Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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P. N. [Parappil-Narayana] Menon (diplomat)
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/26/19

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Parappil-Narayana Menon (1920- 22 June 1975),[1] also known as P.N. Menon, was a career diplomat in the Indian Foreign Service. Like his father-in-law, he undertook an overland journey to Lhasa in 1956, on foot and on horseback through the formidable Nathula Pass, to take up his post as India's Consult-General in Tibet. [2]

Personal life

He was married to Malini, the daughter of first Foreign Secretary of India, K.P.S. Menon.[3] His son is Shivshankar Menon, who as of 2011 was the National Security Advisor to the Prime Minister of India.

Kumara Padma Sivasankara Menon Sr. CIE ICS (18 October 1898 – 22 November 1982), usually known as K. P. S. Menon, was a diplomat and diarist, a career member of the Indian Civil Service. He was appointed independent India's first Foreign Secretary, serving from 1948 to 1952.

He was Dewan (Prime Minister) of Bharatpur State, Ambassador of India to the Soviet Union from 1952 to 1961, and finally Ambassador to the People's Republic of China. In 1948, preceding events of the Korean War, the United Nations appointed him the Chairman of the UN Commission on Korea (UNCOK).

Menon's overland trip from Delhi to Chungking across the Himalayas, the Karakorams and the Pamirs during the Second World War was recorded in his book Delhi-Chungking: A Travel Diary (1947). He was a signatory on behalf of India at the formation of the United Nations. He was a member of the Royal Central Asian Society....

Menon married Saraswathi Amma, the daughter of C. Sankaran Nair. His son, who bore the same name as him, served as envoy to China and his maternal grandson Shivshankar Menon was the Foreign Secretary and later the National Security Advisor.

Menon was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1958 and the Lenin Peace Prize.

-- K. P. S. [Kumara Padma Sivasankara] Menon, by Wikipedia


The International Lenin Peace Prize (Russian: международная Ленинская премия мира, mezhdunarodnaya Leninskaya premiya mira) was a Soviet Union award named in honor of Vladimir Lenin. It was awarded by a panel appointed by the Soviet government, to notable individuals whom the panel indicated had "strengthened peace among comrades". It was founded as the International Stalin Prize for Strengthening Peace Among Peoples, but was renamed the International Lenin Prize for Strengthening Peace Among Peoples (Russian: Международная Ленинская премия «За укрепление мира между народами», Mezhdunarodnaya Leninskaya premiya «za ukrepleniye mira mezhdu narodami») as a result of de-Stalinization. Unlike the Nobel Prize, the Lenin Peace Prize was usually awarded to several people a year rather than to just one individual. The prize was mainly awarded to prominent Communists and supporters of the Soviet Union who were not Soviet citizens. Notable recipients include: W. E. B. Du Bois, Fidel Castro, Salvador Allende, Mikis Theodorakis, Seán MacBride, Angela Davis, Pablo Picasso, Oscar Niemeyer, Faiz Ahmad Faiz, Abdul Sattar Edhi and Nelson Mandela.

-- Lenin Peace Prize, by Wikipedia


Maternal Grandchild: the child of a woman's daughter: a grandchild to whom one is the maternal grandmother.

-- Maternal-Grandchild, by YourDictionary.com


Civil service

P.N. Menon first joined the Indian Foreign Service in 1947.[4] At one point, he served as Consul-General of India in Lhasa, and later served as intermediary to the young Dalai Lama during the 1959 Tibetan uprising.[5][6][7][8] He died while serving as ambassador to Greece and Yugoslavia in Belgrade.[9]

Posts held

• War Service Officer, 1947
• Consul-General of India, Lhasa, October 1954-November 1956
• First Secretary, Indian Embassy, Rome, April 1957-May 1958
• Consul-General of India, Damascus, June 1958-February 1959
• Director (External Publicity), MEA, 1959–62
• Consul-General, San Francisco, 1962–65
• Ambassador to Cambodia, 1965–68
• Joint Secretary, Additional Secretary and Secretary, MEA, 1968–72
• Ambassador to Yugoslavia and Greece -1975

References

1. Almanac of Current World Leaders Biography & News: ii. September 1975. Missing or empty |title= (help)
2. K.P.S. Menon, Sr (1979). Memories and Musings. p. 310.
3. K.P.S. Menon (1981). Many Worlds Revisited. p. 276.
4. Selected Works of Jawaharlal Nehru, Series II Volume 33, p. 479, footnote 16
5. Roger E. McCarthy (1997). Tears of the Lotus. p. 208.
6. Tséring Shakya (1999). The dragon in the land of snows: a history of modern Tibet since 1947. p. 215.
7. John Kenneth Knaus (1999). Orphans of the Cold War: America and the Tibetan struggle for survival. p. 172.
8. Raja Hutheesing (1960). Tibet fights for freedom: the story of the March 1959 uprising as recorded in documents, despatches [sic] eye-witness accounts and world-wide reactions. p. 84.
9. K.P.S. Menon, Sr (1979). Memories and Musings. p. 310.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2019 1:52 am

K. P. S. [Kumar Padma Sivasankara] Menon
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/26/19

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Image
Kumar Padma Sivasankara Menon
CIE
Foreign Secretary
In office: 1948–1952
Monarch: George VI
Preceded by: Sir Hugh Weightman
Succeeded by: R. K. Nehru
Preceded by: Sir Olaf Caroe

TIBETAN REFUGEES

Sir. – Recent devastating events in Tibet caused over 15,000 Tibetans to cross the perilous Himalayas into India. It may be a long time before these unfortunate people can safely return to their overrun country. Our own consciences should allow us neither to neglect nor forget them.

The Indian Government has manfully coped with this addition to its own problems at home. In this country we are bound in honour to help relieve needs of the Tibetan refugees, because from 1905 to 1947 there was a special relationship between Tibet and the United Kingdom – a relationship handed on to the new India.

On balance we think it wisest to concentrate chiefly on collecting money which can be used for the benefit of the refugees, not least in the purchase of necessary antibiotics and other medicaments. The Tibet Society has opened a Tibet Relief Fund for which we now appeal in the hope of a generous response. Donations should be sent to the address below or direct to the National Bank Ltd. (Belgravia Branch), 21 Grosvenor Gardens, S.W.I.

Yours faithfully,

... [Indian Foreign Secretary Sir] Olaf Caroe ... The Tibet Relief Fund, 58 Eccleston Square, S.W. I., Letter to the Times, July 31, 1959, p.7.

-- Tibet Society, by tibetsociety.com


Preceded by: Lt-Gen Thomas Jacomb Hutton
Personal details
Born: Kumara Padma Sivasankara Menon, 18 October 1898, Travancore, British India
Died: 22 November 1982 (aged 84), Ottapalam, Kerala, India
Spouse(s) Saraswathi Amma
Occupation: Diplomat

Kumara Padma Sivasankara Menon Sr. CIE ICS (18 October 1898 – 22 November 1982), usually known as K. P. S. Menon, was a diplomat and diarist, a career member of the Indian Civil Service. He was appointed independent India's first Foreign Secretary, serving from 1948 to 1952.

He was Dewan (Prime Minister) of Bharatpur State, Ambassador of India to the Soviet Union from 1952 to 1961, and finally Ambassador to the People's Republic of China. In 1948, preceding events of the Korean War, the United Nations appointed him the Chairman of the UN Commission on Korea (UNCOK).[1]

Menon's overland trip from Delhi to Chungking across the Himalayas, the Karakorams and the Pamirs during the Second World War was recorded in his book Delhi-Chungking: A Travel Diary (1947).[2] He was a signatory on behalf of India at the formation of the United Nations. He was a member of the Royal Central Asian Society.[3]

Early life

K. P. S. Menon was born in Travancore, British India, in 1898 in a distinguished aristocratic family. His father Kumara Menon was a lawyer from Ottapalam. His mother Janaki Amma came from Vellayani near Thiruvananthapuram in Travancore, a niece of Kesava Pillai of Kandamath and cousin of Neyyattinkara N. K. Padmanabha Pillai. Upon her marriage to Kumara Menon,in a previously unprecedented manner (see Matrilineality in Kerala society), she moved to Kottayam to set up house with Kumara Menon who himself had moved away from his family in Ottapalam.[4] The children were also given titles from their father's side and not from the mother's side. He attended Madras Christian College and then Christ Church, University of Oxford,[5] where he was a contemporary of the future Prime Minister Anthony Eden and served as co-officers of the Asiatic Society. He served as the president of the Oxford Majlis Asian Society.[6][page needed] He was admitted to the Middle Temple on 30 November 1918,[7] but withdrew without being Called to the Bar on 15 March 1928.

Public service career

In 1922, Menon secured the first rank in the combined Civil Services Examination and joined the ICS.[8] He served as Sub-Collector of Tirupattur, Vellore District, then as District Magistrate in Trichy, Agent of the Government of India in the North West Frontier Province and Ceylon, then as Resident General of India in Hyderabad State. In 1934, he was sent as Crown Representative to investigate the state of Indians in Zanzibar, Kenya and Uganda. As Dewan of Bharatpur State, he was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire in the New Year Honours of 1943.[9] After independence, he was India's first Foreign Secretary from 1948 to 1952, then Ambassador of India to the Soviet Union, Hungary and Poland from 1952 to 1961 and Ambassador to China.[10] [11]

Menon married Saraswathi Amma, the daughter of C. Sankaran Nair.[12] His son, who bore the same name as him, served as envoy to China and his maternal grandson Shivshankar Menon was the Foreign Secretary and later the National Security Advisor.[13][10]

Menon was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1958[14] and the Lenin Peace Prize.[5]

The International Lenin Peace Prize (Russian: международная Ленинская премия мира, mezhdunarodnaya Leninskaya premiya mira) was a Soviet Union award named in honor of Vladimir Lenin. It was awarded by a panel appointed by the Soviet government, to notable individuals whom the panel indicated had "strengthened peace among comrades". It was founded as the International Stalin Prize for Strengthening Peace Among Peoples, but was renamed the International Lenin Prize for Strengthening Peace Among Peoples (Russian: Международная Ленинская премия «За укрепление мира между народами», Mezhdunarodnaya Leninskaya premiya «za ukrepleniye mira mezhdu narodami») as a result of de-Stalinization. Unlike the Nobel Prize, the Lenin Peace Prize was usually awarded to several people a year rather than to just one individual. The prize was mainly awarded to prominent Communists and supporters of the Soviet Union who were not Soviet citizens. Notable recipients include: W. E. B. Du Bois, Fidel Castro, Salvador Allende, Mikis Theodorakis, Seán MacBride, Angela Davis, Pablo Picasso, Oscar Niemeyer, Faiz Ahmad Faiz, Abdul Sattar Edhi and Nelson Mandela.

-- Lenin Peace Prize, by Wikipedia


Works

Menon's published writings include:[15]

• Many Worlds: An Autobiography
• Many Worlds Revisited - updated autobiography
• Delhi-Chungking: A Travel Diary (1947)
• Russian Panorama
• The Friendship of Great Peoples (1962)
• The Flying Troika (1963)
• The Resurgence of India: Reformation Or Revolution? Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Memorial Lectures (1963)
• India & the Cold War (1966)
• Journey Round the World (1966)
• Biography of Sir Chettur Sankaran Nair
• Lenin through Indian Eyes (1970)
• Russia Revisited (1971)
• The Lamp and the Lampstand
• Twilight in China (1972)
• The Indo-Soviet Treaty: Setting & Sequel (1972)
• A Diplomat Speaks (1974)
• Yesterday and Today (1975) - a collection of articles, illustrated by Abu Abraham
• Changing Patterns of Diplomacy- Dr. Saiyidain Memorial Lectures (1977)
• Memories and Musings (1979)
• One Thousand Full Moons (Published posthumously in 1987)

References

1. http://www.unmultimedia.org/s/photo/det ... 87646.html
2. Menon, K. P. S. Delhi Chungking.
3. Menon, K. P. S. Many Worlds.
4. K. P. S. Menon in K.P.S. Menon, Sr (1979). Memories and Musings. p. 310.
5. "K. P. S. Menon". Mahatma Gandhi University. Archived from the original on 2 November 2011.
6. Menon in Many World Revisited, Bhavan, Bombay,1981
7. Sturgess, H. A. C. (1949). Register of Admissions to the Honourable Society of the Middle Temple(PDF). 3. Butterworth. p. 830.
8. "No. 32763". The London Gazette. 3 November 1922. p. 7802.
9. "No. 35841". The London Gazette. 29 December 1942. p. 7.
10. "Menon is next NSA". The Hindu. 21 January 2010. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
11. See Introduction in Patel Memorial Lectures, Publications Division Government of India March 1963
12. "Succession of diplomats from Palat family". The Hindu. 1 September 2006. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
13. "S S Menon, who served in Israel, China and Pak, is new Foreign Secy". Indian Express. 1 September 2006. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
14. "Padma Awards" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
15. Front Cover of Title Page, Memories and Musings, last work written. See K. P. S. Menon,Memories and Musings, Allied Publishers, New Delhi 1979
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2019 2:16 am

Lenin Peace Prize
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/26/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
The back of the Lenin Peace Prize Medal

The International Lenin Peace Prize (Russian: международная Ленинская премия мира, mezhdunarodnaya Leninskaya premiya mira) was a Soviet Union award named in honor of Vladimir Lenin. It was awarded by a panel appointed by the Soviet government, to notable individuals whom the panel indicated had "strengthened peace among comrades". It was founded as the International Stalin Prize for Strengthening Peace Among Peoples, but was renamed the International Lenin Prize for Strengthening Peace Among Peoples (Russian: Международная Ленинская премия «За укрепление мира между народами», Mezhdunarodnaya Leninskaya premiya «za ukrepleniye mira mezhdu narodami») as a result of de-Stalinization. Unlike the Nobel Prize, the Lenin Peace Prize was usually awarded to several people a year rather than to just one individual. The prize was mainly awarded to prominent Communists and supporters of the Soviet Union who were not Soviet citizens. Notable recipients include: W. E. B. Du Bois, Fidel Castro, Salvador Allende, Mikis Theodorakis, Seán MacBride, Angela Davis, Pablo Picasso, Oscar Niemeyer, Faiz Ahmad Faiz, Abdul Sattar Edhi and Nelson Mandela.

History

The prize was created as the International Stalin Prize for Strengthening Peace Among Peoples on December 21, 1949 by executive order of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet in honor of Joseph Stalin's seventieth birthday (although this was after his seventy-first).

Following Nikita Khrushchev's denunciation of Stalin in 1956 during the Twentieth Party Congress, the prize was renamed on September 6 as the International Lenin Prize for Strengthening Peace Among Peoples. All previous recipients were asked to return their Stalin Prizes so they could be replaced by the renamed Lenin Prize. By a decision of Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of December 11, 1989, the prize was renamed the International Lenin Peace Prize.[1] Two years later, after the collapse of USSR in 1991, the Russian government, as the successor state to the defunct Soviet Union, ended the award program. The Lenin Peace Prize is regarded as a counterpart to the existing Nobel Peace Prize.

The International Lenin Prize should not be confused with the International Peace Prize, awarded by the World Peace Council. In 1941 the Soviet Union created the Stalin Prize (later renamed the USSR State Prize), which was awarded annually to accomplished Soviet writers, composers, artists and scientists.

Stalin Prize recipients

Year / Name / Occupation / Country / Notes
1950 / Eugénie Cotton[2][3] (1881–1967) / Scientist, President of the Women's International Democratic Federation / France / Awarded 6 April 1951
1950 / Heriberto Jara Corona[2][3] (1879–1968) / Politician, revolutionary / Mexico / Awarded 6 April 1951
1950 / Hewlett Johnson[2][3] (1874–1966) / Priest, Dean of Manchester (1924–1931), Dean of Canterbury (1931–1963) / United Kingdom / Awarded 6 April 1951
1950 / Frédéric Joliot-Curie[2][3] (1900–1958) / Physicist, Member of the French Academy of Sciences, Professor at the Collège de France, President of the World Peace Council (1950–1958), Nobel laureate in Chemistry (1935) / France / Awarded 6 April 1951
1950 / Arthur Moulton[2][3] (1873–1962) / Episcopal bishop / United States / Declined
1950 / Pak Chong-ae[2][3] (1907–?) / Politician, Chairwoman of the Korean Democratic Women's League (1945–1965) / North Korea / Awarded 6 April 1951
1950 / Soong Ching-ling[2][3] (1893–1981) / Politician, Vice President of China (1949–1954; 1959–1975) / China / Awarded 6 April 1951
1951 / Jorge Amado[4][5][6] (1912–2001) / Writer, Member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters (1961–2001) / Brazil / Awarded 20 December 1951
1951 / Monica Felton[4][5] (1906–1970) / Town planner, feminist, politician / United Kingdom / Awarded 20 December 1951
1951 / Guo Moruo[7][4] (1892–1978) / Writer, scientist, politician, President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (1949–1978) / China / Awarded 20 December 1951
1951 / Pietro Nenni[4][5] (1891–1980) / Politician, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Italy (1946–1947; 1968–1969), Deputy Prime Minister of Italy (1963–1968) / Italy / Awarded 20 December 1951
1951 / Oyama Ikuo[4][5] (1889–1955) / Politician, Member of the House of Councillors of Japan / Japan / Awarded 20 December 1951
1951 / Anna Seghers[4][5] (1900–1983) / Writer / East Germany / Awarded 20 December 1951
1952 / Johannes R. Becher[5][8] (1891–1958) / Writer / East Germany / Awarded 20 December 1952
1952 / Elisa Branco [pt][5][8] (1912–2001) / Politician, Vice President of the Council of Brazilian Advocates for Peace (1949–1960) / Brazil / Awarded 20 December 1952
1952 / Ilya Ehrenburg[5][8] (1891–1967) / Writer, journalist / Soviet Union / Awarded 20 December 1952
1952 / James Gareth Endicott[5][8] (1898–1993) / Clergyman / Canada / Awarded 20 December 1952
1952 / Yves Farge[5][8] (1899–1953) / Journalist, politician / France / Awarded 20 December 1952
1952 / Halldór Laxness[9] (1902–1998) / Writer, Nobel laureate in Literature (1955) / Iceland / Awarded 20 December 1952
1952 / Saifuddin Kitchlew[5][8] (1888–1963) / Barrister, politician, Vice President of the World Peace Council (1955–1959), President of the All-India Peace Council / India / Awarded 20 December 1952
1952 / Paul Robeson[5][8] (1898–1976) / Singer, actor / United States / Awarded 20 December 1952
1953 / Andrea Andreen[5][10] (1888–1972) / Physician, educator, Chairman of the Swedish Women's Left-Wing Association (1946–1964), Vice President of the Women's International Democratic Federation / Sweden / Awarded 12 December 1953
1953 / John Desmond Bernal[7][10] (1901–1971) / Scientist, Professor at Birkbeck College, University of London, Fellow of the Royal Society (1937), President of the World Peace Council (1959–1965) / United Kingdom / Awarded 12 December 1953
1953 / Isabelle Blume[7][10] (1892–1975) / Politician, Member of the Belgian Chamber of Representatives (1936–1954), President of the World Peace Council (1965–1969) / Belgium / Awarded 12 December 1953
1953 / Pierre Cot[10] (1895–1977) / Politician, Member of the National Assembly of France (1928–1940) / France / Awarded 12 December 1953
1953 / Howard Fast[5][10] (1914–2003) / Writer / United States / Awarded 12 December 1953
1953 / Andrea Gaggiero [it][5][10] (1916–1988) / Priest / Italy / Awarded 12 December 1953
1953 / Leon Kruczkowski[5][10] (1900–1962) / Writer / Poland / Awarded 12 December 1953
1953 / Pablo Neruda[5][6][10] (1904–1973) / Poet, diplomat, Nobel laureate in Literature (1971) / Chile / Awarded 12 December 1953
1953 / Nina Popova [ru][5][10] (1908–1994) / Politician, Secretary of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions (1945–1957) / Soviet Union / Awarded 12 December 1953
1953 / Sahib Singh Sokhey[5][10] (1887–1971) / Biochemist, Member of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Assistant Director General of the World Health Organization (1949–1952) / India / Awarded 12 December 1953
1954 / André Bonnard [fr][11][12] (1888–1959) / Scholar, writer, Professor at the University of Lausanne / Switzerland / Awarded 18 December 1954
1954 / Bertolt Brecht[11][12] (1898–1956) / Playwright, poet, theatre director / Austria (citizenship)
East Germany (residence) / Awarded 18 December 1954
1954 / Nicolás Guillén[6][11][13] (1902–1989) / Poet / Cuba / Awarded 18 December 1954
1954 / Felix Iversen[11][12] (1887–1973) / Mathematician, Professor at the University of Helsinki, Chairman of the Peace Union of Finland / Finland / Awarded 18 December 1954
1954 / Thakin Kodaw Hmaing[11][12] (1876–1964) / Poet / Burma / Awarded 18 December 1954
1954 / Alain Le Léap [fr][11] (1905–1986) / Trade unionist, General Secretary of the General Confederation of Labour (1948–1957) / France / Awarded 18 December 1954
1954 / Prijono[11][12] (1907–1969) / Academic, politician, Minister of Culture and Education of Indonesia (1957–1966) / Indonesia / Awarded 18 December 1954
1954 / Denis Pritt[11][14] (1887–1972) / Barrister, politician, Member of Parliament of the United Kingdom (1935–1950) / United Kingdom / Awarded 18 December 1954
1954 / Baldomero Sanín Cano[6][11] (1861–1957) / Essayist, linguist, journalist / Colombia / Awarded 18 December 1954
1955 / Muhammad al-Ashmar[15][16] (1892–1960) / Rebel commander, politician / Syria / Awarded 9 December 1955
1955 / Lázaro Cárdenas[15][16] (1895–1970) / General, politician, President of Mexico (1934–1940) / Mexico / Awarded 9 December 1955
1955 / Ragnar Forbech [no][15][16] (1894–1975) / Priest, Chaplain of Oslo Cathedral (1947–1964) / Norway / Awarded 9 December 1955
1955 / Seki Akiko[15][16] (1899–1973) / Singer / Japan / Awarded 9 December 1955
1955 / Tôn Đức Thắng[15][16] (1888–1980) / Politician, President of North Vietnam (1969–1976), President of Vietnam (1976–1980) / North Vietnam / Awarded 9 December 1955
1955 / Karl Joseph Wirth[15][16] (1879–1956) / Politician, Chancellor of Germany (1921–1922) / West Germany / Awarded 9 December 1955
Unknown year (before 1953) / Martin Andersen Nexø[17] (1869–1954) / Writer / Denmark


Lenin Prize recipients

Year / Name / Occupation / Country / Notes


1957 / Louis Aragon[14] (1897–1982) / Poet / France
1957 / Emmanuel d'Astier de La Vigerie[14] (1900–1969) / Journalist, politician, Member of the National Assembly of France (1945–1958) / France
1957 / Heinrich Brandweiner [de][14] (1910–1997) / Jurist, Chairman of the Peace Council of Austria / Austria
1957 / Danilo Dolci[14][18] (1924–1997) / Social activist, educator, sociologist / Italy
1957 / María Rosa Oliver[6][14] (1898–1977) / Writer, essayist / Argentina
1957 / C. V. Raman[14] (1888–1970) / Physicist, Professor at the University of Calcutta, President of the Indian Academy of Sciences (1934–1970) / India
1957 / Udakendawala Siri Saranankara Thero [nl][14] (1902–1966) / Buddhist monk / Ceylon
1957 / Nikolai Tikhonov[14] (1896–1979) / Writer, Chairman of the Soviet Peace Committee (1949–1979) / Soviet Union
1958 / Josef Hromádka[7][19] (1889–1969) / Protestant theologian, founder of the Christian Peace Conference / Czechoslovakia
1958 / Artur Lundkvist[7][20] (1906–1991) / Writer, literary critic, Member of the Swedish Academy (1968–1991) / Sweden
1958 / Louis Saillant[7] (1906–1991) / Trade unionist, General Secretary of the World Federation of Trade Unions (1945–1969) / France
1958 / Kaoru Yasui [ja][7][21] (1907–1980) / Jurist, scholar, Professor at the University of Tokyo, Chairman of the Japan Council Against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs (1954–1965) / Japan
1958 / Arnold Zweig[7][22] (1887–1968) / Writer / East Germany
1959 / Otto Buchwitz [de][23][24] (1879–1964) / Politician, Member of the Reichstag (1924–1933), Member of the Volkskammer (1946–1964) / East Germany / Awarded 30 April 1959
1959 / W. E. B. Du Bois[23][24] (1868–1963) / Sociologist, historian, civil rights activist / United States / Awarded 30 April 1959
1959 / Nikita Khrushchev[23][24] (1894–1971) / Politician, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1953–1964) / Soviet Union / Awarded 30 April 1959
1959 / Ivor Montagu[23][24] (1904–1984) / Filmmaker, critic / United Kingdom / Awarded 30 April 1959
1959 / Kostas Varnalis[23][24] (1884–1974) / Poet / Greece / Awarded 30 April 1959
1960 / Laurent Casanova[25][26] (1906–1972) / Politician, Member of the National Assembly of France (1945–1958) / France / Awarded 3 May 1960
1960 / Cyrus S. Eaton[25][26] (1883–1979) / Industrialist / Canada, United States / Awarded 3 May 1960
1960 / Oleksandr Korniychuk (1905–1972) / Playwright / Soviet Union / Awarded 3 May 1960
1960 / Aziz Sharif [ar][26][27] (1904–1990) / Politician, Chairman of the Peace Partisans Organization of Iraq[28] / Iraq / Awarded 3 May 1960
1960 / Sukarno[25][26] (1901–1970) / Politician, President of Indonesia (1945–1967) / Indonesia / Awarded 3 May 1960
1961 / Fidel Castro[29][30] (1926–2016) / Politician, revolutionary, Prime Minister of Cuba (1959–1976), President of Cuba (1976–2008) / Cuba / Awarded 30 April 1961
1961 / Ostap Dłuski [pl][29][30] (1892–1964) / Politician, Member of the Sejm (1961–1964) / Poland / Awarded 30 April 1961
1961 / Bill Morrow[29][30] (1888–1980) / Politician, Member of the Australian Senate (1947–1953) / Australia / Awarded 30 April 1961
1961 / Rameshwari Nehru[29][30] (1886–1966) / Social worker, founder of the All India Women's Conference / India / Awarded 30 April 1961
1961 / Mihail Sadoveanu[29][30] (1880–1961) / Writer / Romania / Awarded 30 April 1961
1961 / Antoine Tabet[29][30] (1907–1964) / Architect, Chairman of the Lebanese National Peace Council[31] / Lebanon / Awarded 30 April 1961
1961 / Ahmed Sékou Touré[29][30] (1922–1984) / Politician, President of Guinea (1958–1984) / Guinea / Awarded 30 April 1961
1962 / István Dobi[32][33][34] (1898–1968) / Politician, Prime Minister of Hungary (1948–1952) / Hungary / Awarded 30 April 1962
1962 / Faiz Ahmad Faiz[32][33][34] (1911–1984) / Poet / Pakistan / Awarded 30 April 1962
1962 / Kwame Nkrumah[32][33][34][35] (1909–1972) / Politician, Prime Minister of Ghana (1957–1960), President of Ghana (1960–1966) / Ghana / Awarded 30 April 1962
1962 / Pablo Picasso[32][33][34] (1881–1973) / Painter, sculptor / Spain / Awarded 30 April 1962
1962 / Olga Poblete[32][34] (1908–1999) / Teacher, feminist, Professor at the University of Chile, President of the Chilean Movement of Advocates for Peace / Chile / Awarded 30 April 1962
1963 / Manolis Glezos[36][37] (born 1922) Politician, guerilla / Greece / Awarded 1 May 1963
1963 / Modibo Keïta[35][38][36] (1915–1977) / Politician, President of Mali (1960–1968) / Mali / Awarded 1 May 1963
1963 / Oscar Niemeyer[36][37] (1907–2012) / Architect / Brazil / Awarded 1 May 1963
1963 / Georgi Traykov[36][39] (1898–1975) / Politician, Chairman of the National Assembly of Bulgaria (1964–1971) / Bulgaria / Awarded 1 May 1963
1964 / Rafael Alberti[40] (1902–1999) / Poet / Spain / Awarded 1 May 1964
1964 / Aruna Asaf Ali[40][41] (1909–1996) / Politician, independence activist, Vice President of the Women's International Democratic Federation / India / Presented 14 August 1965
1964 / Ahmed Ben Bella[42] (1916–2012) / Politician, revolutionary, President of Algeria (1963–1965) / Algeria / Awarded 1 May 1964
1964 / Herluf Bidstrup[42] (1912–1988) / Cartoonist, illustrator / Denmark / Awarded 1 May 1964
1964 / Dolores Ibárruri[13][42] (1895–1989) / Politician, General Secretary of the Communist Party of Spain (1942–1960) / Spain / Awarded 1 May 1964
1964 / Ota Kaoru [ja][40] (1912–1988) / Trade unionist, Chairman of the General Council of Trade Unions of Japan (1955–1966) / Japan / Awarded 1 May 1964
1965 / Peter Ayodele Curtis Joseph[35][43] (1920–2006) / Politician / Nigeria
1965 / Jamsrangiin Sambuu[40] (1895–1972) / Politician, Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great Khural (1954–1972) / Mongolia
1965 / Mirjam Vire-Tuominen [fi][43] (1919–2011) / Politician, General Secretary of the Finnish Peace Committee (1949–1975), General Secretary of the Women's International Democratic Federation (1978–1987), Member of the Parliament of Finland (1970–1979) / Finland
1966 / David Alfaro Siqueiros[44][45] (1896–1974) / Painter / Mexico / Awarded 1 May 1967
1966 / Miguel Ángel Asturias[6][43][46] (1899–1974) / Writer, diplomat, Nobel laureate in Literature (1967) / Guatemala
1966 / Bram Fischer[44][45] (1908–1975) / Advocate, anti-apartheid activist / South Africa / Awarded 1 May 1967
1966 / Rockwell Kent[44][45] (1882–1971) / Painter, printmaker, adventurer / United States / Awarded 1 May 1967
1966 / Ivan Málek [cs][44][45] (1909–1994) / Microbiologist, Professor at Charles University, Member of the National Assembly of Czechoslovakia (1960–1968) / Czechoslovakia / Awarded 1 May 1967
1966 / Giacomo Manzù[43][47] (1908–1991) / Sculptor / Italy
1966 / Martin Niemöller[44][45] (1892–1984) / Lutheran pastor, theologian, President of the World Council of Churches (1961–1968) / West Germany / Awarded 1 May 1967
1966 / Herbert Warnke [de][44][45] (1902–1975) / Trade unionist, Chairman of the Free German Trade Union Federation (1946–1975) / East Germany / Awarded 1 May 1967
1967 / Romesh Chandra[48] (1919–2016) / Politician, President of the World Peace Council (1977–1990) / India
1967 / Jean Effel[48] (1908–1982) / Illustrator, journalist / France
1967 / Joris Ivens[48] (1898–1989) / Documentary filmmaker / Netherlands
1967 / Nguyễn Thị Định[48] (1920–1992) / General, politician, Vice President of Vietnam (1987–1992) / South Vietnam
1967 / Endre Sík[48] (1891–1978) / Politician, historian, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Hungary (1958–1961) / Hungary
1967 / Jorge Zalamea Borda[48] (1905–1969) / Writer, politician / Colombia
1968–1969 / Akira Iwai [ja][12] (1922–1997) / Trade unionist, General Secretary of the General Council of Trade Unions of Japan / Japan / Awarded 16 April 1970
1968–1969 / Jaroslaw Iwaszkiewicz.jpg Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz[12] (1894–1980) / Writer / Poland / Awarded 16 April 1970
1968–1969 / Khaled Mohieddin[12] (1922–2018) / Major, politician, Chairman of the Egyptian Peace Council / UAR / Awarded 16 April 1970
1968–1969 / Linus Pauling[12] (1901–1994) / Chemist, educator, Nobel laureate in Chemistry (1954), Nobel Peace Prize laureate (1962) / United States / Awarded 16 April 1970
1968–1969 S/ hafie Ahmed el Sheikh[12] (1924–1971) / Trade unionist, politician / Sudan / Awarded 16 April 1970
1968–1969 / Bertil Svahnström [sv][12] (1907–1972) / Journalist, writer / Sweden / Awarded 16 April 1970
1970–1971 / Hikmat Abu Zayd[49] (1922/1923–2011) / Politician, academic, Minister of Social Affairs of the United Arab Republic (1962–1965) / UAR
1970–1971 / Eric Burhop[50][51] (1911–1980) / Physicist, Professor at University College London, Fellow of the Royal Society (1963) / Australia, United Kingdom
1970–1971 / Ernst Busch[50] (1900–1980) / Singer, actor / East Germany
1970–1971 / Tsola Dragoycheva[50] (1898–1993) / Politician, Member of the National Assembly of Bulgaria (1946–1990) / Bulgaria
1970–1971 / Renato Guttuso[50][52] (1912–1987) / Painter / Italy
1970–1971 / Kamal Jumblatt[50][53] (1917–1977) / Politician, Member of the Parliament of Lebanon (1947–1977) / Lebanon
1970–1971 / Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti[54][55] (1900–1978) / Teacher, women's rights activist / Nigeria
1970–1971 / Alfredo Varela [es][6][50] (1914–1984) / Writer / Argentina
1972 / James Aldridge[56][57] (1918–2015) / Writer / Australia, United Kingdom , Awarded 1 May 1973
1972 / Salvador Allende[56][57] (1908–1973) / Politician, physician, President of Chile (1970–1973) / Chile / Awarded 1 May 1973
1972 / Leonid Brezhnev[56][57] (1906–1982) / Politician, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1964–1982) / Soviet Union / Awarded 1 May 1973
1972 / Enrique Pastorino[56][57] (1918–1995) / Trade unionist, politician, President of the World Federation of Trade Unions (1969–1975) / Uruguay / Awarded 1 May 1973
1973–1974 / Luis Corvalán[58] (1916–2010) / Politician, General Secretary of the Communist Party of Chile (1958–1990) / Chile
1973–1974 / Raymond Goor[58] (1908–1996) / Priest / Belgium
1973–1974 / Jeanne Martin Cissé[58] (1926–2017) / Politician, teacher / Guinea
1973–1974 / Sam Nujoma[35] (born 1929) / Politician, anti-apartheid activist, President of Namibia (1990–2005) / South Africa (before 1990), Namibia (after 1990)
1975–1976 / Hortensia Bussi de Allende[59][60] (1913–2009) / Educator, librarian, First Lady of Chile (1970–1973) / Chile W/ idow of Salvador Allende (recipient in 1972) / Awarded May 1977
1975–1976 / János Kádár[59][60] (1912–1989) / Politician, General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (1956–1988) / Hungary / Awarded May 1977
1975–1976 / Seán MacBride[59][60] (1904–1988) / Politician, barrister, International chairman of Amnesty International (1965–1974), Assistant Secretary-General of the United Nations, Nobel Peace Prize laureate (1974)
/ Ireland, France / Awarded May 1977
1975–1976 / Samora Machel[35][59][60] (1933–1986) / Politician, revolutionary, President of Mozambique (1975–1986) / Mozambique A/ warded May 1977
1975–1976 / Agostinho Neto[35][59][60] (1922–1979) / Politician, revolutionary, President of Angola (1975–1979) / Angola / Awarded May 1977
1975–1976 / Pierre Pouyade[59][60] (1911–1979) / Brigadier general, Chairman of the Franco-Soviet Friendship Association / France / Awarded May 1977
1975–1976 / Yiannis Ritsos[59][60] (1909–1990) / Poet / Greece / Awarded May 1977
1977–1978 / Kurt Bachmann [de][61][62] (1909–1997) / Politician, Chairman of the German Communist Party (1969–1973) / West Germany / Awarded 1 May 1979
1977–1978 / Freda Brown[59][60] (1919–2009) / Politician, President of the Women's International Democratic Federation (1975–1989) / Australia / Awarded 1 May 1979
1977–1978 / Vilma Espín[59][60] (1930–2007) / Revolutionary, politician, President of the Federation of Cuban Women (1960–2007) / Cuba / Awarded 1 May 1979
1977–1978 / K. P. S. Menon[59][60] (1898–1982) Diplomat, Foreign Secretary of India (1948–1952) / India / Awarded 1 May 1979
1977–1978 / Halina Skibniewska[59][60] (1921–2011) / Architect, politician, Deputy Marshal of the Sejm (1971–1985) / Poland / Awarded 1 May 1979
1979 / Hervé Bazin[63][64] (1911–1996) / Writer / France A/ warded 30 April 1980
1979 / Angela Davis[61][62] (born 1944) / Activist, academic, Professor at the University of California, Santa Cruz / United States / Awarded 30 April 1980
1979 / Urho Kekkonen[63][64][65][66] (1900–1986) / Politician, lawyer, President of Finland (1956–1982) / Finland / Awarded 30 April 1980
1979 / Abd al-Rahman al-Khamisi [ar][63][64] (1920–1987) / Poet, composer / Egypt / Awarded 30 April 1980
1979 / Lê Duẩn[63][64] (1907–1986) / Politician, General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam (1960–1986) / Vietnam / Awarded 30 April 1980
1979 / Miguel Otero Silva[63][64] (1908–1985) / Writer, journalist / Venezuela / Awarded 30 April 1980
1980–1982 / Mahmoud Darwish[67][68] (1941–2008) / Poet / Palestine / Awarded May 1983
1980–1982 / John Hanly Morgan[67][68] (1918–2018) / Unitarian minister / United States, Canada / Awarded May 1983
1980–1982 / Líber Seregni[67][68] (1916–2004) / Politician, military officer / Uruguay / Awarded May 1983
1980–1982 / Mikis Theodorakis[67][68] (born 1925) / Composer / Greece / Awarded May 1983
1983–1984 / Charilaos Florakis (1914–2005) / Politician, General Secretary of the Communist Party of Greece (1972–1989) / Greece / Awarded 1 May 1985
1983–1984 / Indira Gandhi[69][70][71] (1917–1984) / Politician, Prime Minister of India (1980–1984) / India / Awarded posthumously on 1 May 1985
1983–1984 / Jean-Marie Legay[69][70][71] (1925–2012) / Academic / France / Awarded 1 May 1985
1983–1984 / Nguyễn Hữu Thọ[69][70][71] (1910–1996) / Politician, Chairman of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (1969–1976), Acting President of Vietnam (1980–1981) / Vietnam / Awarded 1 May 1985
1983–1984 / Eva Palmær [se][69][70][71] (1904–1995) / Writer, chemist, Chairwoman of the Sweden-Soviet Union Association (1979–1987) / Sweden / Awarded 1 May 1985
1983–1984 / Luis Vidales[69][70][71] (1904–1990) / Poet / Colombia / Awarded 1 May 1985
1983–1984 / Josef Weber [de][69][70][71] (1908–1985) / Politician, peace activist / West Germany / Awarded 1 May 1985
1985–1986/ Miguel d'Escoto Brockmann[72][73] (1933–2017) / Politician, Foreign Minister of Nicaragua (1979–1990), President of the United Nations General Assembly (2008–2009) / Nicaragua
1985–1986 / Dorothy Hodgkin[72] (1910–1994) / Chemist, Fellow of the Royal Society (1947), Nobel laureate in Chemistry (1964) / United Kingdom
1985–1986/ Herbert Mies[72] (1929–2017) / Politician, Chairman of the German Communist Party (1973–1989) / West Germany
1985–1986 / Julius Nyerere[72][74] (1922–1999) / Politician, anti-colonial activist, President of Tanzania (1964–1985) / Tanzania
1985–1986 / Petur Tanchev[72] (1920–1992) / Politician, Member of the National Assembly of Bulgaria (1950–1990) / Bulgaria
1988 / Abdul Sattar Edhi[75] (1928–2016) / Philanthropist, ascetic / Pakistan
1989 / Álvaro Cunhal (1913–2005) / Politician, Secretary-General of the Portuguese Communist Party (1961–1992) / Portugal
1990 / Nelson Mandela[35][76][77] (1918–2013) / Politician, anti-apartheid activist, President of South Africa (1994–1999), Nobel Peace Prize laureate (1993) / South Africa / Unable to accept the prize until 2002 due to his trial and imprisonment in South Africa
Unknown year / Martti Ahtisaari[78] (born 1937) / Politician, diplomat, President of Finland (1994–2000), Nobel Peace Prize laureate (2008) / Finland
Unknown year / Valerie Goulding[78] (1918–2003) / Campaigner I/ reland


See also

• Atoms for Peace Award

References

1. "ПОСТАНОВЛЕНИЕ ПРЕЗИДИУМА ВС СССР ОТ 11.12.1989 N 905-1 О МЕЖДУНАРОДНОЙ ЛЕНИНСКОЙ ПРЕМИИ МИРА" (in Russian). 2006-10-12.
2. О присуждении международных Сталинских премий "За укрепление мира между народами" за 1950 год. Pravda. Apr 6, 1951 [1]
3. The Deseret News – Apr 7, 1951
4. The Miami News – Dec 21, 1951
5. Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian) (2nd ed.). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1953. vol. 24, p. 366.
6. El Tiempo – Jun 10, 1980
7. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1959.
8. Eugene Register-Guard – Dec 22, 1952
9. Sontag, Susan (20 February 2005). "A Report on the Journey". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
10. Reading Eagle – Dec 21, 1953
11. St. Petersburg Times – Dec 21, 1954
12. Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian) (3rd ed.). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. In some cases in GSE's 3rd edition the year is that, "in which" the Prize was awarded, in other cases – "for which". Hence, the year "1970" there seems to be the Prize "for 1969" or "for 1968–1969"
13. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1989.
14. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1958.
15. О присуждении международных Сталинских премий "За укрепление мира между народами" за 1955 год. Pravda. Dec 21, 1955, page 1 [2]
16. Toledo Blade – Dec 21, 1955
17. "Lenin Peace Prize". NNDB. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
18. The Telegraph – Apr 8, 1965
19. Toledo Blade – Dec 29, 1969
20. Eugene Register-Guard – Oct 8, 1983
21. Reading Eagle – Apr 11, 1965
22. Vochenblatt – Nov 27, 1958
23. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1960.
24. The Deseret News – May 1, 1959
25. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1961.
26. The Spokesman-Review – May 4, 1960
27. Yitzhak Oron, ed. (1960). Middle East Record Volume 1.
28. Sharif, Issam. "Abstract: Aziz Sharif (1904-1990)" (PDF). http://www.issamsharif.com. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
29. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1962.
30. Schenectady Gazette – May 1, 1961
31. "Tabet, Antoine Georges". The Free Dictionary. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
32. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1963.
33. The Milwaukee Journal – Apr 30, 1962
34. Daytona Beach Morning Journal – May 1, 1962
35. Meddlesome Medals?
36. Toledo Blade – Apr 30, 1963
37. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1964.
38. "Modibo Keita." Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed. 17 Vols. Gale Research, 1998.
39. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1965.
40. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1966.
41. The Sumter Daily Item – Aug 14, 1965
42. Toledo Blade – Apr 30, 1964
43. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1967. p. 623.
44. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1968. p. 622.
45. The Miami News – May 1, 1967
46. The Milwaukee Journal – Jun 10, 1974
47. Lodi News-Sentinel – Jan 19, 1991
48. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1969. p. 607.
49. Shukri, Sabin M. (1984). The International Who's Who of the Arab World (2nd ed.). London: International Who's Who of the Arab World. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-9506122-1-8.
50. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1972. p. 618.
51. Toledo Blade – Jan 23, 1980
52. The Palm Beach Post – Jan 19, 1987
53. Lewiston Evening Journal – Mar 16, 1977
54. Sansom, Ian (11 December 2010). "Great Dynasties: The Ransome-Kutis". The Guardian. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
55. Johnson-Odim, Cheryl (January–February 2009). "'For their freedoms': The anti-imperialist and international feminist activity of Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti of Nigeria". Women's Studies International Forum. 32 (1): 58. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2009.01.004. Pdf.[permanent dead link]
56. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1973. p. 634.
57. The Milwaukee Journal – May 1, 1973
58. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1975. p. 653.
59. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1977. p. 633.
60. Lakeland Ledger – May 2, 1977
61. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1979. p. 573.
62. The Spokesman-Review – May 1, 1979
63. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1980. p. 577.
64. Toledo Blade – Apr 30, 1980
65. The Evening Independent, October 27, 1981
66. Star-News – Nov 14, 1980
67. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1983.
68. Reading Eagle – May 4, 1983
69. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1985. p. 571.
70. El Tiempo – May 1, 1985
71. LENIN PEACE PRIZE AWARDED TO INDIRA GANDHI
72. Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1987. p. 599.
73. Herald-Journal – Jan 15, 1988
74. The Telegraph – Sep 9, 1987
75. Daily Times, January 30th 2008
76. The Great Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1991. vol. 1, p. 759.
77. MANDELA FINALLY PICKS UP PRIZE
78. "Lenin Peace Prize Recipients". Research History. Retrieved 4 May 2017.

External links

• Thoughts on winning the Stalin Peace Prize by Paul Robeson
• On Receiving the Stalin Peace Award by Howard Fast
• Soviet Prize Medals pictures of the medals and accompanying certificates
• (in Russian) PDF-version of issue of Pravda with ukaz about creation of prize.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Nov 28, 2019 12:20 am

The Kamalashila Institute
by Kamalashila Institute for Buddhist Studies and Meditation
https://www.kamalashila.de/en/institute/
Accessed: 11/27/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
The Peace Stupa in the garden of Kamalashila Institute

Kamalashila Institute was founded in 1981. It is one of the first Tibetan Buddhist centres in Europe and is the European seat of the Karmapa. The Karmapa is the head of the Karma Kagyu lineage. The 17th Karmapa, Ogyen Trinley Dorje, is one of the highest ranking lamas of Tibetan Buddhism. The spiritual director of Kamalashila Institute is Dzogchen Pönlop Rinpoche, who himself grew up under the care of the 16th Karmapa. Although he lives in the USA and runs his own centre in Seattle, Rinpoche still visits us on a regular basis.

Focus of Kamalashila Institute’s Programme

Langenfeld, a small village in the Eifel region, has been the home of Kamalashila Institute since 1999. The cities of Cologne, Bonn, and Koblenz are only a short distance away. Kamalashila Institute is a part of Karma Kagyü Gemeinschaft Deutschland e.V., which is a German association and the German branch of the Karma Kagyu lineage. Our meditation courses and Buddhist studies programmes are therefore centered around the Kagyu tradition. In addition to the many Tibetan Buddhist teachers who give teachings, practice instructions, and who lead retreats in Kamalashila, Kamalashila also hosts a large number of American and European teachers who teach on different kinds of meditation practices and Buddhist philosophies. Those courses that deal with the further development of Tibetan Buddhism in the West are very popular. These include seminars on things such as stress reduction, mindfulness training, relaxation techniques, Buddhist end of life care, and various body therapies. Even teachers from other Buddhist schools and traditions in Europe and North America are regular guests in Kamalashila Institute. These teachers teach on other Buddhist meditation practices and views.

Image
Kamalashila Institut is at Buddhistisches Institut Karma Tengyal Ling


Daily Meditation Practices at Kamalashila Institute

At the heart of the activities of Kamalashila Institute is the work of our two resident lamas. Both of them live permanently in Kamalashila and preside over the daily meditation practices, normally in the form of pujas of various Tibetan Buddhist meditations or silent sitting-meditation practices. Our resident lamas also guide retreats and teach a variety of courses on topics such as meditation and Buddhism, the Medicine Buddha, or guru yoga. They are also very open to personal meetings with you to discuss your spiritual practice. Our current resident lamas are Acharya Lama Sönam Rabgye from Nepal and Acharya Lama Kelzang Wangdi from Bhutan..

Other Facilities in Kamalashila Institute

Kamalashila is well-known for its extensive library. It also has a Dharmashop where you can purchase Tibetan prayer texts, Buddhist literature, audio recordings, calendars, and authentic Tibetan arts and crafts such as handmade Buddhist thangkas and statues. Directly beside the shop is our Café Stupa (Link), which is open on weekends. The café is a popular meeting place for relaxing and chatting during the seminar breaks. It is also popular among outside guests as well. Kamalashila’s facilities are also available for one’s own meditation practices or for retreats. Just give us a call if you are interested.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Nov 28, 2019 1:31 am

Part 1 of 2

Mustang District
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/27/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
Mustang District
मुस्ताङ जिल्ला
གློ་སྨོན་ཐང་།
District
A scene of Mustang
Image
Location of Mustang
Image
Divisions of Mustang
Country Nepal
Province Gandaki Pradesh
Admin HQ. Jomsom
Government
• Type Coordination committee
• Body DCC, Mustang
• Head Mrs. Chhiring Lhamo Gurung
• Deputy-Head Mr. Rajendra Sherchan
• Parliamentary constituencies 1
• Provincial constituencies 2
Area[1]
• Total 3,573 km2 (1,380 sq mi)
[1]
Highest elevation 8,167 m (26,795 ft)
Lowest elevation 2,010 m (6,590 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
• Total 13,452
• Density 3.8/km2 (9.8/sq mi)
• Households 3,305
Time zone UTC+05:45 (NPT)
Postal Codes
33100, 33102, 33103... 33109
Telephone Code 069
Main Language(s) Nepali and Tibetan
Website ddcmustang.gov.np

Mustang District (Nepali: मुस्ताङ जिल्लाAbout this soundListen (help·info)) is one of the seventy-seven districts of Nepal. It covers an area of 3,573 km2 (1,380 sq mi) and has a population (2011) of 13,452.[2] The headquarters is Jomsom.

The district is in Dhawalagiri Zone and part of Gandaki Pradesh in northern Nepal, straddles the Himalayas and extends northward onto the Tibetan Plateau. The district is one of the remotest areas in Nepal and is second in terms of the sparsity of population.[3] The elevation ranges from 1,372 to 8,167 meters (Mount Dhaulagiri, the 7th highest mountain in the world), with several peaks above 7,000 meters.

Mustang is an ancient forbidden kingdom, bordered by the Tibetan Plateau and sheltered by some of world's tallest peaks, including 8000-meter tall Annapurna and Dhaulagiri. Strict regulations of tourists here have aided in maintaining Tibetan traditions.[4] Upper Mustang was a restricted demilitarized area until 1992, which makes it one of the most preserved regions in the world due to its relative isolation from the outside world, with a majority of the population still speaking traditional Tibetic languages.[5] The name "Mustang" is derived from the Tibetan word meaning, "Plain of Aspiration."[6] Upper Mustang was only opened to foreigners in 1992 (annual quota at present of 1,000 people). It is a popular area for trekking and can be visited year round (regardless of season).[7]

Agriculture and animal husbandry are the main occupations. The entire district is included within the Annapurna Conservation Area, the largest protected area of Nepal. Development programmes, tourism management, and so on are primarily overseen by the Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP), a division of the National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC).[3] The kingdom of Mustang was a dependency of the Kingdom of Nepal since 1795,[8] but was abolished by the republican Government of Nepal on October 7, 2008. The monarchy in Mustang ceased to exist on October 7, 2008, by order of the Government of Nepal, after Nepal became a federal democratic republic.[9] According to the Human Development Index, Mustang is a relatively wealthy district with a GDP per capita of US $2,466.[7]

Geography

Climate zone[10] / Elevation Range / % of Area
Temperate / 2,000 to 3,000 meters; 6,400 to 9,800 ft. / 4.0%
Subalpine / 3,000 to 4,000 meters; 9,800 to 13,100 ft. / 4.7%
Alpine / 4,000 to 5,000 meters; 13,100 to 16,400 ft. / 2.7%
Nival / above 5,000 meters / 8.8%
Trans-Himalayan[11][12] / 3,000 to 6,400 meters; 9,800 to 21,000 ft. / 79.8%


Image
Mustang has a semi-arid climate

Image
Himalayas in Mustang

Image
Kali Gandaki Gorge near Ghassa village

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Kali Gandaki riverbed in Upper Mustang. View from Thsele village down to the Kali Gandaki river and the fields of Chhusang, with Nilgiri mountains's steep north face.

Description[13] / Area covered (km2) / % of Area

Total area of the district / 3639.6 / 100%
Total forest area / 123.2 / 3.38%
Total cultivable land / 40.3 / 1.10%
Irrigated cultivable land / 32.5 / 0.89%
Rain-fed cultivable land / 7.83 / 0.21%
Pasture land / 1476.8 / 40.57%
River, stream, cliff, mountain, stone etc. / 1505.7 / 41.36%
Area covered by residence and buildings / 3.20 / 0.08%
Area covered by snow / 305.9 / 8.40%
Area covered by lakes / 0.92 / 0.02%
Other / 183.5 / 5.04%


Mustang, the second least populated district of Nepal, is flanked by the Nepalese districts of Manang, the least populated, to the east and Dolpa, the third least populated, to the west. The Tibetan frontier stretches north from Mustang's borders.[3][13] This is a high-altitude trans-Himalayan region spread over 3,640 square kilometres in area barely north of the main Himalayan mountain range.[13][14] Geographically this cold high-altitude steppe is a part of the Tibetan highlands.[3][14] This boot-shaped piece of land thrusts north into western Tibet is caught in the rain shadow of Dhaulagiri to the south and west and the Annapurna Massif to the north and east.[3]

Average elevation of Mustang is 13,200 ft (2,500m), coming to a peak at 8,167m — the summit of Dhaulagiri.[14][3] It is a vast and arid valley, distinguished by eroded canyons, vividly coloured stratified rock formations and barren high-altitude deserts.[14] The area receives an average annual rainfall of less than 260 mm at Jomsom in the Lower Mustang. Spring and autumn are generally dry, but some precipitation is brought by summer monsoons, which averaged 133 mm at Jomsom between 1973 and 2000. The mean minimum monthly air temperature falls to -2.7 °C in winter while the maximum monthly air temperature reaches 23.1 °C in summer. Both diurnal and annual variations in temperature are large. Only about 40.3 square kilometers, about 1 percent of the total land area, is cultivated and 1,477 square kilometers, about 40%, is pasture land.[13] Kora La at 4,660 metres (15,290 ft) in elevation is been considered the lowest drivable path between Tibetan Plateau and Indian subcontinent.[15]

The elevation of the district range from 1640m in nearby Kopchepani under Kunjo VDC to 7061m in Nilgiri North above from the sea level. The peaks above 6000m in Mustang District are Tukuche peak (6920m), Nilgiri South (6839m), Yakwakang Peak (6462m), and Damodar Himal (6004m). Thorung Pass (5416m), arguably the world's highest and busiest pass, is located in this district. This district share 134.16 km (83.36 mi) long international border with Tibet Autonomous Region of China where 16 boundary pillars are in existence from pillar no. 18-33.[16]

The Kali Gandaki River is a highly important feature of the district. Its source located near the Tibetan border coincides with the Tibetan border and Ganges-Brahmaputra watershed divide.[3] From there, it flows south towards the northern Indian plains through the ancient kingdom of Mustang.[3] It flows through a sheer-sided, deep canyon immediately south of the Mustang capital of Lo Manthang, then widens as it approaches Kagbeni where high Himalayan ranges begin to close in. The river continues southward past Jomsom, Marpha, and Tukuche to the deepest part of the gorge about 7 km (4.3 mi) south of Tukuche in the area of Lete. The gorge then broadens past the border of Mustang and Myagdi districts. Geographically, Lower Mustang lies between the Tibetan Plateau in the North and high Himalayan Mountains in the South. The region between the Tibetan Plateau and Himalayan Mountain is called Trans-Himalaya.[17]

The Kali Gandaki Gorge or Andha Galchi, measured by the difference between the river height and the heights of the highest peaks on either side, is the world's deepest canyon. The portion of the river directly between Dhaulagiri and Annapurna I (7 km downstream from Tukuche) is at an elevation of 2,520 m or 8,270 ft, 5,571 m or 18,278 ft lower than Annapurna I.[18] Major peaks along the gorge include Dhaulagiri (8,167 m or 26,795 ft) and Tukuche (6,920 m or 22,703 ft) on the west and Nilgiri Central (6,940 m or 22,769 ft) and Annapurna (8,091 m or 26,545 ft) on the east.

History

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Flag of the Mustang Kingdom, founded by Ame Pal in 1380

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Portrait of King Prithvi Narayan Shah who annexed the kingdom in 1769

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The last king Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista before the kingdom was abolished in 2008

Much of the history of Mustang is about legends rather than documented facts. However, it is believed that Mustang or the Kingdom of Lo was once a part of Ngari area of Tibet and a loose collection of feudal estates.[14] Though the people of Mustang live within the geographic boundaries of Nepal, their history is also tied to Tibetan religion and culture, geography, and politics.[3] It was often closely linked to adjoining kingdoms of Western Tibet and, during other periods of history, politically linked to Lhasa, the capital of Central Tibet.[19] Lo was incorporated into the Tibetan Empire by Songtsen Gampo, the most famous Tibetan king.[14]

Much of Ngari became a part of the Malla empire (capital Sinja in western Nepal) by the 14th Century. From the 15th century to the 17th century, Mustang had control over the trade between the Himalayas and India because of its strategic location.[20] In 1380, Lo became an independent kingdom under Ame Pal. The last royal family traced its lineage for 25 generations, all the way back to Ame Pal.[14] Ame Pal oversaw the founding and building of much of the Lo and Mustang capital of Lo Manthang, a walled city surprisingly little changed in appearance from that time period.[21] The only remnant of these kingdoms is the still-intact Kingdom of Lo, an area corresponding to the northern third of Mustang District.[3]

In 1769, the army of Prithvi Narayan Shah, the first King the Gorkha Kingdom and the Shah dynasty, unified what was a land of many small kingdoms to forge the kingdom of Nepal. Before that much of present-day Mustang was ruled by kings from Jumla, a region to the southwest, and independent kings and feudal lords.[3] At the end of the 18th century the kingdom was annexed by Nepal and became a dependency of the Kingdom of Nepal since 1795.[20] Swedish explorer Sven Hedin's visited the pass at the head of the Kali Gandaki Gorge in 1904.[22] British Tibetologist David Snellgrove visited and researched Mustang's Buddhist temples and monasteries in 1956, 1960–61 and 1978.[23]

The Kingdom of Lo supported Tibet and therefore, the Qing Empire during the Sino-Nepalese War.

During the late 1950s and 60s, Mustang became the centre for Tibetan guerrillas engaged in small operations against the incorporation of Tibet into the People's Republic of China in 1959.[14] Tibetan guerrilla group Chushi Gangdruk operated out of Upper Mustang with the intention of raiding PLA positions in Tibet,[24] which led to a border incident that caused the killing of a Nepalese officer who was mistaken as a Tibetan rebel.[25][26] These guerrillas were aided by CIA and Tibetan Khampas. In the 1970s, after US president Richard Nixon had visited China, CIA withdrew its support and the Nepalese government disbanded Tibetan fighters.[14] In the book Merlins Keep, a novel by Madeleine Brent (alias of Peter O'Donnell) published 1977, Mustang is the setting for the heroine's youth and later adventures. In 1961, People's Republic of China and Kingdom of Nepal officially signed a border agreement .[27] setting the border between Mustang and TAR set slightly north of the traditional boundary marker demarcated by a stupa at 29°18′14″N 83°58′7″E.[24]

Up until 2008, the Kingdom of Lo or Upper Mustang was an ethnic Tibetan kingdom and a suzerainty of Kingdom of Nepal. The suzerainty allowed for a certain level of independence in local governance from the Nepalese central government.[24] Though still recognized by many Mustang residents, the monarchy ceased to exist on October 7, 2008, by order of the Government of Nepal.[28] After the civil war that overthrew the Nepalese monarchy, it became a republic. Mustang became another district of Nepal losing its status of a tributary kingdom it enjoyed since the late eighteenth century.[4] Mustang is the setting for a large part of the book The Kingdom, a novel by Clive Cussler and Grant Blackwood published in 2011. In December 1999, Ogyen Trinley Dorje, the 17th claimant Karmapa fled Tibet through this area.[29][30] In response, China built a border fence immediately after.[31] There is a PLA border outpost a few miles on Chinese side, it is the western most border outpost in Tibet Military District. The outpost was renovated in 2009 to have a modern facility.[32]

The last official and later unofficial king (raja or gyelpo) of Mustang was Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista (1930–2016), Bista succeeded his father Angun Tenzing Tandul in 1964, and whose lineage dates back to Ame Pal, who founded the Kingdom of Lo six and half century earlier,[33][34] He died in 16 December 2016 after living a retired life largely in Kathmandu since 2008 when Nepal abolished its own monarchy.[33][4][35]

Sky caves

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Sky caves in Chhusang

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Sky caves at Chhoser village, Lo Manthang

One fascinating feature of the district are thousands of cliff dwellings, some highly inaccessible.[14] These Mustang Caves or Sky Caves of Nepal are a collection of some 10,000 man-made caves dug into the sides of valleys in the Mustang.[36][37] Several groups of archaeologists and researchers have explored these stacked caves and found partially mummified human bodies and skeletons that are at least 2,000–3,000 years old.[38] Explorations of these caves by conservators and archaeologists have also led to the discovery of valuable Buddhist paintings, sculptures, manuscripts and numerous artefacts belonging to the 12th to 14th century.[39][40] The caves lie on the steep valley walls near the Kali Gandaki River in Upper Mustang.

In 2007, explorers from the United States, Italy and Nepal discovered ancient Buddhist decorative art and paintings, manuscripts and pottery in the Mustang caves near Lo Manthang, dating back to the 13th century.[39] In 2008, a number of 600-year-old human skeletons were discovered by a second expedition. They also recovered reams of invaluable manuscripts containing writings from both the Bon religion and Buddhism, some of which were illuminated.[41] Research groups have continue to investigate these caves, as it is not clear who built the caves and why were they built. According to theory, they may date back to 8–10,000 BCE when Mustang was much greener.[14]

In 2007, a shepherd discovered a collection of 55 cave paintings near the village depicting the life of the Buddha.[42] A series of at least twelve caves were discovered north of Annapurna and near the village of Lo Manthang, decorated with ancient Buddhist paintings and set in sheer cliffs at 14,000 feet (4,300 m) elevation. The paintings show Newari influence, dating to approximately the 13th century, and also contain Tibetan scripts executed in ink, silver and gold and pre-Christian era pottery shards. Explorers found stupas, decorative art and paintings depicting various forms of the Buddha, often with disciples, supplicants and attendants, with some mural paintings showing sub-tropical themes containing palm trees, billowing Indian textiles and birds.[43]

Administration

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5 Gaunpalikas: Gharpajhong, Thasang, Barhagaun Muktichhetra, Lomanthang, Dalome
16 Village Development Committees (VDCs): Charang • Chhonhup • Chhoser • Chhusang • Dhami • Jhong • Jomsom • Kagbeni • Kowang • Kunjo • Lete • Lo Manthang • Marpha • Muktinath • Surkhang • Tukuche


Mustang District is part of Dhaulagiri Zone in Nepal's Western Development Region.[16] In 2017, Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development (Nepal) re-structured the area into five Gaunpalikas or rural municipalities with five areas each, which are different from old VDCs.[44][45][46][47] Since establishment of Kingdom of Mustang until restructuring of local governance of Nepal, the area of this district was divided into one parliamentary constituency, nine Ilakas, and 16 Village Development Committees (VDCs).[16] While an Ilaka functioned as the local development unit, the VDCs functioned as local political units.[3][13]

Before the VDCs there was the system of village community councils from 1960 to 1990, which forms the lowest strata of local administration.[48] To be entitled to common property resources like pastures, forests and water for irrigation, it was necessary for a household to become a member and participate in the community council. Any endowment of such entitlement was the council's prerogative. All households of the village had representation in the council. A gemba (council leader), chosen from any male member of the council between 18 and 60 years of age, was appointed on yearly rotation. The council settled disputes, called for community work when needed, and distributed rights and responsibilities to community members.[49]

Individual households managed their private farms, while the council managed the community farm-system.[50][51] The pastures and forests were exclusive to each community, where every household had an entitlement graze or collect wood, though collecting leaves and wood from trees in private ownership were more common.[49]

Gaunpalika / Population 2011 / /Area / Population density / Villages / Center

Gharpajhong (घरपझोङ) / 3,029 / 316 / 10 S/ yang (स्याङ), Jomsom (जोमसोम), Chhairo (छैरो), Marpha (मार्फा), Thini (ठिनी), Chimang (चिमाङ) / Jomsom
Thasang (थासाङ) / 2,912 / 289 / 10 / Lete (लेते), Tukuche (टुकुचे), Kunjo (कुञ्जो), Kobang (कोवाङ) / Kobang
Barhagaun Muktichhetra (बाह्रगाउँ मुक्तिक्षेत्र) / 2,330 / 886 / 3 / Kagbeni (कागवेनी), Khinga (खिङ्गा), Jhong (झोङ), Chhusang (छुसाङ) / Kagbeni
Lomanthang (लोमन्थाङ) / 1,899 / 727 / 3 / Chhoser (छोसेर), Lo Manthang (लोमन्थाङ), Chhonhup (छोन्हुप) / Lo Manthang
Dalome (दालोमे) / 1,423 / 1,344 / 1 / Ghami (घमी), Surkhang (सुर्खाङ), Charang (चराङ) / Charang


Divisions

Traditionally, Mustang District has been divided into four social and geographical regions. From south to north they are: Thak Satsae (also known as lower Thak Khola), Panchgaon (upper Thak Khola) and Baragaon (mostly considered part of Thak Khola, sometime called lower Lo) in Lower Mustang and Lo Tsho Dyun or (also known simply as Lo) in Upper Mustang,[3][52][17] though it is becoming increasingly difficult to distinguish between areas along social lines as different castes and ethnic people started to live all over the region.[17]

Thak Khola

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Lupra village in Thak Khola

Along the Kali Gandaki River in Lower Mustang, the Thakali are the dominant ethnic group. The area, extending from Ghasa in south to district headquarter Jomsom in the north, is known as Thak Khola ("Thak River"). The area was ruled by a Tibetan ruler till 1786, when it was included in Nepal.[17] Historically, the region was under Tibetan ruler, but after 1786, it was included in Nepal.[17] Ethnically, Thakalis are categorized as Tamang Thakalis from Thak Satsae, and Mawatan Thakali and Yhulkasompaimhi Thakalis from Panchgaon. The languages spoken by Thakalis fall in Tibeto-Burman category, and they believe in Buddhism.[17]

Thak Satsae

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Tsampa gompa at Tukuche

Thak Satsae (“Seven Hundred Thak”) is the most southerly sub-region of Mustang.[52][16] The sub-region extends from the village of Ghasa in the south to the trading town of Tukuche in the north, bordering Jomsom (the district headquarter).[52][53] Traditionally believed to have 700 households, the sub-region encompasses 13 villages along Thak Khaki, a segment of the Kali Gandaki located south of Jomsom (also called Tehragaon or "thirteen villages"):[3][16][52] Ghasa, Taglung, Dhamphu, Kunjo, Titi, Sauru Khanti, Lete, Kobang, Nakung, Naurikot, Bhurjungkot, Larjung and Tukuche. They were distributed across four VDCs: Lete, Kowang, Kunjo and Tukuche[16][52][53][17]

Thak Satsae Area or Thak Khola is home to Tamang people, the largest group of Thakalis in Mustang, who are known to outsiders as just Thakkalis.[52] The Thakkalis of Mustang, known for their enterprising skills as traders, innkeepers and hoteliers, are divided into four clans: Khuki (Bhattachan), Choki (Gauchan), Dinjen (Sherchan) and Salki (Tulachan).[16][53] The introduction of horticulture and tourism has made this region prosperous. Various kinds of liquor, Jam and Jelly made up of apple, apricot and plum are very popular commodities of this area.[16][53]

Panchgaon

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Jomsom main street, near the airport

Panchgaon ("five villages") lies between the trading town of Tukche and the pilgrimage site of Muktinath.[3][52] Beyond the five villages — Marpha, Chhairo, Chimang, Syang and Thini — this area also includes more recent settlements such as Jomsom, Drumpa and Samle.[16][52] All these settlements were distributed across two VDCs: Jomsom and Marpha.[16] Jomsom is the district headquarter, Thini is historically one of the most significant sites in the entire district, and Marpha is very popular for the apple orchards and apple brandy.[16] Panchgaon was once ruled by the king of Sum (or Sumpo) Garabdzong (near present-day Thini) and the bem-chag deal mainly with the foundation and boundaries of that kingdom. One of the indispensable sources for the study of the history of the Mustang are the village records or bem-chag kept in the five original villages including Thini, Syang, Marpha, Chairo and Cimang.[54]

The dominant ethnic group is Thakali, also known as Panchgaonle (“people of Panchgaon”).[16][52] People from Marpha, Chhairo and Chimang write clan names as their surname. The four clans are Hirachan, Lalchan, Jwarchan and Pannachan. But the people from Thini and Syang write their surname as only Thakali to identify by themselves.[16] Among the villages of Panchgaon, Mawatan Thankalis are from Marpha and Yhulkasompaimhi, Yhulgasummi or Yhulgasumpa Thakalis are from Thini, Syang and Chimang.[52][17] While more than 80 per cent of the Tamang Thakali are found outside Thak Khola, nearly half of the total Mawatan Thakali population still live in Marpha village.[55] Thini village, one of the oldest Thakali villages in Thak Khola region does not categorize itself within Panchgaonle (people from Panchgaon), instead they categorize themselves within Tingaonle Thakali (people from three villages) which includes Thini, Syang and Chimang. According to the informants from Thini, they do not categorize those people who are originated from Marpha and Chhairo as original Thakali. They even do not have socio-religious relationships such as marriage and other local religious activities with Marpha and Chhairo.[17]

Baragaon

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Ruins of ancient fortress in Tangbe village, Chhusang

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Muktinath temple

Baragaon (“Twelve Villages”) is a northerly sub-region lying between Jomsom and the region of Lo, in and around the Muktinath Valley, extending from south of Ghilling to Lubra lying north of Jomsom.[3][52][17][56] It is sometimes called Glo Bosmad (“Lower Lo”), as it shares many geographical features of Lo proper, with some parts falling inside Upper Mustang.[52][56] The people who live are not categorized as Thakali.[17] They are known to outsider as Bhotia (“Tibetan”) or Baragaonle (“People of Baragaon”) and they share cultural similarities with Lo, though they often use Gurung, Bista or Thakuri as their surname for purposes of status emulation.[3][16][52]

This sub-region now consists of 19 main villages — Kagbeni, Khinga, Dakardzong, Jharkot, Muktinath, Chongur, Jhong, Putak, Purong, Lubra, Pagling, Phalek, Tiri, Chhusang, Tetang, Tangbe, Tsele, Ghyaga and Sammar. These villages were spread across four VDCs south of Lochhoden: Kagbeni, Muktinath, Jhong and Chhusang.[16] The central town of Baragaon is Kagbeni, at the confluence of Muktinath or Dzong (Jhong) River and Kali Gandaki River. Kagbeni is on the well-traveled route to the pilgrimage site of Muktinath.[52] Tibetan dialect (Pheke) prevails here, though the people of Tangbe, Chhusang, Tetang, Tsaile and Ghyaker also speak Seke, a language closely related to Thakali.[56]

The Muktinath temple is located at an altitude of 3,710 meters near Ranipauwa village at the foot of the Thorong La mountain pass in Muktinath Valley. It is considered to be 106th among the available 108 Divya Desam (premium temples) considered sacred by the Sri Vaishnava sect. The ancient name of this place in Sri Vaishnava literature is Thiru Saligramam. The temple houses the Saligram shila, considered to be the naturally available form of the Hindu Godhead Sriman Narayan.[57] It is also one of the 51 Shakti peeth.[58] The Buddhists call it Chumig Gyatsa, which in Tibetan means "Hundred Waters". Although the temple has a Vaishnav origin, it is also revered in Buddhism.[59] For Tibetan Buddhists, Muktinath is a very important place of dakinis, goddesses known as Sky Dancers, and one of the 24 Tantric places. They understand the murti to be a manifestation of Avalokiteśvara, who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas.[60]

Lo Tsho Dyun

The people of restricted northern areas of Mustang are known as Lopa. But, they use surname like Bista and Gurung outside their lands. The restricted area, lying between Tibetan border and Ghemi village, encompasses the historic kingdom of Lo Tsho Dyun ("seven districts of Lo" in local Tibetan dialect of Loke).[17][56] Lo Manthang is the only walled city of Nepal and it is also known as the cultural capital of this area. The palace and other structures within the wall were built by Ame Pal, the first king of Lo, during the period of 15th century. His lineage is recognized as the royal family of Mustang. Lo Tsho Dyun area consists of Ghiling, Ghemi, Dhakmar, Marang, Tsarang, Dhi, Surkhang, Yara, Ghara, Tangya, Dhea, Lo Monthang, Nhenyol, Chhoser, Nyamdo, Kimaling, Thinkar, Phuwa and Namgyal villages. They were spread across six VDCs: Dhami, Charang, Lo Manthang, Chhoser, Chhonhup and Surkhang.[16]

Lo Manthang

Walled city of Lo Manthang


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Surrounding terrain

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From outside

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From inside

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From rooftop

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The Royal Palace

Lo Manthang, a Village Development Committee with 876 people living in 178 households,[61] is the capital of the old kingdom of Lo, which encompasses the northern two thirds of the district and known as Upper Mustang. Though the capital of the district is Jomsom, the traditional Tibetan-style locales lie north of Kagbeni. The old capital Lo Manthang, a square-walled town on the Plain of Prayers, is the residence of the present king.[14]

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Tiji festival

Lo Monthang features the King’s Palace and many monasteries that are being restored by art historians Europe.[62] The village is noted for its tall white washed mud brick walls, gompas and the Raja's or Royal or King's Palace, a nine-cornered, five story structure built around 1400.[63] There are four major temples: Jampa Lhakhang or Jampa Gompa, the oldest, built in the early 15th century and also known as the "God house"; Thubchen Gompa, a huge, red assembly hall and gompa built in the late 15th century and located just southwest of Jampa Gompa; Chodey Gompa, now the main city gompa; and the Choprang Gompa, which is popularly known as the "New Gompa".[64] It is noted by scholars as one the most well preserved medieval fortress and a candidate for UNESCO World Heritage status.[4] The windswept and arid land around Lo Manthang, lying at an altitude between 3000m and 3500m, is not suitable for agriculture at all. However, there are a number of small streams, where willows grow along with wheat, potatoes and barley. The most famous festival here is Tiji, which generally happens in April/May, with costumed lamas dancing in the village square for three days.[62]

Lopa people

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Lopa men at Yartung, the biggest festival in Nepal’s trans-Himalayan region that happens every September. Apart from the festivities it features popular horse-riding competitions that attract competitors from even the Nepalese Army.[65]

Lo Manthang is the socio-cultural and political center of the ethnic Lopa people, the original inhabitants of Mustang.[4][43] Their mud-brick homes are much like Tibetan homes, whitewashed outside and decorated inside.[62] They build their homes out of stone, making the roofs out of thinly chiseled stone squares. The roofs are extremely uniform and smooth; and on each corner, a small square is constructed so that prayer flags may be hung there. Most houses are built close together and have no windows, only holes in the walls to protect against the high speed winds that race up the mountains. A Lopa home almost never built toward the South because of the fierceness of these winds. This is a drawback in summertime as the houses grow very hot due to a lack of appropriate ventilation. Hence, people often sleep on the terraces during the summer to escape the heat.[6]

The Lopa are primarily farmers, shepherds, or merchants.[6] Tibet traditionally traded with Lopas, but in mid-18th century salt-trade monopoly was awarded to the Thakali people to the south, stripping the Lopa of much income. In 1959, Tibetans started crossing the border and encroaching on the small plots of pastureland Lopas used to feed their sheep, yaks, donkeys and mules, causing Lopa wealth to deteriorate further.[62]

Socially, the They are divided into three groups, one of which contains those of royal heritage. Rules of society are based on the values of respect and honour. The structure of their families is also based on these and other traditions.[6] They practice Tibetan Buddhism. Sometimes marriages are made by parental agreement, other times by capture or elopement. Like other people who live in harsh terrains, they are generous and kind, and also are shrewd businesspersons.[62] One tradition says that the eldest son will inherit the family's property. When he does, the next son must become a Buddhist monk.[6]

Nature

Lower Kali Gandaki valley forms the border to demarcate east and west for the distribution of flora and fauna of Mustang. It is rich in both temperate and trans-Himalayan biodiversity with flora and fauna that are most common to those that are highly rare.[16] Though biodiversity of Upper Mustang is comparatively well studied and documented, only limited information is available on biodiversity of Lower Mustang.[16]

Fauna

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Celastrina huegeli specimen from Mustang

Mustang is rich in trans-Himalayan biodiversity, where five species of zooplankton, seven nematode species, two mollusc species, one annelid species, 25 insect species (seven aquatic insects and 18 butterfly species), one spider species, 11 amphibian species, eight lizard species, five snake species, 105 bird species and 29 mammal species have been recorded. Five butterfly species, extinct mollusk species (shaligram), two frog species, one reptile species, two bird species (Tibetan sandgrouse and Eurasian eagle-owl), and seven mammal species have only been recorded in Mustang in Nepal.[16] Out of the 18 butterfly species recorded in Mustang, two are new and three are endemic to the area. Mustang is the habitat for snow leopard, musk deer, Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle. The only native fish species, recorded at 3475m above sea level at Ghami Khola stream in Dhami, has been identified as the highest elevation fish in Nepal. Six of the mammal species recorded from Mustang area are protected by the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act (1973), while seven of the mammal species are included in different threat categories of IUCN Red Data Book.[16]

Flora

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Rhododendrons in front of Annapurna South

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Terraced fields in Tetang village, Chhusang

Vegetation of Mustang District is of the steppe type and consists of grasslands interspersed with scrub. Cold desiccating winds, a short growing season, low precipitation and cold air temperatures limit the standing biomass produced from the steppe vegetation. Scrub is dominated by Juniperus squamata on gentle slopes, whereas steeper slopes are dominated by Caragana gerardiana, Chrysosphaerella brevispina, and Rosa sericea, as well various species of Ephedra and Lonicera. Vegetation above 5,000 metres consists mainly of Rhododendron anthopogon, as well as Potentilla biflora and various species of Saxifraga. Little or no vegetation is found above 5,800 metres.[13]

Forest covers 3.24 percent of Mustang’s total landmass. Forest cover ends near Jomsom and is very limited in Upper Mustang, which falls in the Alpine climatic area. It is distributed over one small patch each in Lo Manthang and Dhami VDCs, and seven patches in Chhuksang VDC.[16] The vegetation of the district can be categorized into some eight types, including six types of mixed forest identified by the dominant species — Pinus wallichiana, Betula utilis, Hippophae salicifolia, Caragana gerardiana, Lonicera spinosa and Caragana gerardiana, Juniperus — and grasslands/rangelands covered with Poaceae.[66] Lower Mustang offers mixed broad leaved forest such as Acer species, conifers (mainly pine) and rhododendrons (Nepali: लालीगुँरास), and at the higher elevation conifers with birch Betula utilis.[16]

Mustang is rich in medicinal and aromatic plants with very high economic and ethnomedicinal values. Local people use a number of plants for food, spices, fibre, medicine, fuel, dye, tannin, gum, resin, religious purposes, roofing materials, handicrafts, etc.[16] Medicinal use of 121 plant species was recorded in a study. These 121 plants included 49 vascular plants and 2 fungi species from 92 genera. These plants, including different parts of the same plant, were used to treat 116 different ailments. The most common type of medicinal plants were herbs (73%), which was followed by shrubs, trees, and, finally, climbers.[66] Over 200 species of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP) and medicinal and aromatic herbs (MAP) have been identified in Mustang.[16] These plants were found to be used as medicine (50 species), food (33), fuel (27), fencing (24), fodder (19), ritual object (19), decoration (8), manure (7), dye/soap (3), psychoactive (3), and construction material (2 species).[66]
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Part 2 of 2

Demographics

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Distribution of people by age:
00-04 Yrs. 864, 05-09 Yrs. 1,004, 10-14 Yrs. 1,148, 15-19 Yrs. 1,101, 20-24 Yrs. 1,112, 25-29 Yrs. 1,456, 30-34 Yrs. 1,086, 35-39 Yrs. 1,024, 40-44 Yrs. 942, 45-49 Yrs. 770, 50-54 Yrs. 750, 55-59 Yrs. 604, 60-64 Yrs. 519, 65-69 Yrs. 432, 70-74 Yrs. 353, 75-79 Yrs. 162, 80 Yrs.+ 125[67]


The district is divided into Upper and Lower Mustang. The northern two-thirds of the district (Upper Mustang or former Lo Kingdom), Tibetan language and culture prevails, is home to the Lopa, a Bhotiya people. The southern third or the Thak is the homeland of Thakali people who speak Thakali dialects and have a synthesis of Tibetan and Nepalese culture. The main languages spoken are Bhote, Sherpa, and Nepali.[7] The main caste/ ethnic groups are Gurung (45%) and Thakali (17%).[7]

As one moves southward, the Tibetan culture becomes less evident. Inhabitants of Lo in Upper Mustang are Tibetan in language and culture, whereas inhabitants from Panchgaon and Thak Satsae in Lower Mustang speak Thakali, a Tibeto-Burman language. Inhabitants of mid-Mustang of Baragaon speak both Tibetan and a language similar to Thakali.

There are 3,305 households in the district. The distribution of households by ethnic/caste group shows that about 59.3 percent are Gurung, 24.5 percent Thakali and 8.2 percent Kami/Damai. Magar, Thakuri and other account 3.1, 2.9 and 2.1 percent population respectively. Gurung and Thakali are the dominant ethnic groups in Mustang District's population.[16] In the district as a whole, Janajati population constitutes 86.8 percent of the total population whereas Dalit accounts for 8.2 percent and the remaining are 5.0 percent.[16]

According to demographic data published by Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report),[67] 13,452 people lives in Mustang spread across an area of 3,573 km2 (1,380 sq mi). Which makes it the second least populated district, and with a population density of 4 per km2, also the second least densely populated district. 7,093 or them were male, and 6,359 were female. Age of first marriage for Mustang people are varied — 15–19 Years 1,603, 20–24 Years 3,016, 25–29 Years 1,677, and others 1,030 (Total married 7,326).[67] According to the 1992 Census, the total population of the district was 14,319, not including area residents such as government and army officials, police, development workers, and Tibetan refugees.[3]

Language

At the time of the 2011 Nepal census 40.3% of the population in the district spoke Nepali, 21.7% Lhopa, 19.4% Gurung, 12.1% Thakali, 2.3% Magar, 1.0% Tamang, 0.6% Sherpa and 0.5% Rai as their first language.[68]

Ethnicity

Among the Gurung, Thakkali and Bhote people, there also were 33 foreigners — 13 Indians, 3 Chinese, and 17 from other countries.

Religion

In 2011, The population of Mustang was divided between 60.17% Buddhists (8,095 people) and 37.46% Hindus (5,040 people). There also were 152 Christians, 98 Böns, 19 Kiratis, 5 animist or Prakritis and 3 Muslims.[67]

According to Aita Bahadur Thakali (District Livestock Service Office, Jomsom) 75 percent of the population is Buddhist and 25 percent is Hindu.[13]

Health

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Drying medicinal plants in Jharkot, Muktinath

For 14,981 people Mustang District had a total of 17 health posts, with a health post to population ration of 1:881. While that is better than the national average of 1:5663, these posts cannot be easily accessed because of the remoteness of locations and ruggedness of terrain.[66] There are 10 health posts and five sub health posts scattered throughout Lete, Kobang, Tukche, Marpha, Eklebhatti, Jarkot, Kagbeni and Chame. Jomsom has the only hospital.[7]

Because of low access to facilities and other socio-cultural factors, for most people in Mustang, traditional herbal medicines are the popular mode of medical care and Amchis (traditional Tibetan healers) are the local medical experts.[66] Local Amchis use 72 species of medicinal plants to treat 43 human ailments.[16] They use different forms of medication including pastes (60 species), powders (48), decoctions (35), tablets (7), pills (5), cold infusions (5), and others means, administered through oral, nasal, topical and other routes. Most people here have deep faith in the Amchis.[66]

Amchis have a unique method of maintaining quality of the medicine. They collect medicinal plants always on their own, because only they have experience extensive enough to identify the right plants. Also, only an Amchi knows when to collect the plants, as the timing, while very important in capturing active principles of the plants, varies by days, even months.[66]

Then they store their herbs in bags made from the skin of Moschus chrysogaster (Himalayan musk deer), tied twice with a thread. Tying a herb in musk deer skin helps it, according to Amchis, to remain effective for a couple of years. Horn and urine of musk deer and tortoise bones, as well as parts of other animal are also used along with plant parts.[66]

They use a stone slab to grind their medicine, because they believe the heat created by an electric grinder would degrade the active principles of the plant powder, reducing its quality. Powdered ingredients are then mixed with water. Sufficient amount of additives are also added. Plant parts are commonly prepared using water, hot or cold, as the solvent (100 species), but occasionally remedies are prepared with milk (14 species), honey (2), jaggery or Indian cane sugar (2), ghee or Indian clarified butter (2) and oil (1) in preparing pills in round or rectangular shapes. The mix is then boiled until water is completely evaporated making it easy to shape the pills.[66]

Education

The literacy rate in Mustang District is high. The pace of development started late in Mustang District, including The communication and transportation.[16] Schools in the district are operated largely by non-government groups on private support, with negligible state involvement. Text books are transported by mules to reach remote villages, which as a result arrive late. Most teachers, hired on contract, are unable to hold a conversation in the supposed language of instruction, the mother tongue of the students. The curricula developed with European funding is largely unfamiliar to government teachers. The district school superintendent also does not visit these areas regularly because of their remoteness.[69] The total population aged 5 years & above in Mustang is 12,588, of whom 8,334 (66.20%) can read & write, 305 (2.42%) can read only 305, 3,945 (31.33%) can neither read nor write.[67]

Out of a total 8,451 literate people 275 were beginners, 3,650 primary (1-5), 1,631 lower secondary (6 -8), 721 secondary (9 -10), 836 SLC & equivalent, 509 intermediate & equivalent, graduate & equivalent 208, post graduate equivalent & above 51, Others 73, Non-formal education 471, Not stated 26.[67] In 2017, Most of the students in Mustang were not in an age-appropriate class and did not progress to higher education.[69] It is to be noted that education has improved dramatically in the past two decades in Upper Mustang, and some schools supported by international charities are better than many public schools in rural Nepal, although it is uncertain if the schools can sustainable.[69]

A total of 768 people had SLC or higher education in 2011. Of them 164 studied Humanities and Arts, 170 studied Business and Administration, 167 Education, 43 Social & Behavioral Science, 47 Science, 13 Engineering, Manufacturing and Construction, 12 Health, 11 Agriculture, Forestry & Fishery, 9 Mathematics and Statistics, 8 Law, 3 Computing, and 1 Journalism and Information. 120 did not state their academic stream in the 2011 census.[67] In 2017, Nepal Fine Arts Academy recently organised an art workshop for students of Mustang District in Jomsom.[70]

Economy

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Goats in Marpha

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Yaks in Mustang

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Chaffing grain in Kagbeni

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Loom in Muktinath

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Pani ghatta in Jomsom

Mustang was an important route of crossing the Himalayas between Tibet and Nepal. Many salt caravans travelled through Mustang in the old times.[14] Once a major thoroughfare for the trade of salt and grain between Tibet and Nepal's southern hills, the Mustang District in Nepal's western Himalayas remains a trading route to this day.[3] For centuries, caravans travelled along the Kali Gandaki river trading salt, yak wool, cereals, dried meat spices and more in Tibet, China and India.[4] and the Kali Gandaki gorge was used as a trade route between India and Tibet for centuries.[71] The mountain pass of Kora La is one of the oldest routes between the two regions. It was historically used for salt trade between Tibet and Nepalese kingdoms.[31]

The border has been closed since the 1960s. However, there is a semiannual cross-border trade fair during which the border is open to local traders.[31] In 2012, Nepal and China agreed to open 6 more official border crossings, Kora La being one of them.[72] In July 2016, Nepalese government announced that they expected the border crossing to be open within and year to become the third most important crossing between the two countries.[73]

Kora La is currently being planned as vehicle border crossing between China and Nepal.[74] Nepal is expecting to regain some of the strategic importance of Mustang with the construction of the road to connect China with Nepal through Mustang. Once completed the road is expected to become a highly accessible Himalayan corridor and the district is expected to change significantly. There also is a fear of losing the culture and identity of the region.[4]

Agriculture is the dominant economic activity in the district in which 80.65 percent people are engaged in the district.[16] People of Mustang are engaged in a traditional form of agro-pastoralist economy common to the mountainous regions of Nepal.[49] Business (6.82%), government service (1.91%), house work (3.50%), foreign employment (3.97%) and others (3.14%) are others occupation types besides agriculture.[16]

Many people in Mustang depend on sheep and mountain goat rearing for livelihood. Some of the points of attraction of animal husbandry are: access to pastureland, proximity to the Kora La border pass, and favourable market prices, as well as and technical help and subsidy from District Livestock Services Office.[75] Yak-cow hybrids (called jhopa, or dzo) are employed as draft animals. Horses are reared largely for transport.[49] In 2016, Mustang earned Nepalese rupee 270 million by exporting 13,000 sheep and 9,000 mountain goats. In 2017, the district supplied at least 25,000 sheep and mountain goats to different markets of Nepal during the Dashain festival. An estimated number of 9,000 mountain goats assumed as imported from Tibet in 2017, though traditional Tibetan traders are increasingly prioritizing Chinese markets.[75]

In the summer, goats, cows and sheep are grazed daily in herds in local alpine meadows. During the winter they are stall-fed with leaves, grass and crop wastes, cut and stored in the growing season as preparation for winter. The livestock provides the manure essential to maintain soil fertility, and thus is an significant link in the local agro-pastoral farming-system. Inorganic fertilisers or pesticides are not used.[49]

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Mustang Apple at Marpha

Mustang is sometimes called the capital of apples in Nepal. District Agriculture Development Office (DADO) reports that despite the fact that a total of 1,115 hectares of land is considered suitable for apple-farming in Mustang, apple is planted in only 415 hectares of land. Mustang produced 5,300 tons of apples in 2017, an increase by 800 tons over 2016. Price of apples also increased in 2017. In 2016, apples were sold at Nepalese rupee 80 which had reached रु 100 in 2017.[76] Barley, wheat and buckwheat are grown in terraced farms, while vegetables and fruits are grown in orchards.[49] At Mebrak and Phudzeling sites of Upper Mustang, there is evidence of cultivation of buckwheat, naked barley, cannabis, lentils and other crops dated between 1000 and 400 BCE. In Kohla, there is evidence of cultivation of barley, free-threshing wheat, foxtail millet, buckwheat and oats dated 1385–780 BCE.[77]

Though agro-pastoralism still provides the socio-economic backbone of Msutang,[78] alternative livelihood like tourism, transport and labour migration are now emerging along agro-pastoralism. As a result, many has abandoned agriculture or animal husbandry as source of livelihood generally in Mustang and neighbouring district of Manag, and specifically in Jharkot, over the last couple of decades.[79][78] Both number of people living in the district, their animal herds and the number of large households in a village are down from before. In Muktinath VDC the number of households came down to 169 from a high of 216 in 2001.[79] Though agro-pastoralism still provides the economic and social backbone of Msutang. Many of the terraced fields are now abandoned.[78]

Living and lifestyle

Building material

Building material

Following are distribution of households by building material:

• By foundation material: Mud bonded bricks/stone 3,097, Cement bonded bricks/stone 146, RCC with pillar 3, Wooden pillar 31, Others 7, Not stated 21
• By inner wall material: Mud bonded bricks/stone 2,366, Cement bonded bricks/stone 303, Wood/planks 29, Bamboo 9, Unbaked brick 565, Others 10, Not stated 23
• By roof material: Thatch/straw 31, Galvanized iron 192, Tile/slate 83, RCC 26, Wood/planks 20, Mud 2,902, Others 23, Not stated 28
• By toilet type: Without toilet 1,211, Flush toilet 1,382, Ordinary toilet 696, Not stated 16
National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report)


Tenancy and ownership

Following are distribution of households by amenities:

• By tenancy: Owned 2,278, Rented 706, Institutional 182, Others 139)
• By ownership: Both house & land 266, Land only 118, Neither house nor land 2,911
• By size: One person 465, Two persons 610, Three persons 744, Four persons 602, Five persons 434, Six persons 280, Seven/eight persons 120; Nine or more persons 99
National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report)


People in the district are mostly holds small housing units for dwelling.[16] According to demographic data published by Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report), Mustang had 3,305 households in the district, second lowest in Nepal, with an average household size of 4.01.[67]

Improved transportation has brought many changes to Upper Mustang. According to GMA News Online, "Kerosene lamps have given way to solar panels, denim sneakers have replaced hand-stitched cowhide boots and satellite dishes are taking over the rooftops of homes," and the local Lopa people are "swapping handspun Tibetan robes for made-in-China jeans."[80]

When government-owned Nepal Television first came to Upper Mustang in 2007, people used to pay 20 rupees (18 cents) for a three-hour sitting in someone's house.[80] In 2011, 1,033 households had cable television, 1,237 households had radio, and 451 had television without a cable connection. 101 households had computers, 48 had internet, 240 had telephones, and 2,353 households had mobile phones. 89 households had motor vehicles, 224 had motorcycles, 9 had bicycles, and 455 had other vehicle (i.e. animal-drawn or human-drawn vehicles). 202 households had refrigerators.[67] There are seven police stations established in Nechung, Thinkar, Kagbeni, Phedi, Jomsom, Ghasa and Lete. Jharkot and Jhong has post offices, while there is a bank, an airport and Nepalese Army's High Altitude and Mountain Warfare School in Jomsom.[7]

More than 91.65 percent population of the district is benefited by secured drinking water supply whereas 8.35 percent population of the district is unsecured. Tap/pipe water are considered as secured system of water supply. In Mustang District 3029 households use tap/pipes, 174 using river/streams, 76 households use spout water, and 9 households using wells/kuwas.[67][16]

Energy

Mustang District is not much facilitated by the National Electricity Grid. So, alternate sources of energy are mostly used in this district. In the past, diyalo (heartwood) and pine wood were mostly used for illuminating homes, but now other methods like iron stoves, solar water heating systems, back-boilers, smoke water heaters, etc. have taken increasingly being popular. Fire wood, Cow dung, LP gas are the main fuel used as domestic source of energy in rural areas of Mustang District. About 54.01 percent households apply wood/firewood as the domestic energy for cooking purposes. Cow dung is used by 24.99 percent households. Most of the businesses and hotels of the district use LP gas (18.12%) as cooking fuel. Local people collect firewood mostly from the forest.[67][16]

1,785 households in Mustang use wood or firewood as cooking fuel, 52 households use kerosene, 599 households use LP gas, 826 households use cow dung, 24 use electricity, while cooking fuel of 19 households are unknown. As lighting fuel, 3,177 use electricity (including 824 solar electricity using households), 71 use kerosene, while 39 households did not report their lighting fuel.[67] The lower part of Mustang has recently been connected to the National Electricity Grid. This project is attempting to connect Upper Mustang too. Right now, most of the households of Upper Mustang benefit from micro-hydro projects. But, these projects can only be operated for about 6–7 months due to freezing of rivers in winter. The VDCs facilitated with electricity from National grid are Kunjo, Lete, Kobang, Tukuchhe, Marpha, Jomsom, Kagbeni, Mukthinath and Jhong. A sub-station of 504 Kilowatts has been established in Kobang.[16]

For lighting, hydro-electricity is widely used by the rural population. Nearly 71.20 percent households depend on electricity for light. Areas within southern VDCs - Kunjo, Lete, Kobang, Tukuche, Marpha and Jomsom- are connected with national grid for electricity supply. Still more than 25.48 percent household use solar systems for light, kerosene (2.15%) and other sources of energy (1.18%).[67][16] The Hydro Power Project of Chokhopani generates 744 KW of electrical energy. There are two micro-hydro plants currently working and two are under construction.[16] Despite significant potential, solar and wind power generation have not been met with much success in Mustang as of 2017,[81][82] though Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC) maintained that, together with neighboring Manang District, Mustang has a potential of 2500 MW of wind electricity.[83] 853 households have solar home systems for lighting in 10 VDCs.[16]

Transport and Himalayan trade

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Jomsom Airport

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Jeep going from Jomsom to Muktinath

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Horse caravan in Upper Mustang

Upper Mustang of Nepal is on an ancient trade route between Nepal and Tibet exploiting the lowest 4,660 metres (15,300 ft) pass Kora La through the Himalaya west of Sikkim. This route remained in use until China's annexation of Tibet in 1950. China eventually decided to revitalize trade and in 2001 completed a 20 kilometres (12 mi) road from the international border to Lo Manthang.[84] Across the TAR border is Zhongba County of Shigatse Prefecture. China National Highway 219 follows the valley of the Yarlung Tsangpo River some 50 kilometres (31 mi) north of the border. Till today Manang and Humde are accessible only on feet or on horseback.[7]

Meanwhile, Nepal is building a road north along the Kali Gandaki River, to within 9 kilometres (6 mi) of Lo Manthang as of 2010. But, road-building from the south was inhibited by difficulties along the Kali Gandaki Gorge, and proceeded incrementally. In 2010, a 9 kilometres (6 mi) gap remained but the road was completed before 2015 and is suitable for high clearance and four-wheel drive vehicles. Currently, the easiest and only widely used road corridor, from Kathmandu to Lhasa—named Arniko Highway in Nepal and China National Highway 318 in the TAR—traverses a 5,125 metres (16,810 ft) pass. This is some 465 metres (1,530 ft) higher than Kora La. Lo Manthang is served 20 kilometres (12 mi) by unpaved road from a border crossing into Zhongba County of Shigatse Prefecture, TAR. This road continues about 50 kilometres (31 mi) from the border to China National Highway 219, which follows the valley of the Yarlung Tsangpo River.

Airlines / Destinations

Gorkha Airlines / Pokhara[85]
Nepal Airlines / Pokhara[86]
Simrik Airlines / Pokhara[87]
Sita Air / Kathmandu, Pokhara[88]
Tara Air / Pokhara[89]


Mustang is accessed by air through Jomsom Airport at Jomsom which is operating 50 kilometres (31 mi) south of China at the approximate boundary between the southern Thak and northern Lo sections of the valley since 1960s. Jomsom Airport is a STOL airport located on the bank of the Kali Gandaki River serving Jomsom and the Mustang District.[90][91][92] The airport resides at an elevation of 8,976 feet (2,736 m) above mean sea level.[90][92] It serves as the gateway to the Mustang District that includes Jomsom, Kagbeni, Tangbe, and Lo Manthang, and to Muktinath temple, which is a popular pilgrimage for Nepalis and Indians.[93]

The airport is capable of handling aircraft from the Nepalese Army Air Service. It has one asphalt paved runway designated 06/24 which measures 2,424 by 66 feet (739 m × 20 m).[91][92] There is a down slope of 1.75% up to about 418 feet (127 m) from the threshold of runway 06.[92] There are also scheduled flights from Kathmandu and daily flights between Pokhara and Jomsom during daylight hours in good weather.

The airport is available throughout the year but visibility is not adequate for visual flight rules (VFR) flight about 15% of the time. As the wind often prevents airport operation after midday, airlines schedule flights to Jomsom for the early morning when wind speeds are low.[94] In the 2013 movie Planes produced by DisneyToon Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures one of the stops in Wings Across the World race is Nepal where the Planes land in Mustang. There also are 5 helipads in Muktinath, Thotong Phedi, Ghermu, and Bahundanda.[7]

Tourism

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The sign says, "Now you are entering the restricted area of “Upper Mustang”. It is not allowed to proceed further from here without holding special trekking permit issues by the department of immigration, Kathmandu. You must have to register yourself at ACAP’S check-post and visitor’s information centre. Illegal entry to Upper Mustang will be illegal. Thank you. -- NTNC/ACAP" (Kagbeni)

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Guest House in Marpha

The kingdom was closed to foreigners, with rare exceptions, until 1992.[3] Professor David Snellgrove and Italian scholars Giuseppe Tucci and Michel Peissel travelled to Mustang in the 1950s. Their tales of a Tibetan kingdom in an arid and locked off from the rest of the world ignited the interest in Mustang District.[14] The first westerner in Mustang was Toni Hagen, Swiss explorer and geologist, who visited the Kingdom in 1952 during one of his travels across the Himalayas. French Michel Peissel is considered the first westerner to stay in Lo Manthang, during the first authorised exploration of Mustang in 1964.[95]

Lo was out-of-bounds for foreigners until 1992.[4] Although it is now open on a restricted basis to foreign travellers, tourism to the region is still strictly restricted and hard to access. The Nepalese government have introduced a surcharge for anyone trekking past Kagbeni, which marks the border of Upper Mustang.[14] Foreign tourists are required by the Nepalese Department of Immigration to acquire special permits, pay fairly steep fees of US$50 per day per person, and be accompanied by a liaison (guide) to protect local tradition and environment from outside influence.[4][3][96] Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP) check post/info posts are spread along the trails in Jomsom, Muktinath, Kagbeni and Lo Manthang.[7]

The ancestral isolation of Mustang helped to retain its ancient culture largely unviolated, and it survives as one of the last bastion of traditional Tibetan life.[4] In this ancient forbidden kingdom traditions have survived longer than in Tibet proper following its annexation by China.[4] The lower Mustang areas (much of Baragaon, Panchgaon, and Thak Sat Sae along the Annapurna Circuit) are among the most heavily trekked routes in Nepal.[3] The scenery of the trail ranges from forests of bright rhododendron fields to rocky cliffs and desert. The culture along the trekk is a rich combination of Hindu and Tibetan Buddhism. The trail's highest point is Muktinath at 3800 m, (a popular Hindu and Buddhist pilgrimage site for centuries. The Kali Gandaki Gorge is part of the popular trekking route from Pokhara to Muktinath. The gorge is within the Annapurna Conservation Area.[71]

Drinks, smokes and food

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Tea-house on Thorong La pass that serves butter tea

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Brandy from Marpha

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Canabis plants in Lete, in front of Dhaulagiri

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Momo and local beer served at a guest house in Kagbeni

Some of the top tourist attractions are Lomanthang, Muktinath, the Mustangi royal palace, Tibetan art and culture, and trekking in the Annapurna Circuit.[97] In addition to trekking routes through the Lo Kingdom (Upper Mustang) and along the Annapurna Circuit (lower Mustang), the district is also famous for the springs and village of Muktinath (a popular Hindu and Buddhist pilgrimage site), apples, and Marpha brandy made from a variety of fruits (pear, apricot, apple) produced on a farm managed by the Pasang Sherpa. There are safe water stations in Ghasa, Near Lete at ACAP museum, Kobang, Tukche, Marpha, between Jomsom and Dhapus Peak, Kagbeni and Muktinath. Thorung, Phedi, Letdar, Manang, Humde, Pisang, Chame, Bagarchhap, and Tal has the most famous view points in the district.[7]

Most tourists travel by foot over largely the same trade route used in the 15th century. Over a thousand western trekkers now visit each year, with just over 2000 foreign tourists in 2008.[43] August and October are the peak visiting months. On August 27, 2010, local youth leaders in Mustang threatened to bar tourists beginning October 1, 2010 due to the refusal of the Nepalese government to provide any of the $50 per day fee to the local economy. Visitation, however, continued uninterrupted beyond that date.[98] Now that upper Mustang is open to foreigners on a restricted basis, the Lopa have increased the number of horses kept in the hopes of benefiting from tourism. Trekkers in this and other restricted areas of Nepal are required by government regulation to porter in all food and fuel, thereby minimising environmental impact.[3]

According to the Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP), a total of 39,017 tourists visited Mustang District in 2016. According to Tulasi Dahal, the Jomsom Chief of ACAP, 15,478 of these visitors were from India alone. It shows a considerable rise in the number of tourists over the 23,272 who visited in the previous year. The highest number of tourists arrived in the month of May with 6,816 visitors and the lowest was recorded in January with 365.[97]

External links

• Traditional Political Systems of Mustang, Nepal
• Facts about mustang district
• Mustang - Central Bureau of Statistics
• Early travels & explorations in Mustang
• Last ruler of remote Buddhist kingdom dies in Nepal

Sky caves

• New Death Ritual Found in Himalaya—27 De-fleshed Humans
• The ancient mysteries of Mustang Caves
• A fortress in the sky, the last forbidden kingdom of Tibetan culture

Cultural transformation

• Modernizing Mustang: A Hidden Tibetan Kingdom Meets Its Future
• Mustang: A Kingdom on the Edge
• Road brings jeans, satellite TV to Himalayan Shangri-La
• Inside Nepal’s forgotten medieval kingdom

Languages

• Loke
• Bote
• Nepal Languages

References

1. http://ddcmustang.gov.np/ne-brief-introduction/
2. "National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report)" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-25.
3. Pasture Management, Indigenous Veterinary Care and the Role of the Horse in Mustang, Nepal
4. Mustang: The Last Lost Kingdom
5. Kaushik. "The mysterious caves of Mustang, Nepal". Amusing Planet. Retrieved 29 December2016.
6. Loba, Mustang in Nepal
7. Great Himalayan Trail: Preparatory Study
8. Principality of Mustang, Nepal
9. Xinhua News Agency. "Nepali deputy PM asks district "king" to step down". China View News. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
10. The Map of Potential Vegetation of Nepal - a forestry/agroecological/biodiversity classification system (PDF), Forest & Landscape Development and Environment Series 2-2005 and CFC-TIS Document Series, No.110., 2005, ISBN 87-7903-210-9, retrieved 22 November 2013
11. Shrestha, Mani R.; Rokaya, Maan B.; Ghimire, Suresh K. (2005). "Vegetation pattern of Trans-Himalayan zone in the North-West Nepal". Nepal Journal of Plant Sciences. 1: 129–135. Retrieved Feb 7, 2014.
12. Banerji, Gargi; Basu, Sejuti. "Climate Change and Himalayan Cold Deserts: Mapping vulnerability and threat to ecology and indigenous livelihoods" (PDF). Pragya. Gurgaon, Haryana, India. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
13. Transhumant Pastoralism in Yak Production in The Lower Mustang District of Nepal
14. Kingdom of Mustang
15. Peissel, Michel (October 1965). "Mustang, Nepal's Lost Kingdom". National Geographic. Retrieved 2017-02-10. high point of 4660 m at Kora La on the Mustang-TAR border, the lowest drivable corridor through the Himalayas linking the Tibetan Plateau via Nepal to the tropical Indian plains
16. Resource Mapping Report–2014, District Development Committee Mustang
17. Dilli Prasad Poudel, Livelihood and Common-Pool Resources, University of Bergen
18. Annapurna (1:100,000 map), Nepal-Kartenwerk der Arbeitgemeinschaft für vergleichende Hochgebirgsforschung Nr. 9, Nelles Verlag, Munich, 1993. Also see Google Earth
19. The Raja of La, for instance, continued to pay tithes to Lhasa until the 1950s. For more information about the historical connections between Tibet and Mustang, see Jackson 1978, Vinding 1988, and Ramble 1993 a and b.
20. Flagspot
21. Peissel, Michel (1992) [1967]. Mustang - A Lost TIbetan Kingdom (2nd ed.). Book Faith India, Delhi. pp. 227–31.
22. Sven Hedin's Transhimalaya (published 1909 by MacMillan & Co, Ltd, London), Vol II, pgs. 78-79 in the Chapter headed "A peep into Nepal"
23. Snellgrove, David (1989). Himalayan Pilgrimage, a Study of Tibetan Religion by a Traveller through Western Nepal (Second ed.). Boston & Shaftesbury: Shambhala.
24. Cowan, Sam (17 January 2016). "The curious case of the Mustang incident". The Record. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
25. "Chinese Troops Kill a Nepalese; 18 Captured in Reds' Raid Across Border -- 'Urgent' Protest Sent to Peiping". New York Times. 30 June 1960. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
26. Elleman, Bruce; Kotkin, Stephen; Schofield, Clive (2014). "China-Nepal Border". Beijing's Power and China's Borders: Twenty Neighbors in Asia. Routledge. p. 211. ISBN 9781317515654. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
27. 中华人民共和国和尼泊尔王国边界条约 [China-Nepal Border Agreement] (in Chinese). 1961-10-05 – via Wikisource.
28. China View news
29. "The Karmapa's Great Escape (December 28, 1999 – January 5, 2000)". Karmapa – The Official Website of the 17th Karmapa. Retrieved 2017-02-10. we were not discovered and arrived in Mustang, Nepal, on the morning of December 30, 1999
30. Crossette, Barbara (31 January 2000). "Buddhist's Escape From Tibet, by Car, Horse and Plane". New York Times. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
31. Murton, Galen (March 2016). "A Himalayan Border Trilogy: The Political Economies of Transport Infrastructure and Disaster Relief between China and Nepal". Cross-Currents E-Journal. ISSN 2158-9674. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
32. "中国边海防巡礼之昆木加哨所" [Tour of Chinese Border Guards and Coast Guards - Kunmuja Border Outpost]. chinamil.com.cn (in Chinese). Retrieved 2017-02-11. 西藏军区最西边的哨所——昆木加哨所
33. Last ruler of remote Buddhist kingdom dies in Nepal, The Star Online
34. Wild, windy and harsh, yet stunningly beautiful; The Sunday Tribune; April 21, 2002
35. Royal Ark
36. Finkel, Michael. "Sky Caves of Nepal". National Geographic. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
37. Bond, Anthony. "Mystery of the ancient kingdom discovered in Nepal where thousands of caves are carved 155ft off the ground". Daily Mail. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
38. BBC. "The ancient mysteries of Mustang's caves". BBC. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
39. Sharma, Gopal. "Explorers find ancient caves and paintings in Nepal". Reuters. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
40. Rahman, Maseeh. "Shepherd leads experts to ancient Buddha cave paintings". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
41. Owen, James. ""Shangri-La" caves yield treasures, skeletons". National Geographic. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
42. Shepherd leads experts to ancient Buddha cave paintings; Guardian Unlimited; May 4, 2007.
43. Gopal Sharma, Explorers find ancient caves and paintings in Nepal, Reuters, May 3, 2007, Accessed October 28, 2012
44. "Final District 1-75 Corrected Last for RAJPATRA" (PDF). Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development. MoFALD. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
45. "हेर्नुहोस्, तपाईं कुन गाउँपालिका वा नगरपालिकामा पर्नुभयो?". Setopati. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
46. "यी हुन् थपिएका गाउँपालिका र नगरपालिका (सूचीसहित)". Online Khabar. Retrieved 2017-06-16.
47. "स्थानीय निकाय भङ्ग, अधिकारसम्पन्न ७४४ स्थानीय तह क्रियाशील". सेतोपाटी. २८ फाल्गुण २०७३. Retrieved २८ फाल्गुण २०७३. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (help)
48. "The Panchayat System under King Mahendra".
49. Flexibility of Scope, Type and Temporality in Mustang, Nepal. Opportunities for Adaptation in a Farming System Facing Climatic and Market Uncertainty
50. J. Dixon and A. Gulliver, Farming Systems and Poverty: Improving Farmers' Livelihoods in a Changing World, FAO and World Bank, Rome and Washington DC, Italy and USA, 2001
51. A farming system is defined as "any level of unit(s) engaged in agricultural production as it is wedded in a social, political, economic, and environmental context". Ref: B.L. Turner and S.B. Brush, Comparative Farming Systems, p. 13, The Guildford Press, New York, USA, 1987
52. Donald A Messerschmidt, The Thakkali of Nepal
53. Who are the Thakkali, Indigenous Voice
54. The Bem-chag Village Record and the Early History of Mustang
55. Michael Vinding, The Thakali: A Himalayan Ethnography, page 359, Serindia Publications, Inc., 1998, ISBN 0906026504
56. Mustang District, Caravan Himalaya Adventure
57. http://www.ramanuja.org/sv/bhakti/archi ... /0045.html
58. "General Information about Muktinath".
59. Mittal, Sushil (2004). The Hindu World. New York: Routledge. p. 499. ISBN 0-203-67414-6.
60. Zurick, David (2006). Illustrated Atlas of the Himalayas. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. p. 153.
61. "Nepal Census 2001". Nepal's Village Development Committees. Digital Himalaya. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 15 November 2009..
62. People of Nepal
63. Mustang: The Forbidden Kingdom Archived 2007-06-30 at the Wayback Machine, Royal Mountain Travel, 2004, Accessed May 3, 2007.
64. Upper Mustang Trek Archived 2013-06-02 at the Wayback Machine, Osho World Adventure Pvt. Ltd., Accessed June 2, 2013.
65. Rajan Kathet, Yarlung, Nepali Times
66.The use of medicinal plants in the trans-himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal, BioMed
67. National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report)
68. 2011 Nepal Census, Social Characteristics Tables
69. Pawan Dhakal, Education is the most neglected service in two of Nepal’s most neglected districts, Nepali Times, 28 April 2017
70. Nepali art could benefit from Mustang, The Kathmandu Post
71. Nepal Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation website Archived 2009-07-11 at the Wayback Machine
72. Prithvi Man Shrestha; Jaya Bahadur Rokaya (24 March 2016). "Nepal, China rush to open Hilsa border". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 2017-02-10. Nepal has also given priority to opening this border point along with Kimathanka and Korala in Mustang.
73. Tripathi, Binod (8 July 2016). "'Korala border to open within a year'". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
74. Tripathi, Binod (19 Jun 2016). "China extends road up to Korala border". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
75. Mustang to supply 25,000 sheep and mountain goats for Dashain, my Republica
76. Apple production increases in Mustang, Republica
77. Report: September 2011, Tibet Archaeology
78. T.H. Aase, R.P. Chaudhary and O.R. Vetaas, Farming flexibility and food security under climatic uncertainty, Manang, Nepal Himalaya. Area 2010, 42, 228–238.
79. Sustainable Development Plan of Mustang, National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC)/Government of Nepal/United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), Kathmandu, Nepal, 2008.
80. Ammu Kannampilly (AFP), Road brings jeans, satellite TV to Himalayan Shangri-La, GMA News Online,July 18, 2016
81. Santosh Pokharel, Mustang starts generating electricity from wind, My Rebuplica, August 16, 2017
82. Nepal is saving the planet but not its own citizens, Kathmandu Tribune
83. Sameer Pokhrel, Nepal is saving the planet but not its own citizens, Kathmandu Tribune, August 31, 2017
84. "New highway divides isolated Buddhist kingdom of Mustang". Taipei Times. Taipei, Taiwan. AFP. May 19, 2007. Retrieved Dec 14, 2013.
85. "Destinations". Gorkha Airlines. Archived from the original on March 28, 2010. Retrieved 8 June2010.
86. "Schedule Effective from 15 May, 2010 to 30 October, 2010". Nepal Airlines. Retrieved 7 June2010.
87. "Simrik Airlines Flight Schedule". Retrieved 15 August 2016.
88. "Destinations". Sita Air. Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
89. Tara Air Destinations Archived 2016-08-22 at the Wayback Machine
90. Airport information for Jomsom, Nepal (VNJS / JMO) at Great Circle Mapper.
91. Jomsom Airport at AirportGuide.com
92. Final Report on the Accident Investigation of 9N-ABO at Jomsom Airport, on 16 May 2013
93. "Nepal plane crash: 11 Indians among 15 dead, Times of India 14 May 2012". Retrieved 14 May2012.
94. "NATIONAL AIRPORTS PLAN Current Situation and Diagnostic" (PDF). Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
95. Peissel, Michel [1967]. Mustang, a Lost Tibetan Kingdom, Books Faith, 2002
96. Nepal Trekking Permit Fees, TAAN Nepal, Accessed June 2, 2013.
97. Rastriya Samachar Samiti, 39,000 tourists visited Mustang in 2016, The Himalayan Times, January 12, 2017
98. Mustang to Bar Tourists
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Nov 30, 2019 12:18 am

Chen Li-an [Lu-an/Lu an]
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/29/19

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The Taiwan Connection

Soon after leaving Rumtek, Situ found that his ambition would take him far. Outside of the stuffy atmosphere of the Karmapa's cloister, Situ made friends easily. In the days when Tibetan lamas were still considered exotic by outsiders, Situ connected on a human level with spiritual seekers from both East and West. Former Rumtek Abbot Thrangu became Situ's mentor after the two left the Karmapa's monastery. Thrangu introduced his protege to people such as Taiwanese minister Chen Lu An who would provide valuable support to Situ to achieve his vision for his own palatial monastery and later, for the Karma Kagyu.

During the 1980s, Thrangu made several visits to Taiwan, a Buddhist stronghold where interest in Tibetan teachers was growing as rapidly as this Asian Tiger's booming export economy. It was well known among Tibetan lamas that the best fund-raising was to be had in the overseas Chinese communities of East and Southeast Asia and North America.

"In 1984, Thrangu Rinpoche came up with an idea to get money in Taiwan," said Jigme Rinpoche, Shamar's brother, a lama in his own right and the director of two large monasteries in France since the mid-seventies. Like Shamar, Jigme lived at Rumtek in the sixties and seventies. Now in his late fifties, the soft-spoken, baby-faced Jigme exudes an air of motherly care that seems ill-suited to controversy; Yet, he has been the most outspoken of Shamar's supporters in criticizing Thrangu's role.

"Thrangu Rinpoche chose a monk, he was called Tendar," Jigme said. "He left Rumtek with Thrangu Rinpoche in 1975 and followed him to his retreat place Namo Buddha in Kathmandu. Thrangu Rinpoche had the idea to present this Tendar as a high lama."

With specific instructions from Thrangu, the new "Tendar Tulku Rinpoche" went to Taipei with the credentials of a spiritual master, in order to teach and raise funds for Thrangu's work in Nepal and elsewhere. Jigme told me that "Thrangu Rinpoche asked his own monks in Taiwan, who knew that Tendar was merely an ordinary monk, to keep his secret and pretend that Tendar was a high lama." The monks in Taiwan went along with Tendar's masquerade until the following year when Tendar himself, apparently fearful of discovery, backed out of the scheme, but not before raising enough money to demonstrate the potential of this approach to his boss Thrangu Rinpoche.

Thrangu later elaborated on this strategy and reportedly went on to promote dozens of undistinguished lamas to rinpoches. "These lamas owed their new status and loyalty to Thrangu Rinpoche personally," Jigme explained. "Later, Situ Rinpoche followed his lead, recognizing more than two hundred tulkus in just four months during 1991, as we learned from our contacts in Tibet."

In 1988, while traveling in Taiwan, Thrangu met with Chen Lu An. "Mr. Chen approached Thrangu Rinpoche with a plan to raise millions of dollars for the Karma Kagyu in Taiwan," explained Jigme Rinpoche. In exchange for a percentage of donations, a kind of sales commission that would go to his own Guomindang party, Chen offered to conduct a large-scale fund-raising campaign. Chen asked Thrangu to convey his proposal to the four high lamas of the Karma Kagyu: Shamar, Situ, Jamgon, and Gyaltsab Rinpoches.

Together, according to Jigme -- who said the Rumtek administration received reports from a dozen loyal monks in Taiwan who heard about this plan from their devotees and other Tibetans on the island -- Thrangu and Chen worked out the details of a plan to raise as much as one hundred million dollars by finding a Karmapa and then touring him around Taiwan.

Beforehand, they would create interest with a publicity campaign announcing the imminent arrival of a "Living Buddha" and promising that whoever had the chance to see the Karmapa and offer him donations would be enlightened in one lifetime. On his arrival, the tulku would perform the Black Crown ceremony at dozens of Tibetan Buddhist centers and other venues on the island.

"With such a plan," Jigme said, "according to our monks on Taiwan, Mr. Chen assured Thrangu Rinpoche that he would be able to get between fifty and a hundred people to donate one million dollars each, along with hundreds of others who would give smaller amounts."

According to Jigme's sources, Thrangu asked Chen to keep the plan to himself. He promised Chen he would personally inform the Karma Kagyu rinpoches of their plan and Chen's offer to carry it out. However, when Thrangu returned to India, he did not share the plan with Shamar, Jamgon, or Gyaltsab, but only with Tai Situ. Situ was reportedly excited by the plan. "Soon after," Jigme explained, "Thrangu Rinpoche took Situ Rinpoche on a secret trip to Taiwan to meet with Mr. Chen."

"Together, the three worked out the details of a fund-raising tour for their future Karmapa. The plan was worked out at least four years before they announced Ogyen Trinley. Situ Rinpoche and Thrangu Rinpoche wanted to bring Gyaltsab Rinpoche into their plans, but they didn't think they could trust Jamgon Kongtrul Rinpoche." In any event, they were apparently certain that Shamar would not agree to participate and would spoil the plan, probably exposing it as he had exposed an earlier idea of Thrangu's, to take over the Karmapa's Kaolung Temple in Bhutan.

By 1973, the dozens of monks that Thrangu had brought into exile in 1959 still lingered at a refugee camp in northern India, in uncomfortable conditions. Thrangu had long sought his own cloister in which to house them. He set his eye on one of the Karmapa's monasteries in Bhutan for this purpose. Originally a gift of the grandmother of the current king, the Kaolung Temple was located within the campus of a large secondary school in eastern Bhutan.

Abbot Thrangu must have known that the sixteenth Karmapa would not willingly grant him control of the temple. But Thrangu apparently thought that if he offered his monks as "caretakers," that he could quietly place more and more monks there, eventually making control of the temple a fait accompli. Thrangu shared the whole scheme with Shamar, asking for his help. Thrangu must have thought that he could trust his former student. But he was wrong in this. Shamar immediately shared his former teacher's plan with with Topga, who had no choice but to inform the sixteenth Karmapa, thus earning Thrangu a rebuke from the sixteenth Karmapa.

"Soon afterwards, the abbot resigned his duties at Rumtek," Jigme said. "Ever since that, Thrangu Rinpoche behaved coldly towards Shamar Rinpoche. Therefore, according to our monks in Taiwan, Thrangu told Mr. Chen that under no circumstances should Shamar Rinpoche hear of their dealings."

Khenpo Chodrak and other lamas who managed Rumtek before Situ and Gyaltsab took over the monastery in 1993 have confirmed that they received similar information from monks in Taiwan at the time. Of course, even if Chen and Thrangu were planning to tour the Karmapa around Taiwan as a fund-raiser, we cannot know what they would have done with the donations. It is possible that they would have subsidized expanded Buddhist missionary work. It is also possible, as Jigme has suggested, that the money would have been used to build support for Situ and his allies among local politicians in Sikkim and elsewhere.

***

By mid-morning, a total crowd of more than a thousand of Tai Situ's supporters had assembled in the monastery's courtyard. A tense standoff began outside the main temple. The Rumtek monks responsible for the shrine room locked the entrance and refused to hand over the keys. Situ and Gyaltsab led a crowd to the temple, and sat down in front of the locked doors. They held incense and chanted Karmapa chenno (Karmapa hear me), the mantra of the Karmapas. Their followers clamored for action from behind them.

The Rumtek monks began to lose control over the situation. Soon, officers sent by the Sikkim chief of police began to intervene on the side of the aggressors. "This was crossing the line between church and state, which broke India's constitution," Shamar said. "We can only guess that Mr. Bhandari must have had a very strong incentive to take such a risk." Bhandari knew that New Delhi could have taken strong measures against him for breaching the constitutional wall between church and state, up to dissolving his government and putting him in prison. As it turned out, after the Rumtek takeover, the central government did initiate an investigation into Bhandari's role to determine if his Sikkim administration had unlawfully interfered in religious affairs.

Shamar's supporters have claimed that Bhandari probably received a payment as high as one million dollars from Situ and Gyaltsab, to send state police and security forces into Rumtek in response to an incident that the two rinpoches would provoke. The money came, allegedly, from Situ's Taiwanese supporter, former government official Chen Lu An. But the only evidence for this payment, aside from hearsay. is inferential: Shamar's followers theorize that for Bhandari to openly defy India's constitution by invading a religious center, and thus risk punishment from New Delhi, the chief minister must have been well rewarded. However, both newspaper reports and government investigators have documented that Chen Lu An delivered a payment of $1.5 million to Bhandari a few weeks after the Rumtek takeover.

According to Indian journalist Anil Maheshwari, Chen visited India between November 28 and December 4, 1993 to attend a meeting organized by Karma Topden. As we have seen Topden was a leader of Situ's Joint Action Committee in Sikkim and the father of the would-be Gyathon Tulku, rejected by the Rumtek administration in the eighties. Situ Rinpoche was also present at this meeting, and Shamar's supporters claim that this meeting was connected to Bhandari receiving a second payment from Chen for the chief minister's role in the takeover of Rumtek four months earlier, in August.2 The Indian government launched an investigation, and in January 1994, the Ministry of External Affairs in New Delhi banned Chen from re-entering India. [3]

***

In November 1999, Thaye Dorje accepted an invitation to make a tour of Southeast Asia. This would be his first trip abroad. He met with thousands of devotees at dharma centers in Singapore and Malaysia. But he almost did not make it into Taiwan, according to Ngedon Tenzin. Earlier, we encountered him as the senior monk-official at Rumtek who had his monk's robe wrapped around his neck by angry local supporters of Situ when he and Gyaltsab took over the Karmapa's cloister in August 1993. Since 2004, as we have seen, Ngedon has served as the general secretary of Thaye Dorje's labrang, the post held by Topga Rinpoche until his death from cancer in 1997.

"Our staff obtained a Taiwanese visa for Gyalwa Karmapa Thaye Dorje weeks before he was supposed to enter Taiwan. We used the diplomatic passport issued to him by the Bhutanese government," Ngedon said. "But the day before he was due to fly into Taipei airport, officials in the Foreign Ministry tried to stop His Holiness Karmapa from coming in because of a technicality."

Immigration officials noticed that his passport said that Thaye Dorje was born in Tibet. As a result of its strained relations with Beijing, the Taiwanese government required travelers born in China to obtain a special permit to enter the island nation. Only the timely intervention of one of Thaye Dorje's supporters in Taipei saved the trip. This devotee used his influence in the Foreign Ministry to convince the manager of the relevant office to remain open after normal closing time at five o'clock to process an emergency permit for Thaye Dorje. The tulku was able to obtain clearance and fly into Taipei the next day.

Ngedon suspects that Chen Lu An, who by this time was a former government official but one who still enjoyed influence in the tight-knit administration of the island nation, tried to block Thaye Dorje's entry into Taiwan. "Through our devotees in Taiwan" we heard that Mr. Chen had already lined up perhaps fifty people willing to pay one million dollars each to carry the box for the Black Crown and hand it to Ogyen Trinley during the Black Crown ceremony," Ngedon said.

Here we might recall that Jigme Rinpoche accused former Rumtek Abbot Thrangu of planning with Chen to tour the next Karmapa around the island to raise funds, as we saw in chapter 8. Now, it appeared that Chen had started to put a similar plan into action with Tai Situ.

According to Ngedon, Chen had even more Taiwanese pledged to pay five hundred thousand dollars each to hand Ogyen Trinley the so-called Body, Speech, and Mind Objects during the ceremony -- a stupa or sacred pagoda, a statue of the Buddha, and a text of Buddhist scriptures. "Mr. Chen had made commitments to Karma Kagyu lamas in Taiwan, as well as monasteries around the world, from Kathmandu to New York, to distribute these funds. If His Holiness Thaye Dorje came to Taiwan, Mr. Chen's plan would be spoiled. We heard that he was practically sleeping in front of the Foreign Ministry office to stop Karmapa Thaye Dorje from getting into Taiwan."

-- Buddha's Not Smiling: Uncovering Corruption at the Heart of Tibetan Buddhism Today, by Erik D. Curren


Image

Chen Li-an (Chinese: 陳履安; pinyin: Chén Lǚ'ān; born 22 June 1937 in Qingtian, Zhejiang, Republic of China), sometimes spelled Chen Lu-an, is an electrical engineer, mathematician and former Taiwanese politician.

Early life

The son of former Vice President Chen Tsyr-shiou, he earned his masters' and Ph.D. in mathematics from New York University. He had a close friendship with Wang Yung-ching, a respected businessman. Wang later appointed Chen the headmaster of the private Ming-chi Technology College which Wang owned; Chen held the position from July 1970 to February 1972.

Political career

Chen served as Minister of Economic Affairs from 1988 to 1991, Minister of National Defense from 1991 to 1993, and President of the Control Yuan from 1993 to 1995. He resigned his post, left the Kuomintang, and declared his candidacy for the presidency in September 1995 to express his open criticism of Lee Teng-hui's Mainland policy.

Lin Yang-kang originally considered Chen as his vice-presidential running-mate in the 1996 ROC presidential election. However, Chen chose to run for president himself (with Wang Ching-feng as his vice-presidential candidate). As Chen is a devoted convert to Tibetan Buddhism (he is ethnically Han), his campaign tour of the island featured a strong spiritual theme, projecting an image that some commented to be like an "ascetic monk". After losing his bid in the presidential election with the lowest vote among the four candidates, Chen announced that he would retire from politics.

1996 Republic of China Presidential Election Result
President Candidate / Vice President Candidate / Party / Votes / %
Lee Teng-hui / Lien Chan / Kuomintang / 5,813,699 / 54.0
Peng Ming-min / Frank Hsieh / Democratic Progressive Party / 2,274,586 / 21.1
Lin Yang-kang / Hau Pei-tsun / Independent / 1,603,790 / 14.9
Chen Li-an / /Wang Ching-feng / Independent / 1,074,044 / 9.9
Invalid/blank votes / 117,160
Total / 10,883,279 /100


Later, as part of his efforts to promote Tibetan Buddhism, he founded the Hwa-yu Foundation (化育基金會), of which he serves as president and his eldest son, Chen Yu-ting (陳宇廷), serves as director. Chen also organized charities to financially assist ethnic minorities in mainland China and Nepal. From 1996 to 1998, he visited the Mainland China three times, meeting once with Jiang Zemin, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.

While he still considered the Kuomintang a "rotten party",[1] Chen endorsed the KMT candidate Lien Chan in the 2000 ROC presidential election, believing that Lien was unlike the rest of the Kuomintang.

In January 2001, Chen re-joined the Kuomintang, because he thought both the party and Taiwan needed him.
[2] Since 2002 Chen and his family have been investing and running various business in mainland China, Nepal and Macau.

Chen's last public appearance was in the Pan-Blue Coalition's protests shortly after the 2004 ROC presidential election. He showed his support for Lien Chan and James Soong.

Personal life

He is married to Tsao Chin (曹倩). His daughter, Chen Yu-hui, is a businesswoman (director of ABN AMRO) and wuxia novelist ("Duō qíng làng zǐ chī qíng xiá";多情浪子痴情侠).

See also

• Politics of the Republic of China

References

1. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 January 2004. Retrieved 6 December 2003.
2. Lin, Chieh-yu (4 January 2001). "KMT exodus could cost party its majority". Taipei Times. p. 3. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Nov 30, 2019 4:35 am

The prince who wanted to save his kingdom: Jigme Singh Palbar Bista, Heir to a Himalayan dynasty
by Vanessa Dougnac
La Croix
November 29, 2917

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For the villagers of Mustang, Nepal, Jigme Singhe Palbar Bista remains their king. It is heir to a lineage that goes back to the XIV th century, at a time when the former Buddhist kingdom opens to the world.

The Crown Prince Jigme Singhe Palbar Bista, whom the villagers call "the King", savored in his palace a cup of po Cha, Tibetan tea salted with yak butter. Wearing an anorak and cap screwed on his head, he is the direct descendant of the great warrior Ame Pal who founded the kingdom of Mustang in 1380 and erected the fortress of Lo Manthang, in this Nepalese enclave of the high Tibetan plateau.

Nestled in a grandiose labyrinth of desert mountains, the last fortified capital of the Himalayas has passed through the centuries out of sight. Annexed by Nepal in 1790 for 100 pieces of silver and a horse, the Mustang kept the right to keep its monarchy and remained banned from foreigners until 1992. Since then, only a few hundred tourists visit the legendary country each summer, subject to a permit of 500 dollars (420 €). The kingdom has emerged at the dawn of XXIth century as an open-air museum, a medieval unspoiled Tibetan culture.

Today, "Jigme" is a king without a crown, in a valley upset by modernity. In 2008, a democratic regime overthrew the monarchy in Kathmandu. In Mustang, his uncle and adoptive father, King Jigme Dorje Balpar [Palbar] Bista, had to abdicate to limit himself to play a cultural role. Added to this is the first road built from the Chinese border, which will soon close the Mustang to the rest of the world. In the villages, jeeps and motorcycles make their appearance and men's dresses are bartered for jeans "made in China".

With the broad smile that often illuminates his face, Jigme Singhe Palbar Bista defines himself as "a simple Mustang man". And he finishes his tea, in a kitchen with cracked walls, in the heart of a crumbling and deserted palace. His father, the last king, died last December at the age of 86, leaving him as a legacy his palaces in ruins. And the blows of the spell did not help. The earthquake that devastated Nepal in 2015 damaged Lo Manthang's palace, and the large herd of royal yaks was decimated in an avalanche.

Residing in Kathmandu, Jigme Singhe Palbar Bista embodies the transition. Father of two, he married a noble of Tibetan origin after completing studies in political science. Breaking with the paternal style, he became both entrepreneur and Mustang cultural spokesperson. It still does justice in inheritance cases or land disputes. Because if some communist graffiti are drawn on the walls of Lo Manthang, the villagers maintain a great respect towards the royalty, guardian of their traditions.

Jigme learned to ride at the age of 7, but he also willingly accompanies his guests by helicopter to try to attract investment. He has just built a beautiful hotel in Lo Manthang. "I see all the villagers leaving the Mustang looking for work," he says. I would like the hotel to help create local jobs. "

In the meantime, he tries to promote education among a poor and rural population. Thanks to donations, he has set up 16 reception centers and an institution that supports 65 children. "My dream would be to see the new generation in school," he says. He also hopes to save his palaces. Two of them are abandoned and that of Lo Manthang has been consolidated in extremis thanks to the intervention of a German foundation. As for the monasteries, archaeological treasures, their restoration is faithfully ensured by the American Himalayan Foundation.

"But since 1992, the government has collected a lot of money on our backs by taxing tourists," says Jigme Singhe Palbar Bista. Where are bridges, hospitals, schools? Finally, the authorities build a road. It's good for development, but it's not good. "

In the immediate future, foreign trekkers who crisscross the steep paths with impressive teams of mules, porters, tents and cooks, are a little confused by discovering bulldozers in the heart of the mythical kingdom. "We must rethink our future, while having the fear of seeing modernity crumble our culture, admits the king. But I want to try, until my death, to help the Mustang. "
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Dec 01, 2019 2:36 am

Guild of St Raphael
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/3/19

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The Guild of St Raphael, founded in 1915, was a Christian organisation dedicated to promoting, supporting and practicing Christ's ministry of healing as an integral part of the life and worship of the Church. Originating from within the Anglican Communion, it expanded to include members from other Churches and became ecumenical in outlook. It was also international in scope with over one hundred branches throughout the world. The Guild took its name from the Book of Tobit, where Saint Raphael is the angel who helps Tobias find his way. In October 2015 the Guild merged with the Guild of Health - from which it had originally emerged - under the formal title of The Guild of Health and St. Raphael. The remainder of this article contains the text as it appeared before the merger. Information about membership and the publications Guild News and Chrism can now be found at http://www.gohealth.org.uk

Origins and history

Some Internet sources [1] place the founding of the Guild by some of the members of the Stella Matutina, including Robert Felkin. There is little documentary evidence available to support this assertion outside of the book by Francis X. King, (1989), and he asserts that the Guild rapidly became completely separate from any of the practices of Stella Matutina. The available evidence suggests it never was connected.

Recent minutes (published in Chrism, 2006) show that the driving personalities behind the foundation of the Guild in 1915 were a Miss Caroline Biggs, recorded as Secretary of the newly formed Guild, with the Reverend Canon R. P. Roseveare of St Paul's Deptford, recorded as its first Warden.


25 July 1901.

The Temple seems Astral, i.e. Transparent and the building is self luminous. The walls of the chamber form the circle and the points of the Pentagram touch them. I face the [E]ast, (i.e., the Eastern point, the water angle). On [the] Eastern Point of [the] Pentagram I see a downward pointing triangle with [a] dot in the centre (apex of triangle down). The triangle expands into a luminous Angelic figure with the sign of the triangle upon its forehead (The part of the walls appears to have dissolves or become transparent as the vision proceeded.) Two sides of the triangle seem to be produced to the two corners of Heaven in two luminous rays which seem to embrace a fourth part of the Universe including the Astral and regions above it. The Rays become wider as they ascend. Influences like waves of light, which form Angels, descend to the point and then ascend from the apex up [as] waves of light. The Angle which stands on the point is the personification of the Influences and Lord of that Quarter of the Universe. The Influences descend from the point in the Heavens as wings and the undulating waves ascend – the latter are in 3 bands coloured Rose, White and Golden. The waves seem subdivided to 7 by bands of colours which intermingle. Starting from the foot of the Angel (where [the] apex now is) and forming itself inside the large triangle is a circle. I hear the words, “Raphael, Giver of Light.” Symbols of the nature of Libra [x] are round the triangle. One seems like a horse shoe thus. [x] [Mals] a horseshoe also with a bar across the horse. The symbols are in light in [the] centre of [the] circle just above the heads of the Angels....

Raphael seems to rule the right hand [or] N]orth]-E[ast] angle, Michael left [or] Western angle, Gabriel lower East angle, and Auriel at bottom lower angle to it. Each is an embodied essence of a manifestation of the Deity.

-- The Enochian Experiments of the Golden Dawn, Enochian Alphabet Clairvoyantly Examined (Golden Dawn Studies No. 7, part of Florence Farr, by Wikipedia


In 1910 the Community of the Resurrection at Mirfield sent a mission of help to New Zealand, preaching and conducting retreats. One of the visiting priests was a Father Fitzgerald, whom Miss McLean had met in Britain, and she arranged for him to meet members of the Havelock prayer group. He agreed to be the director of their spiritual work from Britain. After a period of instruction, focussing on an esoteric approach to Christianity, Father Fitzgerald told the group that they had reached a level where personal instruction would be necessary, and he recommended a Dr. Robert Felkin for the task, who was the head of the Stella Matutina. Within a week the group had cabled £300 passage, supplied by Maurice Chambers and his father, Mason, and his uncle John, for Felkin and his family to visit New Zealand for three months. During this visit in 1912 Dr Felkin established the Smaragdum Thalasses Temple of the Stella Matutina, and later emigrated permanently to NZ in 1916, when he took up the day-to-day running of the Temple until his death in 1926.

-- Havelock Work, by Wikipedia


Sacramentalists held a high view of the place of the sacraments in the ministry of healing. Their theology made them sensitive to the interpenetration of the spiritual and the material worlds, whereby spiritual reality finds expression in a tangible or visual form. The Incarnation is the most comprehensive expression of such interpenetration.84 The incarnational principle has its counterpart in the sacraments of the Eucharist (wine and bread) and Baptism (water) and Unction (oil), the benefits of which become available when approached in the right manner, and engaged in sincere intention. When such conditions are met, then the due performance of the act is deemed normally to convey divine grace. Such a view offers a framework for the continuation of divine activity in healing with the conveyance of divine succor through anointing with oil and the laying on of hands.85 Evelyn Frost in her classic study of Christian healing from this sacramental/liturgical angle, expressed it with precision: “The sacraments are the means by which the nature of the old order becomes interpenetrated and hence transformed by [the new order]… The church, then, in Holy Unction, has been entrusted with a sacrament which exists primarily for the sick in body and mind.”86 At the Anglican Conference on “Spiritual Healing,” Father J.G. FitzGerald, Community of the Resurrection, Mirfield, Yorkshire, expressed the view that healing is “the extension of the Incarnate Life in the Church.”87 With this understanding the body of Christ, the incarnational dimension of the Christian message, with its acute sense of divine “presence,” played a central role in the High Church understanding of spiritual healing.

The Guild of St. Raphael was formed in 1915, when the High Church members of Anson’s Guild of Health withdrew after it sought to expand beyond its Anglican roots. Another sticking point was the Guild of Health’s commitment to the alignment of religion with medicine and psychology, while less emphasis given to sacramental grace. The Guild of St. Raphael accentuated healing as mediated through the priesthood and the sacraments, without undue regard of the claims of modern psychology and, unlike the Emmanuel movement, did not limit itself to functional disorders. Its declared object was to forward a healing ministry both “by sacramental means and by intercessory prayer, until the Church, as a whole, accepts Divine Healing as part of its normal work.” The Guild started under the patronage of the two Archbishops and thirty English diocesan bishops as well as twenty-five overseas bishops. It adopted three measures: To prepare the sick for all ministries of healing by teaching the need for repentance and faith; to make use of the sacrament of Holy Unction and the rite of Laying on of Hands for healing; to bring to the aid of the Ministry of Healing the power of intercession, individual and corporate, and the other spiritual forces of Meditation and Silence.88 The administration of Holy Unction was confined to the priesthood, and then only after careful preparation of the patient that included teaching on the nature of repentance and faith. The Laying on of Hands, not being a sacrament, could be administered by lay members of the Guild under the direction of a priest or member of the Guild, and with the approval of the bishop of the diocese.

That the issue of unction was a pressing one for some readers of Confidence is hinted at in an article published in 1922. A letter writer wanted to know, with reference to Jas 5:14, what “form of procedure” Boddy used when anointing with oil.89 Boddy acknowledged that “it is admittedly a help with some to have their anointing in Church,” thinking perhaps of those from a High Church background. He made reference to a booklet that enclosed an order of service for healing that he considered some might find helpful. The booklet was written by Herbert Pakenham Walsh (1871-1951_, the first Bishop of Assam, India, to whom reference was made above. It is of some relevance that Walsh was the son of Bishop Willian Pakenham Walsh. The Bishop’s second wife was Annie Frances Hackett, the daughter of the vicar of St. James’s, Bray, Co. Dublin. The second Mrs. Walsh was the sister of Thomas Edmund Hackett (1850-1939), who followed his father as incumbent of St. James. Thomas Hackett retired in 1903 but his spiritual journey was not complete. After a Keswick-type experience c. 1906, he attended the first Pentecostal Sunderland Conference in 1907. It is likely that he received his Spirit-baptism in the classical Pentecostal understanding. It is eminently probable that with the friendship of Boddy and Hackett, the latter would have drawn attention to his nephew’s booklet. It carried the title Divine Healing (1921), and ended with the sixteen-page text of “A Service of Anointing.” Whether Boddy used Walsh’s liturgy is not clear, though possibly not, because he confessed that he felt it “rather long.” Despite that, he was prepared to recommend it to the writer of the letter.

Boddy made it clear that for individuals seeking healing it was preferable, if the sufferer was physically able, to meet in the Vicarage and not in the church. Ceremonial propriety was deliberately downplayed to keep faith with his evangelical churchmanship: “No robes[,]…[t]he sick one kneeling perhaps at the dining room table.” A tiny bottle of olive oil was ready, though he felt the need to explain that “only half a dozen drops or so were used,” as if to underscore evangelical minimalism. The ministration of the sick person began with family and friends kneeling, and the elder standing and seeking God “for the promised Presence.” The Jas 5:13=16 passage was then read, followed by the supplicant making confession of sins (v. 16). On one occasion a sufferer’s “trouble instantly disappeared” after his/her confession was made. In Boddy’s account, the elder then

rebukes the sickness, and all the evil powers behind the disease, (Luke 4:39), next placing the sufferer under the Precious Blood for cleansing…. Also [for] protection from all evil powers and for victory (Rev. 12:11). Thus the sick one is prepared to receive the Blessed Quickening Spirit, the Lord, and Giver of Life and Health, the Holy Ghost Himself. [Then], pouring a few drops of olive oil into his left palm, the Elder prays that God will graciously sanctify the oil, and that He will use it as a channel of spiritual blessing to the sufferer for Christ’s sake …. Then with a finger of his right hand dipped into the oil, he touches the forehead in the ‘Name of the Lord,’ and then in the full name of the Trinity, placing his left hand with the oil in it on the head of the sufferer, with such oil as remains. As in Mk. 16:18, he lays on both his hands, and asks that the hands of Christ – the Pierced Hands – may also rest on the sick one to impart His Life …. Then he asks the person to thank God and praise, and praise.90


The act concludes with the Aaronic Blessing, with the patient still kneeling the elder again placed his hands upon the head of the believer.

The whole procedure clearly was liturgically structured, sensitive to scriptural guidance and vindication, strongly affirming of the merits of the shed blood and the power of the Spirit, with an allusion to the sacramental efficacy of unction, expressed in the prayer that “God will graciously sanctify the oil, and He will use it as a channel of spiritual blessing.” The article was written in 1922, but he let it be known that the procedure outlined above had been followed since 1892. The more Pentecostal elements in the ceremony come out in the call for the patient “to thank God and praise and praise,” an act assuredly prolonged and volumetrically vibrant. Such was the sense of blessing on these occasions that he could report that “some at this service have received a Baptism of the Holy Ghost, when they came for healing.”

Two episodes in Boddy’s life are recorded in Confidence, where contact was made with healers with Anglo-Catholic sympathies, viz., John Maillard and Dorothy Kerin.

-- Divine Healing: The Years of Expansion, 1906–1930: Theological Variation in the Transatlantic World, by James Robinson


By 1920, under Canon Roseveare's Wardenship, the fourth Annual Report gives the membership as 19 priest members, 26 priest associates, 2 lay members and 248 lay associates. The Guild had already penetrated into Africa, Canada, New Zealand, India and China.

A letter to the Times, published in 1933 by Bishop W.W. Hough, Warden of the Guild, notes that "The movement has grown. There are now over 2,000 lay members, and 300 priest members who are practicing spiritual healing in most of the dioceses in the land."

Works

Its main emphasis is on the actual practice of the healing ministry through its local branches, and this is where its strength lies. Its members observe a simple rule of prayer, study and work for this ministry. Their aim is always to promote Christ's ministry of healing - looking not just for physical healing, but for the healing of the whole person.

The Guild looks too for the healing of communities and of God's creation itself - taking into account those many social and political factors which cause 'dis-ease' in our broken and divided world.

Prayer for healing is at the heart of the Guild's work, as are the sacraments of healing - anointing and the sacramental act of the laying on of hands. But members make use of other healing actions as well - the ministry of listening and silence, counselling, informal liturgies and simple symbolic actions. The Guild has in the past gained a high-profile for its study and recognition of exorcism. In 1960, the Rev. Henry Cooper, Chaplain to the Guild, argued that successful exorcists are people who know something about psychiatry and work well with doctors. They resort to bell, book and candle only when psychiatrists have given up [2].

The Guild also engages in extensive theological education and research. In particular through its periodical, Chrism, mentioned below.

In this and in all its activities the Guild has always stood for the closest co-operation with members of the medical profession and others engaged in the work of healing.

Periodical

The Guild publishes a half-yearly periodical, Chrism, in which it endeavours to explore different aspects of the healing scene. Past editions have dealt with diverse topics such as Children and Healing, Touch in a Fearful Society, Animals and Healing, A Theology of Health for Today, M.E. (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome), Dementia, Genetic Engineering and Healing, Alcohol and Substance Abuse.

Wardens

• 1915 Reverend Canon R. P. Roseveare of St Paul's Deptford
• 1959 Reverend F. S. Sinker, Vicar of Offchurch, diocese of Coventry

Bibliography

• Guild of St. Raphael: The Ministry of Healing. Booklet, 2005
• Henry Cooper, Deliverance and Healing: The Place of Exorcism in the Healing Ministry, London: Guild of Health and Guild of St. Raphael, 1972
• The Priest's Vade Mecum. A Manual for the Visiting of the Sick, 1945, edited by Guild Warden Rev. T.W. Crafter, put forth by the Literature Committee of the Guild of St Raphael.
• Christian Healing: History and Hope by Mary Theresa Webb, 2002
• Psychology and Life by Leslie D. Weatherhead, 1935
• Guild News, March 2006

External links

• Guild Website
• Time Article on Exorcism, 1960
• Guild Website, St Brelade, Jersey
• A fresh look at a remarkable document: Exorcism: The report of a commission convened by the Bishop of Exeter
• The Bishop's Advisory Group on the Church's Ministry of Healing, Bristol
• Book review on Chrism Autumn 2002 number on Dementia
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Celebrating Asian Art, March 12-19, 2020
by Asia Week New York
Accessed: 11/30/19

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Vase. China. Qianlong period and mark, ca.1755. Philadelphia Museum of Art: Gift of Mrs. Henry W. Breyer, Sr., 1962, 1962-84-9.

2019 EXHIBITIONS & SPECIAL EVENTS

EXHIBITION: THROUGH MAY 5, 2019
A Complete Map of the World: The Eighteenth-century Convergence of China and Europe
This small, focused exhibition uses one of the rare prints of Ma Junliang’s map of the world, Jingban tianwen quantu, as a starting point to consider the interaction between China and Europe during the 18th century.

EXHIBITION: THROUGH AUGUST 4, 2019
M.F. Husain: Art and the Nation
The twelve massive panels of Lightning, painted as the backdrop for Indira Gandhi's Congress Party public rally in 1975, each ten feet high and five feet wide, are littered with visual references to India and the 1970s, and though absent visually, to Indira Gandhi.

THROUGH AUGUST 4, 2019
Reza Aramesh: 12 noon, Monday 5 August, 1963
The exhibition focuses on Aramesh’s series of limewood sculptures that were inspired by seventeenth-century Spanish Christian iconography of martyred saints.

EXHIBITION: THROUGH AUGUST 4, 2019
Masterpieces of the Asia Society Museum Collection
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A Celebration of Asia Week
by Asia Society, New York
asiasociety.org
Accessed: 11/30/19

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Asia Society New York headquarters on Mar. 10, 2009. (Elsa Ruiz/Asia Society)

NEW YORK, March 10, 2009 - Asia Society inaugurated Asia Week in New York City with a lavish new gala benefit event, "A Celebration of Asia Week." Tony-Award winning actor BD Wong served as Honorary Chair for the evening, which featured chic cocktail receptions, an elegant Collectors' Dinner for patrons, and a festive "Bangkok Nights" supper club with dancing for young patrons and music curated by DJ Serebe.

Guests were treated to special performances by the innovative jazz saxophonist Rudresh Mahanthappa with guitar virtuoso Rez Abbasi and tabla star Dan Weiss, as well as Hao Jiang Tian, the world-renowned basso cantante and pioneer in the world of opera since the early 1990s. They also enjoyed private access to the Museum's exhibitions Asian Journeys: Collecting Art in Post-war America, Yang Fudong: Seven Intellectuals in a Bamboo Forest, and Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. Sotheby's Henry Howard-Sneyd led a lively auction of several extraordinary journeys to exotic Asian locales, the highlight of which was the "Thailand Dream Excursion" crafted by longtime supporters Joan and Edward Marcus.

All guests of the Celebration received a Golden Pass, an exclusive insider's ticket to nearly 20 private gallery previews, curator-led tours, auction house viewings, lectures, and other exceptional events during Asia Week in New York City. Held March 11 through 20, 2009 Asia Week attracts top dealers and collectors of some of the most important Asian art on the market from around the globe.

Guests at the Celebration of Asia Week benefit included: Honorary Chair BD Wong, Co-chairs Janet Jacobs and Susan Shin, and Young Patrons co-chairs Laura Begley, Ida Liu, and Diana Sheng Hsu. Thai Consul General Piriya Khempon and his wife, Rattanprapa Disavantana, attended. Also in attendance were: Princess Yang Chen of Sikkim, Betsy and Edward Cohen, Lois Collier, Scott Delman, Inger McCabe Elliot, Pam Gale, James Lebenthal, Pooneh Mohazzabi, Cynthia Hazen Polsky and Leon Polsky, Janet Ross (Mrs. Arthur Ross), Paul Tagliabue, Vivienne Tam, and Marie-Helene Weill, Wesley Wang, Ali Weinberg, Arden Wohl, and Victoria Wyman. George Hu, Governor Pattersons' Assistant for Asian Affairs, attended and presented a proclamation of Asia Week from the Governor.

Attire for the evening was Asian chic/national dress. The Asia Society's Garden Court was transformed into a Bangkok Nights Supper Club, transporting guests with modern Thai décor including serpentine cushion benches and lounge furniture, illuminated end tables and highboys and an 84" round ottoman with leopard bottom and fuchsia top stationed in the lobby. The atrium's weeping podocarpus trees were festooned with hanging Thai tapestries, and luxurious woven Thai silk fabrics and masks were used as accent pieces throughout the space. The Thai-inspired cuisine included green curry dishes, pad thai, and green papaya with chili lime sauce. Guests also enjoyed Thai beer and Thai wines, made possible by referrals from the Tourist Authority of Thailand and Thai Consulate.

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Asia Week 2018 at Asia Society
A complete list of events

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(Detail) Vajriputra Arhat. 17th century. Possibly Kham (East Tibet). Tradition: Gelug. Pigments on cloth. MU-CIV/MAO “Giuseppe Tucci,” inv. 926/759. Courtesy of the Museum of Civilisation-Museum of Oriental Art “Giuseppe Tucci,” Rome

Asia Week New York, March 15–24, 2018, is a collaboration among museums, galleries, auction houses, Asian art specialists, and enthusiasts hosting exhibitions, previews, and special programs throughout the city, attracting visitors from around the world.

Exhibitions

Unknown Tibet: The Tucci Expeditions and Buddhist Painting
Through May 20, 2018
Recently restored Tibetan paintings collected by Giuseppe Tucci during his expeditions to Tibet on first-time view in the United States. Now in the collection of the Museum of Civilisation-Museum of Oriental Art “Giuseppe Tucci,” Rome.

In Focus: An Assembly of Gods
Through March 25, 2018
This exhibition features a large and marvelously detailed Chinese pantheon painting featuring a range of Buddhist, Daoist, Confucian, and popular Chinese deities.

Masterpieces from the Asia Society Museum Collection
Through March 25, 2018
A selection of the finest artworks from the renowned Asia Society Museum Collection.

AsiaStore Events

Scholars Rock From the Collection of Kemin Hu
Thursday, March 15 – Saturday, March 24; 11 a.m. – 6 p.m. and Fridays until 9 p.m.
Appearance by Kemin Hu on Friday, March 16 from 12 p.m to 4 p.m., discussion at 2 p.m.

AsiaStore presents newly acquired scholars’ rocks — cherished by the Chinese since the Tang Dynasty and sought after for generations — from the collection of Kemin Hu.
Asian Art Collector’s Book Review
Thursday, March 15 – Saturday, March 24; 11 a.m. – 6 p.m. and Fridays until 9 p.m.

For more information about Asia Week New York 2018, and details about other events throughout the city, visit: http://www.asiaweekny.com
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