Wunta attained awakening, he began a number of extensive trips around the world. Starting in 1955 the venerable Sayadaw visited Thailand, Nepal, and India. In India he went to Lumbini, Sarnath, Jammu, Sravasti, Kusinara, Darjeeling, and again Bodh Gaya, the holiest site of all. At Bodh Gaya he performed an intensive 49 day meditation retreat. He then returned via Thailand to his native land. In the meantime his little monastery had grown to accommodate twenty monks.

The Sayadaw U Thila Wunta has dedicated his life to teaching the profound method of meditation that he learned under the compassionate guidance of Bodaw Aung Min Gaung. He has trained an exemplary group of men in the discipline of a Buddhist monk, and he has encouraged many Buddhist lay men and women to take up the practice of meditation. His fame in Burma, where he is looked upon as a living Arhat, an enlightened Master, is very great indeed. Many miracles are attributed to him. The impersonal goodness, compassion and wisdom that seem to radiate from his presence are tangible. Everyone who has had the blessed fortune to meet U Thila Wunta has felt that they were in the exceptional presence of an extraordinary human saint.

Namgyal Rinpoche's teacher U Thila Wunta was an austere, old man of great presence and power. The depth of his wisdom was written all over his aged face, and the intensity of his love was like a tangible force.

Footnotes

1 The title Sayadaw (Skt: Upadhyaya, Tib: Khenpo) means "preceptor" or "abbot". When one goes for ordination in the Buddhist tradition, of the five or more monks necessary for an ordination service, the two of most importance for the applicant is one's Preceptor, or Upadhyaya, and one's Teacher (Acharn or Acarya).

2 It is thanks to Mr. L. Olmstead, a long time student of U Tilla Wunta, that we have been able to correct some of the earlier statements that we made in the biographical sketch of this great man. Mr. Olmstead kindly pointed out, "You mentioned Sayadaw's teacher, Bodaw Aung Min Guang (aka Bo Minguang) being a practitioner of the forest tradition of Phra Acharn Mun. This is incorrect." The term "weizzer" derives from the Pali word "vijja" meaning wisdom or awareness, according to L. Olmstead. It was the weizzer tradition that Bodaw Aung Min Guang passed on to the venerable Sayadaw U Thilawunta. We are pleased to now correct an error in our original text.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Sep 08, 2019 5:40 am

The English Sangha Trust: History
by Amaravati.org
Accessed: 9/7/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.




The English Sangha Trust (EST) is the legal charitable body, originally established in 1956, that serves to steward donations given to the Sangha (monastic community). This is the body that in 1977 owned the Hampstead Vihara, which had no sangha in residence, and then invited Ajahn Sumedho to come from Thailand; thus began Ajahn Sumedho’s efforts to establish the Thai Forest tradition outside Thailand.

Image
Hampstead Vihara in 1978. From L to R: visiting Roshi, Ajahn Sumedho, George Sharp, Ajahn Chah, Ajahn Kemadhammo

Once the EST had a resident sangha in Hampstead, decision-making power was vested in the sangha. Then in 1979, after a donation to the sangha of 96 acres of forest in West Sussex, the sangha decided to move to Sussex. The EST then acquired Chithurst House and sold the Hampstead Vihara. Five years later, when the burgeoning resident sangha of monks and nuns at Chithurst (Cittaviveka) needed more space, the sangha and the EST decided to purchase the site that is now Amaravati.

Listen how the Sangha came to England by George Sharp
Amaravati 1
Amaravati 30 Years, by Ajahn Amaro, Ajahn Sumedho, George Sharp Amaravati 2014
Amaravati 2
How the Sangha Came to England – Interview (Part 1 of 3), by George Sharp

[George Sharp] When Ven. Sujita asked me to give a talk about how things began, how I began here, I was really quite interested because I’ve never heard this story, actually. And I sort of visit a memory here and there, you know, when we are talking about things, discussing this or that event, but to actually go from the beginning through – I’ve never done it. And what is more, I’ve made no preparation. And I could get the dates wrong on chronology and things, but I’ll do my best.

1956 was when the English Sangha Trust was formed, principally by Bhikku Kapilavaddho, who was formerly known as – and he had two names, I don’t know why -- one was William Purfurst, and Richard Randall. I know that he had a wife whose name was Ruth Randall, and I never heard of any lady with the name Purfurst, but I do know that he was a reporter, or a journalist and photographer, and that’s basically all I know. I don’t know how he came to be interested in Buddhism, but what I’m sure is that he was a man of considerable imagination and courage, and probably a great romantic at heart, because he tried to do something truly exceptional, which was to actually form a sangha, with basically four Bhikkus, in this country, and to try to get it going.

So the original trust deed that was prepared is the same one – it was never amended – that the Bhikkus, the sangha uses today.

Kapilavaddho, Ven (William Purfurst, 1906-71): Founder of English Sangha Trust. Born Hanwell, Middlesex (UK). Dissatisfied with business life, began studying psychology, philosophy, etc.; went to London (on foot) and became photographer in Fleet St.; found a teacher to instruct him in Yoga and Vedanta; developed a color printing process; took up sculpture. 1939: official war photographer, then fireman during Blitz; met U Thittila whose pupil he became; got married; finally photographer with RAF [Royal Air Force]. After war began serious Buddhist studies with U Thittila at Buddhist Society (then in Great Russell Street) covering Sutta, Vinaya, and Abhidahamma. Began lecturing on Buddhism; founded Manchester Buddhist Society 1952; adopted anagarika status (with permission of wife); later became Samanera Dhammananada under U Thittila; worked for Buddhist Society; continued lecturing and founded societies in Oxford and Cambridge; also Buddhist Summer School. Later resigned samanera status and took job in Surrey hotel as barman to raise finance to go to Thailand. 1954: received lower and higher ordinations (single ceremony) in Thailand (name based on “Kapilavatthu,” Buddha’s home town; means “he who spreads the Dhamma”); surprised Thai Sangha with his knowledge, especially of Abhidamma and Pali languages; successfully practiced intensive samatha and vipassana meditation. Returned to UK, to London Buddhist Vihara, Knightsbridge, with intention of establishing English Sangha. 1955: to Thailand with 3 British samaneras (Robert Albison, George Blake, and Peter Morgan). 1956: triple ordination at Wat Paknam under Ven. Chao Khun Bhavanakosol – the core of an English Sangha. Returned to UK; acquired house in London; English Sangha Trust founded; period of great activity. 1957: due to ill health, disrobed; changed name to Richard Randall; married Ruth Lester; remained 10 years in obscurity. 1967: returned to robe at Wat Buddhapadipa under Ven. Chao Khun Sobhana Dhammasudhi; took over Hampstead Buddhist Vihara (then renamed Wat Dhammapadipa). Again disrobed. 1971: married Jacqueline Gray [Scott].

-- The Buddhist Handbook: A Complete Guide to Buddhist Schools, Teaching, Practice, and History, by John Snelling


-- How the Sangha Came to England – Interview (Part 1 of 3), by George Sharp


Amaravati 3
How the Sangha Came to England – Interview (Part 2 of 3), by George Sharp
Amaravati 4
How the Sangha Came to England – Q and A (Part 3 of 3), by George Sharp

Image
Amaravati in the 1980s. The temple & cloisters is currently where you see the empty square in the middle

Strategic priorities

To this day the EST legally owns and manages both Cittaviveka and Amaravati monasteries and its priorities remain focused on them and their resident sangha:

• to purchase land that may support the existing monastic properties;
• to maintain the supply and good order of the four requisites (shelter, food, clothing and medicinal needs) for the sangha in the two monasteries;
• developing the monasteries in terms of buildings, land and physical structures in accordance with the wishes of the resident monastics. At Amaravati this is now being implemented through a wholly-owned subsidiary called Amaravati Developments Ltd (ADL). Details can be found here.
• to facilitate such publications in any format, as are produced or approved of by the resident monastics.

Image
Model of proposed redevelopment of Amaravati. Notice the retreat centre, Bhikku Vihara & Sala will have different shaped buildings.

Stewardship

All funds given (donated) to those two monasteries are held and managed by the EST. The legal structure of the EST is that of a Charitable Company limited by twelve shares all held by monastics. There are also up to nine lay trustees. The sangha shareholders include the Abbots of Cittaviveka and Amaravati, and monks and nuns elected by the monastics representing both monasteries. The lay trustees are chosen by the sangha, and since the monastic discipline prohibits the monks and nuns from making direct financial decisions, the lay trustees are vested with the responsibility of making final decisions over allocation of finances, in accordance with the needs and wishes of the monastics.

The EST submits statutory annual accounts and returns to Companies House and the Charity Commission for England and Wales; these can be downloaded from the respective websites. As a Company and Charity the EST is also responsible for implementing the requirements of a range of bodies on subjects from tax, insurance, health and safety, child protection, immigration and fire prevention, to re-cycling.

The following link is a leaflet given out annually with a summary of Amaravati’s current activities and plans, its running costs and information on ways to help, which could include bringing a contribution such as food, making a donation, or even offering your services in some capacity (driving, gardening, etc).

EST Annual Leaflet for Amaravati 2016-2017 – PDF

Sub-groups

The EST has a Finance Sub-Committee to advise on detailed management of its finances.

At Cittaviveka all day-to-day affairs are managed through the Cittaviveka Advisory Group (CAG).

The EST is also the steward for the Amaravati Retreat Centre.

The trustee directors

The lay trustees are all friends of the sangha who have been practising for a number of years and all have specialist skills in management, finance and related subjects. They are appointed for up to three years at a time. The current lay trustees are

• John Stevens – Chair
• Caroline Leinster – Trust Secretary
• Kazuko Kawamura
• Sudanta Abeyakoon
• Nicholas Carroll

You are welcome to contact the EST by using the form below.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Sep 09, 2019 8:05 am

Hugh Edward Richardson
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/9/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


TIBETAN REFUGEES

Sir. – Recent devastating events in Tibet caused over 15,000 Tibetans to cross the perilous Himalayas into India. It may be a long time before these unfortunate people can safely return to their overrun country. Our own consciences should allow us neither to neglect nor forget them.

The Indian Government has manfully coped with this addition to its own problems at home. In this country we are bound in honour to help relieve needs of the Tibetan refugees, because from 1905 to 1947 there was a special relationship between Tibet and the United Kingdom – a relationship handed on to the new India.

On balance we think it wisest to concentrate chiefly on collecting money which can be used for the benefit of the refugees, not least in the purchase of necessary antibiotics and other medicaments. The Tibet Society has opened a Tibet Relief Fund for which we now appeal in the hope of a generous response. Donations should be sent to the address below or direct to the National Bank Ltd. (Belgravia Branch), 21 Grosvenor Gardens, S.W.I.

Yours faithfully,

... Hugh E. Richardson ... The Tibet Relief Fund, 58 Eccleston Square, S.W. I., Letter to the Times, July 28, 1959.

-- Tibet Society, by tibetsociety.com


Image
Hugh Richardson
CIE OBE FBA
Hugh Richardson, 1936, Tibet
Born 22 December 1905
St. Andrews
Died 3 December 2000 (aged 94)
Nationality British
Occupation: Diplomat, tibetologist
Spouse(s) Huldah Rennie, m. 1951
Parent(s) Colonel Hugh Richardson
Awards Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE)
Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE)
Light of Truth Award
Honorary Fellow of the British Academy (FBA)

Image
Hugh Richardson in Tibet 1940/ 1941 said, '"Maru the pony. A good one, my dear pony"[1]

Image
Tibetan friends gather at the British Residency in Lhasa called Dekyi Lingka, 9 September 1933

Image
11 January 1943 signing of the Treaty Between His Majesty in Respect of the United Kingdom and India and His Excellency the President of the National Government of the Republic of China for the Relinquishment of Extra-Territorial Rights in China and the Regulation of Related Matters, became effective 20 May 1943. Front row (left to right): Wellington Koo, Horace James Seymour, T. V. Soong, Hugh Edward Richardson, Wu Guozhen

Hugh Edward Richardson CIE OBE FBA (22 December 1905 – 3 December 2000[2]) was an Indian Civil Service officer, British diplomat and Tibetologist. His academic work focused on the history of the Tibetan empire, and in particular on epigraphy. He was among the last Europeans to have known Tibet and its society before the Chinese invasions which began in 1950.

Biography and career

Born in St. Andrews, Fife, the son of a British Army medical officer, Richardson studied classics at Keble College, Oxford.[3] He entered the Indian Civil Service on 9 October 1930.[4] Transferring to the Foreign and Political Service of the Government of India, Richardson was posted to Baluchistan as an Assistant Political Agent. In July 1936, he was appointed as the British Trade Agent at Gyantse. He represented Britain in Lhasa, capital of Tibet, from 1936 to 1940 and again from 1946 to 1950, in the final years having become the diplomatic representative of the recently independent India.

Of the Tibetan government during his time in Lhasa, Richardson said:

"My counterparts were...experienced negotiators. . .and masters of procrastination and evasion, and might assume the cloak of simple people with no experience of the outside world. . .There could be no doubt I was dealing with ministers of a government that was completely independent in both its internal and external affairs."
[/quote][/quote]

Like many ICS officers, Richardson was an accomplished linguist who spoke Bengali fluently, a skill he put to use when conversing with Rabindranath Tagore, and his fluent Tibetan was described by the Tibetan politician Tsepon W.D. Shakabpa as "impeccable Lhasa Tibetan with a slight Oxford accent."[5] As Secretary to the Agent-General for India at Chungking, he was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 1944 New Year Honours list, and was further appointed a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) on 14 August 1947, in the last imperial honours list.[6][7] After Indian independence, Richardson remained in the renamed Indian Administrative Service, serving in Lhasa until his retirement in September 1950. After his retirement from public service he taught in Seattle and Bonn. He subsequently returned to St. Andrews and spent the remainder of his life as an independent scholar.

He was an advocate of the right of Tibetans to a separate political existence, a case he made in two books, Tibet and Its History (1962) and A Cultural History of Tibet (1968), and at the United Nations when the issue of Chinese oppression of Tibet was raised by the Irish Republic, represented by Frank Aiken, during the 1959 UN General Assembly debate on Tibet. There, in the words of one commentator, "he acted valiantly as a man of honour in a cause which has been largely lost because of the notions of political expediency, where sides are taken without regard to principle and in order not to risk aligning oneself with a potential loser, however deserving he may be" – a position which reportedly earned him the displeasure of both the British and Indian delegations to the UN Assembly.[8] He remained a close personal friend of the 14th Dalai Lama and of the Tibetan government-in-exile until his death, with the latter describing Richardson as "very precious to us/"

He later wrote: "The British government, the only government among Western countries to have had treaty relations with Tibet, sold the Tibetans down the river and since then have constantly cold-shouldered the Tibetans so that in 1959 they could not even support a resolution in the UN condemning the violation of human rights in Tibet by the Chinese."

Richardson also said that he was "profoundly ashamed",[9] not only at the British government's refusal to recognise that Tibet had a right to self-determination, but also at the government's treatment of the 14th Dalai Lama.[10]

Personal interests

"His hobbies were ornithology, botany and gardening and he was also an enthusiastic photographer. Another of Richardson's passions was golf, which he introduced to Tibet, although he noted that the ball tended to travel 'rather too far in the thin air'."[11]

Works

• 1949 “Three ancient inscriptions from Tibet” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal 15, (1949): 45–64.
• 1952. Ancient historical edicts at Lhasa and the Mu Tsung / Khri Gtsung Lde Brtsan treaty of A.D. 821–822 from the inscription at Lhasa. London: Royal Asiatic Society Prize Publication Fund 19, 1952.
• 1952–3 “Tibetan inscriptions at Zva-hi Lha Khang” London: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, (1952): 133–54 (1953): 1–12.
• 1954 “A ninth-century inscription from Rkong-po.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. London, (1954): 157–73.
• 1957 “A Tibetan Inscription from Rgyal Lha-khang” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society London, (1957): 57–78.
• 1964 “A new inscription of Khri Srong Lde Brtans.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society London. (1964): 1–13.
• 1965a "How old was Srong-brtsan Sgam-po ?", Bulletin of Tibetology, vol. 2, no. 1, 6–8. Repr. in Richardson 1998: 3–6.
• 1965b "A fragment from Tun-huang", Bulletin of Tibetology, vol. 2, no. 3, 33–38. Repr. in Richardson 1998: 7–11.
• 1968 with David Snellgrove. A Cultural History of Tibet. 1995 2nd Edition with changes. Shambhala. Boston & London. ISBN 1-57062-102-0.
• 1969 "The inscription at the Tomb of Khri Lde Srong Btsan", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1969): 29–38
• 1969b "Tibetan chis and tschis." Asia Major 14 (1969): 154–6.
• 1972 "The rKong-po Inscription." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society London. (1972): 30–39.
• 1973 "The Skar-cung inscription." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. (1973): 12–20.
• 1974 Ch'ing Dynasty Inscriptions at Lhasa. (Serie Orientale Roma v. 47). Rome: Instituto italiano per l'africa e l'oriente. 1974.
• 1978 “The Sino-Tibetan treaty inscription of A.D. 821/823 at Lhasa.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society: (1978): 137–62.
• 1982 "Memories of Tshurphu", Bulletin of Tibetology, Vol. 18, No.1, 1982: Karmapa Commemoration Volume, Repr. in Richardson 1998, pp: 730–733.
• 1983 “Bal-po and Lho-bal” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 46 (1983): 136–8.
• 1985. A corpus of Early Tibetan Inscriptions. (James G. Forlong Series no. 29). Hertford: Royal Asiatic Society, 1985. ISBN 0-947593-00-4.
• 1987 "Early Tibetan Inscriptions: Some Recent Discoveries” The Tibet Journal 12.2.Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan works and archives, (1987): 3–15. (reprinted with 2 short notes added) Bulletin of Tibetology n.s. 3. Gangtok Sikkim Research Institute of Tibetology, (1987): 5–18. High Peaks, Pure Earth. London: Serindia, 1998: 261–275.
• 1988 “More Early Inscriptions from Tibet” Bulletin of Tibetology. New Series 2. Gangtok Sikkim Research Institute of Tibetology. (1988): 5–8. High Peaks, Pure Earth. London: Serindia, 1998: 276–278.
• 1989 "Early Tibetan law concerning dog-bite", Bulletin of Tibetology, new ser. 3, 5–10. Repr. in Richardson 1998: 135–139.
• 1990 "Hunting accidents in early Tibet", Tibet Journal, 15-4, 5–27. Repr. in Richardson 1998: 149–166.
• 1995a “The Tibetan Inscription attributed to Ye shes ‘od” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 3rd Series 5.3. (1995): 403–404.
• 1995b “The inscription at Ra-tshag Dgon-pa” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 58 (1995): 534–9; High Peaks, Pure Earth. London: Serindia, 1998: 286–291.
• 1997 Adventures of Tibetan Fighting Monk with Khedrup Tashi, White Orchid Books; ISBN 974-87368-7-3, Orchid Press, 2006, ISBN 974-8299-17-1
• 1998 High peaks, pure earth: collected writings on Tibetan history and culture, Serindia publications, London.

Footnotes

1. http://www.inetlab.co.uk, David Harris,. "Hugh Richardson in Tibetan clothes mounted on a horse". University of Oxford. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
2. Douglas, Ed (5 January 2001). ""Our Last Man in Lhasa, He Brought Unrivalled Knowledge of Tibet to Warnings of Chinese Ambitions" The Guardian (London), 5 January 2001 (obituary)". tibet.ca. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2017. In fact, Richardson's greatest threat to the Chinese was his objective observation of the labyrinthine world of Tibetan politics and his deep understanding of Tibetan culture. When he argued that Tibet had been an independent state before its occupation by the Chinese, he did so with immense authority.
3. Daily Telegraph: Obituary (9 December 2000)
4. The London Gazette, 7 November 1930
5. Our Last Man In Lhasa, He Brought Unrivalled Knowledge Of Tibet To Warnings Of Chinese Ambitions
6. The London Gazette, 1 January 1944
7. The London Gazette, 1 January 1948
8. Obituary – Dr Hugh Richardson
9. French 2003
10. My Direct Experience of Independence Tibet 1936–49 Archived 22 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
11. "Biography of Hugh Richardson (1905–2000)". Pitt River Museum. Retrieved 29 October 2013.

References

• Tibetan Studies in Honour of Hugh Richardson. Edited by Michael Aris and Aung San Suu Kyi, p. 284. (1979). Vikas Publishing house, New Delhi.
• French, Patrick. Tibet, Tibet: A Personal History of a Lost Land (2003) Knopf. ISBN 1-4000-4100-7
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Sep 09, 2019 9:03 am

Committee for a Free Asia
by Central Intelligence Agency
December 13, 1951
Declassified and Released by Central Intelligence Agency Sources Methods Exemption ___ Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act, Date 2007

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


13 December 1951

SUBJECT: Committee for a Free Asia

It is agreed by both the Department of State and CIA that there is a real job to be done in Asia by CFA [Committee for a Free Asia] – a job that State cannot do through USIS [United States Information Service] and ECA [Economic Cooperation Administration].

Until more experience is gained by CFA – particularly through its field organizations – it will not be possible to specifically define all type of activities which it should undertake. It is therefore considered important that CFA operations get underway promptly, providing, of course, that they do not compete with USIS activities nor conflict with national policies.

The revised operating program of CFA, dated December 4, 1951, (Attachment 1), is therefore approved providing that it is implemented in accordance with the policies and instructions set forth in memorandum, subject The Committee for a Free Asia, dated December 12, 1951, (Attachment 2); and provided that close coordination in the field and in Washington is maintained.

***

13 December 1951

DRAFT

The Committee for a Free Asia

General Policies


1. Although initially it will not be possible, CFA should work toward removing the U.S. label – private and public – from its operations and take on an Asian coloration.

2. CFA activities including RFA should be decentralized as far as possible and transferred from San Francisco to Asian countries.

3. CFA should operate as far as possible through local groups comprised of selected Asian leaders.

4. CFA should generally not undertake activities of the kind presently carried on or planned by USIS or other official overt U.S. agencies. The type of activities within the cognizance of USIS are set forth in Appendix A. However, there may be some occasions in which CFA can either take a more strident line or slant material of the type normally produced by USIS in a way which would not be appropriate to USIS. However, the USIS line has toughened and this area in which CFA can operate and in which USIS cannot has narrowed. There may also be certain activities of the type set forth in Appendix 1, which CFA may be able to undertake in certain areas more appropriately that USIS. Through close coordination in the field and in Washington, these may be spelled out and non-duplication insured.

Priorities

1. Priorities set forth in the Operating Program should be modified so that first priority is given to the Overseas Chinese with a view to:

a. Developing leaders who are friendly to the United States who will be able to communicate with and ultimately influence other Chinese overseas and on the China mainland.

b. Denying leaders, professional, and other key personnel to the Communists.

c. Assisting where possible in the rescue and relocation of key Chinese who are presently homeless and starving.

d. Developing personnel who might be trained for intelligence stay-behind or other missions.

2. Additional emphasis should also be placed on establishing a field organization.

Radio Free Asia

RFA should be guided by the general policies set forth above. More specifically:

1. RFA should phase out broadcasts which bear the U.S. label from San Francisco. RFA should be a voice of Asia.

2. RFA should generally avoid the kind of program which VOA [Voice of America] broadcasts and for which the U.S. Government can accept responsibility, (in this regard there are few restrictions to be placed on VOA as respects the toughness of its anti-Communist line).

3. Operations should be transferred to Asia and decentralized as far as possible so that broadcasts can be made under the sponsorship of local groups through local stations, as near as possible to the target audience. Broadcasts should be made via medium wave where possible.

4. Example of the kinds of activities which can be undertaken by RFA and which can not be appropriately handled by VOA are:

a. Broadcasts designed to influence political elections.

b. Broadcasts aimed at assisting specific local labor, youth, teachers, women or other groups, whose goals are consistent with long range U.S. interests.

c. Influencing the development of leadership by giving hearing to selected leaders and withholding it from others.

d. Openly encouraging the subversion of the Chinese Communist Government.

e. Take stands against specific persons and specific groups: the corruption of a Tony Quirino; the leaders of communist dominated unions.

f. Act as a transmitter of black “plants” and “twisted” stories, under specifically defined controls.

g. Encourage debates and discussions loaded as required.

5. It is recognized that news such as that provided by PANA and features such as those already broadcast directly by RFA remain important aspects of a gray psychological warfare program as well as audience-gaining assets. RFA will follow the general principle, however, of furnishing such news and features to local groups for their use rather than for direct production under the RFA label.

It is considered that the development of a strictly Asian commercial newsgathering organization, specializing in local news and not seemingly subsidized by a U.S. instrumentality, is advantageous to the U.S. Government as a whole as well as to the over-all objectives and activities of the Committee.

APPENDIX I

* Listed below are examples of activities undertaken by the Department of State and/or ECA. Normally the association of such activities with the U.S. government is either acknowledged or if not, the association if it became known would not embarrass the U.S. government or discredit the activity.

a. The Voice of America broadcasts.

b. Contracts for purchase of published materials for overt distribution abroad, including subscriptions to magazines, purchase of additional copies of books, pamphlets or other printed material prepared by foreign organizations, publishing houses, trade unions, et cetera.

c. Contracts for dissemination of information materials such as posters, pamphlets, or leaflets, motion picture films, still photos, exhibits, et cetera.

d. Contracts with publishers, motion picture producers, and other producers of information media for production of materials for foreign distribution.

e. Direct production and dissemination of material which may be attributed to the United States Government without serious embarrassment or produced and/or disseminated without attribution to any source.

* Extracted from USIS publication dated November 1, 1951, Subject: USIS and Indigenous Operations.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Sep 09, 2019 9:13 am

The Asia Foundation
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/9/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
The Asia Foundation
Motto "Strengthen governance, empower woman, expand economic opportunities, increase environmental resilience, promote international cooperation"
Formation 1954
Type Nonprofit organization
Headquarters San Francisco, CA, United States
President and CEO
David D. Arnold
Revenue (2015)
$113,177,863[1]
Expenses (2015) $109,163,737[1]
Website http://www.asiafoundation.org

The Asia Foundation is a nonprofit international development organization committed to "improving lives across a dynamic and developing Asia."[2] Informed by six decades of experience and deep local expertise, its programs address critical issues affecting Asia in the 21st century—governance and law, economic development, women's empowerment, environment, and regional cooperation. Headquartered in San Francisco, The Asia Foundation works through a network of 18 offices in 18 Asian countries and in Washington, DC.

The "Committee For Free Asia" was founded in 1951 as a CIA operation.[3] Its name was changed to "The Asia Foundation" in 1954.[4] The Foundation marked its 60 years of experience in Asia working with private and public partners in the areas of leadership and institutional development, exchanges, and policy research.[5] Starting January 1, 2011, David D. Arnold serves as president of the Foundation.[6] The Foundation is governed by an eminent and well-known group of private sector trustees.

Origins

"The Asia Foundation (TAF), a Central Intelligence Agency proprietary, was established in 1954 to undertake cultural and educational activities on behalf of the United States Government in ways not open to official U.S. agencies."[18]

The Asia Foundation is an outgrowth of the Committee for a Free Asia, which was founded by the U.S. government in 1951.[19] CIA funding and support of the Committee for a Free Asia and the Asia Foundation were assigned the CIA code name "Project DTPILLAR".[20]

In 1954, the Committee for a Free Asia was renamed the Asia Foundation (TAF) and incorporated in California[21] as a private, nominally non-governmental organization devoted to promoting democracy, rule of law, and market-based development in post-war Asia.

Among the original founding officers of the board, there were several presidents/chairmen of large companies including T.S. Peterson, CEO of Standard Oil of California (now Chevron), Brayton Wilbur, president of Wilbur-Ellis Co., and J.D. Zellerbach, chairman of the Crown Zellerbach Corporation; four university presidents including Grayson Kirk from Columbia, J.E. Wallace Sterling of Stanford, and Raymond Allen from UCLA; prominent attorneys including Turner McBaine and A. Crawford Greene; Pulitzer Prize-winning writer James Michener; Paul Hoffman, the first administrator of the Marshall Plan in Europe; and several major figures in foreign affairs.

In 1966, Ramparts revealed that the CIA was covertly funding a number of organizations, including the Asia Foundation.[18] A commission authorized by President Johnson and led by Secretary of State Rusk determined that the Asia Foundation should be preserved and overtly funded by the US government. Following this change, the US government described the Asia Foundation as a "quasi-nongovernmental organizations" and said that "the core of its budget" was still provided by the US government.[22] The Foundation began to restructure its programming, shifting away from its earlier goals of "building democratic institutions and encouraging the development of democratic leadership" toward an emphasis on Asian development as a whole (CRS 1983).


Impact

The Asia Foundation works with local leaders and communities to build effective institutions and advance reforms. Across Asia, the nonprofit organization is improving lives and expanding opportunities by:

• Providing 50 million books to tens of thousands of schools, libraries, and universities.[7]
• Organizing nationwide election monitoring and voter education to ensure free and fair elections and strengthen democracy in virtually every Asian country that has undergone a democratic transition over the past six decades.
• Educating more than a million migrant workers in over one thousand factories in China's Pearl River Delta on their legal rights, safety, and personal health.[8]
• Protecting the basic rights of women through our work to counter human trafficking, fight gender-based violence, increase political participation, and strengthen legal systems.[9]
• Providing life-changing professional opportunities for newly emerging Asian leaders.[10]
• Reducing the human and financial toll of natural disasters by equipping government officials, businesses, and community leaders in disaster planning and response.[11]
• Creating jobs by improving the business climate and reducing red tape for local entrepreneurs and small businesses.
• Reducing violence through peacebuilding efforts in some of the most entrenched conflict zones in the region, including Southern Thailand, Pakistan, Mindanao, and Sri Lanka.[12]
• Conducting ground-breaking empirical surveys to assess the quality and responsiveness of government services, patterns of corruption, and levels of violence, including the most comprehensive public opinion poll in Afghanistan.[13]

Global presence

The Asia Foundation addresses issues on both a country and regional level through a network of 18 offices around the world.[14] In cooperation with local partners in government and civil society, the Foundation's international and local staff provide insight and program on a variety of development challenges. Besides its headquarters in San Francisco and an office in Washington, D.C., it has a presence in the following Asian nations:

• Afghanistan
• Bangladesh
• Cambodia
• China
• East Timor
• Hong Kong
• India
• Indonesia
• Japan
• Korea
• Laos
• Malaysia
• Mongolia
• Myanmar
• Nepal
• Pacific Islands
• Pakistan
• Philippines
• Singapore
• Sri Lanka
• Taiwan
• Thailand
• Vietnam

Program areas

Governance and law

The Asia Foundation's largest program area – governance and law – develops and supports initiatives that build more effective and responsive governance in Asia. The Foundation cooperates with a broad network of partners in government, civil society, and the private sector to improve governing institutions in order to help accelerate economic and social change, reduce corruption, manage conflict, and increase citizen participation.

Its sub-programming areas include:

• Governance (local/municipal governance, counter corruption, central executive institutions, parliamentary development, constitutional development)
• Law and Justice (strengthening and reform of formal and informal law and justice mechanisms, supporting efforts to increased community safety and security, particularly through community-oriented policing, and programs aimed specifically at empowering and protecting the rights of marginalized populations)
• Conflict and Fragile Conditions (subnational conflict, peacebuilding, and civil military relations)
• Elections (free and fair elections and democratic practice, open flows of information, and political parties)

Women's empowerment

While women in Asia have made steady gains in recent years, gender inequality remains a significant problem. For 60 years, The Asia Foundation has supported women and girls across the Asia-Pacific region. Its Women's Empowerment Program was established in 1994 and has transformed the lives of thousands of women and girls through significant programs that focus on three key areas: expanding women's economic opportunities, increasing women's personal rights and security, and advancing women's political participation. The Foundation supports an integrated and coordinated approach that integrates gender into its work in governance, economic development, regional cooperation, and the environment.[15]

Development and aid effectiveness

Development and aid effectiveness is a way through which the Asia Foundation brings together both their long standing and emerging donors and experts of development to have an exchange of ideas on how to best resolve key challenges in development; examples of this include the Fourth High Level Forum on Aid and Effectiveness and Asian Approaches to Development Cooperation. In these seminars and forums the Asia Foundation successful creates an open dialogue among the participants resulting in collaborative and cooperative approach to dealing with issues of development in Asia. A crucial element of this program is that it is brings together government official, policy makers, philanthropists all to one table—an approach missing from most NGOs who operate solely on implementing programs that their organizations initiate and support. Nina Merchant describes the role of Rigorous Impact analysis in the Foundations

Economic development

The Asia Foundation has a decades-long history of supporting broad-based economic growth across Asia through both public and private channels. The Foundation's Economic Development programs support Asian initiatives to enhance economic governance to accelerate and sustain inclusive economic growth and broaden economic opportunities through design and implementation in three core program areas: 1) improving the business environment for private sector growth, 2) advancing regional economic cooperation, and 3) supporting entrepreneurship development.

The Foundation works with local partners to design and implement program activities focusing on promoting investment and private enterprises, inclusive and equitable growth, empowering entrepreneurs and fostering intra and inter-regional trade by removing non-tariff barriers and strengthening domestic demand. From the sub-national level to regionally across borders, the Foundation is building coalitions for change that result in better business environments, job creation, and lasting change for individuals, families and communities.

Economic Development Impacts:

• The Asia Foundation has developed a powerful set of research tools, like the Economic Governance Indices (EGIs), Business Climate Barometers, and Regulatory Impact Assessments, which measure the quality of local business environments and the costs associated with poor policies. By identifying the strengths and weaknesses of business environments, local business owners and public officials are better able to identify and address specific areas for improvement. To date, the Foundation has developed EGIs in Bangladesh, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and Indonesia.
• The Asia Foundation has facilitated multi-stakeholder public-private coalitions to address issues hindering economic and business growth, such as business forums to secure access to credit for entrepreneurs in Bangladesh, dialogues to simplify business licensing processes and reductions in local taxes and informal fees in Cambodia, and a regional forum to support Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) for regional integration in South-East Asia.

Books for Asia

Image
A building used to store English books donated by the Asia Foundation at the National Library of Vietnam

Since 1954, Books for Asia has donated more than 40 million books to libraries in dozens of Asian countries, impacting the lives of millions of Asians. In 2006 alone, Books for Asia donated 920,000 books and educational materials valued at $30 million to schools and educational institutions in 15 countries. Books for Asia's donations help inspire Asia's students, citizens, and future leaders by enhancing English-language capacity, sharpening vocational and research skills, improving their knowledge about America, and giving the gift of enhanced literacy to children. The Asia Foundation's experienced local staff throughout Asia allows the Books for Asia program to work with librarians and educators to identify needs and appropriate materials, and to distribute requested books quickly and efficiently.

In 2005, Books for Asia's donations had a special focus on communities affected by the Asian tsunami in December 2004. Donations from publisher Scholastic, Inc., and a timely endorsement by the Association of American Publishers, helped Books for Asia respond to the urgent need for books in schools and libraries in Sri Lanka and Thailand that were devastated by the disaster. As these communities rebuild, Books for Asia will continue to provide access to children's books, with a total of more than 300,000 reaching affected schools by the end of 2006.

Books for Asia in Timor Leste

"Books for Asia" is one of the many initiatives that have been put forth by TAF. Under this program, one million brand-new books are put into the hands of students, educators, and local and national leaders in 18 countries annually. The Asia Foundation recognizes that books change lives and help shape young people's imaginations, critical thinking skills, and their understanding of the world. Therefore, they are recognized as powerful tools to combat poverty and inspire positive, long-lasting change.

The main objective of the program is to provide access to information through reading materials, and cultivating a culture of reading and literature and linking people together in today's world. Under TAF, resources are made available for the people in Timor-Leste to enhance their mastery of English language; sharpen vocational and research skills, build knowledge in the business, legal and sciences professions. This enables people in Timor-Leste, regardless of their age, to equip themselves with more knowledge and skills through reading. This project also seeks to infuse children with an early love for reading, which is critical to increasing literacy rates.

Since TAF's founding in 1954, 45 million books, software programs and other educational materials have been donated to tens of thousands of learning institutions. Each year, the Asia Foundation in Timor-Leste receives brand new, high quality books donated by prominent publishers in the U.S. These books are catalogued and distributed to the recipients in Timor-Leste based on requests as well as through book drives.

The Mobile Library Program also consistently extends the Books for Asia program and its outreach to a bigger community in Timor-Leste. Extensions of the program are achieved through routine visits to schools, libraries and universities in Timor-Leste. These materials will eventually improve the quality of educational institutions currently available in Timor-Leste. Apart from the Books for Asia program, the Foundation also supports initiatives that spur literacy, promote understanding of democratic principles and strengthen civic participation. For example, the Foundation supported events jointly organized by Alieu Training and Resource Center (A resource center in the rural area of Timor-Leste) and the Ministry of Education that encourages children to continue schooling by recognizing the children's accomplishments in their education. In 2007, the resource center conducted a speech contest for school children in the Aileu District; and in 2008 and 2009, reading contests for school children was held for the children in Aileu District

Today, the Asia Foundation's Books for Asia program in Timor-Leste has distributed 9,942 books to more than 40 public, school, university and local NGO libraries as well as government agencies. More than 3,000 of the books are allocated toward book fairs to help increase awareness about the important role of reading.

Exchanges

Through its Asian American Exchange unit, The Asia Foundation seeks to encourage greater understanding between Asians and Americans with the ultimate aim of contributing toward strengthened U.S.-Asia relations. For over six decades, Foundation grants have provided thousands of participants with opportunities to exchange views, professional perspectives, and gain direct experience with regions other than their own through high-quality tailored fellowships, study tours, workshops, and other programs. Notable programs include:

• The Foundation's Asian Perspectives Series and Emerging Issues Series brought Asian civil society leaders and policymakers to Washington, D.C. to discuss vital issues across the region.
• The Foundation's Ellsworth Bunker Asian Ambassadors Series, also organized by the Foundation's Washington office, brought together ambassadors from Asia and select U.S. government, business, policy, and media leaders.
• The Asia Foundation also continued its 30-year partnership with the Henry Luce Foundation to administer an internship program for young Americans with leadership potential. Since 1974, the Asia Foundation has developed and overseen placements for more than 700 Luce Scholars in East and Southeast Asia.[16]

Environment

The Asia Foundation's Environment program supports Asian initiatives to ensure the sustainability of the environment and natural resources critical to Asia's development and future well-being. The Foundation works with a broad range of local stakeholders including civil society, government, and the private sector to strengthen the institutions and processes through which environmental resources are managed, and to improve environmental policy. Areas where the Foundation is having an impact in Asia include: advancing responsible mining and natural resource management in Mongolia; increasing public participation and transparency in environmental decision-making in China; and preparing for natural disasters and climate change in the Pacific Islands, among others.

Regional cooperation

The Asia Foundation's Regional Cooperation program works to strengthen relations among Asian nations and their peoples in the effort to foster peace, stability, prosperity, and effective governance. Its focus includes fostering regional cooperation on critical issues in Southeast, Northeast, and South Asia; foreign policy capacity-building in select countries in developing Asia; providing life-changing opportunities for emerging leaders in the region; and facilitating policy dialogues on Asian affairs and U.S.-Asian relations in Washington.[17]


Board of Trustees

Officers of the Board of Trustees


• Sunder Ramaswamy, Chair of the Board and Executive Committee
• S. Timothy Kochis, Vice Chair of the Board and Executive Committee
• Kathleen Stephens, Vice Chair of the Board and Executive Committee
• Daniel F. Feldman, Treasurer of the Board and Executive Committee
• Teresita C. Schaffer, Secretary of the Board and Executive Committee
• David D. Arnold, President and Chief Executive Officer
• Suzanne E. Siskel, Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer
• Gordon Hein, Senior Vice President, Programs
• Nancy Yuan, Senior Vice President and Director, Washington, D.C.
• Ken Krug, Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer
• Amy Ovalle, Vice President, Global Communications
• Mandy Au Yeung, Assistant Secretary to the Board of Trustees[23]

Members of the Board of Trustees

• Terrence B. Adamson
• William L. Ball
• Howard L. Berman
• Robert O. Blake Jr.
• Jerome L. Dodson
• Elizabeth Economy
• Karl Eikenberry
• Ted Eliot III
• Daniel F. Feldman
• Winnie C. Feng
• Jared Frost
• Michael J. Green
• Noeleen Heyzer
• Karl F. Inderfurth
• Stephen Kahng
• Mark W. Lippert
• Clare Lockhart
• Patricia M. Loui
• Meredith Ludlow
• James D. McCool
• Janet Montag
• Moon Kook-Hyun
• Lauren Kahea Moriarty
• Adil Najam
• William H. Neukom
• Dustin Palmer
• Iromi Perera
• Ruby Shang
• Masako H. Shinn
• Deanne Weir[23]

Philanthropy

In 2006, the Asia Foundation provided more than $53 million in program support and distributed 920,000 books and educational materials valued at $30 million throughout Asia.

Reference

1. "The Asia Foundation" (PDF). Foundation Center. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
2. "The Asia Foundation: Improving Lives, Expanding Opportunities". Funds for NGOs. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
3. Crewdson, John (December 26, 1977). ""Worldwide Propaganda Network Built by the C.I.A."". New York Times. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
4. Best, Emma (November 2, 2017). ""The stolen history of the CIA and the Asian Foundation Financial records and declassified files reveal decades of distortions regarding the Agency's ties to the non-profit"". Muckrock. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
5. "Critical Issues Facing Asia: Marking 60 Years". World Affairs. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
6. Rogin, Josh (9 June 2010). "Arnold to lead the Asia Foundation". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-03-19. Retrieved 2015-03-20.
8. "Asia Foundation". China CSR Map. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
9. "Campaign theme". International Women’s Day. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
10. DE Vos, Manola (26 May 2014). "The next big thing in development: What Asia's young leaders think". Devex. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
11. Tri Thanh, Nguyen (18 April 2012). "To Reduce Impact of Natural Disasters, Vietnam Must Engage Small Businesses". The Asia Foundation. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
12. http://www.bangkokpost.com/opinion/opin ... tice-first
13. Allen, Karen (5 December 2013). "Survey on Afghan fears over corruption and security". BBC News. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
14. Duxbury, Sarah (7 June 2010). "Asia Foundation names new president". San Francisco Business Times. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
15. "USAID Supports Afghan Women-owned Businesses to Become More Competitive". USAID. 19 April 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
16. "New Report Reveals Trends and Implications of Conflict in Asia". The Asia Foundation. 4 October 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
17. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-03-17. Retrieved 2015-03-20.
18. "Doc. 132: Memorandum from the Central Intelligence Agency to the 303 Committee". Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964–1968, Volume X, National Security Policy. US Department of State. June 22, 1966. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
19. "Routing and Record Sheet: Committee for a Free Asia" (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency.
20. "DTPILLAR". Internet Archive.
21. Congressional Research Service (February 1983). "The Asia Foundation: Past, Present and Future" (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency.
22. Congressional Research Service (February 1983). "The Asia Foundation: Past, Present and Future" (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency.
23. "Our People". The Asia Foundation. Retrieved 19 February 2019.

External links

• Official website of the Asia Foundation
• Asia Foundation Records at the Hoover Institution Archives
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Sep 09, 2019 9:30 am

Radio Free Asia
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/9/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
Radio Free Asia
Abbreviation RFA
Formation 1951
Type Private, non-profit Sec 501(c)3 corporation
Purpose Broadcast Media
Location
Washington, D.C.
Official language
Mandarin, Cantonese, Tibetan, Uyghur, Korean, Burmese, Khmer, Lao and Vietnamese
Owner U.S. Agency for Global Media
President
Libby Liu
Parent organization
U.S. Agency for Global Media
Budget
$43.1 million (2018)[1]
Staff
253[1]
Website http://www.rfa.org

Radio Free Asia (RFA) is a private, nonprofit international broadcasting corporation that broadcasts and publishes online news, information and commentary to readers and listeners in East Asia. Its self-stated mission is "to provide accurate and timely news and information to Asian countries whose governments prohibit access to a free press."[2]

Based on Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, it was established in the 1990s with the aim of promoting democratic values and human rights, and diminishing Chinese Communist control.[3] It is funded by a grant from the U.S. Agency for Global Media (formerly the "Broadcasting Board of Governors"), an independent agency of the United States government.[2][4]

A short-lived earlier incarnation of Radio Free Asia also existed in the 1950s, as an anti-Communist propaganda operation funded by the CIA.[3][5]

RFA distributes content in nine Asian languages for audiences in China, North Korea, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and Burma.[6]

History

Radio Free Asia was founded and funded in the 1950s by an organization called "Committee for Free Asia" as an anti-communist propaganda operation, broadcasting from RCA facilities in Manila, Philippines,[7] and Dacca and Karachi, Pakistan (there may be other sites) until 1961. Some offices were in Tokyo. The parent organization was given as the Asia Foundation. In 1971 CIA involvement ended and all responsibilities were transferred to a presidentially appointed Board for International Broadcasting (BIB).[8][9][10]

With the passage of International Broadcasting Act in 1994, RFA was brought under auspices of the United States Information Agency where it remained until the agency's cessation of broadcasting duties and transitioned to U.S. Department of State operated BBG in 1999. In May 1994, President Bill Clinton announced the continuation of Radio Free Asia after 2009 was dependent on its increased international broadcasting and ability to reach its audience.[11] In September 2009, the 111th Congress amended the International Broadcasting Act to allow a one-year extension of the operation of Radio Free Asia.[12]

The current Radio Free Asia is a US-funded organization, incorporated in March 1996, and began broadcasting in September 1996. It bears no relation to the 1950 organization.[13]


RFA broadcasts in nine languages, via shortwave, satellite transmissions, medium-wave (AM and FM radio), and through the Internet. The first transmission was in Mandarin Chinese and it is RFA's most broadcast language at twelve hours per day. RFA also broadcasts in Cantonese, Tibetan (Kham, Amdo, and Uke dialects), Uyghur, Burmese, Vietnamese, Lao, Khmer (to Cambodia) and Korean (to North Korea). The Korean service launched in 1997 with Jaehoon Ahn as its founding director.[14]

After the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 American interest in starting a government broadcasting organization grew.[15] The International Broadcasting Act was passed by the Congress of the United States in 1994. Radio Free Asia is formally a private, non-profit corporation.[16] RFA is funded by an annual federal grant from and administered by the Broadcasting Board of Governors. The BBG serves as RFA's corporate board of directors, making and supervising grants to RFA.

International response

Radio jamming and Internet blocking


Further information: Radio jamming in China and Radio jamming in Korea

Since broadcasting began in 1996, Chinese authorities have consistently jammed RFA broadcasts.[17]

Three RFA reporters were denied access to China to cover U.S. President Bill Clinton's visit in June 1998. The Chinese embassy in Washington had initially granted visas to the three but revoked them shortly before President Clinton left Washington en route to Beijing. The White House and United States Department of State filed complaints with Chinese authorities over the matter but the reporters ultimately did not make the trip.[17][18]

The Vietnamese-language broadcast signal was also jammed by the Vietnamese government since the beginning.[19] Human rights legislation has been proposed in Congress that would allocate money to counter the jamming.[20] Research by the OpenNet Initiative, a project that monitors Internet filtering by governments worldwide, showed that the Vietnamese-language portion of the Radio Free Asia website was blocked by both of the tested ISPs in Vietnam, while the English-language portion was blocked by one of the two ISPs.[21]

To address radio jamming and Internet blocking by the governments of the countries that it broadcasts to, the RFA website contains instruction on how to create anti-jamming antennas and information on web proxies.[22]

On March 30, 2010, China's Web filter, known as "the Great Firewall", temporarily blocked all Google searches in China, due to an unintentional association with the long-censored term "rfa."[23] According to Google, the letters, associated with Radio Free Asia, were appearing in the URLs of all Google searches, thereby triggering China's filter to block search results.

Arrests of journalists' relatives

In 2014–2015 China arrested three brothers of RFA Uyghur Service journalist Shohret Hoshur. Their jailing was widely described by Western publishers as Chinese authorities' efforts to target Hoshur for his reports on otherwise unreported violent events of ethnic Han-Uighur tensions in China's Xinjiang region.[24][25][26][27]

Mission

Broadcasting Information (Channels 1, 2, 3, 4)
Language Service / Launch Date / Daily Broadcast Hours

Burmese / February 1997 / 8 Hours, Daily ÷ over 3 channels

Cantonese / May 1998 / 7 Hours, Daily ÷ over 2 channels

Khmer / September 1997 / 5 Hours, Daily, 1 ch

Korean / March 1997 / 9 Hours, Daily, 1 ch

Lao / August 1997 / 5 Hours, Daily, 1 ch

Mandarin / September 1996 / 24 Hours, Daily ÷ over 3 channels

Tibetan / December 1996 / 23 Hours, Daily, 1 ch

Uyghur / December 1998 / 6 Hours, Daily, 1 ch

Vietnamese / February 1997 / 8 Hours, Daily ÷ over 2 channels


Its functions, as listed in 22 U.S.C. § 6208, are:

1. [to] provide accurate and timely information, news, and commentary about events in Asia and elsewhere; and

2. [to] be a forum for a variety of opinions and voices from within Asian nations whose people do not fully enjoy freedom of expression.

Additionally, the International Broadcasting Act of 1994 (Title III of Pub.L. 103–236), which authorised the creation of the RFA, contains the following paragraph:

The continuation of existing U.S. international broadcasting, and the creation of a new broadcasting service to people of the People's Republic of China and other countries of Asia, which lack adequate sources of free information and ideas, would enhance the promotion of information and ideas, while advancing the goals of U.S. foreign policy.


This appears among a list of both "Congressional Findings and Declarations of Purpose", though which it is, is not specified. The subsequent section, outlining "Standards and Principles" states that all US-funded broadcasting should be "consistent with the broad foreign policy objectives of the United States", with news that is "consistently reliable and authoritative, accurate, objective, and comprehensive".[28]

Criticism

In 1999, Catharin Dalpino of the Brookings Institution, who served in the Clinton State Department as a deputy assistant secretary deputy for human rights, called Radio Free Asia "a waste of money." "Wherever we feel there is an ideological enemy, we're going to have a Radio Free Something," she says. Dalpino said she has reviewed scripts of Radio Free Asia's broadcasts and views the station's reporting as unbalanced. "They lean very heavily on reports by and about dissidents in exile. It doesn't sound like reporting about what's going on in a country. Often, it reads like a textbook on democracy, which is fine, but even to an American it's rather propagandistic."[29]

According to a report by the Congressional Research Service of the U.S. government, official state-controlled newspapers in China have run editorials claiming Radio Free Asia is a CIA broadcast operation, as was the case with the first Radio Free Asia.[15]

North Korea's state-run Korean Central News Agency has referred to Radio Free Asia as "reptile broadcasting services."[30] Kim Chol-min, third secretary of North Korea, in statement submitted at the United Nations, accusing the United States of engaging in "psychological warfare" with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea through RFA.[31]

Following the Burmese Saffron Revolution in the fall of 2007, the Myanmar junta held rallies attended by thousands holding signs that condemned external interference and accused Radio Free Asia, the Voice of America, and the BBC of "airing a skyful of lies."[32] In October 2007, Burmese state-run newspaper The New Light of Myanmar singled out "big powers" and Radio Free Asia, among other international broadcasters, as inciting protesters during the Saffron Revolution.[33]

Awards

• min magazine's "Best of the Web". 2017 for "Best Multimedia Feature".
• Sigma Delta Chi award. 2015. The Society of Professional Journalists.
• Annual Human Rights Press Award. 2012, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, and 2000. Amnesty International, Hong Kong Journalists Association, Foreign Correspondents' Club, Hong Kong.
• International Activist Award, 2005, Gleitsman Foundation.
• Edward R. Murrow Regional Award, 2005, 2003, 2002, and 2001. Radio-Television News Directors Association.
• New York Festivals radio awards named Radio Free Asia "Broadcaster of the Year" in 2009. RFA won one medal in 2015; one in 2014; two in 2013; one in 2012; one in 2011; two in 2010; seven in 2009; two in 2008; one in 2007; one in 2004; and one in 2000.
• Gracie Allen Award, 2013, 2010, and 2008. American Women in Radio and Television.
• Consumer Rights award, 2008. Hong Kong Consumer Council, Hong Kong Journalists Association.
• Society of Environmental Journalists, 2012 and 2010. Society of Environmental Journalists
• Courage in Journalism Award, 2010. International Women's Media Foundation

See also

• United States portal
• Politics portal
• Radio portal
• China Radio International
• International broadcasting
• International Broadcasting Bureau
• Murder of Robert Eric Wone, former counsel for Radio Free Asia[34]
• Open Technology Fund – a Radio Free Asia program that was created in 2012 to support global Internet freedom technologies
• Radio Taiwan International

References

1. "RFA – USAGM". Retrieved January 3, 2019.
2. Radio Free Asia – About Retrieved 10 November 2015
3. David Welch (November 27, 2013). Propaganda, Power and Persuasion: From World War I to Wikileaks. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-0-85773-737-3.
4. "About". Broadcasting Board of Governors. n.d. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
5. Central Intelligence Agency (April 1, 1953). "Memorandum For: Special Assistant to the President; International Radio Broadcasting by Radio Free Asia" (PDF). foia.cia.gov. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
6. https://www.usa.gov/federal-agencies/radio-free-asia
7. Central Intelligence Agency (April 1, 1953). "Memorandum For: Special Assistant to the President; International Radio Broadcasting by Radio Free Asia" (PDF). foia.cia.gov. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
8. Tom Engelhardt: "The End of Victory Culture". Cold War America and the Disillusioning of a Generation (University of Massachusetts Press 1998); p. 120. ISBN 1-55849-133-3.
9. Helen Laville, Hugh Wilford: "The US Government, Citizen Groups And the Cold War". p. 215. The State-Private Network (Routledge 1996). ISBN 0-415-35608-3.
10. Daya Kishan Thussu: "International Communication". Continuity and Change (Arnold 2000). p. 37. ISBN 0-340-74130-9.
11. Executive Order 12, 850, 3 C.F.R. 606, 607 § 1(b).
12. Bill Text Versions for the 111th Congress, 2009–2010. The Library of Congress.[1]
13. Mann, Jim (September 30, 1996). "After 5 Years of Political Wrangling, Radio Free Asia Becomes a Reality". Los Angeles Times. Times Mirror Company. Retrieved July 8, 2016.
14. Brown, Emma (June 10, 2011). "Jaehoon Ahn, reporter and Post researcher, dies". Washington Post. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
15. Susan B. Epstein: CRS Report for Congress Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine (PDF)
16. "Governance and Corporate Leadership". Radio Free Asia. n.d. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
17. Mann, "China Bars 3 Journalists From Clinton's Trip", The Los Angeles Times, June 23, 1998
18. Sieff/Scully "Radio Free Asia reporters stay home; Clinton kowtows to Beijing's ban, critics contend", The Washington Times, June 24, 1998
19. "Radio Free Asia says broadcasts to Vietnam are being jammed". CNN. February 7, 1997. Retrieved February 11,2008.
20. "H.R. 1587 Vietnam Human Rights Act of 2004". Congressional Budget Office. June 24, 2004. Retrieved February 11, 2008.
21. "OpenNet Initiative: Vietnam". OpenNet Initiative. Retrieved February 11, 2008.
22. "RFA: Anti-jamming antenna". Retrieved February 11, 2008.
23. Censky, Annalyn (March 30, 2010). "Google blames China's 'great firewall' for outage". CNN. Retrieved March 30,2010.
24. Forsythe, Michael (July 31, 2015). "A Voice From China's Uighur Homeland, Reporting From the U.S." New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
25. Casey, Michael (July 9, 2015). "China's War Against One American Journalist". Slate. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
26. Denyur, Simon (January 8, 2015). "China uses long-range intimidation of U.S. reporter to suppress Xinjiang coverage". Washington Post. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
27. Editorial Board (June 9, 2015). "China exports repression beyond its borders". Washington Post. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
28. Pub.L. 103–236, Sec. 303
29. Dick Kirschten: Broadcast News May 1, 1999
30. "KCNA raps U.S. despicable psychological warfare against DPRK," February 22, 2008 BBC Monitoring Service
31. General Assembly GA/SPD/430 United Nations Department of Public Information, October 2009
32. On Quiet Streets of Myanmar Fear Is a Constant Companion International Herald Tribune. October 21, 2007
33. Myanmar guards accused of detainee abuse Associated Press. October 11, 2007
34. Duggan, Paul; Clarence Williams (November 1, 2008). "Cover-Up Alleged in D.C. Killing Of Lawyer". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 31, 2008.

Further reading

• Engelhardt, Tom (1998). The End of Victory Culture. Cold War America and the Disillusioning of a Generation. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 1-55849-133-3.
• Laville, Helen; Wilford, Hugh (1996). The US Government, Citizen Groups And the Cold War. The State-Private Network. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-35608-3.
• Thussu, Daya Kishan (2000). International Communication. Continuity and Change. Arnold. ISBN 0-340-74130-9.
• Defty, Andrew (2004). Britain, America and Anti-Communist Propaganda, 1945–53. The Information Research Department. Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-5443-4.

External links

• Official website
• Broadcasting of Radio Free Asia and Voice of America is Pulled in Cambodia US Department of State Press Release
• ClandestineRadio.com Updated news
• Radio Free Asia, Legal Information Institute
• L.A. Times articles about Radio Free Asia
• Guide to the Radio Free Asia Vietnamese Broadcasts. Special Collections and Archives, The UC Irvine Libraries, Irvine, California.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Sep 09, 2019 10:55 am

Custodial history: In Frank Cramer Roberts' possession.
Immediate source of acquisition: Acquired from Esmé [Barbara] Cramer Roberts (widow) [Librarian's Comment: Real author of Born in Tibet, which authorship is attributed to Chogyam Trungpa]
St. Antony's College, Oxford
https://www.sant.ox.ac.uk › MEChandlists › Cramer-Roberts-Collection
Aug 17, 1998
© Middle East Centre, St Antony’s College, Oxford. OX2 6JF 4

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


St Antony's reputation as a key centre for the study of Soviet affairs during the Cold War, led to rumours of links between the college and the British intelligence services; the author Leslie Woodhead wrote to this effect, describing the college as "a fitting gathering place for old spooks".

-- St. Antony's College, Oxford, by Wikipedia


Reference code: GB165-0066
Title: Frank Cramer-Roberts Collection
Name of creator: Roberts, Frank Cramer- (d.1943), Engineer
Dates of creation of material: 1801-1916; ?1930s
Level of description: Fonds
Extent: 2 boxes

Biographical history: CRAMER ROBERTS, Frank W. (d.1943)
Irrigation engineer in Egypt until 1930. Further details unknown.
Scope and content: Research materials and notes by Cramer Roberts on the Egyptian Campaign, 1801, with engravings, maps and plans.
Access conditions: Open
Language of material: English
Conditions governing reproduction: No restrictions on copying or quotation other than statutory regulations and preservation concerns
Custodial history: In Frank Cramer Roberts’ possession.
Immediate source of acquisition: Acquired from Esmé Cramer Roberts (widow), October 1965. Elizabeth Monroe helped her sell some original letters from the collection through Sotheby’s, May 1966.
Location of originals: No record of purchaser of original documents (in files 3 and 4a) sold by Sotheby’s.
Finding aids: In Guide; Handlist
Archivist’s note: Fonds level description created by C. Brown 17 August 1998 and revised by D. Usher 26 September 2003.

CRAMER-ROBERTS
GB165-0066

© Middle East Centre, St Antony’s College, Oxford. OX2 6JF 2

FILE AND ITEM LEVEL DESCRIPTIONS FOR THE FRANK CRAMER-ROBERTS COLLECTION

FILE 1 “The British Campaign in Egypt 1801 – as recorded in the diary of Surgeon Thornton edited with comments by Lt Col W H Thornton” Privately published 1933
FILE 2 Note by Cramer-Roberts on the landing of the British Army at Abu-Kir 1801, with a short account of the events which led up to the campaign and the preparation of the expeditionary force
FILE 3 Copy of an official despatch from Major General Hely Hutchinson to Secretary of State for war – Dundas, 3 April 1801
FILE 4 (a) Photocopies of the original letters from Major General Sir Eyre Coote to H.R.H. Duke of Gloucester 13 December 1800 – 9 October 1801
(b) Typescript transcriptions of (a) made by F.W. Cramer – Roberts
(c) Mss transcriptions of (a)
FILE 5 Statements of General Belliard’s account of the Fall of Cairo, 19 March 1801 – 27 June 1801
FILE 6 Note on conference of 27 June 1801, giving terms of French withdrawal – safe conduct etc
FILE 7 Brief notes on the state of the French army in Egypt 1798 – 1801
FILE 8 French scheme for Battle at Abu Kir. Brief chronology of main events March – October 1801
FILE 9 Miscellaneous final drafts of various sections of Cramer-Roberts proposed book on the British campaign
FILE 10 Text of a lecture (and list of slides shown) entitled “A Short description of difficult actions fought between the French and British armies in Egypt in 1801”
FILE 11 Drafts of Chapter dealing with French activity 1797-1800 (death of General Kleber)
FILE 12 & 13 Miscellaneous early notes and drafts
FILE 14 Draft of a chapter on the Turkish army
FILE 15 Text of a lecture given in Egypt
FILE 16 Collection of engravings, photographs and small maps/plans
(a) Engraving of Sir Sidney Smith at the breach of Acre, 9 May 1799. Engraved by Richard Bentley London 1848

CRAMER-ROBERTS
GB165-0066

© Middle East Centre, St Antony’s College, Oxford. OX2 6JF 3
(b) Engraving of Rt Hon G.K. Elphinstone. Painted by J Hoppner R.A. Engraved by W Hall. Fisher Son & Co. London 1837
(c) Engraving of Brueys. Painted by A Lacauchie, engraved by Leguay (undated)
(d) Kleber. Published by Furne Paris (undated)
(e) Engraving showing the Battle of the Nile. Painted by G Arnold Esq A.R.A. engraved by J Le Petit (undated)
(f) Engraving showing the Battle of the Nile. Painted by Captain James Weir R.A. engraved by A.H. Payne (no date)
(g) Engravings of Lt Gen Sir Eyre Coote. Painted by Willian Lodder, engraved by H.R. Cook (undated)
(h) Engraving of Sir Ralph Abercromby. Engraved by W. Finden. Published by Harding & Leppard., Pall Mall 1831
(i) Engraving of Sir Ralph Abercromby published by Kirkwood & Sons, Edinburgh. June 1801
(j) Engraving of Kleber. Painted by Lacauchie, engraved by Leguay (undated)
(k) Engraving of Lord Nelson. Painted by J Hoppner R.A. engraved by H Robinson (undated)
(l) Engraving showing the death of Sir Ralph Abercromby. Published by Thomas Kelly. London 1916
(m)Two framed compilations each containing four photographs of portraits of Generals Valetin, Reyneir, Lanusse, Destaing, Boussart, Rampon, Fraint and Damens
(n) Photograph of an engraving of General Lord Hutchinson. Original engraved by J Heath from a drawing by Knight. First published 1815 by G Robinson of London
(o) Plan showing the Battle of the Nile fought off Abi-Kir. 1 August 1798 (C.R. undated)
(p) Plan showing the disposition of the French army on the arrival of the British in Abu Kir Bay on 2 March 1801 (C.R. undated)
(q) Plan of the action of Mandora fought on 13 March 1801 (C.R. 1934)

CRAMER-ROBERTS
GB165-0066

© Middle East Centre, St Antony’s College, Oxford. OX2 6JF 4

Rolled Maps/Plans

1 Larger version of (p); plan showing the landing of the British forces at Abi-Kir 8
March 1801; of an engraving by C Turner showing the Battle of Alexandria 21 March 1801
2 Larger version of (q); plan of the investment of Grand Cairo by the British forces commanded by General Lord Hutchinson 1801
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Foreign and Commonwealth Office
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/9/19

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Image
Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Foreign and Commonwealth Office Main Building, London, seen from Whitehall
Department overview
Formed 1968; 51 years ago
Preceding agencies
Commonwealth Office
Foreign Office
Jurisdiction United Kingdom
Headquarters King Charles Street
London, SW1
51°30′11″N 0°07′40″WCoordinates: 51°30′11″N 0°07′40″W
Annual budget £1.1bn (current) & £0.1bn (capital) in 2015-16[1]
Ministers responsible
Rt Hon. Dominic Raab MP, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
Rt Hon. Christopher Pincher MP, Minister of State for Europe and the Americas
Com. Rt Hon. Andrew Murrison MP, Minister of State for the Middle East
Rt Hon. The Lord Ahmad of Wimbledon, Minister of State for the Commonwealth and the UN
Rt Hon. Andrew Stephenson MP, Minister of State for Africa
Heather Wheeler MP, Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Asia & the Pacific
Department executive
Sir Simon McDonald KCMG KCVO, Permanent Under-Secretary and Head of the Diplomatic Service
Child agencies
FCO Services
Wilton Park
Website http://www.gov.uk/fco

The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office (which was the formal name of its predecessor until 1968), or British Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom. It is responsible for protecting and promoting British interests worldwide and was created in 1968 by merging the Foreign Office and the Commonwealth Office.

The head of the FCO is the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, commonly abbreviated to "Foreign Secretary". This is regarded as one of the four most prestigious positions in the Cabinet – the Great Offices of State – alongside those of Prime Minister, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Home Secretary.

The FCO is managed from day to day by a civil servant, the Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, who also acts as the Head of Her Majesty's Diplomatic Service. This position is held by Sir Simon McDonald, who took office on 1 September 2015.

Responsibilities

• Safeguarding the UK's national security by countering terrorism and weapons proliferation, and working to reduce conflict.
• Building the UK's prosperity by increasing exports and investment, opening markets, ensuring access to resources, and promoting sustainable global growth.
• Supporting British nationals around the world through modern and efficient consular services.

Ministers

The FCO Ministers are as follows:[2][3]

Minister / Rank / Portfolio

The Rt Hon.Dominic Raab MP / Secretary of State / Overall responsibility for the department; Policy Unit; intelligence policy; honours.

The Rt Hon. Christopher Pincher MP / Minister of State for Europe and the Americas / The Americas (including Cuba and the Falkland Islands); Europe (including Turkey, Gibraltar and Sovereign Base Areas); deputy to the Foreign Secretary for EU Exit Cabinet Committees; eastern Europe and central Asia; defence and international security (only Euro-Atlantic security policy); multilateral policy (only OSCE, Council of Europe and sanctions); relations with Parliament.

The Rt Hon. Dr Andrew Murrison MP / Minister of State for the Middle East & North Africa / The Middle East and North Africa; stabilisation (including Stabilisation Unit); national security (excluding intelligence policy); defence and international security (excluding Euro-Atlantic security policy).

Andrew Stephenson MP / Minister of State for Africa / Africa; consular policy; LGBTQ+ equality.

The Rt Hon. Lord Ahmad / Minister of State for the Commonwealth, the UN and South Asia / All Foreign and Commonwealth Office business in the House of Lords; multilateral policy (including the Commonwealth, United Nations and human rights, excluding OSCE and Council of Europe); Preventing Sexual Violence in Conflict initiative; south Asia and Afghanistan; Overseas Territories (excluding Gibraltar, Sovereign Base Areas and the Falklands); the Caribbean (excluding Cuba); Foreign and Commonwealth Office operations.

Heather Wheeler MP / Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Asia and the Pacific / East and south-east Asia; Australasia and the Pacific; economic diplomacy (including Foreign and Commonwealth Office representative for Prosperity Fund Ministerial Board and climate change); oceans; communications; British Council; Economics Unit; gender equality (including gender and conflict, and women and girls' rights); protocol; Diplomatic Academy; estates and security.


History of the department

The Foreign Office

Image
The Foreign Office building by Sir George Gilbert Scott, viewed from Horse Guards Road

Eighteenth century

The Foreign Office was formed in March 1782 by combining the Southern and Northern Departments of the Secretary of State, each of which covered both foreign and domestic affairs in their parts of the Kingdom. The two departments' foreign affairs responsibilities became the Foreign Office, whilst their domestic affairs responsibilities were assigned to the Home Office. The Home Office is technically the senior.[4]

Nineteenth century

During the 19th century, it was not infrequent for the Foreign Office to approach The Times newspaper and ask for continental intelligence, which was often superior to that conveyed by official sources.[5] Examples of journalists who specialized in foreign affairs and were well connected to politicians included: Henry Southern, Valentine Chirol, Harold Nicolson, and Robert Bruce Lockhart.[6]

Twentieth century

During the First World War, the Arab Bureau was set up within the British Foreign Office as a section of the Cairo Intelligence Department. During the early cold war an important department was the Information Research Department, set up to counter Soviet propaganda and infiltration. The Foreign Office hired its first woman diplomat, Monica Milne, in 1946.[7]

The Foreign and Commonwealth Office

The FCO was formed on 17 October 1968, from the merger of the short-lived Commonwealth Office and the Foreign Office.[8] The Commonwealth Office had been created only in 1966, by the merger of the Commonwealth Relations Office and the Colonial Office, the Commonwealth Relations Office having been formed by the merger of the Dominions Office and the India Office in 1947—with the Dominions Office having been split from the Colonial Office in 1925.

The Foreign and Commonwealth Office held responsibility for international development issues between 1970 and 1974, and again between 1979 and 1997. From 1997, this became the responsibility of the separate Department for International Development.

The National Archives website contains a Government timeline to show the departments responsible for Foreign Affairs from 1945.[9]

Developments

When David Miliband took over as Foreign Secretary in June 2007, he set in hand a review of the FCO's strategic priorities. One of the key messages of these discussions was the conclusion that the existing framework of ten international strategic priorities, dating from 2003, was no longer appropriate. Although the framework had been useful in helping the FCO plan its work and allocate its resources, there was agreement that it needed a new framework to drive its work forward.

The new strategic framework consists of three core elements:

• A flexible global network of staff and offices, serving the whole of the UK Government.
• Three essential services that support the British economy, British nationals abroad and managed migration for Britain. These services are delivered through UK Trade & Investment (UKTI), consular teams in Britain and overseas, and UK Visas and Immigration.
• Four policy goals:
o countering terrorism and weapons proliferation and their causes
o preventing and resolving conflict
o promoting a low-carbon, high-growth, global economy
o developing effective international institutions, in particular the United Nations and the European Union.

In August 2005, a report by management consultant group Collinson Grant was made public by Andrew Mackinlay. The report severely criticised the FCO's management structure, noting:

• The Foreign Office could be "slow to act".
• Delegation is lacking within the management structure.
• Accountability was poor.
• The FCO could feasibly cut 1200 jobs.
• At least £48 million could be saved annually.

The Foreign Office commissioned the report to highlight areas which would help it achieve its pledge to reduce spending by £87 million over three years. In response to the report being made public, the Foreign Office stated it had already implemented the report's recommendations.[10]

In 2009, Gordon Brown created the position of Chief Scientific Adviser (CSA) to the FCO. The first science adviser was David C. Clary.[11]

On 25 April 2010, the department apologised after The Sunday Telegraph obtained a "foolish" document calling for the upcoming September visit of Pope Benedict XVI to be marked by the launch of "Benedict-branded" condoms, the opening of an abortion clinic and the blessing of a same-sex marriage.[12]

In 2012, the Foreign Office was criticised by Gerald Steinberg, of the Jerusalem-based research institute NGO Monitor, saying that the Foreign Office and the Department for International Development provided more than £500,000 in funding to Palestinian NGOs which he said "promote political attacks on Israel." In response, a spokesman for the Foreign Office said "we are very careful about who and what we fund. The objective of our funding is to support efforts to achieve a two-state solution. Funding a particular project for a limited period of time does not mean that we endorse every single action or public comment made by an NGO or by its employees."[13]

In September 2012, the FCO and the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs signed a Memorandum of Understanding on diplomatic cooperation, which promotes the co-location of embassies, the joint provision of consular services, and common crisis response. The project has been criticised for further diminishing the UK's influence in Europe.[14]

Overseas Territories Directorate

The Overseas Territories Directorate is responsible for the British Overseas Territories.[15]

FCO Services

In April 2006, a new executive agency was established, FCO Services, to provide corporate service functions.[16] It moved to Trading Fund status in April 2008, so that it had the ability to provide services similar to those it already offers to the FCO[17] to other government departments and even to outside businesses.

It is accountable to the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, and provides secure support services to the FCO, other government departments and foreign governments and bodies with which the UK has close links.[18]

Since 2011, FCO Services has been developing the Government Secure Application Environment (GSAE) on a secure cloud computing platform to support UK government organisations.[19]

For over 10 years, FCO Services has been working globally, to keep customer assets and information safe. FCO Services is a public sector organisation, it is not funded by Vote and has to rely on the income it produces to meet its costs, by providing services on a commercial basis to customers both in the UK and throughout the world. Its Accounting Officer and Chief Executive is accountable to the Secretary of State for Foreign & Commonwealth Affairs and to Parliament, for the organisation's performance and conduct.

Buildings

Image
The western end of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office's building in 1866, facing St. James's Park. It was then occupied by the Foreign and India Offices, while the Home and Colonial Offices occupied the Whitehall end.

As well as embassies abroad, the FCO has premises within the UK:

• Foreign and Commonwealth Office Main Building, Whitehall, King Charles St, London (abbreviated to KCS by FCO staff)
• Old Admiralty Building, Whitehall, London (abbreviated to OAB by FCO staff)
• Hanslope Park, Hanslope, Milton Keynes (abbreviated to HSP by FCO staff). Location of FCO Services, HMGCC and Technical Security Department of the UK Secret Intelligence Service)
• Lancaster House, St James's, London. A mansion in the St James's district in the West End of London which the Foreign Office holds on lease from the Crown. It is used primarily for hospitality, entertaining foreign dignitaries and housing the Government Wine Cellar.

Foreign and Commonwealth Office Main Building

Image
The Grand Staircase in September 2013

The Foreign and Commonwealth Office occupies a building which originally provided premises for four separate government departments: the Foreign Office, the India Office, the Colonial Office, and the Home Office. Construction on the building began in 1861 and finished in 1868, and it was designed by the architect George Gilbert Scott.[20] Its architecture is in the Italianate style; Scott had initially envisaged a Gothic design, but Lord Palmerston, then Prime Minister, insisted on a classical style.[20] English sculptors Henry Hugh Armstead and John Birnie Philip produced a number of allegorical figures ('Art', 'Law', 'Commerce', etc.) for the exterior.

In 1925 the Foreign Office played host to the signing of the Locarno Treaties, aimed at reducing tension in Europe. The ceremony took place in a suite of rooms that had been designed for banqueting, which subsequently became known as the Locarno Suite.[21] During the Second World War, the Locarno Suite's fine furnishings were removed or covered up, and it became home to a Foreign Office code-breaking department.[21]

Due to increasing numbers of staff, the offices became increasingly cramped and much of the fine Victorian interior was covered over—especially after the Second World War. In the 1960s, demolition was proposed, as part of major redevelopment plan for the area drawn up by architect Sir Leslie Martin.[20] A subsequent public outcry prevented these proposals from ever being implemented. Instead, the Foreign Office became a Grade I listed building in 1970.[20] In 1978, the Home Office moved to a new building, easing overcrowding.

With a new sense of the building's historical value, it underwent a 17-year, £100 million restoration process, completed in 1997.[20] The Locarno Suite, used as offices and storage since the Second World War, was fully restored for use in international conferences. The building is now open to the public each year over Open House Weekend.

In 2014 refurbishment to accommodate all Foreign and Commonwealth Office employees into one building was started by Mace.[22]

Image
Ceiling above the Foreign Office’s Grand Staircase, 2008

Image
The Grand Staircase, 2008

Image
The Locarno Suite in September 2013

Image
The Durbar Court at the former India Office, now part of the FCO

Devolution

International relations are handled centrally from Whitehall on behalf of the whole of the United Kingdom and its dependencies. However, the devolved administrations also maintain an overseas presence in the European Union, the USA and China alongside British diplomatic missions. These offices aim to promote their own economies and ensure that devolved interests are taken into account in British foreign policy. Ministers from devolved administrations can attend international negotiations when agreed with the British Government e.g. EU fisheries negotiations.[23] Similarly, ministers from the devolved administrations meet at approximately quarterly intervals through the Joint Ministerial Committee (Europe), chaired by the Foreign Secretary to "discuss matters bearing on devolved responsibilities that are under discussion within the European Union."

See also

• United Kingdom portal
• International relations portal
• Department for International Development
• Foreign and Commonwealth Office migrated archives
• National Security Adviser (United Kingdom)
• National Security Council (United Kingdom)
• Conflict, Stability and Security Fund
• Stabilisation Unit

References

1. Foreign Office Settlement. London: HM Treasury. 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
2. "Our ministers". GOV.UK. Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
3. "Her Majesty's Official Opposition". UK Parliament. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
4. A brief history of the FCO Foreign and Commonwealth Office
5. Weller, Toni (June 2010). "The Victorian information age: nineteenth century answers to today's information policy questions?". History & Policy. United Kingdom: History & Policy. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
6. Berridge, G. R. "A Diplomatic Whistleblower in the Victorian Era" (PDF). grberridge.diplomacy.edu. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
7. "Women and the Foreign Office". Issu.com. Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
8. "The Foreign and Commonwealth Ministries merge". The Glasgow Herald. 17 October 1968. p. 1. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
9. Archives, The National. "The National Archives - Homepage". labs.nationalarchives.gov.uk.
10. "BBC NEWS - UK - UK Politics - Foreign Office management damned".
11. Clary, David (16 September 2013). "A Scientist in the Foreign Office". Science & Diplomacy. 2 (3).
12. "Apology over Pope 'condom' memo". BBC News. 25 April 2010.
13. "'Investigate UK funding of Palestinian NGOs'". thejc.com.
14. Gaspers, Jan (November 2012). "At the Helm of a New Commonwealth Diplomatic Network: In the United Kingdom's Interest?". Retrieved 26 November 2012.
15. Foreign & Commonwealth Office (June 2012). The Overseas Territories: Security, Success and Sustainability(PDF). ISBN 9780101837422.
16. "Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs". Hansard. March 2006.
17. "The FCO Services Trading Fund Order 2008". UK Legislation. National Archives. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
18. "Who we are". FCO Services. 24 May 2011. Archived from the original on 22 February 2013. Retrieved 18 June2011.
19. Say, Mark (21 July 2011). "FCO Services pushes secure cloud platform". Guardian Government Computing. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
20. Foreign & Commonwealth Office History Archived 24 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine
21. Jump up to:a b "Foreign & Commonwealth Office: Route" (PDF). FCO. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2012.
22. "Mace wins £20m Whitehall Foreign Office refit". constructionenquirer.com.
23. Scottish gains at Euro fish talks, Scottish Government, 16 December 2009

External links

• Media related to Foreign and Commonwealth Office at Wikimedia Commons
• Official website
• Cockerell, Michael (1998). How to Be Foreign Secretary (Television production). BBC.
• Cockerell, Michael (2010). The Great Offices of State: Palace of Dreams (Television production). BBC.
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