Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Sep 17, 2019 8:15 am

Walt Disney's World War II propaganda production
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/16/19

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DESPITE A PASSIONATE OPPOSITION to socialism and to any government meddling with free enterprise, Walt Disney relied on federal funds in the 1940s to keep his business afloat. The animators' strike had left the Disney Studio in a precarious financial condition. Disney began to seek government contracts - and those contracts were soon responsible for 90 percent of his studio's output. During World War II, Walt Disney produced scores of military training and propaganda films, including Food Will Win the War, High-Level Precision Bombing, and A Few Quick Facts About Venereal Disease. After the war, Disney continued to work closely with top military officials and military contractors, becoming America's most popular exponent of Cold War science. For audiences living in fear of nuclear annihilation, Walt Disney became a source of reassurance, making the latest technical advances seem marvelous and exciting. His faith in the goodness of American technology was succinctly expressed by the title of a film that the Disney Studio produced for Westinghouse Electric: The Dawn of Better Living.

Disney's passion for science found expression in "Tomorrowland," the name given to a section of his theme park and to segments of his weekly television show. Tomorrowland encompassed everything from space travel to the household appliances of the future, depicting progress as a relentless march toward greater convenience for consumers. And yet, from the very beginning, there was a dark side to this Tomorrowland. It celebrated technology without moral qualms. Some of the science it espoused later proved to be not so benign - and some of the scientists it promoted were unusual role models for the nation's children.

In the mid-1950s Wernher von Braun cohosted and helped produce a series of Disney television shows on space exploration. "Man in Space" and the other Tomorrowland episodes on the topic were enormously popular and fueled public support for an American space program. At the time, von Braun was the U.S. Army's leading rocket scientist. He had served in the same capacity for the German army during World War II. He had been an early and enthusiastic member of the Nazi party, as well as a major in the SS. At least 20,000 slave laborers, many of them Allied prisoners of war, died at Dora-Nordhausen, the factory where von Braun's rockets were built. Less than ten years after the liberation of Dora-Nordhausen, von Braun was giving orders to Disney animators and designing a ride at Disneyland called Rocket to the Moon. Heinz Haber, another key Tomorrowland adviser - and eventually the chief scientific consultant to Walt Disney Productions - spent much of World War II conducting research on high-speed, high-altitude flight for the Luftwaffe Institute for Aviation Medicine. In order to assess the risks faced by German air force pilots, the institute performed experiments on hundreds of inmates at the Dachau concentration camp near Munich. The inmates who survived these experiments were usually killed and then dissected. Haber left Germany after the war and shared his knowledge of aviation medicine with the U.S. Army Air Force. He later cohosted Disney's "Man in Space" with von Braun. When the Eisenhower administration asked Walt Disney to produce a show championing the civilian use of nuclear power, Heinz Haber was given the assignment. He hosted the Disney broadcast called "Our Friend the Atom" and wrote a popular children's book with the same title, both of which made nuclear fission seem fun, instead of terrifying. "Our Friend the Atom" was sponsored by General Dynamics, a manufacturer of nuclear reactors. The company also financed the atomic submarine ride at Disneyland's Tomorrowland.

The future heralded at Disneyland was one in which every aspect of American life had a corporate sponsor. Walt Disney was the most beloved children's entertainer in the country. He had unrivaled access to impressionable young minds - and other corporations, with other agendas to sell, were eager to come along for the ride. Monsanto built Disneyland's House of the Future, which was made of plastic. General Electric backed the Carousel of Progress, which featured an Audio-Animatronic housewife, standing in her futuristic kitchen, singing about "a great big beautiful tomorrow." Richfield Oil offered utopian fantasies about cars and a ride aptly named Autopia. "Here you leave Today," said the plaque at the entrance to Disneyland, "and enter the world of Yesterday, Tomorrow, and Fantasy."


-- Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal [EXCERPT], by Eric Schlosser


Between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, Walt Disney was involved in the production of propaganda films for the U.S. government. The widespread familiarity of Disney's productions benefited the U.S. government in producing pro-American war propaganda in an effort to increase support for the war.

Disney's involvement

Upon the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by the Axis-affiliated Empire of Japan on December 7, 1941, 500 United States Army troops moved in the next day to occupy Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California for the next eight months—the only Hollywood film studio under military occupation in history—as America began a massive build up to fight in World War II. The soldiers were stationed there to protect a nearby Lockheed aircraft plant from enemy air raids, convert parking garages into ammunition depots, and fixing equipment in large soundstages.[1] From there, Disney was approached with requests from the U.S. services to produce propaganda films.[2] The Navy was the first, and other branches of the government, including the Army Air Forces, the Department of Agriculture, and the Treasury Department, rapidly caught on to Disney’s creative approach to generating educational films, propaganda, and insignias.

During World War II, Disney made films for every branch of the United States Armed Forces and government.[3][4] This was accomplished through the use of animated graphics by means of expediting the intelligent mobilization of servicemen and civilians for the cause of the war. Over 90% of Disney employees were devoted to the production of training and propaganda films for the government.[3] Throughout the duration of the war, Disney produced over 400,000 feet of educational war films, most at cost, which is equal to 68 hours of continuous films. In 1943 alone, 204,000 feet of film was produced. [2]

As well as producing films for different government divisions from 1942 to 1943, Disney was asked to create animation for a series of pictures produced by Colonel Frank Capra for the U.S. Army.[2] This series included films such as Prelude to War and America goes to War. Although these films were originally intended for servicemen, they were released to theaters because of their popularity.


The Navy productions

The Navy first requested 90,000 feet of film to be ready in three months. The purpose of these films was to educate sailors on navigation tactics. This was a shock for Disney, as he was used to creating 27,000 feet of film in a year.[2]

The Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs also requested educational films for aviation branches of the government. The subjects of these films varied widely from aerology and not compact tactics to ground crew aircraft maintenance.[5]

The Treasury Department productions

Disney created The New Spirit (1942) after a request from the Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau, Jr., to make Americans accept the payment of income taxes. The film was followed by The Spirit of '43 (1943). In this film, Donald Duck deals with income taxes and shows their benefit to the American war effort.[6] The film was seen by 26 million people. In a later Gallup poll 37% admitted that the film played a factor on their willingness to pay taxes. Disney also made a book for children to try to encourage them to purchase War Savings stamps.[7]

The Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF) productions

Aerology film production was supervised by naval aviation experts and some members of Disney's team learned how to fly to better understand the problems the Army Air Forces encountered.[3] Victory Through Air Power (1943) is one of the propaganda films Disney produced for air warfare.[5] This film is an attempt to sell Major Alexander de Seversky's theories about the practical uses of long range strategic bombing. The animated film humorously tells about the development of air warfare and then switches to the Major illustrating how his ideas could win the war for the Allies.

Propaganda productions

As requested by the U.S. Government, Walt Disney created a number of anti-German and anti-Japanese films for the servicemen and the U.S. public. He wanted to portray these countries and their leaders as manipulative without morals. A few of the films he produced were Reason and Emotion (1943), Der Fuehrer's Face (1942), Education for Death - The Making of a Nazi (1943), and Commando Duck (1944).

In Der Fuehrer’s Face, Donald Duck experiences a day in a Nazi country where he has to make do with eating ridiculous Nazi food rations (smell of bacon and eggs, coffee made with one bean, and a slice of stale bread) experiences a day at a Nazi artillery factory and breaks down. He wakes up realizing that the experience was a nightmare, embraces a model of the Statue of Liberty and exclaims Am I glad to be a citizen of the United States of America!

Education for Death - The Making of a Nazi was a wartime propaganda film that takes on the perspective of Hans, a young German boy. As the movie progresses and Hans is exposed to Hitler youth and the Nazi culture, his ability to value human life decreases. In Commando Duck, Donald, by himself, destroys an entire Japanese airbase.

Further reading

• "Disney's Troupe Goes to War". Times. 15 November 1942. p. 20–21

See also

• The Walt Disney Company
o List of Walt Disney World War II propaganda productions
• United States home front during World War II
• American propaganda during World War II
• Propaganda film
• World War II and American animation

Notes

1. Moseley, Doobie (December 7, 2015). "Pearl Harbor Changed Everything, Even the Disney Studio". Laughing Place. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
2. "Walt Disney's Animated War". Flying. March 1945. p. 50–51
3. "Walt Disney Goes to War". Life magazine. 31 August 1942.p. 61–69.
4. "Walt Disney: Great Teacher; His Films for War are Revolutionizing the Technique of Education". Fortune. August 1942. p. 90–95
5. {{cite journal |date=September 1942 | title =Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck Work for Victory | journal =Popular Science | volume =141.3 | issue =September 1942 | pages =98
6. "The New Pictures". Time Magazine. February 9, 1942.
7. "Disney Studio at War". Theater Arts. Jan 1943. p. 31–39

External links

• "World War II: Propaganda". www3.eou.edu. Retrieved 2007-10-05.
• Veteran's Day School Kit
• "Transcript of interview with Disney about his propaganda ideas". Archived from the original on April 6, 2008.
• Disney at War
• The short film All Together (1941) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Attack in the Pacific (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Case of the Tremendous Trifle (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Cleanliness Brings Health (1945) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Camouflage (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Defense Against Invasion (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Dental Health is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Der Fuehrer's Face is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Donald's Decision (1941) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Education for Death: The Making of the Nazi is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Environmental Sanitation (1946) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Flak (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Food Will Win the War (1942) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Four Methods of Flush Riveting (1942) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Grain That Built A Hemisphere (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Human Body (Spanish) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Ice Formation On Aircraft is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Infant Care and Feeding (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Infant Care and Feeding (Spanish) (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Insects as Carriers of Disease (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Insects as Carriers of Disease (Spanish) (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film It's Your War Too (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The New Spirit (1942) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Out of the Frying Pan Into the Firing Line (1942) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Planning for Good Eating (1946) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Report from the Aleutians (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Seven Wise Dwarfs (1941) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Spirit of '43 (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Stillwell Road is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Stop That Tank! (1942) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Thrifty Pig (1941) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Unseen Enemy (1945) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Victory Through Air Power (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Winged Scourge (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Winged Scourge (Spanish) (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Sep 17, 2019 10:02 am

Lieutenant-Colonel Charles W. Drury (1856-1913)
Commanding Officer, Brigade Division, Royal Canadian Field Artillery
by Canadian War Museum
Accessed: 9/17/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
Boer War Picture, Lieutenant-Colonel Charles W. Drury, Commanding Officer, Brigade Division, Royal Canadian Field Artillery in South Africa, February — December 1900.

A popular and efficient officer, Drury was known as the "Father of Modern Field Artillery in Canada" for his many innovations. After service in the militia artillery in New Brunswick, he joined the permanent force artillery in 1877, and served in the Northwest Campaign in 1885. At the outbreak of the South African War he was in command of the Permanent Force artillery at Kingston. He was one of the officers who accompanied the first Canadian contingent to study military developments during the war. He saw action with British forces and was present at the battle of Magersfontein.

Drury took command of the Canadian artillery when it arrived in South Africa in early 1900. After initial operations in March and April 1900, however, the Canadian artillery was split up and its component batteries served independently with different British forces. Drury and his headquarters, along with "C" Battery, formed part of Major-General Robert Baden Powell's operations in the western Transvaal. The artillery proved its efficiency, although the batteries were mostly employed in the frustrating task of pursuing the Boers in remote areas.

After his return to Canada, Drury became military commander of the Maritime Provinces region. In 1905-06, his command took over the large fortress at Halifax from the departing British garrison, and Drury thus became responsible for the largest military establishment in the country.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Sep 30, 2019 12:41 am

Christopher Birdwood, 2nd Baron Birdwood
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/29/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


TIBETAN REFUGEES

Sir. – Recent devastating events in Tibet caused over 15,000 Tibetans to cross the perilous Himalayas into India. It may be a long time before these unfortunate people can safely return to their overrun country. Our own consciences should allow us neither to neglect nor forget them.

The Indian Government has manfully coped with this addition to its own problems at home. In this country we are bound in honour to help relieve needs of the Tibetan refugees, because from 1905 to 1947 there was a special relationship between Tibet and the United Kingdom – a relationship handed on to the new India.

On balance we think it wisest to concentrate chiefly on collecting money which can be used for the benefit of the refugees, not least in the purchase of necessary antibiotics and other medicaments. The Tibet Society has opened a Tibet Relief Fund for which we now appeal in the hope of a generous response. Donations should be sent to the address below or direct to the National Bank Ltd. (Belgravia Branch), 21 Grosvenor Gardens, S.W.I.

Yours faithfully,

... Birdwood ... The Tibet Relief Fund, 58 Eccleston Square, S.W. I., Letter to the Times, July 31, 1959, p.7.


-- Tibet Society, by tibetsociety.com




Upon leaving Kalimpong, Prince Peter travelled extensively in Europe and the US giving leisure talks about exotic Tibetan customs at explorers’ clubs. At the Royal Central Asian Society in London, he was introduced by its chairman, Lord [Christopher] Birdwood, as an anthropologist—a discipline that Birdwood understood as “concerned with bones, stones and queer stories about savages.”

-- Prince Peter’s Seven Years in Kalimpong: Collecting in a Contact Zone, by Trine Brox and Miriam Koktvedgaard Zeitzen


Image

Christopher Bromhead Birdwood, 2nd Baron Birdwood, MVO (22 May 1899 – 5 January 1962), was a British hereditary peer, soldier and author.

Early life

The son of Field Marshal Lord Birdwood and Janetta Hope Gonville Bromhead (daughter of Sir Benjamin Parnell Bromhead, 4th Baronet,[1] and niece of Gonville Bromhead, VC), Christopher Birdwood was baptised at Twickenham, London, England.

He was educated at Clifton College "Clifton College Register" Muirhead, J.A.O. p326: Bristol; J.W Arrowsmith for Old Cliftonian Society; April, 1948 and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, Berkshire.

Military career

Birdwood was commissioned as a second lieutenant on to the Unattached List, Indian Army on 21 December 1917. In France he was Aide-de-Camp to the General Officer Commanding the Australian Corps and 5th Army, his father, from 10 March 1918 to 28 February 1919. For his service he was Mentioned in Despatches. He was decorated with the Order of Aviz of Portugal.[2]

He arrived in India on 10 April 1919, was appointed to the Indian Army on 15 April 1919 and posted to the King Edward VII's Own Lancers (Probyn's Horse) of the Indian Army. As per the London Gazette of 12 September 1919 he was promoted lieutenant, antedated to 22 December 1918, but not until the French Republic conferred the Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur for helping save La Patrie.[3] In the same year he fought in the Waziristan Campaign between 1919 and 1920. In February 1920 he was promoted Acting Captain whilst attached to the 2/76th Punjabis, additionally being made Adjutant in July 1920. Birdwood returned to the 11th KEO Lancers by March 1921, by which time they had amalgamated with the 12th Cavalry to form 5th King Edward's Own Probyn's Horse, so named after a secretary to Queen Victoria. He was eventually promoted to captain on 21 December 1921.

Between 1923 and 1925 he served on the North West Frontier with various units of the Frontier Corps. He was Aide-de-Camp to the Commander-in-Chief at India, his father, between 13 May 1929 and 29 November 1930. He was appointed British Officer in Charge of the King's Indian Orderly Officers in 1932, promoted to major on 21 December 1935. He fought in the Waziristan Campaign again between 1936 and 1937. He was appointed a Squadron Commander in Probyn's Horse 15 January 1938, but was appointed Commandant of the Governors Body Guard, Bombay on 21 March 1938. He was again appointed British Officer in Charge of the King's Indian Orderly Officers in 1939. For this service he was invested as a Member of the Royal Victorian Order (MVO) in 1939.[4] During the Second World War, he returned with Probyn's Horse in August 1940 and rose to become temporary second in command by April 1942, later he served on the Staff. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel on 21 December 1943 but was retired due to ill-health on 4 June 1945.

Personal life

He married, firstly, Elizabeth Vere Drummond Ogilvie, daughter of Lieutenant Colonel Sir George Drummond Ogilvie and Lorna Rome, on 7 March 1931 at Delhi, India. The couple had a son and daughter; they divorced in 1954.[5] In the meantime, he had succeeded to his father's titles on 17 May 1951. He married, secondly, Joan Pollack Graham, by then known as Jane, daughter of Christopher Norman Graham, on 22 February 1954. After his death, Lady Birdwood became an activist on the far-right of British politics.

His son from his first marriage, Mark William Ogilvie Birdwood (1938–2015), succeeded to the title.[6]

Works

• The Worcestershire Regiment, 1922–1950 (Gale & Polden, 1952)
• A Continent Decides (Praeger, 1954)
• Two Nations and Kashmir (Robert Hale, 1956)
• Nuri as-Said: a study in Arab leadership (Cassell, 1959)
• A Continent Experiments (Literary Licensing, 2013). ISBN 1258605570.

Coat of arms

Image
Coat of arms of Christopher Birdwood, 2nd Baron Birdwood
Notes: Coat of arms of the Birdwood family
Coronet: A coronet of a Baron
Crest: Out of a Mural Crown Gules a Martlet Argent between two Branches of Laurel proper
Escutcheon: Azure five Martlets two two and one within an Inescutcheon voided a representation of the Southern Cross all Argent
Supporters: Dexter: a Sergeant of the XIIth (Prince of Wales's Royal) Lancers mounted on a Bay Horse; Sinister: a Sikh Daffadar of the XIth (Prince of Wales's Own) Bengal Lancers mounted on a Chestnut Horse, both habited and accoutred proper
Motto: In Bello Quies (Calm in action)

References

1. http://thepeerage.com/p14257.htm#i142566
2. London Gazette 21 August 1919
3. 10614 Supplement to the London Gazette, 21 August 1919, https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/iss ... 4/data.pdf
4. London Gazette 8 June 1939
5. "Birdwood, Baron (UK, 1938)". cracroftspeerage.co.uk. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
6. "Lord Birdwood – obituary". Daily Telegraph. 30 July 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.

External links

• A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with Lord Christopher B. Birdwood" is available at the Internet Archive
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Sep 30, 2019 1:10 am

William Birdwood
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/29/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


TIBETAN REFUGEES

Sir. – Recent devastating events in Tibet caused over 15,000 Tibetans to cross the perilous Himalayas into India. It may be a long time before these unfortunate people can safely return to their overrun country. Our own consciences should allow us neither to neglect nor forget them.

The Indian Government has manfully coped with this addition to its own problems at home. In this country we are bound in honour to help relieve needs of the Tibetan refugees, because from 1905 to 1947 there was a special relationship between Tibet and the United Kingdom – a relationship handed on to the new India.

On balance we think it wisest to concentrate chiefly on collecting money which can be used for the benefit of the refugees, not least in the purchase of necessary antibiotics and other medicaments. The Tibet Society has opened a Tibet Relief Fund for which we now appeal in the hope of a generous response. Donations should be sent to the address below or direct to the National Bank Ltd. (Belgravia Branch), 21 Grosvenor Gardens, S.W.I.

Yours faithfully,

... Birdwood ... The Tibet Relief Fund, 58 Eccleston Square, S.W. I., Letter to the Times, July 31, 1959, p.7.


-- Tibet Society, by tibetsociety.com




The founding members [of the Himalayan Club] were:[2]

• Field Marshal Sir William Birdwood, Commander in Chief


-- The Himalayan Club, by Wikipedia


Image
The Lord Birdwood
General Sir W. R. Birdwood by Elliott & Fry
Nickname(s) Birdy
Born 13 September 1865
Kirkee, Bombay Presidency, British India
Died 17 May 1951 (aged 85)
Hampton Court Palace, England
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch British Indian Army
Years of service 1883–1930
Rank Field Marshal
Commands held Commander-in-Chief, India
Northern Command, India
Fifth Army
Australian Corps
I ANZAC Corps
II ANZAC Corps
Australian Imperial Force
Australian and New Zealand Army Corps
Kohat Brigade
Battles/wars North-West Frontier
Tirah Campaign
Second Boer War
First World War
Gallipoli Campaign
Western Front
Awards:
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George
Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire
Distinguished Service Order
Croix de Guerre (France)
Grand Officer of the Order of the Crown (Belgium)
Croix de Guerre (Belgium)
Distinguished Service Medal (United States)
Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword (Portugal)
Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun (Japan)


Field Marshal William Riddell Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCVO, CIE, DSO (13 September 1865 – 17 May 1951) was a British Army officer. He saw active service in the Second Boer War on the staff of Lord Kitchener. He saw action again in the First World War as Commander of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during the Gallipoli Campaign in 1915, leading the landings on the peninsula and then the evacuation later in the year, before becoming commander-in-chief of the Fifth Army on the Western Front during the closing stages of the war. He went on to be general officer commanding the Northern Army in India in 1920 and Commander-in-Chief, India, in 1925.


General Birdwood Presents Medals (1914-1918)


Early life

William Riddell Birdwood was born on 13 September 1865 in Kirkee, India.[1] His father, Herbert Mills Birdwood, born in Bombay and educated in the UK, had returned to India in 1859 after passing the Indian Civil Service examination.[2] In 1861, Herbert Birdwood married Edith Marion Sidonie, the eldest daughter of Surgeon-Major Elijah George Halhed Impey of the Bombay Horse Artillery and postmaster-general of the Bombay Presidency.[2] They would have five sons and a daughter; William was their second son. At the time of William's birth, his father held positions in the Bombay legislative council, and would go on to become a Bombay high court judge.[2] William Birdwood was educated at Clifton College.[3][4]

Military career

After securing a militia commission in the 4th Battalion Royal Scots Fusiliers in 1883,[5] Birdwood trained at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, from which he was commissioned early, owing to the Russian war scare of 1885, becoming a lieutenant in the 12th (Prince of Wales's) Royal Lancers on 9 May 1885.[6] He joined his regiment in India and then transferred from the 12th Royal Lancers[7] to the Bengal Staff Corps on 20 December 1886.[8] He subsequently transferred to the 11th Bengal Lancers in 1887, seeing action on the North-West Frontier in 1891. He later became adjutant of the Viceroy's Bodyguard in 1893.[5] He was promoted to captain on 9 May 1896[9] and saw action during the Tirah Campaign in 1897.[5]

Birdwood served in the Second Boer War, initially as brigade-major with a mounted brigade in Natal from 10 January 1900 and then as Deputy-Assistant Adjutant-General on the staff of Lord Kitchener from 15 October 1900.[10] Promoted to brevet major on 20 November 1901[11] and local lieutenant-colonel in October 1901,[12][13] he became military secretary to Lord Kitchener on 5 June 1902,[14] and followed him on his return to the United Kingdom on board the SS Orotava,[15] which arrived in Southampton on 12 July 1902.[16] He received a brevet promotion to lieutenant-colonel in the South African Honours list published on 26 June 1902.[17] In a despatch from June 1902, Lord Kitchener wrote the following about his work in South Africa:

This young officer has held a difficult position as Assistant Adjutant-General, Mounted Troops, and responsible adviser as to the distribution of remounts. In carrying out these duties he has proved himself to possess exceptional ability, and he has shown, moreover, remarkable tact in dealing with and conciliating the various interests which he had to take into consideration.[18]


When Kitchener went to India as commander-in-chief in November 1902, Birdwood joined him there as assistant military secretary and interpreter.[19][13] He was promoted to the substantive rank of major on 9 May 1903[20] and appointed Military Secretary to Lord Kitchener with the rank of full colonel on 26 June 1905.[21] Having been appointed an aide-de-camp to the King on 14 February 1906,[22] he was given command of the Kohat Brigade on the North West Frontier in 1908[23] and promoted to temporary brigadier-general on 28 June 1909.[24]

Promoted to the rank of major-general on 3 October 1911,[25] Birdwood became quartermaster-general in India and a member of the Viceroy's Legislative Council in 1912 and then Secretary of the Indian Army Department in 1913.[13]


Gallipoli

Image
Anzac Cove looking towards Ari Burnu, 1915

In November 1914 Birdwood was instructed by Kitchener to form an army corps from the Australian and New Zealand troops that were training in Egypt.[13] He was promoted to temporary lieutenant-general on 12 December 1914[26] and given command of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps.[13] Kitchener instructed General Sir Ian Hamilton, Commander of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, to carry out an operation to capture the Gallipoli peninsula and placed Birdwood's ANZAC Corps under Hamilton's command.[4] Hamilton ordered Birdwood to carry out a landing on 25 April 1915 north of Kabatepe at a site now known as ANZAC Cove.[13] The ANZAC Corps encountered high ridges, narrow gullies, dense scrub and strong Turkish resistance and became pinned down.[4] Major-General William Bridges and Major-General Alexander Godley, the divisional commanders, were both of the view that the Allied forces, dealing with stiffer-than-expected resistance, should be evacuated ahead of an expected attack by Turkish forces.[27] Nevertheless, Hamilton ordered them to hold fast.[28]

Image
W. R. Birdwood

Birdwood took effective command of the Australian Imperial Force, i.e. all Australian Forces in May 1915 while still commanding Allied troops on the ground at Gallipoli.[4] He launched a major attack on the Turks in August 1915 (the Battle of Sari Bair) but still failed to dislodge them from the peninsula.[4] Notwithstanding this he was the only corps commander opposed to abandoning Gallipoli.[13] He was promoted to the permanent rank of lieutenant-general on 28 October 1915[29] and given command of the newly formed Dardanelles Army: the one outstanding success of the campaign was the evacuation led by Birdwood, which took place in December 1915 and January 1916, when the entire force was withdrawn before any Turkish reaction.[13]

Gallipoli hero

Birdwood, best known for the morale he instilled in the troops of the doomed Gallipoli campaign, which earned him the moniker the ‘soul of Anzac’, recounted how a Nepal-Tibet war was averted in his 1941 autobiography Khaki and Gown (a book which included a foreword by Winston Churchill):

“In April, 1930, Maharaja Sir Bhim Shamshere Jang [the Rana ruler of Nepal]… sent me a very kind invitation to visit Nepal before leaving India.

“He added that, owing to a certain incident, it was likely that Nepal would shortly declare war on Tibet, but he hoped this would not prevent me coming… I had to point out in reply that my visit… might well be misconstrued, since it might be thought that I was coming to direct the war against Tibet.

“The Maharaja answered that the point had not struck him before, and that he could easily arrange for the war to be postponed till after my visit! Once again I returned my sincere thanks, but suggested that if war broke out immediately after my departure I should certainly be accused of having gone there to arrange for supplies and munitions; and I added that, if he really wished for me to come, it would be far better for him to make peace hastily with the enemy.

“To my great pleasure this was actually arranged, the honour of both disputants being satisfied without recourse to arms.”

Birdwood goes on to say his farewell visit to Nepal featured an exchange of honorary military titles:

“At a great Durbar held by the King [Bhim Shamshere Jang, the sixth Rana ruler of Nepal] … it was my privilege to announce that Sir Bhim Shamshere Jang had been made a British major-general, and Colonel of the 4th Gurkhas, and I presented him with his major-general’s sword. At the same time (the previous assent of King George V having been obtained) I was created a General in the Nepalese army…”

Image
Image
Maharaja Sir Bhim Shamshere Jang (1865-1932), the Rana ruler of Nepal, who presented the kora sword to Field Marshal Lord Birdwood that sold for £3000 at the Tayler & Fletcher February 23 auction to one of the maharaja's descendants, now living in Sweden.

The fresh-to-market kora has a silver plaque on its sheath commemorating Birdwood’s appointment as an honorary Nepalese general. Another plaque commemorates Birdwood’s subsequent presentation of the kora to the officers of the 6th Gurkha Rifles in the same year. Birdwood was then colonel of the 6th and Bhim Shumsher Jang the newly appointed colonel of the 4th.

The sword came to auction by family descent.

-- The Sword with Strong Connections From the Cotswolds and Sweden to Nepal, India and Australia, by Antiques Trade Gazette


Western Front

In February 1916 the Australian and New Zealand contingents, back in Egypt, underwent reorganisation to incorporate the new units and reinforcements that had accumulated during 1915: the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps was replaced by two corps, I ANZAC Corps and II ANZAC Corps, and Birdwood reverted to the command of II ANZAC Corps. When I ANZAC Corps became the first to depart for France, Birdwood, as senior corps commander, took over command.[13] During early 1916 Birdwood advocated for the formation of an Australian and New Zealand Army or a Dominion Army also including Canadian forces under his command, but this did not occur.[30]

Birdwood was promoted to the permanent rank of full general on 23 October 1917[31] with command of a formation then known as the Australian Corps in November 1917.[13] He was also appointed aide-de-camp general to the King on 2 November 1917[32] and given command of the British Fifth Army on 31 May 1918 and led the Army at the liberation of Lille in October 1918 and at the liberation of Tournai in November 1918.[13]

After the war

Birdwood was made Baronet of Anzac and of Totnes, in the County of Devon, on 29 December 1919.[33] He toured Australia to great acclaim in 1920 and then became general officer commanding the Northern Army in India later that year.[34] He was promoted to field marshal (with the corresponding honorary rank in the Australian Military Forces) on 20 March 1925 and,[35][36] having been appointed a Member of the Executive Council of the Governor-General of India in July 1925,[37] he went on to be Commander-in-Chief, India, in August 1925.[34]

After leaving the service in 1930, Birdwood made a bid to become Governor-General of Australia. He had the backing of the King and the British government. However, the Australian Prime Minister James Scullin insisted that his Australian nominee Sir Isaac Isaacs be appointed.[4] Instead, Birdwood was appointed Master of Peterhouse, Cambridge on 20 April 1931[38] and Captain of Deal Castle in 1934.[39][40] In 1935 he wrote for the Western Australian distance education magazine Our Rural Magazine claiming that he had two granddaughters making good use of distance courses for educational purposes.[41] He retired from academic work in 1938.[34]

In retirement Birdwood was Colonel of the 12th Royal Lancers (1920–1951),[42] the 6th Gurkha Rifles (1926–1951),[43] and the 75th (Home Counties) (Cinque Ports) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery (1939–1951).[44] In January 1936 he attended the funeral of King George V[45] and in May 1937 he was present for the coronation of King George VI.[46] He was raised to the peerage in recognition of his wartime service as Baron Birdwood, of Anzac and of Totnes in the County of Devon, on 25 January 1938.[47][48]

His autobiography Khaki and Gown (1941) was followed by In my time: recollections and anecdotes (1946).[1] Lord Birdwood died at Hampton Court Palace, where he lived in grace-and-favour apartments, on 17 May 1951. He was buried at Twickenham Cemetery with full military honours.[4] The Australian Government still pays for the upkeep of his grave.[49]

Honours and awards

Image
Grave of William Birdwood and family in Twickenham Cemetery

British

• Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) – 1 January 1923[50] (KCB: 4 June 1917;[51] CB: 19 June 1911[52])
• Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India (GCSI) – 1 January 1930[53] (KCSI: 1 January 1915;[54] CSI: 1 January 1910[55])
• Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George (GCMG) – 1 January 1919[56] (KCMG: 3 June 1915[57])
• Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO) – 11 May 1937[58]
• Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) – 1 January 1908[59]
• Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) – 14 August 1908[60]
• Knight of Grace of the Venerable Order of St. John (KStJ) – 21 June 1927[61]

Foreign

• Croix de Guerre (France), 22 February 1916 and 11 March 1919 (with Palm)[62]
• Grand Officer of the Order of the Crown (Belgium) – 2 November 1916[63]
• Croix de Guerre (Belgium) – 11 March 1918[64]
• Distinguished Service Medal (United States) – 12 July 1919[65]
• Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword (Portugal) – 21 August 1919[66]
• Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun (Japan) – 21 January 1921[67]

Family

In 1893 Birdwood married Janetta Bromhead, daughter of Sir Benjamin Bromhead; they had a son and two daughters.[5] His wife died in 1947.[1] The son, Christopher Birdwood (1899–1962), succeeded him as 2nd Baron Birdwood. The elder daughter was Constance 'Nancy' Birdwood,[68] and the younger daughter was Judith Birdwood. Other members of the Birdwood family include Labour minister and peer Christopher Birdwood Thomson (1875–1930), Anglo-Indian naturalist Sir George Birdwood (1832–1917), and Jane Birdwood (1913–2000), the second wife of William Birdwood's son.[69]

Coat of arms

Image
Coat of arms of William Birdwood
Notes: Coat of arms of the Birdwood family
Coronet: A coronet of a Baron
Crest: Out of a Mural Crown Gules a Martlet Argent between two Branches of Laurel proper
Escutcheon: Azure five Martlets two two and one within an Inescutcheon voided a representation of the Southern Cross all Argent
Supporters: Dexter: a Sergeant of the XIIth (Prince of Wales's Royal) Lancers mounted on a Bay Horse; Sinister: a Sikh Daffadar of the XIth (Prince of Wales's Own) Bengal Lancers mounted on a Chestnut Horse, both habited and accoutred proper
Motto: In Bello Quies (Calm in action)

See also

• List of places named after William Birdwood

References

1. James, Robert Rhodes (2009) [2004]. "Birdwood, William Riddell". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31898.(Subscription orUK public library membership required.)
2. Brown, F. H.; Stearn, Roger T. (2012) [2004]. "Birdwood, Herbert Mills". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31897.(Subscription orUK public library membership required.)
3. "Clifton College Register" Muirhead, J.A.O. p70: Bristol; J.W Arrowsmith for Old Cliftonian Society; April, 1948 Bristol
4. "William Birdwood". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 27 May2013.
5. Heathcote, p. 43
6. "No. 25468". The London Gazette. 8 May 1885. p. 2105.
7. "No. 25688". The London Gazette. 1 April 1887. p. 1915.
8. "No. 25812". The London Gazette. 1 May 1888. p. 2469.
9. "No. 26768". The London Gazette. 14 August 1896. p. 4632.
10. "No. 27382". The London Gazette. 3 December 1901. p. 8563.
11. "No. 27359". The London Gazette. 27 September 1901. p. 6325.
12. "No. 27383". The London Gazette. 6 December 1901. p. 8643.
13. Heathcote, p. 44
14. "No. 27460". The London Gazette. 1 August 1902. p. 4969.
15. "The Army in South Africa – Troops returning home". The Times (36804). London. 26 June 1902. p. 10.
16. "Lord Kitchener′s return". The Times(36819). London. 14 July 1902. p. 6.
17. "No. 27448". The London Gazette(Supplement). 26 June 1902. pp. 4191–4194.
18. "No. 27459". The London Gazette. 29 July 1902. pp. 4835–4836.
19. "Naval & Military intelligence - Lord Kitchener´s staff". The Times (36857). London. 27 August 1902. p. 4.
20. "No. 27578". The London Gazette. 21 July 1903. p. 4592.
21. "No. 27851". The London Gazette(Supplement). 7 November 1905. p. 7425.
22. "No. 27885". The London Gazette. 13 February 1906. p. 1054.
23. Tucker; Roberts, p.388
24. "No. 28288". The London Gazette. 14 September 1909. p. 6874.
25. "No. 28580". The London Gazette. 13 February 1912. p. 1066.
26. "No. 29115". The London Gazette(Supplement). 29 March 1915. p. 3099.
27. Bean, 1981, pp. 456–457
28. Bean, 1981, pp. 460–461
29. "No. 29341". The London Gazette(Supplement). 27 October 1915. p. 10615.
30. Grey, p. 46
31. "No. 30376". The London Gazette(Supplement). 12 November 1917. p. 11661.
32. "No. 30365". The London Gazette. 2 November 1917. p. 11361.
33. "No. 31708". The London Gazette. 30 December 1919. p. 15988.
34. Heathcote, p. 45
35. "No. 33031". The London Gazette. 20 March 1925. p. 1954.
36. "Australian Military Forces". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. 14 January 1926. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
37. "No. 33069". The London Gazette. 24 July 1925. p. 4957.
38. "The colleges and halls – Peterhouse". British History Online. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
39. "No. 34140". The London Gazette. 8 March 1935. p. 1631.
40. "Captains of Deal Castle". East Kent freeuk. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
41. "Our rural magazine". The West Australian (Perth, WA : 1879–1954). 18 October 1934. p. 14. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
42. "No. 31889". The London Gazette(Supplement). 4 May 1920. p. 5218.
43. "No. 33141". The London Gazette. 12 March 1926. p. 1834.
44. Army List, May 1939.
45. "No. 34279". The London Gazette(Supplement). 29 April 1936. p. 2770.
46. "No. 34453". The London Gazette(Supplement). 10 November 1937. p. 7081.
47. "No. 34477". The London Gazette. 28 January 1938. p. 578.
48. "No. 34469". The London Gazette(Supplement). 1 January 1938. p. 1.
49. Miranda, Charles (11 April 2015). "Brit revered by Diggers". Courier-Mail. p. 54.
50. "No. 13881". The Edinburgh Gazette. 5 January 1923. p. 18.
51. "No. 30111". The London Gazette(Supplement). 4 June 1917. p. 5454.
52. "No. 28505". The London Gazette(Supplement). 19 June 1911. p. 4590.
53. "No. 14615". The Edinburgh Gazette. 7 January 1930. p. 16.
54. "No. 29024". The London Gazette(Supplement). 1 January 1915. p. 2.
55. "No. 28324". The London Gazette(Supplement). 1 January 1910. p. 1.
56. "No. 31092". The London Gazette(Supplement). 1 January 1919. p. 3.
57. "No. 29202". The London Gazette(Supplement). 23 June 1915. p. 6113.
58. "No. 34396". The London Gazette(Supplement). 11 May 1937. p. 3084.
59. "No. 28095". The London Gazette(Supplement). 1 January 1908. p. 2.
60. "No. 28168". The London Gazette(Supplement). 14 August 1908. p. 6066.
61. "No. 14351". The Edinburgh Gazette. 28 June 1927. p. 741.
62. "No. 31222". The London Gazette(Supplement). 11 March 1919. p. 3281.
63. "No. 13052". The Edinburgh Gazette. 16 February 1917. p. 367.
64. "No. 30568". The London Gazette(Supplement). 11 March 1918. p. 3095.
65. "No. 31451". The London Gazette(Supplement). 12 July 1919. p. 8937.
66. "No. 31514". The London Gazette(Supplement). 21 August 1919. p. 10614.
67. "No. 13673". The Edinburgh Gazette. 25 January 1921. p. 138.
68. Schmidt, Nicholas (14 February 2011). "For Valentine's Day – The airman who married the general's daughter". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
69. "The Dowager Lady Birdwood". The Telegraph. 29 June 2000. Retrieved 4 January2014.

Sources

• Bean, C.E.W. (1921). Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918. Angus & Robertson. ASIN B00144LQWM.
• Grey, Jeffrey (2001). The Australian Army. The Australian Centenary History of Defence. Volume I. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195541146.
• Heathcote, Tony (1999). The British Field Marshals 1736–1997. Barnsley (UK): Pen & Sword. ISBN 0-85052-696-5.
• Tucker, Spencer; Roberts, Priscilla Mary (2005). The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO Ltd. ISBN 978-1851094202.

External links

• A. J. Hill, 'Birdwood, William Riddell (Baron Birdwood) (1865–1951)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 7, Melbourne University Press, 1979, pp 293–296.
• Birdwood's introduction to The New Zealanders at Gallipoli
• Birdwood's AIF service record, available in the Australian National Archives as a digital image
• Birdwood presenting medals during the First World War (British-Pathé)
• Bust of Birdwood by Barbara Tribe (Australian National Portrait Gallery)
• In the thick of it, article on Birdwood and items relating to him at the Australian National Portrait Gallery
• Collection of photographs and artworks of Birdwood (UK National Portrait Gallery)
• Collection of photographs of Lady Birdwood, also includes photographs of their younger daughter Judith (UK National Portrait Gallery)
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener
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Image
Field Marshal The Right Honourable
The Earl Kitchener
KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC
Herbert Kitchener in full dress uniform (July 1910)
Secretary of State for War
In office
5 August 1914 – 5 June 1916
Monarch George V
Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
Preceded by H. H. Asquith
Succeeded by David Lloyd George
Consul-General in Egypt
In office
1911–1914
Personal details
Born 24 June 1850
Ballylongford, County Kerry, Ireland
Died 5 June 1916 (aged 65)
HMS Hampshire, west of Orkney, Scotland
Relations The 2nd Earl Kitchener
Sir Walter Kitchener
Military service
Allegiance United Kingdom
Branch/service British Army
Years of service 1871–1916
Rank Field Marshal
Commands Commander-in-Chief, India (1902–09)
British Forces in South Africa (1900–02)
Egyptian Army (1892–99)
Battles/wars Franco-Prussian War
Mahdist War:
Battle of Ferkeh
Battle of Atbara
Battle of Omdurman
Second Boer War:
Battle of Paardeberg
First World War
Awards Knight of the Order of the Garter
Knight of the Order of St Patrick
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Member of the Order of Merit
Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George
Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire

Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (/ˈkɪtʃɪnər/; 24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916) was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War,[1] and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War.

Kitchener was credited in 1898 for winning the Battle of Omdurman and securing control of the Sudan for which he was made Earl Kitchener of Khartoum. As Chief of Staff (1900–1902) in the Second Boer War he played a key role in Lord Roberts' conquest of the Boer Republics, then succeeded Roberts as commander-in-chief – by which time Boer forces had taken to guerrilla fighting and British forces imprisoned Boer civilians in concentration camps. His term as Commander-in-Chief (1902–09) of the Army in India saw him quarrel with another eminent proconsul, the Viceroy Lord Curzon, who eventually resigned. Kitchener then returned to Egypt as British Agent and Consul-General (de facto administrator).

In 1914, at the start of the First World War, Kitchener became Secretary of State for War, a Cabinet Minister. One of the few to foresee a long war, lasting for at least three years, and with the authority to act effectively on that perception, he organised the largest volunteer army that Britain had seen, and oversaw a significant expansion of materials production to fight on the Western Front. Despite having warned of the difficulty of provisioning for a long war, he was blamed for the shortage of shells in the spring of 1915 – one of the events leading to the formation of a coalition government – and stripped of his control over munitions and strategy.

On 5 June 1916, Kitchener was making his way to Russia on HMS Hampshire to attend negotiations with Tsar Nicholas II when the ship struck a German mine 1.5 miles (2.4 km) west of the Orkneys, Scotland, and sank. Kitchener was among 737 who died.

Early life

Image
Kitchener on his mother's lap, with his brother and sister

Kitchener was born in Ballylongford near Listowel, County Kerry, in Ireland, son of army officer Henry Horatio Kitchener (1805–1894) and Frances Anne Chevallier (d. 1864; daughter of John Chevallier, a priest, of Aspall Hall, and his third wife, Elizabeth, née Cole).[2]

His father had only recently bought land in Ireland, under a scheme to encourage the purchase of land, after selling his commission.[3] They then moved to Switzerland where the young Kitchener was educated at Montreux, then at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich.[3] Pro-French and eager to see action, he joined a French field ambulance unit in the Franco-Prussian War.[3] His father took him back to Britain after he caught pneumonia while ascending in a balloon to see the French Army of the Loire in action.[3] Commissioned into the Royal Engineers on 4 January 1871,[4] his service in France had violated British neutrality, and he was reprimanded by the Duke of Cambridge, the commander-in-chief.[3] He served in Palestine, Egypt and Cyprus as a surveyor, learned Arabic, and prepared detailed topographical maps of the areas.[2] His brother, Lt. Gen. Sir Walter Kitchener, had also entered the army, and was Governor of Bermuda from 1908 to 1912.[5]

Survey of western Palestine

In 1874, aged 24, Kitchener was assigned by the Palestine Exploration Fund to a mapping-survey of the Holy Land, replacing Charles Tyrwhitt-Drake, who had died of malaria.[6] By then an officer in the Royal Engineers, Kitchener joined fellow officer Claude R. Conder; between 1874 and 1877 they surveyed Palestine, returning to England only briefly in 1875 after an attack by locals at Safed, in Galilee.[6]

Conder and Kitchener's expedition became known as the Survey of Western Palestine because it was largely confined to the area west of the Jordan River. The survey collected data on the topography and toponymy of the area, as well as local flora and fauna.[7]

The results of the survey were published in an eight-volume series, with Kitchener's contribution in the first three tomes (Conder and Kitchener 1881–1885). This survey has had a lasting effect on the Middle East for several reasons:

• It serves as the basis for the grid system used in the modern maps of Israel and Palestine;
• The data compiled by Conder and Kitchener are still consulted by archaeologists and geographers working in the southern Levant;
• The survey itself effectively delineated and defined the political borders of the southern Levant. For example, the modern border between Israel and Lebanon is established at the point in upper Galilee where Conder and Kitchener's survey stopped.[6]

In 1878, having completed the survey of western Palestine, Kitchener was sent to Cyprus to undertake a survey of that newly acquired British protectorate.[3] He became vice-consul in Anatolia in 1879.[8]

Egypt

Kitchener was initiated into Freemasonry in 1883 in the Italian-speaking La Concordia Lodge No. 1226, which met in Cairo.[9] In November 1899 he was appointed the first District Grand Master of the District Grand Lodge of Egypt and the Sudan, under the United Grand Lodge of England.[10][11]

On 4 January 1883 Kitchener was promoted to captain,[12] given the Turkish rank bimbashi (major), and dispatched to Egypt where he took part in the reconstruction of the Egyptian Army.[3]

Egypt had recently become a British puppet state, its army led by British officers, although still nominally under the sovereignty of the Khedive (Egyptian monarch) and his nominal overlord the (Ottoman) Sultan of Turkey. Kitchener became second-in-command of an Egyptian cavalry regiment[13] in February 1883, and then took part in the failed expedition to relieve Charles George Gordon in the Sudan in late 1884.[3] Fluent in Arabic, Kitchener preferred the company of the Egyptians over the British, and the company of no-one over the Egyptians, writing in 1884 that: "I have become such a solitary bird that I often think I were happier alone".[14] Kitchener spoke Arabic so well that he was able to effortlessly adopt the dialects of the different Bedouin tribes of Egypt and the Sudan.[15] Promoted to brevet major on 8 October 1884[16] and to brevet lieutenant-colonel on 15 June 1885,[17] he became the British member of the Zanzibar boundary commission in July 1885.[18] He became Governor of the Egyptian Provinces of Eastern Sudan and Red Sea Littoral (which in practice consisted of little more than the Port of Suakin) in September 1886, and led his forces in action against the followers of the Mahdi at Handub in January 1888, when he was injured in the jaw.[19]

Kitchener was promoted to brevet colonel on 11 April 1888[20] and to the substantive rank of major on 20 July 1889[21] and led the Egyptian cavalry at the Battle of Toski in August 1889. At the beginning of 1890 he was appointed Inspector General of the Egyptian police[22] before moving to the position of Adjutant-General of the Egyptian Army in December of the same year[19] and Sirdar (Commander-in-Chief) of the Egyptian Army with the local rank of brigadier in April 1892.[19]

Kitchener was worried that, although his moustache was bleached white by the sun, his blond hair refused to turn grey, making it harder for Egyptians to take him seriously. His appearance added to his mystique: his long legs made him appear taller, whilst a cast in his eye made people feel he was looking right through them.[23] Kitchener, at 6'2", towered over most of his contemporaries.[24] Sir Evelyn Baring, the de facto British ruler of Egypt, thought Kitchener “the most able (soldier) I have come across in my time”.[25] In 1890, a War Office evaluation of Kitchener concluded: "A good brigadier, very ambitious, not popular, but has of late greatly improved in tact and manner...a fine gallant soldier and good linguist and very successful in dealing with Orientals" [in the 19th century, Europeans called the Middle East the Orient].[26]

Sudan and Khartoum

See also: Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan

Image
Kitchener, Commander of the Egyptian Army (centre right), 1898

In 1896, the British Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury, was concerned with keeping France out of the Horn of Africa. A French expedition under the command of Jean-Baptiste Marchand had left Dakar in March 1896 with the aim of conquering the Sudan, seizing control of the Nile as it flowed into Egypt, and forcing the British out of Egypt; thus restoring Egypt to the place within the French sphere of influence that it had had prior to 1882. Salisbury feared that if the British did not conquer the Sudan, the French would.[27] He had supported Italy's ambitions to conquer Ethiopia in the hope that the Italians would keep the French out of Ethiopia. The Italian attempt to conquer Ethiopia, however, was going very badly by early 1896, and ended with the Italians being annihilated at the Battle of Adowa in March 1896.[28] In March 1896, with the Italians visibly failing and the Mahdiyah state threatening to conquer Eritrea, Salisbury ordered Kitchener to invade northern Sudan, ostensibly for the purpose of distracting the Ansar (whom the British called "Dervishes") from attacking the Italians.[28]

Kitchener won victories at the Battle of Ferkeh in June 1896 and the Battle of Hafir in September 1896, earning him national fame in the United Kingdom and promotion to major-general on 25 September 1896.[29] Kitchener's cold personality and his tendency to drive his men hard made him widely disliked by his fellow officers.[30] One officer wrote about Kitchener in September 1896: "He was always inclined to bully his own entourage, as some men are rude to their wives. He was inclined to let off his spleen on those around him. He was often morose and silent for hours together...he was even morbidly afraid of showing any feeling or enthusiasm, and he preferred to be misunderstood rather than be suspected of human feeling."[31] Kitchener had served on the Wolseley expedition to rescue General Gordon at Khartoum, and was convinced that the expedition failed because Wolseley had used boats coming up the Nile to bring his supplies.[32] Kitchener wanted to build a railroad to supply the Anglo-Egyptian army, and assigned the task of constructing the Sudan Military Railroad to a Canadian railroad builder, Percy Girouard, for whom he had specifically asked.[33]

Kitchener achieved further successes at the Battle of Atbara in April 1898, and then the Battle of Omdurman in September 1898.[19] After marching to the walls of Khartoum, he placed his army into a crescent shape with the Nile to the rear, together with the gunboats in support. This enabled him to bring overwhelming firepower against any attack of the Ansar from any direction, though with the disadvantage of having his men spread out thinly, with hardly any forces in reserve. Such an arrangement could have proven disastrous if the Ansar had broken through the thin khaki line.[34] At about 5 a.m. on 2 September 1898, a huge force of Ansar, under the command of the Khalifa himself, came out of the fort at Omdurman, marching under their black banners inscribed with Koranic quotations in Arabic; this led Bennet Burleigh, the Sudan correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, to write: "It was not alone the reverberation of the tread of horses and men's feet I heard and seemed to feel as well as hear, but a voiced continuous shouting and chanting-the Dervish invocation and battle challenge "Allah e Allah Rasool Allah el Mahdi!" they reiterated in vociferous rising measure, as they swept over the intervening ground".[35] Kitchener had the ground carefully studied so that his officers would know the best angle of fire, and had his army open fire on the Ansar first with artillery, then machine guns and finally rifles as the enemy advanced.[36] A young Winston Churchill, serving as an army officer, wrote of what he saw: "A ragged line of men were coming on desperately, struggling forward in the face of the pitiless fire- black banners tossing and collapsing; white figures subsiding in dozens to the ground...valiant men were struggling on through a hell of whistling metal, exploding shells, and spurting dust—suffering, despairing, dying".[37] By about 8:30 a.m., much of the Dervish army was dead; Kitchener ordered his men to advance, fearing that the Khalifa might escape with what was left of his army to the fort of Omdurman, forcing Kitchener to lay siege to it.[38]

Viewing the battlefield from horseback on the hill at Jebel Surgham, Kitchener commented: "Well, we have given them a damn good dusting".[38] As the British and Egyptians advanced in columns, the Khalifa attempted to outflank and encircle the columns; this led to desperate hand-to-hand fighting. Churchill wrote of his own experience as the 21st Lancers cut their way through the Ansar: "The collision was prodigious and for perhaps ten wonderful seconds, no man heeded his enemy. Terrified horses wedged in the crowd, bruised and shaken men, sprawling in heaps, struggle dazed and stupid, to their feet, panted and looked about them".[39] The Lancers' onslaught carried them through the 12-men-deep Ansar line with the Lancers losing 71 dead and wounded while killing hundreds of the enemy.[39] Following the annihilation of his army, the Khalifa ordered a retreat and early in the afternoon, Kitchener rode in triumph into Omdurman and immediately ordered that the thousands of Christians enslaved by the Ansar were now all free people.[40] Kitchener lost fewer than 500 men while killing about 11,000 and wounding 17,000 of the Ansar.[40] Burleigh summed the general mood of the British troops: "At Last! Gordon has been avenged and justified. The dervishes have been overwhelming routed, Mahdism has been "smashed", while the Khalifa's capital of Omdurman has been stripped of its barbaric halo of sanctity and invulnerability."[40] Kitchener promptly had the Mahdi's tomb blown up and his bones scattered.[41] Queen Victoria, who had wept when she heard of General Gordon's death, now wept for the man who had vanquished Gordon, asking whether it had been really necessary for Kitchener to desecrate the Mahdi's tomb.[41] In a letter to his mother, Churchill wrote that the victory at Omdurman had been "disgraced by the inhuman slaughter of the wounded and...Kitchener is responsible for this".[42] There is no evidence that Kitchener ordered his men to shoot the wounded Ansar on the field of Omdurman, but he did give before the battle what the British journalist Mark Urban called a "mixed message", saying that mercy should be given, while at the same time saying "Remember Gordon" and that the enemy were all "murderers" of Gordon.[43] The victory at Omdurman made Kitchener into a popular war hero, and gave him a reputation for efficiency and as a man who got things done.[41] The journalist G. W. Steevens wrote in the Daily Mail that "He [Kitchener] is more like a machine than a man. You feel that he ought to be patented and shown with pride at the Paris International Exhibition. British Empire: Exhibit No. 1 hors concours, the Sudan Machine".[41] The shooting of the wounded at Omdurman, along with the desecration of the Mahdi's tomb, gave Kitchener a reputation for brutality that was to dog him for the rest of his life, and posthumously.[41]

After Omdurman, Kitchener opened a special sealed letter from Salisbury that told him that Salisbury's real reason for ordering the conquest of the Sudan was to prevent France from moving into the Sudan, and that the talk of "avenging Gordon" had been just a pretext.[27] Salisbury's letter ordered Kitchener to head south as soon as possible to evict Marchand before he got a chance to become well-established on the Nile.[27] On 18 September 1898, Kitchener arrived at the French fort at Fashoda (present day Kodok, on the west bank of the Nile north of Malakal) and informed Marchand that he and his men had to leave the Sudan at once, a request Merchand refused, leading to a tense stand-off as French and British soldiers aimed their weapons at each other.[27] During what became known as the Fashoda Incident, Britain and France almost went to war with each other.[44] The Fashoda incident caused much jingoism and chauvinism on both sides of the English Channel; however, at Fashoda itself, despite the stand-off with the French, Kitchener established cordial relations with Marchand. They agreed that the tricolor would fly equally with the Union Jack and the Egyptian flag over the disputed fort at Fashoda.[44] Kitchener was a Francophile who spoke fluent French, and despite his reputation for brusque rudeness was very diplomatic and tactful in his talks with Marchand; for example, congratulating him on his achievement in crossing the Sahara in an epic trek from Dakar to the Nile.[45] In November 1898, the crisis ended when the French agreed to withdraw from the Sudan.[41] Several factors persuaded the French to back down. These included British naval superiority; the prospect of an Anglo-French war leading to the British gobbling up the entire French colonial empire after the defeat of the French Navy; the pointed statement from the Russian Emperor Nicholas II that the Franco-Russian alliance applied only to Europe, and that Russia would not go to war against Britain for the sake of an obscure fort in the Sudan in which no Russian interests were involved; and the possibility that Germany might take advantage of an Anglo-French war to strike France.[46]

Kitchener became Governor-General of the Sudan in September 1898, and began a programme of restoring good governance. The programme had a strong foundation, based on education at Gordon Memorial College as its centrepiece—and not simply for the children of the local elites, for children from anywhere could apply to study. He ordered the mosques of Khartoum rebuilt, instituted reforms which recognised Friday—the Muslim holy day—as the official day of rest, and guaranteed freedom of religion to all citizens of the Sudan. He attempted to prevent evangelical Christian missionaries from trying to convert Muslims to Christianity.[47]

At this stage of his career Kitchener was keen to exploit the press, cultivating G. W. Steevens of the Daily Mail who wrote a book With Kitchener to Khartum. Later, as his legend had grown, he was able to be rude to the press, on one occasion in the Second Boer War bellowing: "Get out of my way, you drunken swabs".[23] He was created Baron Kitchener, of Khartoum and of Aspall in the County of Suffolk, on 31 October 1898.[48]

Anglo-Boer War

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Lord Kitchener on horseback in The Queenslander Pictorial in 1910

During the Second Boer War, Kitchener arrived in South Africa with Lord Roberts on the RMS Dunottar Castle along with massive British reinforcements in December 1899.[19] Officially holding the title of chief of staff,[49] he was in practice a second-in-command and was present at the relief of Kimberley before leading an unsuccessful frontal assault at the Battle of Paardeberg in February 1900.[19] Kitchener was mentioned in despatches from Lord Roberts several times during the early part of the war; in a despatch from March 1900 Lord Roberts wrote how he was "greatly indebted to him for his counsel and cordial support on all occasions".[50]

Following the defeat of the conventional Boer forces, Kitchener succeeded Roberts as overall commander in November 1900.[51] He was also promoted to lieutenant-general on 29 November 1900[52] and to local general on 12 December 1900.[51] He subsequently inherited and expanded the successful strategies devised by Roberts to force the Boer commandos to submit, including concentration camps and the burning of farms.[19] Conditions in the concentration camps, which had been conceived by Roberts as a form of control of the families whose farms he had destroyed, began to degenerate rapidly as the large influx of Boers outstripped the ability of the minuscule British force to cope. The camps lacked space, food, sanitation, medicine, and medical care, leading to rampant disease and a very high death rate for those Boers who entered. Eventually 26,370 women and children (81% were children) died in the concentration camps.[53] The biggest critic of the camps was the Englishwoman, humanitarian, and welfare worker Emily Hobhouse.[54]

The Treaty of Vereeniging, ending the War, was signed in May 1902 following a tense six months. During this period Kitchener struggled against Sir Alfred Milner, the Governor of the Cape Colony, and the British government. Milner was a hard-line conservative and wanted forcibly to Anglicise the Afrikaans people (the Boers), and Milner and the British government wanted to assert victory by forcing the Boers to sign a humiliating peace treaty; Kitchener wanted a more generous compromise peace treaty that would recognize certain rights for the Afrikaners and promise future self-government. He even entertained a peace treaty proposed by Louis Botha and the other Boer leaders, although he knew the British government would reject the offer; this would have maintained the sovereignty of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State while requiring them to sign a perpetual treaty of alliance with the UK and grant major concessions to the British, such as equal rights for English with Dutch in their countries, voting rights for Uitlanders, and a customs and railway union with the Cape Colony and Natal.[55]

Kitchener, who had been promoted to the substantive rank of general on 1 June 1902,[56] was hosted to a farewell reception at Cape Town on 23 June, and left for the United Kingdom in the SS Orotava on the same day.[57] He received an enthusiastic welcome on his arrival the following month. Landing in Southampton on 12 July, he was greeted by the corporation, who presented him with the Freedom of the borough. In London, he was met at the train station by The Prince of Wales, drove in a procession through streets lined by military personnel from 70 different units and watched by thousands of people, and received a formal welcome at St James's Palace. He also visited King Edward VII, Emperor of India, who was confined to his room recovering from his recent operation for appendicitis, but wanted to meet the general on his arrival and to personally bestow on him the insignia of the Order of Merit (OM).[58] Kitchener was created Viscount Kitchener, of Khartoum and of the Vaal in the Colony of Transvaal and of Aspall in the County of Suffolk, on 28 July 1902.[59]

Court-martial of Breaker Morant

Main articles: Court-martial of Breaker Morant and Breaker Morant

In the Breaker Morant case, five Australian officers and one English officer of an irregular unit, the Bushveldt Carbineers, were court-martialled for summarily executing twelve Boer prisoners,[60] and also for the murder of a German missionary believed to be a Boer sympathiser, all allegedly under unwritten orders approved by Kitchener. The celebrated horseman and bush poet Lt. Harry "Breaker" Morant and Lt. Peter Handcock were found guilty, sentenced to death, and shot by firing squad at Pietersburg on 27 February 1902. Their death warrants were personally signed by Kitchener. He reprieved a third soldier, Lt. George Witton, who served 28 months before being released.[61]

India

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Broome Park, Kitchener's country house in Canterbury, Kent

General Lord Kitchener was in late 1902 appointed Commander-in-Chief, India, and arrived there to take up the position in November, in time to be in charge during the January 1903 Delhi Durbar. He immediately began the task of reorganising the Indian Army. Kitchener's plan “The Reorganisation and Redistribution of the Army in India” recommended preparing the Indian Army for any potential war by reducing the size of fixed garrisons and reorganising it into two armies, to be commanded by Generals Sir Bindon Blood and George Luck.[62] While many of the Kitchener Reforms were supported by the Viceroy, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, who had originally lobbied for Kitchener's appointment, the two men eventually came into conflict. Curzon wrote to Kitchener advising him that signing himself “Kitchener of Khartoum” took up too much time and space – Kitchener commented on the pettiness of this (Curzon simply signed himself "Curzon" as an hereditary peer, although he later took to signing himself “Curzon of Kedleston”).[63] They also clashed over the question of military administration, as Kitchener objected to the system whereby transport and logistics were controlled by a "Military Member" of the Viceroy's Council. The Commander-in-Chief won the crucial support of the government in London, and the Viceroy chose to resign.[64]

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A portrait of Field Marshal Lord Kitchener in full dress uniform taken shortly after being promoted to the rank

Later events proved Curzon was right in opposing Kitchener's attempts to concentrate all military decision-making power in his own office. Although the offices of Commander-in-Chief and Military Member were now held by a single individual, senior officers could approach only the Commander-in-Chief directly. In order to deal with the Military Member, a request had to be made through the Army Secretary, who reported to the Indian Government and had right of access to the Viceroy. There were even instances, when the two separate bureaucracies produced different answers to a problem, with the Commander-in-Chief disagreeing with himself as Military Member. This became known as "the canonisation of duality". Kitchener's successor, General Sir O’Moore Creagh, was nicknamed "no More K", and concentrated on establishing good relations with the Viceroy, Lord Hardinge.[65]

Kitchener presided over the Rawalpindi Parade in 1905 to honour the Prince and Princess of Wales's visit to India.[66] That same year Kitchener founded the Indian Staff College at Quetta (now the Pakistani Command and Staff College), where his portrait still hangs.[67] His term of office as Commander-in-Chief, India, was extended by two years in 1907.[64]

Kitchener was promoted to the highest Army rank, field marshal, on 10 September 1909 and went on a tour of Australia and New Zealand.[64] He aspired to be Viceroy of India, but the Secretary of State for India, John Morley, was not keen and hoped to send him instead to Malta as Commander-in-Chief of British forces in the Mediterranean, even to the point of announcing the appointment in the newspapers. Kitchener pushed hard for the Viceroyalty, returning to London to lobby Cabinet ministers and the dying King Edward VII, from whom, whilst collecting his field marshal's baton, Kitchener obtained permission to refuse the Malta job. However, Morley could not be moved. This was perhaps in part because Kitchener was thought to be a Tory (the Liberals were in office at the time); perhaps due to a Curzon-inspired whispering campaign; but most importantly because Morley, who was a Gladstonian and thus suspicious of imperialism, felt it inappropriate, after the recent grant of limited self-government under the 1909 Indian Councils Act, for a serving soldier to be Viceroy (in the event, no serving soldier was appointed Viceroy until Lord Wavell in 1943, during the Second World War). The Prime Minister, H. H. Asquith, was sympathetic to Kitchener but was unwilling to overrule Morley, who threatened resignation, so Kitchener was finally turned down for the post of Viceroy of India in 1911.[68]

Return to Egypt

In June 1911 Kitchener then returned to Egypt as British Agent and Consul-General in Egypt during the formal reign of Abbas Hilmi II as Khedive.[68]

At the time of the Agadir Crisis (summer 1911), Kitchener told the Committee of Imperial Defence that he expected the Germans to walk through the French “like partridges” and he informed Lord Esher “that if they imagined that he was going to command the Army in France he would see them damned first”.[69]

He was created Earl Kitchener, of Khartoum and of Broome in the County of Kent, on 29 June 1914.[68]

During this period he became a proponent of Scouting and coined the phrase "once a Scout, always a Scout."[70]

First World War

1914

Raising the New Armies


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The iconic, much-imitated 1914 Lord Kitchener Wants You poster

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Young men besieging the recruiting offices in Whitehall, London

At the outset of the First World War, the Prime Minister, Asquith, quickly had Lord Kitchener appointed Secretary of State for War; Asquith had been filling the job himself as a stopgap following the resignation of Colonel Seely over the Curragh Incident earlier in 1914. Kitchener was in Britain on his annual summer leave, between 23 June and 3 August 1914, and had boarded a cross-Channel steamer to commence his return trip to Cairo when he was recalled to London to meet with Asquith.[71] War was declared at 11pm the next day.[72]

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Cpostcard of Lord Kitchener from WW1 period

Against cabinet opinion, Kitchener correctly predicted a long war that would last at least three years, require huge new armies to defeat Germany, and cause huge casualties before the end would come. Kitchener stated that the conflict would plumb the depths of manpower "to the last million". A massive recruitment campaign began, which soon featured a distinctive poster of Kitchener, taken from a magazine front cover. It may have encouraged large numbers of volunteers, and has proven to be one of the most enduring images of the war, having been copied and parodied many times since. Kitchener built up the "New Armies" as separate units because he distrusted the Territorials from what he had seen with the French Army in 1870. This may have been a mistaken judgement, as the British reservists of 1914 tended to be much younger and fitter than their French equivalents a generation earlier.[73]

Cabinet Secretary Maurice Hankey wrote of Kitchener:

The great outstanding fact is that within eighteen months of the outbreak of the war, when he had found a people reliant on sea-power, and essentially non-military in their outlook, he had conceived and brought into being, completely equipped in every way, a national army capable of holding its own against the armies of the greatest military Power the world had ever seen.[74]


However, Ian Hamilton later wrote of Kitchener "he hated organisations; he smashed organisations ... he was a Master of Expedients".[75]

Deploying the BEF

At the War Council (5 August) Kitchener and Lieutenant General Sir Douglas Haig argued that the BEF should be deployed at Amiens, where it could deliver a vigorous counterattack once the route of German advance was known. Kitchener argued that the deployment of the BEF in Belgium would result in having to retreat and abandon much of its supplies almost immediately, as the Belgian Army would be unable to hold its ground against the Germans; Kitchener was proved right, but given the belief in fortresses common at the time, it is not surprising that the War Council disagreed with him.[76]

Kitchener, believing Britain should husband her resources for a long war, decided at Cabinet (6 August) that the initial BEF would consist of only 4 infantry divisions (and 1 cavalry), not the 5 or 6 promised.[77] His decision to hold back two of the six divisions of the BEF, although based on exaggerated concerns about German invasion of Britain, arguably saved the BEF from disaster as Sir John French (on the advice of Wilson who was much influenced by the French), might have been tempted to advance further into the teeth of the advancing German forces, had his own force been stronger.[73]

Kitchener's wish to concentrate further back at Amiens may also have been influenced by a largely accurate map of German dispositions which was published by Repington in The Times on the morning of 12 August.[73] Kitchener had a three-hour meeting (12 August) with Sir John French, Murray, Wilson and the French liaison officer Victor Huguet, before being overruled by the Prime Minister, who eventually agreed that the BEF should assemble at Maubeuge.[78]

Sir John French's orders from Kitchener were to cooperate with the French but not to take orders from them. Given that the tiny BEF (about 100,000 men, half of them serving regulars and half reservists) was Britain's only field army, Lord Kitchener also instructed French to avoid undue losses and exposure to “forward movements where large numbers of French troops are not engaged” until Kitchener himself had had a chance to discuss the matter with the Cabinet.[79]

Meeting with Sir John French

The BEF commander, Sir John French, concerned at heavy British losses at the Battle of Le Cateau, was considering withdrawing his forces from the Allied line. By 31 August French Commander-in-chief Joffre, President Poincaré (relayed via Bertie, the British Ambassador) and Kitchener sent him messages urging him not to do so. Kitchener, authorised by a midnight meeting of whichever Cabinet Ministers could be found, left for France for a meeting with Sir John on 1 September.[80]

They met, together with Viviani (French Prime Minister) and Millerand (now French War Minister). Huguet recorded that Kitchener was "calm, balanced, reflective" whilst Sir John was "sour, impetuous, with congested face, sullen and ill-tempered". On Bertie’s advice Kitchener dropped his intention of inspecting the BEF. French and Kitchener moved to a separate room, and no independent account of the meeting exists. After the meeting Kitchener telegraphed the Cabinet that the BEF would remain in the line, although taking care not to be outflanked, and told French to consider this "an instruction". French had a friendly exchange of letters with Joffre.[81]

French had been particularly angry that Kitchener had arrived wearing his field marshal's uniform. This was how Kitchener normally dressed at the time (Hankey thought Kitchener's uniform tactless, but it had probably not occurred to him to change), but French felt that Kitchener was implying that he was his military superior and not simply a cabinet member. By the end of the year French thought that Kitchener had "gone mad" and his hostility had become common knowledge at GHQ and GQG.[82]

1915

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Kitchener's Dream, German propaganda medal, 1915

Strategy

In January 1915, Field Marshal Sir John French, the commander of the British Expeditionary Force, with the concurrence of other senior commanders (e.g. General Sir Douglas Haig), wanted the New Armies incorporated into existing divisions as battalions rather than sent out as entire divisions. French felt (wrongly) that the war would be over by the summer before the New Army divisions were deployed, as Germany had recently redeployed some divisions to the east, and took the step of appealing to the Prime Minister, Asquith, over Kitchener's head, but Asquith refused to overrule Kitchener. This further damaged relations between French and Kitchener, who had travelled to France in September 1914 during the First Battle of the Marne to order French to resume his place in the Allied line.[83]

Kitchener warned French in January 1915 that the Western Front was a siege line that could not be breached, in the context of Cabinet discussions about amphibious landings on the Baltic or North Sea Coast, or against Turkey.[84] In an effort to find a way to relieve pressure on the Western front, Lord Kitchener proposed an invasion of Alexandretta with Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC), New Army, and Indian troops. Alexandretta was an area with a large Christian population and was the strategic centre of the Ottoman Empire's railway network — its capture would have cut the empire in two.Yet he was instead eventually persuaded to support Winston Churchill's disastrous Gallipoli Campaign in 1915–1916. (Churchill's responsibility for the failure of this campaign is debated; for more information see David Fromkin's A Peace to End All Peace.) That failure, combined with the Shell Crisis of 1915 – amidst press publicity engineered by Sir John French – dealt Kitchener's political reputation a heavy blow; Kitchener was popular with the public, so Asquith retained him in office in the new coalition government, but responsibility for munitions was moved to a new ministry headed by David Lloyd George. He was a sceptic about the tank, which is why it was developed under the auspices of Churchill's Admiralty.[85]

With the Russians being pushed back from Poland, Kitchener thought the transfer of German troops west and a possible invasion of Britain increasingly likely, and told the War Council (14 May) that he was not willing to send the New Armies overseas. He wired French (16 May 1915) that he would send no more reinforcements to France until he was clear the German line could be broken, but sent two divisions at the end of May to please Joffre, not because he thought a breakthrough possible.[86] He had wanted to conserve his New Armies to strike a knockout blow in 1916–17, but by the summer of 1915 realised that high casualties and a major commitment to France were inescapable. “Unfortunately we have to make war as we must, and not as we should like” as he told the Dardanelles Committee on 20 August 1915.[87]

At an Anglo-French conference at Calais (6 July) Joffre and Kitchener, who was opposed to “too vigorous” offensives, reached a compromise on “local offensives on a vigorous scale”, and Kitchener agreed to deploy New Army divisions to France. An inter-Allied conference at Chantilly (7 July, including Russian, Belgian, Serb and Italian delegates) agreed on coordinated offensives.[88] However, Kitchener now came to support the upcoming Loos offensive. He travelled to France for talks with Joffre and Millerand (16 August). The French leaders believed Russia might sue for peace (Warsaw had fallen on 4 August). Kitchener (19 August) ordered the Loos offensive to proceed, despite the attack being on ground not favoured by French or Haig (then commanding First Army).[89] The Official History later admitted that Kitchener hoped to be appointed Supreme Allied Commander. Liddell Hart speculated that this was why he allowed himself to be persuaded by Joffre. New Army divisions first saw action at Loos in September 1915.[90]
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Part 2 of 2

Reduction in powers

Kitchener continued to lose favour with politicians and professional soldiers. He found it “repugnant and unnatural to have to discuss military secrets with a large number of gentlemen with whom he was but barely acquainted”. Esher complained that he would either lapse into “obstinacy and silence” or else mull aloud over various difficulties. Milner told Gwynne (18 August 1915) that he thought Kitchener a “slippery fish”.[91] By autumn 1915, with Asquith's Coalition close to breaking up over conscription, he was blamed for his opposition to that measure (which would eventually be introduced for single men in January 1916) and for the excessive influence which civilians like Churchill and Haldane had come to exert over strategy, allowing ad hoc campaigns to develop in Sinai, Mesopotamia and Salonika. Generals such as Sir William Robertson were critical of Kitchener's failure to ask the General Staff (whose chief James Wolfe-Murray was intimidated by Kitchener) to study the feasibility of any of these campaigns.[92]

Kitchener advised the Dardanelles Committee (21 October) that Baghdad be seized for the sake of prestige then abandoned as logistically untenable. His advice was no longer accepted without question, but the British forces were eventually besieged and captured at Kut.[93]

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Kitchener with General Birdwood at Anzac, November 1915

Archibald Murray (Chief of the Imperial General Staff) later recorded that Kitchener was “quite unfit for the position of secretary of state” and “impossible”, claiming that he never assembled the Army Council as a body, but instead gave them orders separately, and was usually exhausted by Friday. Kitchener was also keen to break up Territorial units whenever possible whilst ensuring that “No “K” Division left the country incomplete”. Murray wrote that “He seldom told the absolute the truth and the whole truth” and claimed that it was not until he left on a tour of inspection of Gallipoli and the Near East that Murray was able to inform the Cabinet that volunteering had fallen far below the level needed to maintain a BEF of 70 divisions, requiring the introduction of conscription. The Cabinet insisted on proper General Staff papers being presented in Kitchener's absence.[94]

Asquith, who told Robertson that Kitchener was “an impossible colleague” and “his veracity left much to be desired”, hoped that he could be persuaded to remain in the region as Commander-in-Chief and acted in charge of the War Office, but Kitchener took his seals of office with him so he could not be sacked in his absence. Douglas Haig – at that time involved in intrigues to have Robertson appointed Chief of the Imperial General Staff – recommended that Kitchener be appointed Viceroy of India (“where trouble was brewing”) but not to the Middle East, where his strong personality would have led to that sideshow receiving too much attention and resources.[95] Kitchener visited Rome and Athens, but Murray warned that he would likely demand the diversion of British troops to fight the Turks in the Sinai.[96]

Kitchener and Asquith were agreed that Robertson should become CIGS, but Robertson refused to do this if Kitchener “continued to be his own CIGS”, although given Kitchener's great prestige he did not want him to resign; he wanted the Secretary of State to be sidelined to an advisory role like the Prussian War Minister. Asquith asked them to negotiate an agreement, which they did over the exchange of several draft documents at the Hotel de Crillon in Paris. Kitchener agreed that Robertson alone should present strategic advice to the Cabinet, with Kitchener responsible for recruiting and supplying the Army, although he refused to agree that military orders should go out over Robertson's signature alone – it was agreed that the Secretary of State should continue to sign orders jointly with the CIGS. The agreement was formalised in a Royal Order in Council in January 1916. Robertson was suspicious of efforts in the Balkans and Near East, and was instead committed to major British offensives against Germany on the Western Front — the first of these was to be the Somme in 1916.[97]

1916

Early in 1916 Kitchener visited Douglas Haig, newly appointed Commander-in-Chief of the BEF in France. Kitchener had been a key figure in the removal of Haig's predecessor Sir John French, with whom he had a poor relationship. Haig differed with Kitchener over the importance of Mediterranean efforts and wanted to see a strong General Staff in London, but nonetheless valued Kitchener as a military voice against the folly of civilians such as Churchill. However, he thought Kitchener "pinched, tired, and much aged", and thought it sad that his mind was “losing its comprehension” as the time for decisive victory on the Western Front (as Haig and Robertson saw it) approached.[98] Kitchener was somewhat doubtful of Haig's plan to win decisive victory in 1916, and would have preferred smaller and purely attritional attacks, but sided with Robertson in telling the Cabinet that the planned Anglo-French offensive on the Somme should go ahead.[99]

Kitchener was under pressure from French Prime Minister Aristide Briand (29 March 1916) for the British to attack on the Western Front to help relieve the pressure of the German attack at Verdun. The French refused to bring troops home from Salonika, which Kitchener thought a play for the increase of French power in the Mediterranean.[100]

On 2 June 1916, Lord Kitchener personally answered questions asked by politicians about his running of the war effort; at the start of hostilities Kitchener had ordered two million rifles from various US arms manufacturers. Only 480 of these rifles had arrived in the UK by 4 June 1916. The numbers of shells supplied were no less paltry. Kitchener explained the efforts he had made to secure alternative supplies. He received a resounding vote of thanks from the 200 Members of Parliament who had arrived to question him, both for his candour and for his efforts to keep the troops armed; Sir Ivor Herbert, who, a week before, had introduced the failed vote of censure in the House of Commons against Kitchener's running of the War Department, personally seconded the motion.[101]

In addition to his military work, Lord Kitchener contributed to efforts on the home front. The knitted sock patterns of the day used a seam up the toe that could rub uncomfortably against the toes. Kitchener encouraged British and American women to knit for the war effort, and contributed a sock pattern featuring a new technique for a seamless join of the toe, still known as the Kitchener stitch.[102]

Russian mission

In the midst of his other political and military concerns, Kitchener had devoted personal attention to the deteriorating situation on the Eastern Front. This included the provision of extensive stocks of war material for the Russian armies, which had been under increasing pressure since mid-1915.[103] In May 1916 the Chancellor of the Exchequer Reginald Mckenna suggested that Kitchener head a special and confidential mission to Russia to discuss munition shortages, military strategy and financial difficulties with the Imperial Russian Government and the Stavka (military high command), which was now under the personal command of Tsar Nicholas II. Both Kitchener and the Russians were in favor of face to face talks and a formal invitation from the Tsar was received on 14 May.[104] Kitchener with a party of officials, military aides and personal servants left London by train for Scotland on the evening of 4 June.[105]

Death

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Kitchener boards HMS Iron Duke from HMS Oak at 12.25pm on 5 June 1916 prior to lunching with Admiral Sir John Jellicoe at Scapa Flow

Image
Lord Kitchener's memorial, St Paul's Cathedral, London

Lord Kitchener sailed from Scrabster to Scapa Flow on 5 June 1916 aboard HMS Oak before transferring to the armoured cruiser HMS Hampshire for his diplomatic mission to Russia. At the last minute, Admiral Sir John Jellicoe changed the Hampshire's route on the basis of a mis-reading of the weather forecast and ignoring (or not being aware of) recent intelligence and sightings of German U-boat activity in the vicinity of the amended route.[106] Shortly before 19:30 hrs the same day, steaming for the Russian port of Arkhangelsk during a Force 9 gale, Hampshire struck a mine laid by the newly launched German U-boat U-75 (commanded by Curt Beitzen) and sank west of the Orkney Islands. Recent research has set the death toll of those aboard Hampshire at 737.[107] Only twelve survived.[107][108] Amongst the dead were all ten members of his entourage. Kitchener was seen standing on the quarterdeck during the approximately twenty minutes that it took the ship to sink. His body was never recovered.[108][109]

The news of Kitchener's death was received with shock all over the British Empire.[110] A man in Yorkshire committed suicide at the news; a sergeant on the Western Front was heard to exclaim "Now we’ve lost the war. Now we’ve lost the war"; and a nurse wrote home to her family that she knew Britain would win as long as Kitchener lived, and now that he was gone: "How awful it is – a far worse blow than many German victories. So long as he was with us we knew even if things were gloomy that his guiding hand was at the helm."[110]

General Douglas Haig commanding the British Armies on the Western Front remarked on first receiving the news of Kitchener's death via a German radio signal intercepted by the British Army, "How shall we get on without him."[111] King George V wrote in his diary: 'It is indeed a heavy blow to me and a great loss to the nation and the allies.' He ordered army officers to wear black armbands for a week.[112]

C. P. Scott, editor of The Manchester Guardian, is said to have remarked that "as for the old man, he could not have done better than to have gone down, as he was a great impediment lately."[113]

Conspiracy theories

Kitchener's great fame, the suddenness of his death, and its apparently convenient timing for a number of parties gave almost immediate rise to a number of conspiracy theories about his death. One in particular was posited by Lord Alfred Douglas (of Oscar Wilde fame), positing a connection between Kitchener's death, the recent naval Battle of Jutland, Winston Churchill, and a Jewish conspiracy. Churchill successfully sued Douglas in what proved to be the last successful case of criminal libel in British legal history, and the latter spent six months in prison.[114] Another claimed that the Hampshire did not strike a mine at all, but was sunk by explosives secreted in the vessel by Irish Republicans.[109]

In 1926, a hoaxer named Frank Power claimed in the Sunday Referee newspaper that Kitchener's body had been found by a Norwegian fisherman. Power brought a coffin back from Norway and prepared it for burial in St Paul's Cathedral. At this point, however, the authorities intervened and the coffin was opened in the presence of police and a distinguished pathologist. The box was found to contain only tar for weight. There was widespread public outrage at Power, but he was never prosecuted.[115]

Image
FBI file photo of Duquesne

General Erich Ludendorff, Generalquartiermeister and joint head (with von Hindenburg) of Germany's war effort stated in the 1920s that Russian communists working against the Tsar had betrayed the plan to visit the Russians to the German command. His account was that Kitchener was "[killed] because of his ability" as it was feared he would help the tsarist Russian Army to recover.[116]

Frederick Joubert Duquesne, a Boer soldier and spy, claimed that he had assassinated Kitchener after an earlier attempt to kill him in Cape Town failed.[117] He was arrested and court-martialled in Cape Town and sent to the penal colony of Bermuda, but managed to escape to the U.S.[118] MI5 confirmed that Duquesne was "a German intelligence officer ... involved in a series of acts of sabotage against British shipping in South American waters during the [First World] war";[119] he was wanted for: "murder on the high seas, the sinking and burning of British ships, the burning of military stores, warehouses, coaling stations, conspiracy, and the falsification of Admiralty documents."[120]

Duquesne's story was that he returned to Europe, posed as the Russian Duke Boris Zakrevsky in 1916, and joined Kitchener in Scotland.[121] While on board HMS Hampshire with Kitchener, Duquesne signalled a German submarine that then sank the cruiser, and was rescued by the submarine, later being awarded the Iron Cross for his efforts.[121] Duquesne was later apprehended and tried by the authorities in the U.S. for insurance fraud, but managed to escape again.[122]

In the Second World War, he ran a German spy ring in the United States until he was caught by the FBI in what became the biggest roundup of spies in U.S. history: the Duquesne Spy Ring.[123] Coincidentally, Kitchener's brother was to die in office in Bermuda in 1912, and his nephew, Major H.H. Hap Kitchener, who had married a Bermudian,[124][125] purchased (with a legacy left to him by his uncle) Hinson's Island, part of the former Prisoner of War camp from which Duquesne had escaped, after the First World War as the location of his home and business.[126][127][128]

Legacy

Kitchener is officially remembered in a chapel on the north-west corner of St. Paul's Cathedral in London, near the main entrance, where a memorial service was held in his honour.[129]

In Canada, the city of Berlin, Ontario, named in respect to a large German immigrant settler population, was officially renamed Kitchener on 1 September 1916.[130]

Since 1970, the opening of new records has led historians to rehabilitate Kitchener's reputation to some extent. Robin Neillands, for instance, notes that Kitchener consistently rose in ability as he was promoted.[131] Some historians now praise his strategic vision in the First World War, especially his laying the groundwork for the expansion of munitions production and his central role in the raising of the British army in 1914 and 1915, providing a force capable of meeting Britain's continental commitment.[2]

His commanding image, appearing on recruiting posters demanding "Your country needs you!", remains recognised and parodied in popular culture.[132]

Memorials

Image
Kitchener Memorial at Marwick Head on Mainland, Orkney

• As a British soldier who was lost at sea in the First World War and has no known grave, Kitchener is commemorated on the Commonwealth War Graves Commission's Hollybrook Memorial at Southampton, Hampshire.[133]
• Blue plaques have been erected to mark where Kitchener lived in Westminster[134] and at Broome Park near Canterbury.[135]
• The NW chapel of All Souls at St. Paul's Cathedral, London, not normally open to visitors, was rededicated the Kitchener Memorial in 1925.[129] The memorial is however clearly visible from the main entrance lobby. The very dignified recumbent white marble figure was designed by Detmar Blow.[136]
• A month after his death, the Lord Kitchener National Memorial Fund was set up by the Lord Mayor of London to honour his memory. It was used to aid casualties of the war, both practically and financially; following the war's end, the fund was used to enable university educations for soldiers, ex-soldiers, their sons and their daughters, a function it continues to perform today.[137] A Memorial Book of tributes and remembrances from Kitchener's peers, edited by Sir Hedley Le Bas, was printed to benefit the fund.[138]
• The Lord Kitchener Memorial Homes in Chatham, Kent, were built with funds from public subscription following Kitchener's death. A small terrace of cottages, they are used to provide affordable rented accommodation for servicemen and women who have seen active service or their widows and widowers.[139]
• A statue of the Earl mounted on a horse is on Khartoum Road (near Fort Amherst) in Chatham, Kent.[140][141]
• The Kitchener Memorial on Mainland, Orkney, is on the cliff edge at Marwick Head, near the spot where Kitchener died at sea. It is a square, crenelated stone tower and bears the inscription: "This tower was raised by the people of Orkney in memory of Field Marshal Earl Kitchener of Khartoum on that corner of his country which he had served so faithfully nearest to the place where he died on duty. He and his staff perished along with the officers and nearly all the men of HMS Hampshire on 5 June 1916."[142][143]
• In the early 1920s, a road on a new council estate in the Kates Hill area of Dudley, Worcestershire (now West Midlands) was named Kitchener Road in honour of Lord Kitchener.[144]
• The east window of the chancel at St George's Church, Eastergate, West Sussex has stained glass commemorating Kitchener.[145]
• In December 2013, the Royal Mint announced their plans to mint commemorative two-pound coins in 2014 featuring Lord Kitchener's "Call to Arms" on the reverse.[146]
• A memorial cross for Lord Kitchener was unveiled at St Botolph's church in 1916 (near Liverpool Street station), perhaps one of the first memorials of the First World War in England.[147]
• One of the three houses of the Rashtriya Indian Military College, Dehradun, India was named after Lord Kitchener.[148]
• Half-a-dozen local communities inscribed Kitchener's name on to the memorials they were already building to their own dead, alongside the names of ordinary soldiers and sailors who had answered his 1914 appeal for volunteers and would never return.[112]

Debate on Kitchener's sexuality

Some biographers have concluded that Kitchener was a latent or active homosexual. Writers who make the case for his homosexuality include Montgomery Hyde,[149] Ronald Hyam,[150] Denis Judd[151] and Frank Richardson.[152] Philip Magnus hints at homosexuality, though Lady Winifred Renshaw said that Magnus later said "I know I've got the man wrong, too many people have told me so."[153]

The proponents of the case point to Kitchener's friend Captain Oswald Fitzgerald, his "constant and inseparable companion", whom he appointed his aide-de-camp. They remained close until they met a common death on their voyage to Russia.[149] From his time in Egypt in 1892, he gathered around him a cadre of eager young and unmarried officers nicknamed "Kitchener's band of boys". He also avoided interviews with women, took a great deal of interest in the Boy Scout movement, and decorated his rose garden with four pairs of sculptured bronze boys. According to Hyam, "there is no evidence that he ever loved a woman".[150]

George Morrison reports that A E Wearne, the Reuters representative in Peking, remarked in 1909 that Kitchener had the "failing acquired by most of the Egyptian officers, a taste for buggery".[154]

According to A. N. Wilson his interests were not exclusively homosexual. "When the great field marshal stayed in aristocratic houses, the well informed young would ask servants to sleep across their bedroom threshold to impede his entrance. His compulsive objective was sodomy, regardless of their gender."[155]

Honours and decorations

Decorations


Image
Garter-encircled shield of Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

Image
Duffus Bros, platinum print/NPG P403. Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener of Khartoum, 1901
Kitchener's decorations included:


British

• Knight of the Order of the Garter (KG) – 3 June 1915[156]
• Knight of the Order of St Patrick (KP) – 19 June 1911[157]
• Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) – 15 November 1898[158] (KCB – 17 November 1896;[159] CB – 8 November 1889[160])
• Member of the Order of Merit (OM) – 12 July 1902[58][161]
• Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India (GCSI) – 25 June 1909[162]
• Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) – 29 November 1900[163] (KCMG – 12 February 1894;[164] CMG – 6 August 1886[165])
• Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE) – 1 January 1908[166]

Foreign

• Order of Osmanieh (Ottoman Empire) first class – 7 December 1896[167] (second class – 30 April 1894;[168] third class – 11 June 1885[169])
• Order of the Medjidie (Ottoman Empire) first class – 18 November 1893[170] (second class – 18 June 1888[171])

Honorary regimental appointments

• Honorary Colonel, Scottish Command Telegraph Companies (Army Troops, Royal Engineers) – 1898[172]
• Honorary Colonel, East Anglian Divisional Engineers, Royal Engineers – 1901[172]
• Honorary Colonel, 5th (Militia) Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers – 11 June 1902[173]
• Honorary Colonel, 4th, later 6th Battalion, Royal Scots – 1905[172]
• Colonel Commandant, Royal Engineers – 1906[172]
• Honorary Colonel, 3rd (Special Reserve) Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers – 1908[172]
• Honorary Colonel, 7th Gurkha Rifles – 1908[172]
• Honorary Colonel, 1st County of London Yeomanry – 1910[172]
• Regimental Colonel, Irish Guards – 1914[172]

Honorary degrees and offices

• Freedom of the borough, Southampton, 12 July 1902[58]
• Freedom of the borough, Ipswich, 22 September 1902[174][175]
• Freedom of the City, Sheffield, 30 September 1902.[176]
• Freedom of the borough, Chatham, 4 October 1902[177]
• Honorary Freedom of the City of Liverpool, 11 October 1902[178]
• Honorary Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers[179]
• Honorary Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Grocers, 1 August 1902.[180]

See also

• Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan – a reconquest of territory lost by the Khedives of Egypt in 1884 and 1885 during the Mahdist War
• Frances Parker – niece and a New Zealand-born British suffragette
• I Was Lord Kitchener's Valet – a clothing boutique which achieved fame in 1960s "Swinging London"
• Kitchener's Army – an all-volunteer army formed in the United Kingdom from 1914
• Kitchener bun – a type of sweet pastry made and sold in South Australia
• Kitchener, Ontario – Canadian city renamed from Berlin after Kitchener's death
• Scapegoats of the Empire – a book by George Witton
• Statue of the Earl Kitchener, London

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• Korieh, Chima J.; Njoku, Raphael Chijioke (2007). Missions, States, and European Expansion in Africa. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415955591.
• Liddell Hart, Basil (1930). A History of the World War. Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-333-58261-6.
• MacLaren, Roy (1978). Canadians on the Nile, 1882–1898: Being the Adventures of the Voyageurs on the Khartoum Relief Expedition and Other Exploits. University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 978-0774800945.
• Magnus, Philip (1958). Kitchener: Portrait of an Imperialist. New York: E.P. Dutton. ASIN B0007IWHCY.
• Massie, Robert (2012). Dreadnought: Britain, Germany, and the Coming of the Great War. New York:Random House. ISBN 9780307819932.
• Neillands, Robin (2006). The Death of Glory: the Western Front 1915. London: John Murray. ISBN 978-0-7195-6245-7.
• Pakenham, Thomas (1979). The Boer War. Jonathan Ball Publishers. ISBN 978-0868500461.
• Pigott, Peter (2009). Canada In Sudan War Without Borders. Toronto: Dundurn Press. ISBN 978-1-55002-849-2.
• Pollock, John (2001). Kitchener: Architect of Victory, Artisan of Peace. Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-0829-8.
• Reid, Walter (2006). Architect of Victory: Douglas Haig. Birlinn Ltd, Edinburgh. ISBN 1-84158-517-3.
• Richardson, Major-General Frank M. (1981). Mars Without Venus. Imprint unknown. ISBN 978-0851581484.
• Silberman, Neil Asher (1982). Digging for God and Country: Exploration, Archaeology and the Secret Struggle for the Holy Land 1799–1917. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-51139-5.
• Terraine, John (1960). Mons, The Retreat to Victory. Wordsworth Military Library, London. ISBN 1-84022-240-9.
• Tuchman, Barbara (1962). August 1914. Constable & Co. ISBN 978-0-333-30516-4.
• Urban, Mark (2005). Generals: Ten British Generals Who Changed the World. London: Faber & Feber. ISBN 978-0571224876.
• Wilson, A. N. (2003). The Victorians. Arrow Books. ISBN 978-0099451860.
• Wood, Clement (1932). The man who killed Kitchener; the life of Fritz Joubert Duquesne. New York: William Faro, inc. ASIN B0006ALPOO.
• Woodward, David R. (1998). Field Marshal Sir William Robertson. Westport Connecticut & London: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-95422-6.

Further reading

• Arthur, Sir George (1920). Life of Lord Kitchener. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1616405656.
• Cassar, George H. (1977). Kitchener: Architect of Victory. London: Kimber. ISBN 978-0718303358.
• Conder, C. R.; Kitchener, H. H. (1881–1885). E. H. Palmer; W. Besant (eds.). Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of Topography, Orography, Hydrography and Archaeology (3 vols). London: Palestine Exploration Fund. OCLC 1894216.
• Fortescue, Sir John William (1931). Kitchener in Following the Drum. Edinburgh: Blackwood & Sons. pp. 185–250. ASIN B000X9RY9S.
• Germains, Victor Wallace (1925). The Truth about Kitchener. John Lane/Bodley Head. ASIN B000XBC3W4.
• Hodson, Yolande (1997). Kitchener, Horatio Herbert In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East Ed. Eric M. Meyers. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 300–301. ISBN 0-19-511217-2.
• Hutchison, G.S. (1943). Kitchener: The Man; With a foreword by Field Marshal Lord Birdwood. No imprint.
• King, Peter (1986). The Viceroy's Fall: How Kitchener Destroyed Curzon. Sidgwick & Jackson. ISBN 0-283-99313-8.
• McCormick, Donald (1959). The Mystery of Lord Kitchener's Death. Putnam. ASIN B0000CK9BU.
• Royle, Trevor (1985). The Kitchener Enigma. M. Joseph. ISBN 978-0718123857.
• Simkins, Peter (1988). Kitchener's Army. Pen & Sword. ISBN 978-1844155859.
• Warner, Philip (2006). Kitchener: The Man Behind the Legend. New Ed edition. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-36720-6.

External links

• Works by or about Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener at Internet Archive
• Works by Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
• Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl Kitchener
• Kitchener Scholars' Fund
• The Melik Society
• National Portrait Gallery 112 portraits
• Lord Kitchener at Project Gutenberg A short biography written in 1917 by G. K. Chesterton
• Lord Kitchener: Active Soldier, Active Freemason
• Newspaper clippings about Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Part 1 of 2

Order of the Rising Sun
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/30/19

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Image
Order of the Rising Sun
Grand Cordon badge and sash
Awarded by the Emperor of Japan
Type Order
Awarded for long and/or especially meritorious civil or military service
Status Currently constituted
Sovereign His Imperial Majesty The Emperor
Grades 1st through 8th Class (1875–2003)
Since 2003:
Grand Cordon
Gold and Silver Star (Rays, Principal Grade)
Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon (Cordon, Middle Grade)
Gold Rays with Rosette (Cordon, Junior Grade)
Gold and Silver Rays (Double Rays)
Silver Rays (Single Ray)
Precedence
Next (higher) Order of the Paulownia Flowers
Next (lower) Order of the Sacred Treasure

http://rapeutation.com/aorderrissunwik.1b.png
US Navy Admiral Dennis C. Blair being presented the badge and sash of the order (2005).

The Order of the Rising Sun (旭日章 Kyokujitsu-shō) is a Japanese order, established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji. The Order was the first national decoration awarded by the Japanese government,[1] created on 10 April 1875 by decree of the Council of State.[2] The badge features rays of sunlight from the rising sun. The design of the Rising Sun symbolizes energy as powerful as the rising sun[3] in parallel with the "rising sun" concept of Japan ("Land of the Rising Sun").

The order is awarded to those who have made distinguished achievements in international relations, promotion of Japanese culture, advancements in their field, development in welfare or preservation of the environment.[4] Prior to the end of World War II, it was also awarded for exemplary military service. Beginning in 2003, the two lowest rankings (7th and 8th classes) for the Order of the Rising Sun were abolished, with the highest degree becoming a separate order known as the Order of the Paulownia Flowers, with the single rank of Grand Cordon.[5]

While it is the third highest order bestowed by the Japanese government, it is however generally the highest ordinarily conferred order. The highest Japanese order, the Order of the Chrysanthemum, is reserved for heads of state or royalty, while the second highest order, the Order of the Paulownia Flowers, is mostly reserved for politicians.

The modern version of this honour has been conferred on non-Japanese recipients beginning in 1981 (although several foreigners were given the honor before World War II); and women were awarded the Order starting in 2003 (previously, women were awarded the Order of the Precious Crown).[6] The awarding of the Order is administered by the Decoration Bureau of the Cabinet Office headed by the Japanese Prime Minister. It is awarded in the name of the Emperor and can be awarded posthumously.

Classes

The Order was awarded in nine classes until 2003, when the Grand Cordon with Paulownia Flowers was made a separate order, and the lowest two classes were abolished. Since then, it has been awarded in six classes. Conventionally, a diploma is prepared to accompany the insignia of the order, and in some rare instances, the personal signature of the Emperor will have been added. As an illustration of the wording of the text, a translation of a representative 1929 diploma says:

By the grace of Heaven, Emperor of Japan, seated on the throne occupied by the same dynasty from time immemorial,

We confer the Second Class of the Imperial Order of Meiji upon Henry Waters Taft, a citizen of the United States of America and a director of the Japan Society of New York, and invest him with the insignia of the same class of the Order of the Double Rays of the Rising Sun, in expression of the good will which we entertain towards him.

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hand and caused the Grand Seal of State to be affixed at the Imperial Palace, Tokyo, this thirteenth day of the fifth month of the fourth year of Shōwa, corresponding to the 2,589th year from the accession to the throne of Emperor Jimmu."[7]


Insignia

The star for the Grand Cordon and Second Class is a silver star of eight points, each point having three alternating silver rays; the central emblem is identical to the badge. It is worn on the left chest for the Grand Cordon, on the right chest for the 2nd Class.

The badge for the Grand Cordon to Sixth Classes is an eight-pointed badge bearing a central red enamelled sun disc, with gilt points (1st–4th Classes), with four gilt and four silver points (5th Class), or with silver points (6th Class); each point comprises three white enamelled rays. It is suspended from three enamelled paulownia leaves (not chrysanthemum leaves as the Decoration Bureau page claims) on a ribbon in white with red border stripes, worn as a sash from the right shoulder for the Grand Cordon, as a necklet for the 2nd and 3rd Classes and on the left chest for the 4th to 6th Classes (with a rosette for the 4th Class).

The badge for the Seventh and Eighth Classes consisted of a silver medal in the shape of three paulownia leaves, enamelled for the 7th Class and plain for the 8th Class. Both were suspended on a ribbon, again in white with red border stripes, and worn on the left chest. Both classes were abolished in 2003 and replaced by the Order of the Paulownia Flowers, a single-class order that now ranks above the Order of the Rising Sun.

Notable recipients

1st Class, Grand Cordon


• V. Krishnamurthy, 2009
• Ashwani Kumar, 2017
• Rear Admiral Ali Osman Pasha, 1890
• Sultan Ibrahim (1873–1959), 1934
• Edmund Allenby, 1921[8]
• Thamir Ghadhban, 2016[9]
• Karu Jayasuriya, 2016
• James F. Amos, 2014[10]
• Michael Armacost, 2007[11]
• Richard Armitage, 2015
• Pridi Banomyong (1900–1983)[12]
• Mahathir Mohamad, 1991
• Arthur Barrett, 1921[13]
• Edmund Barton (1849–1920), 1905[14]
• Carol Bellamy, 2006[15]
• Felix von Bendemann, 1906[16]
• Abdelmalek Benhabyles, 2012.[17]
• Charles Reed Bishop (1822–1915)[18]
• Sepp Blatter, 2009[19][20]
• Gustave Emile Boissonade (1825–1910), 1909
• Sydney Brenner (1927–), 2017[21]
• Laurens Jan Brinkhorst, 2009[20][22]
• Arleigh Burke (1901–1996)[23]
• Erwin Bälz (1849–1913), 1905
• George W. Casey Jr. 2010[24]
• Krasae Chanawongse, 2004[25]
• Dick Cheney, 2018
• Helen Clark, 2017[26]
• James Wheeler Davidson (1872–1933), 1896
• Kemal Derviş, 2009[27][28]
• Malcolm Fraser, 2006[3]
• Jerome Isaac Friedman, 2016
• Sir Stephen Gomersall KCMG, 2015[29]
• Hermann Göring (1893–1946)
• António Guterres, 2002[30]
• Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX (1912–1988)
• John Hamre, 2016
• Kenzaburo Hara (1907–2004)
• Harry B. Harris Jr., 2018
• Dennis Hastert, 2010[31]
• Bob Hawke, 2012[32]
• Soichiro Honda, 1991
• John Howard, 2013[33]
• Masaru Ibuka (1908–1997)[34]
• Daniel Inouye, 2000[35]
• Henry Jackson (1855–1929)[36]
• S. Jayakumar, 2012[37]
• Karu Jayasuriya (1940–), 2016
• Anerood Jugnauth, 1988[38]
• Henk Kamp, 2014[39]
• Ginandjar Kartasasmita, 2008[40]
• Bert Koenders, 2014[39]
• Jorge Kosmas Sifaki 2014
• Sir John Kotelawala (4 April 1895 – 2 October 1980), 1954
• Komura Jutarō (1855–1911)[41]
• Lee Hsien Loong (1952–), 2016[42]
• Abhakara Kiartivongse[43]
• Lee Kuan Yew (1923–2015), 1967[44]
• Curtis LeMay (1906–1990) 1964[45]
• Wangari Maathai, 2009[20][46]
• Douglas MacArthur (1880–1964)[47]
• Sir John Major, 2012
• John McCain, 2018[48]
• John McEwen, 1973[49]
• Franz-Michael Skjold Mellbin, 2011
• Robert Menzies (1894–1978), 1973[50]
• Norman Yoshio Mineta (1931–), 2007[51]
• Amina C. Mohamed, 2017 [52]
• Ernest Moniz, 2017[53]
• Ivan Mrkić, 2018[54]
• Hendrik Pieter Nicolaas Muller (1859–1941)
• A. M. Nair, alias "Nair-San"
• Peter Pace, 2007[55]
• Andrew Peacock, 2017[56]
• Nancy Pelosi, 2015
• William Perry, 2002[57]
• Herbert Plumer (1857–1932)
• Józef Piłsudski, 1928[58]
• Plaek Phibunsongkhram, 1942
• Edward A. Rice Jr.[59]
• Donald Rumsfeld, 2015
• Eishiro Saito, in 1992[60]
• Klaus Schwab, 2013
• Abid Sharifov, 2016
• Shoichiro Toyoda, 2002[61]
• Chea Sim, 2013[62]
• Dr. Manmohan Singh, 2014[63]
• Edward Śmigły-Rydz, (1886–1941)[64]
• Takeshita Isamu (1869–1949), 1920
• Strobe Talbott, 2016
• Her Majesty Queen Te Atairangikaahu of New Zealand (1931–2006), 1970
• John Anthony Cecil Tilley (1869–1952)[65]
• Tokugawa Yoshinobu (1837–1913), 1908[66]
• Goh Chok Tong, 2011[67]
• Gough Whitlam, 2006[3]
• Sir John Whitehead GCMG CVO, (1932–2013), 2006[68]
• Cesar Virata, 2016
• Tengku Ahmad Rithauddeen, 2018[69]
• Võ Hồng Phúc, 2012[70]
• Wataru Kubo, 2001[71]
• Jay Rockefeller, 2013[72]
• Robert Gates, 2017 [73]
• Condoleezza Rice, 2017[74]
• Sir John Tilley (diplomat) (1869-1952), 1927 & 1928[75]

2nd Class, Gold and Silver Star

• Mohammad Hossein Adeli, 2014[76]
• Momofuku Ando (1910–2007), 2002[77]
• Jagdish Bhagwati, 2006[78]
• Arden L. Bement, Jr., 2009[20][22]
• Henryka Bochniarz, 2010[79]
• Louis Bols (1867–1930), 1921[8]
• Gustave Emile Boissonade (1825–1910), 1876[80]
• Donald Prentice Booth (1902–1993), 1961[81][82]
• Georges Hilaire Bousquet (1846–1937), 1898[83]
• Jules Brunet (1838–1911)
• Horace Capron (1804–1885), 1884[84]
• Chang Yung-fa, 2012[85]
• Rita R. Colwell, 2005[86]
• William Douglas Crowder, 2008[87]
• Gerald Curtis, 2005[88]
• Marzuki Darusman, 2017[89][90]
• Sir Joseph Dimsdale (1849–1902), 1902[91]
• Kiin Donarudo, 1993[92]
• Hugh Elles (1880–1945)[93]
• Bill Frenzel, 2000[77][94]
• Thamir Ghadhban, 2016[9]
• Thomas Blake Glover (1838–1911), 1908[95]
• William Reginald Hall (1870–1943)[36]
• Lionel Halsey (1872–1946)[36]
• Michael Kirby, 2017[89][90][96]
• Michał Kleiber, 2012[97]
• David C. Knapp, (1927–2010)[98]
• Tommy Koh, 2009[99]
• Jeffrey Koo, 2012[85]
• George Trumbull Ladd (1842–1921)[100]
• Cecil Lambert (1864–1928)[36]
• Tsung-Dao Lee 2007[101]
• Charles LeGendre (1830–1899), 1874[102]
• Lilia B. de Lima, 2006[103]
• Predrag Filipov, 2019[104]
• William Flynn Martin, 2018[105]
• Connie Morella (1931–), 2016[106]
• Riccardo Muti, 2016[107]
• Thottuvelil Krishna Pillai Ayappan Nair 2015
• Hideyo Noguchi (1876–1928), 1928[108]
• George R. Packard 2007[109]
• Jerzy Pomianowski[110]
• Randles, Sir John Scurrah, 1875-1945
• Chintamani Nagesa Ramachandra Rao, 2015[111]
• Rein Raud, 2011[112]
• Johannis de Rijke (1842–1913)[113]
• Wilbur L. Ross (1937–), 2015[114]
• Vsevolod Rudnev (1855–1913), 1907[115]
• Jacob Schiff (1847–1920), 1907[116]
• William Francis Sempill (1893–1965)[117][118]
• N. K. Singh (2016)[119]
• Jouko Skinnari, 2011[120]
• E. Sreedharan (1932–), 2013[121]
• Wendell M. Stanley (1904–1971), 1966[122]
• Michael Ira Sovern 2003[123]
• Sayidiman Suryohadiprojo [id], 2012[124]
• Washington SyCip, 2017[125]
• Henry W. Taft (1859–1945), 1929[7]
• Frederick Charles Tudor Tudor (1863–1946)[36]
• Charles Vaughan-Lee (1867–1928)[36]
• John Waldron (1909–1975) 1971[126]
• Bryon Wilfert, 2011[127]
• Ernst-Ludwig Winnacker, 2009[20]
• Richard J. Wood, 2010[128]
• Philip Yeo, 2007[129]
• Jaime Zóbel de Ayala, 2018[130]
• José Manuel Entrecanales [es], 2018[131]
• indian foreign diplomat shyam saran (2019)

3rd Class, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon

• James Curtis Hepburn (1815–1911)[132]
• Gustave Eiffel (1832–1923)
• José Luis Ceacero Inguanzo, 1886
• George Trumbull Ladd (1842–1921)[133]
• John Charles Hoad (1856–1911), 1906[134]
• Kanō Jigorō (1860–1938)[135]
• Otto Hermann Kahn (1867–1934)[136]
• John Milne (1850–1913)[137][138]
• Percival Hall-Thompson (1874—1950)[139]
• Miles Wedderburn Lampson (1880–1964)[140]
• William Elliot Griffis (1843–1928), 1926[141]
• David Bowman Schneder, 1936[142]
• T. Wayland Vaughan (1870–1952), 1940[143]
• István Ujszászy (1894–1948), 1942[144]
• Edmund Blunden (1896–1974), 1963
• Kyuzo Mifune (1883–1965), 1964[145]
• Ichimatsu Tanaka (1895–1983), 1967
• Shinichi Suzuki (1898–1998), circa 1970[146]
• Yanosuke Hirai (1902–1986), 1972
• Jiro Horikoshi (1903–1982), 1973[147]
• Edward Seidensticker, 1975[148]
• Taiichi Ohno, 1982[149]
• Mahdi Elmandjra, 1986[150][circular reference]
• Go Seigen aka Wu Qing Yuan (1914–2014), 1987[151]
• Norman Macrae (1923–2010), 1988[152]
• Earl Miner (1926–2004)[153]
• Joseph K.H. Uy, 1991.[154]
• Ian Nish, 1991[155]
• Andrzej Wajda, 1995[156]
• Edwin McClellan (1925–2009), 1998[157]
• Pyle, Kenneth B. 1999[158][159]
• Peter Drysdale, 2001[160]
• Rustum Roy, 2002[161]
• Susumu Honjo, 2003[162]
• John Howes, (1924–2017), 2003[163]
• Harue Kitamura, 2004[164]
• Robert Garfias, 2005[165]
• Judit Hidasi, 2005[166]
• Kirsti Koch Christensen, 2006[167]
• Willy Vande Walle, 2006[168]
• Jacob Raz, 2006[169]
• Stanisław Filipek, 2006[170]
• Carol Gluck, 2006[171]
• Jochem P. Hanse, 2007[172]
• Patrick Lennox Tierney, 2007[173]
• Charles Wolf, Jr, 2007[174]
• Kusuma Karunaratne[175]
• David Rowe-Beddoe, Baron Rowe-Beddoe, 2008[176]
• Edward Gage Nelson, 2008[177]
• Jerzy Nowacki, 2008[178]
• Emiko "Emily" Sano, 2008[179][180][181]
• Susan Pharr, 2008[182]
• John Powles, 2008[183][184]
• Royall Tyler, 2008[181]
• Setsuko Matsunaga Nishi, 2009[20][185]
• James E. Auer, 2009[186]
• Clint Eastwood, 2009[20][187]
• Edwin Cranston, 2009[20][188]
• Umberto Pineschi, 2009[20][189]
• R.J. Zwi Werblowsky, 2009[190]
• David Russell, 2010[191]
• John O'Conor, 2011[192]
• Ben Nighthorse Campbell, 2011[193]
• Albert Diamond Cohen, 2011[127]
• Jack Fujimoto, 2011[194]
• Kuo-Hsiung Lee, 2011[195]
• Lydia Yu-Jose, 2012[196]
• Muhammad Nurul Islam (b. 1943) (2012)
• Romuald Huszcza, 2012[197]
• Stephen Ira Katz, 2012[198]
• Ivan Bondarenko, 2012[199]
• William Forbes-Sempill, 19th Lord Sempill[200]
• George Tanabe, Jr., 2013[201]
• Richard Bowring, 2013[202]
• Matthew H. Molloy, 2013[202][203]
• Rust Macpherson Deming, 2013[204]
• Kent E. Calder, 2014[205]
• Michael Donnelly, 2014[206]
• Carlos Rubio López de la Llave, 2014.[207]
• Dr. Nghiem Vu Khai, 2014.[208]
• Craig Agena, 2014[209]
• Peter O'Malley, 2015[210]
• Keiichi Ishizaka, 2015[211]
• Dennis M. Ogawa, 2016[212]
• Paul Magnette, 2016
• Yves Leterme, 2016
• Rudy Demotte, 2016
• Rudi Vervoort, 2016
• Raaj Kumar Sah, 2017[213][214][215]
• Paul Watanabe, 2017[216][217]
• Dr. Susumu Nisizaki, 2018[218]
• John Mark Ramseyer, 2018[219]
• Ronald P. Dore[220]
• Tan Sri Dr. Ahmad Tajuddin Ali[citation needed]
• Sadia Rashid, 2019[221]
• Robert Huey, 2019[222]

4th Class, Gold Rays with Rosette

• Charles Von Loewenfeldt, 1987[223]
• Kenji Ekuan, 2000[224]
• Toshiko Akiyoshi, 2004[225]
• Boris Akunin, 2009[226]
• Martha Argerich, 2005[227]
• Andrej Bekeš, 2008[228]
• Henry Pike Bowie, 1909[229]
• James R. Brandon, 1994[230]
• William Penn Brooks, 1888[231]
• David Cope, 2012
• Willard G. Clark (1930–2015), 1991[232]
• Bogna Barbara Dziechciaruk-Maj, 2009[233]
• William Elliot Griffis, 1843–1928[141]
• Glen Gondo, 2013.[234]
• Steven Heine, 2007[235]
• Asao Hirano, 2001[236]
• William Imbrie, 1909[237]
• Randall Sidney Jones, 2015[238]
• Rena Kanokogi, 2008[239]
• Kihachirō Kawamoto, 1995[240]
• Keisuke Kinoshita (1912–1998), 1984[241]
• Włodzimierz Kwieciński, 2012[242]
• Tommy Lasorda, 2008[243]
• Alfred Majewicz, 2002[244]
• Leiji Matsumoto, 2010[245]
• Hazel McCallion, 2014[246]
• Frank A. Miller, 1929[247]
• Shiro Floyd Mori, 2012[248]
• Kent Nagano, 2008[249]
• Hideyo Noguchi (1876–1928), 1915[250]
• David Bowman Schneder, 1917[251]
• Krystyna Okazaki, 2007[11]
• Takao Saito, 2010[252]
• Frederik L. Schodt, 2009[20][253]
• Dr. Manmohan Singh, 2007[254]
• George Shima, 1864–1926[255]
• Tatsuzo Shimaoka (1919–2007), 1999[256]
• Joseph Bower Siddall (1840–1904) 1909[257]
• George Takei, 2004[258]
• Mohammad Hatta (1902–1980) 1943
• Masanobu Tsuji (1902–1961), 1942[259]
• Morihei Ueshiba (1883–1969) 1964[260]
• H. Paul Varley, 1966[261]
• Teruaki Yamagishi, 2008[262]
• Sadao Watanabe, 2005[263]
• Sukarno ( 1901–1970) 1943
• Reiko Hayama [fr] ( 1933–....) 2011
• George Kerr (judoka), 2010[264]
• Charles B. Doleac, Esq., 2011[265]
• Arvydas Ališauskas, 2012[266]
• Rokusaburo Michiba, 2007[267]
• Bobby Charlton, 2012[268]
• The Ventures, 2010[269]
• Dragan Stojković, 2015[270]
• William Scott Wilson, 2015[271]
• Daniel Ost, 2015[272]
• Ferran Adrià. 2015[273]
• Hank Aaron, 2016[274]
• Ivica Osim, 2016[275]
• Masaya Nakamura (1925–2017), 2007[276]
• Myint Wai, 2014[277]
• Dr Aung Kyaw, 2014[277]
• Stephen McEnally, 2017[277]
• Charles Aznavour, 2018
• Kenneth Oye, 2018[278]
• Kenneth H. DeHoff,[279] 2018[280]
• Edwina Palmer, 2018[281]
• Ted Goossen 2018[282]
• David Hughes, 2018[283]
• Raymond S. Uno, 2014[284]
• Carlos Aquino, 2019[285]
• Liao I-chiu (2014)[286]

5th Class, Gold and Silver Rays

• Vincenzo Ragusa (1841–1927), 1884
• George Geddie (1869–1961), 1907[287]
• Rudolf Teusler (1876–1934)[288]
• Kowalewski, Jan (1892–1965), 1923[289]
• Major Douglas Estment Randall, MC (1891–1926), 1925[290][291]
• Kenzo Mori (1914–2007)[292]
• Hironori Ōtsuka (1892–1982), 1966[293]
• Steere Noda, 1968[294]
• Kiyoshi Nishiyama (1893–1983), 1977[295]
• Shōshin Nagamine (1907–1997)
• Yoshizawa, Akira (1911–2005), 1983[296]
• James Takemori (1926–2015), 2004[297]
• Dato' Sri Lee Ee Hoe, 2005[298]
• Shūgorō Nakazato, 2007
• Major Philip Malins MBE MC, 2010[299]
• Ronald Stewart Watt, 2010[269]
• Frances Hashimoto, 2012[300]
• Maki Hiroyuki Miyahara, 2011[301]
• Soleiman Mehdizadeh, 2012[302]
• Jun Noguchi, 2011[303]
• Seiichi Tanaka, 2013[304]
• Low Thian Seng, 2015[305]
• Robert Tadashi Banno, Q.C., 2016[306]
• Mary-Grace Browning, MBE, 2016[307]
• Tom Curtin, 2016[308]
• Vytautas Dumčius, 2016[309]
• Istvan Pinczès, 2016[310]
• Suki Terada Ports, 2016[311]
• Heidi Potter, 2016[277]
• Garrett Serikawa (1932-2019), 2016[312]
• Jalil Sultanov, 2016, director of the Museum of Japanese Internees in Tashkent, Uzbekistan[313][314]
• Marvin Tokayer, 2016[315]
• Dick Beyer, 2017
• Toshihiro Hamano, 2017[316]
• Doreen Simmons, 2017[317]
• Donald A. Wood, 2017[318]
• James F. Hettinger, 2018[319]
• Elise Wessels, 2019[320]

6th Class, Silver Rays

• Henry Hajimu Fujii (1886–1976), 1971[321]
• Bolesław Orliński, 1926[170]
• Fudeko Reekie, 2013[322]
• John Wilson (Captain) (1851–1899), 1895

7th Class, Green Paulownia Leaves Medal

In 2003, the 7th and 8th levels – named for leaves of the Paulownia tree, long used as a mon (emblem) for the highest levels of Japanese society – were moved to a new and distinct order, the single-class Order of the Paulownia Flowers.[5]

• Tetsuzō Iwamoto 1942
• Leonard Kubiak 1926[323]

8th Class, White Paulownia Leaves Medal

In 2003, the 7th and 8th levels – named for leaves of the Paulownia tree, long used as a mon (emblem) for the highest levels of Japanese society – were moved to a new and distinct order, the single-class Order of the Paulownia Flowers.[5]

Class unknown

• Aung, San (1915–1947)[77]
• Beneš, Edvard (1884–1948), 1928
• Ralph T. Browning (1941–2018)[324]
• Burzagli, Ernesto (1873–1944), 1906[325]
• Craig, Albert M. (1988)[326]
• de Bary, William Theodore (1993)[327]
• Eichelberger, Robert Lawrence (1886–1961)[328]
• Ellis, Alfred John (b. 1915), 1989[329]
• Fortescue, Granville Roland (1875–1952)[330]
• Gibney, Frank B. (1976)[331]
• Józef Gieysztor[332]
• Grondijs, Louis (1878–1961)
• Hosoya, Judayu (1840–1907)
• Ibrahim, Sultan of Johor (1873–1959)
• Knott, Cargill G. (1856–1922), 1891[333]
• Wiesław Kotański, 1986[334]
• Kunz, George Frederick (1856–1932)
• Charles, Count of Limburg Stirum (1906–1989)
• Henryk Lipszyc, 1992[335]
• Macrae, Norman, 1988Macrae, Norman (1999). John Von Neumann: The Scientific Genius who Pioneered the Modern Computer, Game Theory, Nuclear Deterrence, and Much More. American Mathematical Society. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-8218-2676-8.</ref>
• McKenzie, Lionel W. (1995)
• Morrison, George F. (1867–1943)
• Musa Ghiatuddin Riayat Shah, Sultan of Selangor (1893–1955)
• Ozaki Yukio (1858–1954)[336]
• Paine, Godfrey (1871–1932), 1918[337]
• Patrick, Hugh Talbot 1994[338]
• Raymond, Rossiter W. (1840–1918)
• Takamine Hideo (1854–1910)
• Tokuda, Kip (1946–2013), 2012[339]
• Tsutakawa, George (1910–1997), 1874
• Wasson, James R. (1847–1923), 1874[340]
• Franciszek Ziejka [pl][341]
• Ivan Ivanovich Zarubin (1822–1902), 1881[342]
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30848
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Sep 30, 2019 9:59 am

Part 2 of 2

See also

• Order of Civil Merit (Korea)
• Order of Chula Chom Klao and Order of the White Elephant (Thailand)
• Order of St. Michael and St. George (UK)
• Legion of Honour (France)
• Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (Grand Merit Cross, Merit Cross and Merit Medal equivalents)
• Order "For Merit to the Fatherland" (Russia)
• Order of Isabella the Catholic (Spain)
• Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
• Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria (Grand Decoration in Gold with Sash, in Gold with Star, in Gold, Grand Decoration of Honour, Decoration of Honour in Gold, Decoration of Merit in Gold)
• Order of Prince Henry (Portugal)

Notes

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7. Honor awarded 1929: "Japanese Emperor Honors H.W. Taft; Consul-General Gives Insignia for Fostering International Friendship. Diploma Also Presented; Brother of Chief Justice Receives Order of Rising Sun at Exercises Here," New York Times, 28 June 1929.
8. "No. 32201". The London Gazette (Supplement). 18 January 1921. p. 572.
9. http://www.iraq.emb-japan.go.jp/Press_R ... 60429e.pdf
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12. aka Luang Pradist ManudharmPridi Banomyong (1974). Ma vie mouvementee et mes 21 ans d'exil en Chine populaire (in French). UNESCON.
13. "No. 32428". The London Gazette (Supplement). 19 August 1921. p. 6569.London Gazette issue 32428, 19 August 1921
14. Rutledge, Martha. (1979). "Barton, Sir Edmund (1849–1920)," Australian Dictionary of Biography,Volume 7, pp 194–200; Scaramouche. "Sir Edmund Barton" Archived 20 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine
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200. Program on Lord Sempill and Japanese espionage, BBC 24 May 2012
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204. "Conferral of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon upon Ambassador Rust Macpherson Deming Adjunct Professor of Japan Studies at Johns Hopkins University". Embassy of Japan in the United States. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
205. "Conferral of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon,upon Professor Kent Eyring Calder, Director of Edwin O. Reischauer Center for East Asian Studies at Johns Hopkins University". Embassy of Japan in the United States. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
206. "Ceremony Confers Japanese Decoration Upon Professor Emeritus of University of Toronto". Consulate-General of Japan in Toronto. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
207. Colao, Leticia (11 March 2014). "El talaverano Carlos Rubio recibe la Orden del Sol Naciente de Japón". La tribuna de Toledo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
208. "Mr. Nghiem Vu Khai, Chairman of Vietnam - Japan Fraternity, receives Order of the Rising Sun 3rd Class". 21 August 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
209. "List of Order Recipients" (PDF). Ministry Foreign Affairs Japan. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
210. "Recipients of Spring 2015 Decorations". Consulate-General of Japan in Los Angeles. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
211. "Former RIAJ chairman Ishizaka Keiichi gets Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon medal". Recording Industry Association of Japan.
212. "UH professor receives medal from Emperor of Japan". University of Hawaiʻi System News. 24 May 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
213. "Raaj Sah". Harris School of Public Policy. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
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218. "2018 Ceremony of Condecoration, Dr. Susumu Nisizaki".
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230. Jortner, David; Foley, Kathy (Fall 2001). "James R. Brandon". Asian Theatre Journal. University of Hawai'i Press. 28 (2): 350. JSTOR 41306497.
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241. Honor awarded 1984: Bergan, Ronald. "A satirical eye on Japan: Keisuke Kinoshita, film director; born December 5, 1912; died December 30, 1998," The Guardian (Manchester). January 5, 1999.
242. "Włodzimierz Kwieciński odznaczony Orderem Wschodzącego Słońca, Złote Promienie z Rozetą"
243. Lasorda honored by Japan, MLB.com, December 3, 2008
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249. "Maestro Kent Nagano Awarded Order of the Rising Sun". Consulate-General of Japan in San Francisco. 7 December 2008. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012.
250. Honor awarded 1915: Kita, Atsushi (2005). Dr. Noguchi's Journey: A Life of Medical Search and Discovery, p. 196.
251. Pierson, Delvan L. (1918). The Missionary Review of the World, January to December 1917. pp. XIV.
252. "Golgo 13's Saito, Sunset on 3rd St.'s Saigan Win Medals". Anime News Network. 28 April 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
253. Anime News Network: "Frederik L. Schodt Wins The Order of the Rising Sun Award," April 29, 2009.
254. "Embassy of Japan in India: Press Releases from the Embassy". www.in.emb-japan.go.jp.
255. Yoshimura, Toshio. (1981). George Shima, Potato King and Lover of Chinese Classics, p. 53.
256. Honor awarded 1999: Whiting, David. "Obituary: Tatsuzo Shimaoka; Japanese potter steeped in folk traditions who became a cultural ambassador," The Guardian (Manchester). January 17, 2008.
257. "Image gallery: medal". British Museum.
258. "George Takei, bio notes". Georgetakei.com. Archived from the original on 22 September 2001. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
259. Honor awarded 1942: Tsuji, Masanobu. (1997). Japan's Greatest Victory, Britain's Worst Defeat, p. 108.
260. Honor conferred 1964: North Austin Tae Kwan Do: "Chronology of the Life of Morihei Ueshiba, Founder of Aikido."
261. Honor awarded 1996: Columbia University, Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures, Faculty Profiles
262. [2] Archived 26 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine
263. Sadao Watanabe official website: biography
264. "British Judo Association". Britishjudo.org.uk. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
265. "President and founder, Japan-America Society of New Hampshire and founder, Portsmouth Peace Treaty Forum". Archived from the original on 22 January 2012.
266. Founder of center for Japonology in Lithuania, first Japanese translator, Japanese teacher and popularizer of Japanese culture in Lithuania [3]
267. "Rokusaburo Michiba". FutureToday Inc. Archived from the original on 7 May 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
268. "Sir Bobby Charlton awarded Japanese Order". www.jfa.or.jp. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
269. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan): 2010 Spring Conferment of Decorations on Foreign Nationals,p. 8.
270. "Piksi za "Blic": Meni orden, Srbiji priznanje". Blic. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
271. "Conferral of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Rosette, upon translator William Scott Wilson" (PDF). Consulate-General of Japan in Miami. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
272. "Embassy of Japan in Belgium - News". www.be.emb-japan.go.jp.
273. "Ferran Adrià recibe la Orden del Sol Naciente". El País (in Spanish). EFE. 11 December 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
274. "Hank Aaron presented with Order of the Rising Sun". ESPN. 14 January 2016.
275. "Ivica Osim dobio priznanje vlade Japana". OSLOBODJENJE.
276. NAMCO AMERICA INC – Masaya Nakamura receives prestigious award Archived 23 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine coinopTODAY.com, 25 October 2007 (retrieved 2007-25-10)
277. "Embassy of Japan in Myanmar". www.mm.emb-japan.go.jp.
278. "2018 Spring Conferment of Decoration on Foreign Nationals" Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, 2018.[4]
279. https://www.pacificaviationmuseum.org/n ... 2008_4.pdf
280. https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000358977.pdf
281. "The Conferral of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Rosette upon Dr Edwina Palmer"(PDF) (Press release). Wellington, New Zealand: Embassy of Japan in New Zealand. 3 November 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
282. "York University Professor Conferred the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Rosette" Consulate-General of Japan in Toronto, 2018.[5]
283. “Japanese Government Honours Dr David W. Hughes” Embassy of Japan, London, U.K., 2018. [6]
284. "Japan Imperial Decoration The Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Rosette conferred upon Judge Raymond S. Uno, Former President of National Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)".
285. "Japan to honor 3 Peruvians with Order of the Rising Sun".
286. Central News Agency. "Taiwanese aquatic breeding expert wins Japan's Nikkei Asia Prize". taiwannews.com.tw. Taiwan News. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
287. "George Geddie (1869–1961) – WikiTree FREE Family Tree". www.wikitree.com. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
288. "Obituary". British Medical Journal. 2 (3844): 496. 1934. PMC 2445123. PMID 20778528.
289. Gronczewska, Anna. "Szyfrant, który sprawił cud".
290. "London Gazette issues 33043-p2919".
291. "Major Douglas Estment Randall, MC". Queensland Family Trees. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
292. Cordileone, Elvira. "Kenzo Mori: An impact on two shores," The Star (Toronto). January 22, 2007.
293. "和道流空手道連盟". www.wado-ryu.jp. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
294. Chinen, Karleen C. (2012). Hawaii's AJA Pioneers: One hundred profiles commemorating the centennial of the Hawaii Hochi. Honolulu: Hawaii Hochi. pp. 18–19.
295. Unpaginated editors' chronology appended to Kiyoshi Nishiyama, Shunkō shūshoku (春光秋色) / Seasonal Aspects of Japan (Tokyo: Asahi Sonorama, 1979) (in Japanese)(in English).
296. Honor awarded 1983: "Origami artist of stunning originality who became an ambassador for Japanese culture and his art". The Times (London). March 30, 2005; Lister, David. "Obituary: Akira Yoshizawa; Japanese craftsman who singlehandedly revived the art of origami," The Guardian (Manchester). April 8, 2005.
297. Imada, Vaughn (24 August 2015). "2015 Members of USJF Hall of Fame". United States Judo Federation. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
298. "Conferment of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Rays upon Dato' Sri Ee Hoe Lee". Embassy of Japan in Malaysia. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
299. "The Government of Japan honours Mr Philip Malins, MBE, MC". Embassy of Japan in the UK. 25 November 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
300. Endo, Ellen (5 November 2012). "Mikwaya CEO Hashimoto Passes at 69". Rafu Shimpo. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
301. "2012 Jokun Recognition Luncheon". www.rafu.com.
302. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan; 2012 Autumn Conferment of Decorations on Foreign Nationals, p. 6.
303. "Was a celebration From Kishida Masuo's official website". 11 February 2012. Retrieved 28 March2013.(岸田益雄公式ページ - 祝賀会でした)
304. "Reception in Honor of Mr. Seiichi Tanaka, Grand Master of San Francisco Taiko Dojo", Consulate-General of Japan in San Francisco, February 13, 2014 Archived 23 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine
305. "Conferment Ceremony of 2015 Autumn Imperial Decorations for Foreign Recipients". Embassy of Japan in Malaysia. 4 December 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
306. "Commendation Ceremony for Mr. Robert Tadashi Banno, Q.C., President of the Nikkei Place Foundation". Retrieved 21 September 2016.
307. "Japanese Government honours Mrs Mary-Grace Browning MBE=2016-06-28".
308. Schwan, Henry. "Concord's Tom Curtin remembered as 'brilliant'". Retrieved 21 March 2018.
309. "Apdovanojimas : Embassy of Japan in Lithuania". www.lt.emb-japan.go.jp.
310. Honor awarded 2016: Embassy of Japan in Budapest: "Government of Japan to Honor Istvan Pinczès"
311. Honor awarded 2016: Consulate-General of Japan in New York: "Government Of Japan to Honor Suki Terada Ports".
312. "Legacies" (PDF). 23 (1). Spring 2017: 7.
313. UzDaily.com. "Director of Museum of Japanese Internees awarded with Japanese order". UzDaily.com. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
314. Oguma, Hironao (24 March 2016). "Uzbek's museum keeps memories of Japanese prisoners in Soviet camps alive". Japan Times Online. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
315. http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/files/000200238.pdf
316. "平成29年春の叙勲" (PDF). www8.cao.go.jp.
317. Scott, Ellen (9 November 2017). "85-year-old Doreen receives prestigious award for her contribution to sumo wrestling". Metro. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
318. "Dr Don Wood Receives Japan's Highest Cultural Honor". Birmingham, Alabama USA: Birmingham Museum of Art.
319. "Spring Conferment of Decoration by Consulate General of Japan in Detroit to former President & CEO of Battle Creek Unlimited Mr. James F Hettinger In Recognition of His Contributions Toward Strengthening the Relationship Between Japan and the United States" (PDF). 30 April 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
320. "Conferral of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Rays upon Mrs. Elise Wessels-van Houdt, director of Nihon no hanga Museum". Embassy of Japan in the Netherlands. 21 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
321. Honor awarded on 1971: Henshall, Mary. "Pioneer Portraits: Henry and Fumiko Fujii," Idaho Yesterdays., Spring, 1975, pp. 20–27; Washington State University Libraries: "Furthering friendship between Japan and the United States, April 1971"
322. "Fudeko receives Japan's Order of the Rising Sun". Western Advocate. 29 April 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
323. Orliński, Bolesław. "Moje wrażenia z lotu do Tokjo" Lwów 1933, p. 79.
324. "Browning, Ralph (Tom)". AVHoF.org. 5 Pints Productions. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
325. Honor awarded in 1906: "Cruiser 'Livia' in Kobe to Greet Italians", Osaka Mainichi. 28 July 1922.
326. Craig, Albert M. (2010). The heritage of Japanese Civilization. Boston: Prentice Hall. pp. Author Bio. ISBN 978-0-13-600524-7.
327. Ohio University Libraries. "Scholars and Librarians in East Asian Studies (North America) - William Theodore de Bary". Retrieved 21 April 2011.
328. "Uncle Bob", Time, 10 September 1945.
329. "A. John Ellis". Simon Fraser University. Archived from the original on 19 March 2014.
330. Arlington National Cemetery: Granville Roland Foretscue
331. Cynthia Peters (4 April 2006). "Frank B. Gibney, 81, One of the Nation's Preeminent Experts on Asia and President of the Pacific Basin Institute at Pomona College, Has Died". Pomona College. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
332. Jeszcze jeden globtroter? Archived 13 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine
333. Honor awarded 1891: Penicuik Community Development Trust (UK): Cargill Gilston Knott
334. Professor Wiesław Kotański (1915–2005) wybitny uczony, japonista, wychowawca pokoleńArchived 24 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine
335. "amb. Henryk LIPSZYC" (PDF).
336. Ozaki, Yukio. (2001). ''The Autobiography of Ozaki Yukio: The Struggle for Constitutional Government in Japan, p. 393.
337. Honor awarded 1918: RAF web page
338. Honor awarded 1994: Weatherhead East Asian Institute, The Reed
339. "Former state legislator Kip Tokuda dies while fishing". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 25 August 2013.
340. Honor awarded 1874: "A Victory for the Chinese; Japanese Driven with Heavy Loss from Ping-yang", The New York Times, 22 August 1894.
341. emabe.pl. "WIADOMOŚCI - Spotkanie z prof. Franciszkiem Ziejką".
342. Russian: «Полный послужной список Корпуса Инженер Механиков Генерал-Майора Зарубина 1-го» (ЦГАВМФ СССР Фонд 406 опись 3 дело 960 лист 21 (оборотный)); English: "A full track record of Mechanical Engineering Corps Major-General Zarubin 1st" (Central State Archive of the Navy of the Soviet Union (Russian State Naval Archives now), Fond 406 inventory 3 file 960 sheet 21 (reverse side)).

References

• Peterson, James W., Barry C. Weaver and Michael A. Quigley (2001). Orders and Medals of Japan and Associated States. San Ramon, California: Orders and Medals Society of America. ISBN 1-890974-09-9.

External links

• Japan, Cabinet Office: Decorations and Medals
o Decoration Bureau: Order of the Rising Sun
• Japan Mint: Production Process
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Oct 09, 2019 9:12 pm

Political views of H.G. Wells
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 10/9/19

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-- A Modern Utopia, by H. G. Wells
-- Tales of Space and Time, by H. G. Wells
-- The History of the Fabian Society, by Edward R. Pease
-- The Open Conspiracy, by H. G. Wells
-- The Time Machine: An Invention, by H. G. Wells
-- The War of the Worlds, by H. G. Wells
-- The Way the World Is Going: Guesses & Forecasts of The Years Ahead, by H.G. Wells
-- Rabindranath Tagore: In Conversation with H. G. Wells, Excerpted from: A Tagore Reader, edited by Amiya Chakravarty
-- H. G. Wells, by Wikipedia
-- Political views of H.G. Wells, by Wikipedia
-- 'The Open Conspiracy': H.G. Wells Plots The World Empire, by Michele Steinberg
-- Celebrating HG Wells’s role in the creation of the UN Declaration of Human Rights: Wells was highly prophetic. But, asks Ali Smith, could he have foreseen that the fundamental freedoms h, set out in The Rights of Man would be under attack 75 years later?, by Ali Smith
-- H.G. Wells' Interview With Stalin Helped Change the Fundamental Principles of Liberalism, by Malcolm Cowley
-- Icarus, or The Future of Science, by Bertrand Russell
-- James Joyce: H.G. Wells reviews "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man", by H.G. Wells
-- New Republic, by Spartacus Educational
-- One of Wells’s Worlds, by John Maynard Keynes
-- The Godfather of American Liberalism: H. G. Wells: novelist, historian, authoritarian, anticapitalist, eugenicist, and advisor to presidents, by Fred Siegel
-- The Idea of a League of Nations: "What has happened is essentially this, that the natural limitations on warfare which have existed hitherto appear to have broken down.", by Herbert George Wells
-- Utopian Pessimist: The works, world view, and women of H. G. Wells, by Adam Kirsch


Herbert George Wells (1866–1946) — known as H.G. Wells — was a prolific English writer in many genres, including the novel, history, politics, and social commentary, and textbooks and rules for war games. Wells called his political views socialist.

The Fabian Society

Wells was for a time a member of the socialist Fabian Society, but broke with them as his creative political imagination, matching the originality shown in his fiction, outran theirs.[1] He later grew staunchly critical of them as having a poor understanding of economics and educational reform. He ran as a Labour Party candidate for London University in the 1922 and 1923 general elections after the death of his friend W. H. R. Rivers, but at that point his faith in the party was weak or uncertain.

Class

Social class was a theme in Wells's The Time Machine in which the Time Traveller speaks of the future world, with its two races, as having evolved from

the gradual widening of the present (19th century) merely temporary and social difference between the Capitalist and the Labourer ... Even now, does not an East-end worker live in such artificial conditions as practically to be cut off from the natural surface of the earth? Again, the exclusive tendency of richer people ... is already leading to the closing, in their interest, of considerable portions of the surface of the land. About London, for instance, perhaps half the prettier country is shut in against intrusion.[2]


Wells has this very same Time Traveller, reflecting his own socialist leanings, refer in a tongue-in-cheek manner to an imagined world of stark class division as "perfect" and with no social problem unsolved. His Time Traveller thus highlights how strict class division leads to the eventual downfall of the human race:

Once, life and property must have reached almost absolute safety. The rich had been assured of his wealth and comfort, the toiler assured of his life and work. No doubt in that perfect world there had been no unemployed problem, no social question left unsolved.[2]


In his book The Way the World is Going, Wells called for a non-Marxist form of socialism to be set up, that would avoid both class war and conflict between nations.[3]

Democracy

Fred Siegel of the center-right Manhattan Institute wrote of Wells's unflattering take on American democracy: "Wells was appalled by the decentralised nature of America's locally oriented party and country-courthouse politics. He was aghast at the flamboyantly corrupt political machines of the big cities, unchecked by a gentry that might uphold civilised standards. He thought American democracy went too far in providing leeway to the poltroons who ran the political machines and the 'fools' who supported them."[4] Siegel goes on to note Wells's dislike of America's not allowing African Americans to vote.[4]

World government

His most consistent political ideal was the World State. He stated in his autobiography that from 1900 onward he considered a World State inevitable. He envisioned the state to be a planned society that would advance science, end nationalism, and allow people to progress by merit rather than birth. Wells's 1928 book The Open Conspiracy argued that groups of campaigners should begin advocating for a "world commonwealth", governed by a scientific elite, that would work to eliminate problems such as poverty and warfare.[5] In 1932, he told Young Liberals at the University of Oxford that progressive leaders must become liberal fascists or enlightened Nazis who would "compete in their enthusiasm and self-sacrifice" against the advocates of dictatorship.[6][7] In 1940, Wells published a book called The New World Order that outlined his plan as to how a World Government would be set up. In The New World Order, Wells admitted that the establishment of such a government could take a long time, and be created in a piecemeal fashion.[8]

When the war broke out in 1914, the reports were not finished, so it was decided to print the four sections already sent out, with a concluding chapter. A thousand copies of this, with the title Project of a Commonwealth, were distributed among the groups. Then a popular volume on the subject, with the title The Problem of the Commonwealth and Curtis's name as editor, was published (May 1916). Two months later, the earlier work (Project) was published under the title The Commonwealth of Nations, again with Curtis named as editor. Thus appeared for the first time in public the name which the British Empire was to assume thirty-two years later. In the September 1916 issue of The Round Table, Kerr published a statement on the relationship of the two published volumes to the Round Table Groups. Because of the paper shortage in England, Curtis in 1916 went to Canada and Australia to arrange for the separate publication of The Problem of the Commonwealth in those countries. At the same time he set up new Round Table Groups in Australia and New Zealand. Then he went to India to begin serious work on Indian reform. From this emerged the Government of India Act of 1919, as we shall see later.

By this time Curtis and the others had come to realize that any formal federation of the Empire was impossible. As Curtis wrote in 1917 (in his Letter to the People of India): "The people of the Dominions rightly aspire to control their own foreign affairs and yet retain their status as British citizens. On the other hand, they detest the idea of paying taxes to any Imperial Parliament, even to one upon which their own representatives sit. The inquiry convinced me that, unless they sent members and paid taxes to an Imperial Parliament, they could not control their foreign affairs and also remain British subjects. But I do not think that doctrine is more distasteful to them than the idea of having anything to do with the Government of India."

Reluctantly Curtis and the others postponed the idea of a federated Empire and fell back on the idea of trying to hold the Empire together by the intangible bonds of common culture and common outlook. This had originally (in Rhodes and Milner) been a supplement to the project of a federation. It now became the chief issue, and the idea of federation fell into a secondary place. At the same time, the idea of federation was swallowed up in a larger scheme for organizing the whole world within a League of Nations. This idea had also been held by Rhodes and Milner, but in quite a different form. To the older men, the world was to be united around the British Empire as a nucleus. To Curtis, the Empire was to be absorbed into a world organization. This second idea was fundamentally mystical. Curtis believed: "Die and ye shall be born again." He sincerely felt that if the British Empire died in the proper way (by spreading liberty, brotherhood, and justice), it would be born again in a higher level of existence — as a world community, or, as he called it, a "Commonwealth of Nations."

-- The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden, by Carroll Quigley


Eugenics

Some of Wells's early science fiction works reflect his thoughts about the degeneration of humanity.[9] Wells doubted whether human knowledge had advanced sufficiently for eugenics to be successful. In 1904 he discussed a survey paper by Francis Galton, co-founder of eugenics, saying, "I believe that now and always the conscious selection of the best for reproduction will be impossible; that to propose it is to display a fundamental misunderstanding of what individuality implies... It is in the sterilisation of failure, and not in the selection of successes for breeding, that the possibility of an improvement of the human stock lies". In his 1940 book The Rights of Man: Or What are we fighting for? Wells included among the human rights he believed should be available to all people, "a prohibition on mutilation, sterilization, torture, and any bodily punishment".[10]

Race

In 1901 Wells wrote Anticipations of the Reaction of Mechanical and Scientific Progress Upon Human Life and Thought, which included the following extreme views:

"And how will the new republic treat the inferior races? How will it deal with the black? how will it deal with the yellow man? how will it tackle that alleged termite in the civilized woodwork, the Jew? Certainly not as races at all. It will aim to establish, and it will at last, though probably only after a second century has passed, establish a world state with a common language and a common rule. All over the world its roads, its standards, its laws, and its apparatus of control will run. It will, I have said, make the multiplication of those who fall behind a certain standard of social efficiency unpleasant and difficult… The Jew will probably lose much of his particularism, intermarry with Gentiles, and cease to be a physically distinct element in human affairs in a century or so. But much of his moral tradition will, I hope, never die. … And for the rest, those swarms of black, and brown, and dirty-white, and yellow people, who do not come into the new needs of efficiency?

Well, the world is a world, not a charitable institution, and I take it they will have to go. The whole tenor and meaning of the world, as I see it, is that they have to go. So far as they fail to develop sane, vigorous, and distinctive personalities for the great world of the future, it is their portion to die out and disappear.


When a race is born, the forms are ensouled by a certain group of spirits and have inherent capability of evolving to a certain stage of completion and no further. There can be no standing still in nature, therefore when the limit of attainment has been reached, the bodies or forms of that race begin to degenerate, sinking lower and lower until at last the race dies out.

The reason is not far to seek. New race bodies are particularly flexible and plastic, affording great scope for the Egos who are reborn in them to improve these vehicles and progress thereby. The most advanced Egos are brought to birth in such bodies and improve them to the best of their ability. These Egos, however, are only apprentices as yet, and they cause the bodies to gradually crystallize and harden until the limit of improvement of that particular kind of body has been reached. Then forms for another new race are created, to afford the advancing Egos further scope for more extended experience and greater development. They discard the old race bodies for the new, their discarded bodies becoming the habitations for less advanced Egos who, in their turn, use them as stepping-stones on the path of progress. Thus the old race bodies are used by Egos of increasing inferiority, gradually degenerating until at last there are no Egos low enough to profit by rebirth in such bodies. The women then become sterile and the race-forms die.

We may easily trace this process by certain examples. The Teutonic-Anglo-Saxon race (particularly the American branch of it) has a softer, more flexible body and a more high-strung nervous system than any other race on earth at the present time. The Indian and Negro have much harder bodies and, because of the duller nervous system, are much less sensitive to lacerations. An Indian will continue to fight after receiving wounds the shock of which would prostrate or kill a white man, whereas the Indian will quickly recover. The Australian aborigines or Bushmen furnish an example of a race dying out on account of sterility, notwithstanding all that the British government is doing to perpetuate them. It has been said by white men against the white race, that wherever it goes the other races dies out. The whites have been guilty of fearful oppression against those other races, having in many cases massacred multitudes of the defenseless and unsuspecting natives -- as witness the conduct of the Spaniards towards the ancient Peruvians and Mexicans, to specify but one of many instances. The obligations resulting from such betrayal of confidence and abuse of superior intellect will be paid -- yea, the last, least iota! -- by those incurring them. It is equally true, however, that even had the whites not massacred, starved, enslaved, expatriated and otherwise maltreated those older races, the latter would nevertheless have died out just as surely, though more slowly, because such is the Law of Evolution -- the Order of Nature. At some future time the white race-bodies when they become inhabited by the Egos who are now embodied in red, black, yellow or brown skins, will have degenerated so far that they also will disappear, to give place to other and better vehicles.

Science speaks only of evolution. It fails to consider the lines of degeneration which are slowly but surely destroying such bodies as have crystallized beyond possibility of improvement.


-- The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception: An Elementary Treatise Upon Man's Past Evolution, Present Constitution and Future Development, by Max Heindel


The world has a greater purpose than happiness; our lives are to serve God's purpose, and that purpose aims not at man as an end, but works through him to greater issues."[11]

Wells's 1906 book The Future in America, contains a chapter, "The Tragedy of Colour", which discusses the problems facing black Americans.[12] While writing the book, Wells met with Booker T. Washington, who provided him with much of his information for "The Tragedy of Colour".[13] Wells praised the "heroic" resolve of black Americans, stating he doubted if the US could:

show any thing finer than the quality of the resolve, the steadfast effort hundreds of black and coloured men are making to-day to live blamelessly, honourably, and patiently, getting for themselves what scraps of refinement, learning, and beauty they may, keeping their hold on a civilization they are grudged and denied.[12]


In his 1916 book What is Coming? Wells states, "I hate and despise a shrewish suspicion of foreigners and foreign ways; a man who can look me in the face, laugh with me, speak truth and deal fairly, is my brother, though his skin is as black as ink or as yellow as an evening primrose".[14]

In The Outline of History, Wells argued against the idea of "racial purity", stating: "Mankind from the point of view of a biologist is an animal species in a state of arrested differentiation and possible admixture . . . [A]ll races are more or less mixed.".[15]

In 1931 Wells was one of several signatories to a letter in Britain (along with 33 British MPs) protesting against the death sentence passed upon the African-American Scottsboro Boys.[16]

In 1943 Wells wrote an article for the Evening Standard, "What A Zulu thinks of the English", prompted by receiving a letter from a Zulu soldier, Lance Coporal Aaron Hlope.[17][18][19] "What a Zulu thinks of the English" was a strong attack on anti-black discrimination in South Africa. Wells claimed he had "the utmost contempt and indignation for the unfairness of the handicaps put upon men of colour". Wells also denounced the South African government as a "petty white tyranny".[17][18][19]

Zionism

Wells had given some moderate, unenthusiastic support for Territorialism before the First World War, but later became a bitter opponent of the Zionist movement in general. He saw Zionism as an exclusive and separatist movement which challenged the collective solidarity he advocated in his vision of a world state. No supporter of Jewish identity in general, Wells had in his utopian writings predicted the ultimate assimilation of the Jewish people.[20][21][22] In notes to accompany his biographical novel A Man of Parts, David Lodge, describes how Wells came to regret his attitudes to the Jews as he became more aware of the extent of the Nazi atrocities. This included a letter of apology written to Chaim Weizmann for earlier statements he had made.[23]

First World War

He supported Britain in the First World War,[24] despite his many criticisms of British policy, and opposed, in 1916, moves for an early peace.[25] In an essay published that year he acknowledged that he could not understand those British pacifists who were reconciled to "handing over great blocks of the black and coloured races to the [German Empire] to exploit and experiment upon" and that the extent of his own pacifism depended in the first instance upon an armed peace, with "England keep[ing] to England and Germany to Germany". State boundaries would be established according to natural ethnic affinities, rather than by planners in distant imperial capitals, and overseen by his envisaged world alliance of states.[26]

In his book In the Fourth Year published in 1918 he suggested how each nation of the world would elect, "upon democratic lines" by proportional representation, an electoral college in the manner of the United States of America, in turn to select its delegate to the proposed League of Nations.[27] This international body he contrasted with imperialism, not only the imperialism of Germany, against which the war was being fought, but also the imperialism, which he considered more benign, of Britain and France.[28] His values and political thinking came under increasing criticism from the 1920s and afterwards.[29]

Soviet Union

The leadership of Joseph Stalin led to a change in his view of the Soviet Union even though his initial impression of Stalin himself was mixed. He disliked what he saw as a narrow orthodoxy and intransigence in Stalin. He did give him some praise saying in an article in the left-leaning New Statesman magazine, "I have never met a man more fair, candid, and honest" and making it clear that he felt the "sinister" image of Stalin was unfair or false. Nevertheless he judged Stalin's rule to be far too rigid, restrictive of independent thought, and blinkered to lead toward the Cosmopolis he hoped for.[30] In the course of his visit to the Soviet Union in 1934, he debated the merits of reformist socialism over Marxism-Leninism with Stalin.[31]

Monarchy

Wells was a republican[32] and an advocate for the creation of republican clubs in the UK.[33]

Other endeavours

Wells brought his interest in Art & Design and politics together when he and other notables signed a memorandum to the Permanent Secretaries of the Board of Trade, among others. The November 1914 memorandum expressed the signatories concerns about British industrial design in the face of foreign competition. The suggestions were accepted, leading to the foundation of the Design and Industries Association.[34] In the 1920s he was an enthusiastic supporter of rejuvenation attempts by Eugen Steinach and others. He was a patient of Dr Norman Haire (perhaps a rejuvenated one) and in response to Haire's 1924 book Rejuvenation: the Work of Steinach, Voronoff, and others,[35] Wells prophesied a more mature, graver society with 'active and hopeful children' and adults 'full of years' where none will be 'aged'.[36]

In his later political writing, Wells incorporated into his discussions of the World State a notion of universal human rights that would protect and guarantee the freedom of the individual. His 1940 publication The Rights of Man laid the groundwork for the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[37]

Summary

In the end Wells's contemporary political impact was limited, excluding his fiction's positivist stance on the leaps that could be made by physics towards world peace. His efforts regarding the League of Nations became a disappointment as the organization turned out to be a weak one unable to prevent the Second World War, which itself occurred towards the very end of his life and only increased the pessimistic side of his nature. In his last book Mind at the End of its Tether (1945) he considered the idea that humanity being replaced by another species might not be a bad idea. He also came to refer to the Second World War era as "The Age of Frustration".

References

1. Cole, Margaret (1974). "H. G. Wells and the Fabian Society". In Morris, A. J. Anthony (ed.). Edwardian radicalism, 1900–1914: some aspects of British radicalism. London: Routledge. pp. 97–114. ISBN 0-7100-7866-8.
2. "The Time Machine". Retrieved 10 June 2012.
3. H. G. Wells, The Way the World is Going. London, Ernest Benn, 1928, (p. 49).
4. Siegel, Fred (2013). The Revolt Against the Masses. New York: Encounter Books, pp. 6–7.
5. Wells, H. G. The Open Conspiracy: Blue Prints for a World Revolution (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1928), (pp. 28, 44, 196).
6. Mazower, Mark, Dark Continent:Europe's Twentieth Century. New York : A.A. Knopf, 1998. ISBN 0679438092 (p. 21–22).
7. Coupland, Philip (October 2000). "H. G. Wells's "Liberal Fascism"". Journal of Contemporary History. 35 (4): 549.
8. Partington, John S. Building Cosmopolis: The Political Thought of H. G. Wells. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2003. ISBN 0754633837, (p. 16).
9. "H. G. Wells and the uses of Degeneration in Literature". Bbk.ac.uk. 1946-08-17. Retrieved 2014-03-25.
10. Andrew Clapham, Human Rights:A Very Short Introduction. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2007. ISBN 9780199205523 (pp. 29-31).
11. Wells, HG. Anticipations of the Reaction of Mechanical and Scientific Progress: Upon Human Life and Thought. pp. 340–343. ISBN 0486406732 Check |isbn= value: checksum (help).
12. H. G. Wells, The Future in America (New York and London: Harper and Brothers, 1906), p. 201 (Chs.11 & 12,).
13. Virginia L. Denton, Booker T. Washington and the Adult Education Movement. University Press of Florida, 1993. ISBN 0813011825. (p. 150, 231)
14. What is Coming? A Forecast of things after the war, London, Cassell, 1916 (p. 256).
15. H. G. Wells, The Outline of History, 3rd ed. rev. (NY: Macmillan, 1921), p. 110 (Ch. XII, §§1–2).
16. Susan D. Pennybacker, From Scottsboro to Munich: race and political culture in 1930s Britain Princeton University Press, 2009. ISBN 0691088284, (p. 29).
17. "What a Zulu Thinks of the English" was reprinted as "The Rights of Man in South Africa" i '42 to '44: A Contemporary Memoir (London, Secker and Warburg, 1944) (p. 68–74).
18. Robert Crossley, "Wells's Common Readers" in Patrick Parrinder and Christopher Rolfe, H. G. Wells Under Revision: Proceedings of the International Hg Wells Symposium London July 1986. Associated University Press, 1990. ISBN 0945636059, (p. 247).
19. John Huntington, Critical essays on H. G. Wells. G. K. Hall, 1991. ISBN 0816188564 (p. 176,177, 179)
20. Cheyette, Bryan. Constructions of "the Jew" in English Literature and Society. Cambridge University Press, 1995, pp. 143–148
21. Hamerow, Theodore S. Why we watched: Europe, America, and the Holocaust. W. W. Norton & Company, 2008, pp. 98–100, 219
22. "Desirable Aliens: British Men of Letters on The Jews". The Review of Reviews Vol. XXXIII Jan–Jun 1906, p. 378
23. Lodge, David (2011). A Man of Parts. London: Secker. p. 521. ISBN 9781846554964.
24. H. G. Wells: Why Britain Went To War (10 August 1914). The War Illustrated album de luxe. The story of the great European war told by camera, pen and pencil. The Amalgamated Press, London 1915
25. Daily Herald, 27 May 1916
26. Wells, H. G. (1916). "The White Man's Burthen". What is coming? : a forecast of things after the war. London: Cassell. p. 240. ISBN 0-554-16469-8. OCLC 9446824.
27. Wells, H. G. (1918). "The League must be representative". In the Fourth Year. London: Chatto and Windus. ISBN 1-4191-2598-2. OCLC 458935146. The president ... is chosen by a special college elected by the people .... Is there any reason why we should not adopt this method in this sending representatives to the Council of the League of Nations?
28. "The Necessary Powers of the League". In the Fourth Year. [T]he League of Free Nations, if it is to be a reality ... must do no less than supersede Empire; it must end not only this new German imperialism, which is struggling so savagely and powerfully to possess the earth, but it must also wind up British imperialism and French imperialism, which do now so largely and inaggressively possess it.
29. Experiment in Autobiography 556. Also chapter four of Future as Nightmare: H. G. Wells and the Anti-Utopians by Mark Robert Hillegas.
30. Experiment in Autobiography, pp. 215, 687–689
31. "Joseph Stalin and H. G. Wells, Marxism vs. Liberalism: An Interview". Rationalrevolution.net. Retrieved 10 June2012.
32. "...the fall of the once-mighty Romanovs only fuelled republican sympathies elsewhere...in a letter to The Times, the celebrated author H. G. Wells asserted that “the time has come to rid ourselves of the ancient trappings of throne and sceptre". Justin C Vovk, Imperial Requiem: Four Royal Women and the Fall of the Age of Empires iUniverse, 2012. ISBN 1475917503 (p. 338)
33. https://www.theguardian.com/news/1917/a ... ainsection
34. Raymond Plummer, Nothing Need be Ugly Design & Industries Assn. Jun 1985
35. Haire, Norman (1924), Rejuvenation : the work of Steinach, Voronoff, and others, G. Allen & Unwin, retrieved 15 April 2013
36. Diana Wyndham. "'Norman Haire and the Study of Sex'". Foreword by the Hon. Michael Kirby AC CMG. Sydney: "Sydney University Press"., 2012, p. 117
37. ‘Human Rights and Public Accountability in H. G. Wells’ Functional World State’ | John Partington. Academia.edu. Retrieved on 9 August 2013.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Anima mundi [World Soul]
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The world soul (Greek: ψυχὴ κόσμου psuchè kósmou, Latin: anima mundi) is, according to several systems of thought, an intrinsic connection between all living things on the planet, which relates to the world in much the same way as the soul is connected to the human body. Plato adhered to this idea and it was an important component of most Neoplatonic systems:

Therefore, we may consequently state that: this world is indeed a living being endowed with a soul and intelligence ... a single visible living entity containing all other living entities, which by their nature are all related.[1]


The Stoics believed it to be the only vital force in the universe. Similar concepts also hold in systems of eastern philosophy in the Brahman-Atman of Hinduism, the Buddha-Nature in Mahayana Buddhism, and in the School of Yin-Yang, Taoism, and Neo-Confucianism as qi.

Other resemblances can be found in the thoughts of hermetic philosophers like Paracelsus, and by Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Leibniz, Friedrich Schelling and in Hegel's Geist ("Spirit"/"Mind"). Ralph Waldo Emerson published "The Over-Soul" in 1841, which was influenced by the Hindu conception of a universal soul. There are also similarities with ideas developed since the 1960s by Gaia theorists such as James Lovelock.

In Jewish mysticism, a parallel concept is that of "Chokhmah Ila'ah," the all-encompassing "Supernal Wisdom" that transcends, orders and vitalizes all of creation. Rabbi Nachman of Breslov states that this sublime wisdom may be apprehended (or perhaps "channeled") by a perfect tzaddik (holy man).[2] Thus, the tzaddik attains "cosmic consciousness" and thus is empowered to mitigate all division and conflict within creation.

In popular culture

The Police in their song Synchronicity refers to Anima Mundi as Spiritus Mundi.

See also

• Atman (disambiguation)
• Cosmic consciousness
• The Force in Star Wars
• Patrick Harpur
• Neoplatonism and Christianity
• Panpsychism
• Paramatman
• Unus mundus
• Weltgeist

References

1. Plato, Timaeus, 30b–c, 33b.
2. Likutey Moharan I, 61.
• Fideler, David (2014). Restoring the Soul of the World: Our Living Bond With Nature’s Intelligence. Inner Traditions. ISBN 978-162055359-6.
• Jung, C. G. (1968). Psychology and Alchemy. 12. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-691-01831-6.
• Roszak, Theodore (2001) [1992]. The Voice of the Earth: An Exploration of Ecopsychology. Phanes Press. ISBN 1-890482-80-3.
• Southern, R. W. (2001). Scholastic Humanism and the Unification of Europe, Volume II: The Heroic Age. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-22079-4.
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