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Wernher von Braun
by Wikipedia
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Image
Wernher von Braun
Von Braun in 1960
Born Wernher Magnus Maximilian, Freiherr von Braun
March 23, 1912
Wirsitz, Posen Province, German Empire
(now Wyrzysk, Poland)
Died June 16, 1977 (aged 65)
Alexandria, Virginia, U.S.
Burial place Ivy Hill Cemetery (Alexandria, Virginia)[1]
Citizenship Germany, United States (after 1955)
Alma mater Technical University of Berlin
Occupation Rocket engineer and designer, aerospace project manager
Known for NASA engineering program manager; chief architect of the Apollo Saturn V rocket
Spouse(s) Maria Luise von Quistorp (m. 1947–1977)
Children
Iris Careen (1948–)
Margrit Cécile (1952–)
Peter Constantine (1960–)
Parent(s)
Magnus von Braun (1878–1972)
Emmy von Quistorp (1886–1959)
Awards
Elliott Cresson Medal (1962)
Wilhelm Exner Medal (1969)[2]
National Medal of Science (1975)
Military career
Allegiance
Nazi Germany
United States
Service/branch
SS
United States Army
Years of service
1937–1945 Germany
1945–1960 US
Rank SS-Sturmbannführer collar.svg SS-Sturmbannführer (major)
Awards
Knights Cross of the War Merit Cross with Swords (1944)
War Merit Cross, First Class with Swords (1943)

Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German and later American aerospace engineer[3] and space architect. He was the leading figure in the development of rocket technology in Germany and a pioneer of rocket technology and space science in the United States.[4]

While in his twenties and early thirties, von Braun worked in Nazi Germany's rocket development program. He helped design and develop the V-2 rocket at Peenemünde during World War II. Following the war, he was secretly moved to the United States, along with about 1,600 other German scientists, engineers, and technicians, as part of Operation Paperclip.[5] He worked for the United States Army on an intermediate-range ballistic missile program, and he developed the rockets that launched the United States' first space satellite Explorer 1.

His group was assimilated into NASA, where he served as director of the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center and as the chief architect of the Saturn V super heavy-lift launch vehicle that propelled the Apollo spacecraft to the Moon.[6][7] In 1967, von Braun was inducted into the National Academy of Engineering and in 1975, he received the National Medal of Science. He advocated a human mission to Mars.

Early life and education

Wernher von Braun was born on March 23, 1912, in the small town of Wirsitz in the Posen Province, then the German Empire. He was the second of three sons of a noble Lutheran family. From birth he held the title of Freiherr (equivalent to Baron). The German nobility's legal privileges were abolished in 1919, although noble titles could still be used as part of the family name.

His father, Magnus Freiherr von Braun (1878–1972), was a civil servant and conservative politician; he served as Minister of Agriculture in the federal government during the Weimar Republic. His mother, Emmy von Quistorp (1886–1959), traced her ancestry through both parents to medieval European royalty and was a descendant of Philip III of France, Valdemar I of Denmark, Robert III of Scotland, and Edward III of England.[8][9] Wernher had an older brother, the West German diplomat Sigismund von Braun, who served as Secretary of State in the Foreign Office in the 1970s, and a younger brother, also named Magnus von Braun, who was a rocket scientist and later a senior executive with Chrysler.[10]

After Wernher's Confirmation, his mother gave him a telescope, and he developed a passion for astronomy. The family moved to Berlin in 1915, where his father worked at the Ministry of the Interior.[11] Here in 1924, the 12-year-old Wernher, inspired by speed records established by Max Valier and Fritz von Opel in rocket-propelled cars,[12] caused a major disruption in a crowded street by detonating a toy wagon to which he had attached fireworks. He was taken into custody by the local police until his father came to get him.

Wernher learned to play both the cello and the piano at an early age and at one time wanted to become a composer. He took lessons from the composer Paul Hindemith. The few pieces of Wernher's youthful compositions that exist are reminiscent of Hindemith's style.[13]:11 He could play piano pieces of Beethoven and Bach from memory.

Beginning in 1925, Wernher attended a boarding school at Ettersburg Castle near Weimar, where he did not do well in physics and mathematics. There he acquired a copy of By Rocket into Planetary Space (Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen, 1923)[14] by rocket pioneer Hermann Oberth. In 1928, his parents moved him to the Hermann-Lietz-Internat (also a residential school) on the East Frisian North Sea island of Spiekeroog. Space travel had always fascinated Wernher, and from then on he applied himself to physics and mathematics to pursue his interest in rocket engineering.

In 1930, von Braun attended the Technische Hochschule Berlin, where he joined the Spaceflight Society (Verein für Raumschiffahrt or "VfR") and assisted Willy Ley in his liquid-fueled rocket motor tests in conjunction with Hermann Oberth.[15] In spring 1932, he graduated with a diploma in mechanical engineering.[16] His early exposure to rocketry convinced him that the exploration of space would require far more than applications of the current engineering technology. Wanting to learn more about physics, chemistry, and astronomy, von Braun entered the Friedrich-Wilhelm University of Berlin for post-graduate studies and graduated with a doctorate in physics in 1934.[17] He also studied at ETH Zürich for a term from June to October 1931.[18] Although he worked mainly on military rockets in his later years there, space travel remained his primary interest.

In 1930, von Braun attended a presentation given by Auguste Piccard. After the talk, the young student approached the famous pioneer of high-altitude balloon flight, and stated to him: "You know, I plan on traveling to the Moon at some time." Piccard is said to have responded with encouraging words.[19]

Von Braun was greatly influenced by Oberth, of whom he said:

Hermann Oberth was the first who, when thinking about the possibility of spaceships, grabbed a slide-rule and presented mathematically analyzed concepts and designs ... I, myself, owe to him not only the guiding-star of my life, but also my first contact with the theoretical and practical aspects of rocketry and space travel. A place of honor should be reserved in the history of science and technology for his ground-breaking contributions in the field of astronautics.[20]


Career in Germany

According to historian Norman Davies, von Braun was able to pursue a career as a rocket scientist in Germany due to a "curious oversight" in the Treaty of Versailles which did not include rocketry in its list of weapons forbidden to Germany.[21]

Involvement with the Nazi regime

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Von Braun with Fritz Todt, who utilized forced labor for major works across occupied Europe
Party membership


Von Braun had an ambivalent and complex relationship with the Nazi Third Reich.[5] He applied for membership of the Nazi Party on November 12, 1937, and was issued membership number 5,738,692.[22]:96

Michael J. Neufeld, an author of aerospace history and chief of the Space History Division at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum, wrote that ten years after von Braun obtained his Nazi Party membership, he signed an affidavit for the U.S. Army misrepresenting the year of his membership, saying incorrectly:[22]:96

In 1939, I was officially demanded to join the National Socialist Party. At this time I was already Technical Director at the Army Rocket Center at Peenemünde (Baltic Sea). The technical work carried out there had, in the meantime, attracted more and more attention in higher levels. Thus, my refusal to join the party would have meant that I would have to abandon the work of my life. Therefore, I decided to join. My membership in the party did not involve any political activity.


It has not been ascertained whether von Braun's error with regard to the year was deliberate or a simple mistake.[22]:96 Neufeld further wrote:

Von Braun, like other Peenemünders, was assigned to the local group in Karlshagen; there is no evidence that he did more than send in his monthly dues. But he is seen in some photographs with the party's swastika pin in his lapel – it was politically useful to demonstrate his membership.[22]:96


Von Braun's later attitude toward the National Socialist regime of the late 1930s and early 1940s was complex. He said that he had been so influenced by the early Nazi promise of release from the post–World War I economic effects, that his patriotic feelings had increased.[citation needed] In a 1952 memoir article he admitted that, at that time, he "fared relatively rather well under totalitarianism".[22]:96–97 Yet, he also wrote that "to us, Hitler was still only a pompous fool with a Charlie Chaplin moustache"[23] and that he perceived him as "another Napoleon" who was "wholly without scruples, a godless man who thought himself the only god".[24]

Membership in the Allgemeine SS

Von Braun joined the SS horseback riding school on 1 November 1933 as an SS-Anwärter. He left the following year.[citation needed]:63 In 1940, he joined the SS[25]:47[26] and was given the rank of Untersturmführer in the Allgemeine SS and issued membership number 185,068.[citation needed]:121 In 1947, he gave the U.S. War Department this explanation:

In spring 1940, one SS-Standartenfuehrer (SS-colonel) Mueller from Greifswald, a bigger town in the vicinity of Peenemünde, looked me up in my office ... and told me that Reichsfuehrer SS Himmler had sent him with the order to urge me to join the SS. I told him I was so busy with my rocket work that I had no time to spare for any political activity. He then told me, that ... the SS would cost me no time at all. I would be awarded the rank of a[n] "Untersturmfuehrer" (lieutenant) and it were [sic] a very definite desire of Himmler that I attend his invitation to join.

I asked Mueller to give me some time for reflection. He agreed.

Realizing that the matter was of highly political significance for the relation between the SS and the Army, I called immediately on my military superior, Dr. Dornberger. He informed me that the SS had for a long time been trying to get their "finger in the pie" of the rocket work. I asked him what to do. He replied on the spot that if I wanted to continue our mutual work, I had no alternative but to join.


When shown a picture of himself standing behind Himmler, von Braun claimed to have worn the SS uniform only that one time,[27] but in 2002 a former SS officer at Peenemünde told the BBC that von Braun had regularly worn the SS uniform to official meetings. He began as an Untersturmführer (Second lieutenant) and was promoted three times by Himmler, the last time in June 1943 to SS-Sturmbannführer (Major). Von Braun later claimed that these were simply technical promotions received each year regularly by mail.[28]

Work under Nazi regime

Image
First rank, from left to right, General Dr Walter Dornberger (partially hidden), General Friedrich Olbricht (with Knight's Cross), Major Heinz Brandt, and Wernher von Braun (in civilian dress) at Peenemünde, in March 1941.

In 1933, von Braun was working on his creative doctorate when the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP, or Nazi Party) came to power in a coalition government in Germany; rocketry was almost immediately moved onto the national agenda. An artillery captain, Walter Dornberger, arranged an Ordnance Department research grant for von Braun, who then worked next to Dornberger's existing solid-fuel rocket test site at Kummersdorf.

Von Braun was awarded a doctorate in physics[29] (aerospace engineering) on July 27, 1934, from the University of Berlin for a thesis entitled "About Combustion Tests"; his doctoral supervisor was Erich Schumann.[22]:61 However, this thesis was only the public part of von Braun's work. His actual full thesis, Construction, Theoretical, and Experimental Solution to the Problem of the Liquid Propellant Rocket (dated April 16, 1934) was kept classified by the German army, and was not published until 1960.[30] By the end of 1934, his group had successfully launched two liquid fuel rockets that rose to heights of 2.2 and 3.5 km (2 mi).

At the time, Germany was highly interested in American physicist Robert H. Goddard's research. Before 1939, German scientists occasionally contacted Goddard directly with technical questions. Von Braun used Goddard's plans from various journals and incorporated them into the building of the Aggregat (A) series of rockets. The A-4 rocket would become well known as the V-2.[31] In 1963, von Braun reflected on the history of rocketry, and said of Goddard's work: "His rockets ... may have been rather crude by present-day standards, but they blazed the trail and incorporated many features used in our most modern rockets and space vehicles."[12]

Goddard confirmed his work was used by von Braun in 1944, shortly before the Nazis began firing V-2s at England. A V-2 crashed in Sweden and some parts were sent to an Annapolis lab where Goddard was doing research for the Navy. If this was the so-called Bäckebo Bomb, it had been procured by the British in exchange for Spitfires; Annapolis would have received some parts from them. Goddard is reported to have recognized components he had invented, and inferred that his brainchild had been turned into a weapon.[32] Later, von Braun would comment: "I have very deep and sincere regret for the victims of the V-2 rockets, but there were victims on both sides ... A war is a war, and when my country is at war, my duty is to help win that war."[33]

In response to Goddard's claims, von Braun said "at no time in Germany did I or any of my associates ever see a Goddard patent". This was independently confirmed.[34] He wrote that claims about him lifting Goddard's work were the furthest from the truth, noting that Goddard's paper "A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes", which was studied by von Braun and Oberth, lacked the specificity of liquid-fuel experimentation with rockets.[34] It was also confirmed that he was responsible for an estimated 20 patentable innovations related to rocketry during the Volksverhetzung era, as well as receiving U.S. patents after the war concerning the advancement of rocketry.[34] Documented accounts also stated he provided solutions to a host of aerospace engineering problems in the 1950s and 60s.[34]

There were no German rocket societies after the collapse of the VfR, and civilian rocket tests were forbidden by the new Nazi regime. Only military development was allowed, and to this end, a larger facility was erected at the village of Peenemünde in northern Germany on the Baltic Sea. Dornberger became the military commander at Peenemünde, with von Braun as technical director. In collaboration with the Luftwaffe, the Peenemünde group developed liquid-fuel rocket engines for aircraft and jet-assisted takeoffs. They also developed the long-range A-4 ballistic missile and the supersonic Wasserfall anti-aircraft missile.

Image
Schematic of the A4/V2

On December 22, 1942, Adolf Hitler ordered the production of the A-4 as a "vengeance weapon", and the Peenemünde group developed it to target London. Following von Braun's July 7, 1943 presentation of a color movie showing an A-4 taking off, Hitler was so enthusiastic that he personally made von Braun a professor shortly thereafter.[35] In Germany at this time, this was an exceptional promotion for an engineer who was only 31 years old.

By that time, the British and Soviet intelligence agencies were aware of the rocket program and von Braun's team at Peenemünde, based on the intelligence provided by the Polish underground Home Army. Over the nights of August 17–18, 1943, RAF Bomber Command's Operation Hydra dispatched raids on the Peenemünde camp consisting of 596 aircraft, and dropped 1,800 tons of explosives.[36] The facility was salvaged and most of the engineering team remained unharmed; however, the raids killed von Braun's engine designer Walter Thiel and Chief Engineer Walther, and the rocket program was delayed.[37][38]

See also: Bombing of Peenemünde in World War II

The first combat A-4, renamed the V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2 "Retaliation/Vengeance Weapon 2") for propaganda purposes, was launched toward England on September 7, 1944, only 21 months after the project had been officially commissioned. Von Braun's interest in rockets was specifically for the application of space travel, not for killing people.[39] After hearing the news from London, he said that "the rocket worked perfectly, except for landing on the wrong planet." Satirist Mort Sahl has been credited with mocking von Braun by saying "I aim at the stars, but sometimes I hit London."[40] That line appears in the film I Aim at the Stars, a 1960 biopic of von Braun.

Experiments with rocket aircraft

During 1936, von Braun's rocketry team working at Kummersdorf investigated installing liquid-fuelled rockets in aircraft. Ernst Heinkel enthusiastically supported their efforts, supplying a He-72 and later two He-112s for the experiments. Later in 1936, Erich Warsitz was seconded by the RLM to von Braun and Heinkel, because he had been recognized as one of the most experienced test pilots of the time, and because he also had an extraordinary fund of technical knowledge.[41]:30 After he familiarized Warsitz with a test-stand run, showing him the corresponding apparatus in the aircraft, he asked: "Are you with us and will you test the rocket in the air? Then, Warsitz, you will be a famous man. And later we will fly to the Moon – with you at the helm!"[41]:35

Image
A regular He 112

In June 1937, at Neuhardenberg (a large field about 70 km (43 mi) east of Berlin, listed as a reserve airfield in the event of war), one of these latter aircraft was flown with its piston engine shut down during flight by Warsitz, at which time it was propelled by von Braun's rocket power alone. Despite a wheels-up landing and the fuselage having been on fire, it proved to official circles that an aircraft could be flown satisfactorily with a back-thrust system through the rear.[41]:51

At the same time, Hellmuth Walter's experiments into hydrogen peroxide based rockets were leading towards light and simple rockets that appeared well-suited for aircraft installation. Also the firm of Hellmuth Walter at Kiel had been commissioned by the RLM to build a rocket engine for the He 112, so there were two different new rocket motor designs at Neuhardenberg: whereas von Braun's engines were powered by alcohol and liquid oxygen, Walter engines had hydrogen peroxide and calcium permanganate as a catalyst. Von Braun's engines used direct combustion and created fire, the Walter devices used hot vapors from a chemical reaction, but both created thrust and provided high speed.[41]:41 The subsequent flights with the He-112 used the Walter-rocket instead of von Braun's; it was more reliable, simpler to operate, and safer for the test pilot, Warsitz.[41]:55

Slave labor

SS General Hans Kammler, who as an engineer had constructed several concentration camps, including Auschwitz, had a reputation for brutality and had originated the idea of using concentration camp prisoners as slave laborers in the rocket program. Arthur Rudolph, chief engineer of the V-2 rocket factory at Peenemünde, endorsed this idea in April 1943 when a labor shortage developed. More people died building the V-2 rockets than were killed by it as a weapon.[42] Von Braun admitted visiting the plant at Mittelwerk on many occasions[5], and called conditions at the plant "repulsive", but claimed never to have witnessed any deaths or beatings, although it had become clear to him by 1944 that deaths had occurred.[43] He denied ever having visited the Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp itself, where 20,000 died from illness, beatings, hangings, and intolerable working conditions.[44]

Some prisoners claim von Braun engaged in brutal treatment or approved of it. Guy Morand, a French resistance fighter who was a prisoner in Dora, testified in 1995 that after an apparent sabotage attempt, von Braun ordered a prisoner to be flogged,[45] while Robert Cazabonne, another French prisoner, claimed von Braun stood by as prisoners were hanged by chains suspended by cranes.[45]:123–124 However, these accounts may have been a case of mistaken identity.[46] Former Buchenwald inmate Adam Cabala claims that von Braun went to the concentration camp to pick slave laborers:

... also the German scientists led by Prof. Wernher von Braun were aware of everything daily. As they went along the corridors, they saw the exhaustion of the inmates, their arduous work and their pain. Not one single time did Prof. Wernher von Braun protest against this cruelty during his frequent stays at Dora. Even the aspect of corpses did not touch him: On a small area near the ambulance shed, inmates tortured to death by slave labor and the terror of the overseers were piling up daily. But, Prof. Wernher von Braun passed them so close that he was almost touching the corpses.[47]


Von Braun later claimed that he was aware of the treatment of prisoners, but felt helpless to change the situation.[48]

Arrest and release by the Nazi regime

According to André Sellier, a French historian and survivor of the Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp, Heinrich Himmler had von Braun come to his Feldkommandostelle Hochwald HQ in East Prussia in February 1944.[49] To increase his power-base within the Nazi regime, Himmler was conspiring to use Kammler to gain control of all German armament programs, including the V-2 program at Peenemünde.[13]:38–40 He therefore recommended that von Braun work more closely with Kammler to solve the problems of the V-2. Von Braun claimed to have replied that the problems were merely technical and he was confident that they would be solved with Dornberger's assistance.

Von Braun had been under SD surveillance since October 1943. A report stated that he and his colleagues Riedel and Gröttrup were said to have expressed regret at an engineer's house one evening that they were not working on a spaceship[5] and that they felt the war was not going well; this was considered a "defeatist" attitude. A young female dentist who was an SS spy reported their comments.[13]:38–40 Combined with Himmler's false charges that von Braun was a communist sympathizer and had attempted to sabotage the V-2 program, and considering that von Braun regularly piloted his government-provided airplane that might allow him to escape to England, this led to his arrest by the Gestapo.[13]:38–40

The unsuspecting von Braun was detained on March 14 (or March 15),[50] 1944, and was taken to a Gestapo cell in Stettin (now Szczecin, Poland),[13]:38–40 where he was held for two weeks without knowing the charges against him.

Through the Abwehr in Berlin, Dornberger obtained von Braun's conditional release and Albert Speer, Reichsminister for Munitions and War Production, persuaded Hitler to reinstate von Braun so that the V-2 program could continue[5][13]:38–40 or turn into a "V-4 program" which in their view would be impossible without von Braun's leadership.[51] In his memoirs, Speer states Hitler had finally conceded that von Braun was to be "protected from all prosecution as long as he is indispensable, difficult though the general consequences arising from the situation."[52]

Surrender to the Americans

Image
Von Braun, with his arm in a cast due to a car accident, surrendered to the Americans just before this May 3, 1945 photo.

The Soviet Army was about 160 km (100 mi) from Peenemünde in early 1945 when von Braun assembled his planning staff and asked them to decide how and to whom they should surrender. Unwilling to go to the Soviets, von Braun and his staff decided to try to surrender to the Americans. Kammler had ordered relocation of his team to central Germany; however, a conflicting order from an army chief ordered them to join the army and fight. Deciding that Kammler's order was their best bet to defect to the Americans, von Braun fabricated documents and transported 500 of his affiliates to the area around Mittelwerk, where they resumed their work. For fear of their documents being destroyed by the SS, von Braun ordered the blueprints to be hidden in an abandoned mine shaft in the Harz mountain range.[53]

While on an official trip in March, von Braun suffered a complicated fracture of his left arm and shoulder in a car accident after his driver fell asleep at the wheel. His injuries were serious, but he insisted that his arm be set in a cast so he could leave the hospital. Due to this neglect of the injury he had to be hospitalized again a month later where his bones had to be rebroken and realigned.[53]

In April, as the Allied forces advanced deeper into Germany, Kammler ordered the engineering team to be moved by train into the town of Oberammergau in the Bavarian Alps, where they were closely guarded by the SS with orders to execute the team if they were about to fall into enemy hands. However, von Braun managed to convince SS Major Kummer to order the dispersal of the group into nearby villages so that they would not be an easy target for U.S. bombers.[53]

Von Braun and a large number of the engineering team subsequently made it to Austria.[54] On May 2, 1945, upon finding an American private from the U.S. 44th Infantry Division, von Braun's brother and fellow rocket engineer, Magnus, approached the soldier on a bicycle, calling out in broken English: "My name is Magnus von Braun. My brother invented the V-2. We want to surrender."[10][55] After the surrender, Wernher von Braun spoke to the press:

We knew that we had created a new means of warfare, and the question as to what nation, to what victorious nation we were willing to entrust this brainchild of ours was a moral decision more than anything else. We wanted to see the world spared another conflict such as Germany had just been through, and we felt that only by surrendering such a weapon to people who are guided not by the laws of materialism but by Christianity and humanity could such an assurance to the world be best secured.[56]


The American high command was well aware of how important their catch was: von Braun had been at the top of the Black List, the code name for the list of German scientists and engineers targeted for immediate interrogation by U.S. military experts. On June 9, 1945, two days before the scheduled handover of the Nordhausen area to the Soviets, U.S. Army Major Robert B. Staver, Chief of the Jet Propulsion Section of the Research and Intelligence Branch of the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps in London, and Lt Col R. L. Williams took von Braun and his department chiefs by Jeep from Garmisch to Munich, from where they were flown to Nordhausen; on the next day, the group was evacuated 40 miles (64 km) southwest to Witzenhausen, a small town in the American Zone.[57]

Von Braun was briefly detained at the "Dustbin" interrogation center at Kransberg Castle, where the elite of the Third Reich's economic, scientific and technological sectors were debriefed by U.S. and British intelligence officials.[58] Initially, he was recruited to the U.S. under a program called Operation Overcast, subsequently known as Operation Paperclip. There is evidence, however, that British intelligence and scientists were the first to interview him in depth, eager to gain information that they knew U.S. officials would deny them. The team included the young L.S. Snell, then the leading British rocket engineer, later chief designer of Rolls-Royce Limited and inventor of the Concorde's engines. The specific information the British gleaned remained top secret, both from the Americans and other allies.[citation needed]

American career

U.S. Army career


Image
Wernher von Braun at a meeting of NACA's Special Committee on Space Technology, 1958

On June 20, 1945, the U.S. Secretary of State approved the transfer of von Braun and his specialists to the United States; however, this was not announced to the public until October 1, 1945.[59] Von Braun was among those scientists for whom the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) arguably falsified employment histories and expunged NSDAP memberships.[citation needed]

The first seven technicians arrived in the United States at New Castle Army Air Field, just south of Wilmington, Delaware, on September 20, 1945. They were then flown to Boston and taken by boat to the Army Intelligence Service post at Fort Strong in Boston Harbor. Later, with the exception of von Braun, the men were transferred to Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland to sort out the Peenemünde documents, enabling the scientists to continue their rocketry experiments.[citation needed]

Finally, von Braun and his remaining Peenemünde staff (see List of German rocket scientists in the United States) were transferred to their new home at Fort Bliss, a large Army installation just north of El Paso. Von Braun would later write he found it hard to develop a "genuine emotional attachment" to his new surroundings.[60] His chief design engineer Walther Reidel became the subject of a December 1946 article "German Scientist Says American Cooking Tasteless; Dislikes Rubberized Chicken", exposing the presence of von Braun's team in the country and drawing criticism from Albert Einstein and John Dingell.[60] Requests to improve their living conditions such as laying linoleum over their cracked wood flooring were rejected.[60] Von Braun remarked, "at Peenemünde we had been coddled, here you were counting pennies".[60] Whereas von Braun had thousands of engineers who answered to him at Peenemünde, he was now subordinate to "pimply" 26-year-old Jim Hamill, an Army major who possessed only an undergraduate degree in engineering.[60] His loyal Germans still addressed him as "Herr Professor," but Hamill addressed him as "Wernher" and never responded to von Braun's request for more materials. Every proposal for new rocket ideas was dismissed.[60]

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Von Braun's badge at ABMA (1957)

While at Fort Bliss, they trained military, industrial, and university personnel in the intricacies of rockets and guided missiles. As part of the Hermes project, they helped refurbish, assemble, and launch a number of V-2s that had been shipped from Germany to the White Sands Proving Ground in New Mexico. They also continued to study the future potential of rockets for military and research applications. Since they were not permitted to leave Fort Bliss without military escort, von Braun and his colleagues began to refer to themselves only half-jokingly as "PoPs" – "Prisoners of Peace".[61]

In 1950, at the start of the Korean War, von Braun and his team were transferred to Huntsville, Alabama, his home for the next 20 years. Between 1952 and 1956,[62] von Braun led the Army's rocket development team at Redstone Arsenal, resulting in the Redstone rocket, which was used for the first live nuclear ballistic missile tests conducted by the United States. He personally witnessed this historic launch and detonation.[63] Work on the Redstone led to development of the first high-precision inertial guidance system on the Redstone rocket.[64]

As director of the Development Operations Division of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, von Braun, with his team, then developed the Jupiter-C, a modified Redstone rocket.[65] The Jupiter-C successfully launched the West's first satellite, Explorer 1, on January 31, 1958. This event signaled the birth of America's space program.

Despite the work on the Redstone rocket, the 12 years from 1945 to 1957 were probably some of the most frustrating for von Braun and his colleagues. In the Soviet Union, Sergei Korolev and his team of scientists and engineers plowed ahead with several new rocket designs and the Sputnik program, while the American government was not very interested in von Braun's work or views and embarked only on a very modest rocket-building program. In the meantime, the press tended to dwell on von Braun's past as a member of the SS and the slave labor used to build his V-2 rockets.[citation needed]

Popular concepts for a human presence in space

Repeating the pattern he had established during his earlier career in Germany, von Braun – while directing military rocket development in the real world – continued to entertain his engineer-scientist's dream of a future in which rockets would be used for space exploration. However, he was no longer at risk of being sacked – as American public opinion of Germans began to recover, von Braun found himself increasingly in a position to popularize his ideas. The May 14, 1950, headline of The Huntsville Times ("Dr. von Braun Says Rocket Flights Possible to Moon") might have marked the beginning of these efforts. Von Braun's ideas rode a publicity wave that was created by science fiction movies and stories.

Image
Von Braun with President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1960

In 1952, von Braun first published his concept of a crewed space station in a Collier's Weekly magazine series of articles titled "Man Will Conquer Space Soon!". These articles were illustrated by the space artist Chesley Bonestell and were influential in spreading his ideas. Frequently, von Braun worked with fellow German-born space advocate and science writer Willy Ley to publish his concepts, which, unsurprisingly, were heavy on the engineering side and anticipated many technical aspects of space flight that later became reality.

The space station (to be constructed using rockets with recoverable and reusable ascent stages) would be a toroid structure, with a diameter of 250 feet (76 m); this built on the concept of a rotating wheel-shaped station introduced in 1929 by Herman Potočnik in his book The Problem of Space Travel – The Rocket Motor. The space station would spin around a central docking nave to provide artificial gravity, and would be assembled in a 1,075-mile (1,730 km) two-hour, high-inclination Earth orbit allowing observation of essentially every point on Earth on at least a daily basis. The ultimate purpose of the space station would be to provide an assembly platform for crewed lunar expeditions. More than a decade later, the movie version of 2001: A Space Odyssey would draw heavily on the design concept in its visualization of an orbital space station.

Von Braun envisioned these expeditions as very large-scale undertakings, with a total of 50 astronauts traveling in three huge spacecraft (two for crew, one primarily for cargo), each 49 m (160.76 ft) long and 33 m (108.27 ft) in diameter and driven by a rectangular array of 30 rocket propulsion engines.[66] Upon arrival, astronauts would establish a permanent lunar base in the Sinus Roris region by using the emptied cargo holds of their craft as shelters, and would explore their surroundings for eight weeks. This would include a 400 km (249 mi) expedition in pressurized rovers to the crater Harpalus and the Mare Imbrium foothills.

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Walt Disney and von Braun, seen in 1954 holding a model of his passenger ship, collaborated on a series of three educational films.

At this time, von Braun also worked out preliminary concepts for a human mission to Mars that used the space station as a staging point. His initial plans, published in The Mars Project (1952), had envisaged a fleet of 10 spacecraft (each with a mass of 3,720 metric tonnes), three of them uncrewed and each carrying one 200-tonne winged lander[66] in addition to cargo, and nine crew vehicles transporting a total of 70 astronauts. Gigantic as this mission plan was, its engineering and astronautical parameters were thoroughly calculated. A later project was much more modest, using only one purely orbital cargo ship and one crewed craft. In each case, the expedition would use minimum-energy Hohmann transfer orbits for its trips to Mars and back to Earth.

Before technically formalizing his thoughts on human spaceflight to Mars, von Braun had written a science fiction novel on the subject, set in the year 1980. However, the manuscript was rejected by no fewer than 18 publishers.[67] Von Braun later published small portions of this opus in magazines, to illustrate selected aspects of his Mars project popularizations. The complete manuscript, titled Project MARS: A Technical Tale, did not appear as a printed book until December 2006.[68]

In the hope that its involvement would bring about greater public interest in the future of the space program, von Braun also began working with Walt Disney and the Disney studios as a technical director, initially for three television films about space exploration. The initial broadcast devoted to space exploration was Man in Space, which first went on air on March 9, 1955, drawing 40 million viewers.[60][69][70]

Later (in 1959) von Braun published a short booklet, condensed from episodes that had appeared in This Week Magazine before—describing his updated concept of the first crewed lunar landing.[71] The scenario included only a single and relatively small spacecraft—a winged lander with a crew of only two experienced pilots who had already circumnavigated the Moon on an earlier mission. The brute-force direct ascent flight schedule used a rocket design with five sequential stages, loosely based on the Nova designs that were under discussion at this time. After a night launch from a Pacific island, the first three stages would bring the spacecraft (with the two remaining upper stages attached) to terrestrial escape velocity, with each burn creating an acceleration of 8–9 times standard gravity. Residual propellant in the third stage would be used for the deceleration intended to commence only a few hundred kilometers above the landing site in a crater near the lunar north pole. The fourth stage provided acceleration to lunar escape velocity, while the fifth stage would be responsible for a deceleration during return to the Earth to a residual speed that allows aerocapture of the spacecraft ending in a runway landing, much in the way of the Space Shuttle. One remarkable feature of this technical tale is that the engineer von Braun anticipated a medical phenomenon that would become apparent only years later: being a veteran astronaut with no history of serious adverse reactions to weightlessness offers no protection against becoming unexpectedly and violently spacesick.

Religious conversion

In the first half of his life, von Braun was a nonpracticing, "perfunctory" Lutheran, whose affiliation was nominal and not taken seriously.[72] As described by Ernst Stuhlinger and Frederick I. Ordway III: "Throughout his younger years, von Braun did not show signs of religious devotion, or even an interest in things related to the church or to biblical teachings. In fact, he was known to his friends as a 'merry heathen' (fröhlicher Heide)."[73] Nevertheless, in 1945 he explained his decision to surrender to the Western Allies, rather than Russians, as being influenced by a desire to share rocket technology with people who followed the Bible. In 1946,[74]:469 he attended church in El Paso, Texas, and underwent a religious conversion to evangelical Christianity.[75] In an unnamed religious magazine he stated:

One day in Fort Bliss, a neighbor called and asked if I would like to go to church with him. I accepted, because I wanted to see if the American church was just a country club as I'd been led to expect. Instead, I found a small, white frame building ... in the hot Texas sun on a browned-grass lot ... Together, these people make a live, vibrant community. This was the first time I really understood that religion was not a cathedral inherited from the past, or a quick prayer at the last minute. To be effective, a religion has to be backed up by discipline and effort.

— von Braun[74]:229–230


On the motives behind this conversion, Michael J. Neufeld is of the opinion that he turned to religion "to pacify his own conscience",[76] whereas University of Southampton scholar Kendrick Oliver said that von Braun was presumably moved "by a desire to find a new direction for his life after the moral chaos of his service for the Third Reich".[77] Having "concluded one bad bargain with the Devil, perhaps now he felt a need to have God securely at his side".[78]

Later in life, he joined an Episcopal congregation,[75] and became increasingly religious.[79] He publicly spoke and wrote about the complementarity of science and religion, the afterlife of the soul, and his belief in God.[80][81] He stated, "Through science man strives to learn more of the mysteries of creation. Through religion he seeks to know the Creator."[82] He was interviewed by the Assemblies of God pastor C. M. Ward, as stating, "The farther we probe into space, the greater my faith."[83] In addition, he met privately with evangelist Billy Graham and with the pacifist leader Martin Luther King Jr..[84]

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Von Braun with President Kennedy at Redstone Arsenal in 1963

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Von Braun with the F-1 engines of the Saturn V first stage at the U.S. Space and Rocket Center

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Still with his rocket models, von Braun is pictured in his new office at NASA headquarters in 1970

Concepts for orbital warfare

Von Braun developed and published his space station concept during the "coldest" time of the Cold War, when the U.S. government for which he worked put the containment of the Soviet Union above everything else. The fact that his space station – if armed with missiles that could be easily adapted from those already available at this time – would give the United States space superiority in both orbital and orbit-to-ground warfare did not escape him. In his popular writings, von Braun elaborated on them in several of his books and articles, but he took care to qualify such military applications as "particularly dreadful". This much-less-peaceful aspect of von Braun's "drive for space" has been reviewed by Michael J. Neufeld from the Space History Division of the National Air and Space Museum in Washington.[85]
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Part 2 of 2

NASA career

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Von Braun during the Apollo 11 launch, with binoculars to watch it

The U.S. Navy had been tasked with building a rocket to lift satellites into orbit, but the resulting Vanguard rocket launch system was unreliable. In 1957, with the launch of Sputnik 1, a growing belief within the United States existed that it was lagging behind the Soviet Union in the emerging Space Race. American authorities then chose to use von Braun and his German team's experience with missiles to create an orbital launch vehicle. Von Braun had originally proposed such an idea in 1954, but it was denied at the time.[60]

NASA was established by law on July 29, 1958. One day later, the 50th Redstone rocket was successfully launched from Johnston Atoll in the south Pacific as part of Operation Hardtack I. Two years later, NASA opened the Marshall Space Flight Center at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, and the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) development team led by von Braun was transferred to NASA. In a face-to-face meeting with Herb York at the Pentagon, von Braun made it clear he would go to NASA only if development of the Saturn were allowed to continue.[86] Von Braun became the center's first director on 1 July 1960 and held the position until 27 January 1970.[87]

Von Braun's early years at NASA included a failed "four-inch flight" during which the first uncrewed Mercury-Redstone rocket only rose a few inches before settling back onto the launch pad. The launch failure was later determined to be the result of a "power plug with one prong shorter than the other because a worker filed it to make it fit". Because of the difference in the length of one prong, the launch system detected the difference in the power disconnection as a "cut-off signal to the engine". The system stopped the launch, and the incident created a "nadir of morale in Project Mercury".

After the flight of Mercury-Redstone 2 in January 1961 experienced a string of problems, von Braun insisted on one more test before the Redstone could be deemed man-rated. His overly cautious nature brought about clashes with other people involved in the program, who argued that MR-2's technical issues were simple and had been resolved shortly after the flight. He overruled them, so a test mission involving a Redstone on a boilerplate capsule was flown successfully in March. Von Braun's stubbornness was blamed for the inability of the U.S. to launch a crewed space mission before the Soviet Union, which ended up putting the first man in space the following month.

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Charles W. Mathews, von Braun, George Mueller, and Lt. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips in the Launch Control Center following the successful Apollo 11 liftoff on July 16, 1969

The Marshall Center's first major program was the development of Saturn rockets to carry heavy payloads into and beyond Earth orbit. From this, the Apollo program for crewed Moon flights was developed. Von Braun initially pushed for a flight engineering concept that called for an Earth orbit rendezvous technique (the approach he had argued for building his space station), but in 1962, he converted to the lunar orbit rendezvous concept that was subsequently realized.[88] During Apollo, he worked closely with former Peenemünde teammate, Kurt H. Debus, the first director of the Kennedy Space Center. His dream to help mankind set foot on the Moon became a reality on July 16, 1969, when a Marshall-developed Saturn V rocket launched the crew of Apollo 11 on its historic eight-day mission. Over the course of the program, Saturn V rockets enabled six teams of astronauts to reach the surface of the Moon.

During the late 1960s, von Braun was instrumental in the development of the U.S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville. The desk from which he guided America's entry in the space race remains on display there. He also was instrumental in the launching of the experimental Applications Technology Satellite. He traveled to India and hoped that the program would be helpful for bringing a massive educational television project to help the poorest people in that country.[89][90]

During the local summer of 1966–67, von Braun participated in a field trip to Antarctica, organized for him and several other members of top NASA management.[91] The goal of the field trip was to determine whether the experience gained by U.S. scientific and technological community during the exploration of Antarctic wastelands would be useful for the crewed exploration of space. Von Braun was mainly interested in management of the scientific effort on Antarctic research stations, logistics, habitation, and life support, and in using the barren Antarctic terrain like the glacial dry valleys to test the equipment that one day would be used to look for signs of life on Mars and other worlds.

In an internal memo dated January 16, 1969,[92] von Braun had confirmed to his staff that he would stay on as a center director at Huntsville to head the Apollo Applications Program. He referred to this time as a moment in his life when he felt the strong need to pray, stating "I certainly prayed a lot before and during the crucial Apollo flights".[93] A few months later, on occasion of the first Moon landing, he publicly expressed his optimism that the Saturn V carrier system would continue to be developed, advocating human missions to Mars in the 1980s.[94]

Nonetheless, on March 1, 1970, von Braun and his family relocated to Washington, DC, when he was assigned the post of NASA's Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning at NASA Headquarters. After a series of conflicts associated with the truncation of the Apollo program, and facing severe budget constraints, von Braun retired from NASA on May 26, 1972. Not only had it become evident by this time that NASA and his visions for future U.S. space flight projects were incompatible, but also it was perhaps even more frustrating for him to see popular support for a continued presence of man in space wane dramatically once the goal to reach the Moon had been accomplished.

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Von Braun and William R. Lucas, the first and third Marshall Space Flight Center directors, viewing a Spacelab model in 1974

Von Braun also developed the idea of a Space Camp that would train children in fields of science and space technologies, as well as help their mental development much the same way sports camps aim at improving physical development.[22]:354–355

Career after NASA

After leaving NASA, von Braun became Vice President for Engineering and Development at the aerospace company Fairchild Industries in Germantown, Maryland, on July 1, 1972.

In 1973, during a routine physical examination, von Braun was diagnosed with kidney cancer, which could not be controlled with the medical techniques available at the time.[95] Von Braun continued his work to the extent possible, which included accepting invitations to speak at colleges and universities, as he was eager to cultivate interest in human spaceflight and rocketry, particularly his desire to encourage the next generation of aerospace engineers.

Von Braun helped establish and promote the National Space Institute, a precursor of the present-day National Space Society, in 1975, and became its first president and chairman. In 1976, he became scientific consultant to Lutz Kayser, the CEO of OTRAG, and a member of the Daimler-Benz board of directors. However, his deteriorating health forced him to retire from Fairchild on December 31, 1976. When the 1975 National Medal of Science was awarded to him in early 1977, he was hospitalized, and unable to attend the White House ceremony.

Engineering philosophy

Von Braun's insistence on further tests after Mercury-Redstone 2 flew higher than planned has been identified as contributing to the Soviet Union's success in launching the first human in space.[96] The Mercury-Redstone BD flight was successful, but took up the launch slot that could have put Alan Shepard into space three weeks ahead of Yuri Gagarin. His Soviet counterpart Sergei Korolev insisted on two successful flights with dogs before risking Gagarin's life on a crewed attempt. The second test flight took place one day after the Mercury-Redstone BD mission.[22]

Von Braun took a very conservative approach to engineering, designing with ample safety factors and redundant structure. This became a point of contention with other engineers, who struggled to keep vehicle weight down so that payload could be maximized. As noted above, his excessive caution likely led to the U.S. losing the race to put a man into space with the Soviets. Krafft Ehricke likened von Braun's approach to building the Brooklyn Bridge.[97]:208 Many at NASA headquarters jokingly referred to Marshall as the "Chicago Bridge and Iron Works", but acknowledged that the designs worked.[98] The conservative approach paid off when a fifth engine was added to the Saturn C-4, producing the Saturn V. The C-4 design had a large crossbeam that could easily absorb the thrust of an additional engine.[22]:371

Personal life

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Maria von Braun, wife of Wernher von Braun

Von Braun had a charismatic personality and was known as a ladies' man. As a student in Berlin, he would often be seen in the evenings in the company of two girlfriends at once.[22]:63 He later had a succession of affairs within the secretarial and computer pool at Peenemünde.[22]:92–94

In January 1943, von Braun became engaged to Dorothee Brill, a physical education teacher in Berlin, and he sought permission to marry from the SS Race and Settlement Office. However, the engagement was broken due to his mother's opposition.[22]:146–147 He had an affair in Paris with a French woman later in 1943, while preparing V-2 launch sites in northeastern France. She was imprisoned for collaboration after the war and became destitute.[22]:147–148

During his stay at Fort Bliss, von Braun proposed marriage to Maria Luise von Quistorp (born June 10, 1928), his maternal first cousin, in a letter to his father. He married her in a Lutheran church in Landshut, Germany on March 1, 1947, having received permission to go back to Germany and return with his bride. Shortly after, he became an evangelical Christian. He returned to New York on March 26, 1947 with his wife, father, and mother. On December 9, 1948, the von Brauns' first daughter Iris Careen was born at Fort Bliss Army Hospital.[65] The couple had two more children: Margrit Cécile in 1952, and Peter Constantine in 1960.

On April 15, 1955, von Braun became a naturalized citizen of the United States.

Death

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Grave of Wernher von Braun in Ivy Hill Cemetery (Alexandria, Virginia), 2008.

Von Braun died on June 16, 1977 of pancreatic cancer in Alexandria, Virginia at age 65.[99][100] He was buried at the Ivy Hill Cemetery. His gravestone quotes Psalm 19:1: "The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork." (KJV)[101]

Recognition and critique[edit]

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In 1970, Huntsville, Alabama honored von Braun's years of service with a series of events including the unveiling of a plaque in his honor. Pictured (l–r), his daughter Iris, wife Maria, U.S. Sen. John Sparkman, Alabama Gov. Albert Brewer, von Braun, son Peter, and daughter Margrit.

• Apollo program director Sam Phillips was quoted as saying that he did not think that the United States would have reached the Moon as quickly as it did without von Braun's help. Later, after discussing it with colleagues, he amended this to say that he did not believe the United States would have reached the Moon at all.[13]:167
• The von Braun crater on the Moon is named after him.
• Von Braun received a total of 12 honorary doctorates; among them, on January 8, 1963, one from the Technical University of Berlin, from which he had graduated.
• Von Braun was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1967.
• In Huntsville, Alabama:
o Von Braun was responsible for the creation of the Research Institute at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. As a result of his vision, the university is one of the leading universities in the nation for NASA-sponsored research. The building housing the university's Research Institute was named in his honor, Von Braun Research Hall, in 2000.
o The Von Braun Center (built in 1975) in Huntsville is named in von Braun's honor.
o The Von Braun Astronomical Society in Huntsville was founded as the Rocket City Astronomical Association by von Braun and was later renamed after him.
• Several German cities (Bonn, Neu-Isenburg, Mannheim, Mainz), and dozens of smaller towns have streets named after von Braun.
• Scrutiny of von Braun's use of forced labor at Mittelwerk intensified again in 1984 when Arthur Rudolph, one of his top affiliates from the A-4/V2 through the Apollo projects, left the United States and was forced to renounce his citizenship in place of the alternative of being tried for war crimes.[5][102]
• A science- and engineering-oriented Gymnasium in Friedberg, Bavaria was named after von Braun in 1979. In response to rising criticism, a school committee decided in 1995, after lengthy deliberations, to keep the name but "to address von Braun's ambiguity in the advanced history classes". In 2012, Nazi concentration camp survivor David Salz gave a speech in Friedberg, calling out to the public to "Do everything to make this name disappear from this school!".[103][104] In February 2014, the school was finally renamed "Staatliches Gymnasium Friedberg" and distanced itself from the name von Braun, citing he was "no role-model for our pupils".
• An avenue in the Annadale section of Staten Island, New York was named after him in 1977.
• Von Braun was voted into the U.S. Space and Rocket Center Hall of Fame in 2007.

Summary of SS career

• SS number: 185,068
• Nazi Party number: 5,738,692[22]:96

Dates of rank

• SS-Anwärter: November 1, 1933 (Candidate; received rank upon joining SS Riding School)
• SS-Mann: July 1934 (Private)
(left SS after graduation from the school; commissioned in 1940 with date of entry backdated to 1934)
• SS-Untersturmführer: May 1, 1940 (Second Lieutenant)
• SS-Obersturmführer: November 9, 1941 (First Lieutenant)
• SS-Hauptsturmführer: November 9, 1942 (Captain)
• SS-Sturmbannführer: June 28, 1943 (Major)[29]

Honors

• War Merit Cross, First Class with Swords in 1943
• Knights Cross of the War Merit Cross in 1944
• Elected Honorary Fellow of the British Interplanetary Society in 1949[105]
• Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1959
• Elliott Cresson Medal in 1962[106]
• Inducted into the International Aerospace Hall of Fame in 1965[107]
• Langley Gold Medal in 1967[108]
• NASA Distinguished Service Medal in 1969
• Inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame in 1969
• Wilhelm Exner Medal in 1969.[2]
• National Medal of Science in 1975
• Werner von Siemens Ring in 1975
• Civitan International World Citizenship Award in 1970[109]
• National Aviation Hall of Fame (1982)[110]

In popular culture

Film and television Von Braun has been featured in a number of films and television shows or series:

• "Man in Space" and "Man and the Moon", episodes of Disneyland which originally aired on March 9, 1955 and December 28, 1955, respectively.
• I Aim at the Stars (1960), also titled Wernher von Braun and Ich greife nach den Sternen ("I Reach for the Stars"); von Braun played by Curd Jürgens, his wife Maria played by Victoria Shaw.[111] Although it was said that satirist Mort Sahl suggested the subtitle "But Sometimes I Hit London", the line appears in the film itself, spoken by actor James Daly who plays the cynical American press officer.
• Frozen Flashes (1967); based on Julius Mader's documentary report "The Secret of Huntsville"; von Braun (only referred to as the "rocket baron") played by Dietrich Körner [de].
• Perfumed Nightmare (1977); in this Filipino film, Von Braun is repeatedly mentioned by the main character Kidlat, played by director Kidlat Tahimik. Kidlat the character's dreams of spaceflight and going to the United States is mostly due to Von Braun, and Kidlat is the chairman of his village's own Wernher von Braun fan club in Laguna, Philippines.
• From the Earth to the Moon (TV, 1998): von Braun played by Norbert Weisser.
• October Sky (1999); this film portrays U.S. rocket scientist Homer Hickam, who as a teenager admired von Braun (played by Joe Digaetano). The film's title, October Sky, is an anagram of the autobiography it was based on: Rocket Boys.
• Space Race (TV, BBC co-production with NDR (Germany), Channel One TV (Russia) and National Geographic TV (USA), 2005): von Braun played by Richard Dillane.
• The Lost Von Braun, a documentary by Aron Ranen. Interviews with Ernst Stuhlinger, Konrad Dannenberg, Karl Sendler, Alex Baum, Eli Rosenbaum (DOJ) and von Braun's NASA secretary Bonnie Holmes.
• Wernher von Braun – Rocket Man for War and Peace A three part (part1, part 2, part 3) documentary – in English – from the German International channel DW-TV.[112] Original German version Wernher von Braun – Der Mann für die Wunderwaffen by the Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk. Played by Ludwig Blochberger.[113]
• Timeless television series (2016): Party at Castle Varlar (season 1, episode 4); von Braun played by Christian Oliver.
• Project Blue Book television series (2019): "Operation Paperclip" (Season 1, episode 4) von Braun played by Thomas Kretschmann.
Several fictional characters have been modeled on von Braun:
• Dr. Strangelove, or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964): Dr Strangelove is usually held to be based at least partly on von Braun.[114]

In print media:

• In Warren Ellis's graphic novel Ministry of Space, von Braun is a supporting character, settling in Britain after World War II, and being essential for the realization of the British space program.
• In Jonathan Hickman's comic book series The Manhattan Projects, von Braun is a major character.

In literature:

• The Good German by Joseph Kanon. Von Braun and other scientists are said to have been implicated in the use of slave labor at Peenemünde; their transfer to the U.S. forms part of the narrative.
• Space by James Michener. Von Braun and other German scientists are brought to the U.S. and form a vital part of the U.S. efforts to reach space.
• Gravity's Rainbow by Thomas Pynchon. The novel involves British intelligence attempting to avert and predict V-2 rocket attacks. The work even includes a gyroscopic equation for the V2. The first portion of the novel, "Beyond The Zero", begins with a quotation from von Braun: "Nature does not know extinction; all it knows is transformation. Everything science has taught me, and continues to teach me, strengthens my belief in the continuity of our spiritual existence after death."
• V-S Day by Allen Steele is a 2014 alternate history novel in which the space race occurs during World War II between teams led by Robert H. Goddard and von Braun.
• Moonglow by Michael Chabon (2016) includes a fictionalized description of the search for and capture of Von Braun by the US Army, and his role in the Nazi V-2 program and subsequently in the US space program.
In theatre:
• Rocket City, Alabam', a stage play by Mark Saltzman, weaves von Braun's real life with a fictional plot in which a young Jewish woman in Huntsville, Alabama becomes aware of his Nazi past and tries to inspire awareness and outrage. Von Braun is a character in the play.[115]

In music:

• Infinite Journey (1962), Johann Sebastian Bach and Apollo program rocket sounds album by various artists including Henry Mazer, which features von Braun as a narrator.[116]
• "Wernher von Braun" (1965):[117] A song written and performed by Tom Lehrer for an episode of NBC's American version of the BBC TV show That Was The Week That Was; the song was later included in Lehrer's albums That Was The Year That Was and The Remains of Tom Lehrer. It was a satire on what some saw as von Braun's cavalier attitude toward the consequences of his work in Nazi Germany.[118]
• The Last Days of Pompeii (1991): A rock opera by Grant Hart's post-Hüsker Dü alternative rock group Nova Mob, in which von Braun features as a character. The album includes a song called "Wernher von Braun".

Published works

• Proposal for a Workable Fighter with Rocket Drive. July 6, 1939.
o The proposed vertical take-off interceptor[119] for climbing to 35,000 ft in 60 seconds was rejected by the Luftwaffe in the autumn of 1941[38]:258 for the Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet[22]:151 and never produced. (The differing Bachem Ba 349 was produced during the 1944 Emergency Fighter Program.)
• 'Survey' of Previous Liquid Rocket Development in Germany and Future Prospects. May 1945.[120]
• A Minimum Satellite Vehicle Based on Components Available from Developments of the Army Ordnance Corps. September 15, 1954. It would be a blow to U.S. prestige if we did not [launch a satellite] first.[120]
• The Mars Project, Urbana, University of Illinois Press, (1953). With Henry J. White, translator.
• Arthur C. Clarke, ed. (1967). German Rocketry, The Coming of the Space Age. New York: Meredith Press.
• First Men to the Moon, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York (1958). Portions of work first appeared in This Week Magazine.
• Daily Journals of Wernher von Braun, May 1958 – March 1970. March 1970.[120]
• History of Rocketry & Space Travel, New York, Crowell (1975). With Frederick I. Ordway III.
o Estate of Wernher von Braun; Ordway III, Frederick I & Dooling, David Jr. (1985) [1975]. Space Travel: A History (2nd ed.). New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-181898-1.
• The Rocket's Red Glare, Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press, (1976). With Frederick I. Ordway III.
• Project Mars: A Technical Tale, Apogee Books, Toronto (2006). A previously unpublished science fiction story by von Braun. Accompanied by paintings from Chesley Bonestell and von Braun's own technical papers on the proposed project.
• The Voice of Dr. Wernher von Braun, Apogee Books, Toronto (2007). A collection of speeches delivered by von Braun over the course of his career.

See also

• Biography portal
• Physics portal
• Spaceflight portal
• World War II portal
• Robert Esnault-Pelterie
• German inventors and discoverers
• List of coupled cousins
• Pedro Paulet
• Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

References

1. Ivy Hill Cemetery, Alexandria, VA., Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 48952). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition.
2. Editor, ÖGV. (2015). Wilhelm Exner Medal. Austrian Trade Association. ÖGV. Austria.
3. Neufeld, Michael. Von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War (First ed.). Vintage Books. pp. xv. Although Wernher von Braun got a doctorate in physics in 1934, he never worked a day in his life thereafter as a scientist. He was an engineer and a manager of engineers, and he used that vocabulary when he was talking to his professional peers.
4. Wernher von Braun: History's Most Controversial Figure?, Al Jazeera
5. Neufeld, Michael J. (May 20, 2019). "Wernher von Braun and the Nazis". American Experience: Chasing the Moon. PBS. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
6. "SP-4206 Stages to Saturn, Chapter 9". history.nasa.gov. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
7. "Biography of Wernher von Braun". MSFC History Office. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.
8. "Von Braun, Wernher" Archived July 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Erratik Institut. Retrieved 4 February 2011
9. "Dr. Wernher von Braun'i mälestuseks", Füüsikainstituut. Retrieved 4 February 2011
10. Spires, Shelby G. (June 27, 2003). "Von Braun's brother dies; aided surrender". The Huntsville Times. p. 1A. Magnus von Braun, the brother of rocket pioneer Wernher von Braun who worked in Huntsville from 1950–1955, died Saturday in Phoenix, Ariz. He was 84. Though not as famous as his older brother, who died in 1977, Magnus von Braun made the first contact with U.S. Army troops to arrange the German rocket team's surrender at the end of World War II.
11. Magnus Freiherr von Braun, Von Ostpreußen bis Texas. Erlebnisse und zeitgeschichtliche Betrachtungen eines Ostdeutschen. Stollhamm 1955
12. "Recollections of Childhood: Early Experiences in Rocketry as Told by Werner von Braun 1963". MSFC History Office. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.
13. Ward, Bob (2005). Dr. Space: The Life of Wernher von Braun. ISBN 978-1-591-14926-2.
14. OCLC 6026491
15. Various sources such as The Nazi Rocketeers (ISBN 0811733874 pp 5–8) list the young Wernher von Braun as joining the VfR as an apprentice to Willy Ley, one of the three founders. Later when Ley fled Germany because he was a Jew, von Braun took over the leadership of the Verein and changed its activity to military development.
16. "Wernher von Braun biography". Biography.com. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
17. "Early Experiences in Rocketry as Told by Werner von Braun 1963". History.msfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved August 15,2013.
18. https://history.msfc.nasa.gov/vonbraun/ ... dhood.html
19. As related by Auguste's son Jacques Piccard to fellow deep-sea explorer Hans Fricke, cited in: Fricke H. Der Fisch, der aus der Urzeit kam, pp. 23–24. Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, 2010. ISBN 978-3-423-34616-0 (in German)
20. Leo Nutz; Elmar Wild (December 28, 1989). "Oberth-museum.org". Oberth-museum.org. Retrieved August 15,2013.
21. Davies, Norman (2006). Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory. London: Macmillan. p. 416. ISBN 9780333692851. OCLC 70401618.
22. Neufeld, Michael (2007). Von Braun Dreamer of Space Engineer of War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-307-26292-9.
23. Spangenburg & Moser. 2009. Wernher von Braun, Revised Edition. Infobase Publishing. p. 33
24. See Ward (2005), Chapter 5: "Encounters with Hitler."
25. Ward, Bob (2009). Dr. Space: The Life of Wernher von Braun. US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1591149279.
26. "Wernher von Braun FBI file".
27. "Dr. Space" pp. 35 "It had been thought that he publicly wore his uniform with swastika armband just once, during one of two formal..."
28. Dr. Space, p. 35. "Wernher von Braun in SS uniform". The Reformation Online.
29. "von Braun". Astronautix.com. Archived from the original on August 17, 2013.
30. Konstruktive, theoretische und experimentelle Beiträge zu dem Problem der Flüssigkeitsrakete. Raketentechnik und Raumfahrtforschung, Sonderheft 1 (1960), Stuttgart, Germany.
31. Weisstein, Eric Wolfgang (ed.). "Robert Goddard". ScienceWorld.
32. "The Man Who Opened the Door to Space". Popular Science. May 1959.
33. Neufeld, Michael J. 2008. Wernher von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War. Vintage. p. 351
34. "Dr. Space: The Life of Wernher von Braun", Bob Ward. Naval Institute Press, Jul 10, 2013. Retrieved 6 mar 2017
35. Speer, Albert (1969). Erinnerungen, p. 377. Verlag Ullstein GmbH, Frankfurt a.M. and Berlin, ISBN 3-550-06074-2.
36. "Peenemünde, 17 and 18 August 1943". RAF History – Bomber Command. Royal Air Force. Archived from the original on November 1, 2006. Retrieved November 15, 2006.
37. Middlebrook, Martin (1982). The Peenemünde Raid: The Night of 17–18 August 1943. New York: Bobs-Merrill. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-672-52759-3.
38. J Dornberger, Walter (1952). V2—Der Schuss ins Weltall. Esslingan: Bechtle Verlag (US translation V-2 Viking Press:New York, 1954). p. 164. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
39. Neufeld, Michael J. 2008. Wernher von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War. Vintage. p. 184
40. Morrow, Lance (August 3, 1998). "The Moon and the Clones". Time. Retrieved August 30, 2009.
41. Warsitz, Lutz (2009). The First Jet Pilot: The Story of German Test Pilot Erich Warsitz. Pen and Sword Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84415-818-8.
42. Tracy Dungan. "Mittelbau Overview". V2rocket.com. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
43. "Excerpts from 'Power to Explore'". MSFC History Office. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.
44. Jaroff, Leon (March 26, 2002). "The Rocket Man's Dark Side". Time. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012.
45. Biddle, Wayne (2009). Dark Side of the Moon: Wernher von Braun, the Third Reich, and the Space Race. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393072648.:124–125
46. Michael J. Neufeld (Feb., 2002) "Wernher von Braun, the SS, and Concentration Camp Labor: Questions of Moral, Political, and Criminal Responsibility", German Studies Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 57–78
47. Fiedermann, Heß, and Jaeger (1993) Das KZ Mittelbau Dora. Ein historischer Abriss, p. 100, Westkreuz Verlag, Berlin ISBN 978-3-92213-194-6
48. Ernst Stuhlinger; Frederick Ira Ordway (April 1994). Wernher von Braun, crusader for space: a biographical memoir. Krieger Pub. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-89464-842-7. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
49. Sellier, André (2003). A History of the Dora Camp: The Untold Story of the Nazi Slave Labor Camp That Secretly Manufactured V-2 Rockets. Chicago, IL: Ivan R Dee. ISBN 978-1-56663-511-0.
50. "Highlights in German Rocket Development from 1927–1945". MSFC History Office. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.
51. Ward, Bob. 2013. Dr. Space: The Life of Wernher von Braun. Naval Institute Press. Ch. 5
52. Speer, Albert (1995). Inside the Third Reich. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 501–502. ISBN 9781842127353.
53. Cadbury, Deborah (2005). Space Race. BBC Worldwide Limited. ISBN 978-0-00-721299-6.
54. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 28, 2015. Capture of Werner von Braun by the 324th Regiment Anti-tank Company
55. McDougall, Walter A. (1985). ...The Heavens and the Earth: A Political History of the Space Age. New York: Basic Books. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-465-02887-0.
56. Arts & Entertainment, Biography (1959–1961 series). Mike Wallace, television biography of Wernher von Braun, video clip of the press statement.
57. McGovern, J (1964). Crossbow and Overcast. New York: W. Morrow. p. 182.
58. Speer, Albert (2001). Schlie, Ulrich (ed.). Alles, was ich weiß. F.A. Herbig Verlagsbuchhandlung. p. 12. ISBN 978-3-7766-2092-4.
59. "Outstanding German Scientists Being Brought to U.S". War Department press release. V2Rocket.com. October 1, 1945. Archived from the original on March 1, 2010.
60. Matthew Brzezinski (2007) Red Moon Rising: Sputnik and the Hidden Rivalries That Ignited the Space Age, pp. 84–92, Henry Holt, New York ISBN 978-0-80508-147-3
61. Neufeld, Michael J. (2008). Von Braun : dreamer of space, engineer of war (First ed.). New York: Vintage Books. p. 218. ISBN 9780525435914. OCLC 982248820.
62. "Wernher von Braun | Encyclopedia of Alabama". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
63. REDSTONE ROCKET, HARDTACK-TEAK TEST, AUGUST 1958. YouTube. October 3, 2011.
64. Bucher, G. C.; Mc Call, J. C.; Ordway, F. I., III; Stuhlinger, E. "From Peenemuende to Outer Space. Commemorating the Fiftieth Birthday of Wernher von Braun". NASA Technical Reports Server. hdl:2060/19630006100.
65. "Reach for the Stars". TIME Magazine. February 17, 1958.
66. Woodfill, Jerry (November 30, 2004). "Gallery of Wernher von Braun Moonship Sketches". The Space Educator's Handbook. NASA Johnson Space Center. Archived from the original on May 30, 2010.
67. Bergaust, Erik (1976). Wernher von Braun: The authoritative and definitive biographical profile of the father of modern space flight (Hardcover). National Space Institute. ISBN 978-0-917680-01-4.
68. Wernher von Braun (2006) Project Mars : a technical tale, Apogee Books, Burlington, Ontario ISBN 978-0-97382-033-1
69. Ley, Willy (October 1955). "For Your Information". Galaxy. p. 60. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
70. Pat Williams, Jim Denney (2004) How to Be Like Walt: Capturing the Disney Magic Every Day of Your Life, p. 237, Health Communications Inc. ISBN 978-0-75730-231-2
71. "Wernher von Braun (January 2000) "First Men to the Moon". Reprint by Henry Holt & Co., Inc. ISBN 978-0-03030-295-4
72. Neufeld, Michael J. (2008) Wernher von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War, Vintage. p. 4; 230
73. Stuhlinger, Ernst & Ira Ordway, Frederick. 1994. Wernher von Braun, crusader for space: a biographical memoir. Krieger Pub, p. 270
74. Neufeld, Michael J. (2007) Wernher von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War, Knoff, NY ISBN 978-0-30726-292-9
75. Mallon, Thomas (Oct. 22, 2007) "Rocket Man", The New Yorker, Access date: January 8, 2015.
76. Walker, Mark (2008) "A 20th-Century Faust" Archived April 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, American Scientist, Access: January 8, 2015
77. Oliver, Kendrick (2012) To Touch the Face of God: The Sacred, the Profane, and the American Space Program, 1957–1975, p. 23, Johns Hopkins University Press ISBN 978-1-42140-788-3
78. Oliver, 2012, p. 24
79. Stuhlinger, Ernst & Ira Ordway, Frederick. 1994. Wernher von Braun, crusader for space: a biographical memoir. Krieger Pub, p. 270: "Those who knew him through the 1960s and 1970s noticed during these years that a new element began to surface in his conversations, and also in his speeches and his writings: a growing interest in religious thought."
80. von Braun, Wernher (1963) "My Faith: A Space-Age Scientist Tells Why He Must Believe in God", (February 10, 1963) The American Weekly, p. 2, New York: The Hearst Corporation.
81. See von Braun's speeches in The voice of Dr. Wernher Von Brain: An Anthology. Apogee Books Publication; ed. by Irene E. Powell-Willhite: These touch "a variety of topics, including education, the cold war, religion, and the space program".
82. See the same article by von Braun, Wernher, published as "Science and religion", in Rome Daily American, September 13, 1966. Available in New Age Frontiersn (Oct. 1966) United Family, Vol- II, No. 10.
83. See "The Farther We Probe into Space, the Greater my Faith": C.M.Ward’s account of His Interview with Dr. Warner von Braun (1966) Springfield, MO: Assemblies of God, 17 pp. Mini-pamphlet.
84. Ward, Bob (2013) Dr. Space: The Life of Wernher von Braun, Ch. 1: "The Accursed Blessing", Naval Institute Press OCLC 857079205
85. Neufeld MJ: "Space superiority: Wernher von Braun's campaign for a nuclear-armed space station, 1946–1956". Space Policy 2006; 22:52–62.
86. "Stages to Saturn – The Saturn Building Blocks – THE ABMA TRANSFER". NASA.
87. "Photos: Wernher von Braun, Space Pioneer Remembered". Space.com. 2012. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
88. "Concluding Remarks by Dr. Wernher von Braun about Mode Selection for the Lunar Landing Program" (PDF). Lunar Orbit Rendezvous File. NASA Historical Reference Collection. June 7, 1962.
89. Spangenburg & Moser. 2009. Wernher von Braun, Revised Edition. Infobase Publishing. p. 129-130
90. See: Dr. Wernher von Braun talks about ATSF satellite project
91. "Space Man's Look at Antarctica". Popular Science, Vol. 190, No. 5, May 1967, pp. 114–116.
92. von Braun, Wernher (January 16, 1969). "Adjustment to Marshall Organization, Announcement No. 4" (PDF). MSFC History Office. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 21, 2007.
93. Bergaust, Erik. 1976. Wernher von Braun: The Authoritative and Definitive Biographical Profile of the Father of Modern Space Flight. National Space Institute. p. 117
94. "Next, Mars and Beyond". Time. July 25, 1969. Retrieved June 21, 2007. Even as man prepared to take his first tentative extraterrestrial steps, other celestial adventures beckoned him. The shape and scope of the post-Apollo crewed space program remained hazy, and a great deal depends on the safe and successful outcome of Apollo 11. Well before the lunar flight was launched, though, NASA was casting eyes on targets far beyond the Moon. The most inviting: the earth's close, and probably most hospitable, planetary neighbor. Given the same energy and dedication that took them to the Moon, says Wernher von Braun, Americans could land on Mars as early as 1982.
95. German sources mostly specify the cancer as renal, while American biographies unanimously just mention cancer. The time when von Braun learned about the disease is generally given as between 1973 and 1976. The characteristics of renal cell carcinoma, which has a bad prognosis even today, do not rule out either time limit.
96. Launius, Roger (2002). To Reach the Higher Frontier: A History of U.S. Launch Vehicles. University of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-2245-8.
97. Sloop, John L. (1978). Liquid hydrogen as a propulsion fuel, 1945–1959 (PDF). The NASA history series. SP-4404.
98. "To the Moon". NOVA. July 13, 1999.
99. "Von Braun, Who Helped Put Men on Moon, Dies at 65: German-Born Scientist Succumbs to Pancreatic Cancer; Was Pioneer in Space Rocket Technology". Los Angeles Times. June 17, 1977. p. A2.
100. "Wernher von Braun, Rocket Pioneer, Dies; Wernher von Braun, Pioneer in Space Travel and Rocketry, Dies at 65". New York Times. June 18, 1977. Wernher von Braun, the master rocket builder and pioneer of space travel, died of cancer Thursday morning. He was 65 years old.
101. "Psalm 19:1". Bible Gateway.
102. Winterstein, William E., Sr. (March 1, 2005). Secrets Of The Space Age. Robert D. Reed Publishers. ISBN 978-1-931741-49-1.
103. Rother, Marcel (March 22, 2012). "Gymnasium Friedberg: Ein Ort, der das Herz zittern lässt" [Friedberg Gymnasium: A place that can make the heart tremble]. Augsburger Allgemeine (in German). Augsburg: Presse-Druck- und Verlags-GmbH. Retrieved December 1, 2015.
104. Mayr, Stefan (March 23, 2012). "Streit um Wernher-von-Braun-Gymnasium "Tut alles, damit dieser Name verschwindet"" [Dispute over the Wernher von Braun Gymnasium "Do everything to make this name disappear"]. Süddeutschen Zeitung (in German). Munich: Süddeutsche Zeitung GmbH. Retrieved December 1, 2015.
105. "Prof Dr Wernher von Braun". Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. 9 (2). March 1950.
106. Astronautical and Aeronautical Events of 1962 – Report of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to the Committee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Representatives (PDF), U.S. Government Printing Office, June 12, 1963, p. 217, retrieved July 14, 2014
107. Sprekelmeyer, Linda, editor. These We Honor: The International Aerospace Hall of Fame. Donning Co. Publishers, 2006.
108. "Dr von Braun Honoured" (PDF). Flight International. Iliffe Transport Publications. July 22, 1967. p. 1030. Retrieved April 16, 2009.
109. Armbrester, Margaret E. (1992). The Civitan Story. Birmingham, AL: Ebsco Media. pp. 95, 105.
110. "Hall of Famer". Beatrice Daily Sun. Beatrice, Nebraska. Associated Press. July 26, 1982. p. 3 – via Newspapers.com.
111. "I Aim at the Stars (1960)". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
112. "DW-TV". Dw-world.de. June 25, 2011. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
113. Ortmanns, Nadine. "Interview mit Schauspieler Ludwig Blochberger – kontinente". http://www.kontinente.org. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
114. Neufield, Von Braun, p. 406. Dr Strangelove was widely held to be a composite of Edward Teller, Herman Kahn, and von Braun; but only von Braun shared Strangelove's Nazi past.
115. "MadKap Productions presents Rocket City, Alabam' ". Skokie [Illinois] Theatre and MadKap Productions. 2017. Retrieved November 29, 2017. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
116. "Florida Symphony Orchestra And Bach Festival Choir – Journey To Infinity". Discogs. Retrieved May 21, 2017.
117. Tom Lehrer (December 1, 2008). "Wernher von Braun". Youtube.com. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
118. "Stop clapping, this is serious". Sydney Morning Herald. March 1, 2003. Retrieved October 7, 2013.
119. Klee, Ernst; Merk, Otto (1963). The Birth of the Missile:The Secrets of Peenemünde. Hamburg: Gerhard Stalling Verlag (English translation 1965). pp. 89, 95.
120. Ordway, Frederick I, III; Sharpe, Mitchell R (1979). The Rocket Team. Apogee Books Space Series 36. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell. pp. 308, 425, 509. ISBN 978-1-894959-00-1.

Further reading

• Biddle, Wayne (2009). Dark Side of the Moon: Wernher von Braun, the Third Reich, and the Space Race. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-05910-6.
• Bilstein, Roger (2003). Stages to Saturn: A Technological History of the Apollo/Saturn Launch Vehicles. University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-813-02691-6.
• Dunar, Andrew J; Waring, Stephen P (1999). Power to Explore: a History of Marshall Space Flight Center, 1960–1990. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. ISBN 978-0-16-058992-8.
• Freeman, Marsha (1993). How we got to the Moon: The Story of the German Space Pioneers (Paperback). 21st Century Science Associates (October 1993). ISBN 978-0-9628134-1-2.
• Lasby, Clarence G (1971). "Project Paperclip: German Scientists and the Cold War". New York, NY: Atheneum. ASIN B0006CKBHY.
• Neufeld, Michael J (1994). The Rocket and the Reich: Peenemünde and the Coming of the Ballistic Missile Era. New York: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-02-922895-1.
• Neufeld, Michael J (2007). Von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-307-26292-9.
• Ordway, Frederick I., III (2003). The Rocket Team: Apogee Books Space Series 36 (Apogee Books Space Series) (Hardcover). Collector's Guide Publishing Inc.; Har/DVD edition (September 1, 2003). ISBN 978-1-894959-00-1.
• Petersen, Michael B. (2009). Missiles for the Fatherland: Peenemuende, National Socialism and the V-2 missile. Cambridge Centennial of Flight. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-88270-5. OCLC 644940362.
• Stuhlinger, Ernst (1996). Wernher von Braun: Crusader for Space. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-89464-980-6.
• Tompkins, Phillip K. (1993). Organizational Communication Imperatives: Lessons of the Space Program. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195329667.
• Ward, Bob (2005). Dr. Space: The Life of Wernher von Braun. Annapolis, MD, United States: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-927-9.
• Willhite, Irene E. (2007). The Voice of Dr. Wernher von Braun: An Anthology (Apogee Books Space Series). Collector's Guide Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-1894959643.

External links

• Audiopodcast on Astrotalkuk.org BBC journalist Reg Turnill talking in 2011 about his personal memories of and interviews with Dr Wernher von Braun.
• The capture of von Braun and his men – At the U.S. 44th Infantry Division website
• Wernher von Braun page – Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) History Office
• "The Disney – von Braun Collaboration and its Influence on Space Exploration" – by Mike Wright, MSFC
• Coat-of-arms of Dr. Wernher von Braun
• Remembering Von Braun – by Anthony Young – The Space Review Monday, July 10, 2006
• The Mittelbau-Dora Concentration Camp Memorial
• V2rocket.com
• 60th anniversary digital reprinting of Colliers Space Series, Houston Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
• CIA documents on Dr. Wernher von Braun on the Internet Archive
• FBI Records: The Vault – Wernher VonBraun files at vault.fbi.gov
• Wernher von Braun at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
• Wernher von Braun at Library of Congress Authorities, with 35 catalogue records
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This article is about the committee of the United Kingdom Privy Council. For the more general article on business networks, see Chamber of commerce. For other uses, see Board of Trade (disambiguation).

Image
The Board of Trade circa 1808.

The Board of Trade is a British government department concerned with commerce and industry, currently within the Department for International Trade.[1] Its full title is The Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council appointed for the consideration of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations, but is commonly known as the Board of Trade, and formerly known as the Lords of Trade and Plantations or Lords of Trade, and it has been a committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom. The Board has gone through several evolutions, beginning with extensive involvement in colonial matters in the 17th Century, to powerful regulatory functions in the Victorian Era, to virtually being dormant in the last third of 20th century. In 2017, it was revitalized as an advisory board headed by the International Trade Secretary who has nominally held the title of President of the Board of Trade, and who at present is the only privy counsellor of the Board, the other members of the present Board filling roles as advisers.

The board was first established as a temporary committee of England's Privy Council to advise on colonial (plantation) questions in the early 17th century, when these settlements were initially forming. The Board would evolve gradually into a government department with considerable power and a diverse range of functions,[2] including regulation of domestic and foreign commerce, the development, implementation and interpretation of the Acts of Trade and Navigation, and the review and acceptance of legislation passed in the colonies. Between 1696 and 1782 the Board of Trade, in partnership with the various[3] secretaries of state over that time, held responsibility for colonial affairs, particularly in British America. The newly created office of Home Secretary then held colonial responsibility until 1801, when the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies was established.[4][5] Between 1768 and 1782 while with the Secretary of State for the Colonies, whose secretaryship was held jointly with the presidency of the Board of Trade, the latter position remained largely vacant; this led to a diminished status of the board and it became an adjunct to the new Department and Ministry concerns. Following the loss of the American War of Independence, both the board and the short-lived secretaryship were dismissed by the king on 2 May 1782 and the board was abolished later by the Civil List and Secret Service Money Act 1782 (22 Geo. III, c 82).[6]

Following the Treaty of Paris 1783, with the continuing need to regulate trade between its remaining colonies, the independent United States and all other countries, a new Committee of Council on Trade and Plantations (later known as 'the First Committee') was established by William Pitt the Younger. Initially mandated by an order in Council on 5 March 1784, the committee was reconstructed and strengthened by a second order, on 23 August 1786, under which it operated for the rest of its existence. The committee has been known as the Board of Trade since 1786, but this name was only officially adopted by an act of 1861. The new Board's first functions were consultative like earlier iterations, and its concern with plantations, in matters such as the approval of colonial laws, more successfully accomplished. As the industrial revolution expanded, the board's work became increasingly executive and domestic and from the 1840s a succession of acts of parliament gave it regulatory duties, notably concerning railways, merchant shipping, and joint stock companies.[7]

This department was merged with the Ministry of Technology in 1970, to form the Department of Trade and Industry.
The Secretary of State for Trade and Industry (from 2009 Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills) was also President of the Board of Trade. The full Board has met only once since the mid-20th century, during commemorations of the bicentenary of the Board in 1986. In 2016, the role of President of the Board of Trade was transferred to the Secretary of State for International Trade.[8] The Board was reconstituted in October 2017.[9]

Early history

In 1622, at the end of the Dutch Twelve Years' Truce, King James I directed the Privy Council of England to establish a temporary committee to investigate the causes of various economic and supply problems, the decline in trade and consequent financial difficulties; detailed instructions and questions were given, with answers to be given "as fast as the several points shall be duly considered by you."[10] This would be followed by a number of temporary committees and councils to regulate the colonies and their commerce.[11] The Board's formal title remains "The Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council appointed for the consideration of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations".

In 1634, Charles I appointed a new commission for regulating plantations.[12] It was headed by the Archbishop of Canterbury with its primary goals to increase royal authority and the influence of the Church of England in the colonies, particularly with the great influx of Puritans to the New World. Soon after however, the English Civil Wars erupted and initiated a long period of political instability in England and the resultant loss of productivity for these committees.[2] Between 1643 and 1648 the Long Parliament would establish a parliamentary Commission for Plantations to take the lead in colonial and commercial affairs.[11] This period also saw the first regulation of Royal tonnage and poundage and begin the modernization of customs and excise as growing sources of government revenue.

During the Interregnum and Commonwealth three acts of the Rump Parliament in 1650 and 1651 are notable in the historical development of England's commercial and colonial programs. These include the first Commission of Trade to be established by an Act of Parliament on 1 August 1650.[13] The instructions to the named commissioners, headed by Henry Vane the Younger, included consideration of both domestic and foreign trade, the trading companies, manufactures, free ports, customs, excise, statistics, coinage and exchange, and fisheries, as well as the plantations and the best means of promoting their welfare and rendering them useful to England. The act's statesmanlike and comprehensive instructions, along with an October act prohibiting trade with pro-royalist colonies and the Navigation Act of October 1651, formed the first definitive expression of England's commercial policy. They represent the first attempt to establish a legitimate control of commercial and colonial affairs, and the instructions indicate the beginnings of a policy which had the prosperity and wealth of England exclusively at heart.[14]

It was the Lords of Trade who, in 1675, originated the idea of transforming all of the colonies in America into Royal Colonies for the purpose of securing English trade against the French. They brought New Hampshire under the Crown, modified Penn's charter, refused a charter to the Plymouth colony, and taking advantage of the concessions of the charters of Massachusetts and New York, created the Dominion of New England in 1685, thereby transforming all the territory from the Kennebec to the Delaware into a single crown colony.[15]

In 1696, King William III appointed eight paid commissioners to promote trade in the American plantations and elsewhere. The Lords Commissioners of Trade and Foreign Plantations, appointed in 1696 and commonly known as the Lords of Trade, did not constitute a committee of the Privy Council, but were, in fact, members of a separate body. The board carried on this work but also had long periods of inactivity, devolving into chaos after 1761 and dissolved in 1782 by an act of Parliament by the Rockingham Whigs.

Reestablishment and later history

William Pitt the Younger re-established the committee in 1784, and an Order in Council of 23 August 1786 provided the formal basis that still remains in force. A secretariat was established which included the president, vice president and board members. By 1793, the board still remained in its old structure, with 20 members including the Archbishop of Canterbury.[16] After 1820 the Board ceased to meet regularly and the business was carried out entirely by the secretariat. The short name of "Board of Trade" was formalised in 1861.[17]

In the 19th century the Board had an advisory function on economic activity in the UK and its empire. During the second half of the 19th century it also dealt with legislation for patents, designs and trade marks, company regulation, labour and factories, merchant shipping, agriculture, transport, power etc. Colonial matters passed to the Colonial Office and other functions were devolved to newly created departments, a process that continued for much of the 20th century.

The original commission comprised the seven (later eight) Great Officers of State, who were not required to attend meetings, and the eight paid members, who were required to attend. The Board, so constituted, had little real power, and matters related to trade and the colonies were usually within the jurisdiction of the Secretaries of State and the Privy Council, with the Board confining itself mainly to colonial administration.

In its most recent iteration in 2017, the Board president is the only member of the Board who is a Privy Counsellor, while the others are listed as advisers.

Ministers

• President of the Board of Trade
• Vice-President of the Board of Trade
• Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade

See also

• Imperial Lighthouse Service

References

1. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/defin ... d_of_trade
2. Olson, Alison G. "The Board of Trade and Colonial Virginia". Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
3. See: Secretary of State (England) (to 1660) Secretary of State for the Southern Department (1660-1768) Secretary of State for the Colonies (1768-1782)
4. Board of Trade and Secretaries of State: America and West Indies, Original Correspondence, The National Archives
5. American and West Indian colonies before 1782, The National Archives
6. Council of trade and plantations 1696-1782, in Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 3, Officials of the Boards of Trade 1660-1870, p.28-37. University of London, London, 1974.
7. Records of the Board of Trade and of successor and related bodies, Department code BT The National Archives
8. See https://www.gov.uk/government/ministers ... onal-trade
9. See https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-41586496
10. Adam Anderson, An historical and chronological deduction of the origin of commerce: from the earliest accounts. Containing an history of the great commercial interests of the British Empire..., Vol. 2, p.294–297 (1787)
11. Charles M. Andrews, British Committees, Commissions and Councils of Trade and Plantations 1622-1675,(1908)
12. **Royal Commission for Regulating Plantations; April 28, 1634
13. August 1650: An Act for the Advancing and Regulating of the Trade of this Commonwealth.
14. Charles M. Andrews, British Committees, Commissions and Councils of Trade and Plantations 1622-1675, Chapter II, Control of Trade and Plantations During the Interregnum, p.24 (1908)
15. Andrews, Charles M. (1958) [1924]. The Colonial Background of the American Revolution. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 11–12.
16. Emsley 9
17. Harbours and Passing Tolls, &c. Act 1861, section 65.

Works cited

• Emsley, Clive (1979). British Society and the French Wars 1793-1815. Macmillan Press.
• Root, Winfred T. “The Lords of Trade and Plantations, 1675-1696.” American Historical Review 23 (October 1917): 20-41.
• History of the Board of Trade

External links

• Works by Board of Trade at Project Gutenberg
• Officials 1696-1782
• Private Sector UK Board of Trade Website
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Sep 17, 2019 8:15 am

Walt Disney's World War II propaganda production
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/16/19

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DESPITE A PASSIONATE OPPOSITION to socialism and to any government meddling with free enterprise, Walt Disney relied on federal funds in the 1940s to keep his business afloat. The animators' strike had left the Disney Studio in a precarious financial condition. Disney began to seek government contracts - and those contracts were soon responsible for 90 percent of his studio's output. During World War II, Walt Disney produced scores of military training and propaganda films, including Food Will Win the War, High-Level Precision Bombing, and A Few Quick Facts About Venereal Disease. After the war, Disney continued to work closely with top military officials and military contractors, becoming America's most popular exponent of Cold War science. For audiences living in fear of nuclear annihilation, Walt Disney became a source of reassurance, making the latest technical advances seem marvelous and exciting. His faith in the goodness of American technology was succinctly expressed by the title of a film that the Disney Studio produced for Westinghouse Electric: The Dawn of Better Living.

Disney's passion for science found expression in "Tomorrowland," the name given to a section of his theme park and to segments of his weekly television show. Tomorrowland encompassed everything from space travel to the household appliances of the future, depicting progress as a relentless march toward greater convenience for consumers. And yet, from the very beginning, there was a dark side to this Tomorrowland. It celebrated technology without moral qualms. Some of the science it espoused later proved to be not so benign - and some of the scientists it promoted were unusual role models for the nation's children.

In the mid-1950s Wernher von Braun cohosted and helped produce a series of Disney television shows on space exploration. "Man in Space" and the other Tomorrowland episodes on the topic were enormously popular and fueled public support for an American space program. At the time, von Braun was the U.S. Army's leading rocket scientist. He had served in the same capacity for the German army during World War II. He had been an early and enthusiastic member of the Nazi party, as well as a major in the SS. At least 20,000 slave laborers, many of them Allied prisoners of war, died at Dora-Nordhausen, the factory where von Braun's rockets were built. Less than ten years after the liberation of Dora-Nordhausen, von Braun was giving orders to Disney animators and designing a ride at Disneyland called Rocket to the Moon. Heinz Haber, another key Tomorrowland adviser - and eventually the chief scientific consultant to Walt Disney Productions - spent much of World War II conducting research on high-speed, high-altitude flight for the Luftwaffe Institute for Aviation Medicine. In order to assess the risks faced by German air force pilots, the institute performed experiments on hundreds of inmates at the Dachau concentration camp near Munich. The inmates who survived these experiments were usually killed and then dissected. Haber left Germany after the war and shared his knowledge of aviation medicine with the U.S. Army Air Force. He later cohosted Disney's "Man in Space" with von Braun. When the Eisenhower administration asked Walt Disney to produce a show championing the civilian use of nuclear power, Heinz Haber was given the assignment. He hosted the Disney broadcast called "Our Friend the Atom" and wrote a popular children's book with the same title, both of which made nuclear fission seem fun, instead of terrifying. "Our Friend the Atom" was sponsored by General Dynamics, a manufacturer of nuclear reactors. The company also financed the atomic submarine ride at Disneyland's Tomorrowland.

The future heralded at Disneyland was one in which every aspect of American life had a corporate sponsor. Walt Disney was the most beloved children's entertainer in the country. He had unrivaled access to impressionable young minds - and other corporations, with other agendas to sell, were eager to come along for the ride. Monsanto built Disneyland's House of the Future, which was made of plastic. General Electric backed the Carousel of Progress, which featured an Audio-Animatronic housewife, standing in her futuristic kitchen, singing about "a great big beautiful tomorrow." Richfield Oil offered utopian fantasies about cars and a ride aptly named Autopia. "Here you leave Today," said the plaque at the entrance to Disneyland, "and enter the world of Yesterday, Tomorrow, and Fantasy."


-- Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal [EXCERPT], by Eric Schlosser


Between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, Walt Disney was involved in the production of propaganda films for the U.S. government. The widespread familiarity of Disney's productions benefited the U.S. government in producing pro-American war propaganda in an effort to increase support for the war.

Disney's involvement

Upon the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by the Axis-affiliated Empire of Japan on December 7, 1941, 500 United States Army troops moved in the next day to occupy Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California for the next eight months—the only Hollywood film studio under military occupation in history—as America began a massive build up to fight in World War II. The soldiers were stationed there to protect a nearby Lockheed aircraft plant from enemy air raids, convert parking garages into ammunition depots, and fixing equipment in large soundstages.[1] From there, Disney was approached with requests from the U.S. services to produce propaganda films.[2] The Navy was the first, and other branches of the government, including the Army Air Forces, the Department of Agriculture, and the Treasury Department, rapidly caught on to Disney’s creative approach to generating educational films, propaganda, and insignias.

During World War II, Disney made films for every branch of the United States Armed Forces and government.[3][4] This was accomplished through the use of animated graphics by means of expediting the intelligent mobilization of servicemen and civilians for the cause of the war. Over 90% of Disney employees were devoted to the production of training and propaganda films for the government.[3] Throughout the duration of the war, Disney produced over 400,000 feet of educational war films, most at cost, which is equal to 68 hours of continuous films. In 1943 alone, 204,000 feet of film was produced. [2]

As well as producing films for different government divisions from 1942 to 1943, Disney was asked to create animation for a series of pictures produced by Colonel Frank Capra for the U.S. Army.[2] This series included films such as Prelude to War and America goes to War. Although these films were originally intended for servicemen, they were released to theaters because of their popularity.


The Navy productions

The Navy first requested 90,000 feet of film to be ready in three months. The purpose of these films was to educate sailors on navigation tactics. This was a shock for Disney, as he was used to creating 27,000 feet of film in a year.[2]

The Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs also requested educational films for aviation branches of the government. The subjects of these films varied widely from aerology and not compact tactics to ground crew aircraft maintenance.[5]

The Treasury Department productions

Disney created The New Spirit (1942) after a request from the Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau, Jr., to make Americans accept the payment of income taxes. The film was followed by The Spirit of '43 (1943). In this film, Donald Duck deals with income taxes and shows their benefit to the American war effort.[6] The film was seen by 26 million people. In a later Gallup poll 37% admitted that the film played a factor on their willingness to pay taxes. Disney also made a book for children to try to encourage them to purchase War Savings stamps.[7]

The Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF) productions

Aerology film production was supervised by naval aviation experts and some members of Disney's team learned how to fly to better understand the problems the Army Air Forces encountered.[3] Victory Through Air Power (1943) is one of the propaganda films Disney produced for air warfare.[5] This film is an attempt to sell Major Alexander de Seversky's theories about the practical uses of long range strategic bombing. The animated film humorously tells about the development of air warfare and then switches to the Major illustrating how his ideas could win the war for the Allies.

Propaganda productions

As requested by the U.S. Government, Walt Disney created a number of anti-German and anti-Japanese films for the servicemen and the U.S. public. He wanted to portray these countries and their leaders as manipulative without morals. A few of the films he produced were Reason and Emotion (1943), Der Fuehrer's Face (1942), Education for Death - The Making of a Nazi (1943), and Commando Duck (1944).

In Der Fuehrer’s Face, Donald Duck experiences a day in a Nazi country where he has to make do with eating ridiculous Nazi food rations (smell of bacon and eggs, coffee made with one bean, and a slice of stale bread) experiences a day at a Nazi artillery factory and breaks down. He wakes up realizing that the experience was a nightmare, embraces a model of the Statue of Liberty and exclaims Am I glad to be a citizen of the United States of America!

Education for Death - The Making of a Nazi was a wartime propaganda film that takes on the perspective of Hans, a young German boy. As the movie progresses and Hans is exposed to Hitler youth and the Nazi culture, his ability to value human life decreases. In Commando Duck, Donald, by himself, destroys an entire Japanese airbase.

Further reading

• "Disney's Troupe Goes to War". Times. 15 November 1942. p. 20–21

See also

• The Walt Disney Company
o List of Walt Disney World War II propaganda productions
• United States home front during World War II
• American propaganda during World War II
• Propaganda film
• World War II and American animation

Notes

1. Moseley, Doobie (December 7, 2015). "Pearl Harbor Changed Everything, Even the Disney Studio". Laughing Place. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
2. "Walt Disney's Animated War". Flying. March 1945. p. 50–51
3. "Walt Disney Goes to War". Life magazine. 31 August 1942.p. 61–69.
4. "Walt Disney: Great Teacher; His Films for War are Revolutionizing the Technique of Education". Fortune. August 1942. p. 90–95
5. {{cite journal |date=September 1942 | title =Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck Work for Victory | journal =Popular Science | volume =141.3 | issue =September 1942 | pages =98
6. "The New Pictures". Time Magazine. February 9, 1942.
7. "Disney Studio at War". Theater Arts. Jan 1943. p. 31–39

External links

• "World War II: Propaganda". www3.eou.edu. Retrieved 2007-10-05.
• Veteran's Day School Kit
• "Transcript of interview with Disney about his propaganda ideas". Archived from the original on April 6, 2008.
• Disney at War
• The short film All Together (1941) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Attack in the Pacific (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Case of the Tremendous Trifle (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Cleanliness Brings Health (1945) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Camouflage (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Defense Against Invasion (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Dental Health is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Der Fuehrer's Face is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Donald's Decision (1941) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Education for Death: The Making of the Nazi is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Environmental Sanitation (1946) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Flak (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Food Will Win the War (1942) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Four Methods of Flush Riveting (1942) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Grain That Built A Hemisphere (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Human Body (Spanish) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Ice Formation On Aircraft is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Infant Care and Feeding (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Infant Care and Feeding (Spanish) (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Insects as Carriers of Disease (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Insects as Carriers of Disease (Spanish) (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film It's Your War Too (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The New Spirit (1942) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Out of the Frying Pan Into the Firing Line (1942) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Planning for Good Eating (1946) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Report from the Aleutians (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Seven Wise Dwarfs (1941) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Spirit of '43 (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Stillwell Road is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Stop That Tank! (1942) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Thrifty Pig (1941) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Unseen Enemy (1945) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Victory Through Air Power (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Winged Scourge (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Winged Scourge (Spanish) (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Sep 17, 2019 10:02 am

Lieutenant-Colonel Charles W. Drury (1856-1913)
Commanding Officer, Brigade Division, Royal Canadian Field Artillery
by Canadian War Museum
Accessed: 9/17/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

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Image
Boer War Picture, Lieutenant-Colonel Charles W. Drury, Commanding Officer, Brigade Division, Royal Canadian Field Artillery in South Africa, February — December 1900.

A popular and efficient officer, Drury was known as the "Father of Modern Field Artillery in Canada" for his many innovations. After service in the militia artillery in New Brunswick, he joined the permanent force artillery in 1877, and served in the Northwest Campaign in 1885. At the outbreak of the South African War he was in command of the Permanent Force artillery at Kingston. He was one of the officers who accompanied the first Canadian contingent to study military developments during the war. He saw action with British forces and was present at the battle of Magersfontein.

Drury took command of the Canadian artillery when it arrived in South Africa in early 1900. After initial operations in March and April 1900, however, the Canadian artillery was split up and its component batteries served independently with different British forces. Drury and his headquarters, along with "C" Battery, formed part of Major-General Robert Baden Powell's operations in the western Transvaal. The artillery proved its efficiency, although the batteries were mostly employed in the frustrating task of pursuing the Boers in remote areas.

After his return to Canada, Drury became military commander of the Maritime Provinces region. In 1905-06, his command took over the large fortress at Halifax from the departing British garrison, and Drury thus became responsible for the largest military establishment in the country.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Sep 30, 2019 12:41 am

Christopher Birdwood, 2nd Baron Birdwood
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/29/19

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TIBETAN REFUGEES

Sir. – Recent devastating events in Tibet caused over 15,000 Tibetans to cross the perilous Himalayas into India. It may be a long time before these unfortunate people can safely return to their overrun country. Our own consciences should allow us neither to neglect nor forget them.

The Indian Government has manfully coped with this addition to its own problems at home. In this country we are bound in honour to help relieve needs of the Tibetan refugees, because from 1905 to 1947 there was a special relationship between Tibet and the United Kingdom – a relationship handed on to the new India.

On balance we think it wisest to concentrate chiefly on collecting money which can be used for the benefit of the refugees, not least in the purchase of necessary antibiotics and other medicaments. The Tibet Society has opened a Tibet Relief Fund for which we now appeal in the hope of a generous response. Donations should be sent to the address below or direct to the National Bank Ltd. (Belgravia Branch), 21 Grosvenor Gardens, S.W.I.

Yours faithfully,

... Birdwood ... The Tibet Relief Fund, 58 Eccleston Square, S.W. I., Letter to the Times, July 31, 1959, p.7.

-- Tibet Society, by tibetsociety.com


Image

Christopher Bromhead Birdwood, 2nd Baron Birdwood, MVO (22 May 1899 – 5 January 1962), was a British hereditary peer, soldier and author.

Early life

The son of Field Marshal Lord Birdwood and Janetta Hope Gonville Bromhead (daughter of Sir Benjamin Parnell Bromhead, 4th Baronet,[1] and niece of Gonville Bromhead, VC), Christopher Birdwood was baptised at Twickenham, London, England.

He was educated at Clifton College "Clifton College Register" Muirhead, J.A.O. p326: Bristol; J.W Arrowsmith for Old Cliftonian Society; April, 1948 and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, Berkshire.

Military career

Birdwood was commissioned as a second lieutenant on to the Unattached List, Indian Army on 21 December 1917. In France he was Aide-de-Camp to the General Officer Commanding the Australian Corps and 5th Army, his father, from 10 March 1918 to 28 February 1919. For his service he was Mentioned in Despatches. He was decorated with the Order of Aviz of Portugal.[2]

He arrived in India on 10 April 1919, was appointed to the Indian Army on 15 April 1919 and posted to the King Edward VII's Own Lancers (Probyn's Horse) of the Indian Army. As per the London Gazette of 12 September 1919 he was promoted lieutenant, antedated to 22 December 1918, but not until the French Republic conferred the Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur for helping save La Patrie.[3] In the same year he fought in the Waziristan Campaign between 1919 and 1920. In February 1920 he was promoted Acting Captain whilst attached to the 2/76th Punjabis, additionally being made Adjutant in July 1920. Birdwood returned to the 11th KEO Lancers by March 1921, by which time they had amalgamated with the 12th Cavalry to form 5th King Edward's Own Probyn's Horse, so named after a secretary to Queen Victoria. He was eventually promoted to captain on 21 December 1921.

Between 1923 and 1925 he served on the North West Frontier with various units of the Frontier Corps. He was Aide-de-Camp to the Commander-in-Chief at India, his father, between 13 May 1929 and 29 November 1930. He was appointed British Officer in Charge of the King's Indian Orderly Officers in 1932, promoted to major on 21 December 1935. He fought in the Waziristan Campaign again between 1936 and 1937. He was appointed a Squadron Commander in Probyn's Horse 15 January 1938, but was appointed Commandant of the Governors Body Guard, Bombay on 21 March 1938. He was again appointed British Officer in Charge of the King's Indian Orderly Officers in 1939. For this service he was invested as a Member of the Royal Victorian Order (MVO) in 1939.[4] During the Second World War, he returned with Probyn's Horse in August 1940 and rose to become temporary second in command by April 1942, later he served on the Staff. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel on 21 December 1943 but was retired due to ill-health on 4 June 1945.

Personal life

He married, firstly, Elizabeth Vere Drummond Ogilvie, daughter of Lieutenant Colonel Sir George Drummond Ogilvie and Lorna Rome, on 7 March 1931 at Delhi, India. The couple had a son and daughter; they divorced in 1954.[5] In the meantime, he had succeeded to his father's titles on 17 May 1951. He married, secondly, Joan Pollack Graham, by then known as Jane, daughter of Christopher Norman Graham, on 22 February 1954. After his death, Lady Birdwood became an activist on the far-right of British politics.

His son from his first marriage, Mark William Ogilvie Birdwood (1938–2015), succeeded to the title.[6]

Works

• The Worcestershire Regiment, 1922–1950 (Gale & Polden, 1952)
• A Continent Decides (Praeger, 1954)
• Two Nations and Kashmir (Robert Hale, 1956)
• Nuri as-Said: a study in Arab leadership (Cassell, 1959)
• A Continent Experiments (Literary Licensing, 2013). ISBN 1258605570.

Coat of arms

Image
Coat of arms of Christopher Birdwood, 2nd Baron Birdwood
Notes: Coat of arms of the Birdwood family
Coronet: A coronet of a Baron
Crest: Out of a Mural Crown Gules a Martlet Argent between two Branches of Laurel proper
Escutcheon: Azure five Martlets two two and one within an Inescutcheon voided a representation of the Southern Cross all Argent
Supporters: Dexter: a Sergeant of the XIIth (Prince of Wales's Royal) Lancers mounted on a Bay Horse; Sinister: a Sikh Daffadar of the XIth (Prince of Wales's Own) Bengal Lancers mounted on a Chestnut Horse, both habited and accoutred proper
Motto: In Bello Quies (Calm in action)

References

1. http://thepeerage.com/p14257.htm#i142566
2. London Gazette 21 August 1919
3. 10614 Supplement to the London Gazette, 21 August 1919, https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/iss ... 4/data.pdf
4. London Gazette 8 June 1939
5. "Birdwood, Baron (UK, 1938)". cracroftspeerage.co.uk. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
6. "Lord Birdwood – obituary". Daily Telegraph. 30 July 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.

External links

• A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with Lord Christopher B. Birdwood" is available at the Internet Archive
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Sep 30, 2019 1:10 am

William Birdwood
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/29/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


TIBETAN REFUGEES

Sir. – Recent devastating events in Tibet caused over 15,000 Tibetans to cross the perilous Himalayas into India. It may be a long time before these unfortunate people can safely return to their overrun country. Our own consciences should allow us neither to neglect nor forget them.

The Indian Government has manfully coped with this addition to its own problems at home. In this country we are bound in honour to help relieve needs of the Tibetan refugees, because from 1905 to 1947 there was a special relationship between Tibet and the United Kingdom – a relationship handed on to the new India.

On balance we think it wisest to concentrate chiefly on collecting money which can be used for the benefit of the refugees, not least in the purchase of necessary antibiotics and other medicaments. The Tibet Society has opened a Tibet Relief Fund for which we now appeal in the hope of a generous response. Donations should be sent to the address below or direct to the National Bank Ltd. (Belgravia Branch), 21 Grosvenor Gardens, S.W.I.

Yours faithfully,

... Birdwood ... The Tibet Relief Fund, 58 Eccleston Square, S.W. I., Letter to the Times, July 31, 1959, p.7.

-- Tibet Society, by tibetsociety.com


The founding members [of the Himalayan Club] were:[2]

• Field Marshal Sir William Birdwood, Commander in Chief

-- The Himalayan Club, by Wikipedia


Image
The Lord Birdwood
General Sir W. R. Birdwood by Elliott & Fry
Nickname(s) Birdy
Born 13 September 1865
Kirkee, Bombay Presidency, British India
Died 17 May 1951 (aged 85)
Hampton Court Palace, England
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch British Indian Army
Years of service 1883–1930
Rank Field Marshal
Commands held Commander-in-Chief, India
Northern Command, India
Fifth Army
Australian Corps
I ANZAC Corps
II ANZAC Corps
Australian Imperial Force
Australian and New Zealand Army Corps
Kohat Brigade
Battles/wars North-West Frontier
Tirah Campaign
Second Boer War
First World War
Gallipoli Campaign
Western Front
[b]Awards:
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George
Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire
Distinguished Service Order
Croix de Guerre (France)
Grand Officer of the Order of the Crown (Belgium)
Croix de Guerre (Belgium)
Distinguished Service Medal (United States)
Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword (Portugal)
Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun (Japan)

Field Marshal William Riddell Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCVO, CIE, DSO (13 September 1865 – 17 May 1951) was a British Army officer. [size=120]He saw active service in the Second Boer War on the staff of Lord Kitchener. He saw action again in the First World War as Commander of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during the Gallipoli Campaign in 1915, leading the landings on the peninsula and then the evacuation later in the year, before becoming commander-in-chief of the Fifth Army on the Western Front during the closing stages of the war. He went on to be general officer commanding the Northern Army in India in 1920 and Commander-in-Chief, India, in 1925.


General Birdwood Presents Medals (1914-1918)


Early life

William Riddell Birdwood was born on 13 September 1865 in Kirkee, India.[1] His father, Herbert Mills Birdwood, born in Bombay and educated in the UK, had returned to India in 1859 after passing the Indian Civil Service examination.[2] In 1861, Herbert Birdwood married Edith Marion Sidonie, the eldest daughter of Surgeon-Major Elijah George Halhed Impey of the Bombay Horse Artillery and postmaster-general of the Bombay Presidency.[2] They would have five sons and a daughter; William was their second son. At the time of William's birth, his father held positions in the Bombay legislative council, and would go on to become a Bombay high court judge.[2] William Birdwood was educated at Clifton College.[3][4]

Military career

After securing a militia commission in the 4th Battalion Royal Scots Fusiliers in 1883,[5] Birdwood trained at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, from which he was commissioned early, owing to the Russian war scare of 1885, becoming a lieutenant in the 12th (Prince of Wales's) Royal Lancers on 9 May 1885.[6] He joined his regiment in India and then transferred from the 12th Royal Lancers[7] to the Bengal Staff Corps on 20 December 1886.[8] He subsequently transferred to the 11th Bengal Lancers in 1887, seeing action on the North-West Frontier in 1891. He later became adjutant of the Viceroy's Bodyguard in 1893.[5] He was promoted to captain on 9 May 1896[9] and saw action during the Tirah Campaign in 1897.[5]

Birdwood served in the Second Boer War, initially as brigade-major with a mounted brigade in Natal from 10 January 1900 and then as Deputy-Assistant Adjutant-General on the staff of Lord Kitchener from 15 October 1900.[10] Promoted to brevet major on 20 November 1901[11] and local lieutenant-colonel in October 1901,[12][13] he became military secretary to Lord Kitchener on 5 June 1902,[14] and followed him on his return to the United Kingdom on board the SS Orotava,[15] which arrived in Southampton on 12 July 1902.[16] He received a brevet promotion to lieutenant-colonel in the South African Honours list published on 26 June 1902.[17] In a despatch from June 1902, Lord Kitchener wrote the following about his work in South Africa:

This young officer has held a difficult position as Assistant Adjutant-General, Mounted Troops, and responsible adviser as to the distribution of remounts. In carrying out these duties he has proved himself to possess exceptional ability, and he has shown, moreover, remarkable tact in dealing with and conciliating the various interests which he had to take into consideration.[18]


When Kitchener went to India as commander-in-chief in November 1902, Birdwood joined him there as assistant military secretary and interpreter.[19][13] He was promoted to the substantive rank of major on 9 May 1903[20] and appointed Military Secretary to Lord Kitchener with the rank of full colonel on 26 June 1905.[21] Having been appointed an aide-de-camp to the King on 14 February 1906,[22] he was given command of the Kohat Brigade on the North West Frontier in 1908[23] and promoted to temporary brigadier-general on 28 June 1909.[24]

Promoted to the rank of major-general on 3 October 1911,[25] Birdwood became quartermaster-general in India and a member of the Viceroy's Legislative Council in 1912 and then Secretary of the Indian Army Department in 1913.[13]


Gallipoli

Image
Anzac Cove looking towards Ari Burnu, 1915

In November 1914 Birdwood was instructed by Kitchener to form an army corps from the Australian and New Zealand troops that were training in Egypt.[13] He was promoted to temporary lieutenant-general on 12 December 1914[26] and given command of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps.[13] Kitchener instructed General Sir Ian Hamilton, Commander of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, to carry out an operation to capture the Gallipoli peninsula and placed Birdwood's ANZAC Corps under Hamilton's command.[4] Hamilton ordered Birdwood to carry out a landing on 25 April 1915 north of Kabatepe at a site now known as ANZAC Cove.[13] The ANZAC Corps encountered high ridges, narrow gullies, dense scrub and strong Turkish resistance and became pinned down.[4] Major-General William Bridges and Major-General Alexander Godley, the divisional commanders, were both of the view that the Allied forces, dealing with stiffer-than-expected resistance, should be evacuated ahead of an expected attack by Turkish forces.[27] Nevertheless, Hamilton ordered them to hold fast.[28]

Image
W. R. Birdwood

Birdwood took effective command of the Australian Imperial Force, i.e. all Australian Forces in May 1915 while still commanding Allied troops on the ground at Gallipoli.[4] He launched a major attack on the Turks in August 1915 (the Battle of Sari Bair) but still failed to dislodge them from the peninsula.[4] Notwithstanding this he was the only corps commander opposed to abandoning Gallipoli.[13] He was promoted to the permanent rank of lieutenant-general on 28 October 1915[29] and given command of the newly formed Dardanelles Army: the one outstanding success of the campaign was the evacuation led by Birdwood, which took place in December 1915 and January 1916, when the entire force was withdrawn before any Turkish reaction.[13]

Gallipoli hero

Birdwood, best known for the morale he instilled in the troops of the doomed Gallipoli campaign, which earned him the moniker the ‘soul of Anzac’, recounted how a Nepal-Tibet war was averted in his 1941 autobiography Khaki and Gown (a book which included a foreword by Winston Churchill):

“In April, 1930, Maharaja Sir Bhim Shamshere Jang [the Rana ruler of Nepal]… sent me a very kind invitation to visit Nepal before leaving India.

“He added that, owing to a certain incident, it was likely that Nepal would shortly declare war on Tibet, but he hoped this would not prevent me coming… I had to point out in reply that my visit… might well be misconstrued, since it might be thought that I was coming to direct the war against Tibet.

“The Maharaja answered that the point had not struck him before, and that he could easily arrange for the war to be postponed till after my visit! Once again I returned my sincere thanks, but suggested that if war broke out immediately after my departure I should certainly be accused of having gone there to arrange for supplies and munitions; and I added that, if he really wished for me to come, it would be far better for him to make peace hastily with the enemy.

“To my great pleasure this was actually arranged, the honour of both disputants being satisfied without recourse to arms.”

Birdwood goes on to say his farewell visit to Nepal featured an exchange of honorary military titles:

“At a great Durbar held by the King [Bhim Shamshere Jang, the sixth Rana ruler of Nepal] … it was my privilege to announce that Sir Bhim Shamshere Jang had been made a British major-general, and Colonel of the 4th Gurkhas, and I presented him with his major-general’s sword. At the same time (the previous assent of King George V having been obtained) I was created a General in the Nepalese army…”

Image
Image
Maharaja Sir Bhim Shamshere Jang (1865-1932), the Rana ruler of Nepal, who presented the kora sword to Field Marshal Lord Birdwood that sold for £3000 at the Tayler & Fletcher February 23 auction to one of the maharaja's descendants, now living in Sweden.

The fresh-to-market kora has a silver plaque on its sheath commemorating Birdwood’s appointment as an honorary Nepalese general. Another plaque commemorates Birdwood’s subsequent presentation of the kora to the officers of the 6th Gurkha Rifles in the same year. Birdwood was then colonel of the 6th and Bhim Shumsher Jang the newly appointed colonel of the 4th.

The sword came to auction by family descent.

-- The Sword with Strong Connections From the Cotswolds and Sweden to Nepal, India and Australia, by Antiques Trade Gazette


Western Front

In February 1916 the Australian and New Zealand contingents, back in Egypt, underwent reorganisation to incorporate the new units and reinforcements that had accumulated during 1915: the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps was replaced by two corps, I ANZAC Corps and II ANZAC Corps, and Birdwood reverted to the command of II ANZAC Corps. When I ANZAC Corps became the first to depart for France, Birdwood, as senior corps commander, took over command.[13] During early 1916 Birdwood advocated for the formation of an Australian and New Zealand Army or a Dominion Army also including Canadian forces under his command, but this did not occur.[30]

Birdwood was promoted to the permanent rank of full general on 23 October 1917[31] with command of a formation then known as the Australian Corps in November 1917.[13] He was also appointed aide-de-camp general to the King on 2 November 1917[32] and given command of the British Fifth Army on 31 May 1918 and led the Army at the liberation of Lille in October 1918 and at the liberation of Tournai in November 1918.[13]

After the war

Birdwood was made Baronet of Anzac and of Totnes, in the County of Devon, on 29 December 1919.[33] He toured Australia to great acclaim in 1920 and then became general officer commanding the Northern Army in India later that year.[34] He was promoted to field marshal (with the corresponding honorary rank in the Australian Military Forces) on 20 March 1925 and,[35][36] having been appointed a Member of the Executive Council of the Governor-General of India in July 1925,[37] he went on to be Commander-in-Chief, India, in August 1925.[34]

After leaving the service in 1930, Birdwood made a bid to become Governor-General of Australia. He had the backing of the King and the British government. However, the Australian Prime Minister James Scullin insisted that his Australian nominee Sir Isaac Isaacs be appointed.[4] Instead, Birdwood was appointed Master of Peterhouse, Cambridge on 20 April 1931[38] and Captain of Deal Castle in 1934.[39][40] In 1935 he wrote for the Western Australian distance education magazine Our Rural Magazine claiming that he had two granddaughters making good use of distance courses for educational purposes.[41] He retired from academic work in 1938.[34]

In retirement Birdwood was Colonel of the 12th Royal Lancers (1920–1951),[42] the 6th Gurkha Rifles (1926–1951),[43] and the 75th (Home Counties) (Cinque Ports) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery (1939–1951).[44] In January 1936 he attended the funeral of King George V[45] and in May 1937 he was present for the coronation of King George VI.[46] He was raised to the peerage in recognition of his wartime service as Baron Birdwood, of Anzac and of Totnes in the County of Devon, on 25 January 1938.[47][48]

His autobiography Khaki and Gown (1941) was followed by In my time: recollections and anecdotes (1946).[1] Lord Birdwood died at Hampton Court Palace, where he lived in grace-and-favour apartments, on 17 May 1951. He was buried at Twickenham Cemetery with full military honours.[4] The Australian Government still pays for the upkeep of his grave.[49]

Honours and awards

Image
Grave of William Birdwood and family in Twickenham Cemetery

British

• Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) – 1 January 1923[50] (KCB: 4 June 1917;[51] CB: 19 June 1911[52])
• Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India (GCSI) – 1 January 1930[53] (KCSI: 1 January 1915;[54] CSI: 1 January 1910[55])
• Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George (GCMG) – 1 January 1919[56] (KCMG: 3 June 1915[57])
• Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO) – 11 May 1937[58]
• Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) – 1 January 1908[59]
• Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) – 14 August 1908[60]
• Knight of Grace of the Venerable Order of St. John (KStJ) – 21 June 1927[61]

Foreign

• Croix de Guerre (France), 22 February 1916 and 11 March 1919 (with Palm)[62]
• Grand Officer of the Order of the Crown (Belgium) – 2 November 1916[63]
• Croix de Guerre (Belgium) – 11 March 1918[64]
• Distinguished Service Medal (United States) – 12 July 1919[65]
• Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword (Portugal) – 21 August 1919[66]
• Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun (Japan) – 21 January 1921[67]

Family

In 1893 Birdwood married Janetta Bromhead, daughter of Sir Benjamin Bromhead; they had a son and two daughters.[5] His wife died in 1947.[1] The son, Christopher Birdwood (1899–1962), succeeded him as 2nd Baron Birdwood. The elder daughter was Constance 'Nancy' Birdwood,[68] and the younger daughter was Judith Birdwood. Other members of the Birdwood family include Labour minister and peer Christopher Birdwood Thomson (1875–1930), Anglo-Indian naturalist Sir George Birdwood (1832–1917), and Jane Birdwood (1913–2000), the second wife of William Birdwood's son.[69]

Coat of arms

Image
Coat of arms of William Birdwood
Notes: Coat of arms of the Birdwood family
Coronet: A coronet of a Baron
Crest: Out of a Mural Crown Gules a Martlet Argent between two Branches of Laurel proper
Escutcheon: Azure five Martlets two two and one within an Inescutcheon voided a representation of the Southern Cross all Argent
Supporters: Dexter: a Sergeant of the XIIth (Prince of Wales's Royal) Lancers mounted on a Bay Horse; Sinister: a Sikh Daffadar of the XIth (Prince of Wales's Own) Bengal Lancers mounted on a Chestnut Horse, both habited and accoutred proper
Motto: In Bello Quies (Calm in action)

See also

• List of places named after William Birdwood

References

1. James, Robert Rhodes (2009) [2004]. "Birdwood, William Riddell". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31898.(Subscription orUK public library membership required.)
2. Brown, F. H.; Stearn, Roger T. (2012) [2004]. "Birdwood, Herbert Mills". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31897.(Subscription orUK public library membership required.)
3. "Clifton College Register" Muirhead, J.A.O. p70: Bristol; J.W Arrowsmith for Old Cliftonian Society; April, 1948 Bristol
4. "William Birdwood". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 27 May2013.
5. Heathcote, p. 43
6. "No. 25468". The London Gazette. 8 May 1885. p. 2105.
7. "No. 25688". The London Gazette. 1 April 1887. p. 1915.
8. "No. 25812". The London Gazette. 1 May 1888. p. 2469.
9. "No. 26768". The London Gazette. 14 August 1896. p. 4632.
10. "No. 27382". The London Gazette. 3 December 1901. p. 8563.
11. "No. 27359". The London Gazette. 27 September 1901. p. 6325.
12. "No. 27383". The London Gazette. 6 December 1901. p. 8643.
13. Heathcote, p. 44
14. "No. 27460". The London Gazette. 1 August 1902. p. 4969.
15. "The Army in South Africa – Troops returning home". The Times (36804). London. 26 June 1902. p. 10.
16. "Lord Kitchener′s return". The Times(36819). London. 14 July 1902. p. 6.
17. "No. 27448". The London Gazette(Supplement). 26 June 1902. pp. 4191–4194.
18. "No. 27459". The London Gazette. 29 July 1902. pp. 4835–4836.
19. "Naval & Military intelligence - Lord Kitchener´s staff". The Times (36857). London. 27 August 1902. p. 4.
20. "No. 27578". The London Gazette. 21 July 1903. p. 4592.
21. "No. 27851". The London Gazette(Supplement). 7 November 1905. p. 7425.
22. "No. 27885". The London Gazette. 13 February 1906. p. 1054.
23. Tucker; Roberts, p.388
24. "No. 28288". The London Gazette. 14 September 1909. p. 6874.
25. "No. 28580". The London Gazette. 13 February 1912. p. 1066.
26. "No. 29115". The London Gazette(Supplement). 29 March 1915. p. 3099.
27. Bean, 1981, pp. 456–457
28. Bean, 1981, pp. 460–461
29. "No. 29341". The London Gazette(Supplement). 27 October 1915. p. 10615.
30. Grey, p. 46
31. "No. 30376". The London Gazette(Supplement). 12 November 1917. p. 11661.
32. "No. 30365". The London Gazette. 2 November 1917. p. 11361.
33. "No. 31708". The London Gazette. 30 December 1919. p. 15988.
34. Heathcote, p. 45
35. "No. 33031". The London Gazette. 20 March 1925. p. 1954.
36. "Australian Military Forces". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. 14 January 1926. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
37. "No. 33069". The London Gazette. 24 July 1925. p. 4957.
38. "The colleges and halls – Peterhouse". British History Online. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
39. "No. 34140". The London Gazette. 8 March 1935. p. 1631.
40. "Captains of Deal Castle". East Kent freeuk. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
41. "Our rural magazine". The West Australian (Perth, WA : 1879–1954). 18 October 1934. p. 14. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
42. "No. 31889". The London Gazette(Supplement). 4 May 1920. p. 5218.
43. "No. 33141". The London Gazette. 12 March 1926. p. 1834.
44. Army List, May 1939.
45. "No. 34279". The London Gazette(Supplement). 29 April 1936. p. 2770.
46. "No. 34453". The London Gazette(Supplement). 10 November 1937. p. 7081.
47. "No. 34477". The London Gazette. 28 January 1938. p. 578.
48. "No. 34469". The London Gazette(Supplement). 1 January 1938. p. 1.
49. Miranda, Charles (11 April 2015). "Brit revered by Diggers". Courier-Mail. p. 54.
50. "No. 13881". The Edinburgh Gazette. 5 January 1923. p. 18.
51. "No. 30111". The London Gazette(Supplement). 4 June 1917. p. 5454.
52. "No. 28505". The London Gazette(Supplement). 19 June 1911. p. 4590.
53. "No. 14615". The Edinburgh Gazette. 7 January 1930. p. 16.
54. "No. 29024". The London Gazette(Supplement). 1 January 1915. p. 2.
55. "No. 28324". The London Gazette(Supplement). 1 January 1910. p. 1.
56. "No. 31092". The London Gazette(Supplement). 1 January 1919. p. 3.
57. "No. 29202". The London Gazette(Supplement). 23 June 1915. p. 6113.
58. "No. 34396". The London Gazette(Supplement). 11 May 1937. p. 3084.
59. "No. 28095". The London Gazette(Supplement). 1 January 1908. p. 2.
60. "No. 28168". The London Gazette(Supplement). 14 August 1908. p. 6066.
61. "No. 14351". The Edinburgh Gazette. 28 June 1927. p. 741.
62. "No. 31222". The London Gazette(Supplement). 11 March 1919. p. 3281.
63. "No. 13052". The Edinburgh Gazette. 16 February 1917. p. 367.
64. "No. 30568". The London Gazette(Supplement). 11 March 1918. p. 3095.
65. "No. 31451". The London Gazette(Supplement). 12 July 1919. p. 8937.
66. "No. 31514". The London Gazette(Supplement). 21 August 1919. p. 10614.
67. "No. 13673". The Edinburgh Gazette. 25 January 1921. p. 138.
68. Schmidt, Nicholas (14 February 2011). "For Valentine's Day – The airman who married the general's daughter". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
69. "The Dowager Lady Birdwood". The Telegraph. 29 June 2000. Retrieved 4 January2014.

Sources

• Bean, C.E.W. (1921). Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918. Angus & Robertson. ASIN B00144LQWM.
• Grey, Jeffrey (2001). The Australian Army. The Australian Centenary History of Defence. Volume I. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195541146.
• Heathcote, Tony (1999). The British Field Marshals 1736–1997. Barnsley (UK): Pen & Sword. ISBN 0-85052-696-5.
• Tucker, Spencer; Roberts, Priscilla Mary (2005). The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO Ltd. ISBN 978-1851094202.

External links

• A. J. Hill, 'Birdwood, William Riddell (Baron Birdwood) (1865–1951)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 7, Melbourne University Press, 1979, pp 293–296.
• Birdwood's introduction to The New Zealanders at Gallipoli
• Birdwood's AIF service record, available in the Australian National Archives as a digital image
• Birdwood presenting medals during the First World War (British-Pathé)
• Bust of Birdwood by Barbara Tribe (Australian National Portrait Gallery)
• In the thick of it, article on Birdwood and items relating to him at the Australian National Portrait Gallery
• Collection of photographs and artworks of Birdwood (UK National Portrait Gallery)
• Collection of photographs of Lady Birdwood, also includes photographs of their younger daughter Judith (UK National Portrait Gallery)
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener
by Wikipedia
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Image
Field Marshal The Right Honourable
The Earl Kitchener
KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC
Herbert Kitchener in full dress uniform (July 1910)
Secretary of State for War
In office
5 August 1914 – 5 June 1916
Monarch George V
Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
Preceded by H. H. Asquith
Succeeded by David Lloyd George
Consul-General in Egypt
In office
1911–1914
Personal details
Born 24 June 1850
Ballylongford, County Kerry, Ireland
Died 5 June 1916 (aged 65)
HMS Hampshire, west of Orkney, Scotland
Relations The 2nd Earl Kitchener
Sir Walter Kitchener
Military service
Allegiance United Kingdom
Branch/service British Army
Years of service 1871–1916
Rank Field Marshal
Commands Commander-in-Chief, India (1902–09)
British Forces in South Africa (1900–02)
Egyptian Army (1892–99)
Battles/wars Franco-Prussian War
Mahdist War:
Battle of Ferkeh
Battle of Atbara
Battle of Omdurman
Second Boer War:
Battle of Paardeberg
First World War
Awards Knight of the Order of the Garter
Knight of the Order of St Patrick
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Member of the Order of Merit
Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George
Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire

Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (/ˈkɪtʃɪnər/; 24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916) was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War,[1] and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War.

Kitchener was credited in 1898 for winning the Battle of Omdurman and securing control of the Sudan for which he was made Earl Kitchener of Khartoum. As Chief of Staff (1900–1902) in the Second Boer War he played a key role in Lord Roberts' conquest of the Boer Republics, then succeeded Roberts as commander-in-chief – by which time Boer forces had taken to guerrilla fighting and British forces imprisoned Boer civilians in concentration camps. His term as Commander-in-Chief (1902–09) of the Army in India saw him quarrel with another eminent proconsul, the Viceroy Lord Curzon, who eventually resigned. Kitchener then returned to Egypt as British Agent and Consul-General (de facto administrator).

In 1914, at the start of the First World War, Kitchener became Secretary of State for War, a Cabinet Minister. One of the few to foresee a long war, lasting for at least three years, and with the authority to act effectively on that perception, he organised the largest volunteer army that Britain had seen, and oversaw a significant expansion of materials production to fight on the Western Front. Despite having warned of the difficulty of provisioning for a long war, he was blamed for the shortage of shells in the spring of 1915 – one of the events leading to the formation of a coalition government – and stripped of his control over munitions and strategy.

On 5 June 1916, Kitchener was making his way to Russia on HMS Hampshire to attend negotiations with Tsar Nicholas II when the ship struck a German mine 1.5 miles (2.4 km) west of the Orkneys, Scotland, and sank. Kitchener was among 737 who died.

Early life

Image
Kitchener on his mother's lap, with his brother and sister

Kitchener was born in Ballylongford near Listowel, County Kerry, in Ireland, son of army officer Henry Horatio Kitchener (1805–1894) and Frances Anne Chevallier (d. 1864; daughter of John Chevallier, a priest, of Aspall Hall, and his third wife, Elizabeth, née Cole).[2]

His father had only recently bought land in Ireland, under a scheme to encourage the purchase of land, after selling his commission.[3] They then moved to Switzerland where the young Kitchener was educated at Montreux, then at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich.[3] Pro-French and eager to see action, he joined a French field ambulance unit in the Franco-Prussian War.[3] His father took him back to Britain after he caught pneumonia while ascending in a balloon to see the French Army of the Loire in action.[3] Commissioned into the Royal Engineers on 4 January 1871,[4] his service in France had violated British neutrality, and he was reprimanded by the Duke of Cambridge, the commander-in-chief.[3] He served in Palestine, Egypt and Cyprus as a surveyor, learned Arabic, and prepared detailed topographical maps of the areas.[2] His brother, Lt. Gen. Sir Walter Kitchener, had also entered the army, and was Governor of Bermuda from 1908 to 1912.[5]

Survey of western Palestine

In 1874, aged 24, Kitchener was assigned by the Palestine Exploration Fund to a mapping-survey of the Holy Land, replacing Charles Tyrwhitt-Drake, who had died of malaria.[6] By then an officer in the Royal Engineers, Kitchener joined fellow officer Claude R. Conder; between 1874 and 1877 they surveyed Palestine, returning to England only briefly in 1875 after an attack by locals at Safed, in Galilee.[6]

Conder and Kitchener's expedition became known as the Survey of Western Palestine because it was largely confined to the area west of the Jordan River. The survey collected data on the topography and toponymy of the area, as well as local flora and fauna.[7]

The results of the survey were published in an eight-volume series, with Kitchener's contribution in the first three tomes (Conder and Kitchener 1881–1885). This survey has had a lasting effect on the Middle East for several reasons:

• It serves as the basis for the grid system used in the modern maps of Israel and Palestine;
• The data compiled by Conder and Kitchener are still consulted by archaeologists and geographers working in the southern Levant;
• The survey itself effectively delineated and defined the political borders of the southern Levant. For example, the modern border between Israel and Lebanon is established at the point in upper Galilee where Conder and Kitchener's survey stopped.[6]

In 1878, having completed the survey of western Palestine, Kitchener was sent to Cyprus to undertake a survey of that newly acquired British protectorate.[3] He became vice-consul in Anatolia in 1879.[8]

Egypt

Kitchener was initiated into Freemasonry in 1883 in the Italian-speaking La Concordia Lodge No. 1226, which met in Cairo.[9] In November 1899 he was appointed the first District Grand Master of the District Grand Lodge of Egypt and the Sudan, under the United Grand Lodge of England.[10][11]

On 4 January 1883 Kitchener was promoted to captain,[12] given the Turkish rank bimbashi (major), and dispatched to Egypt where he took part in the reconstruction of the Egyptian Army.[3]

Egypt had recently become a British puppet state, its army led by British officers, although still nominally under the sovereignty of the Khedive (Egyptian monarch) and his nominal overlord the (Ottoman) Sultan of Turkey. Kitchener became second-in-command of an Egyptian cavalry regiment[13] in February 1883, and then took part in the failed expedition to relieve Charles George Gordon in the Sudan in late 1884.[3] Fluent in Arabic, Kitchener preferred the company of the Egyptians over the British, and the company of no-one over the Egyptians, writing in 1884 that: "I have become such a solitary bird that I often think I were happier alone".[14] Kitchener spoke Arabic so well that he was able to effortlessly adopt the dialects of the different Bedouin tribes of Egypt and the Sudan.[15] Promoted to brevet major on 8 October 1884[16] and to brevet lieutenant-colonel on 15 June 1885,[17] he became the British member of the Zanzibar boundary commission in July 1885.[18] He became Governor of the Egyptian Provinces of Eastern Sudan and Red Sea Littoral (which in practice consisted of little more than the Port of Suakin) in September 1886, and led his forces in action against the followers of the Mahdi at Handub in January 1888, when he was injured in the jaw.[19]

Kitchener was promoted to brevet colonel on 11 April 1888[20] and to the substantive rank of major on 20 July 1889[21] and led the Egyptian cavalry at the Battle of Toski in August 1889. At the beginning of 1890 he was appointed Inspector General of the Egyptian police[22] before moving to the position of Adjutant-General of the Egyptian Army in December of the same year[19] and Sirdar (Commander-in-Chief) of the Egyptian Army with the local rank of brigadier in April 1892.[19]

Kitchener was worried that, although his moustache was bleached white by the sun, his blond hair refused to turn grey, making it harder for Egyptians to take him seriously. His appearance added to his mystique: his long legs made him appear taller, whilst a cast in his eye made people feel he was looking right through them.[23] Kitchener, at 6'2", towered over most of his contemporaries.[24] Sir Evelyn Baring, the de facto British ruler of Egypt, thought Kitchener “the most able (soldier) I have come across in my time”.[25] In 1890, a War Office evaluation of Kitchener concluded: "A good brigadier, very ambitious, not popular, but has of late greatly improved in tact and manner...a fine gallant soldier and good linguist and very successful in dealing with Orientals" [in the 19th century, Europeans called the Middle East the Orient].[26]

Sudan and Khartoum

See also: Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan

Image
Kitchener, Commander of the Egyptian Army (centre right), 1898

In 1896, the British Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury, was concerned with keeping France out of the Horn of Africa. A French expedition under the command of Jean-Baptiste Marchand had left Dakar in March 1896 with the aim of conquering the Sudan, seizing control of the Nile as it flowed into Egypt, and forcing the British out of Egypt; thus restoring Egypt to the place within the French sphere of influence that it had had prior to 1882. Salisbury feared that if the British did not conquer the Sudan, the French would.[27] He had supported Italy's ambitions to conquer Ethiopia in the hope that the Italians would keep the French out of Ethiopia. The Italian attempt to conquer Ethiopia, however, was going very badly by early 1896, and ended with the Italians being annihilated at the Battle of Adowa in March 1896.[28] In March 1896, with the Italians visibly failing and the Mahdiyah state threatening to conquer Eritrea, Salisbury ordered Kitchener to invade northern Sudan, ostensibly for the purpose of distracting the Ansar (whom the British called "Dervishes") from attacking the Italians.[28]

Kitchener won victories at the Battle of Ferkeh in June 1896 and the Battle of Hafir in September 1896, earning him national fame in the United Kingdom and promotion to major-general on 25 September 1896.[29] Kitchener's cold personality and his tendency to drive his men hard made him widely disliked by his fellow officers.[30] One officer wrote about Kitchener in September 1896: "He was always inclined to bully his own entourage, as some men are rude to their wives. He was inclined to let off his spleen on those around him. He was often morose and silent for hours together...he was even morbidly afraid of showing any feeling or enthusiasm, and he preferred to be misunderstood rather than be suspected of human feeling."[31] Kitchener had served on the Wolseley expedition to rescue General Gordon at Khartoum, and was convinced that the expedition failed because Wolseley had used boats coming up the Nile to bring his supplies.[32] Kitchener wanted to build a railroad to supply the Anglo-Egyptian army, and assigned the task of constructing the Sudan Military Railroad to a Canadian railroad builder, Percy Girouard, for whom he had specifically asked.[33]

Kitchener achieved further successes at the Battle of Atbara in April 1898, and then the Battle of Omdurman in September 1898.[19] After marching to the walls of Khartoum, he placed his army into a crescent shape with the Nile to the rear, together with the gunboats in support. This enabled him to bring overwhelming firepower against any attack of the Ansar from any direction, though with the disadvantage of having his men spread out thinly, with hardly any forces in reserve. Such an arrangement could have proven disastrous if the Ansar had broken through the thin khaki line.[34] At about 5 a.m. on 2 September 1898, a huge force of Ansar, under the command of the Khalifa himself, came out of the fort at Omdurman, marching under their black banners inscribed with Koranic quotations in Arabic; this led Bennet Burleigh, the Sudan correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, to write: "It was not alone the reverberation of the tread of horses and men's feet I heard and seemed to feel as well as hear, but a voiced continuous shouting and chanting-the Dervish invocation and battle challenge "Allah e Allah Rasool Allah el Mahdi!" they reiterated in vociferous rising measure, as they swept over the intervening ground".[35] Kitchener had the ground carefully studied so that his officers would know the best angle of fire, and had his army open fire on the Ansar first with artillery, then machine guns and finally rifles as the enemy advanced.[36] A young Winston Churchill, serving as an army officer, wrote of what he saw: "A ragged line of men were coming on desperately, struggling forward in the face of the pitiless fire- black banners tossing and collapsing; white figures subsiding in dozens to the ground...valiant men were struggling on through a hell of whistling metal, exploding shells, and spurting dust—suffering, despairing, dying".[37] By about 8:30 a.m., much of the Dervish army was dead; Kitchener ordered his men to advance, fearing that the Khalifa might escape with what was left of his army to the fort of Omdurman, forcing Kitchener to lay siege to it.[38]

Viewing the battlefield from horseback on the hill at Jebel Surgham, Kitchener commented: "Well, we have given them a damn good dusting".[38] As the British and Egyptians advanced in columns, the Khalifa attempted to outflank and encircle the columns; this led to desperate hand-to-hand fighting. Churchill wrote of his own experience as the 21st Lancers cut their way through the Ansar: "The collision was prodigious and for perhaps ten wonderful seconds, no man heeded his enemy. Terrified horses wedged in the crowd, bruised and shaken men, sprawling in heaps, struggle dazed and stupid, to their feet, panted and looked about them".[39] The Lancers' onslaught carried them through the 12-men-deep Ansar line with the Lancers losing 71 dead and wounded while killing hundreds of the enemy.[39] Following the annihilation of his army, the Khalifa ordered a retreat and early in the afternoon, Kitchener rode in triumph into Omdurman and immediately ordered that the thousands of Christians enslaved by the Ansar were now all free people.[40] Kitchener lost fewer than 500 men while killing about 11,000 and wounding 17,000 of the Ansar.[40] Burleigh summed the general mood of the British troops: "At Last! Gordon has been avenged and justified. The dervishes have been overwhelming routed, Mahdism has been "smashed", while the Khalifa's capital of Omdurman has been stripped of its barbaric halo of sanctity and invulnerability."[40] Kitchener promptly had the Mahdi's tomb blown up and his bones scattered.[41] Queen Victoria, who had wept when she heard of General Gordon's death, now wept for the man who had vanquished Gordon, asking whether it had been really necessary for Kitchener to desecrate the Mahdi's tomb.[41] In a letter to his mother, Churchill wrote that the victory at Omdurman had been "disgraced by the inhuman slaughter of the wounded and...Kitchener is responsible for this".[42] There is no evidence that Kitchener ordered his men to shoot the wounded Ansar on the field of Omdurman, but he did give before the battle what the British journalist Mark Urban called a "mixed message", saying that mercy should be given, while at the same time saying "Remember Gordon" and that the enemy were all "murderers" of Gordon.[43] The victory at Omdurman made Kitchener into a popular war hero, and gave him a reputation for efficiency and as a man who got things done.[41] The journalist G. W. Steevens wrote in the Daily Mail that "He [Kitchener] is more like a machine than a man. You feel that he ought to be patented and shown with pride at the Paris International Exhibition. British Empire: Exhibit No. 1 hors concours, the Sudan Machine".[41] The shooting of the wounded at Omdurman, along with the desecration of the Mahdi's tomb, gave Kitchener a reputation for brutality that was to dog him for the rest of his life, and posthumously.[41]

After Omdurman, Kitchener opened a special sealed letter from Salisbury that told him that Salisbury's real reason for ordering the conquest of the Sudan was to prevent France from moving into the Sudan, and that the talk of "avenging Gordon" had been just a pretext.[27] Salisbury's letter ordered Kitchener to head south as soon as possible to evict Marchand before he got a chance to become well-established on the Nile.[27] On 18 September 1898, Kitchener arrived at the French fort at Fashoda (present day Kodok, on the west bank of the Nile north of Malakal) and informed Marchand that he and his men had to leave the Sudan at once, a request Merchand refused, leading to a tense stand-off as French and British soldiers aimed their weapons at each other.[27] During what became known as the Fashoda Incident, Britain and France almost went to war with each other.[44] The Fashoda incident caused much jingoism and chauvinism on both sides of the English Channel; however, at Fashoda itself, despite the stand-off with the French, Kitchener established cordial relations with Marchand. They agreed that the tricolor would fly equally with the Union Jack and the Egyptian flag over the disputed fort at Fashoda.[44] Kitchener was a Francophile who spoke fluent French, and despite his reputation for brusque rudeness was very diplomatic and tactful in his talks with Marchand; for example, congratulating him on his achievement in crossing the Sahara in an epic trek from Dakar to the Nile.[45] In November 1898, the crisis ended when the French agreed to withdraw from the Sudan.[41] Several factors persuaded the French to back down. These included British naval superiority; the prospect of an Anglo-French war leading to the British gobbling up the entire French colonial empire after the defeat of the French Navy; the pointed statement from the Russian Emperor Nicholas II that the Franco-Russian alliance applied only to Europe, and that Russia would not go to war against Britain for the sake of an obscure fort in the Sudan in which no Russian interests were involved; and the possibility that Germany might take advantage of an Anglo-French war to strike France.[46]

Kitchener became Governor-General of the Sudan in September 1898, and began a programme of restoring good governance. The programme had a strong foundation, based on education at Gordon Memorial College as its centrepiece—and not simply for the children of the local elites, for children from anywhere could apply to study. He ordered the mosques of Khartoum rebuilt, instituted reforms which recognised Friday—the Muslim holy day—as the official day of rest, and guaranteed freedom of religion to all citizens of the Sudan. He attempted to prevent evangelical Christian missionaries from trying to convert Muslims to Christianity.[47]

At this stage of his career Kitchener was keen to exploit the press, cultivating G. W. Steevens of the Daily Mail who wrote a book With Kitchener to Khartum. Later, as his legend had grown, he was able to be rude to the press, on one occasion in the Second Boer War bellowing: "Get out of my way, you drunken swabs".[23] He was created Baron Kitchener, of Khartoum and of Aspall in the County of Suffolk, on 31 October 1898.[48]

Anglo-Boer War

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Lord Kitchener on horseback in The Queenslander Pictorial in 1910

During the Second Boer War, Kitchener arrived in South Africa with Lord Roberts on the RMS Dunottar Castle along with massive British reinforcements in December 1899.[19] Officially holding the title of chief of staff,[49] he was in practice a second-in-command and was present at the relief of Kimberley before leading an unsuccessful frontal assault at the Battle of Paardeberg in February 1900.[19] Kitchener was mentioned in despatches from Lord Roberts several times during the early part of the war; in a despatch from March 1900 Lord Roberts wrote how he was "greatly indebted to him for his counsel and cordial support on all occasions".[50]

Following the defeat of the conventional Boer forces, Kitchener succeeded Roberts as overall commander in November 1900.[51] He was also promoted to lieutenant-general on 29 November 1900[52] and to local general on 12 December 1900.[51] He subsequently inherited and expanded the successful strategies devised by Roberts to force the Boer commandos to submit, including concentration camps and the burning of farms.[19] Conditions in the concentration camps, which had been conceived by Roberts as a form of control of the families whose farms he had destroyed, began to degenerate rapidly as the large influx of Boers outstripped the ability of the minuscule British force to cope. The camps lacked space, food, sanitation, medicine, and medical care, leading to rampant disease and a very high death rate for those Boers who entered. Eventually 26,370 women and children (81% were children) died in the concentration camps.[53] The biggest critic of the camps was the Englishwoman, humanitarian, and welfare worker Emily Hobhouse.[54]

The Treaty of Vereeniging, ending the War, was signed in May 1902 following a tense six months. During this period Kitchener struggled against Sir Alfred Milner, the Governor of the Cape Colony, and the British government. Milner was a hard-line conservative and wanted forcibly to Anglicise the Afrikaans people (the Boers), and Milner and the British government wanted to assert victory by forcing the Boers to sign a humiliating peace treaty; Kitchener wanted a more generous compromise peace treaty that would recognize certain rights for the Afrikaners and promise future self-government. He even entertained a peace treaty proposed by Louis Botha and the other Boer leaders, although he knew the British government would reject the offer; this would have maintained the sovereignty of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State while requiring them to sign a perpetual treaty of alliance with the UK and grant major concessions to the British, such as equal rights for English with Dutch in their countries, voting rights for Uitlanders, and a customs and railway union with the Cape Colony and Natal.[55]

Kitchener, who had been promoted to the substantive rank of general on 1 June 1902,[56] was hosted to a farewell reception at Cape Town on 23 June, and left for the United Kingdom in the SS Orotava on the same day.[57] He received an enthusiastic welcome on his arrival the following month. Landing in Southampton on 12 July, he was greeted by the corporation, who presented him with the Freedom of the borough. In London, he was met at the train station by The Prince of Wales, drove in a procession through streets lined by military personnel from 70 different units and watched by thousands of people, and received a formal welcome at St James's Palace. He also visited King Edward VII, Emperor of India, who was confined to his room recovering from his recent operation for appendicitis, but wanted to meet the general on his arrival and to personally bestow on him the insignia of the Order of Merit (OM).[58] Kitchener was created Viscount Kitchener, of Khartoum and of the Vaal in the Colony of Transvaal and of Aspall in the County of Suffolk, on 28 July 1902.[59]

Court-martial of Breaker Morant

Main articles: Court-martial of Breaker Morant and Breaker Morant

In the Breaker Morant case, five Australian officers and one English officer of an irregular unit, the Bushveldt Carbineers, were court-martialled for summarily executing twelve Boer prisoners,[60] and also for the murder of a German missionary believed to be a Boer sympathiser, all allegedly under unwritten orders approved by Kitchener. The celebrated horseman and bush poet Lt. Harry "Breaker" Morant and Lt. Peter Handcock were found guilty, sentenced to death, and shot by firing squad at Pietersburg on 27 February 1902. Their death warrants were personally signed by Kitchener. He reprieved a third soldier, Lt. George Witton, who served 28 months before being released.[61]

India

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Broome Park, Kitchener's country house in Canterbury, Kent

General Lord Kitchener was in late 1902 appointed Commander-in-Chief, India, and arrived there to take up the position in November, in time to be in charge during the January 1903 Delhi Durbar. He immediately began the task of reorganising the Indian Army. Kitchener's plan “The Reorganisation and Redistribution of the Army in India” recommended preparing the Indian Army for any potential war by reducing the size of fixed garrisons and reorganising it into two armies, to be commanded by Generals Sir Bindon Blood and George Luck.[62] While many of the Kitchener Reforms were supported by the Viceroy, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, who had originally lobbied for Kitchener's appointment, the two men eventually came into conflict. Curzon wrote to Kitchener advising him that signing himself “Kitchener of Khartoum” took up too much time and space – Kitchener commented on the pettiness of this (Curzon simply signed himself "Curzon" as an hereditary peer, although he later took to signing himself “Curzon of Kedleston”).[63] They also clashed over the question of military administration, as Kitchener objected to the system whereby transport and logistics were controlled by a "Military Member" of the Viceroy's Council. The Commander-in-Chief won the crucial support of the government in London, and the Viceroy chose to resign.[64]

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A portrait of Field Marshal Lord Kitchener in full dress uniform taken shortly after being promoted to the rank

Later events proved Curzon was right in opposing Kitchener's attempts to concentrate all military decision-making power in his own office. Although the offices of Commander-in-Chief and Military Member were now held by a single individual, senior officers could approach only the Commander-in-Chief directly. In order to deal with the Military Member, a request had to be made through the Army Secretary, who reported to the Indian Government and had right of access to the Viceroy. There were even instances, when the two separate bureaucracies produced different answers to a problem, with the Commander-in-Chief disagreeing with himself as Military Member. This became known as "the canonisation of duality". Kitchener's successor, General Sir O’Moore Creagh, was nicknamed "no More K", and concentrated on establishing good relations with the Viceroy, Lord Hardinge.[65]

Kitchener presided over the Rawalpindi Parade in 1905 to honour the Prince and Princess of Wales's visit to India.[66] That same year Kitchener founded the Indian Staff College at Quetta (now the Pakistani Command and Staff College), where his portrait still hangs.[67] His term of office as Commander-in-Chief, India, was extended by two years in 1907.[64]

Kitchener was promoted to the highest Army rank, field marshal, on 10 September 1909 and went on a tour of Australia and New Zealand.[64] He aspired to be Viceroy of India, but the Secretary of State for India, John Morley, was not keen and hoped to send him instead to Malta as Commander-in-Chief of British forces in the Mediterranean, even to the point of announcing the appointment in the newspapers. Kitchener pushed hard for the Viceroyalty, returning to London to lobby Cabinet ministers and the dying King Edward VII, from whom, whilst collecting his field marshal's baton, Kitchener obtained permission to refuse the Malta job. However, Morley could not be moved. This was perhaps in part because Kitchener was thought to be a Tory (the Liberals were in office at the time); perhaps due to a Curzon-inspired whispering campaign; but most importantly because Morley, who was a Gladstonian and thus suspicious of imperialism, felt it inappropriate, after the recent grant of limited self-government under the 1909 Indian Councils Act, for a serving soldier to be Viceroy (in the event, no serving soldier was appointed Viceroy until Lord Wavell in 1943, during the Second World War). The Prime Minister, H. H. Asquith, was sympathetic to Kitchener but was unwilling to overrule Morley, who threatened resignation, so Kitchener was finally turned down for the post of Viceroy of India in 1911.[68]

Return to Egypt

In June 1911 Kitchener then returned to Egypt as British Agent and Consul-General in Egypt during the formal reign of Abbas Hilmi II as Khedive.[68]

At the time of the Agadir Crisis (summer 1911), Kitchener told the Committee of Imperial Defence that he expected the Germans to walk through the French “like partridges” and he informed Lord Esher “that if they imagined that he was going to command the Army in France he would see them damned first”.[69]

He was created Earl Kitchener, of Khartoum and of Broome in the County of Kent, on 29 June 1914.[68]

During this period he became a proponent of Scouting and coined the phrase "once a Scout, always a Scout."[70]

First World War

1914

Raising the New Armies


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The iconic, much-imitated 1914 Lord Kitchener Wants You poster

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Young men besieging the recruiting offices in Whitehall, London

At the outset of the First World War, the Prime Minister, Asquith, quickly had Lord Kitchener appointed Secretary of State for War; Asquith had been filling the job himself as a stopgap following the resignation of Colonel Seely over the Curragh Incident earlier in 1914. Kitchener was in Britain on his annual summer leave, between 23 June and 3 August 1914, and had boarded a cross-Channel steamer to commence his return trip to Cairo when he was recalled to London to meet with Asquith.[71] War was declared at 11pm the next day.[72]

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Cpostcard of Lord Kitchener from WW1 period

Against cabinet opinion, Kitchener correctly predicted a long war that would last at least three years, require huge new armies to defeat Germany, and cause huge casualties before the end would come. Kitchener stated that the conflict would plumb the depths of manpower "to the last million". A massive recruitment campaign began, which soon featured a distinctive poster of Kitchener, taken from a magazine front cover. It may have encouraged large numbers of volunteers, and has proven to be one of the most enduring images of the war, having been copied and parodied many times since. Kitchener built up the "New Armies" as separate units because he distrusted the Territorials from what he had seen with the French Army in 1870. This may have been a mistaken judgement, as the British reservists of 1914 tended to be much younger and fitter than their French equivalents a generation earlier.[73]

Cabinet Secretary Maurice Hankey wrote of Kitchener:

The great outstanding fact is that within eighteen months of the outbreak of the war, when he had found a people reliant on sea-power, and essentially non-military in their outlook, he had conceived and brought into being, completely equipped in every way, a national army capable of holding its own against the armies of the greatest military Power the world had ever seen.[74]


However, Ian Hamilton later wrote of Kitchener "he hated organisations; he smashed organisations ... he was a Master of Expedients".[75]

Deploying the BEF

At the War Council (5 August) Kitchener and Lieutenant General Sir Douglas Haig argued that the BEF should be deployed at Amiens, where it could deliver a vigorous counterattack once the route of German advance was known. Kitchener argued that the deployment of the BEF in Belgium would result in having to retreat and abandon much of its supplies almost immediately, as the Belgian Army would be unable to hold its ground against the Germans; Kitchener was proved right, but given the belief in fortresses common at the time, it is not surprising that the War Council disagreed with him.[76]

Kitchener, believing Britain should husband her resources for a long war, decided at Cabinet (6 August) that the initial BEF would consist of only 4 infantry divisions (and 1 cavalry), not the 5 or 6 promised.[77] His decision to hold back two of the six divisions of the BEF, although based on exaggerated concerns about German invasion of Britain, arguably saved the BEF from disaster as Sir John French (on the advice of Wilson who was much influenced by the French), might have been tempted to advance further into the teeth of the advancing German forces, had his own force been stronger.[73]

Kitchener's wish to concentrate further back at Amiens may also have been influenced by a largely accurate map of German dispositions which was published by Repington in The Times on the morning of 12 August.[73] Kitchener had a three-hour meeting (12 August) with Sir John French, Murray, Wilson and the French liaison officer Victor Huguet, before being overruled by the Prime Minister, who eventually agreed that the BEF should assemble at Maubeuge.[78]

Sir John French's orders from Kitchener were to cooperate with the French but not to take orders from them. Given that the tiny BEF (about 100,000 men, half of them serving regulars and half reservists) was Britain's only field army, Lord Kitchener also instructed French to avoid undue losses and exposure to “forward movements where large numbers of French troops are not engaged” until Kitchener himself had had a chance to discuss the matter with the Cabinet.[79]

Meeting with Sir John French

The BEF commander, Sir John French, concerned at heavy British losses at the Battle of Le Cateau, was considering withdrawing his forces from the Allied line. By 31 August French Commander-in-chief Joffre, President Poincaré (relayed via Bertie, the British Ambassador) and Kitchener sent him messages urging him not to do so. Kitchener, authorised by a midnight meeting of whichever Cabinet Ministers could be found, left for France for a meeting with Sir John on 1 September.[80]

They met, together with Viviani (French Prime Minister) and Millerand (now French War Minister). Huguet recorded that Kitchener was "calm, balanced, reflective" whilst Sir John was "sour, impetuous, with congested face, sullen and ill-tempered". On Bertie’s advice Kitchener dropped his intention of inspecting the BEF. French and Kitchener moved to a separate room, and no independent account of the meeting exists. After the meeting Kitchener telegraphed the Cabinet that the BEF would remain in the line, although taking care not to be outflanked, and told French to consider this "an instruction". French had a friendly exchange of letters with Joffre.[81]

French had been particularly angry that Kitchener had arrived wearing his field marshal's uniform. This was how Kitchener normally dressed at the time (Hankey thought Kitchener's uniform tactless, but it had probably not occurred to him to change), but French felt that Kitchener was implying that he was his military superior and not simply a cabinet member. By the end of the year French thought that Kitchener had "gone mad" and his hostility had become common knowledge at GHQ and GQG.[82]

1915

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Kitchener's Dream, German propaganda medal, 1915

Strategy

In January 1915, Field Marshal Sir John French, the commander of the British Expeditionary Force, with the concurrence of other senior commanders (e.g. General Sir Douglas Haig), wanted the New Armies incorporated into existing divisions as battalions rather than sent out as entire divisions. French felt (wrongly) that the war would be over by the summer before the New Army divisions were deployed, as Germany had recently redeployed some divisions to the east, and took the step of appealing to the Prime Minister, Asquith, over Kitchener's head, but Asquith refused to overrule Kitchener. This further damaged relations between French and Kitchener, who had travelled to France in September 1914 during the First Battle of the Marne to order French to resume his place in the Allied line.[83]

Kitchener warned French in January 1915 that the Western Front was a siege line that could not be breached, in the context of Cabinet discussions about amphibious landings on the Baltic or North Sea Coast, or against Turkey.[84] In an effort to find a way to relieve pressure on the Western front, Lord Kitchener proposed an invasion of Alexandretta with Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC), New Army, and Indian troops. Alexandretta was an area with a large Christian population and was the strategic centre of the Ottoman Empire's railway network — its capture would have cut the empire in two.Yet he was instead eventually persuaded to support Winston Churchill's disastrous Gallipoli Campaign in 1915–1916. (Churchill's responsibility for the failure of this campaign is debated; for more information see David Fromkin's A Peace to End All Peace.) That failure, combined with the Shell Crisis of 1915 – amidst press publicity engineered by Sir John French – dealt Kitchener's political reputation a heavy blow; Kitchener was popular with the public, so Asquith retained him in office in the new coalition government, but responsibility for munitions was moved to a new ministry headed by David Lloyd George. He was a sceptic about the tank, which is why it was developed under the auspices of Churchill's Admiralty.[85]

With the Russians being pushed back from Poland, Kitchener thought the transfer of German troops west and a possible invasion of Britain increasingly likely, and told the War Council (14 May) that he was not willing to send the New Armies overseas. He wired French (16 May 1915) that he would send no more reinforcements to France until he was clear the German line could be broken, but sent two divisions at the end of May to please Joffre, not because he thought a breakthrough possible.[86] He had wanted to conserve his New Armies to strike a knockout blow in 1916–17, but by the summer of 1915 realised that high casualties and a major commitment to France were inescapable. “Unfortunately we have to make war as we must, and not as we should like” as he told the Dardanelles Committee on 20 August 1915.[87]

At an Anglo-French conference at Calais (6 July) Joffre and Kitchener, who was opposed to “too vigorous” offensives, reached a compromise on “local offensives on a vigorous scale”, and Kitchener agreed to deploy New Army divisions to France. An inter-Allied conference at Chantilly (7 July, including Russian, Belgian, Serb and Italian delegates) agreed on coordinated offensives.[88] However, Kitchener now came to support the upcoming Loos offensive. He travelled to France for talks with Joffre and Millerand (16 August). The French leaders believed Russia might sue for peace (Warsaw had fallen on 4 August). Kitchener (19 August) ordered the Loos offensive to proceed, despite the attack being on ground not favoured by French or Haig (then commanding First Army).[89] The Official History later admitted that Kitchener hoped to be appointed Supreme Allied Commander. Liddell Hart speculated that this was why he allowed himself to be persuaded by Joffre. New Army divisions first saw action at Loos in September 1915.[90]
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Part 2 of 2

Reduction in powers

Kitchener continued to lose favour with politicians and professional soldiers. He found it “repugnant and unnatural to have to discuss military secrets with a large number of gentlemen with whom he was but barely acquainted”. Esher complained that he would either lapse into “obstinacy and silence” or else mull aloud over various difficulties. Milner told Gwynne (18 August 1915) that he thought Kitchener a “slippery fish”.[91] By autumn 1915, with Asquith's Coalition close to breaking up over conscription, he was blamed for his opposition to that measure (which would eventually be introduced for single men in January 1916) and for the excessive influence which civilians like Churchill and Haldane had come to exert over strategy, allowing ad hoc campaigns to develop in Sinai, Mesopotamia and Salonika. Generals such as Sir William Robertson were critical of Kitchener's failure to ask the General Staff (whose chief James Wolfe-Murray was intimidated by Kitchener) to study the feasibility of any of these campaigns.[92]

Kitchener advised the Dardanelles Committee (21 October) that Baghdad be seized for the sake of prestige then abandoned as logistically untenable. His advice was no longer accepted without question, but the British forces were eventually besieged and captured at Kut.[93]

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Kitchener with General Birdwood at Anzac, November 1915

Archibald Murray (Chief of the Imperial General Staff) later recorded that Kitchener was “quite unfit for the position of secretary of state” and “impossible”, claiming that he never assembled the Army Council as a body, but instead gave them orders separately, and was usually exhausted by Friday. Kitchener was also keen to break up Territorial units whenever possible whilst ensuring that “No “K” Division left the country incomplete”. Murray wrote that “He seldom told the absolute the truth and the whole truth” and claimed that it was not until he left on a tour of inspection of Gallipoli and the Near East that Murray was able to inform the Cabinet that volunteering had fallen far below the level needed to maintain a BEF of 70 divisions, requiring the introduction of conscription. The Cabinet insisted on proper General Staff papers being presented in Kitchener's absence.[94]

Asquith, who told Robertson that Kitchener was “an impossible colleague” and “his veracity left much to be desired”, hoped that he could be persuaded to remain in the region as Commander-in-Chief and acted in charge of the War Office, but Kitchener took his seals of office with him so he could not be sacked in his absence. Douglas Haig – at that time involved in intrigues to have Robertson appointed Chief of the Imperial General Staff – recommended that Kitchener be appointed Viceroy of India (“where trouble was brewing”) but not to the Middle East, where his strong personality would have led to that sideshow receiving too much attention and resources.[95] Kitchener visited Rome and Athens, but Murray warned that he would likely demand the diversion of British troops to fight the Turks in the Sinai.[96]

Kitchener and Asquith were agreed that Robertson should become CIGS, but Robertson refused to do this if Kitchener “continued to be his own CIGS”, although given Kitchener's great prestige he did not want him to resign; he wanted the Secretary of State to be sidelined to an advisory role like the Prussian War Minister. Asquith asked them to negotiate an agreement, which they did over the exchange of several draft documents at the Hotel de Crillon in Paris. Kitchener agreed that Robertson alone should present strategic advice to the Cabinet, with Kitchener responsible for recruiting and supplying the Army, although he refused to agree that military orders should go out over Robertson's signature alone – it was agreed that the Secretary of State should continue to sign orders jointly with the CIGS. The agreement was formalised in a Royal Order in Council in January 1916. Robertson was suspicious of efforts in the Balkans and Near East, and was instead committed to major British offensives against Germany on the Western Front — the first of these was to be the Somme in 1916.[97]

1916

Early in 1916 Kitchener visited Douglas Haig, newly appointed Commander-in-Chief of the BEF in France. Kitchener had been a key figure in the removal of Haig's predecessor Sir John French, with whom he had a poor relationship. Haig differed with Kitchener over the importance of Mediterranean efforts and wanted to see a strong General Staff in London, but nonetheless valued Kitchener as a military voice against the folly of civilians such as Churchill. However, he thought Kitchener "pinched, tired, and much aged", and thought it sad that his mind was “losing its comprehension” as the time for decisive victory on the Western Front (as Haig and Robertson saw it) approached.[98] Kitchener was somewhat doubtful of Haig's plan to win decisive victory in 1916, and would have preferred smaller and purely attritional attacks, but sided with Robertson in telling the Cabinet that the planned Anglo-French offensive on the Somme should go ahead.[99]

Kitchener was under pressure from French Prime Minister Aristide Briand (29 March 1916) for the British to attack on the Western Front to help relieve the pressure of the German attack at Verdun. The French refused to bring troops home from Salonika, which Kitchener thought a play for the increase of French power in the Mediterranean.[100]

On 2 June 1916, Lord Kitchener personally answered questions asked by politicians about his running of the war effort; at the start of hostilities Kitchener had ordered two million rifles from various US arms manufacturers. Only 480 of these rifles had arrived in the UK by 4 June 1916. The numbers of shells supplied were no less paltry. Kitchener explained the efforts he had made to secure alternative supplies. He received a resounding vote of thanks from the 200 Members of Parliament who had arrived to question him, both for his candour and for his efforts to keep the troops armed; Sir Ivor Herbert, who, a week before, had introduced the failed vote of censure in the House of Commons against Kitchener's running of the War Department, personally seconded the motion.[101]

In addition to his military work, Lord Kitchener contributed to efforts on the home front. The knitted sock patterns of the day used a seam up the toe that could rub uncomfortably against the toes. Kitchener encouraged British and American women to knit for the war effort, and contributed a sock pattern featuring a new technique for a seamless join of the toe, still known as the Kitchener stitch.[102]

Russian mission

In the midst of his other political and military concerns, Kitchener had devoted personal attention to the deteriorating situation on the Eastern Front. This included the provision of extensive stocks of war material for the Russian armies, which had been under increasing pressure since mid-1915.[103] In May 1916 the Chancellor of the Exchequer Reginald Mckenna suggested that Kitchener head a special and confidential mission to Russia to discuss munition shortages, military strategy and financial difficulties with the Imperial Russian Government and the Stavka (military high command), which was now under the personal command of Tsar Nicholas II. Both Kitchener and the Russians were in favor of face to face talks and a formal invitation from the Tsar was received on 14 May.[104] Kitchener with a party of officials, military aides and personal servants left London by train for Scotland on the evening of 4 June.[105]

Death

Image
Kitchener boards HMS Iron Duke from HMS Oak at 12.25pm on 5 June 1916 prior to lunching with Admiral Sir John Jellicoe at Scapa Flow

Image
Lord Kitchener's memorial, St Paul's Cathedral, London

Lord Kitchener sailed from Scrabster to Scapa Flow on 5 June 1916 aboard HMS Oak before transferring to the armoured cruiser HMS Hampshire for his diplomatic mission to Russia. At the last minute, Admiral Sir John Jellicoe changed the Hampshire's route on the basis of a mis-reading of the weather forecast and ignoring (or not being aware of) recent intelligence and sightings of German U-boat activity in the vicinity of the amended route.[106] Shortly before 19:30 hrs the same day, steaming for the Russian port of Arkhangelsk during a Force 9 gale, Hampshire struck a mine laid by the newly launched German U-boat U-75 (commanded by Curt Beitzen) and sank west of the Orkney Islands. Recent research has set the death toll of those aboard Hampshire at 737.[107] Only twelve survived.[107][108] Amongst the dead were all ten members of his entourage. Kitchener was seen standing on the quarterdeck during the approximately twenty minutes that it took the ship to sink. His body was never recovered.[108][109]

The news of Kitchener's death was received with shock all over the British Empire.[110] A man in Yorkshire committed suicide at the news; a sergeant on the Western Front was heard to exclaim "Now we’ve lost the war. Now we’ve lost the war"; and a nurse wrote home to her family that she knew Britain would win as long as Kitchener lived, and now that he was gone: "How awful it is – a far worse blow than many German victories. So long as he was with us we knew even if things were gloomy that his guiding hand was at the helm."[110]

General Douglas Haig commanding the British Armies on the Western Front remarked on first receiving the news of Kitchener's death via a German radio signal intercepted by the British Army, "How shall we get on without him."[111] King George V wrote in his diary: 'It is indeed a heavy blow to me and a great loss to the nation and the allies.' He ordered army officers to wear black armbands for a week.[112]

C. P. Scott, editor of The Manchester Guardian, is said to have remarked that "as for the old man, he could not have done better than to have gone down, as he was a great impediment lately."[113]

Conspiracy theories

Kitchener's great fame, the suddenness of his death, and its apparently convenient timing for a number of parties gave almost immediate rise to a number of conspiracy theories about his death. One in particular was posited by Lord Alfred Douglas (of Oscar Wilde fame), positing a connection between Kitchener's death, the recent naval Battle of Jutland, Winston Churchill, and a Jewish conspiracy. Churchill successfully sued Douglas in what proved to be the last successful case of criminal libel in British legal history, and the latter spent six months in prison.[114] Another claimed that the Hampshire did not strike a mine at all, but was sunk by explosives secreted in the vessel by Irish Republicans.[109]

In 1926, a hoaxer named Frank Power claimed in the Sunday Referee newspaper that Kitchener's body had been found by a Norwegian fisherman. Power brought a coffin back from Norway and prepared it for burial in St Paul's Cathedral. At this point, however, the authorities intervened and the coffin was opened in the presence of police and a distinguished pathologist. The box was found to contain only tar for weight. There was widespread public outrage at Power, but he was never prosecuted.[115]

Image
FBI file photo of Duquesne

General Erich Ludendorff, Generalquartiermeister and joint head (with von Hindenburg) of Germany's war effort stated in the 1920s that Russian communists working against the Tsar had betrayed the plan to visit the Russians to the German command. His account was that Kitchener was "[killed] because of his ability" as it was feared he would help the tsarist Russian Army to recover.[116]

Frederick Joubert Duquesne, a Boer soldier and spy, claimed that he had assassinated Kitchener after an earlier attempt to kill him in Cape Town failed.[117] He was arrested and court-martialled in Cape Town and sent to the penal colony of Bermuda, but managed to escape to the U.S.[118] MI5 confirmed that Duquesne was "a German intelligence officer ... involved in a series of acts of sabotage against British shipping in South American waters during the [First World] war";[119] he was wanted for: "murder on the high seas, the sinking and burning of British ships, the burning of military stores, warehouses, coaling stations, conspiracy, and the falsification of Admiralty documents."[120]

Duquesne's story was that he returned to Europe, posed as the Russian Duke Boris Zakrevsky in 1916, and joined Kitchener in Scotland.[121] While on board HMS Hampshire with Kitchener, Duquesne signalled a German submarine that then sank the cruiser, and was rescued by the submarine, later being awarded the Iron Cross for his efforts.[121] Duquesne was later apprehended and tried by the authorities in the U.S. for insurance fraud, but managed to escape again.[122]

In the Second World War, he ran a German spy ring in the United States until he was caught by the FBI in what became the biggest roundup of spies in U.S. history: the Duquesne Spy Ring.[123] Coincidentally, Kitchener's brother was to die in office in Bermuda in 1912, and his nephew, Major H.H. Hap Kitchener, who had married a Bermudian,[124][125] purchased (with a legacy left to him by his uncle) Hinson's Island, part of the former Prisoner of War camp from which Duquesne had escaped, after the First World War as the location of his home and business.[126][127][128]

Legacy

Kitchener is officially remembered in a chapel on the north-west corner of St. Paul's Cathedral in London, near the main entrance, where a memorial service was held in his honour.[129]

In Canada, the city of Berlin, Ontario, named in respect to a large German immigrant settler population, was officially renamed Kitchener on 1 September 1916.[130]

Since 1970, the opening of new records has led historians to rehabilitate Kitchener's reputation to some extent. Robin Neillands, for instance, notes that Kitchener consistently rose in ability as he was promoted.[131] Some historians now praise his strategic vision in the First World War, especially his laying the groundwork for the expansion of munitions production and his central role in the raising of the British army in 1914 and 1915, providing a force capable of meeting Britain's continental commitment.[2]

His commanding image, appearing on recruiting posters demanding "Your country needs you!", remains recognised and parodied in popular culture.[132]

Memorials

Image
Kitchener Memorial at Marwick Head on Mainland, Orkney

• As a British soldier who was lost at sea in the First World War and has no known grave, Kitchener is commemorated on the Commonwealth War Graves Commission's Hollybrook Memorial at Southampton, Hampshire.[133]
• Blue plaques have been erected to mark where Kitchener lived in Westminster[134] and at Broome Park near Canterbury.[135]
• The NW chapel of All Souls at St. Paul's Cathedral, London, not normally open to visitors, was rededicated the Kitchener Memorial in 1925.[129] The memorial is however clearly visible from the main entrance lobby. The very dignified recumbent white marble figure was designed by Detmar Blow.[136]
• A month after his death, the Lord Kitchener National Memorial Fund was set up by the Lord Mayor of London to honour his memory. It was used to aid casualties of the war, both practically and financially; following the war's end, the fund was used to enable university educations for soldiers, ex-soldiers, their sons and their daughters, a function it continues to perform today.[137] A Memorial Book of tributes and remembrances from Kitchener's peers, edited by Sir Hedley Le Bas, was printed to benefit the fund.[138]
• The Lord Kitchener Memorial Homes in Chatham, Kent, were built with funds from public subscription following Kitchener's death. A small terrace of cottages, they are used to provide affordable rented accommodation for servicemen and women who have seen active service or their widows and widowers.[139]
• A statue of the Earl mounted on a horse is on Khartoum Road (near Fort Amherst) in Chatham, Kent.[140][141]
• The Kitchener Memorial on Mainland, Orkney, is on the cliff edge at Marwick Head, near the spot where Kitchener died at sea. It is a square, crenelated stone tower and bears the inscription: "This tower was raised by the people of Orkney in memory of Field Marshal Earl Kitchener of Khartoum on that corner of his country which he had served so faithfully nearest to the place where he died on duty. He and his staff perished along with the officers and nearly all the men of HMS Hampshire on 5 June 1916."[142][143]
• In the early 1920s, a road on a new council estate in the Kates Hill area of Dudley, Worcestershire (now West Midlands) was named Kitchener Road in honour of Lord Kitchener.[144]
• The east window of the chancel at St George's Church, Eastergate, West Sussex has stained glass commemorating Kitchener.[145]
• In December 2013, the Royal Mint announced their plans to mint commemorative two-pound coins in 2014 featuring Lord Kitchener's "Call to Arms" on the reverse.[146]
• A memorial cross for Lord Kitchener was unveiled at St Botolph's church in 1916 (near Liverpool Street station), perhaps one of the first memorials of the First World War in England.[147]
• One of the three houses of the Rashtriya Indian Military College, Dehradun, India was named after Lord Kitchener.[148]
• Half-a-dozen local communities inscribed Kitchener's name on to the memorials they were already building to their own dead, alongside the names of ordinary soldiers and sailors who had answered his 1914 appeal for volunteers and would never return.[112]

Debate on Kitchener's sexuality

Some biographers have concluded that Kitchener was a latent or active homosexual. Writers who make the case for his homosexuality include Montgomery Hyde,[149] Ronald Hyam,[150] Denis Judd[151] and Frank Richardson.[152] Philip Magnus hints at homosexuality, though Lady Winifred Renshaw said that Magnus later said "I know I've got the man wrong, too many people have told me so."[153]

The proponents of the case point to Kitchener's friend Captain Oswald Fitzgerald, his "constant and inseparable companion", whom he appointed his aide-de-camp. They remained close until they met a common death on their voyage to Russia.[149] From his time in Egypt in 1892, he gathered around him a cadre of eager young and unmarried officers nicknamed "Kitchener's band of boys". He also avoided interviews with women, took a great deal of interest in the Boy Scout movement, and decorated his rose garden with four pairs of sculptured bronze boys. According to Hyam, "there is no evidence that he ever loved a woman".[150]

George Morrison reports that A E Wearne, the Reuters representative in Peking, remarked in 1909 that Kitchener had the "failing acquired by most of the Egyptian officers, a taste for buggery".[154]

According to A. N. Wilson his interests were not exclusively homosexual. "When the great field marshal stayed in aristocratic houses, the well informed young would ask servants to sleep across their bedroom threshold to impede his entrance. His compulsive objective was sodomy, regardless of their gender."[155]

Honours and decorations

Decorations


Image
Garter-encircled shield of Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

Image
Duffus Bros, platinum print/NPG P403. Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener of Khartoum, 1901
Kitchener's decorations included:


British

• Knight of the Order of the Garter (KG) – 3 June 1915[156]
• Knight of the Order of St Patrick (KP) – 19 June 1911[157]
• Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) – 15 November 1898[158] (KCB – 17 November 1896;[159] CB – 8 November 1889[160])
• Member of the Order of Merit (OM) – 12 July 1902[58][161]
• Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India (GCSI) – 25 June 1909[162]
• Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) – 29 November 1900[163] (KCMG – 12 February 1894;[164] CMG – 6 August 1886[165])
• Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE) – 1 January 1908[166]

Foreign

• Order of Osmanieh (Ottoman Empire) first class – 7 December 1896[167] (second class – 30 April 1894;[168] third class – 11 June 1885[169])
• Order of the Medjidie (Ottoman Empire) first class – 18 November 1893[170] (second class – 18 June 1888[171])

Honorary regimental appointments

• Honorary Colonel, Scottish Command Telegraph Companies (Army Troops, Royal Engineers) – 1898[172]
• Honorary Colonel, East Anglian Divisional Engineers, Royal Engineers – 1901[172]
• Honorary Colonel, 5th (Militia) Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers – 11 June 1902[173]
• Honorary Colonel, 4th, later 6th Battalion, Royal Scots – 1905[172]
• Colonel Commandant, Royal Engineers – 1906[172]
• Honorary Colonel, 3rd (Special Reserve) Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers – 1908[172]
• Honorary Colonel, 7th Gurkha Rifles – 1908[172]
• Honorary Colonel, 1st County of London Yeomanry – 1910[172]
• Regimental Colonel, Irish Guards – 1914[172]

Honorary degrees and offices

• Freedom of the borough, Southampton, 12 July 1902[58]
• Freedom of the borough, Ipswich, 22 September 1902[174][175]
• Freedom of the City, Sheffield, 30 September 1902.[176]
• Freedom of the borough, Chatham, 4 October 1902[177]
• Honorary Freedom of the City of Liverpool, 11 October 1902[178]
• Honorary Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers[179]
• Honorary Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Grocers, 1 August 1902.[180]

See also

• Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan – a reconquest of territory lost by the Khedives of Egypt in 1884 and 1885 during the Mahdist War
• Frances Parker – niece and a New Zealand-born British suffragette
• I Was Lord Kitchener's Valet – a clothing boutique which achieved fame in 1960s "Swinging London"
• Kitchener's Army – an all-volunteer army formed in the United Kingdom from 1914
• Kitchener bun – a type of sweet pastry made and sold in South Australia
• Kitchener, Ontario – Canadian city renamed from Berlin after Kitchener's death
• Scapegoats of the Empire – a book by George Witton
• Statue of the Earl Kitchener, London

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Sources

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• Victor Bonham-Carter (1963). Soldier True: The Life and Times of Field-Marshal Sir William Robertson. London: Frederick Muller Limited.
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• Faught, C. Brad (2016). Kitchener: Hero and Anti-Hero. London and New York, I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1784533502.
• Goldstone, Patricia (2007). Aaronsohn's Maps: The Untold Story of the Man Who Might Have Created Peace in the Middle East. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0151011698.
• De Groot, Gerard (1988). Douglas Haig 1861–1928. Larkfield, Maidstone: Unwin Hyman. ISBN 978-0044401926.
• Hankey, Lord (1961). The Supreme Command: 1914–1918. George Allen & Unwin. ASIN B006HSKXCE.
• Heathcote, Tony (1999). The British Field Marshals 1736–1997. Barnsley (UK): Pen & Sword. ISBN 0-85052-696-5.
• Holmes, Richard (2004). The Little Field Marshal: A Life of Sir John French. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84614-0.
• Hull, Edward (1885). Mount Seir, Sinai and Western Palestine. Richard Bentley and sons. ISBN 978-1402189852.
• Hunter, Archie (1996). Kitchener's Sword-arm: Life and Campaigns of General Sir Archibald Hunter. Spellmount Publishers. ISBN 978-1873376546.
• Hyam, Ronald (1991). Empire and Sexuality: British Experience. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0719025051.
• Hyde, Montgomery (1972). The Other Love: An Historical and Contemporary Survey of Homosexuality in Britain. London: Mayflower Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0434359028.
• Irvine, James (2016). HMS Hampshire: a Century of Myths and Mysteries Unravelled, Irvine, Budge, Callister, Grieve, Heath, Hollinrake, Johnson, Kermode, Lowrey, Muir, Turton and Wade. Orkney Heritage Society. ISBN 978-0953594573.
• Judd, Denis (2011). Empire: The British Imperial Experience from 1765 to the Present. I B Tauris Academic. ISBN 978-1848859951.
• Korieh, Chima J.; Njoku, Raphael Chijioke (2007). Missions, States, and European Expansion in Africa. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415955591.
• Liddell Hart, Basil (1930). A History of the World War. Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-333-58261-6.
• MacLaren, Roy (1978). Canadians on the Nile, 1882–1898: Being the Adventures of the Voyageurs on the Khartoum Relief Expedition and Other Exploits. University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 978-0774800945.
• Magnus, Philip (1958). Kitchener: Portrait of an Imperialist. New York: E.P. Dutton. ASIN B0007IWHCY.
• Massie, Robert (2012). Dreadnought: Britain, Germany, and the Coming of the Great War. New York:Random House. ISBN 9780307819932.
• Neillands, Robin (2006). The Death of Glory: the Western Front 1915. London: John Murray. ISBN 978-0-7195-6245-7.
• Pakenham, Thomas (1979). The Boer War. Jonathan Ball Publishers. ISBN 978-0868500461.
• Pigott, Peter (2009). Canada In Sudan War Without Borders. Toronto: Dundurn Press. ISBN 978-1-55002-849-2.
• Pollock, John (2001). Kitchener: Architect of Victory, Artisan of Peace. Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-0829-8.
• Reid, Walter (2006). Architect of Victory: Douglas Haig. Birlinn Ltd, Edinburgh. ISBN 1-84158-517-3.
• Richardson, Major-General Frank M. (1981). Mars Without Venus. Imprint unknown. ISBN 978-0851581484.
• Silberman, Neil Asher (1982). Digging for God and Country: Exploration, Archaeology and the Secret Struggle for the Holy Land 1799–1917. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-51139-5.
• Terraine, John (1960). Mons, The Retreat to Victory. Wordsworth Military Library, London. ISBN 1-84022-240-9.
• Tuchman, Barbara (1962). August 1914. Constable & Co. ISBN 978-0-333-30516-4.
• Urban, Mark (2005). Generals: Ten British Generals Who Changed the World. London: Faber & Feber. ISBN 978-0571224876.
• Wilson, A. N. (2003). The Victorians. Arrow Books. ISBN 978-0099451860.
• Wood, Clement (1932). The man who killed Kitchener; the life of Fritz Joubert Duquesne. New York: William Faro, inc. ASIN B0006ALPOO.
• Woodward, David R. (1998). Field Marshal Sir William Robertson. Westport Connecticut & London: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-95422-6.

Further reading

• Arthur, Sir George (1920). Life of Lord Kitchener. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1616405656.
• Cassar, George H. (1977). Kitchener: Architect of Victory. London: Kimber. ISBN 978-0718303358.
• Conder, C. R.; Kitchener, H. H. (1881–1885). E. H. Palmer; W. Besant (eds.). Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of Topography, Orography, Hydrography and Archaeology (3 vols). London: Palestine Exploration Fund. OCLC 1894216.
• Fortescue, Sir John William (1931). Kitchener in Following the Drum. Edinburgh: Blackwood & Sons. pp. 185–250. ASIN B000X9RY9S.
• Germains, Victor Wallace (1925). The Truth about Kitchener. John Lane/Bodley Head. ASIN B000XBC3W4.
• Hodson, Yolande (1997). Kitchener, Horatio Herbert In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East Ed. Eric M. Meyers. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 300–301. ISBN 0-19-511217-2.
• Hutchison, G.S. (1943). Kitchener: The Man; With a foreword by Field Marshal Lord Birdwood. No imprint.
• King, Peter (1986). The Viceroy's Fall: How Kitchener Destroyed Curzon. Sidgwick & Jackson. ISBN 0-283-99313-8.
• McCormick, Donald (1959). The Mystery of Lord Kitchener's Death. Putnam. ASIN B0000CK9BU.
• Royle, Trevor (1985). The Kitchener Enigma. M. Joseph. ISBN 978-0718123857.
• Simkins, Peter (1988). Kitchener's Army. Pen & Sword. ISBN 978-1844155859.
• Warner, Philip (2006). Kitchener: The Man Behind the Legend. New Ed edition. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-36720-6.

External links

• Works by or about Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener at Internet Archive
• Works by Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
• Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl Kitchener
• Kitchener Scholars' Fund
• The Melik Society
• National Portrait Gallery 112 portraits
• Lord Kitchener at Project Gutenberg A short biography written in 1917 by G. K. Chesterton
• Lord Kitchener: Active Soldier, Active Freemason
• Newspaper clippings about Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Part 1 of 2

Order of the Rising Sun
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/30/19

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Image
Order of the Rising Sun
Grand Cordon badge and sash
Awarded by the Emperor of Japan
Type Order
Awarded for long and/or especially meritorious civil or military service
Status Currently constituted
Sovereign His Imperial Majesty The Emperor
Grades 1st through 8th Class (1875–2003)
Since 2003:
Grand Cordon
Gold and Silver Star (Rays, Principal Grade)
Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon (Cordon, Middle Grade)
Gold Rays with Rosette (Cordon, Junior Grade)
Gold and Silver Rays (Double Rays)
Silver Rays (Single Ray)
Precedence
Next (higher) Order of the Paulownia Flowers
Next (lower) Order of the Sacred Treasure

http://rapeutation.com/aorderrissunwik.1b.png
US Navy Admiral Dennis C. Blair being presented the badge and sash of the order (2005).

The Order of the Rising Sun (旭日章 Kyokujitsu-shō) is a Japanese order, established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji. The Order was the first national decoration awarded by the Japanese government,[1] created on 10 April 1875 by decree of the Council of State.[2] The badge features rays of sunlight from the rising sun. The design of the Rising Sun symbolizes energy as powerful as the rising sun[3] in parallel with the "rising sun" concept of Japan ("Land of the Rising Sun").

The order is awarded to those who have made distinguished achievements in international relations, promotion of Japanese culture, advancements in their field, development in welfare or preservation of the environment.[4] Prior to the end of World War II, it was also awarded for exemplary military service. Beginning in 2003, the two lowest rankings (7th and 8th classes) for the Order of the Rising Sun were abolished, with the highest degree becoming a separate order known as the Order of the Paulownia Flowers, with the single rank of Grand Cordon.[5]

While it is the third highest order bestowed by the Japanese government, it is however generally the highest ordinarily conferred order. The highest Japanese order, the Order of the Chrysanthemum, is reserved for heads of state or royalty, while the second highest order, the Order of the Paulownia Flowers, is mostly reserved for politicians.

The modern version of this honour has been conferred on non-Japanese recipients beginning in 1981 (although several foreigners were given the honor before World War II); and women were awarded the Order starting in 2003 (previously, women were awarded the Order of the Precious Crown).[6] The awarding of the Order is administered by the Decoration Bureau of the Cabinet Office headed by the Japanese Prime Minister. It is awarded in the name of the Emperor and can be awarded posthumously.

Classes

The Order was awarded in nine classes until 2003, when the Grand Cordon with Paulownia Flowers was made a separate order, and the lowest two classes were abolished. Since then, it has been awarded in six classes. Conventionally, a diploma is prepared to accompany the insignia of the order, and in some rare instances, the personal signature of the Emperor will have been added. As an illustration of the wording of the text, a translation of a representative 1929 diploma says:

By the grace of Heaven, Emperor of Japan, seated on the throne occupied by the same dynasty from time immemorial,

We confer the Second Class of the Imperial Order of Meiji upon Henry Waters Taft, a citizen of the United States of America and a director of the Japan Society of New York, and invest him with the insignia of the same class of the Order of the Double Rays of the Rising Sun, in expression of the good will which we entertain towards him.

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hand and caused the Grand Seal of State to be affixed at the Imperial Palace, Tokyo, this thirteenth day of the fifth month of the fourth year of Shōwa, corresponding to the 2,589th year from the accession to the throne of Emperor Jimmu."[7]


Insignia

The star for the Grand Cordon and Second Class is a silver star of eight points, each point having three alternating silver rays; the central emblem is identical to the badge. It is worn on the left chest for the Grand Cordon, on the right chest for the 2nd Class.

The badge for the Grand Cordon to Sixth Classes is an eight-pointed badge bearing a central red enamelled sun disc, with gilt points (1st–4th Classes), with four gilt and four silver points (5th Class), or with silver points (6th Class); each point comprises three white enamelled rays. It is suspended from three enamelled paulownia leaves (not chrysanthemum leaves as the Decoration Bureau page claims) on a ribbon in white with red border stripes, worn as a sash from the right shoulder for the Grand Cordon, as a necklet for the 2nd and 3rd Classes and on the left chest for the 4th to 6th Classes (with a rosette for the 4th Class).

The badge for the Seventh and Eighth Classes consisted of a silver medal in the shape of three paulownia leaves, enamelled for the 7th Class and plain for the 8th Class. Both were suspended on a ribbon, again in white with red border stripes, and worn on the left chest. Both classes were abolished in 2003 and replaced by the Order of the Paulownia Flowers, a single-class order that now ranks above the Order of the Rising Sun.

Notable recipients

1st Class, Grand Cordon


• V. Krishnamurthy, 2009
• Ashwani Kumar, 2017
• Rear Admiral Ali Osman Pasha, 1890
• Sultan Ibrahim (1873–1959), 1934
• Edmund Allenby, 1921[8]
• Thamir Ghadhban, 2016[9]
• Karu Jayasuriya, 2016
• James F. Amos, 2014[10]
• Michael Armacost, 2007[11]
• Richard Armitage, 2015
• Pridi Banomyong (1900–1983)[12]
• Mahathir Mohamad, 1991
• Arthur Barrett, 1921[13]
• Edmund Barton (1849–1920), 1905[14]
• Carol Bellamy, 2006[15]
• Felix von Bendemann, 1906[16]
• Abdelmalek Benhabyles, 2012.[17]
• Charles Reed Bishop (1822–1915)[18]
• Sepp Blatter, 2009[19][20]
• Gustave Emile Boissonade (1825–1910), 1909
• Sydney Brenner (1927–), 2017[21]
• Laurens Jan Brinkhorst, 2009[20][22]
• Arleigh Burke (1901–1996)[23]
• Erwin Bälz (1849–1913), 1905
• George W. Casey Jr. 2010[24]
• Krasae Chanawongse, 2004[25]
• Dick Cheney, 2018
• Helen Clark, 2017[26]
• James Wheeler Davidson (1872–1933), 1896
• Kemal Derviş, 2009[27][28]
• Malcolm Fraser, 2006[3]
• Jerome Isaac Friedman, 2016
• Sir Stephen Gomersall KCMG, 2015[29]
• Hermann Göring (1893–1946)
• António Guterres, 2002[30]
• Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX (1912–1988)
• John Hamre, 2016
• Kenzaburo Hara (1907–2004)
• Harry B. Harris Jr., 2018
• Dennis Hastert, 2010[31]
• Bob Hawke, 2012[32]
• Soichiro Honda, 1991
• John Howard, 2013[33]
• Masaru Ibuka (1908–1997)[34]
• Daniel Inouye, 2000[35]
• Henry Jackson (1855–1929)[36]
• S. Jayakumar, 2012[37]
• Karu Jayasuriya (1940–), 2016
• Anerood Jugnauth, 1988[38]
• Henk Kamp, 2014[39]
• Ginandjar Kartasasmita, 2008[40]
• Bert Koenders, 2014[39]
• Jorge Kosmas Sifaki 2014
• Sir John Kotelawala (4 April 1895 – 2 October 1980), 1954
• Komura Jutarō (1855–1911)[41]
• Lee Hsien Loong (1952–), 2016[42]
• Abhakara Kiartivongse[43]
• Lee Kuan Yew (1923–2015), 1967[44]
• Curtis LeMay (1906–1990) 1964[45]
• Wangari Maathai, 2009[20][46]
• Douglas MacArthur (1880–1964)[47]
• Sir John Major, 2012
• John McCain, 2018[48]
• John McEwen, 1973[49]
• Franz-Michael Skjold Mellbin, 2011
• Robert Menzies (1894–1978), 1973[50]
• Norman Yoshio Mineta (1931–), 2007[51]
• Amina C. Mohamed, 2017 [52]
• Ernest Moniz, 2017[53]
• Ivan Mrkić, 2018[54]
• Hendrik Pieter Nicolaas Muller (1859–1941)
• A. M. Nair, alias "Nair-San"
• Peter Pace, 2007[55]
• Andrew Peacock, 2017[56]
• Nancy Pelosi, 2015
• William Perry, 2002[57]
• Herbert Plumer (1857–1932)
• Józef Piłsudski, 1928[58]
• Plaek Phibunsongkhram, 1942
• Edward A. Rice Jr.[59]
• Donald Rumsfeld, 2015
• Eishiro Saito, in 1992[60]
• Klaus Schwab, 2013
• Abid Sharifov, 2016
• Shoichiro Toyoda, 2002[61]
• Chea Sim, 2013[62]
• Dr. Manmohan Singh, 2014[63]
• Edward Śmigły-Rydz, (1886–1941)[64]
• Takeshita Isamu (1869–1949), 1920
• Strobe Talbott, 2016
• Her Majesty Queen Te Atairangikaahu of New Zealand (1931–2006), 1970
• John Anthony Cecil Tilley (1869–1952)[65]
• Tokugawa Yoshinobu (1837–1913), 1908[66]
• Goh Chok Tong, 2011[67]
• Gough Whitlam, 2006[3]
• Sir John Whitehead GCMG CVO, (1932–2013), 2006[68]
• Cesar Virata, 2016
• Tengku Ahmad Rithauddeen, 2018[69]
• Võ Hồng Phúc, 2012[70]
• Wataru Kubo, 2001[71]
• Jay Rockefeller, 2013[72]
• Robert Gates, 2017 [73]
• Condoleezza Rice, 2017[74]
• Sir John Tilley (diplomat) (1869-1952), 1927 & 1928[75]

2nd Class, Gold and Silver Star

• Mohammad Hossein Adeli, 2014[76]
• Momofuku Ando (1910–2007), 2002[77]
• Jagdish Bhagwati, 2006[78]
• Arden L. Bement, Jr., 2009[20][22]
• Henryka Bochniarz, 2010[79]
• Louis Bols (1867–1930), 1921[8]
• Gustave Emile Boissonade (1825–1910), 1876[80]
• Donald Prentice Booth (1902–1993), 1961[81][82]
• Georges Hilaire Bousquet (1846–1937), 1898[83]
• Jules Brunet (1838–1911)
• Horace Capron (1804–1885), 1884[84]
• Chang Yung-fa, 2012[85]
• Rita R. Colwell, 2005[86]
• William Douglas Crowder, 2008[87]
• Gerald Curtis, 2005[88]
• Marzuki Darusman, 2017[89][90]
• Sir Joseph Dimsdale (1849–1902), 1902[91]
• Kiin Donarudo, 1993[92]
• Hugh Elles (1880–1945)[93]
• Bill Frenzel, 2000[77][94]
• Thamir Ghadhban, 2016[9]
• Thomas Blake Glover (1838–1911), 1908[95]
• William Reginald Hall (1870–1943)[36]
• Lionel Halsey (1872–1946)[36]
• Michael Kirby, 2017[89][90][96]
• Michał Kleiber, 2012[97]
• David C. Knapp, (1927–2010)[98]
• Tommy Koh, 2009[99]
• Jeffrey Koo, 2012[85]
• George Trumbull Ladd (1842–1921)[100]
• Cecil Lambert (1864–1928)[36]
• Tsung-Dao Lee 2007[101]
• Charles LeGendre (1830–1899), 1874[102]
• Lilia B. de Lima, 2006[103]
• Predrag Filipov, 2019[104]
• William Flynn Martin, 2018[105]
• Connie Morella (1931–), 2016[106]
• Riccardo Muti, 2016[107]
• Thottuvelil Krishna Pillai Ayappan Nair 2015
• Hideyo Noguchi (1876–1928), 1928[108]
• George R. Packard 2007[109]
• Jerzy Pomianowski[110]
• Randles, Sir John Scurrah, 1875-1945
• Chintamani Nagesa Ramachandra Rao, 2015[111]
• Rein Raud, 2011[112]
• Johannis de Rijke (1842–1913)[113]
• Wilbur L. Ross (1937–), 2015[114]
• Vsevolod Rudnev (1855–1913), 1907[115]
• Jacob Schiff (1847–1920), 1907[116]
• William Francis Sempill (1893–1965)[117][118]
• N. K. Singh (2016)[119]
• Jouko Skinnari, 2011[120]
• E. Sreedharan (1932–), 2013[121]
• Wendell M. Stanley (1904–1971), 1966[122]
• Michael Ira Sovern 2003[123]
• Sayidiman Suryohadiprojo [id], 2012[124]
• Washington SyCip, 2017[125]
• Henry W. Taft (1859–1945), 1929[7]
• Frederick Charles Tudor Tudor (1863–1946)[36]
• Charles Vaughan-Lee (1867–1928)[36]
• John Waldron (1909–1975) 1971[126]
• Bryon Wilfert, 2011[127]
• Ernst-Ludwig Winnacker, 2009[20]
• Richard J. Wood, 2010[128]
• Philip Yeo, 2007[129]
• Jaime Zóbel de Ayala, 2018[130]
• José Manuel Entrecanales [es], 2018[131]
• indian foreign diplomat shyam saran (2019)

3rd Class, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon

• James Curtis Hepburn (1815–1911)[132]
• Gustave Eiffel (1832–1923)
• José Luis Ceacero Inguanzo, 1886
• George Trumbull Ladd (1842–1921)[133]
• John Charles Hoad (1856–1911), 1906[134]
• Kanō Jigorō (1860–1938)[135]
• Otto Hermann Kahn (1867–1934)[136]
• John Milne (1850–1913)[137][138]
• Percival Hall-Thompson (1874—1950)[139]
• Miles Wedderburn Lampson (1880–1964)[140]
• William Elliot Griffis (1843–1928), 1926[141]
• David Bowman Schneder, 1936[142]
• T. Wayland Vaughan (1870–1952), 1940[143]
• István Ujszászy (1894–1948), 1942[144]
• Edmund Blunden (1896–1974), 1963
• Kyuzo Mifune (1883–1965), 1964[145]
• Ichimatsu Tanaka (1895–1983), 1967
• Shinichi Suzuki (1898–1998), circa 1970[146]
• Yanosuke Hirai (1902–1986), 1972
• Jiro Horikoshi (1903–1982), 1973[147]
• Edward Seidensticker, 1975[148]
• Taiichi Ohno, 1982[149]
• Mahdi Elmandjra, 1986[150][circular reference]
• Go Seigen aka Wu Qing Yuan (1914–2014), 1987[151]
• Norman Macrae (1923–2010), 1988[152]
• Earl Miner (1926–2004)[153]
• Joseph K.H. Uy, 1991.[154]
• Ian Nish, 1991[155]
• Andrzej Wajda, 1995[156]
• Edwin McClellan (1925–2009), 1998[157]
• Pyle, Kenneth B. 1999[158][159]
• Peter Drysdale, 2001[160]
• Rustum Roy, 2002[161]
• Susumu Honjo, 2003[162]
• John Howes, (1924–2017), 2003[163]
• Harue Kitamura, 2004[164]
• Robert Garfias, 2005[165]
• Judit Hidasi, 2005[166]
• Kirsti Koch Christensen, 2006[167]
• Willy Vande Walle, 2006[168]
• Jacob Raz, 2006[169]
• Stanisław Filipek, 2006[170]
• Carol Gluck, 2006[171]
• Jochem P. Hanse, 2007[172]
• Patrick Lennox Tierney, 2007[173]
• Charles Wolf, Jr, 2007[174]
• Kusuma Karunaratne[175]
• David Rowe-Beddoe, Baron Rowe-Beddoe, 2008[176]
• Edward Gage Nelson, 2008[177]
• Jerzy Nowacki, 2008[178]
• Emiko "Emily" Sano, 2008[179][180][181]
• Susan Pharr, 2008[182]
• John Powles, 2008[183][184]
• Royall Tyler, 2008[181]
• Setsuko Matsunaga Nishi, 2009[20][185]
• James E. Auer, 2009[186]
• Clint Eastwood, 2009[20][187]
• Edwin Cranston, 2009[20][188]
• Umberto Pineschi, 2009[20][189]
• R.J. Zwi Werblowsky, 2009[190]
• David Russell, 2010[191]
• John O'Conor, 2011[192]
• Ben Nighthorse Campbell, 2011[193]
• Albert Diamond Cohen, 2011[127]
• Jack Fujimoto, 2011[194]
• Kuo-Hsiung Lee, 2011[195]
• Lydia Yu-Jose, 2012[196]
• Muhammad Nurul Islam (b. 1943) (2012)
• Romuald Huszcza, 2012[197]
• Stephen Ira Katz, 2012[198]
• Ivan Bondarenko, 2012[199]
• William Forbes-Sempill, 19th Lord Sempill[200]
• George Tanabe, Jr., 2013[201]
• Richard Bowring, 2013[202]
• Matthew H. Molloy, 2013[202][203]
• Rust Macpherson Deming, 2013[204]
• Kent E. Calder, 2014[205]
• Michael Donnelly, 2014[206]
• Carlos Rubio López de la Llave, 2014.[207]
• Dr. Nghiem Vu Khai, 2014.[208]
• Craig Agena, 2014[209]
• Peter O'Malley, 2015[210]
• Keiichi Ishizaka, 2015[211]
• Dennis M. Ogawa, 2016[212]
• Paul Magnette, 2016
• Yves Leterme, 2016
• Rudy Demotte, 2016
• Rudi Vervoort, 2016
• Raaj Kumar Sah, 2017[213][214][215]
• Paul Watanabe, 2017[216][217]
• Dr. Susumu Nisizaki, 2018[218]
• John Mark Ramseyer, 2018[219]
• Ronald P. Dore[220]
• Tan Sri Dr. Ahmad Tajuddin Ali[citation needed]
• Sadia Rashid, 2019[221]
• Robert Huey, 2019[222]

4th Class, Gold Rays with Rosette

• Charles Von Loewenfeldt, 1987[223]
• Kenji Ekuan, 2000[224]
• Toshiko Akiyoshi, 2004[225]
• Boris Akunin, 2009[226]
• Martha Argerich, 2005[227]
• Andrej Bekeš, 2008[228]
• Henry Pike Bowie, 1909[229]
• James R. Brandon, 1994[230]
• William Penn Brooks, 1888[231]
• David Cope, 2012
• Willard G. Clark (1930–2015), 1991[232]
• Bogna Barbara Dziechciaruk-Maj, 2009[233]
• William Elliot Griffis, 1843–1928[141]
• Glen Gondo, 2013.[234]
• Steven Heine, 2007[235]
• Asao Hirano, 2001[236]
• William Imbrie, 1909[237]
• Randall Sidney Jones, 2015[238]
• Rena Kanokogi, 2008[239]
• Kihachirō Kawamoto, 1995[240]
• Keisuke Kinoshita (1912–1998), 1984[241]
• Włodzimierz Kwieciński, 2012[242]
• Tommy Lasorda, 2008[243]
• Alfred Majewicz, 2002[244]
• Leiji Matsumoto, 2010[245]
• Hazel McCallion, 2014[246]
• Frank A. Miller, 1929[247]
• Shiro Floyd Mori, 2012[248]
• Kent Nagano, 2008[249]
• Hideyo Noguchi (1876–1928), 1915[250]
• David Bowman Schneder, 1917[251]
• Krystyna Okazaki, 2007[11]
• Takao Saito, 2010[252]
• Frederik L. Schodt, 2009[20][253]
• Dr. Manmohan Singh, 2007[254]
• George Shima, 1864–1926[255]
• Tatsuzo Shimaoka (1919–2007), 1999[256]
• Joseph Bower Siddall (1840–1904) 1909[257]
• George Takei, 2004[258]
• Mohammad Hatta (1902–1980) 1943
• Masanobu Tsuji (1902–1961), 1942[259]
• Morihei Ueshiba (1883–1969) 1964[260]
• H. Paul Varley, 1966[261]
• Teruaki Yamagishi, 2008[262]
• Sadao Watanabe, 2005[263]
• Sukarno ( 1901–1970) 1943
• Reiko Hayama [fr] ( 1933–....) 2011
• George Kerr (judoka), 2010[264]
• Charles B. Doleac, Esq., 2011[265]
• Arvydas Ališauskas, 2012[266]
• Rokusaburo Michiba, 2007[267]
• Bobby Charlton, 2012[268]
• The Ventures, 2010[269]
• Dragan Stojković, 2015[270]
• William Scott Wilson, 2015[271]
• Daniel Ost, 2015[272]
• Ferran Adrià. 2015[273]
• Hank Aaron, 2016[274]
• Ivica Osim, 2016[275]
• Masaya Nakamura (1925–2017), 2007[276]
• Myint Wai, 2014[277]
• Dr Aung Kyaw, 2014[277]
• Stephen McEnally, 2017[277]
• Charles Aznavour, 2018
• Kenneth Oye, 2018[278]
• Kenneth H. DeHoff,[279] 2018[280]
• Edwina Palmer, 2018[281]
• Ted Goossen 2018[282]
• David Hughes, 2018[283]
• Raymond S. Uno, 2014[284]
• Carlos Aquino, 2019[285]
• Liao I-chiu (2014)[286]

5th Class, Gold and Silver Rays

• Vincenzo Ragusa (1841–1927), 1884
• George Geddie (1869–1961), 1907[287]
• Rudolf Teusler (1876–1934)[288]
• Kowalewski, Jan (1892–1965), 1923[289]
• Major Douglas Estment Randall, MC (1891–1926), 1925[290][291]
• Kenzo Mori (1914–2007)[292]
• Hironori Ōtsuka (1892–1982), 1966[293]
• Steere Noda, 1968[294]
• Kiyoshi Nishiyama (1893–1983), 1977[295]
• Shōshin Nagamine (1907–1997)
• Yoshizawa, Akira (1911–2005), 1983[296]
• James Takemori (1926–2015), 2004[297]
• Dato' Sri Lee Ee Hoe, 2005[298]
• Shūgorō Nakazato, 2007
• Major Philip Malins MBE MC, 2010[299]
• Ronald Stewart Watt, 2010[269]
• Frances Hashimoto, 2012[300]
• Maki Hiroyuki Miyahara, 2011[301]
• Soleiman Mehdizadeh, 2012[302]
• Jun Noguchi, 2011[303]
• Seiichi Tanaka, 2013[304]
• Low Thian Seng, 2015[305]
• Robert Tadashi Banno, Q.C., 2016[306]
• Mary-Grace Browning, MBE, 2016[307]
• Tom Curtin, 2016[308]
• Vytautas Dumčius, 2016[309]
• Istvan Pinczès, 2016[310]
• Suki Terada Ports, 2016[311]
• Heidi Potter, 2016[277]
• Garrett Serikawa (1932-2019), 2016[312]
• Jalil Sultanov, 2016, director of the Museum of Japanese Internees in Tashkent, Uzbekistan[313][314]
• Marvin Tokayer, 2016[315]
• Dick Beyer, 2017
• Toshihiro Hamano, 2017[316]
• Doreen Simmons, 2017[317]
• Donald A. Wood, 2017[318]
• James F. Hettinger, 2018[319]
• Elise Wessels, 2019[320]

6th Class, Silver Rays

• Henry Hajimu Fujii (1886–1976), 1971[321]
• Bolesław Orliński, 1926[170]
• Fudeko Reekie, 2013[322]
• John Wilson (Captain) (1851–1899), 1895

7th Class, Green Paulownia Leaves Medal

In 2003, the 7th and 8th levels – named for leaves of the Paulownia tree, long used as a mon (emblem) for the highest levels of Japanese society – were moved to a new and distinct order, the single-class Order of the Paulownia Flowers.[5]

• Tetsuzō Iwamoto 1942
• Leonard Kubiak 1926[323]

8th Class, White Paulownia Leaves Medal

In 2003, the 7th and 8th levels – named for leaves of the Paulownia tree, long used as a mon (emblem) for the highest levels of Japanese society – were moved to a new and distinct order, the single-class Order of the Paulownia Flowers.[5]

Class unknown

• Aung, San (1915–1947)[77]
• Beneš, Edvard (1884–1948), 1928
• Ralph T. Browning (1941–2018)[324]
• Burzagli, Ernesto (1873–1944), 1906[325]
• Craig, Albert M. (1988)[326]
• de Bary, William Theodore (1993)[327]
• Eichelberger, Robert Lawrence (1886–1961)[328]
• Ellis, Alfred John (b. 1915), 1989[329]
• Fortescue, Granville Roland (1875–1952)[330]
• Gibney, Frank B. (1976)[331]
• Józef Gieysztor[332]
• Grondijs, Louis (1878–1961)
• Hosoya, Judayu (1840–1907)
• Ibrahim, Sultan of Johor (1873–1959)
• Knott, Cargill G. (1856–1922), 1891[333]
• Wiesław Kotański, 1986[334]
• Kunz, George Frederick (1856–1932)
• Charles, Count of Limburg Stirum (1906–1989)
• Henryk Lipszyc, 1992[335]
• Macrae, Norman, 1988Macrae, Norman (1999). John Von Neumann: The Scientific Genius who Pioneered the Modern Computer, Game Theory, Nuclear Deterrence, and Much More. American Mathematical Society. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-8218-2676-8.</ref>
• McKenzie, Lionel W. (1995)
• Morrison, George F. (1867–1943)
• Musa Ghiatuddin Riayat Shah, Sultan of Selangor (1893–1955)
• Ozaki Yukio (1858–1954)[336]
• Paine, Godfrey (1871–1932), 1918[337]
• Patrick, Hugh Talbot 1994[338]
• Raymond, Rossiter W. (1840–1918)
• Takamine Hideo (1854–1910)
• Tokuda, Kip (1946–2013), 2012[339]
• Tsutakawa, George (1910–1997), 1874
• Wasson, James R. (1847–1923), 1874[340]
• Franciszek Ziejka [pl][341]
• Ivan Ivanovich Zarubin (1822–1902), 1881[342]
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