Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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School of Radiant Living
by Hilary Stace
New Zealand History
Accessed: 12/1/19




Radiant Living magazine
A spread from Radiant Living, October/November 1949.

The School of Radiant Living was a movement active in New Zealand from the late 1930s until the late 1980s. Founder Dr Herbert Sutcliffe taught a holistic philosophy of physical, psychological and spiritual health. The School of Radiant Living had its international headquarters at Peloha in Havelock North from the early 1940s.

Sutcliffe, an English-born psychologist, was involved with the internationally popular Radiant Health Club movement in Australia before founding the first School of Radiant Living in Providence, Rhode Island, USA, in 1931. During the Second World War he migrated to New Zealand. A total of 36 schools (24 overseas and 12 in New Zealand) were eventually established.

By Hilary Stace

Herbert Sutcliffe

Herbert Sutcliffe, 1886-1971
Herbert Sutcliffe, founder of the Radiant Living movement in New Zealand

Herbert Sutcliffe was born in Louth, Lincolnshire, England, on 19 October 1886, the son of Elizabeth Easter Allen and her husband, John James Sutcliffe, an engineer. A lifelong love of singing came from involvement in the local cathedral choir. He worked as a telegraph engineer before migrating to Australia, apparently to work on new telegraph cable projects. On 5 June 1915, at Brunswick, Melbourne, he married Hilda Gertrude Wilson; they were to have two children. He maintained his interest in singing by conducting choirs, and was also an active Freemason.

Fascinated by the 'new' psychology of Freud, Adler, and particularly Jung, Sutcliffe joined the Australian Psychological Society, editing its magazine and acting as president from 1925 to 1930. By 1931 he had gained a doctorate in psychology. He introduced the society to Jungian ideas on the importance of personal counselling incorporating a metaphysical element.

Radiant Health and the International New Thought Alliance

Sutcliffe also edited the Radiant Health Messenger, which had an international readership, and lectured on healthy living on behalf of Radiant Health Clubs. Through this magazine he came to the notice of the United States-based International New Thought Alliance (INTA) and was invited to their 1931 conference in Cleveland, Ohio. An umbrella group of those following alternative spirituality or liberal Christian paths, the INTA also had links to the American 19th-century transcendentalist writers and incorporated the latest psychological theories. After being well received at the conference Sutcliffe studied for his doctorate in divinity at an INTA-affiliated Divine Science Church in New York State.

Radiant Living

Throughout this time Sutcliffe was developing the philosophy that he was soon to teach in his Schools of Radiant Living. He argued that each person has a spirit or soul and for successful psychoanalysis the relationship between mind and soul must be considered: fear, hate and feelings of inferiority, the causes of personal suffering, could not be overcome without facing the invisible world of soul, spirituality and the afterlife. By considering people as threefold beings - body, mind and spirit - he believed individual health and happiness could be achieved by changing diet, physical habits, attitudes and spiritual awareness, and by following the 'laws of nature'.

The first Sutcliffe School of Radiant Living was founded in Providence, Rhode Island, in 1931. During the next two decades Sutcliffe set up 36 schools - 24 in the United States, Canada, Hong Kong and Australia, and 12 in New Zealand. As he spent much of his time on lecture tours he provided detailed organisational requirements for each school and trained students to become teachers, resulting in a uniform structure and format. Annual Christmas schools provided refresher courses and regular council meetings were also held. The organisation of the schools, and associated tasks such as editing the magazine and arranging Sutcliffe's lecture tours, were mostly done by dedicated women.

Sutcliffe in New Zealand

Sutcliffe visited New Zealand in 1938. His mentor, the American New Thought activist and Radiant Health Club publicist Phoebe Marie Holmes, had visited earlier. Lecture tours by alternative health advocates found a ready audience in New Zealand, and by 1938 there was a Radiant Theatre in Christchurch, apparently financed by the baker Thomas Edmond. The rising sun symbol used by Edmond's company was popular with such movements, and was also used by Sutcliffe. One of New Zealand's first Schools of Radiant Living was founded in Auckland in 1938, with Gertrude Hillary as secretary. Her son Edmund was briefly Sutcliffe's assistant and also trained as a Radiant Living teacher.

Havelock North and Peloha

By 1942 Sutcliffe had made Havelock North, with its history of alternative spirituality and pleasant climate, his home and the international headquarters of the movement. He bought the large Quaker-built house Swarthmoor and renamed it Peloha (for Peace, Love and Harmony). For the next four decades it hosted summer schools, conferences and Easter observances, and also functioned as a commercial health retreat. Hilda Sutcliffe died in Australia in 1944, and on 25 February 1955 Herbert married his secretary, Phyllis Evelyn Farley.

Radiant Living thrived in New Zealand from the 1940s to the 1970s. Many schools built or purchased their own premises, and annual banquets, often attended by mayors, MPs and other dignitaries, celebrated the founding of each school. At a meeting in Wellington in the 1940s Prime Minister Peter Fraser apparently suggested that if more people followed Radiant Living health principles he would be closing hospitals rather than opening them. Public events included fitness displays by members.

The Eliminating Diet

Nutrition took a prominent place in Sutcliffe's teachings. To remove toxins from the body and mind the Eliminating Diet was commonly prescribed for a variety of ailments. The dietary theories of Radiant Living, based on food-combining and a high intake of fresh fruit, vegetables and their juices, foreshadows much later mainstream dietary advice. Correct breathing, exercises to improve eyesight, and singing and music were also encouraged. All were an embodiment of the philosophy that by following 'laws of nature' ailments could be cured and quality of life improved.

A colourful personality

Herbert Sutcliffe, usually dressed in a white suit, was a charismatic platform speaker, even known to turn cartwheels on stage in his 60s. For formal occasions at Peloha he wore a Masonic-style royal-blue gown. He taught that dark colours had negative associations and encouraged members to bring bright colour into their lives. He gave personal consultations to thousands of people, pioneered the use of wire recordings, offered postal courses and ran a mail-order business in herbs and vitamins. He was interested in homoeopathy, vitamin therapy and motivational sports psychology, and took a personal interest in the achievements of local sportsmen and women.

Radiant Living after Sutcliffe

Sutcliffe died at Havelock North on 27 October 1971, survived by Phyllis and the children of his first marriage. Phyllis ran Peloha until her death in 1981, and it was sold in the late 1980s. A large endowment was made to Victoria University of Wellington to establish the Herbert Sutcliffe scholarships for disadvantaged students in 1989. Other educational institutions, such as the Hohepa homes, also benefited.

Although sometimes authoritarian and overbearing, Sutcliffe lived simply at Peloha with the staff. Even those who fell out with him over various issues still respected his teachings. In 1998 one of his earliest texts, How to re-make your life (1931), was republished by Sally Fallon and the Ascended Master Teaching Foundation. Although no formal schools remain, the holistic teachings of Herbert Sutcliffe are still followed by many in New Zealand and overseas.

A biography of Herbert Sutcliffe can be found on the DNZB website


The teachings of Radiant Living

The teachings of Radiant Living were complex and involved holistic psychological, physical and spiritual health. Several textbooks and a large series of taped lectures are held in the Beaglehole Room at the Victoria University of Wellington Library. The Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, also holds some of Sutcliffe's books as well as a run of the magazine Radiant Living which chronicles issues of importance.

According to Herbert Sutcliffe, good mental health was the key to better physical health. He taught that nature cures and can be assisted to cure not only with fresh, naturally grown food but with mental analysis. He advocated personal counselling and held individual sessions wherever he went. Disease could be the result of fear, feelings of inferiority or hate, products of the human mind which cause problems all over the world. But anyone could be assisted back to normal life and health, according to Sutcliffe, by understanding the psychosomatic (the power of the mind) and psycho-cosmology (the power of the spirit). Tools such as affirmations would eliminate fears and retrain the mind. Music, singing and public-speaking were also important.

Sutcliffe devised his own stages of human development and also identified physical body types. He was particularly influenced by Jung's belief in the importance of the soul. He believed that one must acknowledge the existence of the soul, 'the invisible which can be visualised as a (radiant) source for good within us all and which outlasts our physical life on earth'.

Diet was of particular importance and the cleansing Eliminating Diet was frequently advocated. To keep the body healthy the 16 cell elements had to be kept in harmony. He believed fruit and vegetables were 'alkaline forming' and should form 80% of the diet and the remaining 20% should be 'acid forming' proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Vitamins and minerals were also important. Food should be colourful as well as healthy and organic and a good salad (a mainstay of diet) should contain at least 6 colourful fruits and vegetables.

Physical fitness was an important tenet of Radiant Living and each school taught a variety of exercises including ones for better breathing and eyesight.
Displays by members were a feature of publicity drives.

Radiant Living's spirituality was based on a liberal Christianity and rituals such as the 'rebirth' at Easter were important celebrations. People were seen as part of God - with unlimited positive potential. Evil was 'man-made - a result of fear and anxiety' - and could therefore be overcome.

These teachings were practised and promoted by the hundreds of people who qualified as Accredited Teachers of Radiant Living and ran the 36 schools around the world. Radiant Living teaching foreshadowed much of what is now labelled [url]'new age'.[/url]


Peloha - the home of Radiant Living

'On yonder hill you will pitch your tent' prophesied the daughter of Golden Dawn founder Robert Felkin to Herbert Sutcliffe, as she pointed towards Te Mata Peak. It was about 1940 and Sutcliffe was staying at her home, Whare-Ra, in Havelock North. Within a couple of years he had bought a large house, Swarthmoor, on the slopes of Te Mata Peak and set about turning it into a health retreat and teaching centre. He named it Peloha for the first two letters of the words PEace, LOve, HArmony.

The house had a fascinating history. It was built in 1904 for John Holdsworth and his wife, Margaret Chambers. Margaret's family were major landholders in the area and prominent Quakers. The large two-storeyed house in extensive grounds was named Swarthmoor after the English Quaker headquarters. It later belonged to a relation by marriage, Walter McLean. Sutcliffe bought the house with 26 acres from McLean's estate. Peloha's grounds, with its large citrus orchards and organic gardens, made the property almost self-sufficient. Areas of the property were named after other Radiant Living schools, such as the Providence Lawn. Radiant Living Summer Schools, Easter services and October Council Conferences were held at Peloha and for additional income it also functioned as a health retreat.

By the late 1980s, after the deaths of Sutcliffe and his wife, Peloha was no longer economic to run and was sold to Weleda, makers of herbal and homeopathic medicines in the Steiner tradition. Proceeds went to Victoria University of Wellington for the Herbert Sutcliffe Scholarships and other educational groups such as the local Hohepa School for children with special educational needs.

The Havelock work

Havelock North and 'The Havelock work'

Havelock North has long been a centre of 'alternative thought' or liberal theology in New Zealand. Some 19th-century landowning families like that of John Chambers were Quakers (members of the Society of Friends). Quakers have a long history of challenging established religious traditions and promoting gender, race and class equity, and religious tolerance. Other families in the Havelock North area were liberal Anglicans who encouraged mysticism and ceremony in their rituals.

Into this setting came an English medical doctor and High Mason, Robert Felkin and his family. The Felkins were Theosophists and brought with them an English movement, the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. They set up the Smaragdum Thalasses temple of Stella Matutina in their house, Whare-Ra (House of the Sun) which was specially built for them by architect J.W. Chapman-Taylor.

Theosophy, popularised in the late 19th century by Russian mystic Helena Blavatsky and others such as English feminist socialist Annie Besant (who visited New Zealand), was a philosophical belief system which incorporated Eastern ideas of karma, reincarnation and nirvana, and was commonly known as spiritualism. The Felkins also incorporated the colour therapy ideas of Rudolph Steiner (1861-1925) and other ideas of Anthroposophy which Steiner founded in 1913 when he broke with Theosophy.

This liberal philosophical/spiritual grouping of like-minded people was known as the 'Havelock Work'. Their journal The Forerunner, (1909-14), discusses philosophical questions and documents gentle rituals, village fetes and Shakespearean pageants. The Havelock Work involved a large number of Havelock North residents mainly from the wealthy, educated and powerful landowning class.

Bessie Spencer and Amy Hutchinson were involved with the Havelock Work.
They lived a few miles south at Rissington but probably attended meetings at the Quaker-owned home Swarthmoor (which many years later became Peloha). Originally intending to set up a school, they turned their attention instead to empowering rural women and are remembered as the founders of the Country Women's Institutes.

Steiner ideas were also popular. It is not surprising therefore that the first Steiner and Hohepa Schools in New Zealand, incorporating the educational philosophies of Steiner, began at Havelock North.

After Felkin's death, his wife and others decided to buy land at Taupo and the Tauhara Centre there is their legacy. However, the elderly Harriot Felkin and her step-daughter were still living in Whare-Ra when Herbert Sutcliffe came to stay with them about 1940.

Origins of Radiant Living

An international movement

Radiant Living emerged from the American-based philosophical movement New Thought, which gained popularity in the late 19th century. The 'father' of New Thought was Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (1802-1866) who practised what he believed was the healing method of Jesus. Other names associated with New Thought are Mary Baker Eddy (who founded Christian Science), the transcendentalist writers Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, the theologist Levi H. Dowling (who wrote about the Aquarian Age and the Gospels), and Ernest Shurtleff Holmes. There were also links with the new European psychological theories, particularly those of Carl Jung, and nutritional ideas later publicised by Gayelord Hauser and others.

The International New Thought Alliance was formed in 1914 as an umbrella organisation for the many parts of the New Thought movement and is still active today. It had a significant influence on the development of the 12-point plan now used in treating addictions.

New Thought activist Phoebe Holmes travelled the world lecturing about Radiant Health Clubs. She advocated an Eliminating Diet which in a later form was to become an essential part of Radiant Living. She apparently visited New Zealand in the 1920s and 1930s. Christchurch's Radiant Theatre was built at this time by Thomas Edmond of baking powder fame. In Australia Herbert Sutcliffe, who was also active in the Radiant Health Club movement, came to her attention. Through her influence he was invited to attend the 1931 New Thought Alliance conference in Ohio. He went from there to complete a doctorate of divinity at a Divine Science Church (part of New Thought) in New York State and later that year set up his first School of Radiant Living in Providence, Rhode Island.

Edmund Hillary

Edmund Hillary and Herbert Sutcliffe
Edmund Hillary (left) and Herbert Sutcliffe, 1940

Edmund Hillary and Radiant Living

The Auckland School of Radiant Living was founded in 1938, and this was one of the first of these schools established in New Zealand. Everyone in the Hillary family was a member. Gertrude, Edmund Hillary's mother, was the first secretary and reported the early progress of the school's hall in the international Radiant Living magazine.

The atmosphere of the hall was distinctly associated with beauty and peace. After the first meeting, the vibrations were wonderful, and now the effect on any member entering the Hall is instantly spiritual and uplifting.

The ladies' dressing room is furnished with a large, handsome mirror, a special large electric toilet light over the mirror; 120 nickel-plated coat-hooks, and a long seat. The windows are curtained similarly to those of the Hall. The men's dressing room is similarly furnished, but smaller, with 90 hooks. The kitchen is furnished with a large gas stove (a gift), 120 cups and saucers of excellent china, benches and shelves. A servery opens direct into the hall.

All members were thrilled with the rooms, and their care of them, and their supply of a plentitude of beautiful fresh flowers in glass vases testify to their happiness in their new home. The school programmes have been dynamic and have created wonderful impressions on members and visitors. We will write you a special note shortly when we reach our 200th member. The new members are not being especially sought by us, they seek the school as a result of the school teaching.

The Hillary family was involved until the mid-1940s. The Wellington school was started in 1942 after a summer school at Marsden College. Percy Hillary reported:


A Wonderful Success.

New Zealand Bright sunshine, tempered by cool sea breezes, extensive views of hills and valleys clothed with trees and colourful gardens in which were set a myriad of pretty homes, created a most attractive environment for the Radiant Living International Summer School of 1940–41. Marsden College, in which the school was held, comprised a group of large red brick buildings of the latest design, relieved with the greenery of creepers, and set in spacious grounds that glowed with the colours of flowering shrubs and plants, with the great splashes of red of the native tree (Pohutukawa), and with various shades of green of many lovely trees. The lawns were very attractive in their bright green, and a large swimming pool and tennis courts, with playing fields, provided opportunity for recreation.


The many students arrived full of eagerness and enthusiasm to be given a radiant, smiling greeting by the Founder, Dr Herbert Sutcliffe, and Miss Dorothy Law, International Secretary … The daily menus were a revelation (in catering) to the students, comprising wonderful salads and tempting dishes prepared from fresh fruits, vegetables, eggs, etc. delivered daily. There were oranges, lemons, peaches, apples, cherries, raspberries, plums, lettuce, watercress, parsley, spring onions, carrots, parsnips, radishes, red beets, string beans, broad beans, vegetable marrow, baked potatoes etc. The meals were served in a spacious dining hall and were enlivened by spontaneous outbursts of happy, rhythmic songs in which all joined, creating a bright atmosphere of happiness and good comradeship.

Doctor Sutcliffe … gave his complete course of lessons in four series: Health Course, Character Types, Mental Science, and Psycho-Cosmology. The thoroughness, patience, depth of knowledge, logic and soundness of the Founder were easily discernable in these marvellous instructional courses. The students had to work, and work hard, in their endeavour to assimilate this veritable feast of knowledge. In the Physical Culture Class nineteen of the students passed a test by touching their toes (from lying-on-back position) 150 times, amongst them being Mrs. G., a lady 72 years of age. She was given a great ovation.

One of the first New Zealand schools of Radiant Living was established in Auckland. Its secretary was Gertrude Hillary who reported progress early in 1939. For a few years the whole Hillary family was involved with Radiant Living. A son, Edmund, aged 19 in 1939, trained as an Accredited Teacher of Radiant Living and was briefly Herbert Sutcliffe's assistant.

From Radiant Living Aug/Sept 1953:

Radiant Living, Hillary and Mount Everest
By Herbert Sutcliffe, D.Sc.

As Edmund Hillary (now Sir Edmund) is inevitably linked with the top of Mount Everest, so is Radiant Living connected with Sir Edmund. We all know that the past assuredly qualifies the present and influences the future. Therefore a few records of his association with Radiant Living Teaching, will enable us to glimpse the influence it has had upon him and thus upon his subsequent exploits.

Enthusiastic Student

In 1938, when Sir Edmund was 19 years of age he attended my classes in Auckland. He became an inaugural member of the School formed in September of that year. In fact all the members of the Hillary family, his father, mother, sister and brother enrolled as members, became teachers and subsequently four of the family sat for and passed the examination for Associated Teacher of Radiant Living. (A.T.R.L. degree).

Sir Edmund threw himself wholeheartedly into the Radiant Living, studies and it is interesting to note his remarkable success by the gaining of the following marks in his 1941 A.T.R.L. examination:

• Health: : 98%
• Everyday Psychology: 98%
• Psycho-Cosmology: 100%
• Letters to Students: 100%
• Physical Exercises: 91%
• Lecturing Ability*: 100%

*Inferiority-cause and cure It seems to be a tribute to this man, now world renowned, and to the Teaching itself that he became so highly qualified as a Teacher and that the value of the Science and Philosophy came to him at a very important period of his life, when he was 19 years old. For five years, from 1938 to 1943, he was closely associated with the Auckland School, as also were the other members of his family. I am glad to have on record the many times they testified to the fact that Radiant Living came into their lives bringing harmony and understanding to each member of the family and the family as a whole just when it was most needed.

Campaign Assistant

Father Percy Hillary was so appreciative that he requested me to take Edmund with me on lecture campaigns because he could not think of anything better for Edmund's future. I readily agreed to this and Edmund commenced as my assistant during the Gisborne Campaign in 1940. A photograph of the two of us was taken at that time. This link was unfortunately interrupted by war service. Therefore, as Teacher, and for a time, Secretary of the Auckland School, and as my campaign assistant, it can he rightly said that Radiant Living fashioned his life during his 20s and gave him a physical, psychological and philosophical background which took him to the top of Mount Everest. These facts as to the influence Radiant Living had upon his life may not interest the man in the street, but Radiant Livers will surely be interested in the link between Radiant Living and Mount Everest.

I Can

You will note that in 1941 his test lecture was entitled "Inferiority Cause and Cure". I remember his closing exhortation theme was "I can!" The subject of his extempore lecture was "Intuition and Inspiration". His closing declaration was "Nothing can prevent us from reaching our desired goal". It is not difficult to imagine that when he subsequently interested himself in mountain climbing, the letter to Students in the booklet Series 5 entitled "Service from the Heights" which was a par of his studies gave him a vision, an ideal and an aim.

Sir Edmund Hillary describes his own experience

‘A Dr Herbert Sutcliffe was in town and he was talking about a new philosophy - Radiant Living. My family and I went along to his first lecture and were very impressed. It was a combination of Christianity, psychology and health and fitness and it just seemed to fit our needs at the time. We became members and when Dr Sutcliffe introduced training classes I qualified first in the course and became a Teacher of Radiant Living. I gained quite a lot from Radiant Living - I learned to speak confidently from the platform and even started thinking more freely on important topics. But finally my enthusiasm faded, as it always seemed to do. I developed the conviction that I was trying to escape from ordinary life, so I reluctantly withdrew from the organisation.’

From Hillary, E. View from the Summit, Doubleday, London, 1999

The eliminating diet

Two Eliminating Diets


As recommended by: Herbert Sutcliffe, D.Sc.,Ph.D., F.F.Sc. (Lond.)

To obtain physical fitness, it is of vital importance that the right mental attitude should accompany the food diet to enable the emotions, nerves and glands to co-operate with the healing processes of the body.

The following 'Mental Diet' will be found of wonderful benefit to ensure success.


General Instructions:

For ten days, make a resolution to eliminate all fears from your mind. Affirm the following three times each, for the said ten days:

• MORNING: 'Thank God I am alive. I harmonise myself with the foods that cleanse and heal the body. I fill my mind with LIFE, LOVE and POWER.'
• TEN AM: 'All anxiety is passing from me to the Infinite Life, and congested body-cells are being dispersed NOW.'
• NOON: 'I maintain my PEACE WITH THE UNIVERSE, and with the vitalising processes of RADIANT LIVING.'
• FOUR PM: 'I unfold all problems and place them in the hands of DIVINE WISDOM. They are no longer mine. Nature is adjusting my physical body for perfect health".


Commence the day with the following Mental and Physical exercise:

Feet apart, toes gripping the floor, inhale and hold breath; clench hands, stretch left hand above head at an angle to correspond with 1 on the clock, while right hand, clenched, is stretched down to correspond with 7 on the clock. Look up, with head leaning towards left hand. Affirm with positive voice: "Thank God I am ALIVE!!!" Exhale and relax.

Then reverse the position, and stretch the clenched right hand above the head to correspond with 11 on the clock, with left hand at an angle to correspond with 5 on the clock. Breathe and affirm as before, and relax.

Repeat the exercise three times



INSTRUCTIONS: Read carefully.

The following menu is a scientific method of eating abundantly of foods calculated to impregnate the blood with vital health. It frees the tissues of mucus, toxic poisons and congested cells. Cold, catarrh, asthma, bronchitis, liver troubles, intestinal and stomach troubles, constipation, blood pressure and many other diseases can be eradicated by taking this wonderful menu of vital foods.

SPECIAL NOTE: For the specified period (except where specially stated) entirely refrain from eating proteins, i.e. meats, fish, eggs, peas, beans, lentils, poultry, cheese and etc., and carbohydrates, such as bread, biscuits, scones, cakes, potatoes and all sweets. Do NOT drink tea, coffee, cocoa, milk or any makes of soft drinks.

Endeavour to drink 2 quarts of the potassium broth each day. This, together with the fruit juices, will supply the body with the liquids required.

Symptoms, such as dizziness and temporary weakness are food signs that the diet is assisting the blood to cleanse the body of uric acid, congestion and mucus. Persevere, and they will pass away. Eat all you can of the right foods.


This menu consists of TWELVE CITRUS FRUITS - 6 oranges, 3 grapefruit and 3 lemons - taken every day for ten days, (for special cases a longer period may be necessary), together with salads, VEGETABLES and other FRUITS. Remember, No Additions are to be made to the Eliminating Menu. This is not a process of elimination through starvation.

The time stated hereafter for meals is an approximate time and can be adjusted to suit each person's requirements.

It is advisable to keep these fruit juices separate.

Clean the teeth and rinse the mouth well.

Half an hour before breakfast. 2 glasses of warm lemon water, (juice of half a medium sized lemon to a tumbler full of water.)


• 8.30 a.m. Breakfast: Juice of 3 good sized oranges or substitute (see below). Add yolk of one egg on first and alternate days.
• 9.30 a.m. One hour later: One whole grapefruit, or ¼ pint cocktail as substitute
• 10.30 a.m One hour later: Drink 1 ½ pints hot potassium broth. Eat broth vegetables if possible for roughage. Include two teaspoonfuls wheatgerm and two teaspoonsful alfalfa (if available).
• 12.00 noon: Another lemon drink, as before.
• 12.30 p.m. Lunch: 1 pint potassium broth; a salad of 6 to 10 fresh raw vegetables (grate root vegetables finely). Dressing of lemon juice, honey and olive oil. Also 1 cubic inch cheese on second and alternate days. One apple or other sub-acid fruit.
• 2.00 p.m: Three oranges or ¼ pint cocktail as substitute.
• 3.00 p.m. one hour later: One whole grapefruit or ¼ pint cocktail as substitute.
• 4.00 p.m. one hour later: If feeling hungry, eat any of the following fruits - apples, apricots, cherries, pears, peaches or other sub-acid fruits. (Not bananas.)
• One half hour before dinner: Lemon drink, as before
• 6.30 p.m. Dinner: 1 ½ pints potassium broth, add wheatgerm and alfalfa. Also 3 or 4 steamed or 'wilted' vegetables (roots and greens, not potatoes). Dessert: four or five prunes and juice (no cream), or fresh fruit. No nuts.
• Supper: One whole grapefruit, or ¼ pint cocktail as substitute.
• Last thing at night: To ensure full bowel movements take one or two teaspoonsful of the cleansing food.

If salt is desired, use only vegetable or celery salt.

The vegetables to be used for lunch and dinner can be chosen from: celery, carrots, spinach, lettuce, cucumbers, cabbage, parsley, sorrel, onions, watercress, cauliflower, radishes, spring onions, asparagus and tomatoes either cooked or raw, but NEVER USE flour or milk gravies on any vegetable.


Take equal parts of the following vegetables finely chopped or put through the mincer: About 2 cupfuls each of spinach, onions, celery, carrots,tomatoes; one quarter cup of parsley. Add 2 quarts of cold water and place over a suitable flame to boil in 20 minutes, then simmer slowly for 20 minutes. Flavour with either asparagus, carrot tops, marmite, beet tops, turnip tops or green pepper. DO NOT USE cabbage. Season with vegetable salt or celery salt. (If fresh vegetables quite unobtainable, tinned goods may be substituted.)

ALTERNATIVE: Make 1 quart of Potassium Broth. Take 1 pint at morning period and 1 pint at evening period. For lunch drink half a pint of cocktail. (See substitute.)

SUBSTITUTES: Breakfast: 1 medium to large apple, mild, grated or 'snitzled', 3 prunes and 1 dessertspoonful wheat-germ. (Add one beaten egg yolk as directed.)

COCKTAIL: Two parts of carrot juice and one part each of the following, spinach, beetroot, tomatoes, celery with a little lemon or apple juice to flavour, and vegetable salt. Stir well.

Sour oranges may be substituted for grapefruit.


To ensure thorough elimination through the bowels, make up the under-mentioned cleansing food to take before retiring. The bowels must work at least twice a day or the poisons will be re-absorbed into the system. Take one or two teaspoonsful.

One half pound of the following:

Dates, prunes, seeds raisins, figs. Put the fruit through a mincer and mix. Add 3 tablespoonsful of senna powder, also 4 tablespoonsful of black molasses or treacle.

Mix all very thoroughly, adding more of the molasses if the mixture is too dry. Bottle in air-tight jars. A tablespoonful of glycerine will help keep it moist, but it is not essential.

AFTER having taken the ELIMINATING DIET be careful to gradually return to a balanced diet. Reduce the quantity of fruit, vegetables and broth, adding 2 pieces of whole-wheat bread, butter, honey, olive oil, cream and egg yolks. Then, in general, let proteins, carbohydrates and fats be 20% of the total dietary.


Salad recipes

Making radiant salads

From Radiant Living Dec/Jan 1958-59


Crisp, Rejuvenating and Radiant with Life

Colour, beauty, exquisite artistry find joyous expression in the Art of Salad Making. The homemaker who serves salads so deliciously and artistically tempting that the family cannot resist is thereby blessing all with the glorious gift of health.

Cheese and Carrot

Serve Cottage Cheese or Cream Cheese rolled in grated carrot, on nests of lettuce, or watercress with Radiant French Dressing.

Sutcliffe French Dressing-Equal parts lemon juice and olive oil, with honey and vegetable salt to taste.

Stuffed Tomato Salad

Scoop out as many tomatoes as servings. Place shell in a bed of tender spinach, and fill with finely chopped celery, shredded cabbage, chopped apples and nuts. Garnish with parsley and serve with dressing.

Apple and Cheese Salad

• 4 red sweet Apples (unpeeled)
• Cream Cheese

Core and cut apples in ½ inch slices. Spread cream cheese thick between slices, arrange on bed of lettuce or watercress, and garnish with shredded beet or carrot.

May Salad

• 6 slices Fresh Pineapple
• 6 Strawberries
• 1 large Orange
• Sprigs of fresh mint
• 1 Banana
• Honey Salad Dressing

Individual plates-Place slice of pineapple on sprigs of mint. On this place a slice of orange, then a layer of banana discs, and on top a strawberry. Pour over the salad dressing. Let stand in a cool place for an hour before serving.

Further information

This web feature was written by Hilary Stace and produced by the team.


The following biographies related to this topic can be found on the Dictionary of NZ Biography website,

• Herbert Sutcliffe
• John Chambers
• J.W. Chapman-Taylor
• Bessie Spencer
• Amy Hutchinson

Other links:

• New Thought
• International New Thought Alliance
• Divine Science


Ellwood, R., Islands of the dawn: the story of alternative spirituality in New Zealand, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1993

Hillary, E. View from the Summit, Doubleday, London, 1999

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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Dec 01, 2019 8:54 am

New Thought
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/1/19



The New Thought movement (also Higher Thought)[1] is a movement which developed in the United States in the 19th century, considered by many to have been derived from the unpublished writings of Phineas Quimby. There are numerous smaller groups, most of which are incorporated in the International New Thought Alliance.[2][3] The contemporary New Thought movement is a loosely allied group of religious denominations, authors, philosophers, and individuals who share a set of beliefs concerning metaphysics, positive thinking, the law of attraction, healing, life force, creative visualization, and personal power.[4]

New Thought holds that Infinite Intelligence, or God, is everywhere, spirit is the totality of real things, true human selfhood is divine, divine thought is a force for good, sickness originates in the mind, and "right thinking" has a healing effect.[5][6] Although New Thought is neither monolithic nor doctrinaire, in general, modern-day adherents of New Thought share some core beliefs:

• God or Infinite Intelligence is "supreme, universal, and everlasting";
• divinity dwells within each person, that all people are spiritual beings;
• "the highest spiritual principle [is] loving one another unconditionally... and teaching and healing one another"; and
• "our mental states are carried forward into manifestation and become our experience in daily living".[5][6]

William James used the term "New Thought" as synonymous with the "Mind cure movement," in which he included many sects with diverse origins, such as idealism and Hinduism. The teachings of Christian Science are in some ways similar to Quimby's teachings. Its founder, Mary Baker Eddy, was a student and patient of Quimby's but she later disavowed his influence on her Christian Science.


William James, in The Varieties of Religious Experience, described New Thought as follows:

...for the sake of having a brief designation, I will give the title of the "Mind-cure movement." There are various sects of this "New Thought," to use another of the names by which it calls itself; but their agreements are so profound that their differences may be neglected for my present purpose, and I will treat the movement, without apology, as if it were a simple thing.

It is an optimistic scheme of life, with both a speculative and a practical side. In its gradual development during the last quarter of a century, it has taken up into itself a number of contributory elements, and it must now be reckoned with as a genuine religious power. It has reached the stage, for example, when the demand for its literature is great enough for insincere stuff, mechanically produced for the market, to be to a certain extent supplied by publishers – a phenomenon never observed, I imagine, until a religion has got well past its earliest insecure beginnings.

One of the doctrinal sources of Mind-cure is the four Gospels; another is Emersonianism or New England transcendentalism; another is Berkeleyan idealism; another is spiritism, with its messages of "law" and "progress" and "development"; another the optimistic popular science evolutionism of which I have recently spoken; and, finally, Hinduism has contributed a strain. But the most characteristic feature of the mind-cure movement is an inspiration much more direct. The leaders in this faith have had an intuitive belief in the all-saving power of healthy-minded attitudes as such, in the conquering efficacy of courage, hope, and trust, and a correlative contempt for doubt, fear, worry, and all nervously precautionary states of mind. Their belief has in a general way been corroborated by the practical experience of their disciples; and this experience forms to-day a mass imposing in amount.[7]


Main article: History of New Thought


The New Thought movement was based on the teachings of Phineas Quimby (1802–1866), an American mesmerist and healer. Quimby had developed a belief system which included the tenet that illness originated in the mind as a consequence of erroneous beliefs and that a mind open to God's wisdom could overcome any illness.[8] His basic premise was:

The trouble is in the mind, for the body is only the house for the mind to dwell in [...] Therefore, if your mind had been deceived by some invisible enemy into a belief, you have put it into the form of a disease, with or without your knowledge. By my theory or truth, I come in contact with your enemy, and restore you to health and happiness. This I do partly mentally, and partly by talking till I correct the wrong impression and establish the Truth, and the Truth is the cure.[9][10]

During the late 19th century, the metaphysical healing practices of Quimby mingled with the "Mental Science" of Warren Felt Evans, a Swedenborgian minister.[citation needed] Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science, has sometimes been cited as having used Quimby as inspiration for theology. Eddy was a patient of Quimby’s and shared his view that disease is rooted in a mental cause. Because of its theism, Christian Science differs from the teachings of Quimby.[11]

In the late 19th century, New Thought was propelled by a number of spiritual thinkers and philosophers and emerged through a variety of religious denominations and churches, particularly the Unity Church and Church of Divine Science (established in 1889 and 1888, respectively), followed by Religious Science (established in 1927).[12] Many of its early teachers and students were women; notable among the founders of the movement were Emma Curtis Hopkins, known as the "teacher of teachers", Myrtle Fillmore, Malinda Cramer, and Nona L. Brooks;[12] with many of its churches and community centers led by women, from the 1880s to today.[13][14]


See also: List of New Thought writers

New Thought is also largely a movement of the printed word.[15]

Prentice Mulford, through writing Your Forces and How to Use Them,[16] a series of essays published during 1886–1892, was pivotal in the development of New Thought thinking, including the Law of Attraction.

In 1906, William Walker Atkinson (1862–1932) wrote and published Thought Vibration or the Law of Attraction in the Thought World.[17] Atkinson was the editor of New Thought magazine and the author of more than 100 books on an assortment of religious, spiritual, and occult topics.[18] The following year, Elizabeth Towne, the editor of The Nautilus, published Bruce MacLelland's book Prosperity Through Thought Force, in which he summarized the "Law of Attraction" as a New Thought principle, stating "You are what you think, not what you think you are."[19]

These magazines were used to reach a large audience then, as others are now. Nautilus magazine, for example, had 45,000 subscribers and a total circulation of 150,000.[15] One Unity Church magazine, Wee Wisdom, was the longest-lived children's magazine in the United States, published from 1893 until 1991.[20] Today, New Thought magazines include Daily Word published by Unity and the Religious Science magazine, Science of Mind, published by the Centers for Spiritual Living.

Major gatherings

The 1915 International New Thought Alliance (INTA) conference – held in conjunction with the Panama–Pacific International Exposition, a world's fair that took place in San Francisco – featured New Thought speakers from far and wide. The PPIE organizers were so favorably impressed by the INTA convention that they declared a special "New Thought Day" at the fair and struck a commemorative bronze medal for the occasion, which was presented to the INTA delegates, led by Annie Rix Militz.[21] By 1916, the International New Thought Alliance had encompassed many smaller groups around the world, adopting a creed known as the "Declaration of Principles".[12] The Alliance is held together by one central teaching: that people, through the constructive use of their minds, can attain freedom, power, health, prosperity, and all good, molding their bodies as well as the circumstances of their lives. The declaration was revised in 1957, with all references to Christianity removed, and a new statement based on the "inseparable oneness of God and Man".[12]


The chief tenets of New Thought are:[22]

• Infinite Intelligence or God is omnipotent and omnipresent.
• Spirit is the ultimate reality.
• True human self-hood is divine.
• Divinely attuned thought is a positive force for good.
• All disease is mental in origin.
• Right thinking has a healing effect.

Evolution of thought

Adherents also generally believe that as humankind gains greater understanding of the world, New Thought itself will evolve to assimilate new knowledge. Alan Anderson and Deb Whitehouse have described New Thought as a "process" in which each individual and even the New Thought Movement itself is "new every moment". Thomas McFaul has claimed "continuous revelation", with new insights being received by individuals continuously over time. Jean Houston has spoken of the "possible human", or what we are capable of becoming.[23]

Theological inclusionism

The Home of Truth has, from its inception as the Pacific Coast Metaphysical Bureau in the 1880s, under the leadership of Annie Rix Militz, disseminated the teachings of the Hindu teacher Swami Vivekananda.[24] It is one of the more outspokenly interfaith of New Thought organizations, stating adherence to "the principle that Truth is Truth where ever it is found and who ever is sharing it".[25][failed verification] Joel S. Goldsmith's The Infinite Way incorporates teaching from Christian Science, as well.

Therapeutic ideas

Divine Science, Unity Church, and Religious Science are organizations that developed from the New Thought movement. Each teaches that Infinite Intelligence, or God, is the sole reality. New Thought adherents believe that sickness is the result of the failure to realize this truth. In this line of thinking, healing is accomplished by the affirmation of oneness with the Infinite Intelligence or God.[citation needed]

John Bovee Dods (1795–1862), an early practitioner of New Thought, wrote several books on the idea that disease originates in the electrical impulses of the nervous system and is therefore curable by a change of belief.[citation needed] Later New Thought teachers, such as the early-20th-century author, editor, and publisher William Walker Atkinson, accepted this premise. He connected his idea of mental states of being with his understanding of the new scientific discoveries in electromagnetism and neural processes.[26]

While the beliefs that are held by practitioners of the New Thought movement are similar to many mainstream religious doctrines, there have been concerns raised among scholars and scientists about some of the views surrounding health and wellness that are perpetuated by the New Thought movement. Most pressing is the New Thought movement’s rejection of empirically supported scientific theories of the causes of diseases. In scientific medicine, diseases can have a wide range of physical causes, from abnormalities in genes and in cell growth that cause cancer, to viruses, bacteria, and fungi that cause infections, to environmental toxins that can damage entire organ systems, human physical diseases are caused by physical issues.[27][28][29] While it has been empirically supported that the psychological and social health of a person can influence their susceptibility to disease (e.g., stress can suppress immune function which increases risk of infection),[30] mental states are not the cause of human disease, as is claimed by the New Thought movement.

Equally concerning is the New Thought movement’s emphasis on using faith and mental states as treatments for all human disease. While it has been supported that the use of relaxation therapy and other forms of alternative health practices are beneficial in improving the overall well-being of patients suffering from a wide variety of mental and physical health conditions (e.g., cancer, post-traumatic stress disorder), these practices are not effective in treating human disease alone, and should be undertaken in conjunction with modern medical therapies that have empirical support.[31] This rejection of scientifically supported theories of disease and disease treatment is worsened by the New Thought movement’s assertion that mental states, attitudes, and faith in New Thought are the sole determinants of health.

The New Thought movement has received criticism akin to that levied against the holistic health movement that in claiming that sickness is caused by a person’s attitudes, mental states, and faith, it is easy to place blame on patients for not adopting a correct attitude, thought processes, and/or lifestyle.[32] Blame can have powerful psychological effects – with stress and isolation seen in victim blaming being the largest issues that arise and the most concerning in terms of effect on patients’ health.[33] Further, holding beliefs that health and disease is controlled by faith in a higher power can create an external locus of control (i.e., believers may feel as though they themselves cannot prevent disease, and that any illness or disorder that they encounter is an act of the higher power’s will). This external locus of control can create learned helplessness in believers which has been shown to exacerbate mental and physical health conditions via several mechanisms – including reduced incidence of help-seeking behaviour.[34] Overall, the New Thought movement's position on the etiology and treatment of disease is not empirically supported.


New Thought publishing and educational activities reach approximately 2.5 million people annually.[35] The largest New Thought-oriented denomination is the Japanese Seicho-no-Ie.[36] Other belief systems within the New Thought movement include Jewish Science, Religious Science, Centers for Spiritual Living and Unity. Past denominations have included Psychiana and Father Divine.

Religious Science operates under three main organizations: the Centers for Spiritual Living; the Affiliated New Thought Network; and Global Religious Science Ministries. Ernest Holmes, the founder of Religious Science, stated that Religious Science is not based on any "authority" of established beliefs, but rather on "what it can accomplish" for the people who practice it.[37] The Science of Mind, authored by Ernest Holmes, while based on a philosophy of being "open at the top", focuses extensively on the teachings of Jesus Christ.[38] The American Christian Church International and its theological school, the Arnulf Seminary of Theology, are also deeply influenced by the ideology of the New Thought movement.[39]

Unity, founded by Charles and Myrtle Fillmore, identifies itself as "Christian New Thought", focused on "Christian idealism", with the Bible as one of its main texts, although not interpreted literally. The other core text is Lessons in Truth by H. Emilie Cady. The Universal Foundation for Better Living, or UFBL, was founded in 1974 by Johnnie Colemon in Chicago, Illinois after breaking away from the Unity Church for "blatant racism".[40]

See also

• Apotheosis
• Grace Mann Brown
• Christian Science
• Divinization (Christian)
• Idealism
• Iyanla Vanzant
• Ralph Waldo Emerson
• Emmet Fox
• Charles F. Haanel
• Napoleon Hill
• Law of attraction
• Joseph Murphy (author)
• New religious movement
• Panentheism
• Prosperity theology
• Ralph Waldo Trine
• Uell Stanley Andersen
• Religious Science
• The Secret: 2006 film and book
• Theosophy
• Transcendentalism
• Universalism
• Wallace Wattles
• Christian D. Larson


1. Dresser, Horatio Willis (1919), A History of the New Thought Movement, TY Crowell Co, p. 154, In England the term Higher Thought was preferred at first, and this name was chosen for the Higher Thought Centre, the first organization of its kind in England. This name did not however represent a change in point of view, and the movement in England has been similar to the therapeutic movement elsewhere.
2. Melton, J. Gordon, Jerome Clark & Aidan A. Kelly. New Age Almanac; New York: Visible Ink Press (1991); pg. 343. "The International New Thought Alliance, a loose association of New Thought institutions and individuals (approximately 350 institutional members), exists as a voluntary membership organization [to advance New Thought ideals]."
3. Conkin, Paul K. American Originals: Homemade Varieties of Christianity, The University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, NC (1997); pg. 269. "An International New Thought Alliance still exists, with offices in Arizona, a periodical, and around 200 affiliated societies, some of which still use the label 'church'".
4. Lewis, James R; Peterson, Jesper Aagaard (2004), Controversial New Religions, p. 226.
5. Declaration of Principles, International New Thought Alliance, retrieved 2008–09 Check date values in: |accessdate= (help).
6. "Statement of beliefs", New Thought info, retrieved 2008–09 Check date values in: |accessdate= (help).
7. James, William (1929), The Varieties of Religious Experience, New York: U Virginia, pp. 92–93[permanent dead link].
8. "Phineas Parkhurt Quimby". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009. Retrieved Nov 16,2007.
9. Phineas, Quimby (2008). "Christ or Science". The Quimby Manuscripts. Forgotten Books. p. 183. ISBN 1-60506-915-9. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
10. "The Quimby Manuscripts". New Thought Library. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
11. ‘Quimby’s son and defender said categorically, “The religion which [Mrs. Eddy] teaches certainly is hers, for which I cannot be too thankful; for I should be loath to go down to my grave feeling that my father was in any way connected with ‘Christian Science.’...In [Quimby’s method of] curing the sick, religion played no part. There were no prayers, there was no asking assistance from God or any other divinity. He cured by his wisdom.” (Dresser, Horatio W., ed. The Quimby Manuscripts. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company Publishers, 1921. - p436). "Christian Science is a religious teaching and only incidentally a healing method. Quimbyism was a healing method and only incidentally a religious teaching. If one examines the religious implications or aspects of Quimby’s thought, it is clear that in these terms it has nothing whatever in common with Christian Science.” (Gottschalk, Stephen. The Emergence of Christian Science in American Religious Life. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973 - p130). A good composite of both Quimby, and the incompatibility of his ideas and practice with those of Eddy, can be found in these sources: Taves, Ann, Fits, Trances, & Visions: Experiencing Religion and Explaining Experience from Wesley to James. Princeton University Press 1999 (pp 212-218); Peel, Robert. Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Discovery. Boston: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966 (chapter, “Portland 1862”); Gill, Gillian. Mary Baker Eddy. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Perseus Books, 1998 (pp 131-146 & 230-233).
12. Lewis, James R.; J. Gordon Melton (1992). Perspectives on the New Age. SUNY Press. pp. 16–18. ISBN 0-7914-1213-X.
13. Harley, Gail M.; Danny L. Jorgensen (2002). Emma Curtis Hopkins: Forgotten Founder of New Thought. Syracuse University Press. p. 79. ISBN 0-8156-2933-8.
14. Bednarowski, Mary Farrell (1999). The Religious Imagination of American Women. Indiana University Press. p. 81. ISBN 0-253-21338-X.
15. Moskowitz, Eva S. (2001) In Therapy We Trust, The Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-6403-2, p. 19.
16. "Your Forces and How to Use Them, Vol. 1".
17. William Walker Atkinson. Thought Vibration or the Law of Attraction. Advanced Thought Publishing. 1906. Full text public domain version online.
18. "William Walter Atkinson", WorldCat. Retrieved June 10, 2011.
19. MacLelland, Bruce, Prosperity Through Thought Force, Elizabeth Towne, 1907
20. Miller, Timothy (1995) America's Alternative Religions, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2397-4, p. 327.
21. Dresser, Horatio, History of the New Thought Movement, 1919
22. "New Thought". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009. Retrieved Nov 16, 2007.
23. Houston, Jean. The Possible Human. 1997.
24. The Home of Truth, Our History
25. Home of Truth home page. Retrieved on 2007-09-20 from
26. Dumont, Theron, Q. [pseudonym of William Walker Atkinson. Mental Therapeutics, or Just How to Heal Oneself and Others. Advanced Thought Publishing Co. Chicago. 1916.
27. Cohen, M. (2007). Environmental toxins and health: The health impact of pesticides. Australian Family Physician, 36(12), 1002-4.
28. Playfair, J., MyiLibrary, & ProQuest. (2007). Living with germs in health and disease. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.
29. Tsiftsoglou, A., NATO Scientific Affairs Organization. Scientific Affairs Division, & NATO Science Institute "Regulation of Cell Growth, Differentiation, Genetics in Cancer". (1996). Tumor biology : Regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and genetics in cancer (NATO ASI series. Series H, Cell biology ; v. 99). Berlin ; New York: Springer.
30. Friedman, H., Klein, T., & Friedman, Andrea L. (1996). Psychoneuroimmunology, stress, and infection. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
31. Taylor, S., Thordarson, D., Maxfield, L., & Fedoroff, I. (2003). Comparative efficacy, speed, and adverse effects of three PTSD treatments: Exposure therapy, EMDR, and relaxation training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(2), 330-338.
32. Gilovich, T. (1993). How we know what isn't so : The fallibility of human reason in everyday life (1st Free Press paperback ed.). New York: Free Press.
33. Hortulanus, R., Machielse, A., & Meeuwesen, L. (2006). Social isolation in modern society (Routledge advances in sociology ; 19). London ; New York: Routledge.
34. Henninger, D., Whitson, H., Cohen, H., & Ariely, D. (2012). Higher Medical Morbidity Burden Is Associated with External Locus of Control. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60(4), 751-755.
35. Goldberg, P. (2010) American Veda: From Emerson and the Beatles to Yoga and Meditation How Indian Spirituality Changed the West. Random House Digital, Inc. p 62.
36. "Masaharu Taniguchi." Religious Leaders of America, 2nd ed. Gale Group, 1999. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale, 2008.
37. Vahle, Neal (1993). Open at the top: The life of Ernest Holmes, Open View Press, 190 pages, p7.
38. Holmes, Ernest (1926) The Science of Mind ISBN 0-87477-865-4, pp. 327–346 "What the Mystics Have Taught".
39. Seminary Website
40. DuPree, S.S. (1996) African-American Holiness Pentecostal movement: an annotated bibliography. Taylor & Francis. p 380.


• Albanese, Catherine (2007), A Republic of Mind and Spirit, Yale University Press.
• Anderson, Alan and Deb Whitehouse. New Thought: A Practical American Spirituality. 2003.
• Braden, Charles S. Spirits in Rebellion: The Rise and Development of New Thought, Southern Methodist University Press, 1963.
• Judah, J. Stillson. The History and Philosophy of the Metaphysical Movements in America. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press. 1967. Review by Neil Duddy.
• McFaul, Thomas R (September–October 2006), "Religion in the Future Global Civilization", The Futurist.
• Mosley, Glenn R (2006), The History and Future New Thought: Ancient Wisdom of the New Thought Movement, Templeton Foundation Press, ISBN 1-59947-089-6
• White, Ronald M (1980), "Abstract", New Thought Influences on Father Divine (Masters Thesis), Oxford, OH: Miami University.
• Albanese, Catherine (2016), The Spiritual Journals of Warren Felt Evans: From Methodism to Mind Cure, Indiana University Press.

External links

• INTA New Thought History Chart, Web site, archived from the original on 2000-08-24, retrieved 2007-09-18.
• Association For Global New Thought.
• New Thought Unity and Divine Science Writings, Piscean-Aquarian Ministry.
• Global Outreach.
• New Thought Library.
• New Thought at Curlie
• New Thought History.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Robert William Felkin
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/1/19



Dr Robert William Felkin, M.D.
Born: 1853, Nottingham, England
Died: 1926, Havelock North, New Zealand
Occupation: Medical Missionary and Explorer; Ceremonial Magician
Spouse(s:) Mary Mander; Harriet
Children: Ethelwyn Mary Felkin, Samuel Denys Felkin, Laurence Felkin
Parent(s): Robert Felkin Sr.

Dr Robert William Felkin FRSE LRCSE LRCP (13 March 1853 – 28 December 1926) was a medical missionary and explorer, a ceremonial magician and member of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, a prolific author on Uganda and Central Africa, and early anthropologist, with an interest in ethno-medicine and tropical diseases.

He was founder in 1903 of the Stella Matutina, a new Order based on the original Order of the Golden Dawn, with its Hermes Temple in Bristol, UK and, later, Whare Ra (or more correctly, the Smaragdum Thallasses Temple)[1] in Havelock North, New Zealand in 1912.[2]

The fullest account of his life is found in A Wayfaring Man, a fictionalised biography written by his second wife Harriet and published in serial form between 1936 and 1949.[2]

Early life

Robert William Felkin was born in Beeston, Nottinghamshire, on 13 March 1853, the son of Robert Felkin (1828-1899), a Nonconformist lace manufacturer.[2][3] His grandfather, William Felkin (1795-1874), son of a Baptist minister, remains one of the best known names in the Victorian lace industry and was mayor of Nottingham in 1851, when he exhibited at the Great Exhibition. But he overreached, and the business failed disastrously in 1864, when Felkin retired to write standard works on the lace and hosiery trades.[4] His son and partner Robert Felkin Sr settled in Wolverhampton to take up a position as manager of the home department of Mander Brothers, varnish manufacturers. Robert Jr was educated at Wolverhampton Grammar School, where he met the explorer David Livingstone, who inspired him to become a medical missionary.[2][5]

Medical missionary in Africa

A caesarean section performed by indigenous healers in Kahura, Uganda. As observed by Felkin in 1879.

He worked for a period in Chemnitz, Germany, after his schooling, where his uncle Henry Felkin lived, and became fluent in the language.[6] In about 1876 he began studying medicine at the University of Edinburgh.[2] In 1878, as yet unlicensed, he joined a mission led by the Church Missionary Society to Central Africa. He travelled up the Nile to Khartoum, where he met General Gordon, and then on through what was then wild and unmapped country to the African Great Lakes. Eventually he spent two years in Africa, and became personal physician to King M’tesa, who had previously tried to kill him. In Zanzibar, he actively campaigned against the slave trade.[2][5] He published several articles on tropical medicine and childbirth in medical journals,[7] and also wrote Uganda and the Egyptian Soudan (1882, with Rev.C.T. Wilson), Egypt Present and To Come (1885), Uganda (1886), and other African works.[2]

In 1881, he returned to Edinburgh when his health deteriorated to complete his medical studies (LRCP, LRCS, Ed, 1884). While still a medical student he became a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, a member of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and a corresponding Fellow of the Berlin Anthropological Society.[5]

First marriage and medical practice

In 1882 Felkin married his first wife, Mary ("Polly"), daughter of Samuel Small Mander of Wolverhampton, his father's employer, who had been a friend since childhood, and became a collaborator in both his esoteric work and his work for child welfare. They had a son (Samuel) Denys and a daughter, Ethelwyn (1883-1962), who was to publish on the legacy of the Golden Dawn under the name "Ethel Felkin".[2][6]

In 1884 he studied further in Marburg, acquiring his M.D. there in 1885. Following this he practiced as a doctor in Edinburgh for some years, returning to Africa and travelling frequently with his wife in Europe.[2][5][8]

Theosophy and the Golden Dawn

Mary and Robert seem to have been introduced to esotericism through a Bible study circle they joined in Edinburgh; other scriptures were discussed, including the Tao te ching and the Bhagavad Gita, and some members of the group were Theosophists. Robert and Mary joined the Theosophical Society in Edinburgh in 1886, but found it lacking in terms of ritual, and eventually joined John William Brodie-Innes' Amen-Ra Temple of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn on 1894-03-12.[2]

He continued to write and publish: he edited (with others) a collection of the letters and journals of Mehmet Emin Pasha, whom he had met (translated by Mary), which appeared in 1888, and published Hypnotism, or Psycho-Therapeutics in 1890.[9] Following a breakdown from strain and overwork he transferred his practice to London in 1896.[2]

In 1903 Mary died and Robert reinforced his commitment to both Anglican Christianity and occultism. He made a retreat at the monastery of the Mirfield fathers, the Community of the Resurrection, and considered joining the order. Several of the Mirfield fathers had an interest in Rosicrucian and Golden Dawn Christian mysticism, and regarded Felkin as an eminent figure in that tradition. One of these priests, Father Fitzgerald, would later play a key role in bring Felkin to New Zealand.[2]

Also in 1903, a schism occurred within the Order of the Golden Dawn, when Felkin and Brodie-Innes split from A.E. Waite to form the magically-inclined Order of the Stella Matutina. The poet W.B. Yeats joined the Stella Matutina and was a member for 20 years. Felkin’s main temple in London was called Amoun.[10]

The Sun Masters

From the time that Felkin assumed leadership of the Stella Matutina, he came increasingly under the influence of the "Sun Masters", the fabled Secret Chiefs of the Order, and other supposed adepts on the astral plane. Having these supposed contacts reinforced his position as leader in the order. Around 1908 he also claimed to have contacted an "Arab Teacher" called Ara Ben Shemesh ("Lion Son of the Sun"), one of the "Sons of Fire" inhabiting a Near Eastern "temple in the desert", who had been given special permission to contact and teach Western students.[2] His first contact with Ara Ben Shemesh seems to be recounted in A Wayfaring Man, which describes how a conversation between Felkin and Waite was interrupted by the appearance of a "shadowy presence". Felkin called for Harriet, who was clairvoyant, and she saw "a tall man in Eastern dress, kuftan, galabieh, and turban. He has a smooth olive face, and large dark eyes." Apparently this figure, described in the account as "the Chaldean", was seeking someone to help in uniting Eastern and Western teaching. Upon learning that he "believed in the Lord Jesus Christ", Felkin and Waite agreed to collaborate with him.[2]

Another mystical teacher was Sri Parananda, whom Felkin claimed to have first seen materialising out of steam at the Bad Pyrmont baths in Germany. This apparition, described as a dark Eastern man with a beard and large black eyes, wearing a flowing robe and a peculiar conical cap, arranged with Felkin to meet him in exactly one month in the lounge of the Carlton Hotel in London. According to Felkin their subsequent meeting in the flesh was the start of a series of conversations that lasted for several years.[2]

Freemasonry and Rosicrucianism

Felkin was initiated Freemasonry in Mary Chapel Lodge, Edinburgh, on 8 January 1907, was passed to the Fellow Craft degree on 12 February and raised to Master Mason on 26 February. On 11 April that same year he was admitted to the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (SRIA), Metropolitan College, to which only Master Masons are admitted. The officiating celebrant was Dr. W. Wynn Westcott, Supreme Magus of that society and co-founder of the Golden Dawn.

According to R. Ellwood, by the time Felkin first visited New Zealand in 1912 he was already a 32° Freemason, one of the highest to visit the country thus far.[2] But according to K. Edney of the New Zealand SRIA, Felkin's interest in Freemasonry was probably slight; he was never Master of the Lodge nor joined the Holy Royal Arch, and it is unlikely that he joined any higher degrees; his motive for joining Freemasonry and the SRIA seems to have been to gain credibility with continental occultists and contact members of the original Rosicrucian society.[11] Anna Sprengel, a member of this fabled German society of nearly god-like adepts, had allegedly warranted the founding of the Golden Dawn, and Felkin believed that she and her order still existed deep under cover in Germany, along with the tomb of Christian Rosencreutz. In search of this group he and Harriet travelled to Europe in 1906, 1910 and 1914, and on one of these trips he met with Rudolf Steiner and claimed to have contacted other Rosicrucian adepts. Felkin considered Steiner to be an extremely high initiate, and after their meeting incorporated elements of Anthroposophy into his practice, including homeopathy.[2][8][11]

During their 1914 trip the Felkins became stranded in Germany when Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August. Harriet's fictionalised account of his life suggests that he had been sent there on an urgent mission by the "Sun Master" Ara Ben Shemesh, despite all warnings of impending war. They managed to avoid arrest, and escaped the country via the neutral Netherlands with the help of German Masons.[2][11]

New Zealand

Felkin's grave

In 1912 Felkin, together with Harriet and Ethelwyn, visited Havelock North, New Zealand at the invitation of the Society of the Southern Cross. This was a prayer and meditation group closely involved with the "Havelock Work", an arts and spirituality movement embraced by the whole town. Reginald and Ruth Gardiner and Harold Large, founders of both the Havelock Work and the Society of the Southern Cross, believed that eastern methods of spiritual training such as Theosophy were unsuitable for westerners, but also felt that the Church had lost the esoteric teachings of Jesus and his disciples. They were determined to undergo rigorous training and initiation to merit learning those hidden teachings. These three had started daily meditations together, and were soon joined by Miss M. M. McLean and Reginald's sister, Miss Rose Gardiner. Reginald Gardiner considered the Havelock Work to be a cultural society "built around this silent power station". The meditation group grew, and began to incorporate simple ritual, calling itself the Society of the Southern Cross.[2]

In 1910 the Mirfield Fathers sent a mission of help to New Zealand, preaching and conducting retreats. Miss McLean, who had met Father Fitzgerald in Britain, arranged for him to meet members of the Havelock prayer group, and he agreed to direct their spiritual work from Britain. He instructed them in an esoteric approach to Christianity, but soon decided they had reached a stage where personal instruction was necessary for further progress, and he recommended Dr. Robert Felkin for the task. Within a week the group had cabled £300 passage, supplied by Maurice Chambers and his father, Mason, and his uncle John, for Felkin, Harriet and Ethelwyn to visit New Zealand for three months. During this visit in 1912 Dr Felkin established the Smaragdum Thallasses Temple of the Stella Matutina. The New Zealand Order became known by the Maori name of Whare Ra or "the House of the Sun". Foundations of the house at Whare Ra were laid down by the architect Chapman-Taylor, who later became a member of both the Golden Dawn and the Order of the Table Round (Ordo Tabulae Rotundae), a neo-Arthurian mystical and chivalric order also brought to New Zealand by Felkin.[2]

Back in England in 1916 Felkin was appointed Inspector General of colonial colleges for the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, although he seems never to have functioned in this capacity.[11] In that same year he also founded three more daughter-Temples of the Stella Matutina, together with a side-order, and claimed to found the Guild of St. Raphael.[12] He published on the theme of 'Rosicrucian medicine' [13] and, at the height of the German U-boat activity, emigrated permanently with his family to New Zealand, as his health broke down with recurrent malaria and other tropical diseases.[5]

One year later, in September 1917, Felkin wrote to William Westcott, one of the two major founders of the Golden Dawn, that the Smaragdum Thallassess Temple had twenty members in the Second Order, thirty-four in the First Order, and ten people waiting to join.[1]

Felkin become involved in the Bahá'í Faith, through his meeting with `Abdu'l-Bahá in London in 1911 at Lady Blomfield's. Felkin introduced Maurice Chambers to the Faith and presented him with two Bahá'í ring stones that Abdu'l-Baha had given him. Felkin may have had an article on the Bahá'í Faith published in a local newspaper,[14] although there had been an earlier article by British Baha'i Alice Buckton published circa 1909 in the Havelock Journal "The Forerunner".

Felkin spent the rest of his life in New Zealand, where he continued to practise as a consulting physician as well as a magician between bouts of ill health. His strong personality and clinical acumen, combined with a kind and generous nature brought him patients from far afield, including Australia. On 28 December 1926, he died at Havelock North, and was buried in the Havelock North cemetery facing the Whare Ra, wearing the cloak, mantle and purple cross of a Knight of the Ordo Tabulae Rotundae.[11] He was survived by his second wife Harriet, his daughter Ethelwyn, and two sons;[5] Harriet and Ethelwyn were later buried with him.[11]

See also

• Hermeticism
• Magic (paranormal)
• List of residents of Wolverhampton


1. Anon (2012). The Lantern Volume I (A Wayfaring Man Part I). Sub Rosa Press New Zealand. ISBN 978-0-473-23184-2.
2. Ellwood, Robert S. (1993). Islands of the Dawn: The Story of Alternative Spirituality in New Zealand. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1487-8.
3. 1881 Census Online
4. William Felkin
5. Dunn, Peter M. (1999) "Robert Felkin MD (1853-1926) and Caesarean delivery in Central Africa (1879)" in Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Edn 1999; 80:F250-F251 (May). Bristol.
6. Pegg, Patricia (1996). A Very Private Heritage: the private papers of Samuel Theodore Mander, 1853-1900. Malvern: Images Publishing.
7. Medical History 3, no. 1, London 1959, cited in Ellic Howe, Magicians of the Golden Dawn, p. 240 n. 2.
8. "Ancient Rose Cross Order: Our History and Transmission". Archived from the original on 16 January 2006. Retrieved 20 March 2007.
9. Shamdasani, 'Psychotherapy: the invention of a word' in History of the Human Sciences, 2005,18, 1
10. History of the Golden Dawn Archived 25 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
11. Edney, Ken. Dr. Robert William Felkim and the S.R.I.A.. From the website of the Felkin College of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, Napier, New Zealand. Retrieved 2007-03-29.
12. Colquhoun, Ithel (1975). The Sword of Wisdom: MacGregor Mathers and the Golden Dawn. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 0-85435-092-6.
13. Rosicrucian Medicine. Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, London, 1916.
14. Arohanui, Introduction by Collis Featherstone.


• Christina M. Stoddard, Inquire Within: Light-bearers of Darkness (Boswell, London, 1930)
• Christina M. Stoddard, The Trail of the Serpent (Boswell, London, 1935)
• Ellic Howe, The Magicians of the Golden Dawn: A Documentary History of a Magical Order 1887-1923 (Samuel Weiser 1978). ISBN 0-87728-369-9.
• Mittal Shruti, ‘True Impression or False Perception? A glimpse of 19th-century African medicine through the eyes of Robert Felkin, medical student and missionary’ (DHMSA, 2004)
• Biography from Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia — Felkin College.
• Judy Siers, "The Life and Times of James-Walter Chapman-Taylor", Millwood Heritage Productions, 2007. esp 169-182.
• Anon, The Lantern Volume I (A Wayfaring Man Part I), Sub Rosa Press New Zealand, 2012. ISBN 978-0-473-23184-2 - a reprint of A Wayfaring Man and historical essay on the Stella Matutina in New Zealand.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Dec 02, 2019 5:08 am

Havelock Work
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/1/19



The Havelock Work was an arts and spirituality movement in the small town of Havelock North, New Zealand, begun in 1907 by Reginald and Ruth Gardiner and Harold Large, and embraced by the whole town. It culminated in the founding of the Smaragdum Thalasses temple, better known as the Whare Ra, the longest-standing temple of the Stella Matutina magical order.[1]


In 1908 a meeting of over 100 people was held to discuss cultural affairs in nearby Frimley, with Reginald Gardner as one of the main speakers, resulting in the commencement of the "Havelock Work". The first meetings in 1908 were attended by only half a dozen to a dozen people and consisted of readings from Shakespeare and Dickens in a church schoolroom. From this developed social afternoons and Wednesday night talent shows, then carving and drama classes, flower and fruit shows and arts and crafts exhibitions. A morris dancing side was formed by school children, the first in the country.[1]


A series of elaborate festivals were held. In 1911 the Old English Village Fete was held, opening with a procession of over 100 men, women and children in medieval costume and carrying banners. "King Arthur" and his court presided over morris and folk dances, tourneys and playlets, and there were stalls selling refreshments and crafts. In 1912 an even more elaborate Shakespearean Pageant was held, opening with a grand procession including "Queen Elizabeth" and her court and retinue, as well as "Shakespeare" and his group of players. Entertainments included teas and games, sixteenth century songs and dances, music by the Hastings Town Band and other concerts, a production of Much Ado About Nothing, scenes from Twelfth Night and The Merchant of Venice, and Shakespearean games. That weekend a ball was held in Shakespearean costume.[1]


A magazine called The Forerunner was produced, with its first issue in 1909-03-01. It contained numerous spiritually-inclined and often Theosophically-inspired articles. The first issue stated "We all seek expression for the ideals that well up from time to time from the deeps of our eternal self". Describing the festivities, an article in one issue stated that "they aimed at cultivating a feeling for what is beautiful and true"; "behind the outward manifestation of things lay the ideal"; and "it is by the 'power of harmony and the deep power of joy that we see into the life of things'".[1]

The three prime organisers of the Work, the Gardiners and Harold Large, believed that eastern methods of spiritual training such as Theosophy were unsuitable for westerners, but also felt that the Church had lost the esoteric teachings of Jesus and his disciples. They were determined to undergo rigorous training and initiation to merit learning those hidden teachings. These three were the prime organisers of many of the town's public events, and also meditated together on a daily basis
, in which they were soon joined by Miss M. M. McLean and Reginald's sister, Miss Rose Gardiner. Reginald Gardiner considered the Havelock Work to be a cultural society "built around this silent power station". The meditation group grew, and began to incorporate simple ritual, calling itself the Society of the Southern Cross.[1]

Felkin and the Temple

In 1910 the Community of the Resurrection at Mirfield sent a mission of help to New Zealand, preaching and conducting retreats. One of the visiting priests was a Father Fitzgerald, whom Miss McLean had met in Britain, and she arranged for him to meet members of the Havelock prayer group. He agreed to be the director of their spiritual work from Britain. After a period of instruction, focussing on an esoteric approach to Christianity, Father Fitzgerald told the group that they had reached a level where personal instruction would be necessary, and he recommended a Dr. Robert Felkin for the task, who was the head of the Stella Matutina. Within a week the group had cabled £300 passage, supplied by Maurice Chambers and his father, Mason, and his uncle John, for Felkin and his family to visit New Zealand for three months. During this visit in 1912 Dr Felkin established the Smaragdum Thalasses Temple of the Stella Matutina, and later emigrated permanently to NZ in 1916, when he took up the day-to-day running of the Temple until his death in 1926.

Whare Ra

The New Zealand Order became known by the Maori name of Whare Ra or "the House of the Sun". Foundations of the house at Whare Ra were laid down by the architect Chapman-Taylor, who later became a member of both the Golden Dawn and the Order of the Table Round (Ordo Tabulae Rotundae), a neo-Arthurian mystical and chivalric order also brought to New Zealand by Felkin.[1]

The Whare Ra attracted many members of the community, and by 1926 the inner order alone had over 100 members including many of the most wealthy and influential people in Havelock North and Hastings. The outer order numbered over 200 at its peak.[1] It continued to operate until 1978.[1]

Another outcome of the Havelock Work, albeit via Whare Ra, was the establishment in 1938 of the Tauhara Trust, which set aside money for the development of a conference centre for spiritual groups, particularly those engaging in meditation, mysticism, the New Age and deep ecology. This conference centre continues to operate, overlooking Acacia Bay in Taupo.[1]


1. Ellwood, Robert S. (1993). Islands of the Dawn: The Story of Alternative Spirituality in New Zealand. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1487-8.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Dec 02, 2019 5:11 am

Stella Matutina
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/1/19



8 August 1901.

There are not only 21 letters; 28 is the proper number. [Note: the normal number in the Enochian Alphabet.] I am standing in the midst of green and see two symbols which represent the whole alphabet. These two in addition make 30. The guide shows a huge world of green transparent – like marble with veins running through it. I stand upon it. Guide takes Wand and the pavement seems to glow with innumerable stars which group themselves in the form of letters of the Cypher. They form in 4 groups representing 4 Elements and then 2 which make the 30 represented. The 2 Elements are unknown to us at present. The other elements are Air [x], Fire [x], Water [x], and not exactly Earth [x]. The Earth here is a mingling of Air with Fire. Water [is] to have no representation here. I see represented a medium which encloses everything. It is Ether, but it seems more. I stand and the letters group themselves from a circle midway between Earth and Heaven, and I am told to count 4 from the order of the letters shown.

This is the order and form shown:


The missing ones refer to the Astral Ether. The Trinity controls the angle. Each corner of 3 letters represents an Archangel or ruler of a 4th part of the Heaven. The lost letters partly belong to the dominion of Lucifer and cannot all be given – not in this dispensation – nor to a human being. His Kingdom is waiting for his restoration


Lucifer, Son of the Morning [Stella Matutina]; his was the region of the Higher Ether.

-- The Enochian Experiments of the Golden Dawn, Enochian Alphabet Clairvoyantly Examined (Golden Dawn Studies No. 7

The Stella Matutina (Morning Star) was an initiatory magical order dedicated to the dissemination of the traditional teachings of the earlier Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Originally, the outer order of the Stella Matutina was known as Mystic Rose or Order of the M.R. in the Outer.[1] When occult author Israel Regardie released documents of the Golden Dawn to the public it was the teachings of the Stella Matutina that he revealed, not those of the original order. The Stella Matutina was one of several daughter organisations into which the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn fragmented, including the Alpha et Omega led by John William Brodie-Innes and Macgregor Mathers, the Isis-Urania Temple led by A.E. Waite, and others.


After a revolt of London Adepts against the then-head of the Order (Samuel MacGregor Mathers) in early 1900, the Order segmented into two new groups. Those who remained loyal to Mathers took on the name Alpha et Omega, while the London group took on the name Hermetic Society of the Morgenrothe. The latter group retained such members as Robert Felkin (a British doctor), John William Brodie-Innes, A.E. Waite, William Alexander Ayton, W.B. Yeats and others.[2]

The Morgenrothe had a very short existence before it, too, schismed into two groups. Those who were most interested in Christian Mysticism (led by A.E. Waite) took over the remnants of Isis-Urania, and formed the Independent and Rectified Rite of the Golden Dawn, and later the Fellowship of the Rosy Cross. Those from the Morgerothe who were more interested in occultism (led by Dr. Felkin) formed the group "Stella Matutina"- naming their Mother Temple "Amoun."[2]

The outer order was changed by Dr. Felkin and other members of the Golden Dawn based in London.[1] Among others who helped form Stella Matutina was J.W. Brodie-Innes, though he soon made peace with Mathers and left for the Alpha et Omega.[2][

The first gesture of independence brought a committee of twelve to govern for a year. Further developments forced them to realise that this was far from satisfactory.[3] With pettiness and further dispute, they abandoned every reform and went back to the original scheme of appointing three chiefs to lead and govern them.[4]

While visiting New Zealand in 1912, Dr. Felkin issued a Warrant for the Smaragdum Thallasses Temple No. 49 (commonly referred to as Whare Ra (Maori for "House of the Sun")), which operated in the basement of his purpose built home at Havelock North, in the Hawke's Bay Region. Felkin's visit was closely associated with the New Zealand Province of the Societas Rosicruciana.[5] The stay was supposed to be permanent, but Mr. Meakin, who was to take over as chief of the Amoun Temple, died in the autumn of 1912.[5] Felkin returned to England, but moved to New Zealand permanently in 1916.

During the next few years, Felkin established Hermes Lodge in Bristol, the Secret College in London, and Merlin Lodge, also in London.

The Amoun Temple of the Stella Matutina in London closed its doors in 1919.[6] due to two members becoming schizophrenic, one of whom, a clergyman, was later to die in a mental institution.[6]

In 1933, Israel Regardie joined the Hermes Temple in Bristol,[7] and resigned from Amoun Temple in 1934, finding it, according to him, in a state of low morale and decay. Many of the original Golden Dawn's Knowledge Lectures had been "removed or heavily amended, largely because they were beyond the capacity of the chiefs."[8] These same chiefs claimed "extraordinarily exalted" grades, but Regardie found them lacking. As an example, he recounted that no one in the temple knew how to play Enochian chess, in fact the Order's chess set had never been used.[8] He constructed his own boards and he challenged his superiors in the Order to play: all refused with excuses.[8]

By 1939, Stella Matutina became largely dormant, although the Hermes Temple continued until 1970. Whare Ra in New Zealand continued until 1978.[2][9]

Asserting independence

From the very beginning, Felkin believed that the Order must in fact gain contact with the Secret Chiefs by the use of astral work and communications which were received through either trance or automatic writing,[10] as well as his wish that there should be unity among the Rosicrucians. Great importance was given to these messages, which were coming in considerable numbers, some of which gave approval to make changes to the rituals.[10] Felkin constructed new rituals for the Stella Matutina, which included Adeptus Major, Adeptus Exemptus, and Magister Templi, all of which bear resemblance to the original Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Degree rituals of Ordo Templi Orientis before they were rewritten by Aleister Crowley.[5]

At this point, according to Francis King, the chiefs of the Amoun Temple were addicted to mediumship and astral travel. Their interpretation of the Golden Dawn techniques of astral projection and travel appears to have been derived from Florence Farr's Sphere group.[6]

There were two main astral entities contacted. The first group were Rosicrucian, in which at times the medium believed to be controlled by Christian Rosenkreuz himself. The second were called Arabs, said to be the teachers of the Rosicrucians.[6] The orders given by these "Arabs" had a substantial effect on the policies. For example, instructions received on January 9, 1915 was put into effect by the foundation of the Anglican spiritual healers organisation called the
Guild of St. Raphael, as Francis King notes, "were almost without exception, members of the Stella Matutina".[11] Recent documentary evidence, however, suggests King may have been mistaken and the Guild was not linked to Felkin (Chrism, 2006, p2)

Some Internet sources place the founding of the Guild by some of the members of the Stella Matutina, including Robert Felkin. There is little documentary evidence available to support this assertion outside of the book by Francis X. King, (1989), and he asserts that the Guild rapidly became completely separate from any of the practices of Stella Matutina. The available evidence suggests it never was connected.

Recent minutes (published in Chrism, 2006) show that the driving personalities behind the foundation of the Guild in 1915 were a Miss Caroline Biggs, recorded as Secretary of the newly formed Guild, with the Reverend Canon R. P. Roseveare of St Paul's Deptford, recorded as its first Warden.

-- Guild of St Raphael, by Wikipedia

Changing The Subject (Digression, Red Herring, Misdirection, False Emphasis):

this is sometimes used to avoid having to defend a claim, or to avoid making good on a promise. In general, there is something you are not supposed to notice.

For example, I got a bill which had a big announcement about how some tax had gone up by 5%, and the costs would have to be passed on to me. But a quick calculation showed that the increased tax was only costing me a dime, while a different part of the the bill had silently gone up by $10.

This is connected to various diversionary tactics, which may be obstructive, obtuse, or needling. For example, if you quibble about the meaning of some word a person used, they may be quite happy about being corrected, since that means they've derailed you, or changed the subject. They may pick nits in your wording, perhaps asking you to define "is". They may deliberately misunderstand you: "You said this happened five years before Hitler came to power. Why are you so fascinated with Hitler? Are you anti-Semitic?"

-- A List Of Fallacious Arguments, by Don Lindsay

25 July 1901.

The Temple seems Astral, i.e. Transparent and the building is self luminous. The walls of the chamber form the circle and the points of the Pentagram touch them. I face the [E]ast, (i.e., the Eastern point, the water angle). On [the] Eastern Point of [the] Pentagram I see a downward pointing triangle with [a] dot in the centre (apex of triangle down). The triangle expands into a luminous Angelic figure with the sign of the triangle upon its forehead (The part of the walls appears to have dissolves or become transparent as the vision proceeded.) Two sides of the triangle seem to be produced to the two corners of Heaven in two luminous rays which seem to embrace a fourth part of the Universe including the Astral and regions above it. The Rays become wider as they ascend. Influences like waves of light, which form Angels, descend to the point and then ascend from the apex up [as] waves of light. The Angle which stands on the point is the personification of the Influences and Lord of that Quarter of the Universe. The Influences descend from the point in the Heavens as wings and the undulating waves ascend – the latter are in 3 bands coloured Rose, White and Golden. The waves seem subdivided to 7 by bands of colours which intermingle. Starting from the foot of the Angel (where [the] apex now is) and forming itself inside the large triangle is a circle. I hear the words, “Raphael, Giver of Light.” Symbols of the nature of Libra [x] are round the triangle. One seems like a horse shoe thus. [x] [Mals] a horseshoe also with a bar across the horse. The symbols are in light in [the] centre of [the] circle just above the heads of the Angels....

Raphael seems to rule the right hand [or] N]orth]-E[ast] angle, Michael left [or] Western angle, Gabriel lower East angle, and Auriel at bottom lower angle to it. Each is an embodied essence of a manifestation of the Deity.

-- The Enochian Experiments of the Golden Dawn, Enochian Alphabet Clairvoyantly Examined (Golden Dawn Studies No. 7, part of Florence Farr, by Wikipedia

In 1910 the Community of the Resurrection at Mirfield sent a mission of help to New Zealand, preaching and conducting retreats. One of the visiting priests was a Father Fitzgerald, whom Miss McLean had met in Britain, and she arranged for him to meet members of the Havelock prayer group. He agreed to be the director of their spiritual work from Britain. After a period of instruction, focussing on an esoteric approach to Christianity, Father Fitzgerald told the group that they had reached a level where personal instruction would be necessary, and he recommended a Dr. Robert Felkin for the task, who was the head of the Stella Matutina. Within a week the group had cabled £300 passage, supplied by Maurice Chambers and his father, Mason, and his uncle John, for Felkin and his family to visit New Zealand for three months. During this visit in 1912 Dr Felkin established the Smaragdum Thalasses Temple of the Stella Matutina, and later emigrated permanently to NZ in 1916, when he took up the day-to-day running of the Temple until his death in 1926.

-- Havelock Work, by Wikipedia

Sacramentalists held a high view of the place of the sacraments in the ministry of healing. Their theology made them sensitive to the interpenetration of the spiritual and the material worlds, whereby spiritual reality finds expression in a tangible or visual form. The Incarnation is the most comprehensive expression of such interpenetration.84 The incarnational principle has its counterpart in the sacraments of the Eucharist (wine and bread) and Baptism (water) and Unction (oil), the benefits of which become available when approached in the right manner, and engaged in sincere intention. When such conditions are met, then the due performance of the act is deemed normally to convey divine grace. Such a view offers a framework for the continuation of divine activity in healing with the conveyance of divine succor through anointing with oil and the laying on of hands.85 Evelyn Frost in her classic study of Christian healing from this sacramental/liturgical angle, expressed it with precision: “The sacraments are the means by which the nature of the old order becomes interpenetrated and hence transformed by [the new order]… The church, then, in Holy Unction, has been entrusted with a sacrament which exists primarily for the sick in body and mind.”86 At the Anglican Conference on “Spiritual Healing,” Father J.G. FitzGerald, Community of the Resurrection, Mirfield, Yorkshire, expressed the view that healing is “the extension of the Incarnate Life in the Church.”87 With this understanding the body of Christ, the incarnational dimension of the Christian message, with its acute sense of divine “presence,” played a central role in the High Church understanding of spiritual healing.

The Guild of St. Raphael was formed in 1915, when the High Church members of Anson’s Guild of Health withdrew after it sought to expand beyond its Anglican roots. Another sticking point was the Guild of Health’s commitment to the alignment of religion with medicine and psychology, while less emphasis given to sacramental grace. The Guild of St. Raphael accentuated healing as mediated through the priesthood and the sacraments, without undue regard of the claims of modern psychology and, unlike the Emmanuel movement, did not limit itself to functional disorders. Its declared object was to forward a healing ministry both “by sacramental means and by intercessory prayer, until the Church, as a whole, accepts Divine Healing as part of its normal work.” The Guild started under the patronage of the two Archbishops and thirty English diocesan bishops as well as twenty-five overseas bishops. It adopted three measures: To prepare the sick for all ministries of healing by teaching the need for repentance and faith; to make use of the sacrament of Holy Unction and the rite of Laying on of Hands for healing; to bring to the aid of the Ministry of Healing the power of intercession, individual and corporate, and the other spiritual forces of Meditation and Silence.88 The administration of Holy Unction was confined to the priesthood, and then only after careful preparation of the patient that included teaching on the nature of repentance and faith. The Laying on of Hands, not being a sacrament, could be administered by lay members of the Guild under the direction of a priest or member of the Guild, and with the approval of the bishop of the diocese.

That the issue of unction was a pressing one for some readers of Confidence is hinted at in an article published in 1922. A letter writer wanted to know, with reference to Jas 5:14, what “form of procedure” Boddy used when anointing with oil.89 Boddy acknowledged that “it is admittedly a help with some to have their anointing in Church,” thinking perhaps of those from a High Church background. He made reference to a booklet that enclosed an order of service for healing that he considered some might find helpful. The booklet was written by Herbert Pakenham Walsh (1871-1951_, the first Bishop of Assam, India, to whom reference was made above. It is of some relevance that Walsh was the son of Bishop Willian Pakenham Walsh. The Bishop’s second wife was Annie Frances Hackett, the daughter of the vicar of St. James’s, Bray, Co. Dublin. The second Mrs. Walsh was the sister of Thomas Edmund Hackett (1850-1939), who followed his father as incumbent of St. James. Thomas Hackett retired in 1903 but his spiritual journey was not complete. After a Keswick-type experience c. 1906, he attended the first Pentecostal Sunderland Conference in 1907. It is likely that he received his Spirit-baptism in the classical Pentecostal understanding. It is eminently probable that with the friendship of Boddy and Hackett, the latter would have drawn attention to his nephew’s booklet. It carried the title Divine Healing (1921), and ended with the sixteen-page text of “A Service of Anointing.” Whether Boddy used Walsh’s liturgy is not clear, though possibly not, because he confessed that he felt it “rather long.” Despite that, he was prepared to recommend it to the writer of the letter.

Boddy made it clear that for individuals seeking healing it was preferable, if the sufferer was physically able, to meet in the Vicarage and not in the church. Ceremonial propriety was deliberately downplayed to keep faith with his evangelical churchmanship: “No robes[,]…[t]he sick one kneeling perhaps at the dining room table.” A tiny bottle of olive oil was ready, though he felt the need to explain that “only half a dozen drops or so were used,” as if to underscore evangelical minimalism. The ministration of the sick person began with family and friends kneeling, and the elder standing and seeking God “for the promised Presence.” The Jas 5:13=16 passage was then read, followed by the supplicant making confession of sins (v. 16). On one occasion a sufferer’s “trouble instantly disappeared” after his/her confession was made. In Boddy’s account, the elder then

rebukes the sickness, and all the evil powers behind the disease, (Luke 4:39), next placing the sufferer under the Precious Blood for cleansing…. Also [for] protection from all evil powers and for victory (Rev. 12:11). Thus the sick one is prepared to receive the Blessed Quickening Spirit, the Lord, and Giver of Life and Health, the Holy Ghost Himself. [Then], pouring a few drops of olive oil into his left palm, the Elder prays that God will graciously sanctify the oil, and that He will use it as a channel of spiritual blessing to the sufferer for Christ’s sake …. Then with a finger of his right hand dipped into the oil, he touches the forehead in the ‘Name of the Lord,’ and then in the full name of the Trinity, placing his left hand with the oil in it on the head of the sufferer, with such oil as remains. As in Mk. 16:18, he lays on both his hands, and asks that the hands of Christ – the Pierced Hands – may also rest on the sick one to impart His Life …. Then he asks the person to thank God and praise, and praise.90

The act concludes with the Aaronic Blessing, with the patient still kneeling the elder again placed his hands upon the head of the believer.

The whole procedure clearly was liturgically structured, sensitive to scriptural guidance and vindication, strongly affirming of the merits of the shed blood and the power of the Spirit, with an allusion to the sacramental efficacy of unction, expressed in the prayer that “God will graciously sanctify the oil, and He will use it as a channel of spiritual blessing.” The article was written in 1922, but he let it be known that the procedure outlined above had been followed since 1892. The more Pentecostal elements in the ceremony come out in the call for the patient “to thank God and praise and praise,” an act assuredly prolonged and volumetrically vibrant. Such was the sense of blessing on these occasions that he could report that “some at this service have received a Baptism of the Holy Ghost, when they came for healing.”

Two episodes in Boddy’s life are recorded in Confidence, where contact was made with healers with Anglo-Catholic sympathies, viz., John Maillard and Dorothy Kerin.

-- Divine Healing: The Years of Expansion, 1906–1930: Theological Variation in the Transatlantic World, by James Robinson

Felkin was not satisfied with astral meetings as he wished for physical contact with the Secret Chiefs. From 1901 onwards, he traveled extensively in hoping to meet authentic Rosicrucians.[12] In 1906, he believed he had found what he was looking for: a professor, his adopted daughter, and another gentleman, all who he believed were in fact Rosicrucians. The professors' adopted daughter had claimed to be the niece of Anna Sprengel (the Secret Chief who authorised the founding of the original Golden Dawn), and also claimed that her aunt was a member of the same organization as herself.[13]

The purported Rosicrucian group which Felkin had made contact with was led by Rudolf Steiner, founder of the Anthroposophical Society, and at that time, still head of the German section of the Theosophical Society. King explains that it didn't appear as though this group was Theosophical, nor did it appear to be any later form of Anthroposophy. He speculates that, since Steiner was at that time also the Austrian Chief of Ordo Templi Orientis, his first Rosicrucian grade bore resemblance to the original first Degree of O.T.O.[13]

Known members

• Robert Felkin - Frater Finem Respice: Imperator
• Harriet Felkin - Soror Quaestor Lucis
• Ethlewyn Felkin (daughter of Robert and Harriet Felkin)
• Mr. Meakin - Frater Ex Orient Lux
• Israel Regardie - Frater Ad Maiorem Adonai Gloriam
• Baron Walleen
• James Walter Chapman-Taylor
• W. B. Yeats - Irish poet and winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature
• Dion Fortune - Deo, non fortuna - writer and founder of the Society of the Inner Light
• Frank Metterton - Entertainer'

See also

• The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, Inc.
• The Ordo Stella Matutina
• Universal Order of the Morning Star


1. King, 1989, page 96
2. "Golden Dawn Time Line". Llewellyn Encyclopedia.
3. Regardie, 1989, page 18
4. Regardie, 1989, page 19
5. King, 1989, page 106
6. King, 1989, page 127
7. Regardie, 1989, page 208
8. King, 1989, page 154
9. Gilbert, 1986,
10. King, 1989, page 97
11. King, 1989, page 129
12. King, 1989, page 98
13. King, 1989, page 99


• Gilbert, R. A. Golden Dawn Companion. Aquarian Press, 1986. ISBN 0-85030-436-9
• King, Francis (1989). Modern Ritual Magic: The Rise of Western Occultism. Avery Publishing Group. ISBN 1-85327-032-6
• Regardie, Israel (1993). What you should know about the Golden Dawn (6th edition). New Falcon Publications. ISBN 1-56184-064-5
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Stella Matutina (Jesuit school)
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/1/19



8 August 1901.

There are not only 21 letters; 28 is the proper number. [Note: the normal number in the Enochian Alphabet.] I am standing in the midst of green and see two symbols which represent the whole alphabet. These two in addition make 30. The guide shows a huge world of green transparent – like marble with veins running through it. I stand upon it. Guide takes Wand and the pavement seems to glow with innumerable stars which group themselves in the form of letters of the Cypher. They form in 4 groups representing 4 Elements and then 2 which make the 30 represented. The 2 Elements are unknown to us at present. The other elements are Air [x], Fire [x], Water [x], and not exactly Earth [x]. The Earth here is a mingling of Air with Fire. Water [is] to have no representation here. I see represented a medium which encloses everything. It is Ether, but it seems more. I stand and the letters group themselves from a circle midway between Earth and Heaven, and I am told to count 4 from the order of the letters shown.

This is the order and form shown:


The missing ones refer to the Astral Ether. The Trinity controls the angle. Each corner of 3 letters represents an Archangel or ruler of a 4th part of the Heaven. The lost letters partly belong to the dominion of Lucifer and cannot all be given – not in this dispensation – nor to a human being. His Kingdom is waiting for his restoration


Lucifer, Son of the Morning [Stella Matutina]; his was the region of the Higher Ether.

-- The Enochian Experiments of the Golden Dawn, Enochian Alphabet Clairvoyantly Examined (Golden Dawn Studies No. 7

[W]e should review some of the bizarre beliefs and airy stereotypes that Westerners have held about Tibetans for the last four hundred years. Martin Brauen's book Dreamworld Tibet catalogs many of these, complete with illustrations. Let us take a quick sample: The first Jesuit missionaries, Father Antonio de Andrade and Father Manuel Marques, traveled to Tibet in the seventeenth century, as they believed, to reestablish contact with an isolated pocket of Nestorian Christians who had been brought into the fold by the mythical Prester John and place them under the umbrella of Rome.

-- Buddha's Not Smiling: Uncovering Corruption at the Heart of Tibetan Buddhism Today, by Erik D. Curren

Stella Matutina
Stella Matutina in Feldkirch
Feldkirch, Austria
Established 1651; 368 years ago
Closed 1979
Affiliation Jesuit (Catholic)

Stella Matutina in Feldkirch, Austria, was a Jesuit school that operated in 1651–1773, 1856–1938, and 1946–1979.

History, scholarship, international flair

The “Kolleg” began in 1649 but opened formally in 1651. In 1773, when Pope Clement XIV discontinued the order of the Society of Jesus, the school closed.[1] It was reopened under Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria in 1856 with the support of Pope Pius IX in Feldkirch by Fr. Clemens Faller, S.J.


It contains in it, after the Preparatory Prayer and two Preludes, five Points and one Colloquy:

Prayer. Let the Preparatory Prayer be the usual one.

First Prelude. The first Prelude is the composition, which is here to see with the sight of the imagination the length, breadth and depth of Hell.

Second Prelude. The second, to ask for what I want: it will be here to ask for interior sense of the pain which the damned suffer, in order that, if, through my faults, I should forget the love of the Eternal Lord, at least the fear of the pains may help me not to come into sin.

First Point. The first Point will be to see with the sight of the imagination the great fires, and the souls as in bodies of fire.

Second Point. The second, to hear with the ears wailings, howlings, cries, blasphemies against Christ our Lord and against all His Saints.

Third Point. The third, to smell with the smell smoke, sulphur, dregs and putrid things.

Fourth Point. The fourth, to taste with the taste bitter things, like tears, sadness and the worm of conscience.

Fifth Point. The fifth, to touch with the touch; that is to say, how the fires touch and burn the souls.



... Second Addition. The second: When I wake up, not giving place to any other thought, to turn my attention immediately to what I am going to contemplate in the first Exercise, at midnight, bringing myself to confusion for my so many sins, setting examples, as, for instance, if a knight found himself before his king and all his court, ashamed and confused at having much offended him, from whom he had first received many gifts and many favors: in the same way, in the second Exercise, making myself a great sinner and in chains; that is to say going to appear bound as in chains before the Supreme Eternal Judge; taking for an example how prisoners in chains and already deserving death, appear before their temporal judge. And I will dress with these thoughts or with others, according to the subject matter....

Sixth Addition. The sixth: Not to want to think on things of pleasure or joy, such as heavenly glory, the Resurrection, etc. Because whatever consideration of joy and gladness hinders our feeling pain and grief and shedding tears for our sins: but to keep before me that I want to grieve and feel pain, bringing to memory rather Death and Judgment.

Seventh Addition. The seventh: For the same end, to deprive myself of all light, closing the blinds and doors while I am in the room, if it be not to recite prayers, to read and eat.

Eighth Addition. The eighth: Not to laugh nor say a thing provocative of laughter.

Ninth Addition. The ninth: To restrain my sight, except in receiving or dismissing the person with whom I have spoken.

Tenth Addition. The tenth Addition is penance. This is divided into interior and exterior. The interior is to grieve for one’s sins, with a firm purpose of not committing them nor any others. The exterior, or fruit of the first, is chastisement for the sins committed, and is chiefly taken in three ways.

First Way. The first is as to eating. That is to say, when we leave off the superfluous, it is not penance, but temperance. It is penance when we leave off from the suitable; and the more and more, the greater and better -- provided that the person does not injure himself, and that no notable illness follows.

Second Way. The second, as to the manner of sleeping. Here too it is not penance to leave off the superfluous of delicate or soft things, but it is penance when one leaves off from the suitable in the manner: and the more and more, the better -- provided that the person does not injure himself and no notable illness follows. Besides, let not anything of the suitable sleep be left off, unless in order to come to the mean, if one has a bad habit of sleeping too much.

Third Way. The third, to chastise the flesh, that is, giving it sensible pain, which is given by wearing haircloth or cords or iron chains next to the flesh, by scourging or wounding oneself, and by other kinds of austerity.

Note. What appears most suitable and most secure with regard to penance is that the pain should be sensible in the flesh and not enter within the bones, so that it give pain and not illness. For this it appears to be more suitable to scourge oneself with thin cords, which give pain exteriorly, rather than in another way which would cause notable illness within.


Take, Lord, and receive all my liberty, my memory, my intellect, and all my will -- all that I have and possess. Thou gavest it to me: to Thee, Lord, I return it! All is Thine, dispose of it according to all Thy will. Give me Thy love and grace, for this is enough for me.



First Rule. The first Rule: In the persons who go from mortal sin to mortal sin, the enemy is commonly used to propose to them apparent pleasures, making them imagine sensual delights and pleasures in order to hold them more and make them grow in their vices and sins. In these persons the good spirit uses the opposite method, pricking them and biting their consciences through the process of reason.

Second Rule. The second: In the persons who are going on intensely cleansing their sins and rising from good to better in the service of God our Lord, it is the method contrary to that in the first Rule, for then it is the way of the evil spirit to bite, sadden and put obstacles, disquieting with false reasons, that one may not go on; and it is proper to the good to give courage and strength, consolations, tears, inspirations and quiet, easing, and putting away all obstacles, that one may go on in well doing.

Third Rule. The third: OF SPIRITUAL CONSOLATION. I call it consolation when some interior movement in the soul is caused, through which the soul comes to be inflamed with love of its Creator and Lord; and when it can in consequence love no created thing on the face of the earth in itself, but in the Creator of them all....

Fourth Rule. The fourth: OF SPIRITUAL DESOLATION. I call desolation all the contrary of the third rule, such as darkness of soul, disturbance in it, movement to things low and earthly, the unquiet of different agitations and temptations, moving to want of confidence, without hope, without love, when one finds oneself all lazy, tepid, sad, and as if separated from his Creator and Lord. Because, as consolation is contrary to desolation, in the same way the thoughts which come from consolation are contrary to the thoughts which come from desolation.

Fifth Rule. The fifth: In time of desolation never to make a change; but to be firm and constant in the resolutions and determination in which one was the day preceding such desolation, or in the determination in which he was in the preceding consolation. Because, as in consolation it is rather the good spirit who guides and counsels us, so in desolation it is the bad, with whose counsels we cannot take a course to decide rightly.

Sixth Rule. The sixth: Although in desolation we ought not to change our first resolutions, it is very helpful intensely to change ourselves against the same desolation, as by insisting more on prayer, meditation, on much examination, and by giving ourselves more scope in some suitable way of doing penance.

Seventh Rule. The seventh: Let him who is in desolation consider how the Lord has left him in trial in his natural powers, in order to resist the different agitations and temptations of the enemy; since he can with the Divine help, which always remains to him, though he does not clearly perceive it: because the Lord has taken from him his great fervor, great love and intense grace, leaving him, however, grace enough for eternal salvation.

Eighth Rule. The eighth: Let him who is in desolation labor to be in patience, which is contrary to the vexations which come to him: and let him think that he will soon be consoled, employing against the desolation the devices, as is said in the sixth Rule.

Ninth Rule. The ninth: There are three principal reasons why we find ourselves desolate.

The first is, because of our being tepid, lazy or negligent in our spiritual exercises; and so through our faults, spiritual consolation withdraws from us.

The second, to try us and see how much we are and how much we let ourselves out in His service and praise without such great pay of consolation and great graces.

The third, to give us true acquaintance and knowledge, that we may interiorly feel that it is not ours to get or keep great devotion, intense love, tears, or any other spiritual consolation, but that all is the gift and grace of God our Lord, and that we may not build a nest in a thing not ours, raising our intellect into some pride or vainglory, attributing to us devotion or the other things of the spiritual consolation.

Tenth Rule. The tenth: Let him who is in consolation think how he will be in the desolation which will come after, taking new strength for then.

Eleventh Rule. The eleventh: Let him who is consoled see to humbling himself and lowering himself as much as he can, thinking how little he is able for in the time of desolation without such grace or consolation.

On the contrary, let him who is in desolation think that he can do much with the grace sufficient to resist all his enemies, taking strength in his Creator and Lord.

Twelfth Rule. The twelfth: The enemy acts like a woman, in being weak against vigor and strong of will. Because, as it is the way of the woman when she is quarrelling with some man to lose heart, taking flight when the man shows her much courage: and on the contrary, if the man, losing heart, begins to fly, the wrath, revenge, and ferocity of the woman is very great, and so without bounds; in the same manner, it is the way of the enemy to weaken and lose heart, his temptations taking flight, when the person who is exercising himself in spiritual things opposes a bold front against the temptations of the enemy, doing diametrically the opposite. And on the contrary, if the person who is exercising himself commences to have fear and lose heart in suffering the temptations, there is no beast so wild on the face of the earth as the enemy of human nature in following out his damnable intention with so great malice.

Thirteenth Rule. The thirteenth: Likewise, he acts as a licentious lover in wanting to be secret and not revealed. For, as the licentious man who, speaking for an evil purpose, solicits a daughter of a good father or a wife of a good husband, wants his words and persuasions to be secret, and the contrary displeases him much, when the daughter reveals to her father or the wife to her husband his licentious words and depraved intention, because he easily gathers that he will not be able to succeed with the undertaking begun: in the same way, when the enemy of human nature brings his wiles and persuasions to the just soul, he wants and desires that they be received and kept in secret; but when one reveals them to his good Confessor or to another spiritual person that knows his deceits and evil ends, it is very grievous to him, because he gathers, from his manifest deceits being discovered, that he will not be able to succeed with his wickedness begun.

Fourteenth Rule. The fourteenth: Likewise, he behaves as a chief bent on conquering and robbing what he desires: for, as a captain and chief of the army, pitching his camp, and looking at the forces or defences of a stronghold, attacks it on the weakest side, in like manner the enemy of human nature, roaming about, looks in turn at all our virtues, theological, cardinal and moral; and where he finds us weakest and most in need for our eternal salvation, there he attacks us and aims at taking us.



First Rule. The first: It is proper to God and to His Angels in their movements to give true spiritual gladness and joy, taking away all sadness and disturbance which the enemy brings on. Of this latter it is proper to fight against the spiritual gladness and consolation, bringing apparent reasons, subtleties and continual fallacies.

Second Rule. The second: It belongs to God our Lord to give consolation to the soul without preceding cause, for it is the property of the Creator to enter, go out and cause movements in the soul, bringing it all into love of His Divine Majesty. I say without cause: without any previous sense or knowledge of any object through which such consolation would come, through one’s acts of understanding and will.

Third Rule. The third: With cause, as well the good Angel as the bad can console the soul, for contrary ends: the good Angel for the profit of the soul, that it may grow and rise from good to better, and the evil Angel, for the contrary, and later on to draw it to his damnable intention and wickedness.

Fourth Rule. The fourth: It is proper to the evil Angel, who forms himself under the appearance of an angel of light, to enter with the devout soul and go out with himself: that is to say, to bring good and holy thoughts, conformable to such just soul, and then little by little he aims at coming out drawing the soul to his covert deceits and perverse intentions.

Fifth Rule. The fifth: We ought to note well the course of the thoughts, and if the beginning, middle and end is all good, inclined to all good, it is a sign of the good Angel; but if in the course of the thoughts which he brings it ends in something bad, of a distracting tendency, or less good than what the soul had previously proposed to do, or if it weakens it or disquiets or disturbs the soul, taking away its peace, tranquillity and quiet, which it had before, it is a clear sign that it proceeds from the evil spirit, enemy of our profit and eternal salvation.

Sixth Rule. The sixth: When the enemy of human nature has been perceived and known by his serpent’s tail and the bad end to which he leads on, it helps the person who was tempted by him, to look immediately at the course of the good thoughts which he brought him at their beginning, and how little by little he aimed at making him descend from the spiritual sweetness and joy in which he was, so far as to bring him to his depraved intention; in order that with this experience, known and noted, the person may be able to guard for the future against his usual deceits.

Seventh Rule. The seventh: In those who go on from good to better, the good Angel touches such soul sweetly, lightly and gently, like a drop of water which enters into a sponge; and the evil touches it sharply and with noise and disquiet, as when the drop of water falls on the stone.

And the above-said spirits touch in a contrary way those who go on from bad to worse.

The reason of this is that the disposition of the soul is contrary or like to the said Angels. Because, when it is contrary, they enter perceptibly with clatter and noise; and when it is like, they enter with silence as into their own home, through the open door.

Eighth Rule. The eighth: When the consolation is without cause, although there be no deceit in it, as being of God our Lord alone, as was said; still the spiritual person to whom God gives such consolation, ought, with much vigilance and attention, to look at and distinguish the time itself of such actual consolation from the following, in which the soul remains warm and favored with the favor and remnants of the consolation past; for often in this second time, through one’s own course of habits and the consequences of the concepts and judgments, or through the good spirit or through the bad, he forms various resolutions and opinions which are not given immediately by God our Lord, and therefore they have need to be very well examined before entire credit is given them, or they are put into effect.



Let the following Rules be observed.

First Rule. The first: All judgment laid aside, we ought to have our mind ready and prompt to obey, in all, the true Spouse of Christ our Lord, which is our holy Mother the Church Hierarchical.

Second Rule. The second: To praise confession to a Priest, and the reception of the most Holy Sacrament of the Altar once in the year, and much more each month, and much better from week to week, with the conditions required and due.

Third Rule. The third: To praise the hearing of Mass often, likewise [40] hymns, psalms, and long prayers, in the church and out of it; likewise the hours set at the time fixed for each Divine Office and for all prayer and all Canonical Hours.

Fourth Rule. The fourth: To praise much Religious Orders, virginity and continence, and not so much marriage as any of these.

Fifth Rule. The fifth: To praise vows of Religion, of obedience, of poverty, of chastity and of other perfections of supererogation. And it is to be noted that as the vow is about the things which approach to Evangelical perfection, a vow ought not to be made in the things which withdraw from it, such as to be a merchant, or to be married, etc.

Sixth Rule. To praise relics of the Saints, giving veneration to them and praying to the Saints; and to praise Stations, pilgrimages, Indulgences, pardons, Cruzadas, and candles lighted in the churches.

Seventh Rule. To praise Constitutions about fasts and abstinence, as of Lent, Ember Days, Vigils, Friday and Saturday; likewise penances, not only interior, but also exterior.

Eighth Rule. To praise the ornaments and the buildings of churches; likewise images, and to venerate them according to what they represent.

Ninth Rule. Finally, to praise all precepts of the Church, keeping the mind prompt to find reasons in their defence and in no manner against them.

Tenth Rule. We ought to be more prompt to find good and praise as well the Constitutions and recommendations as the ways of our Superiors. Because, although some are not or have not been such, to speak against them, whether preaching in public or discoursing before the common people, would rather give rise to fault-finding and scandal than profit; and so the people would be incensed against their Superiors, whether temporal or spiritual. So that, as it does harm to speak evil to the common people of Superiors in their absence, so it can make profit to speak of the evil ways to the persons themselves who can remedy them.

Eleventh Rule. To praise positive and scholastic learning. Because, as it is more proper to the Positive Doctors, as St. Jerome, St. Augustine and St. Gregory, etc., to move the heart to love and serve God our Lord in everything; so it is more proper to the Scholastics, as St. Thomas, St. Bonaventure, and to the Master of the Sentences, etc., to define or explain for our times the things necessary for eternal salvation; and to combat and explain better all errors and all fallacies. For the Scholastic Doctors, as they are more modern, not only help themselves with the true understanding of the Sacred Scripture and of the Positive and holy Doctors, but also, they being enlightened and clarified by the Divine virtue, help themselves by the Councils, Canons and Constitutions of our holy Mother the Church.

Twelfth Rule. We ought to be on our guard in making comparison of those of us who are alive to the blessed passed away, because error is committed not a little in this; that is to say, in saying, this one knows more than St. Augustine; he is another, or greater than, St. Francis; he is another St. Paul in goodness, holiness, etc.

Thirteenth Rule. To be right in everything, we ought always to hold that the white which I see, is black, if the Hierarchical Church so decides it, believing that between Christ our Lord, the Bridegroom, and the Church, His Bride, there is the same Spirit which governs and directs us for the salvation of our souls. Because by the same Spirit and our Lord Who gave the ten Commandments, our holy Mother the Church is directed and governed.

Fourteenth Rule. Although there is much truth in the assertion that no one can save himself without being predestined and without having faith and grace; we must be very cautious in the manner of speaking and communicating with others about all these things.

Fifteenth Rule. We ought not, by way of custom, to speak much of predestination; but if in some way and at some times one speaks, let him so speak that the common people may not come into any error, as sometimes happens, saying: Whether I have to be saved or condemned is already determined, and no other thing can now be, through my doing well or ill; and with this, growing lazy, they become negligent in the works which lead to the salvation and the spiritual profit of their souls.

Sixteenth Rule. In the same way, we must be on our guard that by talking much and with much insistence of faith, without any distinction and explanation, occasion be not given to the people to be lazy and slothful in works, whether before faith is formed in charity or after.

Seventeenth Rule. Likewise, we ought not to speak so much with insistence on grace that the poison of discarding liberty be engendered.

So that of faith and grace one can speak as much as is possible with the Divine help for the greater praise of His Divine Majesty, but not in such way, nor in such manners, especially in our so dangerous times, that works and free will receive any harm, or be held for nothing.

Eighteenth Rule. Although serving God our Lord much out of pure love is to be esteemed above all; we ought to praise much the fear of His Divine Majesty, because not only filial fear is a thing pious and most holy, but even servile fear -- when the man reaches nothing else better or more useful -- helps much to get out of mortal sin. And when he is out, he easily comes to filial fear, which is all acceptable and grateful to God our Lord: as being at one with the Divine Love.

-- The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola

Students came from today’s Austria, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Italy, Croatia, and also Germany, France, England, Switzerland, and the USA. The highly-international teacher and student body flourished there until the outbreak of World War I.[2] The conversational language was Latin.

The Stella Matutina scholars were well-known at the time. Achille Ratti, later Pope Pius XI, and Ludwig von Pastor went to Feldkirch to conduct joint research with Jesuit professors of the Stella.[3] The Jesuit professors were expected to publish in their respective fields and not a few of them taught at the Gregorian University before or after their time at the Stella. A 1931 volume of 26 publications shows a wide range of topics, from theology to law and natural sciences.[4] After the outbreak of World War I, the Stella lost much of its international flair[2] and educated mainly students from German-speaking countries, including much of the Catholic aristocracy.

The religious spirit of Stella Matutina manifested itself in occupational choices after graduation. Over twenty of the graduates (1896–1938) entered the priesthood, in many cases the Jesuits. It operated until 1938, when the Nazis forced the closing of the school.[5] With the help of French occupation forces, headed by a former student, Stella Matutina reopened in 1946 and continued until 1979. Today the building houses the Vorarlberger Landeskonservatorium, with over 400 students of music.

Stilts game and soccer

According to Feldkirch authorities, in the late 19th century, English students introduced soccer to the Stella and thus to Austria.[6] This is debatable. From 1856 on, sports at the Stella was dominated by the now defunct stilts game, "soccer on stilts". The stilts, usually made from wood, were relatively short. They reached "with a transverse grab handle up to the middle of the thigh ... where they were clasped with a firm grip." Arm and leg muscles were activated by running on stilts and particularly by striking the ball with them.[2]:18

On the playground there was ... only a gang of savage boys who, a big stalk in each hand, fought like possessed for a leather ball. ... There were some real masters among us, at home on the stalks just as on their own legs. ... As far as I am concerned, I was soon able to overtake in a race a good foot runner, to take obstacles jumping, to hop on one stalk - the other one swinging - across the whole width of the yard.[7]

Since the stilt "was played with fanaticism", there were dangerous wounds – broken legs, lost teeth, etc. – and there were always quarrels among the players, who had the habit of hitting each other with the stilts. Because of these violent consequences, the stilts game was forbidden at the Stella Matutina and the "entombment of the stilts did not take place without streams of tears." The students went on strike, and the Jesuits permitted the less violent soccer version to be played. Unlike today's soccer, the players were allowed to use hands and there was no referee.[8]

Not only soccer was popular. The pride of the school was a larger-than-Olympic size indoor pool, which was completed in 1912, the only one in Austria-Hungary at the time. A delegation from the ministry in Vienna complained in 1912 that there is no other school in Austria with an indoor pool, not to mention such a large one.[9] Ninety minutes were available in the afternoon on a daily basis for sports. The students had six large play grounds, which were converted for ice skating and hockey in winter.[10]

Famous faculty and alumni

Alfred Delp, SJ

Stella Matutina had a series of well known professors and educators;[7] among them, hymnodist and hymnoogist Joseph Hermann Mohr, Franz Xavier Wernz, the General of the Jesuit Order; the Swiss theologian Hans Urs von Balthasar; Cardinal Franz Ehrle, Professor and Rector of Innsbruck University; Hugo Rahner; social reformer Pesch; Max Pribilla and Erich Przywara, liberal authors; Otto Faller, Papal advisor, scholar and superior; Johann Georg Hagen, Jesuit priest and astronomer; Niklaus Brantschen, Zen master, author, and founder of the Lassalle-Institute; Michael Czinkota, Professor of International Business Economics at Georgetown University (Washington, D.C.);[11] Thomas Baumer, Swiss interculturalist and personality assessor; and Arthur Conan Doyle, the Scottish physician and writer.[12] Other notable characters include Alfred Delp and Alois Grimm, resistance fighters against the Nazis and martyrs; others survived concentration camps, including Friedrich Muckermann, Augustin Rösch, and professors Oswald von Nell-Breuning and Rudolf Cornely. Some professors and educators were previous students, such as Jesuit General Franz Xavier Wernz, Cardinal Franz Ehrle, and Professor Johann Baptist Singenberger.[7] Other Stella Matutina students include Aloys Prinz zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg, President of the German Catholic Association; "The Lion of Münster", Blessed Cardinal Clemens August Graf von Galen; Kurt Schuschnigg, last Chancellor of Austria before Hitler's take-over in 1938; and Heiner Geißler.


Director Otto Faller, left (1924-1934)), and Generalpräfekt Augustin Rösch, right (1929-1935) headed Stella Matutina

• Alex Blöchlinger SJ Die Bewegte Geschichte des Kollegs Stella Matutina von 1856–1938 und 1946–1979; Illustrierte Buchausgabe: Bucher Verlag, Hohenems 2006, 155 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-902525-52-9
• Otto Faller SJ 25 Jahre Kolleg St.Blasien, in: "Kollegbrief 1959" Kolleg St. Blasien (Hrsg), St. Blasien 1959, Seiten 20–25
• Albert Heitlinger SJ Über alte Jesuitenkollegien und ihre Pädagogik in: "Kollegbrief Weihnachten 1954" Kolleg St. Blasien (Hrsg), St. Blasien 1954
• Josef Knünz SJ 100 Jahre Stella Matutina 1856–1956 J.N.Teutsch, Bregenz 1956
• Alois Koch SJ, Play and Sport at the Jesuit College "Stella Matutina" in Feldkirch, Published in: W. Schwank (and others ed.): Begegnung. Schriftenreihe zur Geschichte der Beziehung zwischen Christentum und Sport, volume 4. Aachen 2003
• Josef Stiglmayr SJ Festschrift zur Feier des Fünfzigjährigen Pensionats U L F Stella Matutina in Feldkirch Feldkirch, Austria, 1906
• Stella Matutina (Hrsg.) 75 Jahre Stella Matutina Band 1-3; Selbstverlag, Feldkirch, Austria, 1931; Band I: Abhandlungen von Mitgliedern des Lehrkörpers; Band II: Abhandlungen von ehemaligen Zöglingen; Band III: Stellazeiten und Stellaleben, geschildert von Zöglingen mit 103 Bildtafeln
• Stella Matutina Jahresberichte, Stella Matutina Feldkirch, (annual reports)
• Anton Ludewig SJ Briefe und Akten zur Geschichte des Gymnasiums und des Kollegs der Gesellschaft Jesu in Feldkirch (1649–1773) in: Jahresberichten des Privatgymnasiums Stella Matutina (1908–1911)

See also

Stella Matutina College of Education in Chennai, India


1. Josef Knünz SJ 100 Jahre Stella Matutina 1856-1956 J.N.Teutsch, Bregenz 1956; p.10
2. Josef Knünz SJ 100 Jahre Stella Matutina 1856-1956 J.N.Teutsch, Bregenz 1956; p.178
3. Stella Matutina (Hrsg.), introduction Band III: Stellazeiten und Stellaleben, geschildert von Zöglingen mit 103 Bildtafeln V
4. Stella Matutina (Hrsg.), introduction Band I Abhandlungen von Mitgliedern des Lehrkörpers
5. Josef Knünz SJ 100 Jahre Stella Matutina 1856-1956 J.N.Teutsch, Bregenz 1956; pp. 180, 149
6. de:Feldkirch#Wiege des .C3.B6sterreichischen Fu.C3.9Fballs
7. Index of Names, Stella Matutina (ed.) 75 Jahre Stella Matutina Band III: Stellazeiten und Stellaleben, geschildert von Zöglingen mit 103 Bildtafeln
8. Alois Koch, Play and Sport at the Jesuit College "Stella Matutina" in Feldkirch, p.19
9. Stella Matutina Jahresbericht 1912, p. 31
10. Stella Matutina Jahresbericht, 1909, p. 29
11. Liechtenstein Embassy Newsletter (Fall 2007)
12. Holmes at Stella Matutina. In:, 15. Mai 2009
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Dec 02, 2019 5:35 am

Whare Ra
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/1/19



Whare Ra is the name of the building which housed the New Zealand branch of the magical order the Stella Matutina. It was designed and the construction overseen by one of New Zealand's most famous architects, and a senior member of the Order, James Walter Chapman-Taylor.

Whare Ra was one of the last surviving Temples that could trace its lineage back to the original Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. It was the only Temple to operate in a permanent, purpose-built building.

Early preparations

Cover of The Forerunner, No. 16, October 1913.

The foundations for the Order in New Zealand were laid by Reginald Gardiner (1872-1959).[1] Born in New South Wales, Australia, he was the son of an Anglican vicar and brother of the Anglican vicar of St Luke's Church, Havelock North, New Zealand, where he finally settled in 1907. He formed about him an artistic, cultural and spiritual group whose activities became known as the "Havelock Work", and produced a publication called “The Forerunner”.[2] The Havelock Work grew and in time the group became known as the Society of the Southern Cross.

In 1910, Revd. Father J. Fitzgerald travelled to New Zealand on Church business, and was introduced to the group.[3] He was suitably impressed, and prior to his return to Britain, promised to stay in touch and to do what he could to help. One of the last G.H. [Greatly Honored] Chiefs of the Order later recollected:

"‘Needless to say, this visit filled the group with hope and expectation. They kept in touch with the priest after he returned to England and conducted their meetings as he instructed them’."[4]

In due course he wrote that if further progress were to be made, that certain people of his acquaintance would need to come out from England.[5]

In 1912 Dr. Robert Felkin, Chief of the Order of the Stella Matutina arrived, assisted by his appointment as Inspector of the Australasian Colleges[3] of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia by William Wynn Westcott, one of the original Chiefs of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and Supreme Magus of the S.R.I.A.

Founding of the Smaragdum Thallasses Temple No 49

The South side of Whare Ra.

Travelling with his wife and daughter, he initiated a group of twenty-four members into the Order, twelve of whom were advanced to the "Second Order".[1] A sizeable piece of land was donated, and a home for the Order constructed, which they named “Whare Ra”, or House of the Sun. It was in the basement of this house, that the large Temple was built.

"Whare Ra is a large 3,000 sq. ft. building with the upper floor having the same footprint as the Temple below. The reinforced concrete construction was an innovative choice at the time when there was still strong resistance to any building material other than timber. But 'Whare Ra' was to be a very different building from a domestic home and the advantages of fire resistance, low maintenance, permanence and durability appealed. Also, the monolithic quality could not be ignored and it was desirable that the Temple should be of one continuous form. The reinforced walls were six inches thick and were poured by sections at a time into boxing of around a metre in height."[6]

During their three-month stay, sufficient members had been initiated to make a beginning, and the building commissioned and sufficiently advanced to enable its Consecration. Before leaving New Zealand to return to England, a Warrant was issued establishing the Smaragdum Thallasses Temple No. 49 of the Order of the Stella Matutina. The three Chiefs that appeared on the Warrant were Reginald Gardiner, Mason Chambers, and probably Harold Large (or possibly Thomas Chambers).[1]

A trust had been set up to manage the monetary affairs of the Order, with the trustees being Mason Chambers, his wife Margaret Chambers, the younger John Chambers, and Reginald Gardiner. The trust deed stated that the group was formed:

"For the purpose of instituting carrying on or developing such scientific, religious charitable and similar work as the trustees shall in this discretion deem expedient and also for the purpose of aiding and assisting the carrying out or developing of literary work in all its branches and crafts work and similar or analogous work of which the trustees may in their absolute discretion approve or for such one or more or all of the above purposes as the trustees may from time to time determine."[7]

John von Dadelszen, who spent most of his adult life in the Order, and who had been a Temple Warden and one of its last Chiefs, stated that the Order:

"...used a threefold system of training, i.e. ceremonial, meditation and personal study. The ceremonial involved a series of grades, with an appropriate ritual for each grade; rather on the lines of Masonic degrees, but based on the symbolism of the Tree of Life, which is the Hebrew Qabalah. There was also a special ceremony, of a more cosmic nature, to mark the vernal and autumnal equinoxes."[5]

The North side of Whare Ra.

A contemporary of John von Dadelszen, and fellow Chief Archie Shaw, wrote of the role of the three Chiefs, in his 1960 address to members:

"The three Chiefs are responsible for the conduct of the whole Order, under the guidance of the Divine Powers Who direct the Order.

"Each Chief brings to his office his own particular talents. Together they form an equilateral triangle - a balanced and harmonious whole, and should be regarded as equal in all respects.

"The Chiefs should act in harmony and speak as one in all matters pertaining to the rule of the Order. They have the responsibility of ensuring that the true traditions of the Order are preserved, no matter what changes may come about in the future.
They will consult as necessity arises, with the Council of the Order, composed of senior members, and may possibly delegate certain duties to senior members from time to time.

"The three Wardens also form a triangle, and are responsible, as deputies of the three Chiefs, for the running of the Outer Order. In practice they should be regarded as equal with one another in their office as Warden, notwithstanding that they may possibly be of different Grades.

"The Chiefs will meet with the Wardens at regular intervals, and generally maintain such contact as is necessary for the smooth functioning of the whole."[4]

The temple prospers

In 1916, at the invitation of the members of the New Zealand branch, and with the offer of life tenancy of “Whare Ra”, Dr Felkin and his family returned to New Zealand for good. He issued a new constitution for the Order of the Stella Matutina in the same year, informing members that the Mother Temple of the Order was now in New Zealand.[8] The Order, governed by three ruling Chiefs, prospered under their leadership. By the time of the death of Dr Felkin in 1926, it had a very active membership and was well established – its membership included two Anglican Bishops, General Sir Arthur Russell, Lord Jellicoe, Governor General of New Zealand,[1] members of Parliament, and local dignitaries and officials.

Entrance to the Temple, by the candidate for initiation, was via a secret staircase behind a wardrobe, located in Dr Felkin's surgery.[1]

“Halfway down the stairs, where the candidate was required to await further instructions, was a landing, known as “the Cave”, lined with hessian curtains on which Egyptian figures were worked in light blue. After an interval of time the candidate was met by two Temple officers dressed in robes and Egyptian headdresses, blind-folded by one of them, and then led into the Temple where the ceremony of initiation began.”[1]

Felkin's grave inscription.

In 1931 a devastating earthquake hit the area, and many buildings were levelled or damaged. With its fortress like construction, Whare Ra was unscathed.

"The big earthquake of 1931 did no damage whatsoever. Except that the Black Pillar, being top-heavy fell on the paw of the black sphinx on the north side of the steps to the dais in the Temple below the house."[1]

Mr Gardiner replaced Dr Felkin as a Greatly Honoured Chief of the Order, and with Mrs and Miss Felkin,[2][5] ruled for a further stable period of 33 years.

In its heyday during the 1930s, it has been estimated that its membership numbered some 300 men and woman, and during its 60-plus-year history that approximately 400–500 people had been initiated.[1] It was during this time that the Temple distanced itself from the affairs of the Stella Matutina in Britain, and renamed itself simply the Order of Smaragdum Thallasses.[7]

In 1949, in the last issue of The Lantern, Mrs. Felkin stated:

"Perhaps, before very long, someone else will take up the torch that I lay down and endeavour to carry the light a little further. Put as briefly as I can express it, I think it is the conviction of the reality of a spiritual world, not beyond or above our ordinary, everyday world, but interwoven with it here and now."[5]

In the Annual Report for year ending 31 December 1959, the Order's Cancellarius reported that:

"During the past year 18 Ceremonies were held and the number of members advanced to the higher grades will add greatly to the strength of the Order. Four new members were admitted and we welcome them. It may be said that four new members in one year is not many, but we must remember that the Path of Initiation is only for the few. The Order does not actively seek members, but those who are ready are inevitably drawn to the Light".[4]

In 1959 Mr Gardiner and Mrs Felkin died, followed by Miss Felkin three years later.

During the late 1960s, Frater Albertus of the Paracelsus Research Society visited Whare Ra. He reported this visit to members of the society in one of their bulletins.[9]

"In the heart of the north island--New Zealand has two main islands-- is an interesting spot where much activity centers about the ancient wisdom. Not only are the Maories custodians of this ancient wisdom, but the later settlers brought much with them from Europe that they know how to perpetuate. Dr. Felkin was one of them. Under the Maori name "Whare Ra" (house of the sun) the Order of the Golden Dawn has its present quarters and underground temple in a beautiful, secluded and heavily landscaped place.

"The "chiefs" as they are called, heading Whare Ra, Messrs. von Dadelszen and Salt and Mrs. Jones, whom we met proved to be very fine people with a fervent interest in perpetuating the work of the Golden Dawn, brought to New Zealand by Dr. Felkin before the first World War."


However, by 1978 it was clear that Whare Ra was a spent force. On 24 August 1978 a letter was circulated to members announcing the closure:

"Dear Fratres and Sorores,

This letter is addressed to all members of the Order of S.T., including members of the Second Order.
It is with great great regret that we write to inform you that the Temple is closing and there will be no Vernal Equinox Ceremony.

Those of you who have been present at recent Equinox Ceremonies will surely have been aware, not only of the lack of numbers, but also the lack of power, in the Temple. Those who have read their annual reports can scarcely have failed to notice that no new members have been admitted since 1975. Indeed there have been no grade ceremonies at all for the last two years or more. ..."

Much to the regret of many esoteric historians they burnt most of the group's regalia, Temple furnishings and records. Fortunately some things survived, including the Temple's pillars, the two sphinxes which flanked either side of the dais steps, and many copies of the rituals and lectures were passed on and preserved.

Whare Ra is now in private hands, and has been registered as a category "I" protected building by the New Zealand Historic Places Trust.


1. Anon (2012). The Lantern Volume I (A Wayfaring Man Part I). Sub Rosa Press New Zealand. ISBN 978-0-473-23184-2.
2. Ellwood, Robert S. (1993). Islands of the Dawn. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1487-8.
3. Zalewski, Patrick J. (1988). Secret Inner Order Rituals of the Golden Dawn. Falcon Press. ISBN 0-941404-65-X.
4. Anon (2015). The Lantern Volume II (A Wayfaring Man Part II). Sub Rosa Press New Zealand. ISBN 978-0-473-33874-9.
5. von Dadelszen, John (September 9, 1983). The Havelock Work 1909-39. Te Mata Times.
6. Siers, Judy (2007). The Life and Times of James Walter Chapman-Taylor. Millwood Heritage Productions. ISBN 978-0-473-11340-7.
7. Wright, Matthew (1996). Havelock North, The History of a Village. Hastings District Council. ISBN 0-473-03962-1.
8. Gilbert, R. A. (1986). The Golden Dawn Companion. Aquarian Press. ISBN 0-85030-436-9.
9. Paracelsus Research Society (1968). Alchemical Laboratory Bulletin, Paracelsus Research Society 3rd Quarter, 1968, No. 36.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Dec 02, 2019 6:41 am

Community of the Resurrection
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/1/19



Felkin and the Temple

In 1910 the Community of the Resurrection at Mirfield sent a mission of help to New Zealand, preaching and conducting retreats. One of the visiting priests was a Father Fitzgerald, whom Miss McLean had met in Britain, and she arranged for him to meet members of the Havelock prayer group. He agreed to be the director of their spiritual work from Britain. After a period of instruction, focussing on an esoteric approach to Christianity, Father Fitzgerald told the group that they had reached a level where personal instruction would be necessary, and he recommended a Dr. Robert Felkin for the task, who was the head of the Stella Matutina. Within a week the group had cabled £300 passage, supplied by Maurice Chambers and his father, Mason, and his uncle John, for Felkin and his family to visit New Zealand for three months. During this visit in 1912 Dr Felkin established the Smaragdum Thalasses Temple of the Stella Matutina, and later emigrated permanently to NZ in 1916, when he took up the day-to-day running of the Temple until his death in 1926.

-- Havelock Work, by Wikipedia

Community of the Resurrection
Community church
Country: United Kingdom
Denomination: Church of England
Parish: Christ the King, Battyeford
Deanery: Dewsbury
Archdeaconry: Halifax
Episcopal area: Huddersfield
Diocese: Leeds
Province: York

Some members of the community

The Community of the Resurrection (CR) is an Anglican religious community for men in England. It is based in Mirfield, West Yorkshire, and has 14 members as of April 2019. The community reflects Anglicanism in its broad nature and is strongly engaged in the life of the Anglican Communion. It also has a long tradition of ecumenical outlook and practice.

CR is dedicated to the mystery of Christ's resurrection. The Constitutions of the community state that

the Community of the Resurrection is called specially to public, prophetic witness to the Christian hope of the Kingdom. The common life and corporate worship of its members is properly made visible in its works, which embrace social and missionary concern.... The dedication to the Resurrection does not indicate an obligation to particular works or particular places, but rather a commitment to make public the fruits of the community life and worship in order to proclaim the world made new in Christ... its charism... is to live the baptismal vocation through a commitment to community life, sustained by common worship, and issuing in works that are primarily of a public character[1]


Since its foundation, the community has been active in pastoral teaching and mission in different parts of the Anglican Communion. In the 21st century the House of the Resurrection is the motherhouse and centre of the activities of Community of the Resurrection in Mirfield, West Yorkshire, England.

In co-operation with the local diocese, CR runs the Mirfield Centre, which hosts conferences and other events for laity and clergy. Connected with the community are also several Church of England teaching institutions: the College of the Resurrection (which was founded by CR in 1903 as an Anglican theological training college), the Yorkshire Ministry Course (YMC) and the Diocesan School of Ministry. All these institutions are on the same campus at Mirfield.

In recent years numbers visiting Mirfield have increased dramatically, individuals and groups, on day-visits or longer stays, and this has brought a need for more buildings, including a projected new monastery alongside the community's church, for which funds are at present being raised. The community has a long-standing covenant relationship with the Roman Catholic Benedictine St. Matthias' Abbey in Trier, Germany. Central to the work of the community are the activities in its grand church (designed by Walter Tapper), which has been through a comprehensive restoration and reordering from 2009 to 2012.

The community runs a retreat house with organised retreats (for individuals and groups) and has its own publishing house, Mirfield Publications.

As of April 2019, there are 19 oblate brothers living their lives in association with the community by the counsels of chastity, poverty and obedience, while continuing their ministry outside of the community.


Beginnings in Oxford

The Community of the Resurrection (CR) is a child of the Oxford Movement, the Catholic Revival in the Church of England in the 19th century. After several years of preparation 25 July 1892, St James Day, six priests founded a religious community in Pusey House, Oxford, where Charles Gore resided as the first principal of the house. Pusey House, however, was not suited for a religious community and the problem was solved when, the following year, Gore became the vicar of Radley, a few miles south of Oxford. The six brethren moved into the vicarage and "started to learn how to ride a bicycle", as Gore expressed it. The founders of CR wanted the community to develop its own charism based on pastoral involvement. They were all Christian Socialists challenged by the poverty of the working classes and their strong sense of vocation to this group of people made them look for a new home in heavily industrialised Northern England.[2]

House of the Resurrection, Mirfield

Expansion in Mirfield

A large house in the middle of the Diocese of Wakefield, West Yorkshire seemed to fit the purpose. In 1898 the community moved to Mirfield, and this became the centre of the community’s activities. Charles Gore had become a canon of Westminster Abbey in 1894, and though he was officially in charge as superior until 1902, it was under his successor Walter Howard Frere, CR developed its character as a religious community. The brethren regarded their ministry as closely connected to the Church of England, and as an extension of their parish ministry, one of their first tasks was to found a theological training college for men without means. The College of the Resurrection opened in 1902 and has trained ordinands for the priesthood until today. Because part of the teaching was done at University of Leeds, a hostel was built and run in Leeds from 1904 to 1976. Developing a large library of theological literature was a natural thing for a community like CR, but the college made it even more necessary.[3]

Another development was a fraternity for priests and lay people associated with CR and its rule of life. The Fraternity of Companions was established in 1903 and the C.R. Quarterly became the link between them and the community. An order of oblates was formed in 1931 for celibate men who wanted to share the discipline of the religious life with the brethren in a ministry outside the community.

Retreats became an important element of the monastic work. Brethren did retreats in many parts of the country, and, as a part of the continuous extension of the site in Mirfield, a retreat house was built in 1914 and extended to its present size in 1926.[4]

As Anglican Catholics, the brethren laid great store by the beauty of the liturgy, and Walter Frere, a fine musician, was particularly interested in developing the liturgy. He was from an early stage, involved in scholarly work on the chant and the daily offices. To realise this purpose the community needed a proper church and on St Mary Magdalen’s Day, 22 July 1911, the foundation stone of a great church was laid. Though the huge scale of the original plan was not followed, it remains an impressive and unusual building. The western half, completed in 1938, follows a simplified design by the architect's son, Michael Tapper.[5]

The celebrations were not limited to indoors. A quarry next to the house was turned into an open-air theatre shortly after the brethren had arrived at the house and used for sermons, Bible classes, plays and political meetings. The grounds were used for big day events of which the yearly Commemoration Day, celebrating the founding of the college, was the greatest.

Engagement in southern England

Though the community left Oxford, southern England was not forgotten. After his ministry in Westminster, Charles Gore became, successively, Bishop of Worcester, Bishop of Birmingham and Bishop of Oxford and continued his strong focus on mission among the workers. London seemed to be an obvious place to establish a mission as brothers had lived with Gore in Westminster. The community was offered a house in South Kensington in 1914 and the brethren became involved in ministries for the soldiers of the First World War there. After the war a bigger house was found near Holland Park in the same area. The London priory remained there until 1968. Retreats, missions and teaching were the main purposes of the house. The London ministry came under royal protection when it moved to the Royal Foundation of St Katharine in Stepney. Here the priory shared a city ministry with the Community of St. Andrew and the Sisters of the Church until 1993, when the time had come for CR to form its own priory again. CR moved to an abandoned clergy house in Covent Garden and ran a city ministry in the middle of London until 2003.[6]

The community established a retreat house in the south as well, first in St Leonards, Sussex (1931–1948) and later in Hemingford Grey, Cambridgeshire (1950–2010).

Ministry outside of Britain

CR’s ministry in Africa, which became a strong mark of the community in the 20th century, began early. In 1902 one of the aspirants of the early days in Oxford, William Carter, by now the Bishop of Pretoria, invited the brethren to help rebuild his diocese after the devastation of the Boer War. In response three brethren went to Johannesburg and founded a house to work with African miners and do theological training for local Africans. The community undertook the responsibility of St. John’s College in the same city four years later. When the brethren handed the college back to the diocese in 1934 it had become a flourishing education centre. In that year the community was asked to run the parish of Christ the King in the black suburb Sophiatown.

In 1911 a new priory and theological training college (St Peter's Theological College) was opened in the suburb of Rosettenville, which grew steadily with schools for black children and teenagers added in 1922. This college had a great influence on the Church of Southern Africa in the second half of the 20th century.

As in South Africa, the Bishop of Southern Rhodesia, Frederic Hicks Beaven invited the community to run a mission in Penhalonga from 1914. This became the centre of the brethren’s activities in Zimbabwe until it was handed over to local authorities in 1983 shortly after the civil war had ended. The work in Zimbabwe concentrated on running the school for children in Penhalonga and pastoral and educational work in the area, the so-called "treck jobs". There have remained friendly and caring connections to the Anglican Church in Zimbabwe until this day, in the last years especially through the "Tariro" orphanage project led by Nicholas Stebbing CR.

Trevor Huddleston as Bishop of Masasi

Post-war challenges

The number of brethren in the community and the extent of its activities reached a peak around 1960 with over 90 brothers engaged in 12 houses spread over three continents.

A new part of the world was explored when the community accepted an invitation to run Codrington Theological College in Barbados in the West Indies from 1955 to 1969. Having a stable religious community on the site, where students came from a far distance, was a great help for this widespread diocese.[7]

A similar invitation was given from the Church in Wales, where the bishops wanted the charism of CR to be spread among university students. The hostel of St Teilo in Cardiff was made into a priory from 1945 to 1968 with a focus on retreats and student work.[8]

The greatest engagement, however, was in South Africa. A new priory was established in the Northern Transvaal/Sekukuniland in South Africa from 1945 to 1962. The engagement in the struggle against Apartheid became a very visible part of the mission, which made the community famous outside the church with Trevor Huddleston as the most well known of the brethren. The political support to the black population had consequences. The South African government forced the college to move from Rosettenville and the priory in Sophiatown was closed down in 1962. CR continued to do pastoral work in Johannesburg and were able to continue the theological training when the Anglican bishops of Southern Africa asked the community to be a part of a new ecumenical college in Alice, Eastern Cape. The first brethren arrived in 1963 and here the brethren became a part of the fight against Apartheid. After some turbulent years when the theological college was forced to move twice, the community decided to hand the education over to South Africans in 1977. The priory in Rosettenville closed in 1986. A house was run in Stellenbosch from 1968 to 1976, where brothers were involved in running the parish and taking care of the Anglican students. The century of work in South Africa ended in Turffontein, where the community gathered its mission in a priory from 1986 to 2006. The brethren were involved in typical CR work: pastoral care, retreats and conferences connected to Anglican life.

The radical changes of society and church life in the United Kingdom from the 1960s and onwards was a great challenge for CR as well as all other religious communities. The attitude in the new generations towards religious commitment changed. Within the communities fundamental questions of relevance, order of life and ministry were asked and discussed. Several left the communities and fewer people came to explore vocation to the religious life. Though CR was one of the strongest and most committed communities, it did not avoid the struggle and it came to a serious crisis when the superior, with short notice, left the community in 1974.[9]

A new vision and vocation for northern England became active in the 1970s. The loss of spiritual understanding and knowledge of prayer in the great cities was a great concern for the church and contribution from religious communities in this vacuum was obvious. CR supported the vocation of Augustine Hoey CR to make a flat in Hulme, a poor part of Manchester, into a home of prayer in 1973. The project was moved to a redundant vicarage in Sunderland in 1977 and named "Emmaus".[10] Hoey was joined by other brethren and the project lasted until 1993.

College of the Resurrection

Church education, ecumenism and monasticism in the 21st century

When the mission closed down in South Africa in 2006, the House of the Resurrection in Mirfield was the only house of CR. This had not been the case since the community moved to Yorkshire in 1898. This was an opportunity to rethink the charism and mission of CR into a new century.

The College of the Resurrection has been going for more than a century and is still an important ministry in Mirfield. In 2004 the community created a new governing body drawing in a wide range of expertise from outside, but the Community retains a strong involvement in governance, and at present provides a brother as College Principal. It is still the aim to provide students with a formation that draws on the living monastic tradition, while equipping them for ministry in the 21st century. As pastoral formation developed in the northern dioceses the college made a partnership with the Northern Ordination Course, later to become the Yorkshire Ministry Course (from 1996).[11] The community decided to open an educational centre, the Mirfield Centre, in 1998, with its own Director, and a mission to contribute to the Christian formation of the laity in particular. In 2007 the Wakefield School of Ministry made this the centre of its work.[12]

2011 saw the foundation of the Mirfield Liturgical Institute, which promotes scholarly study of the liturgy, with a long-term aim of lay education as well.

There is a long tradition of ecumenical contacts and relations in the community. As a part of his monastic studies Walter Frere had visited Roman Catholic clergy and monasteries in France before he joined the community. In 1928 he became the first Anglican president of the Fellowship of St Alban and St Sergius after a visit to Russia in 1909. Strong links to Roman Catholics and Orthodox have remained in CR and has become even stronger in the age of globalism. On the initiative of the Roman Catholic Benedictine abbey of Trier in Germany, an official friendship, which grew from several visits, was made in 1983, and several brethren have built up links with the Orthodox Church in Romania in a mutual spiritual exchange. There are also links to European Lutherans through the international ecumenical networks of monastics.

The much-needed refurbishment and reordering of the church in 2011 has resulted in a space that is widely acclaimed. The next phase, once the new monastery is built, is for the old house to be converted into urgently-needed facilities for the many people who come.


The community has fostered 11 bishops in different parts of the Anglican Communion. Both of the two founders became bishops in the Church of England. Charles Gore was Bishop of Worcester (1902–05), Birmingham (1905–11) and Oxford (1911–19), and Walter Howard Frere became Bishop of Truro (1923–35). Timothy Rees became Bishop of Llandaff (1931–39) in Wales, and Thomas Hannay became Bishop of Argyll and The Isles in Scotland (1942–62), and Primus of the Scottish Episcopal Church from 1952 to his retirement in 1962.

Most of the bishops of CR have been connected to the Anglican expansion through mission work outside Great Britain. The third bishop of the six founders, James Okey Nash, became coadjutor bishop of the Anglican Diocese of Cape Town from 1917 to 1930. Nash was the first in a row of CR bishops in Africa. A native born South African, Simeon Nkoane, became Desmond Tutu's assistant bishop in the Anglican Diocese of Johannesburg from 1982 to his death in 1989. Robert Mercer was Bishop of Matabeleland in Zimbabwe from 1977 to 1989. He then became a bishop of a Continuing Anglican church, the Anglican Catholic Church of Canada, from 1989 to 2005 and later joined the Anglican-tradition Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham within the Roman Catholic Church in 2012, remaining, however, an external member of CR. Two CR brethren eventually reached archiepiscopal status: Thomas Hannay in Scotland and Trevor Huddleston, Archbishop of the Anglican Church of the Province of the Indian Ocean from 1978 to 1983. Before that he was bishop of the Anglican Diocese of Masasi in Tanzania (1960–68), the suffragan Bishop of Stepney in the Diocese of London (1968–78) and bishop of the Diocese of Mauritius in 1978.

In Asia, William Rupert Mounsey was Bishop of Labuan and Sarawak from 1909 to 1916 and Victor Shearburn was Bishop of Rangoon from 1955 to 1966. The community also had a bishop in the Anglican Diocese of Bermuda, an extraprovincial diocese of Canterbury, with Anselm Genders from 1977 to 1982, who had served previously in both Africa and the West Indies.

CR has had an influence in excess of its numbers in the development of the Anglican Church in South Africa, especially in the ministry of the brethren Raymond Raynes and Trevor Huddleston in Sophiatown and in the influence of Huddleston and the Community of the Resurrection on Desmond Tutu. The existence of St John's College, (Johannesburg) and its ethos are also almost solely due to its founding fathers; James Okey Nash, Thomson, Alston, Hill and at least 11 others, all of whom were community members. It has been a role model for many Southern African schools.

Other influential members have included Robert Hugh Benson (who, however, left CR when he was received into the Roman Catholic Church), John Neville Figgis, Edward Keble Talbot, Lionel Thornton, Martin Jarrett-Kerr, Harry Williams,[13] Geoffrey Beaumont and Benedict Green.


Dietrich Bonhoeffer visited CR in Mirfield in 1935 and, as a result, introduced the recitation of parts of Psalm 119 as part of the daily prayer of the seminary for the Confessing Church. It also inspired him to write his famous book Life Together (Gemeinsames Leben).

Some notable South African brethren completed their novitiates at Mirfield. They include the late Fr Leo Rakale and Bishop Simeon Nkoane (Bishop of Johannesburg West including Soweto) who died young. The Bishop Simeon Memorial Trust is an educational charity founded in London and RSA. The Trevor Huddleston CR Memorial Centre in Sophiatown, Johannesburg, is a locally registered charity (non-profit company) and seeks to continue the legacy of Bishop Trevor, particularly in its work with young people. A new building, the Fr Trevor Huddleston memorial building was opened in September 2015 and hosts programmes from small business development, youth training, to arts, culture and heritage work, aims bring people together, promote community development, as well as remembering the forced removals from Sophiatown which sparked Bishop Trevor's seminal book 'Naught for your comfort'. more: Visitors can take a guided tour of the area, the small museum, and enjoy the garden cafe, as well as hire the venue and attend concerts. All the profits are used to support the work with young people.

List of superiors

The head of the Community of the Resurrection is the superior.

• Charles Gore (1892 to 1902); known as the Senior, later became Bishop of Worcester, Bishop of Birmingham and Bishop of Oxford
• Walter Frere (1902 to 1913); first superior, later became Bishop of Truro
• George Longridge (1914 to 1917)
• Walter Frere (1917 to 1922); second term as superior
• Keble Talbot (1922 to 1940)
• Raymond Raynes (1940 to 1957)[14]
• Jonathan Graham (1957 to 1965)
• Hugh Bishop (1965 to 1974)
• Eric Simmons (1974 to 1987)
• Silvanus Berry (1987 to 1998)
• Crispin Harrison (1998 to 2003)
• George Guiver (2003 to 2018)
• Oswin Gartside (2018 to present)[15]

Notes and references

1. Community of the Resurrection, Constitutions, Prologue
2. Wilkinson 1992, pp. 38–.
3. Wilkinson 1992, pp. 71–.
4. Wilkinson 1992, pp. 181–.
5. Wilkinson 1992, pp. 94, 195.
6. Wilkinson 1992, pp. 47, 130, 337.
7. Wilkinson 1992, pp. 269–.
8. Wilkinson 1992, pp. 169, 198, 337.
9. Wilkinson 1992, pp. 339–.
10. Wilkinson 1992, pp. 338–.
11. "Yorkshire Ministry Course/history".
12. "".
13. "Father Harry Williams". The Daily Telegraph. 3 February 2006. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
14. Mosley, Nicholas (28 September 2012). "My hero: Nicholas Mosley on Fr Raymond Raynes". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
15. "Election and Installation of the next Superior - The Community of the Resurrection". The Community of the Resurrection. 2 February 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
• Wilkinson, Alan (1992). The Community of the Resurrection: A Centenary History. SCM Press. ISBN 978-0-334-02526-9.
• Stebbing, Nicholas; Gordon-Taylor, Benjamin (2011). Walter Frere: Scholar, Monk, Bishop. Hymns Ancient and Modern Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85311-868-5.
• Community of the Resurrection (1991) Constitutions. Community of the Resurrection
• CR Review Quarterly available from The Editors, CR via CR website

External links

• Official website
• Community's commercial website with webshop
• Companions website
• College of the Resurrection website
• Yorkshire Ministry Course website
• Wakefield School of Ministry webpages
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Dec 02, 2019 8:01 am

Oxford Movement
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/2/19



Edward Bouverie Pusey

John Henry Newman

The Oxford Movement was a movement of High Church members of the Church of England which eventually developed into Anglo-Catholicism. The movement, whose original devotees were mostly associated with the University of Oxford, argued for the reinstatement of some older Christian traditions of faith and their inclusion into Anglican liturgy and theology. They thought of Anglicanism as one of three branches of the "one holy, catholic, and apostolic" Christian church. By the 1840s many participants decided that the Anglican Church lacked grace, and converted to Roman Catholicism.

The movement's philosophy was known as Tractarianism after its series of publications, the Tracts for the Times, published from 1833 to 1841. Tractarians were also disparagingly referred to as "Newmanites" (before 1845) and "Puseyites" (after 1845) after two prominent Tractarians, John Henry Newman and Edward Bouverie Pusey.
Other well-known Tractarians included John Keble, Charles Marriott, Richard Froude, Robert Wilberforce, Isaac Williams and William Palmer.

Origins and early period

In the early nineteenth century, different groups were present in the Church of England. Many, particularly in high office, saw themselves as latitudinarian (liberal) in an attempt to broaden the Church's appeal. Conversely, many clergy in the parishes were Evangelicals, as a result of the revival led by John Wesley. Alongside this, the universities became the breeding ground for a movement to restore liturgical and devotional customs which borrowed heavily from traditions before the English Reformation as well as contemporary Roman Catholic traditions.[1]

The immediate impetus for the Tractarian movement was a perceived attack by the reforming Whig administration on the structure and revenues of the Church of Ireland (the established church in Ireland), with the Irish Church Temporalities Bill (1833). This bill not only legislated administrative changes of the hierarchy of the church (for example, with a reduction of bishoprics and archbishoprics) but also made changes to the leasing of church lands, which some (including a number of Whigs) feared would result in a secular appropriation of ecclesiastical property. John Keble criticised these proposals as "National Apostasy" in his Assize Sermon in Oxford in 1833. The Tractarians criticised theological liberalism. Their interest in Christian origins caused some of them to reconsider the relationship of the Church of England with the Roman Catholic Church.

The Tractarians postulated the Branch Theory, which states that Anglicanism along with Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism form three "branches" of the historic Catholic Church. Tractarians argued for the inclusion of traditional aspects of liturgy from medieval religious practice, as they believed the church had become too "plain". In the final tract, "Tract 90", Newman argued that the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, as defined by the Council of Trent, were compatible with the Thirty-Nine Articles of the 16th-century Church of England. Newman's eventual reception into the Roman Catholic Church in 1845, followed by Henry Edward Manning in 1851, had a profound effect upon the movement.[2]


Apart from the Tracts for the Times, the group began a collection of translations of the Church Fathers, which they termed the Library of the Fathers. The collection eventually comprised 48 volumes, the last published three years after Pusey's death. They were issued through Rivington's company with the imprint of the Holyrood Press. The main editor for many of these was Charles Marriott. A number of volumes of original Greek and Latin texts was also published. One of the main contributions that resulted from Tractarianism is the hymnbook entitled Hymns Ancient and Modern which was published in 1861.

Influence and criticism

Keble College, Oxford, founded in 1870, was named after John Keble, a Tractarian, by the influence of Edward Pusey, another Tractarian

The Oxford Movement was criticised for being a mere "Romanising" tendency, but it began to influence the theory and practice of Anglicanism more broadly. Paradoxically, the Oxford Movement was also criticised for being both secretive and collusive.[3]

The Oxford Movement resulted in the establishment of Anglican religious orders, both of men and of women. It incorporated ideas and practices related to the practice of liturgy and ceremony to incorporate more powerful emotional symbolism in the church. In particular it brought the insights of the Liturgical Movement into the life of the church. Its effects were so widespread that the Eucharist gradually became more central to worship, vestments became common, and numerous Roman Catholic practices were re-introduced into worship. This led to controversies within churches that resulted in court cases, as in the dispute about ritualism.

Partly because bishops refused to give livings to Tractarian priests, many of them began working in slums. From their new ministries, they developed a critique of British social policy, both local and national. One of the results was the establishment of the Christian Social Union, of which a number of bishops were members, where issues such as the just wage, the system of property renting, infant mortality and industrial conditions were debated. The more radical Catholic Crusade was a much smaller organisation than the Oxford Movement. Anglo-Catholicism – as this complex of ideas, styles and organisations became known – had a significant influence on global Anglicanism.

End of Newman's involvement and receptions into Roman Catholicism

One of the principal writers and proponents of Tractarianism was John Henry Newman, a popular Oxford priest who, after writing his final tract, "Tract 90", became convinced that the Branch Theory was inadequate. Concerns that Tractarianism was a disguised Roman Catholic movement were not unfounded; Newman believed that the Roman and Anglican churches were wholly compatible. He was received into the Roman Catholic Church in 1845 and was ordained a priest of the Church the same year. He later became a cardinal (but not a bishop). Writing on the end of Tractarianism as a movement, Newman stated:

I saw indeed clearly that my place in the Movement was lost; public confidence was at an end; my occupation was gone. It was simply an impossibility that I could say any thing henceforth to good effect, when I had been posted up by the marshal on the buttery-hatch of every College of my University, after the manner of discommoned pastry-cooks, and when in every part of the country and every class of society, through every organ and opportunity of opinion, in newspapers, in periodicals, at meetings, in pulpits, at dinner-tables, in coffee-rooms, in railway carriages, I was denounced as a traitor who had laid his train and was detected in the very act of firing it against the time-honoured Establishment.[4]

Newman was one of a number of Anglican clergy who were received into the Roman Catholic Church during the 1840s who were either members of, or were influenced by, Tractarianism.

Other people influenced by Tractarianism who became Roman Catholics included:

• Thomas William Allies, ecclesiastical historian and Anglican priest.
• Edward Badeley, ecclesiastical lawyer.
• Robert Hugh Benson, son of the Archbishop of Canterbury, novelist and monsignor.
• John Chapman, patristic scholar and Roman Catholic priest.
• Augusta Theodosia Drane, writer and Dominican prioress.
• Frederick William Faber, theologian, hymn writer, Oratorian and Roman Catholic priest.
• Robert Stephen Hawker, poet and Anglican priest (became a Roman Catholic on his deathbed).
• James Hope-Scott, barrister and Tractarian (received with Manning).
• Gerard Manley Hopkins, poet and Jesuit priest.
• Ronald Knox, Biblical text translator and Anglican priest.
• Thomas Cooper Makinson, Anglican priest.
• Henry Edward Manning, later Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster.
• St. George Jackson Mivart, biologist (later interdicted by Cardinal Herbert Vaughan).
• John Brande Morris, Orientalist, eccentric and Roman Catholic priest.
• Augustus Pugin, architect.
• Richard Sibthorp, Anglican (and sometime Roman Catholic) priest (the first to convert; later reconverted)
• William George Ward, theologian.

Others associated with Tractarianism

• Edward Burne-Jones
• Richard William Church
• William Coope
• Margaret Anna Cusack
• George Anthony Denison
• Philip Egerton
• Alexander Penrose Forbes
• William Ewart Gladstone
• George Cornelius Gorham
• Renn Dickson Hampden
• Walter Farquhar Hook
• William Lockhart
• John Medley
• James Bowling Mozley
• Thomas Mozley
• John Mason Neale
• William Upton Richards
• Christina Rossetti
Lord Salisbury
• Nathaniel Woodard

See also

• Christianity portal
• Oxfordshire portal
• Anglican Breviary
• Anglican Communion
• Cambridge Camden Society
• Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament
• Guild of All Souls
• Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology
• Neo-Lutheranism
• Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham
• Society of the Holy Cross
• Society of King Charles the Martyr
• Society of Mary (Anglican)
• Crypto-papism


1. "The Church of England (the Anglican Church)". Retrieved 7 December 2015.
2. "A Short History of the Oxford Movement". Mocavo.
3. Walsh, Walter The Secret History of the Oxford Movement, with a New Preface Containing a Reply to Critics, London Church Association, 1899.
4. "The Tractarian Movement". Retrieved 7 December 2015.

Further reading

• Bexell, Oloph, "The Oxford Movement as received in Sweden." Kyrkohistorisk årsskrift. Publications of the Swedish Society of Church History 1:106 (2006).
• Brown, Stewart J. & Nockles, Peter B. ed. The Oxford Movement: Europe and the Wider World 1830–1930, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
• Burgon, John, Lives of Twelve Good Men. Includes biography of Charles Marriott.
• Chadwick, Owen. Mind of the Oxford Movement, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1960.
• Church, R. W., The Oxford Movement: Twelve Years, 1835–1845, ed. and with an introd. by Geoffrey Best, in series, Classics of British Historical Literature, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970. xxxii, [2], 280 p. ISBN 0-226-10619-5 (pbk.)
• Church, R. W. The Oxford Movement: Twelve Years, 1833–1845, London: Macmillan & Co., 1891.
• Crumb, Lawrence N. The Oxford Movement and Its Leaders: a bibliography of secondary and lesser primary sources. (ATLA Bibliography Series, 56). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2009.
• Dearing, Trevor Wesleyan and Tractarian Worship. London: Epworth Press, 1966.
• Dilworth-Harrison, T. Every Man's Story of the Oxford Movement. London: A. R. Mowbray & Co., 1932.
• Faught, C. Brad. The Oxford Movement: a thematic history of the Tractarians and their times, University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-271-02249-9
• Halifax, Charles Lindley Wood, Viscount, The Agitation Against the Oxford Movement, Office of the English Church Union, 1899.
• Hall, Samuel. A Short History of the Oxford Movement, London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1906.
• Herring, George (2016) The Oxford Movement in Practice. Oxford University Press (based on the author's D.Phil. thesis; it examines the Tractarian parochial world from the 1830s to the 1870s)
• Hutchison, William G. The Oxford Movement, being a Selection from Tracts for the Times, London: Walter Scott Pub. Co., 1906.
• Kelway, Clifton (1915) The Story of the Catholic Revival. London: Cope & Fenwick
• Kendall, James. "A New Oxford Movement in England," The American Catholic Quarterly Review, Vol. XXII, 1897.
• Leech, Kenneth & Williams, Rowan (eds) Essays Catholic and Radical: a jubilee group symposium for the 150th anniversary of the beginning of the Oxford Movement 1833–1983, London : Bowerdean, 1983ISBN 0-906097-10-X
• Liddon, Henry Parry, Life of E. B. Pusey, 4 vols. London, 1893. The standard history of the Oxford Movement, which quotes extensively from their correspondence, and the source for much written subsequently. The Library of the Fathers is discussed in vol. 1 pp. 420–440. Available on
• Norman, Edward R. Church and Society in England 1770–1970: a historical study. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976, ISBN 0-19-826435-6.
• Nockles, Peter B. The Oxford Movement in Context: Anglican High Churchmanship 1760–1857. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
• Nockles, Peter B., "The Oxford Movement and its historiographers. Brilioth's 'Anglican Revival' and 'Three Lectures on Evangelicalism and The Oxford Movement' revisited." Kyrkohistorisk årsskrift. Publications of the Swedish Society of Church History 1:106 (2006).
• Nye, George Henry Frederick. The Story of the Oxford Movement: A Book for the Times, Bemrose, 1899.
• Ollard, S. L. A Short History of the Oxford Movement, A. R. Mowbray & Co., 1915.
• Pereiro, J. 'Ethos' and the Oxford Movement: At the Heart of Tractarianism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
• Pfaff, Richard W. "The Library of the Fathers: the Tractarians as Patristic translators," Studies in Philology; 70 (1973), p. 333ff.
• Skinner, S. A. Tractarians and the Condition of England: the social and political thought of the Oxford Movement. (Oxford Historical Monographs.) Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2004.
• Wakeling, G. The Oxford Church Movement: Sketches and Recollections, Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1895.
• Walworth, Clarence A. The Oxford Movement in America. New York: United States Catholic Historical Society, 1974 (Reprint of the 1895 ed. published by the Catholic Book Exchange, New York).
• Ward, Wilfrid. The Oxford Movement, T. C. & E. C. Jack, 1912.
• Webb, Clement Charles Julian. Religious Thought in the Oxford Movement, London: Macmillan, 1928.

External links

• Tractarianism (Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge)
• The Oxford Movement. BBC Radio 4 discussion with Sheridan Gilley, Frances Knight & Simon Skinner (In Our Time, Apr 13, 2006)
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Dec 03, 2019 2:06 am

Anna Sprengel
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/2/19



Anna Sprengel (allegedly died in 1891), countess of Landsfeldt, love-child of Ludwig I of Bavaria and Lola Montez, is a person whose existence was never proven, and who it now seems was invented by William Wynn Westcott to confer legitimacy on the Golden Dawn. In 1901 Mathers, leader of the Golden Dawn, briefly supported the claim of Swami Laura Horos, who had long campaigned for recognition as that countess, to have written Westcott as Anna Sprengel.

Westcott's anecdote

According to William Wynn Westcott, with whom he claimed she entered into voluminous correspondence, Anna Sprengel was born in Nuremberg and was responsible for the foundation of the Golden Dawn around 1886. She is supposed to have held a Rosicrucian ritual and to have nominated Westcott as the head of the Golden Dawn in Britain.

One of Westcott's friends had decoded a series of manuscripts which the occultist Fred Hockley had brought from Germany which were given to him by a German Rosicrucian secret society. The address which was encoded there was that of a certain Anna Sprengel, countess of Landsfeldt, near Nuremberg. It was thus that Westcott is supposed to have been put into contact with Anna Sprengel.

By 1886, Anna Sprengel is supposed to have already established contact with the person who would become the main leader of the Golden Dawn in Britain, Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers (1854–1918). Anna Sprengel is supposed to have given Mathers a charter authorising him to found lodges of the Golden Dawn in Britain. Westcott and Mathers henceforth collaborated to develop the Golden Dawn, notably in France and in the United States.


• Riffard Pierre, L'Ésotérisme - Qu'est que l'ésotérisme ? - Anthologie de l'ésotérisme occidental, Ed. Robert Laffont, 1990 - p.878
• Serge Hutin, Aleister Crowley, Ed. Marabout, Verviers 1973 (chapitre sur la Golden Dawn).
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