Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Nov 21, 2019 3:52 am

Anton Drexler
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/20/19

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Image
Anton Drexler
Chairman of the Nazi Party
In office
24 February 1920 – 29 July 1921[1]
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Adolf Hitler (as Führer)
Chairman of the German Workers' Party
In office
5 January 1919 – 24 February 1920
Deputy Karl Harrer
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Position abolished
Personal details
Born 13 June 1884
Munich, German Empire
Died 24 February 1942 (aged 57)
Munich, Nazi Germany
Nationality German
Political party Nazi Party (1920–23, 1933–42)
Other political
affiliations German Fatherland Party (1917–18)
German Workers' Party (1919–20)
Occupation Politician
Awards Blood Order
Golden Party Badge

Anton Drexler (13 June 1884 – 24 February 1942) was a German far-right political leader of the 1920s who founded the pan-German and anti-Semitic German Workers' Party (DAP), the antecedent of the Nazi Party (NSDAP). Drexler mentored his successor in the NSDAP, Adolf Hitler, during his early years in politics.

Early life

Born in Munich, Drexler was a machine-fitter before becoming a railway toolmaker and locksmith in Berlin.[2] He is believed to have been disappointed with his income, and to have played the zither in restaurants to supplement his earnings.[3] Drexler did not serve in the armed forces during World War I due to being deemed unfit.[4]

Politics

Involvement in politics


During World War I, Drexler joined the German Fatherland Party,[5] a short-lived far-right party active during the last phase of the war, that played a vital role in the emergence of the stab-in-the-back myth and the defamation of certain politicians as the November Criminals.

In March 1918, Drexler founded a branch of Free Workers' Committee for a Good Peace (Der Freie Arbeiterausschuss für einen guten Frieden) league.[2] Karl Harrer, a journalist and member of the Thule Society, convinced Drexler and several others to form the Political Workers' Circle (Politischer Arbeiter-Zirkel) in 1918.[2] The members met periodically for discussions with themes of nationalism and antisemitism.[2] Drexler was a poet and a member of the völkisch agitators.

Founding of the German Workers' Party

Together with Harrer, Gottfried Feder and Dietrich Eckart, Drexler founded the German Workers' Party (DAP) in Munich on 5 January 1919.[2]

At a DAP meeting in Munich in September 1919, the main speaker was Gottfried Feder. When Feder's talk concluded, Adolf Hitler got involved in a heated political argument with a visitor, Professor Baumann, who questioned the soundness of Feder's arguments against capitalism and proposed that Bavaria should break away from Prussia and found a new South German nation with Austria. In vehemently attacking the man's arguments, Hitler made an impression on the other party members with his oratory skills, and according to him, the professor left the hall acknowledging defeat.[6] Drexler approached Hitler and gave him a copy of his pamphlet My Political Awakening, which contained anti-Semitic, nationalist, anti-capitalist, and anti-Marxist ideas.[2] Hitler claims the literature reflected the ideals he already believed in.[7] Impressed with Hitler, Drexler encouraged him to join the DAP. On the orders of his army superiors, Hitler applied to join the party.[8]

Once accepted, Hitler began to make the party more public, and he organized their biggest meeting yet of 2,000 people, for 24 February 1920 in the Hofbräuhaus in Munich. It was in this speech that Hitler, for the first time, enunciated the twenty-five points of the German Worker's Party's manifesto that he had authored with Drexler and Feder.[9] Through these points he gave the organisation a foreign policy, including the abrogation of the Treaty of Versailles, a Greater Germany, Eastern expansion, exclusion of Jews from citizenship.[10] On the same day the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP).[11]

Following an intraparty dispute, Hitler angrily tendered his resignation on 11 July 1921. The committee members realised that the resignation of their leading public figure and speaker would mean the end of the party.[12] Hitler announced he would rejoin on the condition that he would replace Drexler as party chairman, and that the party headquarters would remain in Munich. The committee agreed; he rejoined the party as member 3,680. [13] Drexler was thereafter moved to the purely symbolic position of honorary president and left the party in 1923.[14]

Drexler was also a member of a völkisch political club for affluent members of Munich society known as the Thule Society. His membership in the Nazi Party ended when it was temporarily outlawed in 1923 following the Beer Hall Putsch despite Drexler not actually having taken part in the coup attempt. In 1924 he was elected to the Bavarian state parliament for another party, in which he served as vice president until 1928. He played no role in the Nazi Party's re-founding in 1925 and rejoined only after Hitler ascended to national power in 1933.[15] He founded a splinter group, the Nationalsozialer Volksbund, but this dissolved in 1928.[16] He received the party's Blood Order in 1934, and was still occasionally used as a propaganda tool until about 1937, but was never allowed any legitimate power within the party.

Death

Drexler died of natural causes after a lengthy illness in Munich in February 1942.[15]

Notes

1. Evans 2003, p. 180.
2. Kershaw 2008, p. 82.
3. "Anton Drexler". History Learning Site.
4. Dimuro, Gina (February 20, 2018). "Why Anton Drexler Was More Responsible For The Nazi Party Than Adolf Hitler". All That's Interesting.
5. Hamilton 1984, p. 219.
6. Kershaw 2008, p. 75.
7. Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf, 1925.
8. Evans 2003, p. 170.
9. Shirer 1960, p. 40.
10. Shirer 1960, p. 41.
11. Kershaw 2008, p. 87.
12. Kershaw 2008, pp. 100, 101, 102.
13. Kershaw 2008, p. 103.
14. Shirer 1960, p. 45.
15. Hamilton 1984, p. 220.
16. Zentner & Bedürftig 1991, p. 209.

References

• Evans, Richard J. (2003). The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-14-303469-8.
• Hamilton, Charles (1984). Leaders & Personalities of the Third Reich, Vol. 1. R. James Bender Publishing. ISBN 0-912138-27-0.
• Hitler, Adolf (1999) [1925]. Mein Kampf. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-92503-4.
• Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06757-6.
• Mitcham, Samuel W. (1996). Why Hitler?: The Genesis of the Nazi Reich. Westport, Conn: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-95485-7.
• Shirer, William L. (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0.
• Zentner, Christian; Bedürftig, Friedemann (1991). The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. (2 vols.) New York: MacMillan Publishing. ISBN 0-02-897500-6.

External links

• Mein politisches Erwachen; aus dem Tagebuch eines deutschen sozialistischen Arbeiters München, Deutscher Volksverlag 4th ed.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Nov 21, 2019 4:08 am

Gottfried Feder
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/20/19

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Image
Gottfried Feder
Born 27 January 1883
Würzburg, Bavaria, German Empire
Died 24 September 1941 (aged 58)
Murnau am Staffelsee, Nazi Germany
Nationality German
Institution Berlin Institute of Technology
Field Urbanism
School or
tradition Nazism
Alma mater Humboldt University of Berlin
Contributions Nazism
Strasserism
Anti-capitalism
Planned community
Deep foundation

Gottfried Feder (27 January 1883 – 24 September 1941) was a German civil engineer, a self-taught economist and one of the early key members of the Nazi Party. He was their economic theoretician. It was one of his lectures, delivered in 1919, that drew Hitler into the party.[1]

Biography

Feder was born in Würzburg, Germany on 27 January 1883 as the son of civil servant Hanse Feder and Mathilde Feder (née Luz). After studying in classical Gymnasiums[citation needed] in Ansbach and Munich, he studied engineering in Berlin and Zürich (Switzerland). He then founded a construction company in 1908 that became particularly active in Bulgaria where it built a number of official buildings.

From 1917 on, Feder studied financial politics and economics on his own. He developed a hostility towards wealthy bankers during World War I and wrote a "manifesto on breaking the shackles of interest" ("Brechung der Zinsknechtschaft") in 1919. This was soon followed by the founding of a "task force" dedicated to those goals that demanded a nationalisation of all banks and an abolition of interest.

That year, Feder, together with Anton Drexler, Dietrich Eckart and Karl Harrer, were involved in the founding of the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (German Workers' Party-DAP).[2] Adolf Hitler met him in the summer of 1919 while he was in an anti-Bolshevik training course at Munich university—funded by the army and organized by Major Karl Mayr—and Feder became his mentor in finance and economics. He helped to inspire Hitler's opposition to "Jewish finance capitalism."[3] Delivering political courses alongside Feder was Karl Alexander von Müller (son of Bavaria's Culture Minister) who spotted Hitler's oratorical ability and forwarded his name as a political instructor for the army—an important step in Hitler's career.[citation needed]

1920s

In February 1920, together with Adolf Hitler and Anton Drexler, Feder drafted the "25 points" which summed up the party's views and introduced his own anti-capitalist views into the program. When the paper was announced on 24 February 1920, more than 2,000 people attended the rally. In an attempt to make the party more broadly appealing to larger segments of the population, the DAP was renamed in February 1920 to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, NSDAP), more commonly known as the Nazi Party.[4]

Feder took part in the party's Beer Hall Putsch in November 1923. After Hitler's arrest, he remained one of the leaders of the party and was elected to the Reichstag in 1924, where he stayed until 1936 and demanded the freezing of interest rates and dispossession of Jewish citizens. He remained one of the leaders of the anti-capitalistic wing of the NSDAP, and published several papers, including "National and social bases of the German state" (1920), "Das Programm der NSDAP und seine weltanschaulichen Grundlagen" ("The programme of the NSDAP and the world views it's based on," 1927) and "Was will Adolf Hitler?" ("What does Adolf Hitler want?", 1931).

Feder briefly dominated the Nazi Party's official views on financial politics, but after he became chairman of the party's economic council in 1931, his anti-capitalist views led to a great decline in financial support from Germany's major industrialists. Following pressure from Walther Funk, Albert Voegler, Gustav Krupp, Friedrich Flick, Fritz Thyssen, Hjalmar Schacht and Emil Kirdorf, Hitler decided to move the party away from Feder's economic views. When Hitler became Reichskanzler in 1933, he appointed Feder as under-secretary at the ministry of economics in July, which appointment disappointed Feder, who had hoped for a much higher position.

Nazi Germany

Feder continued to write papers, putting out "Kampf gegen die Hochfinanz" ("The Fight against high finance", 1933) and the anti-semitic "Die Juden" ("The Jews," 1933); in 1934, he became Reichskommissar (Reich commissioner).

In 1939 he wrote Die Neue Stadt (the New City). This can be considered an attempt at Garden City building through the use of Nazi architecture. Here he proposed creating agricultural cities of 20,000 people divided into nine autonomous units and surrounded by agricultural areas. Each city was to be fully autonomous and self-sufficient, with detailed plans for daily living and urban amenities provided. Unlike other garden city theorists, he believed that urban areas could be reformed by subdividing the existing built environment into self-sufficient neighborhoods. This idea of creating clusters of self-contained neighbourhoods forming a mid-sized city was popularised by Uzō Nishiyama in Japan. It would later be applied in the era of Japanese New Town construction.[5]

However, despite its consistency with the blood and soil ideology of the Nazis, his concept of decentralized factories was successfully opposed by both generals and Junkers.[6] Generals objected because it interfered with rearmament, and Junkers because it would prevent their exploiting their estates for the international market.[7]

After the Night of the Long Knives in June 1934, where SA leaders like Ernst Röhm and left-leaning party officials like Gregor Strasser were murdered, Feder lost favor with Hitler and began to withdraw from the government,[citation needed] finally becoming Professor for Settlement Policy[8] at the Technische Hochschule Berlin in December 1936, where he stayed until his death in Murnau, Bavaria, on 24 September 1941.

Footnotes

1. Dornberg, John (1982). Munich 1923. New York: Harper & Row. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-06-038025-0.
2. Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, p. 82.
3. Kershaw, Ian (2001) [1991]. Hitler: A Profile in Power, Chapter I, London.
4. Kershaw (2008). Hitler: A Biography, p. 87.
5. Hein, Carola, Visionary Plans and Planners. In Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective (Fiévé, Waley eds.) RoutledgeCurzon.
6. Grunberger, Richard, The 12-Year Reich, pp. 153–4, ISBN 0-03-076435-1.
7. Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, p. 154.
8. Mühlberger, Detlef (2004). Hitler's Voice. The Völkischer Beobachter, 1920–1933. Vol. I: Organisation & Development of the NSDAP. Bern: Peter Lang AG. p. 28. ISBN 3-906769-72-0. Retrieved 2017-01-15.

See also

• Strasserism

External links

• Das Programm des NSDAP und seine weltanschaulichen Grundgedanken "The Program of the NSDAP and its Ideological Foundations" by Gottfried Feder at archive.org
• Programme of the Party of Hitler, the NSDAP and its General Conceptions in English
• Das Manifest zur Brechung der Zinsknechtschaft des Geldes "The Manifesto for Breaking the Chains of Gold" by Gottfried Feder at archive.org
• Feder's patent for an Apparatus for making concrete piles in the ground on Google Patents
• Newspaper clippings about Gottfried Feder in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Nov 21, 2019 4:17 am

Karl Harrer
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/20/19

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Image
Karl Harrer
Reich Chairman of the DAP
In office
1919–1920
Leader Anton Drexler
Personal details
Born 8 October 1890
Died 5 September 1926 (aged 35)
Nationality German
Political party DAP
Occupation Politician

Karl Harrer (8 October 1890 – 5 September 1926) was a German journalist and politician, one of the founding members of the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (German Workers' Party, DAP) in January 1919, the predecessor to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party – NSDAP), more commonly known as the Nazi Party.[1]

Biography

Harrer was commissioned by the Thule Society to try to politically influence German workers in Munich after the end of World War I.[2]

Descent into Hell

The city is in turmoil. The Kaiser's republic has collapsed with the defeat of Germany in the First World War, and the whole country is up for grabs. It appears as if Germany is about to fall apart into the warring city-states from which it had been assembled nearly fifty years ago. The victorious Allies are demanding enormous concessions from Germany. The Russian Revolution has been in full swing for a year, and German soldiers returning from the front are being cajoled into helping midwife the same type of Communist regime amid the ashes of the Second Reich.

Kurt Eisner -- an intellectual and a Jew, a defender of the League of Nations -- takes the initiative and proclaims a Socialist Republic in Munich on the seventh of November, 1918. It looks as if there is going to be a Communist regime in Germany -- or, at least, a Socialist one in Bavaria -- after all. Hysteria grows among the nationalists, and with it despair that their nation is on the verge of realizing the dreams of Marx and Engels as codified in their famous Manifesto. Germans are bewildered, shocked ... stunned into a kind of nervous stupefaction. They have lost the war, their country may be broken up once again into many separate bickering pieces, and there will soon be Communists calling the shots in Berlin and in the capital city of Bavaria: Munich.

Within forty-eight hours there is a meeting of the Thule Gesellschaft. The Thule, a mystical society based in part on the theosophical writings of Guido von List and Lanz von Liebenfels -- which is to say, an amalgam of Eastern religion, theosophy, anti-Semitism, Grail romance, runic mystification, and Nordic paganism -- meets every Saturday in spacious rooms at the elegant Four Seasons Hotel in Munich. There are roughly 250 members of the Thule in Munich ... and over fifteen hundred in Bavaria. On that day, November 9, a bizarre individual, an occultist, an initiate of the Eastern mysteries in Turkey as well as of Freemasonry, and the leader and founder of the Thule -- the self-styled Baron Rudolf von Sebottendorff -- makes an impassioned plea to the assembled cultists for armed resistance to the Reds. This plea eventually degenerates into a monologue on runes, German racial theory, Nordic mythology, and other arcane lore. No matter. Most of his listeners know what to expect. They are, in fact, members of the supersecret, superracist, and superoccult "German Order Walvater of the Holy Grail," or Germanenorden, which is using the name Thule Gesellschaft -- or Thule Society, a "literary-cultural society" -- as a cover to confuse Munich's fledgling Red Army, which is on the lookout for right-wing extremists. Sebottendorff himself is Master of the anti-Semitic Germanenorden's Bavarian division under its leader and founder, Hermann Pohl.

The Thule cultists -- whose symbol is a long dagger superimposed on a swastika -- need no encouragement. They begin stockpiling weapons in secret supply dumps in and around Munich, anticipating a counterstrike against the new Socialist Republic. They make alliances with other nationalist groups, such as the Pan-Germans under editor Julius Lehmann, the German School Bund, the Hammerbund ... and an organized resistance movement is born. All the mystical and clandestine labors of the past twenty years involving a series of secret and occult organizations with elaborate initiation ceremonies and complex magical rituals, from the List Society's inner HAO (Higher Armanen Order) to the Order of the New Templars, will soon culminate in a pitched battle in the streets of Munich between the neopagan Thule Society and the "godless Communists."

FEBRUARY 21, 1919. The idealistic but hapless Kurt Eisner -- who preceded political speeches with symphonic concerts -- is assassinated by a young count and would-be Thulist. The police descend upon Thule headquarters, looking for inflammatory leaflets and other evidence of Thule Society involvement in the plot. Was the notoriously anti- Semitic Thule Society somehow responsible for Eisner's assassination? Sebottendorff stonewalls, and threatens to instigate a pogrom if the police don't leave the Thule Society alone. The police comply.

APRIL 7, 1919. A rebel Bavarian Soviet Republic is proclaimed in Munich as the legitimate minister-president of Bavaria flees north with his council to the town of Bamberg to prevent the Communists from taking over the government. The Thule organizes among the anti-Communist factions in Munich and Sebottendorff (together with his friend, the racist priest Bernhard Stempfle) begins conspiring with the "exiled" Bavarian government in Bamberg for a counterrevolt.

APRIL 13, 1919. The Palm Sunday Putsch. An abortive attempt by the Thule Gesellschaft -- with other anti-Communist groups -- to take power in Munich. There is bloodshed. The Putsch fails. Munich explodes into anarchy. The Communists seize control of the city and begin taking hostages. The Red Army is on the march ... and hunting for the Thule Gesellschaft.

APRIL 26, 1919. Sebottendorff is away at Bamberg, busy organizing a Freikorps (Free Corps) assault on Communist headquarters, when a Red Army unit raids Thule Society offices and arrests its secretary, the Grafin Hella von Westarp, and seizes the Thule membership lists. Six more Thulists are arrested at their homes, including the Prince von Thurn und Taxis, a well-connected aristocrat with blood relations among the crowned heads of Europe.

APRIL 30, 1919. Walpurgisnacht. The High Holy Day of European Paganism and Witchcraft. The Red Army executes the captured Thulists and other hostages, shooting them against a wall in the courtyard of Luitpold High School.

It is probably the worst mistake they could have made.

The next day, an obituary appears in Sebottendorff's Munchener Beobachter -- a newspaper which a year later becomes the official Nazi propaganda sheet, the Volkischer Beobachter -- giving the names of the seven murdered cultists and laying the blame on the doorstep of the Red Army. [1] The citizens of Munich are finally outraged, shaken out of their lethargy. Thulists continue their well-organized campaign of agit-prop against the Communist regime. The people take to the streets.

The Free Corps -- twenty thousand strong -- marches on Munich under the command of General von Oven. For the first time in history, storm troopers -- members of the Ehrhardt Free Corps Brigade -- march beneath a swastika flag with swastikas painted on their helmets, singing a swastika hymn. As they enter the city, they find that the Thule has managed to organize a full-scale citizen rebellion against the Soviet government. They join forces.

When the dust settles on May 3, the Communists have been defeated in Munich, politically and militarily. Hundreds of people, including many innocent civilians, have been senselessly slaughtered in their streets and homes by the crusading "Whites" with the swastika banners. But there will be no Socialist or Communist government in Germany until after World War II, over twenty-five years later, and even then it will rule over only half of the country and will take its orders from Germany's most despised enemy, the Soviet Union.

But now, so soon after the victorious march of the Freikorps through the streets of Munich, the threat of a Soviet regime in the rest of Germany is still very real. Units of the navy are in mutiny, raising the red flag over Germany's battleships. France will march into the Ruhr valley, Germany's industrial heartland. But the spectacular success of the Freikorps has aroused the admiration of anti-Bolshevik forces all across Europe. In Riga, the newly formed Latvian Republic begs for Freikorps assistance to defend their country against the Bolsheviks and even the British support this decision. Hence, Freikorps units move to the defense of Latvia until the British themselves have to intervene to free Latvia from the death grip of these rabid proto-Nazi brigands. [2]

Even Germany's own right wing is divided into two camps: those in favor of restoring the monarchy and separating Bavaria from the rest of Germany, and those in favor of a unified Greater German Reich, without a monarch but with a leader, a leader with vision. A German messiah. A Fuhrer. Where is that Fuhrer to be found?

Unwittingly, the Thule Gesellschaft provides the answer. Meeting in the expensive Four Seasons Hotel, the leading industrialists and aristocracy of the city, along with a generous helping of local police and military officials, are designing a two-pronged strategy of political activism. The Thule Society will do the organizing, will make the right connections among the society figures, the wealthy capitalists, the intelligentsia. They will stockpile the weapons. They will organize units of the Free Corps, particularly the Ehrhardt Brigade (which will become an official unit of Germany's navy as the Ehrhardt Naval Brigade and, eventually, subsumed into Himmler's SS) and the Freikorps Oberland.

But another arm of the Thule has already begun recruiting -- not among Munich's "beautiful people," the rich and the powerful -- but among the working people, the lower- and middle-class citizens who have been hit hardest by the civil wars, the enormous rates of inflation, the chaos and confusion. There will be no overt involvement of the Thule Society in this group, which is to be called instead the German Workers Party and which will be led by a serious, humorless, railroad employee and locksmith named Anton Drexler. They will meet in a beer hall. Perhaps between the two groups -- the Thule with its academics, nobles, and factory owners meeting at the Four Seasons, and the German Workers' Party with its rough-and-tumble factory workers meeting in beer halls -- they will be able to form a united front against Communism, international Freemasonry, and world Jewry.

Within a year, this project of the Thule Gesellschaft will become the NSDAP: the National Socialist German Workers' Party. The Nazi Party. It will sport a swastika flag and a swastika armband, and its leader will be a war veteran, a corporal who had been sent by the German Army to spy on the organization: Adolf Hitler.

And by November, 1923, the tiny German Workers' Party will have grown to enormous proportions with many thousands of members, and will attempt to take over the country in the famous Beer Hall Putsch. The Putsch will fail, but Adolf Hitler the Fuhrer will be born -- not in a manger like the Son of God he often believed himself to be -- but in a jail cell at Landsberg Prison.

What was the Thule Gesellschaft? What were cultists doing fighting Communists in the streets of Munich? What did they believe? How did it influence the Nazi Party?

-- Unholy Alliance: A History of Nazi Involvement With the Occult, by Peter Levenda


At the time, Harrer was a reporter with a right-wing newspaper. Harrer convinced Anton Drexler and several others to form the Politischer Arbeiterzirkel (Political Workers' Circle) in 1918.[2] The members met periodically for discussions with themes of nationalism and racism directed against the Jews.[2] Although Harrer preferred that the small group remain a semi-secret nationalistic club, Drexler wanted to make it a political party.[2] Thereafter, Drexler proposed the founding of the DAP in December 1918. On 5 January 1919, the DAP was formed in which not only Harrer and Drexler, but also Gottfried Feder and Dietrich Eckart were involved. With the DAP founding, Drexler was elected chairman and Harrer was made Reich Chairman, an honorary title.[3]

Harrer became increasingly unhappy with the direction in which the party was going after Adolf Hitler became an influential force within it. Early in 1920, Hitler moved to sever the party's link with the Thule Society and to redefine the policies of the DAP. On 24 February 1920 in the Staatliches Hofbräuhaus in München, Hitler for the first time enunciated the twenty-five points of the German Worker's Party's manifesto that had been drawn up by Drexler, Feder and Hitler.[4] In addition, to increase its appeal to larger segments of the population, the DAP changed its name to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, or Nazi Party).[5][6] Such was the significance of the move in expanding the party's public profile that Harrer resigned from the party in disagreement as he had always believed that it should be a semi-secret elite group rather than a mass popular movement.[7] The Thule Society subsequently fell into decline and was dissolved about five years later,[8] well before Hitler came to power.

Harrer died in Munich on 5 September 1926, less than a month shy of his 36th birthday.[citation needed]

See also

• Nazism
• Weimar Republic

Notes

1. Kershaw 2008, pp. 82, 83, 87.
2. Kershaw 2008, p. 82.
3. Kershaw 2008, pp. 82, 83.
4. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, p. 37.
5. Kershaw 2008, p. 87.
6. Zentner & Bedürftig 1997, p. 629.
7. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, p. 36.
8. Goodrick-Clarke 1985, p. 221.

References

Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (1985). The Occult Roots of Nazism: The Ariosophists of Austria and Germany 1890-1935. Wellingborough, England: The Aquarian Press. ISBN 0-85030-402-4.
• Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06757-6.
Shirer, William L. (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0.
• Zentner, Christian; Bedürftig, Friedemann (1997) [1991]. The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-3068079-3-0.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Nov 21, 2019 6:53 am

Germanenorden
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/20/19

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The Germanenorden (Germanic or Teutonic Order, not to be confused with the medieval German order of the Teutonic Knights) was a völkisch secret society in early 20th-century Germany. It was founded in Berlin in 1912 by Theodor Fritsch and several prominent German occultists including Philipp Stauff, who held office in the Guido von List Society and High Armanen Order as well as Hermann Pohl, who became the Germanenorden’s first leader. The group was a clandestine movement aimed at the upper echelons of society and was a sister movement to the more open and mainstream Reichshammerbund.[1]

The order, whose symbol was a swastika, had a hierarchical fraternal structure based on Freemasonry. Local groups of the sect met to celebrate the summer solstice, an important neopagan festivity in völkisch circles (and later in Nazi Germany), and more regularly to read the Eddas as well as some of the German mystics.[2]

In addition to occult and magical philosophies, it taught to its initiates nationalist ideologies of Nordic racial superiority and antisemitism, then rising throughout the Western world. As was becoming increasingly typical of völkisch organisations, it required its candidates to prove that they had no non-Aryan bloodlines and required from each a promise to maintain purity of his stock in marriage.

In 1916, during World War I, the Germanenorden split into two parts. Eberhard von Brockhusen became the Grand Master of the "loyalist" Germanenorden. Pohl, previously the order’s Chancellor, founded a schismatic offshoot: the Germanenorden Walvater of the Holy Grail.[3][4] He was joined in the same year by Rudolf von Sebottendorff (formerly Rudolf Glauer), a wealthy adventurer with wide-ranging occult and mystical interests. A Freemason and a practitioner of Sufism and astrology, Sebottendorff was also an admirer of Guido von List and Lanz von Liebenfels. Convinced that the Islamic and Germanic mystical systems shared a common Aryan root, he was attracted by Pohl’s runic lore and became the Master of the Walvater's Bavarian province late in 1917. Charged with reviving the province's fortunes, Sebottendorff increased membership from about a hundred in 1917 to 1500 by the autumn of the following year.[5]

The Munich lodge of the Germanenorden Walvater when it was formally dedicated on August 18, 1918 was given the cover name the Thule Society,[6] which is notable chiefly as the organization that sponsored the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (DAP), which was later transformed by Adolf Hitler into the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party).

References

1. Richard S. Levy, Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution, Volume 1, ABC-CLIO, 2005, p. 269
2. Swastika, Intelinet, archived from the original on 2007-06-04
3. Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke The Occult Roots of Nazism New York, New York University Press 1985: 131–32.
4. Thomas 2005.
5. Goodrick-Clarke 1985: 142–43.
6. Goodrick-Clarke 1985: 144
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Theodor Fritsch
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Accessed: 11/21/19

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Theodor Fritsch about 1920

Theodor Fritsch (born Emil Theodor Fritsche; 28 October 1852 – 8 September 1933), was a German publisher and journalist. His antisemitic writings did much to influence popular German opinion against Jews in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His writings also appeared under the pen names Thomas Frey, Fritz Thor, and Ferdinand Roderich-Stoltheim.

He is not to be confused with his son, also Theodor Fritsch (1895–1946), likewise a bookseller and member of the SA.

Life

Fritsch was born Emil Theodor Fritsche, the sixth of seven children to Johann Friedrich Fritsche, a farmer in the village of Wiesenena (present-day Wiedemar) in the Prussian province of Saxony, and his wife August Wilhelmine, née Ohme. Four of his siblings died in childhood. He attended vocational school (Realschule) in Delitzsch where he learned casting and machine building. He then undertook study at the Royal Trade Academy (Königliche Gewerbeakademie) in Berlin, graduating as a technician in 1875.

In the same year Fritsche found employment in a Berlin machine shop. He gained independence in 1879 through the founding of a technical bureau associated with a publishing firm. In 1880 he founded the Deutscher Müllerbund (Miller's League) which issued the publication Der Deutsche Müller (The German Miller). In 1905 he founded the "Saxon Small Business Association." He devoted himself to this organization and to the interests of crafts and small businesses (Mittelstand), as well as to the spread of antisemitic propaganda. When he changed his name to Fritsch is unclear.

Publishing

Image
"A German Seven", montage of portraits of German antisemites c. 1880/1881. Centre: Otto Glagau, around him clockwise: Adolf König, Bernhard Förster, Max Liebermann von Sonnenberg, Theodor Fritsch, Paul Förster, and Otto Böckel.

Fritsch created an early discussion forum, "Antisemitic Correspondence" in 1885 for antisemites of various political persuasions. In 1887 he sent several editions to Friedrich Nietzsche but was brusquely dismissed. Nietzsche sent Fritsch a letter in which he thanked him to be permitted "to cast a glance at the muddle of principles that lie at the heart of this strange movement", but requested not to be sent again such writings, for he was afraid that he might lose his patience.[1] Fritsch offered editorship to right-wing politician Max Liebermann von Sonnenberg in 1894, whereafter it became an organ for Sonnenberg's German Social Party under the name "German Social Articles." Fritsch's 1896 book The City of the Future became a blueprint of the German garden city movement which was adopted by Völkisch circles.

In 1902 Fritsch founded a Leipzig publishing house, Hammer-Verlag, whose flagship publication was The Hammer: Pages for German Sense (1902–1940). The firm issued German translations of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and The International Jew (collected writings of Henry Ford from The Dearborn Independent) as well as many of Fritsch's own works. An inflammatory article published in 1910 earned him a charge of defamation of religious societies and disturbing the public peace. Fritsch was sentenced to one week in prison, and received another ten-day term in 1911.

Political activities

In 1890, Fritsch became, along with Otto Böckel, a candidate of the Antisemitic People's Party, founded by Böckel and Oswald Zimmermann, to the German Reichstag. He was not elected. The party was renamed German Reform Party in 1893, achieving sixteen seats. The party failed, however, to achieve significant public recognition. One of Fritsch's major goals was to unite all antisemitic political parties under a single banner; he wished for antisemitism to permeate the agenda of every German social and political organization. This effort proved largely to be a failure, as by 1890 there were over 190 various antisemitic parties in Germany. He also had a powerful rival for the leadership of the antisemites in Otto Böckel, with whom he had a strong personal rivalry.

In 1912 Fritsch founded the Reichshammerbund (Reich's Hammer League) as an antisemitic collective movement. He also established the secret Germanenorden in that year. Influenced by racist Ariosophic theories, it was one of the first political groups to adopt the swastika symbol. Members of these groups formed the Thule Society in 1918, which eventually sponsored the creation of the Nazi Party.

The Reichshammerbund was eventually folded into the Deutschvölkischer Schutz und Trutzbund, on whose advisory board Fritsch sat. He later became a member of the German Völkisch Freedom Party (DFVP). In the general election of May 1924, Fritsch was elected to serve as a member of the National Socialist Freedom Movement, a party formed in alliance with the DFVP by the Nazis as a legal means to election after the Nazi Party had been banned in the aftermath of the Munich Beer Hall Putsch. He only served until the next election in December, 1924.

In February 1927, Fritsch left the Völkisch Freedom Party in protest. He died shortly after the 1933 Nazi seizure of power at the age of 80 in Gautzsch (today part of Markkleeberg).

Works

A believer in the absolute superiority of the Aryan race, Fritsch was upset by the changes brought on by rapid industrialization and urbanization, and called for a return to the traditional peasant values and customs of the distant past, which he believed exemplified the essence of the Volk.

In 1893, Fritsch published his most famous work, The Handbook of the Jewish Question which leveled a number of conspiratorial charges at European Jews and called upon Germans to refrain from intermingling with them. Vastly popular, the book was read by millions and was in its 49th edition by 1944 (330,000 copies). The ideas espoused by the work greatly influenced Hitler and the Nazis during their rise to power after World War I.[citation needed] Fritsch also founded an anti-semitic journal - the Hammer (in 1902) and this became the basis of a movement, the Reichshammerbund, in 1912.

Another work, The Riddle of the Jew's Success, was published in English in 1927 under the pseudonym F. Roderich-Stoltheim (An anagram of his full name).

References

1. https://web.archive.org/web/20101230113 ... tters-1887
Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, 1985: The Occult Roots of Nazism, pp. 123–126.

External links

• Antisemiten-Katechismus by Theodore Fritsch at archive.org
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Nov 24, 2019 5:33 am

Part 1 of 2

Christianity and Theosophy
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Accessed: 11/23/19

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Christianity and Theosophy, for more than a hundred years, have had a "complex and sometimes troubled" relationship.[1] The Christian faith was always the native religion of the great majority of Western Theosophists, but many came to Theosophy through a process of examination or even opposition to Christianity. According to professor Robert S. Ellwood, "the whole matter has been a divisive issue within Theosophy."[1][note 1]

Image
The emblem of the Theosophical Society.

Beliefs

God


According to the Theosophical spiritual Teachers,[note 2] neither their philosophy nor themselves believe in a God, "least of all in one whose pronoun necessitates a capital H."[5]

A Russian Orthodox cleric and theologian Dimitry Drujinin cited the Theosophical Master Kuthumi:

"We know there is in our [solar] system no such thing as God, either personal or impersonal. Parabrahm is not a God, but absolute immutable law... The word 'God' was invented to designate the unknown cause of those effects which man has either admired or dreaded without understanding them."[6]


A religious studies scholar Alvin Kuhn wrote that Theosophist Annie Besant believed:

"God is a composite photograph of the innumerable gods who are the personifications of the forces of nature... It is all summed up in the phrase: Religions are branches from a common trunk—human ignorance."[7]


In addition the Master Kuthumi said,

"In our [Tibetan] temples there is neither a god nor gods worshipped, only the thrice sacred memory of the greatest as the holiest man that ever lived."[8][note 3]


An American Methodist theologian Henry C. Sheldon wrote that, according to Helena Blavatsky, Theosophists reject "the idea of a personal, or an extra-cosmic and anthropomorphic God."[10] Concerning this, Drujinin stated that Theosophy in its basis "rejects and hates the name of God."[11] An American author Gary Lachman, noting Blavatsky's "animus toward the Judeo-Christian ethos," cited her article in which she wrote that the Bible is not the "word of God" but contains at best the "words of fallible men and imperfect teachers."[12]

In The Secret Doctrine Helena Blavatsky stated that "an extra-cosmic god is fatal to philosophy, an intra-cosmic Deity — i.e. Spirit and matter inseparable from each other — is a philosophical necessity. Separate them and that which is left is a gross superstition under a mask of emotionalism."[13][1] Professor Santucci wrote that she has defined the Supreme in the Proem to The Secret Doctrine as an "Omnipresent, Eternal, Boundless, and Immutable Principle on which all speculation is impossible, since it transcends the power of human conception and could only be dwarfed by any human expression or similitude."[14] John Driscoll, a theologian and author of The Catholic Encyclopedia, wrote in 1912 that Theosophy denies a personal god, and this "nullifies its claim to be a spiritualistic philosophy."[15][note 4] Blavatsky proclaimed that the Theosophists believe "in the Deity as the All, the source of all existence, the infinite that cannot be either comprehended or known, the universe alone revealing It, or, as some prefer it, Him, thus giving a sex to that, to anthropomorphize which is blasphemy."[17]

Professor Mary Bednarowski wrote that Theosophists "see the One as the cause of the universe," but not as its creator. When asked who it is that created the universe, Blavatsky responded that, "No one creates it. Science would call the process evolution; the pre-Christian philosophers and the Orientalists call it emanation; we, Occultists and Theosophists, see in it only the universal and eternal reality casting a reflection of itself on the infinite Spatial depths."[18] A Russian Christian philosopher Nikolai Berdyaev wrote that in the Theosophical books "the name of God is not mentioned."[19][note 5] Other Christian philosopher from Russia Vladimir Solovyov stated that Blavatskian Theosophy is a doctrine not only "anti-religious," but also "anti-scientific" and "antiphilosophic."[22][note 6]

Jesus

See also: The Esoteric Character of the Gospels § Historical Jesus

An American theologian Walter Martin wrote that Theosophy "ignores completely the true nature, person, and work of the Lord Jesus Christ."[24] According to Blavatsky, Jesus was the grand "philosopher and moral reformer."[25] She considered Jesus as "The Great Teacher," an Avatar with healing and demon-exorcising abilities. An American author Joseph H. Tyson stated, "She did not view him as The Second Person of the Blessed Trinity, but a Brahman Perfect Master" with clairvoyance, supernatural powers, and "fakir-like unconcern for the morrow."[26] In Blavatsky's opinion, "Jesus, the Christ-God, is a myth concocted two centuries after the real Hebrew Jesus died."[27] According to Theosophy, term "Christ" means the personal divinity "indwelling" each individual human.[28] An author of the journal of Christian theology Quodlibet James Skeen, defending Christianity, stated:

"Theosophy sees Jesus Christ in a docetic way. The Christ Spirit used the body of a holy man named Jesus to heal, work occult wonders, and teach the inherent divinity of all men, within the overall plan of evolution. Christianity sees Jesus Christ as the God-man—The Son of God and the Son of Man. It is called the hypostatic union of Deity and humanness."[29][note 7]


In December 1887 Blavatsky printed in Lucifer an open letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lord Primate of England. This editorial letter gave proof to show that "in almost every point the doctrines of the churches and the practices of Christians are in direct opposition to the teachings of Jesus."[31] She always opposed those who understood Jesus' teaching literally.[32][note 8] Her represent of Jesus as an equal of Buddha "grated on Christian nerves."[34][note 9] Martin proclaimed that the resurrection of Jesus Christ "and, for that matter, the resurrection of all mankind leave no room for the Theosophical dogma of concurrent reincarnations."[9] Alexander Men, a Russian Orthodox priest and theologian, stated that the "theosophical pseudo-Christology" became the fulfillment of Christ's prophecy of false messiahs and false prophets who will come to seduce the world. Also Men noted the "anti-Church and anti-Christian nature" of Theosophy.[36]

Prayer

Drujinin wrote that to the question, "Do you believe in prayer, and do you ever pray?" Blavatsky answered: "We do not. We act, instead of talking. <...> The visible universe depends for its existence and phenomena on its mutually acting forms and their laws, not on prayer or prayers."[37] Negating the personality of God, Blavatsky "rules out the propriety of prayer, except in the sense of an internal command."[38] She said, "We call our 'Father in heaven' that deific essence of which we are cognizant within us."[39] According to Bednarowski, in Blavatsky's opinion, prayer kills "self-reliance" and "refutes the Theosophical understanding of divine immanence." She stated, "We try to replace fruitless and useless prayer by meritorious and good-producing action."[40]

A Russian religious philosopher Sergius Bulgakov said that such "Theosophical surrogates" as concentration, meditation, and intuition can not replace prayer, thus, "Where there is no prayer there is no religion."[41] Berdyaev wrote that the experience of "prayerful communication" with God, revealed to man by the Christian church, is not recognized by the Theosophical teaching. Prayer in Theosophy is only "one of the others forms of meditation."[42] To prove Blavatsky's anti-Christianity, Andrey Kuraev, a protodeacon of the Russian Orthodox Church and professor of theology, quoted The Key to Theosophy:

"Nor, as just remarked, that a prayer is a petition. It is a mystery rather; an occult process by which finite and conditioned thoughts and desires, unable to be assimilated by the absolute spirit which is unconditioned, are translated into spiritual wills and the will... We refuse to pray to created finite beings―i. e., gods, saints, angels, etc., because we regard it as idolatry. We cannot pray to the Absolute for reasons explained before... [Christians] show Satanic pride in their belief that the Absolute or the Infinite, even if there was such a thing as the possibility of any relation between the unconditioned and the conditioned―will stoop to listen to every foolish or egotistical prayer."[43][note 10]


Kuraev wrote that Blavatsky's "hypothesis" that God can not hear the prayers of people, and people "can not meet" with God, contradicts the most important thing in Christianity. Thus, she spread out her "failure" on all people.[45]

Сondition after death

Bednarowski wrote that Blavatsky objected to the Christian interpretations afterlife "because they are described as eternal." She stated that, "nothing is eternal and unchangeable."[46] She said, "We believe in no hell or paradise as localities; in no objective hell-fires and worms that never die, nor in any Jerusalems with streets paved with sapphires and diamonds."[47] René Guénon wrote that on the Theosophical "heaven" the condition of man is such:

"As to the ordinary mortal, his bliss in it is complete. It is an absolute oblivion of all that gave it pain or sorrow in the past incarnation, and even oblivion of the fact that such things as pain or sorrow exist at all."[48]


Concerning this matter, Drujinin stated that the Christian truths of the post-mortem existence of man are "incomparably superior the delusional fantasies of the founders of Theosophy."[49]

Karma and reincarnation

According to The Catholic Encyclopedia, the main Theosophical teachings are karma and reincarnation. Karma is the law of ethical causation.

In the past incarnation the ego had acquired certain faculties, set in motion certain causes. The effect of these causes and of causes set in motion in previous incarnations and not yet exhausted are its karma and determine the conditions into which the ego is reborn.[15]


Reincarnation is directly related to karma. James Skeen stated that the Theosophical teaching about karma and "its relation to forgiveness and faith" contradicts the Bible definitions of these important concepts.[29] Encyclopedia of New Age Beliefs argues that the laws of karma and reincarnation "are really a doctrine of self salvation." And consequently there is no need for "Jesus Christ's substitutionary death for our sins," when the person, who offends, pays himself.[50][note 11][note 12]

Blavatsky and other Theosophists believed that karma, the "unerring law of Retribution," is a system of penalty "as stern as that of the most rigid Calvinist, only far more philosophical and consistent with absolute justice."[53] Ellwood wrote that, according to Blavatsky, "Karma is an Absolute and Eternal law in the World of manifestation." Karma is the "impersonal force" which brings retribution for thoughts, words, and deeds of men without "destroy intellectual and individual liberty" in order to demonstrate that men must live with the consequences of their choices.[54] A religious studies scholar Jeffrey D. Lavoie noted that, in Blavatsky's opinion, the soul "must purify itself through cyclic transmigrations."[55] Ellwood has quoted in The Secret Doctrine:

"Intimately, or rather indissolubly, connected with Karma, then, is the law of re-birth, or of the re-incarnation of the same spiritual individuality in a long, almost interminable, series of personalities. The latter are like the various costumes and characters played by the same actor."[56]


Drujinin stated that the concept of reincarnation fundamentally contradicts the most important dogmas of Orthodox Christianity. Moreover, he stated that there are good reasons to believe that the concept of reincarnation, bringed in Theosophy, was entered "by the inspiring it dark spiritual forces" for the preparation of an appearance of Antichrist.[57] He wrote that the Theosophical doctrine of reincarnation denies the tragedy of death and glorifies it as a positive moment of the cosmic evolution. Depreciating "death, this doctrine thereby devalues life and reconciles man with any suffering and injustice."[58][note 13]

Accusations

Fraud


See also: Coulomb Affair
In September 1884 the Rev. George Patterson, a principal of Madras Christian College, wrote about Blavatsky's occult phenomena: "What if these signs and wonders are proofs of something very different?... Instead of a message from beings of supernal wisdom and power, we shall have only the private thoughts of a clever but not over scrupulous woman."[60][61] The anti-Theosophical publications in The Madras Christian College Magazine in September 1884 were made by the time of arrival of Richard Hodgson, an expert of the Society for Psychical Research, aimed at studying the phenomena of Blavatsky.[62] The Committee of SPR, after analyzing and discussing Hodgson's research, came with reference to Blavatsky herself to the following conclusion published in December 1885: "For our own part, we regard her neither as the mouthpiece of hidden seers, nor as a mere vulgar adventuress; we think that she has achieved a title to permanent remembrance as one of the most accomplished, ingenious, and interesting impostors in history."[63] According to the Rev. George Patterson, "It is to these phenomena, and to the openly expressed antagonism of Theosophy to Christianity, that the rapid spread of the new cult in India is to be ascribed, and not to any system of positive doctrine."[64][note 14]

Spirit communication

See also: Incidents in the Life of Madame Blavatsky § Mediums and mediumship

Theologian Kuraev wrote that Theosophists' feature is spirit possession. If the usual scientific or philosophical book appears as a result of systematic and consistent reflections of its author, then the theosophical treatises are written as a "dictation of capricious spirits." A person-medium does not have power over the text that is "communicated" to him, he is not fully competent in its planning and word processing.[66][note 15] In Drujinin's opinion, Theosophy preaches "reckless" communication with spirits. And the spirits who presented themselves as "teachers-mahatmas" can expel the disciple in general from his body. In confirmation, he quoted Ignatius Bryanchaninov: "The desire to see spirits, curiosity to learn something from them is a sign of the greatest folly and complete ignorance of the moral and active traditions of the Orthodox Church."[68] Theologian Martin noted that the Bible prohibits to practice a communication with spirits.[69] Nevertheless, in 1860 at Zadonsk, Isidore, the Metropolitan of the Russian Orthodox Church, seeing the manifestations of Blavatsky's mediumship, said: "Let not your heart be troubled by the gift you are possessed of, nor let it become a source of misery to you hereafter."[70] According to Blavatsky, mediumship is the contrast of adeptship, because the medium is the "passive instrument of foreign influences, [while] the adept actively controls himself and all inferior potencies."[71]

Demonization

Mersene Sloan, an editor and Bible teacher, called the theosophical initiation a process of "disguised" demonization, a "gross perversion" of the Christian regeneration.[72]

"The pupil [of Theosophy] becomes an Adept. This is one of many theosophic statements proving the end of the cult's endeavors to be the incarnation of demons in human beings. Of course, it is denied that the masters are demons, but the doctrines and practices of the cult prove them to be such, and such only. Some know it by actual contact with them... It is not, then, a matter of developing latent powers in man that Theosophy seeks, but the subjection of man to the invading powers of demons."[73
]

Drujinin argued that Theosophy seeks to "control the world" with the help of magic. Every Theosophist wants to achieve supernatural powers that "will elevated him above other people." The natural continuation of the absence of faith in the "true God" is that the Theosophist, who is a magic practitioner, "considers himself a god."[74][note 16] Drujinin summed up: "Exploring Theosophy, we came to the conclusion that such a muddled, contradictory and fantasy doctrine could had been created only by the mentally ill men!"[76]

Satanism

The ministers of the Christian churches had related to the Theosophical Society as the "brood of the Evil one."[77] In 1879 Blavatsky wrote that the Christian Church called the Theosophists "infidel emissaries of Satan."[78][note 17] In theologian Kuraev's opinion, the Theosophists declared that there is no other God at all except Lucifer: "It is 'Satan who is the god of our planet and the only god,' and this without any allusive metaphor to its wickedness and depravity. For he is one with the Logos."[80][note 18]

Ellwood has quoted in The Secret Doctrine:

Satan represents metaphysically simply the reverse or the polar opposite of everything in nature. He is the 'adversary,' allegorically, the 'murderer,' and the great Enemy of all, because there is nothing in the whole Universe that has not two sides—the reverses of the same medal. But in that case, light, goodness, beauty, etc., may be called Satan with as much propriety as the Devil, since they are the adversaries of darkness, badness and ugliness.[82][note 19][note 20]


Confrontations

Drujinin noted that Blavatsky "personally took part in the armed struggle against the Roman Catholic Church."[85] In 1866 she was accompanying Giuseppe Garibaldi on his expeditions. In 1867 she with the Italian volunteers "fought at Viterbo and then at Mentana" against French-Papal troops. In the battle of Mentana Blavatsky was "gravely wounded."[86][note 21] In 1941 Jinarajadasa, the fourth president of the Theosophical Society Adyar, informed that Blavatskian Theosophy has been "officially banned by name by the Pope as a dire heresy, and in one month in each year, a prayer is offered to God through the Virgin Mary to save the world from Theosophy."[89][note 22][note 23][note 24]

In 1880, Henry Olcott took it upon himself to restore true Sri Lankan Buddhism and "to counter the efforts of Christian missionaries on the island."[note 25] In order to accomplish this aim, he adopted some of the methods of Protestant missionaries.[93][94] An American scholar of religion Stephen Prothero stated that in Ceylon Olcott was performing "the part of the anti-Christian missionary." He wrote and distributed anti-Christian and pro-Buddhist tracts, "and secured support for his educational reforms from representatives of the island's three monastic sects."[95] He used the Christian models for the Buddhist secondary schools and Sunday schools, "thus initiating what would become a long and successful campaign for Western-style Buddhist education in Ceylon."[96][note 26] Peter Washington wrote that Christian missionaries were furious about the activity of Olcott and other Theosophists.[98]

Theologian Kuraev wrote that Blavatsky allegedly declared that the goal of the Theosophists "is not to restore Hinduism, but to sweep Christianity from the surface of the earth."[99][note 27] Sylvia Cranston wrote that in Britain, the Church of England tried to ban the sale of Lucifer.[101][note 28] Rejecting the Christian accusations that the Theosophical Society is a "pioneer of the Antichrist and brood of the Evil one," Blavatsky wrote to the Archbishop of Canterbury that it is "the practical helper, perchance the saviour, of Christianity."[103][104][note 29] In 1893 some members of a Parliament of Religions were Theosophists, and the principal leader of the Church of England declined his support for the Parliament because, according to him, "the Christian religion is the one religion" and he did not see "how that religion can be regarded as a member of a Parliament of Religions without assuming the equality of the other intended members and the parity of their position and claims."[107][note 30]

On December 2, 1994 the Bishops' Council of the Russian Orthodox Church accepted the interdict On the Pseudo-christian Sects, Neopaganism, and Occultism, in which Blavatskian Theosophy was defined as an anti-Christian doctrine.[109][16] Thus, the Russian Theosophists who counted himself the Orthodox Christians were excommunicated.[110] Franz Hartmann, a prominent Theosophist, wrote on clerics as follows:

"Every attack made upon the erroneous opinions and the selfishness of the church autocrats is misrepresented by the latter as an attack upon religion; not upon their religious views, but as an attack upon religion itself. Their church is their God, and the interests of the church are their religion; it is all the God and the religion they know; they can form no conception of a God without priestcraft, nor of a religion without church benefits."[111]


Modern Christian Theosophy

Not to be confused with Theosophy (Boehmian).

In Ellwood's opinion, in addition to the Blavatsky-Olcott line in Theosophy, there was another, quasi-theosophical, attitude to Christianity. In addition to the anti-clerical line in Theosophy, "Christian/Catholic Theosophy" of Kingsford and Maitland arose. In 1882 they published a book The Perfect Way, or the Finding of Christ,[112] which made a great impression on Besant. This book says on the liberation of spirit from matter, a salvation prefigured, after the mystery drama of the Crucifixion and Death of Christ, in His Resurrection.[1]

In her book Esoteric Christianity Besant continued the Theosophical interpretation of Christianity.[note 31] In his article[29] Skeen analyzed her book in detail: according to her, a "healthy religion must contain a secret element attainable only by the spiritual elite."[29][1][114] To prove that this secret element passed from Jesus to the Apostles, she cites Second Timothy 2:2. The verse reads: "The things that thou have heard from me ('teacher to pupil') among many witnesses, the same commit thou ('in a secret manner') to faithful men who shall be able to teach ('also in a secret teacher to pupil manner') others also."[115][29] Besant named this esoteric knowledge the Greater Mysteries. The Lesser Mysteries meant the partial uncovering of the deep truths that must first be assimilated before entry into the Greater Mysteries. And Greater Mysteries can only be passed on "'from mouth to ear' as a pupil becomes qualified."[116][29] In Besant's opinion, a return to the esoteric Christianity of the early ages is "the only way to save Christianity's importance."[29][117][note 32]

According to Besant, the Christ is "more than the man Jesus."[119] She has three views of Christ: "the historical Christ, the mythic Christ, and the mystic Christ."[29] Skeen has quoted:

"Round this glorious Figure gathered the myths which united Him to the long array of His predecessors, the myths telling in allegory the story of all such lives, as they symbolise the work of the Logos in the Kosmos and the higher evolution of the individual human soul."[120][29][note 33]


Theosophical Christianity

In the post-Blavatsky works of Theosophists, the "earlier trenchant anticlericalism" is visibly lacking, and the attitude to Christianity is almost entirely positive. In particular, Annie Besant and Charles Leadbeater demonstrated a new regard for "Catholic-type doctrine and worship, understood esoterically and theosophically." They also viewed Christ, "together with the church's seasons, festivals, and sacraments, as not only symbols of spiritual truth but also as means of transmitting transcendent energies." Large group of Theosophists entered the Liberal Catholic Church, though some have been Anglicans and Roman Catholics.[1][note 34] Ian Hooker, former Presiding Bishop of the Liberal Catholic Church, wrote:

"The Liberal Catholic Church arose from the sense of loss of many English theosophists whose new affiliation left them unwelcome in the churches where they had been worshiping, and from the endeavor of these people to find a place of Christian worship, along with freedom of interpretation, in the English branch of the European Old Catholic Church."[122]


Image
The Completed Eucharistic Form.[124]

The founding bishops of the Liberal Catholic Church were Theosophists J. I. Wedgwood and C. W. Leadbeater who were "actively involved" in the work of the Theosophical Society (Adyar). The doctrine of this Church offered an interpretation of Christianity in which "judgment and salvation after only one life," were substituted by liberation from the necessity for rebirth after many; and in which eschewal of the aftermath of sin "via the redemptive sacrifice of Christ," was substituted by the just and pedagogical receiving of results of whatever has been making in earlier incarnations under the "Law of Karma."[122] The meaning of the rites of the Liberal Catholic Church was expounded in Leadbeater's book The Science of the Sacraments.[125] The author's idea was to save the basic forms of traditional Christianity, but to put "new wine into its old wineskins." The "new wine" was the new nature of the Ancient Wisdom transmitted by the modern Theosophy. According to Ellwood, the Christian rite, "especially when well enacted and well supported by constructive thoughts on the part of all worshipers, creates thought-forms that are vessels and channels of the divine powers evoke by those exalted ideas."[97][note 35]

Basis of mutual understanding

Stephan Hoeller, a Regionary Bishop of Ecclesia Gnostica, noted that the including the nineteenth-century polemics materials in the modern Christianity-Theosophy dialogue "is not useful."[128] David Bland, a member of the Theosophical Society since 1970, stated:

"In the workshop recently [November 5–7, 2000] held to explore a greater interface between the Theosophical Society and the Christian tradition, it was recognized that some Christian faith tenets can indeed inhibit dialogue and create what may appear as in surmountable barriers to open exploration. As the participants in that workshop, members of the Society from various Christian backgrounds, worked through these issues, we identified our dilemma. Each of us recognized that dogmas, if accepted at face value, will continue to be a chasm, but we also realized that there are principles that can bridge that chasm. If one accepts the imperative of love, the interpretations that would divide can be placed to the side, and an atmosphere of love and understanding created."[129]


Professor Ellwood, a religious studies scholar and Liberal Catholic priest, proclaimed that Christianity could be rebuilt to be consonant "with the deepest insights of Theosophy, and moreover become for some people a vehicle for the transmission of those insights and the powers latent in them."[97] In his book The Cross and the Grail: Esoteric Christianity for the 21st Century Ellwood wrote:

"The Eastern Orthodox liturgy, a Catholic form of service, suggests the desire to make physically visible what is transpiring on the astral and mental planes by intentionally creating sacramental thought-forms that channel divine energy from the heart of God. The actual correspondence may not always be exact, since no human craft or art could completely reproduce the worlds of the inner planes; but the feeling of color, richness, and unity-in-diversity is there. In Eastern Orthodoxy, the often-concealed altar behind the iconostasis, a screen covered with icons and pictures of saints, is like the innermost eternal realm of pneuma, spirit, the atma, the God within. This power seems to radiate through the saints with their luminous eyes as though they were beings in the heaven of the mental plane, or Devachan. As the service progresses with its mystical and unforgettable music, its richly-robed clergy moving with the slowness of ancient ritual, and its billowing clouds of incense, a dome of silvery-blue light that merges upward into gold is formed above the congregation, like the onion-shaped domes atop many Orthodox churches. The structure is so exalted that it barely touches the earth, and not all present are able to perceive it directly."[130]


Christian converts to Theosophy

• George Arundale, the third President of the Theosophical Society Adyar. His father, the Rev. John Kay, was a Congregational minister. In 1926 George became Regionary Bishop of the Liberal Catholic Church in India.[131][132]
• Alice Bailey, initially a member of the Theosophical Society Adyar. She was raised in the "conservative evangelical wing" of the Church of England. At the age of eighteen she became a religious worker in the Young Women's Christian Association.[133][note 36]
• Annie Besant, the second President of the Theosophical Society Adyar. She was an Anglican by education and, at age twenty, married Rev. Frank Besant.[135][136][note 37]
• Helena Blavatsky, a founder the modern Theosophical movement, the co-founder and main ideologist the Theosophical Society.[137][note 38][note 39] She was an Orthodox Christian by birth and education. All her relatives belonged to the conservative people who considered themselves "the good Christians."[140][note 40]
• Daniel Dunlop, a member of the Theosophical Society (initially), the founder a magazine The Irish Theosophist. His father, Alexander Dunlop, was a Quaker preacher.[142]
• Franz Hartmann, a member of the Theosophical Society, co-worker of Blavatsky and Olcott at Adyar.[143] He was "educated in the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church" and wished at one time to become a monk of the Capuchinian Order.[144]
• Geoffrey Hodson, a member of the Theosophical Society Adyar and Liberal Catholic priest. He grew up with "strong conventional Christian beliefs." Hodson worked for the Y.M.C.A. as an organizer.[145] He fostered the esoteric exegesis of the Bible and wrote several works containing "extensive and often profound esoteric interpretations" of the stories from the Old Testament and the life of Jesus.[1]
• Charles Leadbeater, at first an Anglican priest then a member of the Theosophical Society and co-worker of Olcott in Ceylon.[note 41] He became after Blavatsky's death "the main ideologist" of the Theosophical Society Adyar. Leadbeater was also the second Presiding Bishop and a "leading theologian and liturgist" of the Liberal Catholic Church.[147][148]
• Henry Olcott, the co-founder and first President of the Theosophical Society, a "key figure" in the modern history of Sri Lankan Buddhism.[93] His parents had "raised" him a Presbyterian.[149] In 1860 he married the daughter of a priest of the Episcopal Church.[150]
• Gottfried de Purucker, the leader of the Theosophical Society Pasadena. He was "destined for the clergy" by his father, an Anglican minister.[151]
• James Wedgwood, a member of the Theosophical Society Adyar. He gave up "training for the ministry of the Church of England"[152] and became the founding bishop of the Liberal Catholic Church.[153]

See also

• Buddhism and Theosophy
• Buddhism and Christianity
• Hinduism and Theosophy
• Theosophy and Western philosophy
• "Is Theosophy a Religion?"
• "The Esoteric Character of the Gospels"
• "What Are The Theosophists?"
• "What Is Theosophy?"
• Christian theosophy
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Part 2 of 2

Notes

1. Gregory Tillett, a religious studies scholar, claimed in his dissertation, "The relationship of Theosophy to Christianity was never straightforward."[2]
2. Goodrick-Clarke wrote that "the very concept of the Masters" is the Rosicrucian idea of "invisible and secret adepts, working for the advancement of humanity."[3] And Tillett stated: "The concept of Masters or Mahatmas as presented by HPB involved a mixture of western and eastern ideas; she located most of them in India or Tibet. Both she and Colonel Olcott claimed to have seen and to be in communication with Masters. In Western occultism the idea of 'Supermen' has been found in such schools as... the fraternities established by de Pasqually and de Saint-Martin."[4]
3. It is nonsense, when theologian Martin proclaims that Theosophy "equates God the Father with the pagan gods Buddha (?!) and Vishnu."[9]
4. Blavatsky was refusing to accept God as the personality.[16]
5. Theologian Drujinin wrote that Berdyaev noted, "In the contemporary Theosophy it is difficult to find a teaching about God."[20][21]
6. According to professor Hanegraaff, Blavatskian Theosophy is "an example of Comparative Religion on occultist premises, developed with the express intention of undermining established Christianity."[23]
7. According to Berdyaev, Theosophy separates Jesus from Christ and so "denies Christ the God-man."[30]
8. Professor Williams wrote that one should not understand literally the words of Jesus, "I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life." (John 14.6) He speaks here, not as a historical character, but as "the divine light, the light presumably known to all the wise sages of every age."[33]
9. Curuppumullage Jinarajadasa wrote that Mahachohan, the great Adept, wrote that the seventh principle of man is being named some as Christ, others as Buddha.[35]
10. In Kuraev's opinion, Blavatsky was relating "critically-aggressively" to the church tradition.[16] Nevertheless, professor Ellwood claimed: "The Theosophical attitude toward religion can easily be oversimplified and misunderstood. Blavatsky and other classic Theosophical writers vehemently attacked whole colleges of theologians. Yet they also affirmed that a core of truth lies in all religions."[44]
11. The Master Kuthumi wrote, "Though we may not say with the Christians, 'return good for evil' — we repeat with Confucius — 'return good for good; for evil — justice.'"[51]
12. Berdyaev stated that "Christianity is a religion of love, and not a religion of justice," therefore, for a true Christian, the law of karma is abolished.[42] Opposed to the Christian doctrines of redemption and punishment, Theosophy offers no remission for evil except "through myriads of reincarnations."[52] Theosophy offers no "living redeemer, no freedom from the power of sin."[24]
13. Nevertheless, a Russian Christian philosopher Nikolay Lossky believed that "doctrine of reincarnation" is not contradicting Christian teaching.[59]
14. Washington wrote that Patterson, "Blavatsky's bitter enemy", hated Theosophy for its anti-Christian and anti-European orientation.[65]
15. In Senkevich's opinion, The Secret Doctrine was created under dictation of the Master Morya by the method of automatic writing.[67]
16. Nevertheless, professor Radhakrishnan, an Indian philosopher, wrote that supernatural powers are "by-products" of the higher life and "obstacles to samadhi" of the yogi. Only "through the disregard" of these powers, he can gain the liberation.[75]
17. Drujinin proclaimed, "The founders of Theosophy were actively fulfilling the task of their patron—Prince of Darkness."[79] The same way, Skeen declared that Blavatsky's teachings are of "Satanic character."[29]
18. Nevertheless, according to professor Julia Shabanova, a Ukrainian philosopher, in The Secret Doctrine, the interpretation of the definitions of Satan, Lucifer is fundamentally different from Christian declarations.[81]
19. "Satan of the exoteric Jewish and Christian books is a mere figment of the monkish theological imagination."[83]
20. Doctor Kuhn wrote that Blavatsky used ancient lore to prove that in their esoteric meaning all the "old legends" of the Evil Ones and the Powers of Darkness refer to no "essentially evil" beings but to the Divine Wisdom of the Sons of Light who had have the principle of intelligence.[84]
21. In a professor Leo Klejn's opinion, Blavatsky "had a revolutionary's merits."[87] Olcott wrote that in proof of her story Blavatsky showed him "where her left arm had been broken in two places by a sabre-stroke," and made him "feel in her right shoulder a musket-bullet, still imbedded in the muscle, and another in her leg."[88]
22. According to René Guénon, the Catholic Church has petitioned to "condemn Theosophy and to formally declare that 'its doctrines cannot be reconciled with the Catholic faith.' (Decision of the Congregation of the Holy Office, July 19, 1919: Acta Apostolicae Sedis, August 1, 1919, p. 317.)"[90]
23. In Blavatsky's interpretation of history, the "Vatican especially is seen as a negative, anti-progressive force, animated by 'despotic pretensions'."[91]
24. "The Vatican has always been against Theosophy, for Theosophy proposes universal brotherhood and denounces and fights every form of religious dogmatism."[92]
25. In 1880 Blavatsky and Olcott converted to Buddhism officially. (See here: Buddhism and Theosophy#The Founders of the Theosophical Society.)
26. According to Ellwood, Blavatsky was horrified "by the brutality of religious persecution done in the name of Christianity and by the tactics of the zealous but ill-informed Christian missionaries she encountered in India and elsewhere."[97]"After further interaction with Blavatsky and his own labors on behalf of Asian Buddhists, Olcott developed more and more antipathy to the Christian faith."[1]
27. In her book Isis Unveiled, Blavatsky compared "the results of Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity to the detriment of the latter."[100]
28. For the Christian churches, Lucifer was a "synonymous with Satan."[102]
29. This was after the publication of Hodgson Report. Hodgson believed also that Blavatsky's function in India was "to foster as widely as possible among the natives a disaffection towards British rule."[105] Nevertheless, 35 years after this, Guénon wrote that the Theosophical Society "faithfully served the interests of British imperialism."[106]
30. In 1893 at Chicago, Buddhists, Jains, Baha'is, Muslims, Hindus, and Theosophists "shared a platform" with Catholics, Protestants, and Judaists.[108]
31. Berdyaev wrote that in this book by Besant you can find a number of truths peculiar to the mystical understanding of Christianity, and that, compared to others, this book is less anti-Christian.[113]
32. Nevertheless, according to Berdyaev, modern "theosophical sects" discredited the "glorious word Theosophia" and forced to forget about the existence of the "genuine Christian Theosophy."[118] He wrote, "We ought to be re-united with the traditions of the theosophy and anthroposophy of J.Boehme, in truth with a Christian theosophy and anthroposophy. And moreover, even more deeply ought we to be re-united with the traditions of the esoteric, hidden Christianity."[20]
33. Henry Sheldon, professor of theology, wrote that Besant, praising Jesus in ardent words, "makes him a debtor to Eastern wisdom, of which he is assumed to have been a devoted student for many years."[121]
34. February 13, 1916 is regarded as "the foundation date" of the Church.[122] "The first public services of the Church in Australia were held in Penzance Chambers in Sydney in April, 1917."[123]
35. In a book Thought-Forms[126] its authors have provided illustrated descriptions of the "subtle energies" that surround men. The subtle energies "activated and directed by Christian worship" surely correlate with the thought-forms.[127]
36. Bailey's book Reappearance of the Christ has many scriptural references and "seems to function as a text designed to convert Christians" to her version of Theosophy.[134]
37. In childhood Annie was "deeply religious."[29]
38. According to professor Godwin, "the Western esoteric tradition has no more important figure in modern times than Helena Petrovna Blavatsky."[138]
39. According to doctor Campbell, in the 19th century the Theosophical Society has been "probably the most important nontraditional or occult group."[139]
40. Aunt Nadyezhda Andreyevna Fadeyeva, at the age of three, had set fire to the priest's robe at the baptism of her niece, baby Helena Petrovna von Hahn. The biographer wrote, "It was a bad omen."[141]
41. Leadbeater's uncle William Wolfe Capes was an eminent Anglican churchman.[146]

References

1. Ellwood.
2. Tillett 1986, p. 991.
3. Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 6.
4. Tillett 1986, p. 966.
5. Barker 1924, p. 52; Дружинин 2012, p. 42.
6. Barker 1924, p. 52; Дружинин 2012, pp. 42, 45.
7. Besant 1902, p. 8; Kuhn 1992, p. 145.
8. Barker 1924, Letter 10.
9. Martin 2003, p. 295.
10. Blavatsky 1889, p. 61; Sheldon 1916, p. 47.
11. Дружинин 2012, p. 48.
12. Blavatsky 1960a, p. 176; Lachman 2012, p. 112.
13. Blavatsky 1888b, p. 41.
14. Blavatsky 1888a, p. 14; Kuhn 1992, p. 199; Santucci 2012, pp. 234–235.
15. Driscoll 1912, p. 628.
16. Кураев 2002.
17. Blavatsky 1967a, p. 91; Movement 1951, p. 72.
18. Blavatsky 1889, p. 84; Bednarowski 1989, p. 36.
19. Berdyaev 1972, p. 271.
20. Berdyaev.
21. Дружинин 2012, p. 41.
22. Соловьёв 1911, p. 397.
23. Hanegraaff 1998, p. 443.
24. Martin 2003, p. 296.
25. Blavatsky 1877, p. 150; Purucker 1998, p. 1.
26. Blavatsky 1877, p. 553; Tyson 2006, p. 213.
27. Blavatsky 1877, p. 544; Сенкевич 2012, p. 298.
28. Campbell 1980, p. 3.
29. Skeen 2002.
30. Бердяев 1994, p. 180.
31. Blavatsky 1960b, p. 270; Movement 1951, p. 131; Крэнстон 1999, p. 408.
32. Blavatsky 1960a, p. 208.
33. Williams 2001.
34. Tyson 2006, p. 210.
35. Jinarajadasa 1919, p. 7.
36. Мень 2002.
37. Blavatsky 1889, p. 66; Дружинин 2012, p. 122.
38. Sheldon 1916, p. 49.
39. Blavatsky 1889, p. 67.
40. Blavatsky 1889, p. 70; Bednarowski 1989, p. 66.
41. Bulgakov 2012, p. 25.
42. Бердяев 1994, p. 185.
43. Blavatsky 1889, pp. 68–71; Кураев 2000, p. 105.
44. Ellwood 2014a, p. 159.
45. Кураев 2000, p. 107.
46. Blavatsky 1889, p. 112; Bednarowski 1989, p. 92.
47. Blavatsky 1889, p. 138; Bednarowski 1989, p. 92.
48. Blavatsky 1889, p. 148; Guénon 2004, p. 114.
49. Дружинин 2012, p. 112.
50. Strohmer 1996.
51. Barker 1924, Letter 85.
52. Martin 2003, p. 287.
53. Blavatsky 1889, p. 140; Bednarowski 1989, p. 92.
54. Blavatsky 1888b, p. 305; Ellwood 2014a, p. 153.
55. Blavatsky 1877, p. 280; Lavoie 2012, p. 186.
56. Blavatsky 1888b, p. 306; Ellwood 2014a, p. 153.
57. Дружинин 2012, pp. 106, 107.
58. Дружинин 2012, p. 103.
59. Лосский 1992, p. 133; Aliaiev, Kutsepal 2018, p. 159.
60. Patterson 1884, p. 200.
61. Melton 2014, p. 132.
62. Дружинин 2012, p. 25.
63. Hodgson 1885b, p. 207; Дружинин 2012, p. 25.
64. Patterson 1891.
65. Washington 1995, p. 82.
66. Кураев 2000, p. 39.
67. Сенкевич 2012, p. 427.
68. Дружинин 2012, p. 144.
69. Martin 2003, p. 263.
70. Sinnett 1913, p. 108; Крэнстон 1999, p. 99.
71. Blavatsky 1877, p. 588; Сенкевич 2012, p. 300.
72. Sloan 1922, pp. 135, 138.
73. Sloan 1922, pp. 133–134.
74. Дружинин 2012, pp. 120–121.
75. Radhakrishnan 2008, p. 367.
76. Дружинин 2012, p. 132.
77. Murphet 1975, p. 216.
78. Blavatsky 1967b, p. 98; Kalnitsky 2003, p. 65.
79. Дружинин 2012, p. 53.
80. Blavatsky 1888b, p. 234; Кураев 2000, p. 174.
81. Шабанова 2016.
82. Blavatsky 1888b, p. 389; Ellwood 2014a, p. 161.
83. Purucker 1999, Satan.
84. Kuhn 1992, p. 212.
85. Дружинин 2012, p. 105.
86. Guénon 2004, p. 9; Lachman 2012, p. 51.
87. Клейн 2011.
88. Olcott 2011, p. 9; Kuhn 1992, p. 54.
89. Jinarajadasa 2010, p. 33.
90. Guénon 2004, pp. 296-7.
91. Kalnitsky 2003, p. 298.
92. Aveline.
93. PDB 2013.
94. Melton 2014, p. 127.
95. Prothero 1996, p. 100.
96. Prothero 1996, p. 97.
97. Ellwood 2000.
98. Washington 1995, p. 79.
99. Кураев 2000, p. 26; Guénon 2004, p. 3.
100. Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 122.
101. Крэнстон 1999, p. 408.
102. Murphet 1975, p. 213.
103. Blavatsky 1960b, p. 283; Murphet 1975, p. 216.
104. Cranston 1993, Ch. 6/6.
105. Hodgson 1885a.
106. Guénon 2004, p. 197.
107. Fields 1981, p. 120; Крэнстон 1999, p. 509.
108. Lachman 2012, p. 135.
109. Interdict.
110. Максимович 2001.
111. Hartmann 1909, p. 150.
112. Kingsford 1919.
113. Бердяев 1994, p. 181.
114. Besant 1902, p. 2.
115. Besant 1902, pp. 60–61.
116. Besant 1902, p. ix.
117. Besant 1902, p. 40.
118. Бердяев 1994, p. 175.
119. Besant 1902, p. 123.
120. Besant 1902, p. 140.
121. Besant 1902, p. 129; Sheldon 1916, p. 36.
122. Hooker.
123. Tillett 1986, p. 610.
124. Leadbeater 2007, Frontispiece.
125. Leadbeater 2007.
126. TForms 1901.
127. Ellwood 2014b, p. 88.
128. Hoeller 2001.
129. Bland.
130. Ellwood 2014b, p. 94.
131. Theowiki.
132. Дружинин 2012, p. 38.
133. Ellwood1.
134. Keller 2006.
135. Bowden 1993a.
136. Wessinger.
137. Bowden 1993b.
138. Godwin 1994, p. xv.
139. Campbell 1980, p. 1.
140. Сенкевич 2012, pp. 8, 13.
141. Sinnett 1913, p. 14; Murphet 1975, p. 6.
142. Theowiki1.
143. Theowiki2.
144. Zirkoff 1960, p. 439.
145. Keiden.
146. Tillett 1986, p. 94.
147. Ellwood2.
148. Hammer 2003, p. 509.
149. Bowden 1993c.
150. Murphet 1972, p. 12; Lavoie 2012, p. 59.
151. Dougherty.
152. Tillett 1986, p. 999.
153. Hooker1.

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• Hodgson, R. (12 September 1885). "The Theosophical Society. Russian Intrigue or Religious Evolution?". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
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• Hoeller, S. A. (July 2001). "Christianity-Theosophy Conference: What is a Christian?". Quest. Theosophical Society in America. 89 (4): 135. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
• Hooker, Ian (2012-03-15). "Liberal Catholic Church". Theosopedia. Manila: Theosophical Publishing House. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
• ———— (2012-03-14). "Wedgwood, James Ingall". Theosopedia. Manila: Theosophical Publishing House. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
• Jinarajadasa, C., ed. (1919). Letters from the masters of the wisdom, 1881–1888. Adyar: Theosophical Publishing House. OCLC 5151989. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
• Jinarajadasa, C. (2010) [1941]. K. H. Letters to C. W. Leadbeater (Reprint ed.). Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1162578084. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
• Kalnitsky, Arnold (2003). The Theosophical Movement of the Nineteenth Century: The Legitimation of the Disputable and the Entrenchment of the Disreputable (PDF) (D. Litt. et Phil. thesis). promoter Dr H. C. Steyn. Pretoria: University of South Africa (published 2009). OCLC 732370968. Retrieved 6 October 2017 – via Unisa ETD.
• Keiden, W. (2012-03-12). "Hodson, Geoffrey". Theosopedia. Manila: Theosophical Publishing House. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
• Kingsford, A.; Maitland, E. (1919) [1882]. The Perfect Way, or the Finding of Christ (7th ed.). New York: Macoy Publishing. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
• Kuhn, Alvin Boyd (1992) [1930]. Theosophy: A Modern Revival of Ancient Wisdom (PhD thesis). American religion series: Studies in religion and culture. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-56459-175-3. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
• Kuthumi; et al. (1924). Barker, A. T. (ed.). The Mahatma Letters to A. P. Sinnett from the Mahatmas M. & K. H. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company Publishers. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
• Lachman, G. (2012). Madame Blavatsky: The Mother of Modern Spirituality. Penguin. ISBN 9781101601389. OCLC 858947354. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
• Lavoie, J. D. (2012). The Theosophical Society: The History of a Spiritualist Movement. Boca Raton, Fl: Brown Walker Press. ISBN 9781612335537. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
• Leadbeater, C. W. (2007) [1920]. The Science of the Sacraments. Cosimo, Inc. ISBN 9781602062405. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
• Martin, W.; Zacharias, R. (2003). Zacharias, R. (ed.). The Kingdom of the Cults. Baker Books. ISBN 9780764228216. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
• Melton, J. G. (2014) [1992]. "Theosophy". Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in America (Reprint ed.). New York: Routledge. pp. 126–136. ISBN 9781135539986. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
• Murphet, H. (1972). Hammer on the Mountain: Life of Henry Steel Olcott (1832–1907). Theosophical Publishing House. ISBN 9780835602105. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
• ———— (1975). When Daylight Comes: Biography of Helena Petrovna Blavatsky. Theosophical Publishing House. ISBN 9780835604598. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
• Olcott, H. S. (2011). Old Diary Leaves 1875-8. Cambridge Library Collection. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781108072939. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
• Patterson, George (September 1884). "The Collapse of Koot Hoomi". The Madras Christian College Magazine. Madras, India: Madras Christian College: 199–215. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
• ———— (14 May 1891). "Madame Blavatsky". The British Weekly. London: 40. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
• Prothero, S. R. (1996). The white Buddhist: the Asian odyssey of Henry Steel Olcott. Religion in North America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780585109503. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
• Purucker, G. de (1998). The Story of Jesus. Pasadena: Theosophical University Press. ISBN 978-1-55700-153-5. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
• Radhakrishnan, S. (2008) [1923]. Indian Philosophy. 2 (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195698428. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
• Santucci, J. A. (2012). "Theosophy". In Hammer, O.; Rothstein, M. (eds.). The Cambridge Companion to New Religious Movements. Cambridge Companions to Religion. Cambridge University Press. pp. 231–246. ISBN 9781107493551. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
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• Sinnett, A. P. (1913) [1886]. Incidents in the Life of Madame Blavatsky (2nd ed.). London: Theosophical Publishing House.
• Skeen, James (2002). Foutz, S. D. (ed.). "Theosophy: A Historical Analysis and Refutation" (PDF). Quodlibet. Chicago, Ill. 4 (2). ISSN 1526-6575. OCLC 42345714. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
• Sloan, M. E. (1922). Demonosophy Unmasked in Modern Theosophy (2nd ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: The Way Press. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
• Strohmer, Charles (1996). "Karma and reincarnation". In Ankerberg, J.; Weldon, J. (eds.). Encyclopedia of New Age Beliefs. Harvest House Publishers. pp. xii–xiii. ISBN 9781565071605. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
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• Williams, Jay G. (March 2001). "Christian Exclusiveness Theosophical Truth". Quest. Theosophical Society in America. 89 (2). Retrieved 26 October 2017.
• Zirkoff, B. de (1960). "Franz Hartmann" (PDF). In Zirkoff, B. de (ed.). Blavatsky Collected Writings. 8. Wheaton, Ill: Theosophical Publishing House. pp. 439–457. Retrieved 9 October 2017.

In Russian

• "Определение "О псевдохристианских сектах, неоязычестве и оккультизме"" [Interdict "On the Pseudo-christian Sects, Neopaganism, and Occultism"]. Patriarchia.ru (in Russian). Москва: Московский Патриархат. 2009-01-18. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
• Бердяев, Н. А. (1994). "Гл. VIII. Теософия и гнозис" [Ch. VIII. Theosophy and Gnosis]. Философия свободного духа [Freedom and the Spirit]. Мыслители XX века (in Russian). Москва: Республика. pp. 175–193. ISBN 5-250-02453-X. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
• Дружинин, Д. (2012). Блуждание во тьме: основные положения псевдотеософии Елены Блаватской, Генри Олькотта, Анни Безант и Чарльза Ледбитера [Wandering in the Dark: The Fundamentals of the Pseudo-theosophy by Helena Blavatsky, Henry Olcott, Annie Besant, and Charles Leadbeater] (in Russian). Нижний Новгород. ISBN 978-5-90472-006-3. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
• Клейн, Л. С. (June 2011). Кувакин, Валерий (ed.). "Рациональный взгляд на успехи мистики" [Rational View on the Successes of Mysticism]. Здравый смысл (in Russian). Москва: Российское гуманистическое общество. 16 (2). ISSN 1814-0416. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
• Крэнстон, С. (1999). Данилов, Л. Л. (ed.). Е. П. Блаватская. Жизнь и творчество основательницы современного теософского движения [HPB: the extraordinary life and influence of Helena Blavatsky, founder of the modern Theosophical movement] (in Russian). Рига: Лигатма. ISBN 5-7738-0017-9. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
• Кураев, А. В. (2000). Кто послал Блаватскую? [Who had sent Blavatsky?]. Христианство в "Эру Водолея" (in Russian). Троицкое слово. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
• ———— (2002). "Блаватская Елена Петровна" [Blavatsky Helena Petrovna]. In Кирилл (ed.). Православная энциклопедия (in Russian). 5 (Online ed.). Москва: Церковно-научный центр "Православная энциклопедия". pp. 231–233. ISBN 5-89572-010-2. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
• Лосский, Н. О. (1992). Учение о перевоплощении. Интуитивизм [The Doctrine of Reincarnation. Intuitionism] (in Russian). Moscow: Прогресс. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
• Максимович, К. А. (2001). "Анафема" [Anathema]. In Кирилл (ed.). Православная энциклопедия (in Russian). 2 (Online ed.). Москва: Церковно-научный центр "Православная энциклопедия". pp. 274–279. ISBN 5-89572-007-2. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
• Мень, А. В. (2002). "Теософия и Библия" [Theosophy and Bible] (PDF). Библиологический словарь (in Russian). 3. Москва: Фонд им. А. Меня. pp. 224–227. ISBN 5-89831-028-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
• Сенкевич, А. Н. (2012). Елена Блаватская. Между светом и тьмой [Helena Blavatsky. Between Light and Darkness]. Носители тайных знаний (in Russian). Москва: Алгоритм. ISBN 978-5-4438-0237-4. OCLC 852503157. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
• Соловьёв, Владимир С. (1911). "Заметка о Е. П. Блаватской" [Note on H. P. Blavatsky]. In Соловьёв, С. М. (ed.). Собрание сочинений [Collected Writings] (in Russian). 6. СПб.: Книгоиздательское Товарищество "Просвещение". pp. 394–398.
• Шабанова Ю. А. (2016). "Идеи Е. П. Блаватской в творчестве А. Н. Скрябина" [The ideas of H.P. Blavatsky in the creation of A.N. Scriabin]. Статті Наукової групи ТТ України (in Russian). Теософское общество в Украине. Retrieved 15 October 2017.

Further reading

• Bailey, A. (1970) [1947]. The Reappearance of the Christ (2nd ed.). Lucis Publishing Company. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
• Edge, H. T. (1998). Theosophy and Christianity (Online ed.). Pasadena: Theosophical University Press. ISBN 1-55700-102-2. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
• Heindel, Max (1996) [1909]. "Christ and His Mission". Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception: Mystic Christianity. Rosicrucian Fellowship. pp. 367–410. ISBN 9780911274028. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
• Seiling, Max (1913). Theosophy and Christianity. Rand, McNally & Co. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
• Steiner, R. (2008). Christ and the Human Soul. Rudolf Steiner Press. ISBN 9781855842038. Retrieved 19 October 2017.

External links

• The Grand Inquisitor, trans. by Helena Blavatsky.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Kora La
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19

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Image
Kora La
Location in Nepal
Elevation 4,660 m (15,289 ft)
Location China–Nepal border
Range Himalayas
Coordinates 29°18′14″N 83°58′7″ECoordinates: 29°18′14″N 83°58′7″E

Kora La or Korala (Nepali: कोरला; literally Kora Pass) is a mountain pass between Tibet and Upper Mustang. It is only 4,660 metres (15,290 ft) in elevation, it has been considered the lowest drivable path between Tibetan Plateau and Indian subcontinent.[1] It is currently being planned as vehicle border crossing between China and Nepal.[2]

Geography

Kora La is situated on the drainage divide between the Yarlung Tsangpo and Ganges river basins. At 4,660 m (15,290 ft), it is the lowest pass across the Himalayan mountain range. As such, it forms the key col for K2 on the ridgeline connecting it to Mount Everest. The Kali Gandaki River has its source near the southern side of the pass.

History

Kora La is one of the oldest routes between the two regions. It was historically used for salt trade between Tibet and Nepalese kingdoms.[3] Up until 2008 Upper Mustang was the Kingdom of Lo, an ethnic Tibetan kingdom that was a suzerainty of Kingdom of Nepal. The suzerainty allowed for a certain level of independence in local governance from the Nepalese central government.[4]

During the late 1950s and 60s, the Tibetan guerrilla group Chushi Gangdruk operated out of Upper Mustang with the intention of raiding PLA positions in Tibet.[4] This led to a border incident that caused the killing of a Nepalese officer who was mistaken by Chinese border guards as a Tibetan rebel.[5][6]

Far to the east, Walt could speak firsthand about the state of the resistance. From the moment he and his two fellow agents landed in November 1957, they were immersed in the heart of the Kham guerrilla movement. Due to district rivalries, that movement had never developed a unified province-wide command structure. Twenty-three Khampa clans, however, were fighting together under the common title of the Volunteer Army to Defend Buddhism. By early 1958, this functional name had given way to a geographic one: Chushi Gangdruk -- "Four Rivers, Six Ranges" -- a reference to the major rivers (Mekong, Salween, Yangtze, and Yalung) and mountains that ran across Kham.

In Walt's own band, 500 Chushi Gangdruk rebels were focused on expelling the Chinese around Lithang. Things started out well enough, including the unexpected arrival of the final Saipan-trained student, Dick. After hyperventilating in the rear of the B-17, Dick had been off-loaded in Dacca and smuggled overland back to Darjeeling. Once there, Gyalo Thondup had matched him up with another able-bodied Khampa and sent both on horseback to Tibet via Sikkim.

After making his way to Lithang, Dick presented a letter from Gyalo pledging imminent support. This was welcome news for Walt; almost from the moment he had landed, he had been sending multiple radio requests for weapons and ammunition. Now armed with Gyalo's letter, he generated considerable excitement among the insurgents and succeeded in attracting new recruits. [9]

Walt's ethnic kin were not the only ones taking notice of his recruitment activity. Due to the relatively low altitude and easy access along the new byways completed in 1956, the PLA had been able to shift 150,000 soldiers to eastern Tibet by the end of 1957. Specifically targeted against southern Kham were hordes of Hiu Muslim cavalrymen, who had already been used to devastating effect against a sister rebellion on the steppes of Amdo.

In the ensuing mismatch of numbers, the fate of Chushi Gangdruk was a foregone conclusion. By mid-1958, Walt's servant Thondup, known as "Dan" while on Saipan, took a bullet to the head. A month later, Sam fell victim to an ambush. Shortly thereafter, Dick was shot. With three of the four Saipan students lost, Walt and the remnants of his band had little choice but to abandon Lithang and begin a fighting withdrawal toward central Tibet.

Walt was not alone. By the summer of 1958, waves of Khampa refugees and defeated rebels were heading west toward Lhasa. Of these, some diverted south to the banks of the Drigu Tso, where on 16 June Gompo Tashi arrived to oversee the inauguration ceremony for a unified resistance movement dubbed the National Volunteer Defense Army (NVDA). With 1,500 guerrillas in attendance and Gompo Tashi named titular head by acclamation, the previous flag of the Chushi Gangdruk (a mythical snow lion on a blue background) was replaced by a new NVDA standard featuring crossed Tibetan swords on a yellow field. Tom was on hand to take photographs of the occasion; the roll of film was then couriered out to Gyalo in India. [10]

The reason for the name change was more than semantic. Although the NVDA was overwhelmingly composed of Khampas, Gompo Tashi intentionally sought to break from the regional overtones of Chushi Gangdruk and present a name and image that would appeal to all Tibetans.

As this was transpiring, Tom and Lou duly radioed updates back to the CIA. Much of their reporting consisted of requests for weapons and ammunition, both of which were in short supply. When none were forthcoming, Gompo Tashi took matters into his own hands and departed NVDA headquarters in August to lead a raid against an isolated Chinese garrison southwest of the capital. There, it was hoped, they could make off with a haul of armaments at little risk.

In the ensuing series of battles, the NVDA was less than successful. Word of its first impending attack had apparently been leaked, and the scout party walked into an ambush. Withdrawing after a three-day fight, they promptly walked into a second ambush. Continuing on a western heading, they next attempted to raid an armory of the Tibetan army.

There, the NVDA was exposed to the rude ironies of its nationalist struggle. Though it might have shared much common ground with the NVDA, the small Tibetan army, like the central government to which it answered, remained publicly opposed to the anti-Chinese resistance and took pains not to assist the resistance in any way. This was done in part to avoid angering Bejjing, which was already pressuring Lhasa to take up arms against the insurgents. In part, too, it was due to lingering ethnic prejudices: the NVDA, like Chushi Gangdruk before it, could not shake the Khampa brigand stereotype held by many central Tibetans. This became painfully apparent when Gompo Tashi and his guerrillas approached the government armory. Anticipating the raid, Lhasa had secretly ordered the weapons shifted to a nearby monastery. Eventually learning of the ruse, the NVDA leaned on the local monks but found their audience to be less than receptive. Only after many days of cajoling did the religious officials reluctantly open their stores to the resistance fighters. [11]

-- The CIA's Secret War in Tibet, by Kenneth Conboy and James Morrison


People's Republic of China and Kingdom of Nepal officially signed border agreement in 1961.[7] The border was set slightly north of the traditional boundary marker. The traditional location of Kora La is marked by a stupa lies a bit south of the demarcated border between China and Nepal at 29°18′14″N 83°58′7″E.[4]

In December 1999, the 17th claimant Karmapa fled Tibet through this area.[8][9] In response, China built a border fence immediately after.[3] There is a PLA border outpost a few miles on Chinese side, it is the western most border outpost in Tibet Military District. The outpost was renovated in 2009 to have a modern facility.[10]

The border has been closed since the 1960s. However, there is a semiannual cross-border trade fair during which the border is open to local traders.[3] In 2012, Nepal and China agreed to open 6 more official border crossings, Kora La being one of them.[11] In July 2016, Nepalese government announced that this border crossing is expected to open in a year, and also expects it to be the third most important crossing between the two countries.[12]

References

1. Peissel, Michel (October 1965). "Mustang, Nepal's Lost Kingdom". National Geographic. Retrieved 2017-02-10. high point of 4660 m at Kora La on the Mustang-TAR border, the lowest drivable corridor through the Himalayas linking the Tibetan Plateau via Nepal to the tropical Indian plains
2. Tripathi, Binod (19 Jun 2016). "China extends road up to Korala border". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
3. Murton, Galen (March 2016). "A Himalayan Border Trilogy: The Political Economies of Transport Infrastructure and Disaster Relief between China and Nepal". Cross-Currents E-Journal. ISSN 2158-9674. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
4. Cowan, Sam (17 January 2016). "The curious case of the Mustang incident". The Record. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
5. "Chinese Troops Kill a Nepalese; 18 Captured in Reds' Raid Across Border -- 'Urgent' Protest Sent to Peiping". New York Times. 30 June 1960. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
6. Elleman, Bruce; Kotkin, Stephen; Schofield, Clive (2014). "China-Nepal Border". Beijing's Power and China's Borders: Twenty Neighbors in Asia. Routledge. p. 211. ISBN 9781317515654. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
7. 中华人民共和国和尼泊尔王国边界条约 [China-Nepal Border Agreement] (in Chinese). 1961-10-05 – via Wikisource.
8. "The Karmapa's Great Escape (December 28, 1999 – January 5, 2000) -". Karmapa – The Official Website of the 17th Karmapa. Retrieved 2017-02-10. we were not discovered and arrived in Mustang, Nepal, on the morning of December 30, 1999
9. Crossette, Barbara (31 January 2000). "Buddhist's Escape From Tibet, by Car, Horse and Plane". New York Times. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
10. "中国边海防巡礼之昆木加哨所" [Tour of Chinese Border Guards and Coast Guards - Kunmuja Border Outpost]. chinamil.com.cn (in Chinese). Retrieved 2017-02-11. 西藏军区最西边的哨所——昆木加哨所
11. Prithvi Man Shrestha; Jaya Bahadur Rokaya (24 March 2016). "Nepal, China rush to open Hilsa border". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 2017-02-10. Nepal has also given priority to opening this border point along with Kimathanka and Korala in Mustang.
12. Tripathi, Binod (8 July 2016). "'Korala border to open within a year'". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 12:44 am

Lo Manthang
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
Lo Manthang
लोमान्थाङ
Rural municipality
Nickname(s): city of wall
Image
Lomanthang (the uppermost part of district)
Image
Location in Nepal
Coordinates: 29°10′59″N 83°57′24″ECoordinates: 29°10′59″N 83°57′24″E
Country Nepal
Province Gandaki Pradesh
District Mustang
Settled 1380
Established (rural municipality) 10 March 2017
Government[1]
• Type Rural council
• Body Lomanthang Rural Council
• Chairperson Suwarn Kumar Bist (NC)
• Deputy-Chairperson Pema Dolma Bist (NC)
Area
• Total 727 km2 (281 sq mi)
Elevation 3,840 m (12,600 ft)
Population (2011)
• Total 1,899
• Density 2.6/km2 (6.8/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+5:45 (Nepal Time)
Website lomanthangmun.gov.np

Lomanthang (Nepali: लोमन्थाङ) is a rural municipality situated in Mustang District of Gandaki Province of Nepal[2] It is located at the northern end of the district, sandwiched between Tibet Autonomous Region of China in north and Dalome rural municipality of Mustang District in south.

The total area of the rural municipality is 727 square kilometres (281 sq mi) and total population of the rural municipality according to 2011 Nepal census is 1899. The rural municipality is divided into 5 wards. [3]

Previously Lomanthang was a Village development committee which upgraded into a rural municipality merging adjoining Village development committees i.e. Chhoser and Chhonhup.[3] The rural municipality came into existence on 10 March 2017, fulfilling the requirement of the new Constitution of Nepal 2015, Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration replaced all old VDCs and Municipalities into 753 new local level bodies. [4] [5]

Lo is the culturally and linguistically Tibetan northern two-thirds of Mustang District, while the southern third is called Thak, the homeland of Thakali people who speak a different language and have a synthesis of Tibetan and Nepalese culture.

Recently a series of at least twelve caves were discovered north of Annapurna and near the village, decorated with ancient Buddhist paintings and set in sheer cliffs at 14,000 feet (4,300 m) elevation.[6] The paintings show Newari influence, dating to approximately the 13th century, and also contain Tibetan scripts executed in ink, silver and gold and pre-Christian era pottery shards.[6] Explorers found stupas, decorative art and paintings depicting various forms of the Buddha, often with disciples, supplicants and attendants, with some mural paintings showing sub-tropical themes containing palm trees, billowing Indian textiles and birds.[6]

History

Lo Manthang was the walled capital of the Kingdom of Lo from its founding in 1380 by Ame Pal who oversaw construction of the city wall and many of the still-standing structures.[7] After the Shahs of Gorkha forged Nepal out of numerous petty kingdoms in the 18th century, Lo became a dependency but kept its hereditary rulers. This arrangement continued as long as Nepal remained a kingdom, until republican government began in 2008 and Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista (c. 1933–2016) lost his title.[8] His protector King Gyanendra suffered the same fate, however the Raja or gyelpo of Mustang was 25th in a direct line of rulers dating back to 1380 A.D. Gyanendra was only the eleventh Shah ruler since Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered Kathmandu in 1768.

More prosaically, Lo Manthang became a Village Development Committee in Mustang District, Dhawalagiri Zone of northern Nepal. The 1991 Nepal census counted 876 people living in 178 households.[9] The population includes ethnic Lhobas.[6]

Transport

Main article: Upper Mustang § Transport

Lo Manthang is 20 kilometres (12 mi) by unpaved road from a border crossing into Zhongba County of Shigatse Prefecture, TAR. This road continues about 50 kilometres (31 mi) from the border to China National Highway 219, which follows the valley of the Yarlung Tsangpo River.

Nepal is building a road north along the Kaligandaki River, to within 9 kilometres (6 mi) of Lo Manthang as of 2010. There are also scheduled flights from Kathmandu to Jomsom Airport, 50 kilometres (31 mi) south of China .

Tourism and access

The village is noted for its tall whitewashed mud-brick walls, gompas and the Raja's or Royal or King's Palace, a nine-cornered, five-story structure built around 1400.[10] There are four major temples: Jampa Lhakhang or Jampa Gompa, the oldest, built in the early 15th century and also known as the "God house"; Thubchen Gompa, a huge, red assembly hall and gompa built in the late 15th century and located just southwest of Jampa Gompa; Chodey Gompa, now the main city gompa; and the Choprang Gompa, which is popularly known as the "New Gompa".[11]

Even though foreign visitors have been allowed in the kingdom since 1992, tourism to Upper Mustang remains limited, with just over 2000 foreign tourists in 2008.[6]

The Nepalese Department of Immigration requires foreign visitors to obtain a special permit, which costs $50 per day per person, and liaison (guide) to protect local tradition from outside influence as well as to protect their environment.[12]

Earthquake Damage

The April 2015 Nepal earthquake caused multiple cracks in the 600-year-old Lo Manthang Royal Palace.[13][14]

Gallery

Image
The Royal Palace in Lo Manthang

Image
Lomanthang

Image
The settlement of Lo Manthang

Image
Nepal Tourism Center, Upper Mustang

See also

• Gandaki River
• Kali Gandaki Gorge
• Kali Gandaki River
• Jomsom Airport
• Mustang Caves
• Mustang District
• Upper Mustang

References

1. "स्थानीय निर्वाचन २०७४ - निर्वाचन विवरण तथा नतिजा - मुस्ताङ - लोमन्थाङ".
2. "स्थानीय तहहरुको विवरण" [Details of the local level bodies]. http://www.mofald.gov.np/en (in Nepali). Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
3. Jump up to:a b "District Corrected Last for RAJAPATRA" (PDF). http://www.mofald.gov.np. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
4. "New local level structure comes into effect from today". http://www.thehimalayantimes.com. The Himalayan Times. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
5. "New local level units come into existence". http://www.kathmandupost.ekantipur.com. 11 March 2017. Retrieved 18 July2018.
6. Jump up to:a b c d e Gopal Sharma, Explorers find ancient caves and paintings in Nepal, Reuters, May 3, 2007, Accessed October 28, 2012
7. Peissel, Michel (1992) [1967]. Mustang - A Lost Tibetan Kingdom (2nd ed.). Book Faith India, Delhi. pp. 227–31.
8. "China View news".
9. "Nepal Census 2001". Nepal's Village Development Committees. Digital Himalaya. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 15 November 2009..
10. Mustang: The Forbidden Kingdom Archived 2007-06-30 at the Wayback Machine, Royal Mountain Travel, 2004, Accessed May 3, 2007.
11. Upper Mustang Trek Archived 2013-06-02 at the Wayback Machine, Osho World Adventure Pvt. Ltd., Accessed June 2, 2013.
12. Nepal Trekking Permit Fees Archived 2013-07-15 at the Wayback Machine, TAAN Nepal, Accessed June 2, 2013.
13. Quake-hit Upper Mustang still in ruins, myrepublica.com, 25 November 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
14. Local people have reconstructed Lomanthang Palace on their own, nepalnow.org, 31 October 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2018.

Bibliography

• Maïe Kitamura, La cité fortifiée de Lo Manthang, Mustang, Nord du Népal. Paris, Éditions Recherches, 2011. 214 plans & drawings, photography. ISBN 978-2-86222-077-2. [1]

External links

http://www.lomanthangmun.gov.np
• UN map of the municipalities of Mustang District
• Restoring a temple on Nova (series)
• Lo-manthang Photo Gallery
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 1:06 am

Chushi Gangdruk [NVDA: National Volunteer Defense Army]
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19

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Another source of volunteers came via the international network she had established in Delhi, the Tibetan Friendship Group, through which Freda roped in pen pals, sponsors, and helpers for her tulkus and Tibetan refugees in general.

-- The Revolutionary Life of Freda Bedi, by Vicki Mackenzie


Dhotoe Chushi Gangdrug, Europe (Switzerland)

Name of Administrative Contact: Tashi Wangdü Khorlotsang
Street Address: Illnauerstr. 30
City, State/Province, Country and Postal Code: 8307 Effretikon, Switzerland
Telephone Number: 0041 52 343 89 70
Email Address: lordtwk@bluewin.ch
Web Page URL (Address): http://www.chushigangdrug.com/

Dhokham Chushi Gangdruk (New York) (USA)

Name of Administrative Contact: Doma Norbu
Street Address: Dhokham Chushi Gangdruk
75-22, 37th Avenue
Mail Box #326
City, State/Province, Country and Postal Code: Jackson Heights, NY 11372, USA
Telephone Number: +1 (646) 435-7880
Fax Number: +1 (646) 435-7880
Email Address: dnorbu@chushigangdruk.org
Web Page URL (Address): http://www.chushigangdruk.org/

Dhokham Chushi Gangdruk (DCG) is a non-governmental, non-religious, nonpartisan organization registered in the state of New York as a not-for-profit corporation and authorized under Section 501 (c)(3) of the United States Internal Revenue Code.

DCG's mission is to:

Work towards restoring the independence of Tibet through a non-violent movement.
Work towards the rights of the Tibetan people to determine their own political, economic, social, religious and cultural future under the sole leadership of His Holiness the Dalai Lama.
Preserve the unique Tibetan culture in-exile, which is being systematically destroyed by the Communist Chinese Government inside Tibet.
Look after the welfare of the veteran Chushi Gangdruk members.

-- Tibetan Friendship Group, by http://www.tibet.org


What many people may not know is that Trungpa first taught in Boulder at CU [Colorado University], and today the university shares with Columbia University the distinction of having three faculty members who specialize in modern Tibetan studies: McGranahan, Gayley and Associate Professor of Geography Emily Yeh, whose research focuses on environmental issues on the Tibetan Plateau and the Tibetan diaspora. All three women have traveled extensively in Tibet.

“I usually say we have three tenure-track, full-time specialists in Tibet, and that’s three more faculty specializing in Tibet than you find at most universities,” McGranahan says. “It’s not a huge group … but it’s an incredible opportunity (for research) and also for students.”

McGranahan in recent years has been researching Tibetan guerillas who fought against the Chinese occupation in the 1960s and were trained by the CIA at Camp Hale, a U.S. Army facility near Leadville, Colo.

The combined academic heft of CU’s [Colorado University's] Tibetan studies trio, Naropa and a new Boulder research branch of the New York-based Tsadra Foundation, which funds the translation of Tibetan Buddhist texts, have attracted attention and new opportunities to Boulder and Colorado.

A joint lecture series between CU [Colorado University] and Naropa, named in honor of Chogyam Trungpa, kicked off in 2013 with Janet Gyatso of Harvard University. John Makransky, professor of Buddhism and Comparative Theology at Boston University and a meditation teacher, will speak in September on compassion, the theme at Naropa’s 40th-anniversary year.

“This is a step forward in the collaboration between the universities,” Gayley says. “There is the perfect nexus for Buddhist studies in Boulder and (collaborations of this kind) will strengthen both programs.”


The lecture series was started with a seed grant from the Uberoi Foundation for Religious Studies, founded by the late Mahinder Uberoi, former chair of the Department of Aerospace Engineering at CU-Boulder.

In October, the Tibetan Translation and Transmission Conference, sponsored by the Tsadra Foundation, will bring some 200 Tibetan studies scholars and translators to Keystone. Andrew Quintman, assistant professor of Religious Studies at Yale University, will speak in Boulder as a lead up to the conference.

“Boulder is definitely a lightning rod for Buddhist and Tibetan studies,” Gayley says. “I always have a wait list for my Buddhism classes, and I get 120 to 150 for the Foundation of Buddhism class. … It would be hard to garner that kind of interest anywhere else.”

-- CU's [Colorado University's] expertise in Tibetan and Buddhist studies is unusually deep, by Clay Evans


A deep state (from Turkish: derin devlet), also known as a state within a state, is a form of clandestine government made up of hidden or covert networks of power operating independently of a state's political leadership, in pursuit of their own agenda and goals. Examples include organs of state, such as the armed forces or public authorities (intelligence agencies, police, secret police, administrative agencies, and government bureaucracy). A deep state can also take the form of entrenched, career civil servants acting in a non-conspiratorial manner, to further their own interests. The intent of a deep state can include continuity of the state itself, job security for its members, enhanced power and authority, and the pursuit of ideological objectives. It can operate in opposition to the agenda of elected officials, by obstructing, resisting, and subverting their policies, conditions and directives. It can also take the form of government-owned corporations or private companies that act independently of regulatory or governmental control.[1]

-- Deep State, by Wikipedia


Image
Chushi Gangdruk
ཆུ་བཞི་སྒང་དྲུག་
Badge of the "Tibetan Volunteer Defenders of the Faith". Inscription in Tibetan is gangs ljongs bstan srung dang blangs.
Leader(s) Andruk Gonpo Tashi
Dates of operation June 16, 1958–1974
Dissolved 1974[1]
Flag
Image

Chushi Gangdruk (Tibetan: ཆུ་བཞི་སྒང་དྲུག་, Wylie: Chu bzhi sgang drug, literally "Four Rivers, Six Ranges", full name: Tibetan: མདོ་སྟོད་ཆུ་བཞི་སྒང་དྲུག་བོད་ཀྱི་བསྟན་སྲུང་དང་བླངས་དམག་, Wylie: mdo stod chu bzhi sgang drug bod kyi bstan srung dang blangs dmag, "the Kham Four Rivers, Six Ranges Tibetan Defenders of the Faith Volunteer Army"[2]) was an organization of Tibetan guerrilla fighters, formally created on June 16, 1958, which had been fighting the forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in Tibet since 1956.

The Dokham Chushi Gangdruk organization, a charity set up in New York City and India with chapters in other countries, now supports survivors of the Chushi Gangdruk resistance currently living in India. Chushi Gangdruk also led The 14th Dalai Lama out of Lhasa, where he had lived, soon after the start of the Chinese invasion. During that time, a group of Chushi Gangdruk guerillas was led by Kunga Samten, who is now deceased.[3] Because the United States was prepared to recognize People's Republic of China in the early 1970s, CIA Tibetan Program, which funded the Chushi Gangdruk army, was ended in 1974.[4]

Name

Chushi Gangdruk "Four Rivers, Six Ranges" is the name traditionally given to the eastern Tibetan region of Kham where the gorges of the Gyalmo Nyulchu (Salween), Dzachu (Mekong), Drichu (Yangtse), and Machu (Huang Ho) rivers, all arising on the Tibetan Plateau, pass between six parallel ranges of mountains (Duldza Zalmogang, Tshawagang, Markhamgang, Pobargang, Mardzagang, and Minyagang) that form the watersheds for these rivers. "Chu" (choo) is the Tibetan word for "water", and "shi" (she) is the Tibetan word for 4. "Gang" is range, and "druk" (drewk) means 6.[5]

History

The Fall of Chamdo and signing of the Seventeen-Point Agreement


On 19 October 1950, the monastery where Ngabo Shapé was hiding was surrounded by the Chinese troops accompanied by a few Khampa guides, and here Ngabo Shapé and his officials and troops surrendered to the invading Chinese.[6] The Tibetan Government army in Chamdo was defeated, and the Communist Chinese army took over the city of Chamdo. In Drugu monastery, Ngabo Shapé signed the official surrender.

During the negotiation of the Seventeen-Point Agreement, when the negotiation broke down after Ngabo Shapé resisted to sign the agreement, Li Weihan threatened to order the Chinese troops to march into Lhasa. They decided it was more perilous to Tibet not to reach an agreement, therefore, they accepted the Chinese terms without asking Lhasa.[7] The Chinese were further furious when they were told that the Dalai Lama’s seal was still in Yatung with him.[8] The Chinese made new seal for Ngabo Shapé to stamp the document when he exclaimed that he did not have his official seal to stamp the document, though he had with him the official seal as the Governor General of Kham.[9] Therefore, on 23 May 1951, Ngabo Shapé was forced to sign under duress the “Agreement of the Central People’s Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet,” commonly known as the “Seventeen-Point Agreement”.[10]

Formation of Chushi Gangdrug

Andrug Gompo Tashi (also known as Andrug Jindak) established a people's army called Chushi Gangdrug. Like many other volunteered fighters, Andrug Jindak financed many of the freedom fighters and was accepted as their undisputed leader of the resistance army.

In order to mobilize more support across the different regions of Tibet, the names Tenshung Danglang Mak were appended to Chushi Gangdrug in order to address the pan-Tibetan composition of the people's army. It was not a Tibetan government army but rather a grassroots army of the Tibetan people. Tenshung Danglang Mak fought for the political and religious freedom of Tibet. Khampas and Amdowas had been fighting against the invading Chinese Communist troops since 1956 in different parts of Kham and Amdo. On 16 June 1958, a meeting of Chushi Gangdrug and their supporters was held in Lhodak Dhama Dzong with impressive cavalry parade, incense burnt to the Dalai Lama photograph, and then launched the Chushi Gangdrug yellow flag of the Tensik Danglang Mak with an emblem of two swords represented a deity and handles symbolic of Dorjee or thunderbolt and lotus flower.[11][12]

The formation of the Chushi Gangdruk Volunteer Force was announced on June 16, 1958. It was called National Volunteer Defence Army (NVDA). "Chushi Gangdruk" is a Tibetan phrase meaning "land of four rivers and six ranges," and refers to Amdo and Kham. The group included Tibetans from those regions of eastern Tibet, and its main objective was to drive PRC occupational forces out of Tibet. While central and western Tibet (Ü-Tsang) were bound by a 17-point agreement with the People's Republic of China, the PRC initiated land reform in eastern Tibet (including Amdo and Kham) and engaged in harsh reprisals against the Tibetan land-owners there.

Image
Andrug Gompo Tashi[13] before 1959

Under the direction of General Andrug Gonpo Tashi, Chushi Gangdruk included 37 allied forces and 18 military commanders. They drafted a 27-point military law governing the conduct of the volunteers. Their headquarters were located at Tsona, then later moved to Lhagyari.

Initially militia members purchased their own weapons, mainly World War II-era British .303 in, German 7.92 mm, and Russian 7.62 mm caliber rifles. Chushi Gangdruk contacted the US government for support. However, the State Department required an official request from the Tibetan government in Lhasa, which was not forthcoming. State Department requests were made and ignored in both 1957 and 1958.

CIA support

Without getting approval from the Dalai Lama, the US Central Intelligence Agency decided to go ahead to support the Chushi Gangdrug Tenshung Danglang Mak in the summer of 1959.[14] The CIA provided the group with material assistance and aid, including arms and ammunition, as well as training to members of Chushi Gangdruk and other Tibetan guerrilla groups at Camp Hale.

Chapter 3: The Prodigal Son

During the second week of September 1956, CIA officer John Hoskins arrived at Calcutta's Dum Dum Airport to a blast of late summer heat. At twenty-nine, he had already spent two years recruiting agents in Japan and another four shuttling between Washington desk assignments and vigorous tradecraft instruction. [1] Now assigned to the Calcutta consulate, his new post was an experiment of sorts. The CIA's Far East Division had just gotten permission to station its officers at any diplomatic mission where overseas Chinese were found in numbers. This meant superimposing Far East Division personnel outside of their home turf -- in this case, in India of the Near East Division. [2]

In Calcutta, Hoskins could choose from a wealth of Chinese targets. Topping the list was the PRC's consulate and the People's Bank of China branch, both of which had been opened following the 1954 Sino-Indian trade agreement. In addition, some 30,000 Chinese expatriates -- three-quarters of all those living in India -- made their homes in and around the city.

Hoskins landed the secondary assignment of preening non-Chinese sources in the Himalayan states along the Tibetan border. Just as case officer Kenneth Millian had found out four years earlier, however, the Indians went out of their way to obstruct such efforts. "Overseas Chinese were fair game for penetration," recalls Hoskins, "but the others were considered under Indian hegemony." [3] This was driven home when Mary Hawthorne, a CIA officer assigned to Calcutta, allowed Jigme Thondup (a Bhutanese royal who later became prime minister) and his family to spend the night at her apartment. When the Indians learned of the incident, their outcry was so shrill that Hawthorne was forbidden by her superiors to attempt any similar invitations. [4]

Mindful of Indian surveillance, Hoskins made plans for an exceedingly discreet approach to establish his own ties with Princess Kukula of Sikkim. As she was known to have an affinity for equestrian events, he first considered making an overture at the Tibetan pony races held in Darjeeling. But because the crowds were small and whites were sure to attract notice, Hoskins instead opted to wait until she came to Calcutta for one of the city's thoroughbred competitions. Blending with the event's large number of Western spectators, he approached the princess. But Kukula, Hoskins found, had more reservations than in the past. "She wanted to keep contacts strictly social," he concluded. "She was not serious about getting involved."

As things turned out, the services of the Sikkimese royals would soon prove redundant. When the United States learned that the Dalai Lama had gotten permission in early November to attend the Buddha Jayanti celebrations, the CIA scrambled to bypass Sikkim and establish direct links with Tibetan sources close to the monarch. [5]

None were closer than the Dalai Lama's two brothers in exile. The eldest, Thubten Norbu, already had a history of indirect contact with the agency via the Committee for a Free Asia. After he had been unceremoniously dropped from CFA funding in 1952, both he and his servant, Jentzen Thondup, had become stateless refugees in Japan. Not until 1955, following repeated appeals channeled through Church World Services, did he and Jentzen finally get new Indian identity cards and U.S. visas. Settling in New Jersey, Norbu began to earn a modest income teaching Tibetan to a handful of students as part of a noncredited course at Columbia University.

The other brother, Gyalo Thondup, was residing in Darjeeling. Six years Norbu's junior, Gyalo was the proverbial prodigal son. The problem was, he was the figurative son to a number of fathers. He was the only one of five male siblings not directed toward a monastic life. As a teen, he had befriended members of the Chinese mission in Lhasa and yearned to study in China. Although this was not a popular decision among the more xenophobic members of his family, Gyalo got his wish in 1947 when he and a brother-in-law arrived at the Kuomintang capital of Nanking and enrolled in college.

Two years later, Gyalo, then twenty-one, veered further toward China when he married fellow student Zhu Dan. Not only was his wife ethnic Chinese, but her father, retired General Chu Shi- kuei, had been a key Kuomintang officer during the early days of the republic. Because of both his relationship to General Chu and the fact that he was the Dalai Lama's brother, Gyalo was feted in Nanking by no less than Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek.

The good times were not to last. With the communists closing in on Nanking during the final months of China's civil war, Gyalo and his wife fled in mid-1949 to the safer climes of India. Once again because of his relationship to the Dalai Lama, he was added to the invitation list for various diplomatic events and even got an audience with Prime Minister Nehru.

That October, Gyalo briefly ventured to the Tibetan enclave at Kalimpong before settling for seven months in Calcutta. While there, his father-in-law, General Chu, attempted to make contact with the Tibetan government. With the retreat of the Kuomintang to Taiwan, Chu had astutely shifted loyalty to the People's Republic and was now tasked by Beijing to arrange a meeting between Tibetan and PRC officials at a neutral site, possibly Hong Kong. [6]

Conversant in Chinese and linked to both the Dalai Lama and General Chu, Gyalo was a logical intermediary for the Hong Kong talks. The British, however, were dragging their feet on providing visas to the Tibetan delegation. Unable to gain quick entry to the crown colony, Gyalo made what he intended to be a brief diversion to the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan. But Chiang Kai- shek, no doubt anxious to keep Gyalo away from General Chu and the PRC, had other plans. Smothering the royal sibling with largesse, Chiang kept Gyalo in Taipei for the next sixteen months. Only after a desperate letter to U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson requesting American diplomatic intervention did the ROC relent and give Gyalo an exit permit.

After arriving in Washington in September 1951, Gyalo continued to dabble in diplomacy. Within a month of his arrival, he was called to a meeting at the State Department. Significantly, Gyalo's Chinese wife was at his side during the encounter. Because of the couple's close ties to Chiang, department representatives assumed that details of their talk would quickly be passed to the Kuomintang Nationalists. [7]

Gyalo, in fact, was not a stooge of Taipei, Beijing, or, for that matter, Washington. Despite State Department efforts to secure him a scholarship at Stanford University, he hurriedly departed the United States in February 1952 for the Indian subcontinent. Leaving his wife behind, he then trekked back to Lhasa after a six- year absence.

By that time, Beijing had a secure foothold in the Tibetan capital. Upon meeting this wayward member of the royal family, the local PRC representatives were pleased. As a Chinese speaker married to one of their own, Gyalo was perceived as a natural ally. Yet again, however, he would prove a disappointment. After showing some interest in promoting a bold land reform program championed by the Dalai Lama, Gyalo once more grew restive. In late spring, he secretly met with the Indian consul in Lhasa, and after promising to refrain from politicking, he was given permission to resettle in India. [8]

Although not exactly endearing himself to anyone with his frequent moves, Gyalo was not burning bridges either. Noting his recent return to Darjeeling, the U.S. embassy in early August 1952 cautiously considered establishing contact. Calcutta's Consul General Gary Soulen saw an opportunity in early September while returning from his Sikkim trek with Princess Kukula. Pausing in Darjeeling, Soulen stayed long enough for Gyalo to pass on the latest information from his contacts within the Tibetan merchant community. [9]

Although he had promised to refrain from exile politics, Gyalo saw no conflict in courting senior Indian officials. In particular, he sought a meeting with India's spymaster Bhola Nath Mullik. As head of Indian intelligence, Mullik presided over an organization with deep colonial roots. Established in 1887 as the central Special Branch, it had been organized by the British to keep tabs on the rising tide of Indian nationalism. Despite several redesignations before arriving at the title Intelligence Bureau, anticolonialists remained its primary target for the next sixty years.

Upon independence in 1947, Prime Minister Nehru appointed the bureau's first Indian director. Rather than suppressing nationalists, the organization now had to contend with communal violence and early problems with India's erstwhile Muslim brothers now living in the bisected nation of Pakistan.

Three years later, Mullik became the bureau's second director. A police officer since the age of twenty-two, the taciturn Mullik was known for his boundless energy (he often worked sixteen-hour days), close ties to Nehru, healthy suspicion of China, and (rare for a senior Indian official) predisposition against communism. Almost immediately, the Tibetan frontier became his top concern. This followed Beijing's invasion of Kham that October, which meant that India's military planners now had to contend with a hypothetical front besides Pakistan. Moreover, the tribal regions of northeastern India were far from integrated, and revolutionaries in those areas could now easily receive Chinese support. The previous year, in fact, the bureau had held a conference on risks associated with Chinese infiltration. [10]

Despite Mullik's concerns, Nehru was prone to downplay the potential Chinese threat. Not only did he think it ludicrous to prepare for a full-scale Chinese attack, but he saw real benefits in cultivating Beijing to offset Pakistan's emerging strategy of anticommunist cooperation with the West. "It was Nehru's idealism against hard-headed Chinese realism," said one Intelligence Bureau official. "Mullik injected healthy suspicions."

Astute enough to hedge his bets, Nehru allowed Mullik some leeway in improving security along the border and collecting intelligence on Chinese forces in Tibet. To accomplish this, Mullik expanded the number of Indian frontier posts strung across the Himalayas. In addition, he sought contact with Tibetans living in the Darjeeling and Kalimpong enclaves. Not only could these Tibetans be tapped for information, but a symbolic visit by a senior official like Mullik would lift morale at a time when their homeland was being subjugated. Such contact, moreover, could give New Delhi advance warning of any subversive activity in Tibet being staged from Indian soil. [11]

Of all the Tibetan expatriates, Mullik had his eye on Gyalo Thondup. Besides having an insider's perspective of the high offices in Lhasa, Gyalo had already passed word of his desire for a meeting. Prior to his departure for his first visit to Darjeeling in the spring of 1953, Mullik asked for -- and quickly received -- permission from the prime minister to include the Dalai Lama's brother on his itinerary. Their subsequent exchange of views went well, as did their tete-a-tete during Mullik's second visit to Darjeeling in 1954. [12]

Apart from such occasional contact with Indian intelligence, Gyalo spent much of the next two years removed from the tribulations in his homeland. To earn a living, he ironically began exporting Indian tea and whiskey to Chinese troops and administrators in Tibet. For leisure, he and his family were frequent guests at the Gymkhana Club. Part of an exclusive resort chain that was once a playpen for the subcontinent's colonial elite, the Gymkhana's Darjeeling branch was situated amid terraced gardens against the picturesque backdrop of Kanchenjunga. A regular on the tennis courts, the Dalai Lama 's brother was the local champion. [13]

In the summer of 1956, Gyalo's respite came to an abrupt end. The senior abbot and governor from the Tibetan town of Gyantse had recently made his escape to India and in July wrote a short report about China's excesses. Gyalo repackaged the letter in English and mailed copies to the Indian media, several diplomatic missions, and selected world leaders. One of these arrived in early September at the U.S. embassy in the Pakistani capital of Karachi, and from there was disseminated to the American mission in New Delhi and consulate in Calcutta. [14]

Although the letter was less than accurate on several counts, it served two important purposes. First, it corroborated the reports of China's brutality provided by the crown prince of Sikkim in June. Second, it brought Gyalo back to the attention of Washington as a concerned activist. For the past four years, there had been virtually no contact between him and American diplomats in India. In particular, he was completely unknown among CIA officers in Calcutta. [15]

This was set to change, and quickly. Once word reached India in early November that the Dalai Lama would be attending the Buddha Jayanti, John Hoskins got an urgent cable from headquarters. Put aside your efforts against the Chinese community, he was told, and make immediate contact with Gyalo. A quick check indicated Gyalo's predilection for tennis, so Hoskins got a racket and headed north to Darjeeling. After arranging to get paired with Gyalo for a doubles match, the CIA officer wasted no time in quietly introducing himself.

First impressions are lasting ones, and Hoskins was not exactly wowed by Gyalo's persona. "There was a lot of submissiveness rather than dynamism," he noted. At their first meeting, little was discussed apart from reaching an understanding that, to avoid Indian intelligence coverage in Darjeeling, future contact would be made in Calcutta using proper countersurveillance measures.

Later that same month, the Dalai Lama and a fifty-strong delegation departed Lhasa by car. Switching to horses at the Sikkimese border, the royal entourage was met on the other side by both Gyalo and Norbu, who had rushed to India from his teaching assignment in New York. The party was whisked through Gangtok and down to the closest Indian airfield near the town of Siliguri, and by 25 November the monarch was being met by Nehru on the tarmac of New Delhi's Palam Airport. [16]

By coincidence, three days after the Dalai Lama's arrival in New Delhi, Chinese premier Zhou En- Lai began a twelve-day stop in India as part of a five-country South Asian tour. Keeping with diplomatic protocol, the young Tibetan leader was on hand to greet Zhou at the airport. The two then held a private meeting, at which time the elderly Chinese statesman lectured the Dalai Lama on the necessity of returning to his homeland.

Zhou was not alone in his appeal. As eager as Nehru was to offset Chinese influence in Tibet, he, too, was against the Dalai Lama's seeking asylum -- especially on Indian soil. This was partly because India wanted to maintain good relations with China. This was also because New Delhi did not want to go it alone, and not a single country to date had recognized Tibetan independence. Fearing that the monarch's brothers would have an unhealthy effect on any decision, Indian officials in the capital did all in their power to keep Gyalo and Norbu segregated from their royal sibling. [17]

The Dalai Lama hardly needed convincing from his brothers, however. During his first private session with Nehru, he openly hinted about not going back to Lhasa. He also requested that the issue of Tibetan independence be taken up by Nehru and President Dwight Eisenhower at their upcoming summit in Washington in December. Nehru was not entirely surprised by all this: Gyalo had already sought out Mullik and told the Indian intelligence chief in no uncertain terms that his brother would opt for exile. [18]

As India's leadership digested these developments, the Dalai Lama departed the capital for an exhausting schedule of Buddha Jayanti festivities. He was still in the midst of this tour when Zhou returned to New Delhi for an encore visit on 30 December. In the interim, Nehru had had his Washington meeting with Eisenhower, and the Chinese premier had scheduled the stop specifically to discuss the outcome of that summit. As it turned out, however, Tibet was a major topic of conversation. In particular, Nehru used the opportunity to press Zhou about tempering China's harsh military and agrarian policies on the Tibetan plateau.

Tibet was clearly shaping into a litmus test for Sino-Indian relations. Anxious to broker a deal that would assuage both Lhasa and Beijing, Nehru summoned the Dalai Lama from his pilgrimage and underscored to the Tibetan leader that Indian asylum was not in the cards. But if that was bitter news, Zhou had earlier proposed a sweetener. While noting that China was ready to use force to stamp out resistance, he claimed that Mao now recognized the folly of rapid collectivization and pledged to delay further revolutionary reforms in Tibet.

Zhou and his senior comrades were by now gravely concerned over permanently losing the Dalai Lama. Leaving nothing to chance, Zhou was back in New Delhi on 24 January 1957 for his third visit in as many months.

Despite Beijing's lobbying, Gyalo and Norbu were still insistent that their brother choose exile. Torn over his future, the twenty-one-year-old monarch had already departed Calcutta on 22 January for Kalimpong, which by then was home to a growing number of disaffected Tibetan elite. Once there, he did what Tibet's leaders had done countless other times when confronted with a hard decision: he consulted the state oracle. Two official soothsayers happened to be traveling with his delegation; using time-honored -- if unscientific -- methods, the pair went into a trance on cue and recited their sagely advice. Return to Lhasa, they channeled. [19]

As far as the Dalai Lama was concerned, the ruling of his oracles was incontrovertible, and the decision was made all the easier by the fact that nobody seemed anxious to give him refuge. Flouting the suggestions of his brothers, he declared his intention to go home. He crossed into Sikkim in early March and was compelled to remain in Gangtok until heavy snows melted from the mountain passes. There, he finalized plans to set out for Lhasa by month's end.

Prior to November 1956, Tibet had never ranged far from the bottom of the priority watch list for those in the Far East Division at CIA headquarters in Washington. The agency had no officer assigned solely to Tibetan affairs; it, along with Mongolia and other peripheral ethnic regions under PRC control, barely factored as a minor addendum to the activities of William Broe's China Branch.

But as soon as the Dalai Lama received permission to attend the Buddha Jayanti, Broe felt it prudent to show heightened interest. Looking for a junior officer to spare, he soon settled on John Reagan. Twenty-eight years old, Reagan had joined the agency upon graduation from Boston College in 1951. He was soon in Asia, where he spent the next twenty-four months working on paramilitary projects in Korea. Switching to China Branch, he served two more years in Japan as part of the CIA's penetration effort against the PRC. Returning to the United States in 1955, Reagan divided the next twelve months between Chinese language training and trips to New York City to practice tradecraft against United Nations delegates.

As the branch's new man on Tibet, Reagan initially did little more than forward instructions for John Hoskins to make contact with Gyalo. He was silent on further guidance, primarily because senior U.S. policy makers had not yet ironed out a coherent framework for dealing with Lhasa. In earlier meetings between CIA and State Department officials during the summer of 1956, there had been those who felt that the Dalai Lama should flee to another Buddhist nation to offer a rallying cry for anticommunist Buddhists across Asia. Others, primarily inside the agency, believed that he could play a more important role as a rallying symbol in Lhasa among his fellow Tibetans. This eas still the CIA's operating assumption in late 1956: once the Dalai Lama was in India, the prevailing mood at agency headquarters was that he should eventually go home. [20]

Gyalo, meantime, was telling Hoskins that his brother had every intention of seeking asylum. With the Dalai Lama apparently intent on staying away from his homeland -- and therefore not conforming to the agency's preferred scenario of rallying his people from Lhasa -- Reagan was largely idle during most of the Dalai Lama's four-month absence from Tibet. [21]

Eventually, however, the CIA looked to hedge its bets. Since the second half of 1956, a band of twenty-seven young Khampa men -- some still in their late teens -- had been growing restive in the enclave of Kalimpong. Most came from relatively wealthy trading families and had been spirited to India to protect them from the instability in their native province. Full of vigor, the entire group had ventured to New Delhi shortly before the Dalai Lama's Buddha Jayanti pilgrimage to conduct street protests. Once the Dalai Lama arrived, they sought a brief audience to make an impassioned plea for Lhasa's intercession against the Chinese offensive in Kham.

To their disappointment, the Dalai Lama counseled patience. "His Holiness only said things would settle down," recalls one of the Khampas. Undaunted, the twenty-seven young men shadowed the monarch during several of the Buddha Jayanti commemorative events. By early January 1957, this took them to Bodh Gaya, the city in eastern India where the historical Buddha was said to have attained enlightenment. While there, the Dalai Lama's older brother, Thubten Norbu, approached the Khampas and asked if he could take their individual photographs as a souvenir. Although it was an odd request, they complied. [22]

For the next few weeks, nothing happened. Frustrated by the Dalai Lama's repeated rebuffs, the Khampas sulked back to Kalimpong. Several Chinese traders were in town, some of whom were rumored to have links to the Nationalist regime on Taiwan. Desperate, the Khampas sounded them out on the possibility of covert assistance from Taipei. It was at that point that Gyalo Thondup arrived and requested a meeting with all twenty-seven. For most of the young Khampas, it was the first time they had spoken with the Dalai Lama's lay brother. As they listened attentively, Gyalo lectured them to steer clear of the Kuomintang. "The United States," he told them cryptically, "is a better choice." [23]


Less than a week later, the Dalai Lama arrived in Kalimpong, the oracles had their channeling session, and things changed dramatically. With the monarch's return journey now imminent, John Reagan in Washington scrambled to script a program of action. At its core, the plan called for a unilateral capability to determine how much armed resistance activity really existed in Tibet; further commitments could then be weighed accordingly.

The CIA had good reason to act with prudence. It already had a long and growing list of embarrassing failures while working with resistance groups behind communist lines. Perhaps none had been more painful than its experience against the PRC. There the agency's efforts had taken two tracks. The first was a collaborative effort with the Kuomintang government on Taiwan. Clinging to its dream of reconquering the mainland, the ROC in 1950 claimed to control a million guerrillas inside the People's Republic. Although a February 1951 Pentagon study placed the figure at no more than 600,000 -- only half of which were thought to be nominally loyal to the ROC -- Washington saw fit to support these insurgents as a means of appeasing a key Asian ally while at the same time possibly diverting Beijing's attention from the conflict on the Korean peninsula. [24]

To funnel covert American assistance to the ROC, the CIA established a shell company in Pittsburgh known as Western Enterprises (WE). In September 1951, WE's newly appointed chief, Raymond Peers, arrived on Taiwan with a planeload of advisers. A U.S. Army colonel who had earned accolades during World War II as chief of the famed OSS Detachment 101 in Burma, Peers quickly initiated a number of paramilitary efforts. A large portion of his resources was directed toward airborne operations, including retraining the ROC's 1,50O-man parachute regiment. Other WE advisers, meanwhile, were tasked with putting ROC action and intelligence teams through an airborne course. [25]

To deploy these operatives, WE turned to the agency's Far East air proprietary, Civil Air Transport (CAT). By the spring of 1952, CAT planes were dropping teams and singletons on the mainland, as well as supplies to resistance groups that the ROC claimed were already active on the ground. Some of the penetrations ranged as far as Tibet's Amdo region, where the ROC alleged it had contact with Muslim insurgents. [26]

Concurrently, the agency in April 1951 initiated a unilateral third-force effort using anticommunist Chinese unaffiliated with the ROC. Allocated enough arms and ammunition for 200,000 guerrillas, the CIA recruited many of these third-force operatives from Hong Kong, trained them in Japan and Saipan, and inserted them in CAT planes via air bases in South Korea. [27]

By the spring of 1953, both the ROC program and third-force effort were in their second years. Although the Pentagon's top brass (groping for ways to pressure Beijing during Korean cease-fire negotiations) were wistfully talking in terms of "sparking a coordinated anti-communist resistance movement throughout China," those running the CIA's infiltration program could hardly have been so optimistic. "None of the Taiwan agents we dropped were successful," said one WE adviser. The third-force tally was just as bad: all its operatives were either killed or taken prisoner, and CAT lost one plane during an attempted exfiltration that resulted in the capture of two CIA officers. [28]

That summer, an armistice sent the Korean conflict into remission. This provided the CIA with convenient cover to reassess its third-force track. Although it elected to maintain a China Base at Yokosuka, Japan, this unit was to handle primarily agent penetrations and low-level destabilization efforts; support for broader unilateral resistance got the ax.

Cooperative ventures with the ROC were not so easily nixed. Although Taipei had tempered its claims somewhat, it still pegged loyal mainland guerrilla strength at 650,000 insurgents. By contrast, a November 1953 estimate by the U.S. National Security Council (NSC) put the figure closer to 50,000. Despite this huge discrepancy, the NSC still advocated continued covert assistance to the ROC in order to develop anticommunist guerrillas for resistance and intelligence. Even temporary guerrilla successes, the council reasoned, might set off waves of defections and stiffen passive resistance. [29]

Chiang Kai-shek could not have agreed more. Eager to vastly increase the scope of guerrilla support, the generalissimo in 1954 asked Washington for some 30,000 parachutes. Turned down the first time, he made further high-priority appeals over the next two years. These parachutes were needed for an ambitious plan to drop 100-man units near major PRC population centers. Hoping to set off a chain of uprisings, Chiang optimistically talked in terms of uprooting Chinese communism in as little as two years. [30]

Hearing these plans, Washington patiently counseled against the proposed airborne blitz. On a more modest level, however, the CIA's assistance program continued unabated. In this, success was more elusive than ever. Despite inserting an average of two Nationalist agents a month through the mid-1950s, the ROC operatives were still being killed or captured in short order. [31]

Reasons for the lack of success against the People's Republic were legion. First, the infiltration program took at face value some of Taipei's claims about contact with a vast network of anticommunists on the mainland. In reality, such claims were wildly exaggerated, and precious little was known about events in the PRC countryside; even top PRC leaders were prone to mysteriously disappear from public view for months on end. [32] Second, in the unlikely event such resistance existed, the logistical challenge of maintaining support to these guerrilla pockets outstripped what could realistically be staged by Taiwan and the CIA. Third, the CIA's recent experience against the Soviet Union and its satellites had shown the folly of abetting insurgents in a tightly controlled police state; Beijing's omnipresent militia and party network were no less daunting. [33] Finally, even though the PRC's ruthless experimentation in social engineering had no doubt bred detractors by the score, the corruption of the Kuomintang regime hardly endeared Taipei to any disenchanted masses on the mainland.

Although these reasons might have made covert operations against the PRC a study in frustration, Tibet appeared to be different. Unlike many of Taipei's wishful claims about other areas of the mainland, Tibet had a resistance movement corroborated by multiple, albeit dated, sources. What the CIA needed was timely data that could give a current and accurate picture of this resistance. And given the historical animosity between Tibetans and lowland Chinese, the agency needed to gather this information without resort to ROC assistance.

In February 1957, John Hoskins was ordered by Washington to immediately identify eight Tibetan candidates for external training as a pilot team that would infiltrate their homeland and assess the state of resistance. Gyalo, who had been in Kalimpong making an eleventh-hour bid to convince his brother to seek asylum, was given responsibility for screening candidates among the Tibetan refugees already in India. Although the twenty-seven Khampas did not know it, Gyalo intended to make the selection from their ranks. Using the photographs taken by Norbu at Bodh Gaya, he sought guidance from two senior Khampas in town, both of whom hailed from the extended family of Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang, a prominent trader of Tibetan wool, deer horns, and musk.

With their assistance, Gyalo soon settled on his first pick. Wangdu Gyato-tsang, age twenty-seven, had been born to an affluent Khampa family from the town of Lithang. He was well connected: Gompo Tashi was his uncle, as was one of the senior Khampas helping Gyalo with the selection.
Wangdu also had the right disposition for the task at hand. Despite being schooled at the Lithang monastery from the age of ten, he did not exactly conform to monastic life. "He was hot tempered from childhood," recalls younger brother Kalsang.

A sampling of this temper came at age seventeen during a trip to the Tibetan town of Menling. Out of deference to the local chieftain, it was decreed that hats, firearms, and horse bells would be removed in front of the chief's residence. It was raining, however, so Wangdu continued wearing his cap. Spying this violation, the chieftain's bodyguard strode up and knocked the Khampa on the head. Without flinching, the young monk drew his pistol and shot the guard dead. [34]

On account of his family connections, Wangdu was spared punishment. In 1956, his family ties again came into play following the PLA's devastating attack on the Lithang monastery. On orders from uncle Gompo Tashi, Wangdu and his younger brother were bundled off to the safer environs of Kalimpong.

When approached by Gyalo, Wangdu immediately volunteered for the mission. Within days, five other Khampas were singled out (Washington now wanted a total of six trainees, not eight), but only Wangdu was given any hint of the impending assignment. Four were from Lithang; of these, three were Wangdu's close acquaintances, and one was his family servant. The fifth was a friend from the nearby town of Bathang (also spelled Batang). All were still on hand to attend the Dalai Lama's final open-air blessing in a Kalimpong soccer field shortly before the monarch headed back toward Tibet.

With the Dalai Lama en route to Lhasa, attention shifted in early March to smuggling the six Khampas out of India for training. This was easier said than done. Because of Nehru's determination to maintain cordial Sino-Indian ties, New Delhi's complicity remained out of the question. Moreover, the Khampas were refugees without proper identification, discounting overt travel via commercial airliner or boat. Brainstorming covert alternatives, several came to mind. "There was some talk in the Calcutta consulate about floating them off the Indian coast," said Gyalo, "then having them picked up by submarine." Consideration was also given to issuing fake Nepalese passports. [35]


-- The CIA's Secret War in Tibet, by Kenneth Conboy and James Morrison


[The Tibetan involvement with the U.S. came during the Cold War and decolonization period in world history that in the United States manifested as anticommunism, and in the People’s Republic of China as anticapitalism. [15][16]

Allen Dulles, the CIA deputy director responsible for overseeing all CIA covert operations, saw an opportunity to destabilize Communist China.[17] The primary motive was more to impede and harass the Chinese Communists, than to render sufficient aid to the Tibetans.[18]


Surrender to Indian government

Chushi Gangdrug assisted the escape of the 14th Dalai Lama to India in March 1959. After this, the idea of any further battle with the Chinese Communist troops was abandoned. Andrug Jindak persuaded Kunga Samten Dewatshang in Tawang to surrender his weapons to the Indian authorities.[19] Shangri Lhagyal and other Chushi Gangdrug fighters handed over their weapons to the Indian officials at Tezpur, India. They crossed the border where they were greeted by a representative of the Tibetan Government, Tsedrung Jampa Wangdu.[20] On 29 April 1959, they handed over their rifles, ammunition, and all other weapons to the Deputy Commissioner of Tezpur district, and were permitted to take their gold, silver, and other valuables.[21]

The 14th Dalai Lama conferred the rank of Dsasak to Andrug Gompo Tashi in a letter: “You have led the Chushi Gangdrug force with unshakeable determination to resist the Chinese occupation army for the great national cause of defending the freedom of Tibet. I confer on you the rank of Dzasak (the highest military rank equivalent to general) in recognition of your services to the country. The present situation calls for a continuance of your brave struggle with the same determination and courage.”[22] In addition, Andrug Jindak received some gifts of priceless religious relics including an earthen statue of God of Protection Jigchi Mahai and some holy beads.[23]

Later guerrilla operations

From 1960, Chushi Gangdruk conducted its guerrilla operations from the northern Nepalese region of Mustang.[24] In 1974, guerrilla operations ceased after the CIA, given the realignment of Sino-American relations initiated by President Richard Nixon, terminated its program of assistance to the Tibetan resistance movement and the Dalai Lama, the exiled Tibetan spiritual and temporal leader, taped a message telling the Tibetans to lay down their weapons and surrender peacefully.

See also

Image
Ratuk Ngawang was in ‘Four Rivers, Six Ranges’, the Tibetan resistance force against the Communist Chinese

• List of organizations of Tibetans in exile
• Tibetan American
• Tibetan Resistance Since 1950
• Special Frontier Force

References

Citations


1. "Resistance and Revolution". Tibet Oral History Project. Archived from the original on 2017-06-27. Retrieved 2017-06-25. He went to India after the Nepalese Government disbanded the unit in 1974.
2. Goldstein, Melvyn: A History of Modern Tibet. Vol. 2. The Calm before the Storm, 1951-1955, University of California Press, London, 2007, p. 598
3. "Membership & Support". Chushigangdruk.org. Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
4. Stephen Talty (Dec 31, 2010). "The Dalai Lama's Great Escape". The Daily Beast.
5. Kunga Samten Dewatshang (1997). Flight at the Cuckoo’s Behest, The Life and Times of a Tibetan Freedom Fighter. New Delhi: Paljor Publications. p. 113.
6. Ford, Robert (1990). Captured in Tibet. NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 136–137.
7. Knaus, J. K. (1999). Orphans of the Cold War: America and the Tibetan Struggle for Survival. NY: Public Affairs. p. 84.
8. Goodmann, M. H. (1986). The Last Dalai Lama, A Biography. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. p. 173.
9. Dalai Lama (2006). My Land and My People. New Delhi: Srishti Publishers & Distributors. p. 88.
10. INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION OF JURISTS (1959). "The Question of Tibet and the Rule of Law". International Commission of Jurists.
11. Knaus, J. K. (1999). Orphans of the Cold War: America and the Tibetan Struggle for Survival. NY: Public Affairs. p. 150.
12. Gyalo Thondup and Thurston, A. F. (2015). The Noodle Maker of Kalimpong, The Untold Story of My Struggle for Tibet. NY: Public Affairs. p. 176.
13. Thondup, Gyalo; Thurston, Anne F. (2015). The Noodle Maker of Kalimpong: The Untold Story of My Struggle for Tibet. Gurgaon, India: Random House India. p. 169. ISBN 978-818400-387-1. Most of the resisters in India were followers of Andrug Gompo Tashi, a wealthy, patriotic Kham trader from Litang where the resistance had begun with the introduction of China's so-called reforms. Popular outrage had been further fueled with the death and destruction unleashed when the Chinese attacked and bombed the local Litang monastery.
14. Knaus, J. K. (1999). Orphans of the Cold War. NY: Public Affairs. pp. 139.
15. McGranahan, C. (2018). Ethnographies of U.S. Empire: Love and Empire: The CIA, Tibet, and Covert Humanitarianism. Durham and London: Duke University. p. 334.
16. McGranahan, C. "Ethnographies of U.S. Empire: Love and Empire: The CIA, Tibet, and Covert Humanitarianism" (PDF).
17. Roberts II, J. B. (1997). "The Secret War Over Tibet". The American Spectator. December: 31-35.
18. Knaus, J. K. (1999). Orphans of the Cold War. NY: Public Affairs. pp. 139.
19. Kunga Samten Dewatshang (1997). Flight at the Cuckoo’s Behest, The Life and Times of a Tibetan Freedom Fighter. New Delhi: Paljor Publications. p. 149.
20. Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang (1973). Four Rivers, Six Ranges: Reminiscences of the Resistance Movement in Tibet. Dharamsala: Information and Publicity Office of H.H. The Dalai Lama. p. 105.
21. Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang (1973). Four Rivers, Six Ranges: Reminiscences of the Resistance Movement in Tibet. Dharamsala: Information and Publicity Office of H.H. The Dalai Lama. pp. 105–106.
22. Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang (1973). Four Rivers, Six Ranges: Reminiscences of the Resistance Movement in Tibet. Dharamsala: Information and Publicity Office of H.H. The Dalai Lama. p. 101.
23. Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang (1973). Four Rivers, Six Ranges: Reminiscences of the Resistance Movement in Tibet. Dharamsala: Information and Publicity Office of H.H. The Dalai Lama. p. 101.
24. Cowan, Sam (17 January 2016). "The curious case of the Mustang incident". The Record. Retrieved 2017-02-10.

Sources

• Tsering Shakya, The Dragon in the Land of Snows - A History of Modern Tibet Since 1947, Columbia University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-231-11814-7.
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