Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Part 1 of 2

Journal of the Buddhist Text Society of India, Volume 4
edited by Sarat Chandra Das, C.I.E.,
Vol. IV. 1896 Part I.
Printed at the Baptist Mission Press
Publishers: Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Messrs. Luzac & Co., opposite British Museum, London.
Continental Agents: Messrs. Otto Harrassowitz, Karl Hiersemann, M. Spirgatis, Liepzig.
Published at the Buddhist Text Society
86/2 Jaun Bazar Street, Calcutta.
Annual Subscription: In the Far East and America, 2-1/2 $; in India and Ceylon, 5 Rupees; in Europe, 8 shillings.



Dharma Cakra at Mrigadav Varanasi

Table of Contents:


The Burmese Ramazat


1. A brief survey of the Doctrines of Salvation
2. The Story of Virudhaka
3. The Madhyamika Aphorisms, Ch. II.
4. Buddhism in India
5. A Translation of three Buddhist Tracts of Korea
(1) Precepts for young students
(2) Prayers and Chants
(3) Precepts for the Cultivation of the Heart
Appendix I. The Lepcha people and their notions of Heaven and Hell
Appendix II. The History of Sikkim
Appendix III. Kachari Folk-Tales


The Quarterly General Meeting of the Buddhist Text Society of India was convened in the Hall of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science on the 1st February, 1896.

In the absence of Sir Alfred Croft, the President, Dr. Mahendra Lal Sarcar, the Vice-President, took the chair.

Amongst others, the following gentlemen were present: --

Dr. Hubbe Schleiden of Germany.
Professor A. Foucher of the University of Paris.
Col. H.S. Olcott.
Rev. K.S. MacDonald, M.A., D.D.
The Hon’ble Dr. Mahendra Lal Sarcar, M.D., C.I.E.
Rev. A Tomory, M.A.
Dr. R.K. Sen, M.D.
Rai Sarat Chandra Das Bahadur, C.I.E.
Babu Radha Charan Das.
Mr. R.D. Mehta.
Mr. H. Dharmapala.
Sri. Shiva Prasanna Bhattacharyya.
Mr. Caddy.
Sri Bholanath Chakravarti.
Sri Dinanath Ganguli.

The Honorary Secretary then announced a donation of Rs. 25 from Sri Radha Charan Das Zemindar of Balasore, for which he received the thanks of the meeting.

After this, the present made to the Society of books and pamphlets by different public bodies was announced, and the donors received thanks for the same.

The Meeting then confirmed the appointment of the following Corporate Members made by the Council:

Prince Henri D’Orleans.
Professor Foucher.
Sri Radha Charan Das.

Professor A. Foucher then exhibited photographs of Buddhist deities, taken by him from old Palm-lead manuscripts of Nepal, with some remarks. The Meeting thanked the professor for the trouble he took in placing the photographs before the members.

Sri Dinanath Ganguli then read the notes on the exorcism of spirits in Korea communicated by Dr. Landis.

Sri Dinanath Ganguli made the following remarks in connection with these notes:

In this country, the popular belief is that, those who commit suicide become ghosts and occupy trees. It is necessary to propitiate them with offerings of food as is done in Korea, but the method is different. Here the children or relations of the deceased offer rice and vegetables to the manes at Gaya: and when this is done, the ghosts quit the trees being set free from the ghostly state. The trees occupied by the ghosts then fall down, and this indicates that the ghosts have received salvation.

There is also another belief among the people that, those who are vindictive whilst in body, continue to be so after death. These spirits trouble their neighbours when alive, and they cease not to do so after death. This shows the necessity of our leading peaceful lives, so that, we may pass our days comfortably, and, after our death, do not molest our neighbours and others; but, on the contrary, become ministering angels to them.

After this, Col. Olcott made some remarks with reference to the notes on the exorcism of spirits in Korea.

Dr. R.K. Sen then read a note on the “origin of the Maurayas of Magadha and of Chanakya.” The note was a very interesting one, and the Doctor was thanked for it.

After this, Col. Olcott exhibited a picture of sleeping Buddha on a grain of rice; and Mr. Caddy placed before the meeting some photographs of Buddhist architecture by Greek Buddhism, one being of Cakya Muni before he became Buddha. With regard to these photographs, Rai Sarat Chandra Das Bahadur made a few remarks, and said that, the architecture explained the probability that Sambhala the head quarter of the Mahayana Buddhism was the Capital of the Bactrian Greeks who were Buddhists, and that it was in the Swat Valley.

The Burmese Rama Zat.
Translated by Cri Ishwar Chandra Gupta.


Journal of the Buddhist Text Society of India.
A Brief Survey of the Doctrines of Salvation.
By Prof. Satic Chandra Vidyabhushan, M.A.


The Story of Virudhaka, from the Avadana Kalpalata
by Babu Lachmi Narayan Sinha, M.A., B.L.


The Madhyamika Aphorisms. Chapter II. Doctrine of Passing and Staying.
by Prof. Satic Ch. Vidyabhusan, M.A.


Buddhism in India.
by Professor Satischandra Vidyabhushana, M.A.


A Translation of Three Buddhist Tracts From Korea.
by E.G. Landis, M.D., M.R.A.S.


Appendix I. The Lepcha People and Their Notions of Heaven and Hell
by Cri Kali Kumar Das.


Appendix II. History of Sikkim.
by the Honourable H.H. Risley, C.S., C.I.E.


Appendix III. Kachari Folk-Tales.
by J.D. Anderson, Esq., I.C.S.


A Note on the Ancient Geography of Asia, Compiled From Valmiki-Ramayana.
by Nobin Chandra Das, M.A.

Of the Bengal Provincial Service, (formerly Law-Lecturer of the Chittagong College), Translator of Raghuvamsa of Kali Dasa and “Miracles of Buddha.”

Hail Valmiki, sweet ko’il on Poesy’s spray,
Who sang Ram in ever-melodious lay!

Hare Press: Calcutta.
Printed and Published by R. Dutt.
Hare Press:
46, Bechu Chatterjee’s Street
Dedicated to Ralph T.H. Griffith Esqr. M.A., C.I.E., Formerly Principal of the Benares College and Director of Public Instruction, N.W.P. and Oudh, whose earnest and sympathetic labours, in the field of ancient Sanskrit literature have placed within each reach of English-speaking people.
The Vast Treasures of the Vedas and the Ramayana,
By his humble admirer,
Nobin Chandra Das
17 February 1896.

Table of Contents:

1. Preface
2. General scope of the work
3. Rama’s journey to Mithila
4. Descent of the Ganges from the Himalayas
5. Bharat’s journey from Giri-vraja to Ajodhya
6. Rama’s route from Ajodhya to Lanka
7. The kingdom of Kishkindhya.
8. The world as known in Ramayanic time
I. The army of the East
II. The army of the South
III. The army of the West
IV. The army of the North.
Appendix I. The Ramayana as a history
Appendix II. Dharmaranya.
Appendix III. Prachi or Prachina (Eastern country) and Dravida
Appendix IV. Sapta Sindhu
Appendix V. Alluvial formations by the action of rivers


Other Works by the Same Author.
Raghu Vamsa.
(In Bengali Verse.)
Complete in 3 Parts, Price Rs. 2


Babu Chandra Nath Bose, M.A., Bengali Translator to Government, writes:



A Special General Meeting of the Buddhist Text Society of India,
Held at the Town Hall, Darjeeling
On the 4th November, 1896.

Distinguished Visitors and Members.

The Hon’ble Sir A. Mackenzie, K.C.S.I., Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal
Lady Mackenzie
The Hon’ble Sir Griffith Evans, Barrister-At-Law; Member of the Supreme Council.
Sir Alfred Croft, K.C.I.E., M.A., President.
The Hon’ble M. Finucane, M.A., I.C.S., Secretary to the Government of Bengal
Dr. C.A. Martin, M.A.,, LL.D., Offg. Director of Public Instruction.
Mr. A. Pedler, F.R.S., President of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.
The Revd. Rylands Brown.

The Hon’ble Mr. M. Finucane, C.S., M.A. in the chair. The proceedings were opened by the Honorary Secretary, Rai Sarat Chandra Das, C.I.E., Bahadur, introducing a deputation of three Lamas, the Venerable Lama Sherab Gya-tsho, Rai Bahadur Lama Ugyen Gya-tsho and Sikyong Tulku, the Avatar Prince of Sikkim. Lama Sherab read a farewell address in Tibetan to Sir Alfred Croft. The Honorary Secretary read an English translation of the same, the text of which is as follows:

Gentlemen, We have come to-day to express our satisfaction at the restoration to health of Sir Alfred Croft, the President of this Society. We were unhappy before on account of his illness. We rejoice now.

We understand he is about to proceed home. We hope he will long enjoy the fruit of his good Karma, and a true Lama as he has been throughout his life, our fervent prayer is that he may be reborn in the world of Bliss called Sukavata (De-wa-chan), about which the saints of old have sung:

The Venerable Lama Sherab next raised a low chant, his colleagues joining him in chorus. This was a Tibetan hymn from the Dharani (charm) called the “Undying Drum-sound.” At the conclusion of the chant, Mr. W.B. Livingstone rose and said that he had been requested to read an English translation of the hymn, but on perusing it he had found that it contained a most compromising confession of the inner tents of the Buddhist religion, and he could not do so without first recording his profession of unswerving faith as a Christian. He then read the translation:

Far to the west lies De-wa-chan,
That happy land of Buddhist bliss;
Where reigns the saintly sovereign,
Amitabha, of Light-boundless.

Who e’er His name in faith implores,
On rebirth gains that blessed land;
His dying eyes shall see the Lord—
The Teacher and his priestly band.

No women there, nor fleshly birth;
But from a diamond lotus flower
Bursts blooming forth the new born soul.

In the glorious company of
Amitabha our needs are few,
But food and drink and raiment rare
And alms-bowl all appear when wished.

The Buddhas of the quarters ten,
Unite in praise of De-wa-chan;
Our prayer hence will e’er be this,
“To be born in that paradise.”

The Chairman said that as a formal address to a public official was prohibited by law, the address of the Lamas had taken the above form.

Mr. Livingstone then went on to address the meeting, saying that there was no doubt of the good done by great travelers and the benefits conferred upon civilization by such explorers as Rai Sarat Chandra Das, Bahadur, was incalculable. After giving several illustrations of the benefits of travel in the promotion of knowledge, the speaker proceeded to dwell upon the Rai Bahadur’s explorations and researches in a very complimentary strain, and likened that gentleman to Dr. Livingstone.

The Honourable Sir Griffith Evans, K.C.I.E., in moving a resolution to record the good wishes of the Lamas and also the regret of the meeting at the retirement of the President of the Society, said he would not attempt to make a speech after the eloquent speaker whom they had just heard. He referred to the enlightened Lamas who were present and said that he rejoiced that the British Government was now able to prove to such enlightened men that in their desire to open intercourse with Tibet they were actuated by no desire to disturb the country and its rulers, but only prompted by a wish to promote trade and also by an intellectual desire to learn as much as possible of Northern or Tibetan Buddhism. He referred to Sir Alfred Croft whose good qualities were known to all present, most of whom were his personal friends. He had done great work in India as they all know, during his tenure of the post of Director of Public Instruction, which he had held for 20 years. He it was who first realized the possibility of penetrating into Tibet in order to get access to Buddhist records. There had been no intercourse with that exclusive country for nearly a century before Sir Alfred Croft’s time. Not since the Governorship of Warren Hastings who indeed had succeeded for a time in opening up communication, but he was an exceptional man and one who pretty generally succeeded in getting his own way. In the present day the credit was due to Sir Alfred Croft and was one of the many good things which the public owed to him. He realized the possibility of training some of our Indian subjects, instructing them in the Tibetan language and sending them over the border. Government allotted funds for the purpose and the result was that Rai Sarat Chandra Das, Bahadur, devoted himself to the work. He was the only man who had succeeded in so mastering the Tibetan language that he would be welcomed by the Tibetans themselves. His perfect knowledge of the language was his passport, and he had succeeded in going where no one but himself could pass. In the course of his travels he had to cross stupendous mountain ranges on levels of eternal snow. He had shewn himself gifted with the greatest physical endurance. He could speak from his own personal knowledge as the Rai Bahadur’s power of endurance as he had been in his company to the borders of Tibet in 1881 during a journey involving much fatigue and exposure. The Rai Bahadur had a delight in hardship and adventure which was quite European. It was due to his capacity for overcoming difficulties as well as his great learning that he had been able to penetrate where he had been and return to give the result of his explorations. And it was due to Sir Alfred Croft that the opportunity had been offered him of displaying his powers in so worthy a cause.

The Hon’ble Mr. Finucane in putting Sir. Griffith Evans’ resolution to the meeting said: It needs no words from me to commend this resolution to this assembly. Sir Alfred Croft’s presence and the rules of Government preclude me from making any lengthened complimentary remarks, but I think I may say without trenching on forbidden ground that as the public and Sir Alfred Croft’s numerous friends were deeply grieved and distressed on hearing of his illness so they are now, in a corresponding degree, rejoiced at his restoration to health. Allusion has been made to his approaching relinquishment of the Presidentship of this Society. On this point I will only say that when Sir Alfred relinquishes this and other similar offices which he has adorned, the public, native and European, will lose a friend who has conferred upon them great benefits; and his many friends will lose a highly cultured gentleman and charming companion. As to the loss to Government by his retirement this is not the occasion, nor am I authorized to speak upon the subject.

Sir Alfred Croft said he would make but a few remarks. All three Lamas present were personal friends of his own. The Lama Sherab was a man of great learning who had come from the remotest borders of Mongolia. He passed through Darjeeling sixteen years ago on his way to Nepal. Lama Sherab’s fame as a scholar had preceded him; and he had the satisfaction of securing the service of the Lama’s great learning for the promotion of Tibetan study. He also alluded in high terms to the services of Lama Ugyen Gya-tsho. The Avatar Lama was another friend whom he had known for a year and found him a young man of much ability. In that short space he had learned to read and write Hindi. He could also understand English, and had begun to speak it.

Sir Alfred Croft further remarked that his position as President of the Buddhist Text Society was a peculiar one, for he regretted to say that he was entirely ignorant of Buddhist Texts. But to the great knowledge which Rai Sarat Chandra Das, Bahadur, had acquired the world was much indebted. It was to his researches that the Tibetan books now before the world were due. The books issued from and now being printed in the Government Press at Darjeeling, were of European interest. He referred to the recent article in the Academy on the subject of Buddhist texts and said that such articles had been rendered possible by the explorations and researches of the Rai Bahadur. It was a source of great satisfaction to the speaker that he had been able to help this work from the beginning. No such society as the Buddhist Text Society was possible, without Buddhist books and therefore to Rai Sarat Chandra Das, Bahadur, was due its success. The object in sending Sarat Chandra to Tibet had fully succeeded. He had been able to interest the rulers and the Lamas, in his work, and he had brought back a yak load of Buddhist books of the utmost value. The result of this exploration had been manifested in two ways. Rai Sarat Chandra’s researches had resulted in a large number of papers on the religious, philosophy and history of Tibet, many of which had been published in the proceedings of the Asiatic Society; and the Tibetan books now being published would be of the utmost value to the learned world of Europe. Finally, Sir Alfred Croft observed that his connexion with the Buddhist Text Society had been a source of much interest and gratification to him, and he should always look on the proceedings of this day with satisfaction and pride.

Rai Sarat Chandra Das, Bahadur, C.I.E., then gave a short lecture on the Lake which he had named Yamdo Croft, in honour of Sir Alfred Croft. He spoke as follows, often referring to maps which he handed round to His Honor and Lady Mackenzie and others present:

I will now trace the history of the name of the great lake of Tibet called Palti in our English maps, and show justification for connecting its real name Yamdo with the good name of Sir Alfred Croft.

In 1730, Orazio Della Penna, a Capuchin missionary, visited the great lake of Tibet and described it as follows: “The easternmost place is called Kambala, which is the name of a great mountain, on the slopes of which are many places, and in the plain at the foot to the south is a great lake called Iandro, which is eighteen days’ journey round, according to those who have made the circuit, but within are some hilly islands. The same lake has no outlet that I know of, and during a day and a half’s march round it, I can vouch that I saw none; while as regards the remaining portion, I have the authority of those who have made its circuit.” The lake indeed has no outlet.

In 1735 D’Anville, a Jesuit missionary, conducted the survey of the whole of Tibet under the orders of emperor Kanghi. He trained up some Lamas to do the work of survey and with their help prepared the first map of Tibet. Unfortunately the art of plotting map was then little known, in consequence of which D’Anville’s map was badly done.

In it the lake was called Peiti. This name was derived from Pede, the name of a small town with a fort situated on the margin of the lake.

In 1762, Georgi, in his Alphetum Tibetanum, first mentioned the name Palte, which was evidently derived from Pal-de the written form of the name Pede.

Klaproth, who obtained some account of the lake from Tibetan travelers visiting Peking, designated it by the name Phal-dhi Yum-tsho, i.e., turquoise lake of Pal-de town.

The Chinese name of the lake is Paite (another form of Peite) or Pai-che, t in Chinese, being convertible to ch. Colonel Montgomery’s explorer who visited the lake in 1874, brought the name Yamdo-Chho, i.e., the lake of Yamdo, which is the same as Landro of Della Penna. The real name of the lake is Yamdo, written Ya-hbrog which phonetically, becomes Yamdo, (ya) means up or high, and hbrog pronounced as (do) means herdman’s encampment; Yamdo-chho meaning the lake of the highland herdsman’s encampment. There is a second lake called Dumo chho the devil’s lake which is 14,300 ft. above the sea level within the mountainous peninsula inside the great lake called Donang or Doranang. Do or Dora means an enclosed field used for pasture, i.e., croft. Hence the name Yamdo-Croft was literally suitable for that very interesting lake of Tibet. The speaker knew not another lake which was so wonderful to exist on the surface of the globe 13,800 feet above the sea level and holding another lake on its breast inside its hilly croft which was a thousand and three hundred feet higher than itself. The hilly peninsula of Donang is dotted with villages, monasteries, and cultivated fields. It is largely used as pasture land for yaks, sheep and goat of the lake country of Yamdo.

The Chairman said: From the history of the lake just traced it appeared that the lake has passed through a vicissitude of names. He hoped this last name so deservedly given would endure.

The Honorary Secretary announced the names of the following gentlemen who were appointed corporate members by the Council of the Society:

Mr. J.D. Anderson, C.S.
Cri Nobin Chandra Das, M.A., B.L.

He also said that E. Landis, M.D., of Chemalpo in Corea, was appointed a corresponding member.

The publications of the Society that were placed on the table consisted of two texts of the Northern School, called Samadhi Raj and Madhyamika Vritti, and one of the Southern School called Visuddhi Magga, and also Journal, Part I, Vol. IV of the current year. The last contained two very interesting papers, one by Dr. E. Landis on Corean Buddhism, and the other by Mr. J.D. Anderson, C.S., sometime Deputy Commissioner of Darrang, on the Folk-tales of Kachar.

The Honorary Secretary then exhibited a drawing of the Fort of Shiga-tse and addressed the meeting on the Monasteries and Temples of Tibet, handing over to the members a printed list of the Monasteries and Temples of Tibet, which covered twelve closely printed folio pages.

He exhibited a large drawing of the grand monastery of Tashi-lh-unpo which was prepared with the help of a Tibetan artist. It contained five to six hundred houses, with the court of the Tashi Lama, the grand Hall of Congregation, and the five Mausoleums with their roofs gilt with gold built for the memory of the five illustrious grand Lamas. He pointed out the Mausoleums of the Tashi Lama to whose court Warren Hastings had sent George Bogle and Captain Samuel Turner. Captain Turner had brought home a sketch of the Mausoleums and published it in 1800, A.D. The lecturer exhibited it and said that 4,800 monks daily congregated in the grand Hall and chanted the glories of Buddha and the Bodhisattvas three times in the day in the manner Lama Sherab and his colleagues had chanted in chorus the hymn in the presence of the meeting. These buildings of the grand Monastery were all terrace roofed three to four storeys high. The Mausoleums were lofty structures like the wings of the Calcutta High Court. He also shewed another building called Kugopeh, which was nine storeys high, each of which was ten to twelve feet high.

The lecturer went on saying:

Tibet abounds in monasteries and temples. No other Buddhist country in Asia, whether in the past or in the present time, could be compared with modern Tibet in the number of her Buddhist priests and monasteries. During my residence in Tibet, I obtained a list of some of the well known monasteries, compiled by Sumpa Khanpo. The number of monasteries in the provinces of U, and Tsang in 1725 A.D. was 325, and under the hierarchy of the Dalai Lama in Tibet was 1,026, with a monk population of 491,242. I was told by the spiritual minister of the Tashi Lama that the number of monasteries since the time of Sumpa had increased not less than three-fold, and the number of monks had doubled. So, the number of monks in the monasteries of Tibet at the present day might, according to him, be estimated at a million. According to my estimate which is based partly on Tibetan official documents and partly on records left by eminent Tibetan writers, Tibet has a population of six million, though the country is nearly equal in extent to Russia, its population is no larger than that of London. The proportion of its monks to the entire population was therefore 1 to 6. If one half of the population be females, then the proportion of the monks to the male population would be 1 to 3. This appeared to me too large a proportion for the monks. I, therefore, thought it safe to state that the monk population was half a million to make the proportion 1 to 6, as it is generally held by some of the most well-informed men of Tibet. Though the number of the monasteries is so large the number of nunneries is disproportionately small. It is doubtful if there are even a hundred convents in whole Tibet. We find that the first class monasteries which have state endowments for their support, contain an average of 1,000 monks in each; but in the larger convents the average number of nuns does not exceed 20. It may be asked what may be the reason for this remarkable disproportion in the two classes of institutions. The custom of polyandry which prevails in Tibet would rather suggest an increase of the nunneries with a corresponding increase in their population. But in fact the very reverse is the case. It has been a puzzle to European scholars who have taken interest in the matter of the institutions of Tibet, to account for the number and occupation of the women who remain unmarried. If it is true that all the brothers in a family club together in matrimony with one wife, then what becomes of the majority of the female population who remain unmarried? During my residence as well as in my travels in Tibet, I paid some attention to this subject.

When in the evening I approached the Lama’s tent, I heard noises inside which suggested a fearful quarrel at its height. On entering, I saw that a wonderful metamorphosis had come over the erstwhile beauty. Her face was burning red and undergoing the most disagreeable contortions I had ever seen, as she went on calling her husband names and otherwise insulting him in the vilest language imaginable. It was all about “another woman” and also about the husband’s partiality for his own relatives. A man of quiet disposition as the Lama was, he heroically maintained his self-composure and silence until she dared to call him “beast,” when he rose and feigned to beat her. He probably did so because he was irritated at my appearance on the scene just at that juncture. But that was a blundering move on his part, for the moment he raised his fist, the now thoroughly maddened termagant threw herself at his feet, and, with eyes shut, shouted, shrieked and howled, daring him to kill and eat her! What could I do? I played the part of a peace-maker, and it was lucky that I succeeded in the office. I got the woman to go to bed on the one hand, and persuaded the Lama to spend the night with the Ladak trader, to whose tent I accompanied him. And so the last night I spent with my kind host brought me a rude awakening, which caused me to shed tears of deep sympathy, not necessarily for Alchu Tulku only, but for all my brethren of the Order, whose moral[103] weakness had betrayed them into breaking their vows of celibacy, and who in consequence were forced to go through scenes as I have described.

-- Three Years in Tibet, by Shramana Ekai Kawaguchi

The “tantric female sacrifice”

But are we really justified in speaking of a “tantric female sacrifice”? We shall attempt to find an answer to this difficult question. Fundamentally, the Buddhist tantric distinguishes three types of sacrifice: the outer, the inner and the secret. The “outer sacrifice” consists of the offering to a divinity, the Buddhas, or the guru, of food, incense, butter lamps, perfume, and so on. For instance in the so-called “mandala sacrifice” the whole universe can be presented to the teacher, in the form of a miniature model, whilst the pupil says the following. “I sacrifice all the components of the universe in their totality to you, O noble, kind, and holy lama!” (Bleichsteiner, 1937, p. 192)

In the “inner sacrifice” the pupil (Sadhaka) gives his guru, usually in a symbolic act, his five senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch), his states of consciousness, and his feelings, or he offers himself as an individual up to be sacrificed. Whatever the master demands of him will be done — even if the sadhaka must cut the flesh from his own limbs, like the tantric adept Naropa.

Behind the “secret sacrifice” hides, finally, a particular ritual event which attracts our especial interest, since it is here that the location of the “tantric female sacrifice” is to be suspected. It concerns — as can be read in a modern commentary upon the Kalachakra Tantra — “the spiritual sacrifice of a dakini to the lama” (Henss, 1985, p. 56). Such symbolic sacrifices of goddesses are all but stereotypical of tantric ceremonies. “The exquisite bejeweled woman ... is offered to the Buddhas” (Gäng, 1988, p. 151), as the Guhyasamaja Tantra puts it. Often eight, sometimes sixteen, occasionally countless “wisdom girls” are offered up in “the holy most secret of offerings” (quoted by Beyer, 1978, p. 162)

The sacrifice of samsara:

A sacrifice of the feminine need not be first sought in Tantrism, however; rather it may be found in the logic of the entire Buddhist doctrine. Woman per se– as Buddha Shakyamuni repeatedly emphasized in many of his statements — functions as the first and greatest cause of illusion (maya), but likewise as the force which generates the phenomenal world (samsara). It is the fundamental goal of every Buddhist to overcome this deceptive samsara. This world of appearances experienced as feminine, presents him with his greatest challenge. “A woman”, Nancy Auer Falk writes, “was the veritable image of becoming and of all the forces of blind growth and productivity which Buddhism knew as Samsara. As such she too was the enemy — not only on a personal level, as an individual source of temptation, but also on a cosmic level” (Gross, 1993, p. 48). In this misogynist logic, it is only after the ritual destruction of the feminine that the illusory world (maya) can be surmounted and transcended.

Is it for this reason that maya (illusion), the mother of the historical Buddha, had to die directly after giving birth? In her early death we can recognize the original event which stands at the beginning of the fundamentally misogynist attitude of all Buddhist schools. Maya both conceived and gave birth to the Sublime One in a supernatural manner. It was not a sexual act but an elephant which, in a dream, occasioned the conception, and Buddha Shakyamuni did not leave his mother’s body through the birth canal, but rather through her hip. But these transfeminine birth myths were not enough for the tellers of legends. Maya as earthly mother had, on the path to enlightenment of a religion which seeks to free humanity from the endless chain of reincarnation, to be proclaimed an “illusion” (maya) and destroyed. She receives no higher accolade in the school of Buddha, since the woman — as mother and as lover — is the curse which fetters us to our illusory existence.

Already in Mahayana Buddhism, the naked corpse of a woman was considered as the most provocative and effective meditation object an initiand could use to free himself from the net of Samsara. Inscribed in the iconography of her body were all the vanities of this world. For this reason, he who sank bowed over a decaying female body could achieve enlightenment in his current life. To increase the intensity of the macabre observation, it was usual in several Indian monastic orders to dismember the corpse. Ears, nose, hands, feet, and breasts were chopped off and the disfigured trunk became the object of contemplation. “In Buddhist context, the spectacle of the mutilated woman serves to display the power of the Buddha, the king of the Truth (Dharma) over Mara, the lord of the Realm of Desire.”, writes Elizabeth Wilson in a discussion of such practices, “By erasing the sexual messages conveyed by the bodies of attractive women through the horrific spectacle of mutilation, the superior power of the king of Dharma is made manifest to the citizens of the realm of desire.” (Wilson, 1995, p. 80).

In Vajrayana, the Shunyata doctrine (among others) of the nonexistence of all being, is employed to conduct a symbolic sacrifice of the feminine principle. Only once this has evaporated into a “nothing” can the world and we humans be rescued from the curse of maya (illusion). This may also be a reason why the “emptiness” (shunyata), which actually by definition cannot possess any characteristics, is hypostasized as feminine in the tantras. This becomes especially clear in the Hevajra Tantra. In staging of the ritual we encounter at the outset a real yogini (karma mudra) or at least an imagined goddess (inana mudra), whom the yogi transforms in the course of events into a “nothing” using magic techniques. By the end the tantric master has completely robbed her of her independent existence, that is, to put it bluntly, she no longer exists. “She is the Yogini without a Self” (Farrow and Menon, 1992, pp. 218–219). Thus her name, Nairatmya, literally means ‘one who has no self, that is, non-substantial’ (Farrow and Menon, 1992, p. 219). The same concept is at work when, in another tantra, the “ultimate dakini” is visualized as a “zero-point” and experienced as “indivisible pleasure and emptiness” (Dowman, 1985, p. 74). Chögyam Trungpa sings of the highest “lady without being” in the following verses:

Always present, you do not exist ...
Without body, shapeless, divinity of the true.
-- Trungpa, 1990, p. 40

Only her bodilessness, her existential sacrifice and her dissolution into nothing allow the karma mudra to transmute into the maha mudra and gynergy to be distilled out of the yogini in order to construct the feminine ego of the adept with this “stuff”. “Relinquishing her form [as] a woman, she would assume that of her Lord” the Hevajra Tantra establishes at another point (Snellgrove, 1959, p. 91).

The maha mudra has, it is said, an “empty body” (Dalai Lama I, 1985, p. 170). What can be understood by this contradictory metaphor? In his commentary on the Kalachakra Tantra, Ngawang Dhargyey describes how the “empty body” can only be produced through the destruction of all the “material” elements of a physical, natural “body of appearance”. In contrast to such, “their bodies are composed simply of energy and consciousness” (Dhargyey, 1985, p. 131). The physical world, sensuality, matter and nature — considered feminine in not just Buddhism — thus become pure spirit in an irreconcilable opposition. But they are not completely destroyed in the process of their violent spiritualization, but rather “sublated” in the Hegelian sense, namely “negated” and “conserved” at the same time; they are — to make use of one of the favorite terms of the Buddhist evolutionary theorist, Ken Wilber — “integrated”. This guarantees that the creative feminine energies are not lost following the material “dissolution” of their bearers, and instead are available solely to the yogi as a precious elixir. A sacrifice of the feminine as an autonomous principle must therefore be regarded as the sine qua non for the universal power of the tantric master. These days this feminine sacrifice may only be performed entirely in the imagination. But this need not have always been the case.

“Eating” the gynergy:

But Vajrayana is concerned with more than the performance of a cosmic drama in which the feminine and its qualities are destroyed for metaphysical reasons. The tantric recognizes a majority of the feminine properties as extremely powerful. He therefore has not the slightest intention of destroying them as such. In contrast, he wishes to make the feminine forces his own. What he wants to destroy is solely the physical and mental bearer of gynergy — the real woman. For this reason, the “tantric female sacrifice” is of a different character to the cosmogonic sacrifice of the feminine of early Buddhism. It is based upon the ancient paradigm in which the energies of a creature are transferred to its killer. The maker of the sacrifice wants to absorb the vital substance of the offering, in many cases by consuming it after it has been slaughtered. Through this he not only “integrates” the qualities of the killed, but also believes he may outwit death, by feeding upon the body and soul of the sacrificial victim.

In this connection the observation that world wide the sacred sacrifice is contextually linked with food and eating, is of some interest. It is necessary to kill plants and animals in order to nourish oneself. The things killed are subsequently consumed and thus appear as a necessary condition for the maintenance and propagation of life. Eating increases strength, therefore it was important to literally incorporate the enemy. In cannibalism, the eater integrates the energies of those he has slaughtered. Since ancient humans made no basic distinction between physical, mental or spiritual processes, the same logic applied to the “eating” of nonbodily forces. One also ate souls, or prana, or the élan vital.

In the Vedas, this general “devouring logic” led to the conception that the gods nourished themselves from the life fluids of ritually slaughtered humans, just as mortals consume the bodies of animals for energy and nourishment. Thus, a critical-rational section of the Upanishads advises against such human sacrifices, since they do not advance individual enlightenment, but rather benefit only the blood-hungry supernatural beings.

Life and death imply one another in this logic, the one being a condition for the other. The whole circle of life was therefore a huge sacrificial feast, consisting of the mutual theft and absorption of energies, a great cosmic dog-eat-dog. Although early Buddhism gave vent to keen criticism of the Vedic rites, especially the slaughter of people and animals, the ancient sacrificial mindset resurfaces in tantric ritual life. The “devouring logic” of the Vedas also controls the Tantrayana. Incidentally, the word tantra is first found in the context of the Vedic sacrificial gnosis, where it means ‘sacrificial framework’ (Smith, 1989, p. 128).

Sacred cannibalism was always communion, holy union with the Spirit and the souls of the dead. It becomes Eucharistic communion when the sacrifice is a slaughtered god, whose followers eat of him at a supper. God and man are first one when the man or woman has eaten of the holy body and drunk the holy blood of his or her god. The same applies in the relation to the goddess. The tantric yogi unites with her not just in the sexual act, but above all through consuming her holy gynergy, the magical force of maya. Sometimes, as we shall see, he therefore drinks his partner’s menstrual blood. Only when the feminine blood also pulses in his own veins will he be complete, an androgyne, a lord of both sexes.

To gain the “gynergy” for himself, the yogi must “kill” the possessor of the vital feminine substances and then “incorporate” her. Such an act of violence does not necessarily imply the real murder of his mudra, it can also be performed symbolically. But a real ritual murder of a woman is by like measure not precluded, and it is not surprising that occasional references can be found in the Vajrayana texts which blatantly and unscrupulously demand the actual killing of a woman. In a commentary on the Hevajra Tantra, at a point where a lower-caste wisdom consort (dombi) is being addressed, states bluntly, “I kill you, O Dombi, I take your life!” (Snellgrove, 1987, vol. 1, p. 159).

-- The Shadow of the Dalai Lama: Sexuality, Magic and Politics in Tibetan Buddhism, by Victor and Victoria Trimondi

The People's Republic of China and its predecessors have a history of female infanticide spanning 2000 years.[1]

-- Female infanticide in China, by Wikipedia

As the way to wealth, fame and official power is open to those who enter monasteries to study religion and literature, and also to pass a life of celibacy, people find it humiliating to remain in their homes to lead a worldly life. They run to monasteries in large numbers, but such of them are permitted to remain in them as can commit to memory the largest number of pages of the sacred books. So, many come back to their homes unsuccessful and discomfited by failures. These generally not liking to return to their homes betake themselves to trade and to service in distant places.

Marriage is considered as a very difficult and troublesome institution in Tibet. It only takes place in families which possess wealth. The eldest brother in a family marries; the bed of the married-wife is shared by the rest of the brothers who are addressed and treated by her as so many junior husbands. Although the Tibetans are not subject to jealousy in the proportion that other nations are where polygamy prevails, yet the junior husbands generally do not find it convenient to share the conjugal comforts with their eldest brother; so they leave their home and property in disgust. They often take separate wives relinquishing thereby claims to their ancestral property. According to the laws of Tibet, the eldest brother who has the right to marry inherits the ancestral property. The other brothers can only enjoy the same as long as they live with him in the same house and with his wife. I was present at a Tibetan marriage, the father of the bride in giving her away to the bridegroom, addressing his father said: Henceforth my daughter becomes the wife of your sons, both born and unborn. She will be theirs conjointly.

In consequence of tedious ceremonies and long terms of waiting before getting the bride, and also troublesome conditions imposed on the candidate for her hand, marriage seldom takes place in Tibet. The majority of men and women remain unmarried, and as the fair sex share both the agricultural and pastoral industries with the opposite sex, the women in Tibet are generally of easy morals. In a corresponding degree the men are also immoral in spite of all their religion and high morality inculcated so elaborately in Buddhist sacred books.

The President then concluded the proceedings of the meeting by thanking the lecturer for his interesting address.


Journal of the Buddhist Text Society of India

A Record of a Vision of Avalokitecvara.1
Translated by E.B. Landis, M.D., M.R.A.S.


The Madhyamika Aphorisms. Chap. III. The Examination of the Senses.
By Cri Satica Candra Vidyabhusana, M.A.


The Philosophy of Prajnaparamita
by Prof. Satica Chandra Vidyabhusana, M.A.


The Philosopher Dinnaga – A Contemporary of the Poet Kalidasa
by Prof. Satica Chandra Vidyabhusana, M.A.


The Story of Sundari and Nanda.


The Story of Kiratarjuniya,
As Narrated in the Mahabharata and Also in the Poem Kiratarjuniyam of Bharabi


Appendix I. The Limbu or the Kirati People of Eastern Nepal and Sikkim.
by Cri Kalikumar Das




Buddhist Text and Anthropological Society.

The Buddhist Text Society was established in August, 1893. Since then it has occupied itself in making researches into the religious and social literature of the ancient Indian Buddhists found in original Sanskrit works, as also in Pali, Tibetan, Burmese, Siamese, Chinese, Coreau and Japanese literature.

Its object is to furnish materials for a history of Indo-Aryan thoughts on Buddhism, as also, of a history and geography of ancient India and all Buddhist countries. This is does through its Journal (in English) and Texts (in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Pali.)

The Society has, within the short period of its existence, attracted the attention of the oriental scholars of the West, and the work done by it has been favourably noticed by the Press both in India and in foreign countries. The Government of Bengal also have given encouragement to it. In March, 1897, its scope was enlarged by the addition of Anthropology to it.

The Texts, which used to be included in the Journal, are now published separately. The amount of subscription to the Journal in four parts in India, Ceylon and Burma is Rs. 5, and to the Texts in 4 parts is Rs. 4. The Texts for the current year will deal with the following subjects – Suvarna Prabha, Madhyamika Vritti, and Samadhi Raja in Sanskrit and Vicuddhi Magga, and Dhammapada in Pali. The latter, i.e. the Buddhist Text Series, will be given at half rates to all corporate members, Buddhist monks and Tol Pandits and to poor libraries.

The Society consists of 3 classes of members, vis.: -- I. Corporate Members. They are entitled to all the publications of the Society including the Buddhist Text Series, free of charge. They pay a subscription of Rs. 7 per annum (5 Rs. for the Journal and 2 Rs. for the Texts). II. Honorary Members. They are entitled to the Journals and Texts of the Society without payment of subscription. Persons eminent for their learning in the Castras, in Sanskrit, Pali, Tibetan, Mongolian, Chinese, Japanese, Corean, Burmese or in Siamese literature are nominated as such. III. Corresponding Members. They contribute to the Journal and Texts of the Society which they get gratis.



The Hon’ble H. H. Risley, M.A., I.C.S., C.I.E., President
G. A Grierson, Esq., Ph.D., I.C.S., C.I.E., Vice President
Dr. Mahendra Lal Sircar, M.D., C.I.E., Vice President
Cri Narendra Nath Sen., Vice-President
The Hon’ble Justice Gurudas Banerjea, M.A., D.L.
Dr. R. K. Sen, M.D.
Cri Nirodh Nath Mukhopadhyaya
Vidyaratna Nrisimha Chandra Mukhopadhyaya, M.A., B.L.
S. J. Padshah, Esq.
Cri Civaprasanna Battacharya, B.L.
Prof. Satis Chandra Acharya Vidyabhusana, M.A.
Rai Cri Sarat Chandra Das, Bhadur, C.I.E., Secretary
Cri Dina Nath Ganguly, Joint Secretary.
Pandit Sarat Chandra Sastri, Pandit to the Society.

Publications of the Buddhist Text Society of India.

In English.

Indian Pandits in the land of snow containing an account of the missionary work done by the Buddhist sages of old in Tibet, China, Korea, Mongolia, Yarkhand and Kabul; by Cri Carat Candra Das, C.I.E. Prince 1 Re.

The Miracles of Buddha being a translation in English verse from Ksemendra’s Kalpalata (recovered from Tibet) by Cri Nobin Candra Das, M.A., B.L. Price 1 Re.

Geography of India of Valmiki’s time with copious notes and index illustrated by a large Map, by Cri Nobin Candra Das, M.A., B.L. Price 1 Re.

Raghuvamca of Kalidasa translated in Bengali verse by Cri Nobin Candra Das, M.A., B.L. complete in three parts. Price 3 Rs.

Atmatattvaprakaca – a treatise in Bengali prose on the existence, immortality, transmigration and emancipation of the soul, -- based on the Nyaya School of Indian Philosophy, by Prof. Satica Candra Vidyabhusana, M.A. Price 6 As.

Life of Chaitanya, by Cri Dina Nath Ganguli. Price 1 Re.

In Devanagari.

Bhakticatakam by Rama Candra Kavibharati of Gour, of the thirteenth century, (recovered from the Simhalese) with commentary in Sanskrit by Rev. Seelakhanda Thera (with or without translation in English). Price 1 Re.

Bodhicaryyavatara in two parts by Acarya Canti Prabha – a work of a considerable antiquity recovered from Tibet; it elucidates the doctrines of the Mahayana or the Northern School of Buddhism. Price 1 Re.

Madhyamika Vritti – The Philosophy of the Mahayana School containing the aphorisms of Nagarjuna with the commentary of Acaryya Candra Kirti, recovered from Nepal, complete in four parts. Price 3 Rs.

Vicuddhimagga – The celebrated work of Buddha Ghosa in Pali printed in Devanagari with a commentary by Rev. Seelakhanda Thera complete in two parts. Price 2 Rs.

Dhammapada – The standard scripture of the Southern school of Buddhism in Pali written in Devanagari characters with a commentary by Rev. Seelakhanda Thera. Price 1 Re.

Samadhiraja – One of the earliest Buddhist scriptures written in Sanskrit and Gatha languages, complete in three parts edited by Pandit Carat Candra Castri, complete in two parts. Price 2 Rs.

Ratnamala – a Buddhist story depicting Hinduism and Buddhism in the early centuries of Christ. Price 1 Re.

Candra Vyakarana – A Sanskrit Grammar of a remote antiquity, recovered by Tibet, in the press. Price 1 Re.

Suvarnaprabha – A Buddhist Scripture of the Northern School in Sanskrit and Gatha, recovered from Tibet. In the press. Price 1 Re.

Journals of the Society – Journal of the Buddhist Text Society of India – Royal 8vo. Edited by Cri Carat Candra Das., C.I.E.; the yearly subscription for four parts is Rs. 5, up to this time four volumes have been issued. [Twenty per cent. Commission will be allowed to Agents.]

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Proceedings of a Special General Meeting of the Buddhist Text Society of India, Held at the Town Hall, Darjeeling, on the 23rd June 1896.

Note on the Ancient Geography of India,
by Sri Nobin Chandra Das, M.A.,
Has Been Issued as a Supplementary Paper to This Publication.
Darjeeling: Printed at the Bengal Secretariat Press, 1896.
Sir Alfred Croft, K.C.I.E., M.A. President in the Chair.

Distinguished visitors.

The Hon’ble Sir A. Mackenzie, K.C.S.I., C.I.E., Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal
Lady Mackenzie
The Hon’ble C.W. Bolton, C.S.
The Hon’ble H.H. Risley, C.S., M.A., C.I.E.
Mr. D. R. Lyall, C.S.
Lieut. Col. Hunt
Revd. C.H. Moore
Revd. Mr. Turnbull

1. The Honorary Secretary, after announcing the presentations, exhibited his map of Tibet and a curious Burmese picture of the war between the gods and the demons.

2. (a) Mr. Polhill Turner read a short note on the Origin of Man, compiled from the legendary history of Tibet by the Honorary Secretary.

(b) Sri Sarat Chandra Das read a short note on the “Lakes and Rivers of Tibet.”

3. Mr. R.T. Greer, C.S., exhibited an old conch shell with curious marks on it, and “the enchanted dagger” of the Tibetan Lamas; he also described the latter.

4. Revd. G.H. Rouse, M.A., read a brief account of the Lepcha people and of their notions of Heaven and Hell, communicated by Sri Kali Kumar Das, tutor to the second son of the Maharaja of Sikkim.

5. The Honorary Secretary read a short note on a Sanskrit Buddhist charm, (sent for explanation by Mr. W.H. Rouse, M.A., of Cambridge), illustrating its use by means of a picture of the Buddhist Ensign or Banner of Victory.

The President, in opening the business of the evening, gave a resume of the proceedings of the last special general meeting, and euologised the Honorary Secretary, whose services the Government of India had lately recognized by conferring on him the title of Rai Bahadur, and had rewarded in a still more substantial form by giving him a Jagir in his own district. The list of newly elected members, read out by the President, showed the names of Prince Henri d’Orleans and the High priest of Bangkok, a brother of the King of Siam.

Rai Sarat Chandra Das, in announcing the presentations, said that among the publications received during last few months the most important was “A Note on the Geography of Asia” according to the “Valmiki Ramayana” by his brother Sri Nobin Chandra Das, M.A., B.I., an officer of the Provincial Executive Service of Bengal. Nobin Chandra, by a careful study of the Original Sanskrit Text of the Ramayana, has come to the conclusion that Valmiki, the author of the great epic, was a veracious writer who described the events and occurrences, and the places known in his time in a faithful manner, and delineated the character of Rama and Sita properly. Divested of poetry and legend, the Ramayana is a store-house of historical events and deeds; it was possible to prepare a map of the places mentioned in the epic. Nobin Chandra has, in consultation with Mr. R.T. Griffiths C.I.E., M.A., the renowned translator of the Ramayana in English, prepared a map, to illustrate the Geography he has compiled. He has presented the work to this Society, with a request that it may be published by us. He has borne the cost of printing the work together with the map. The Honorary Secretary was asked to convey the cordial thanks of the Society to Sri Nobin Chandra Das for the gift. The work was declared to be a valuable addition to the Geographical literature of Ancient India.

The Honorary Secretary exhibited his map of Tibet, and gave an account of his travels in 1879, 1881 and 1882 in that country. Lake Palti, which had hitherto been known as a ring of water, he discovered, as one of its native names indicated, to be scorpion-shaped. Many other spots in the neighborhood were explored for the first time by him. But Sir A. Croft (then Mr. Croft), to make assurance doubly sure, had all his sketches and discoveries tested by Lama (now Rai Bahadur) Ugyen Gya-tsho, whom he sent out in 1883. In dwelling on the encouragement and help which the Secretary received from the Director of Public Instruction, and but for which he could never have undertaken his travels, he asked the permission of the meeting to connect one of his chief discoveries with the name of Sir A. Croft, after whom he proposed to call it. Lake Palti, he said, was a misnomer. Nowhere in Tibet was the name Palti known. This most interesting lake of Tibet was known in that country under the names of Yamdo-tsho, Yamdo yum-tsho, Yamdo dig-tsho, meaning the lake of highland shepherds, the turquoise lake, the scorpion lake, and so on. The Department of the Survey of India called it Yamdo Palti. As Palti was a misnomer, he saw no reason why a wrong name should be kept up, and the mistake perpetuated by coupling the name Yamdo with Palti. With the permission of the meeting, he would venture to call the lake by the name Yamdo-Croft. There was a precedent for him to adopt such a course. Livingstone connected the name of Nyanza with the names of Albert and Victoria – the Royal patrons of the Geographical Society of England. The two great lakes of Africa which he discovered are called Victoria Nyanza and Albert Nyanza. The highest mountain in the world was called after the name of Sir G. Everest – under whose direction that mountain was discovered. The proposal was received with cheers. He would only add that in thus honouring a gentleman, who so fully deserved to be honoured, he had only honoured himself.

A curious Burmese picture of the war between the gods and the demons was then shown and explained by the Secretary. The proceedings were closed by the exhibition and explanation of a Sanskrit Buddhist Charma and its use by the educational pictures of the Buddhist Ensign or Banner of Victory, one of which was presented to Lady Mackenzie and another to the Rev. Dr. G.H. Rouse.
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Part 2 of 2

The Origin of Mankind. Compiled From the Legendary History of Tibet.
by Sri Sarat Chandra Das.

In the legendary history of Tibet, it is mentioned that in some remote period, Tibet that is now inhabited, was filled with water. [x] (Chho. 147). Then there were no human beings in this world, which comprised five great countries, viz: India, China, Hor (including Kabul, Persia and Turkistan), Mongolia and Tibet.

(1) India was the abode of the Devas or gods, who spoke Sanskrit, which is still called Deva bhasha or the language of the gods.

(2) China was inhabited by the Nagas, or serpent demi-gods. The fearful Dragon ruled over the Nagas. The Emperor of China still worships the dragon and uses the dragon-flag.

(3) Hor was peopled by the Asuras, (Asura literally meaning not-god, i.e., demons). They waged war on the Devas of India; their kind always troubled Indra, the ruler of the Devas.

(4) Mongolia was inhabited by the Svin-po, or cannibal-demons who subsisted on all kinds of flesh, but not on grain.

(5) Tibet was occupied by the monkey-race. [x] (Chho. 148).

In the beginning of the present kalpa (age), when the water of the great flood subsided from the valleys, being drained by the great rivers that flowed towards the oceans, there grew trees on the fields, and groves were formed filled with birds and other animals. [x] (Chho. 148). One on a time, a fair looking Srin-mo (a female demon) from Mongolia came to Tibet and visited the garden of Che-thang. At that time, a monkey, in whom was manifest the spirit of Chen-re-zig – the all-seeing god – happened to reside there. The Srin-mo being charmed with the holy character of the monkey, begged him to accept her as his wife. He hesitated. She said: [x] “I am born of the race of Srin-po by my Karma. Impelled by desire I love thee.” At last, she told him that if he really refused her proposal, she would kill herself in his presence.

The saintly monkey, out of compassion for her, prayed to Chen-re-zig, the great omniscient God, to help him in this difficulty. Soon after, a voice from Heaven was heard, which said, “Son, accept her prayer; she is your wife, the spirit of Tara is in her.” Obedient to the command of Heaven, he made her his wife and conducted her to his residence in the mountain cave, situated at the foot of the snowy mountain of Yarla Shambu. The Srin-mo gave birth to six sons, who in look, voice, colour, shape, action and behavior were widely dissimilar from each other and also from their parents.* [*These six sons represented the six classes of beings of the Buddhist Cosmogony *Gyal-Rab and Chho).] The colour of their faces was red on account of their mother being a Srin-mo. They possessed the tail and hair of their monkey father.

When these children became troublesome to the saintly monkey, he sent them with their mother to the garden of Che-thang, which abounded in walnuts, apricots, and other fruits. There the sons of the devout monkey passed their days happily in the company of their monkey cousins and produced a numerous progeny. In course of time, all the fruits of the garden became exhausted, and when there was nothing left for their subsistence, they with their mother went to the cave where the patriarch monkey was residing, absorbed in deep meditation. They cried, “O father! We are hungry, what shall we eat? Give us food?” The monkey patriarch, unable to bear the sight of their distress, again invoked Chen-re-zig, the all-merciful God, for help. Immediately, there fell from above quantities of grain of six kinds, viz., barley, wheat, buckwheat, oats, rice, Indian corn; and a voice from Heaven said, “Son! Give these to your children – let them eat as much as they can and sow the remainder in the ground; from these will grow plants which will bear like fruits and on them your children will live.” His children did accordingly; and in course of time, in consequence of eating the grain, their tails and hair grew shorter and shorter, till the former totally disappeared. Being the descendants of the six dissimilar sons of the patriarch monkey, they became the ancestors of the six races of mankind.

Such was the origin of mankind. In course of time, when this world became filled with the human race, the Devas, unable to keep company with them, retired to the gardens situated on the top of Sumeru. The Demons of Hor occupied the regions situated at the foot of that mountain. The cannibal Srin-po of Mongolia took shelter in the islands of the great Ocean. The snake-demi-gods of China hid themselves in the rivers and under the ground. The monkeys of Tibet fled to the forests of Himalaya. Mankind, having originated from the monkey and from a Srin-mo of Mongolia who subsisted on meat alone, live on a combination of animal and vegetable food. Being descended from the monkey, the people of Tibet cheerfully confess their monkey origin, and glory in the fact that of all the nations of the world they alone bear a close resemblance to their first-parents. Tibet, the highest country in the world, they say, is the father land of mankind, and Che-thang – the top-plain – was the first place on Earth where the patriarch resided after his descent from Heaven.


A Short Description of the Phur-Pa, or the “Enchanted Dagger”
by Sri Sarat Chandra Das.

In the Sanskrit language, the Phur-pa is called Kila, [x]. In Tibetan Buddhism, it is described as of two kinds: metaphysical and ordinary. All intellectual accomplishments are compared with the Phur-pa. Knowledge dissipates Avidya, (ignorance), so it is said figuratively that the Phur-pa of knowledge destroys ignorance, which is typified as the arch-enemy of humanity. Avidya, is the prime cause of sin and sin is the cause of suffering. In the same manner the Phur-pa of love stabs at anger. The Phur-pa of impermance strikes at attachment and passionate desires. The Phur-pa, of wise discrimination i.e., the power of distinguishing the right from wrong, good from bad, &c., liberates one from misery.

The ordinary Phur-pa is of four kinds. They are used for the acquirement of the four kinds of worldly objects Viz: (1) peace [x], (2) abundance [x], (3) power [x] and (4) fearfulness [x].

1. The phur-pa that typifies peace is generally made of silver or white sandal wood, and is about 4 inches long. The top of its handle is a saint’s head and its lower part is dressed as a knob of twisted noose. The point of the dagger is blunt and rounded to show that its effect is mild and cannot pain any body. When it is consecrated, it acquires the power of driving out evil spirits and diseases from one’s body. It is not intended for mischief to any body. It is considered to be a mystic healer.

2. The Phur-pa that symbolizes copiousness is generally made of gold or of the fragrant juniper. Its handle is similar to that of No. 1, only, that in the place of the saint’s head, there is the head of the goddess of plenty looking down with a smile, expressive of contentment and prosperity. The dagger point terminates on a square. On the top of the dagger handle i.e., on the crown of the god’s head, there is a gem generally a coral or a ruby, placed as an ornament. If this Phur-pa is consecrated, it becomes possessed of wonderful powers. Its touch gives longevity, fame, prosperity, wealth, &c., to the devotee. Its dagger is generally made 8 inches long.

3. The Phur-pa typifying power is made of copper or red sandal wood. Its handle is made of the shape of a knob, surmounted with four fearful heads with wide-opened and gasping mouths, possessing the expression of unquenchable thirst. The dagger point of the Phur-pa terminates in a sharp semi-circular curve. It is generally made 12 inches long. The top of the Phur-pa is made of the size and shape of a small lotus bud. When consecrated, it acquires wonderful efficacy. By means of it, one’s enemies are brought under one’s power without fighting or without the use of weapons. It is invaluable to lovers as a sure instrument to overpower the object of his or her love. It is also supposed to have the power of bringing learning and luck to one who receives its touch with faith.

4. The last is the Tag-poi Phurpa, in Sanskrit, called the Rudra-Kila. It is made of steel, bronze or meteoric stone. The handle of the dagger, made of brass, is a crocodile’s head, surmounted by a cross, formed of two thunderbolts called the Na-tshog-dorje. On the top point of this cross, is fixed three terrific crowned heads, typifying the looks of the Lord of Death in three ages: past, present and the future. He is determined to kill those who transgress against the Dharma i.e., the Law. The cross of thunderbolts is intended to fix down the enemy so that he may not get up again. The three blades of the dagger corresponding to the three faces are intended to stab the enemy instantaneously by its touch. The crocodile’s yawning mouth drinks the blood and eats the flesh of the slain devil. The thunderbolt which projects from the centre of the crown of the three terrific heads is intended to draw out the life-breath of the enemy. When consecrated, this dagger becomes enchanted. In the hands of the necromancer, it throbs, bounds up, burns and flashes. Sometimes, a kind of ringing sound comes out of it, indicating its wonderful powers. By its touch, even rocks break asunder. It is generally kept concealed, being covered with a black or dark-blue silk scarf.

The Phur-pa that has just been exhibited by Mr. Greer is of this last kind, and according to the belief of the Lamas, will become enchanted, when it has been properly consecrated.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Dec 09, 2019 11:02 pm

Mohotiwatta Gunananda
by Theosophy Wiki
Accessed: 12/19/19



Mohotiwatta Gunananda (d. January 21, 1890) was Buddhist monk in Sri Lanka who is known for his oratory in debating the merits of Buddhism with Christian missionaries. He and Venerable H. Sri Sumangala participated in the Panadurawadaya, three days of debates that took place at Panadura in 1873. Gunananda built the Temple Mutwalward.

Involvement with Theosophical Society

After Theosophical Society founders H. P. Blavatsky and Colonel Henry Olcott heard about the debates, they wrote to Gunananda and Sumangala, who invited them to visit in Ceylon. Gunananda became an early member of the TS and remained such until his death. His membership certificate is serial number 116 of 1877.[1] He translated a portion of Isis Unveiled to Sinhalese.

Additional resources

"Gunananda, Mohotiwatta" in Theosopedia.


1. C. V. Agarwal, The Buddhist and Theosophical Movements (Sarnath, Varanasi: Maha Bodhi Society of India, 2001), 16.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Dec 09, 2019 11:04 pm

Council of Christians and Jews
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/9/19



The Council of Christians and Jews (CCJ) is a voluntary organisation in the United Kingdom. It is composed of Christians and Jews working together to counter anti-semitism and other forms of intolerance in Britain. Their patron is Queen Elizabeth II.

The CCJ was founded, in 1942, by Chief Rabbi Joseph H. Hertz and Archbishop William Temple during a time of all-out warfare and Nazi persecution of Jews. In late 1954, and reflecting the theology of the era, the Vatican instructed the head of English Catholics to resign from the CCJ due to its perceived indifferentism, with Catholics not returning until the reforms introduced by the Second Vatican Council.[1]


Prior to the foundation of the Council of Christians and Jews a number of initiatives had already taken place. The London Society for the Study of Religions,founded in 1904, included Jews in its membership.[2] In 1924 the Presbyterian Church of England General Assembly agreed to form a sub committee to discuss the lack of understanding between Jews and Christians. The committee wished to abandon proselytising and instead promote cooperative methods of action.[3]

In 1925 Herbert Lowe, a Jewish Cambridge scholar, addressed the General Assembly for the first time.

"The love of God and love of man are the foundations of our faith and of yours. We have a vast heritage in common...We recognise that we are put on earth to serve each other...When we consider the framework on which our creeds are built the wonder is not that our views of life are similar, but that we should have been so long in discovering the similarity, the wonder is that centuries of ignorance and hatred should have intervened between us..I am convinced that our partnership in the fight against oppression and injustice and race-hatred can be successful, and our efforts can never be blessed until we learn to respect the standpoint of each other."[4]

In 1924 the Social Service Committee of the Liberal Jewish Synagogue convened a meeting for Jews and Christians to confer together on the basis of their common ideals and with mutual respect for differences of belief'. From this developed the Society of Jews and Christians in 1927 that provided a platform for a number of notable speakers.[5] The inter war years was marked by a reappraisal by Christian scholars of Jewish religion. In 1930 James Parkes published 'The Jew and his neighbour', setting out the causes of anti-Semitism and its Christian roots.[6] Parkes would later be placed on Hitler's list of those he wanted killed.[7]

With the rise of Nazi anti-Semitism a few Christians did speak out. In 1934 The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland noted the 'age-long sufferings of the Jewish people' and that during 'the present outbreaks of anti-Semitic fanaticism', declared its 'heart-felt sympathy for the Jewish people' and deplored their present treatment as being 'abhorrent'.[8]

A Youth Council on Jewish-Christian Relations was formed in 1934 that included several Christian organisations and by 1940 also included Jewish groups. By the middle of the decade various groups made up of Jews and Christians were involved in giving aid to Jewish refugees from Germany, whose number rose sharply after Kristallnacht. The Refugee Children's Movement took care to ensure that whenever a Jewish child was placed in a Christian home the child would not be subject to proselytisation and that contact was established with the nearest Rabbi.[9]

Anglican, Free church and Roman Catholic Churches came together in 1938 to form a Christian Council for Refugees following the passing of the Nuremberg Decrees.[10] The council's secretary was W. W. Simpson, a Methodist minister, who would dedicate his life to the improvement of Christian-Jewish relations. His 1939 pamphlet 'The Christian and the Jewish Problem' recognised the part of Christianity in Jewish suffering, involving factors such deicide, the Crusades, the ghettos, the Inquisition and their influence on present day persecution.[11]


Out of the diverse groups that marked Jewish-Christian dialogue and aid during the 1930s a proposal was circulated with a view to forming an organization built on a national network. The Archbishop of York, William Temple, invited leaders of various communities to discuss these proposals in 1941. Temple outlined the mission of what was to become the Council of Christians and Jews. The Council would work against all forms of discrimination and promote the 'fundamental ethical teachings which are common to Judaism and Christianity' The Chief Rabbi, Dr. Hertz, agreed with this approach and highlighted the central point as being 'the danger to civilisation involved in antisemitism, as well as the steps that might be taken by Christians, working in consultation with Jews, to prevent its spread in this country', noting also how Pius XI had recently affirmed that 'Anti-semitism is a movement in which we Christians can have no part whatsoever. Spiritually we are Semites'.[12] Hertz made it clear that Jews and Christians would be responsible for their own religious teaching without mutual interference.[13]

At a meeting chaired by William Temple, now the nominated Archbishop of Canterbury, on 20 March 1942 the formation of the Council of Christians and Jews was agreed. The aims of the council were specified as:

(a) To check and combat religious and racial intolerance.

(b) To promote mutual understanding and goodwill between Christians and Jews in all sections of the community, especially in connection with problems arising from conditions created by the war.

(c) To promote fellowship between Christian and Jewish youth organisations in educational and cultural activities.

(d) To foster co-operation of Christians and Jews in study and service directed to post-war reconstruction.[14]

The initial membership of the CCJ was composed of leaders of Christian and Jewish organisations. The Roman Catholic prelate, Cardinal Hinsley, agreed to be a Joint President subject to the condition that any statements be approved by him prior to publication. The formation of the CCJ was announced on radio and in the press on 1 October 1942.[15]

Early years

The CCJ was formed at a time of Nazi persecution of Jews but the full scale of the extermination process, and the response of organisations such as the CCJ, was to an extent governed by the amount of factual information then available in the public domain.[16] In 1942 deputations were sent to the Foreign Office and Anthony Eden regarding the accounts then emerging about the Nazi extermination process, followed by a letter published in The Times on 5 December speaking of a 'horror beyond what imagination can grasp...burning indignation at this atrocity, to which the records of barbarous ages scarcely provide a parallel.” The letter criticised the delays in officialdom, branding their excuses as having an 'air of irrelevance', and called for the prosecution of those involved in the extermination process after the war.[17] Temple, at the behest of the CCJ, made a broadcast to the Hungarian people using the BBC World Service and appealed:

"do your utmost to save from persecution, it may be from massacre, those who are now threatened as a result of German occupation...Help them to hide from their tormentors, help them, if possible, to escape. Do all you can to prevent the extermination of people whose only fault is the race from which they are born or the independence of their minds and constancy of their convictions".[18]

Some political voices raised concerns that such protestations could make things worse for the Jews but by early 1943 it had already become clear that nothing could be worse than what the Jews were currently suffering.[19] Archbishop Temple addressed the House of Lords in March 1943 in which he referenced the massacre of Jews taking place, urging all means of action and condemned the procrastination of officialdom. He concluded: "We at this moment have upon us a tremendous responsibility. We stand at the bar of history, of humanity, and of God."[20]

In November 1943 the Council issued the first of its "Occasional Reviews" which contained a statement by the Archbishop of Canterbury on the "Basis of Co-operation between Jews and Christians." and a response by the Chief Rabbi on the Jewish attitude to the Five Peace Points of Pope Pius XII.[21]

In June 1944 the Council published a declaration affirming that "the moral law must govern world order " followed by six related principles.The Council said: "The significance of the afocument lies in the fact that it is the first statement of its kind to be published in this country with the approval of the heads of the Protestant, Roman Catholic and Jewish communities and on behalf of a representative hody of Christians end Jews." It was also announced that Catholic Archbishop Griffin had become a Joint President of the Council in succession to the late Cardinal Hinsley.[22]

At 1944 annual general meeting of the Council Bishop Mathews described anti-Semitism as a type of "category dislikes": "Dislike by category is always evil. always unjustified, whether the category is the Jewish people, the negroes in the United States, or the Roman Catholics or any other body. I have an example fairly close home in the feeling of widespread indignation rooted in the population of Northern Ireland with regard to Roman Catholics. The first thing to be said about such dislike by category is that though it is evil in itself it attacks wide sections of the population. It becomes a mass instinct added to local patriotsm."[23]

In November 1944 the Catholic Archbishop of Westminster gave an address to the Council of Christians and Jews:

I should like to tell you, something of what the present Holy Father and the Vatican authorities have done to alleviate the suffering and the persecution of the Jews in many lands. There are thousands of Jews who owe their lives to the speedy intervention of the Pope when they were on the point of being massacred. Towards the end of June I was asked by the World Jewish Congress to support their appeal to the Holy Father to intervene on behalf of Hungarian Jews and it may interest you to hear the reply I received from the late Cardinal Secretary of State: "reference your telegram July 3 I beg to assure Your Excellency Holy See even through Papal Nunciature Budapest has left nothing undone and is still doing everything possible to alleviate sorrowful plight all those who are suffering on account of nationality or race."

The Archbishop proposed points for future cooperation:

Firstly by a common pledge to observe the laws of God and to fulfil Our duties to Him and to our fellow-men. Secondly. by urging the recognition on the part of all States, of the liberties and rights of man and by a clear acknowledgment of man's personal dignity, irrespective of race, creed Or Colour. Thirdly, by a deepening of the mutual understanding between Christians and Jews of our respective ideals and difficulties. And fourthly, by a solemn promise to protect effectively those who may be oppressed or persecuted for race. nationality, or creed.[24]

Braybook (1991) notes that "Much is said of the silence of the Churches, which was often all too evident" but he picks out Temple, and the leaders of the various Churches who supported him, as an outspoken critic on this issue. The World Jewish Congress spoke of him as "the champion of the Jews".[25]

At a meeting of the CCJ held on the 50th anniversary of Kristallnacht in 1988 Dr. Robert Runcie, the Archbishop of Canterbury acknowledged that the roots of these events lay in the preceding centuries of Christian anti-Semitism:

'Without centuries of Christian anti-Semitism, Hitlers passionate hatred would never have been so passionately echoed....The travesty of Kristallnacht and all that followed is that so much was perpetrated in Christ's name. To glorify the Third Reich, the Christian faith was betrayed. We cannot say, "We did not know", We did - and stood by.. And even today there are many Christians who fail to see it as self evident and why this blindness? Because for centuries Christians have held Jews collectively responsible for the death of Jesus. On Good Friday Jews have, in times past, cowered behind locked doors for fear of a Christian mob seeking 'revenge' for deicide. Without the poisoning of Christian minds through the centuries, the holocaust is unthinkable'.[26]

International Council of Christians and Jews

During the blitz of 1942 some British Christians and Jews met with members of the American National Conference of Christians and Jews (NCCJ) who were visiting London. It was agreed that after the war an international conference should be held for all the bodies who were active in the field of Christian-Jewish relationships.[27] The American group had not been formed to counterattacks on Jews, as was the case in London, but rather through anti-Catholicism agitation stirred up by the Ku Klux Klan at the time when Catholic Al Smith was standing for president. Jewish and Protestant leaders in the United States reacted and this led Catholics to join them in solidarity.[28]

The conference was held in Oxford in 1946 and over one hundred delegates from fifteen countries attended.[29] A public meeting held on the eve of the conference included as guest speakers the Archbishop of Canterbury, Reinhold Niebuhr, R. A. Butler and Rabbi Leo Baeck, a survivor of Theresienstadt concentration camp.[30] Various commissions were set up, a resolution was sent to the Paris Peace Conference, an agreement reached to hold an emergency conference dealing with anti-Semitism in Europe, and that a committee should research the possibility of forming an International Council of Christians and Jews which would bring together all the various national bodies.[31] Jacques Maritain was elected to serve as co-Chairman with Dr. MacCracken of U.S.A. and the Marquess of Reading on the board of the proposed International Council of Christians and Jews.[32]

An emergency conference took place in Seelisberg Switzerland in 1947. "The Ten Points of Seelisberg" agreed at the conference became a reference for many future statements by various Churches regarding new approaches to Judaism.[33]

The Ten Points of Seelisberg

Pere de Lopinit who had worked in Italian camps in which Jews had been interred during the war took the document back to the Vatican and a form of nihil obstat was received. Cardinal Griffiths was dismissive of the plan but in time the ten points may have been a formative influence in the declaration on religious liberty of Vatican II (Nostra aetate)[35] The plan for an International Council of Christians and Jews did not come to fruition until 1974 due to differences regarding how it should be implemented .[36]

British, French German and Swiss representatives agreed a constitution for the proposed International Council in 1948 but the American NCCJ didn't as it felt that the use of "Christian" in the organisations title would be a barrier to some people through the use of the word by some European political parties in their titles. Everett Clinchy of the NCCJ now directed his efforts into the "World Brotherhood" and the plans for an International Council for Christians and Jews were stalled.[37] Enthusiasm for an international organization was also limited through fears of religious indifferentism from a Roman Catholic perspective and a lack of sympathy to interfaith understanding in the prevailing Protestant theological climate.[38] In the early 1950s a directive was sent to all national Catholic hierarchies from the Vatican warning against involvement in the International Council of Christians and Jews for fear that it was tending towards religious indifferentism - see following section. Cardinal Griffin asked if it also applied to the British Council and two years later the Vatican advised that it did and all Catholic members were told to withdraw. It did not happen anywhere else and William Simpson was of the opinion that if Cardinal Griffiths had not asked the question there would have been no trouble.[39]

An International Consultative Committee of Organizations for Christian-Jewish Cooperation was finally established, without NCCJ participation, in January 1962 at a meeting in Frankfurt.[40] They held a conference in 1966 which issued a critique of the Vatican II Declaration Nostra aetate, the WCC's New Delhi statement on Christian-Jewish relations and a definition of dialogue:

The dialogue is essentially a dialogue between persons, an attitude to life and not a mere technique. It is a relationship which has been found in experience to be capable of deepening the spiritual life of all the participants alike, for each is given in dialogue full opportunity to express his position in all freedom. It has proved and enrichment of their faith in God to committed Jews and Christians, and has dispelled many misunderstandings of each about the faith and practice of the other. We believe that it is not only consistent with our several loyalties to Church and Synagogue, but that it also increases interreligious harmony as we face together the problems and needs of our changing world.[41]

In 1974 the NCCJ did join and at their suggestion the name of the organisation was changed to the International Council of Christians and Jews (ICCJ).[42] In 1975 the ICCJ met in Hamburg and such conferences developed into an annual event focussed on certain themes such as "When Religion is Used as a Weapon ...The Use and Misuse of Religion in Defence of National and Fundamental Values" (1991)[43] The first international youth conference was hosted by the CCJ in Wales in 1977.[44]

Relations with the Roman Catholic Church

See also Pope Pius XII and Judaism

During the pontificate of Pope Pius XII "a heavy blow fell on the Council" when in November 1954 Cardinal Griffin announced that the Roman Catholic Church would be withdrawing from the CCJ following an instruction received from the Vatican indicating that the educational work being done by the council could result in religious indifferentism. Leading Roman Catholics resigned from the CCJ in the aftermath.[45] The Catholic Herald reported in December 1954:

It has now been publicly announced that the Holy See has instructed Catholics to relinquish their membership of the Council of Christians and Jews. Cardinal Griffin, one of the presidents. Lord Perth, a joint treasurer. and Lord Pekenham resigned some time ago. Discussions have been going on for a considerable time "in the hope" says The Times, "of finding a way to restore the united outlook on those matters of common concern for which the council have stood since they were set up in 1942. The council's aim was to combat religious and racial intolerance. promote understanding and good will between Christians and Jews and to foster co-operation.[46]

The popular press was highly critical of this development with headlines such as "The Pope bans Queen's Council" and criticising Roman Catholic intolerance.[47] The Catholic periodical "The Tablet" expressed the view that the public resignations ought to have been avoided, further discussions held, and that the Vatican should have made the reasons for the withdrawal explicit.[48] The reasons for the withdrawal were never clearly explained, however Roman Catholic theologian Jacques Maritain had previously warned the CCJ that Rome was suspicious of any cooperative ventures between Jews, Protestants and Catholics.[49] A Church source commented: "From the Roman Catholic side there was no failure to appreciate the aims and objects to promote which this council exists, but the Vatican was not satisfied with some of the ways and means adopted by the council in pursuit of those aims."[50]

During the pontificate of Pope John XXIII Catholics were once again permitted to join the CCJ, including notable figures such as Lord Longford and Lord Perth.[51] In 1962 the Earl of Perth and two Catholic laymen served on the Council with ecclesiastical approval. In 1964 Archbishop Heenan addressed the CCJ and expressed the opinion that the original withdrawal from the Council was due to a misunderstanding in Rome.[52] The Archbishop said many people, had been "disappointed even scandalised" by the original decision and that it was "possible and even probable that the Vatican was misinformed,"[53] In June 1964 Archbishop Heenan accepted the invitation to become a joint president of the Council with the Catholic Herald commenting "By so doing, the break which has lasted ten years between the Council and the Catholic Church has been fully mended."[54] The Council's other four presidents were the Chief Rabbi, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and the Moderator of the Free Church Federal Council.[55]

The early difficulties associated with Roman Catholic membership largely disappeared in the aftermath of the issuing of Nostra aetate by the Second Vatican Council.[56] In 1980 and 1990 Pope John Paul II met delegations from the CCJ and conferred a knighthood on Sir Sigmund Sternberg who was joint treasurer of the CCJ and chairman of the International Council of Christians and Jews.[57]

Later years

The CCJ established The Robert Waley Cohen Memorial Lectureship in 1956 as a tribute to Robert Waley Cohen and his service to the Council. Annual lecturers have included Sir Isaiah Berlin (John Stuart Mill and the Ends of Life, 1959), Abba Eban (The Final Solution, 1961), Dr Michael Ramsay (The Crisis of Human Freedom, 1962), Henry Chadwick (Some Reflections on Conscience: Greek, Jewish and Christian, 1968), Gregory Baum (Christian Theology After Auchwitz, 1976)[58] In 1979 the CCJ established the annual The Sigmund Sternberg Award for individuals who had made a contribution to furthering Christian-Jewish relations.[59] Local councils were encouraged when the CCJ was formed but the relationship between local councils and the national Council was not always easy through a want of a democratic framework. This was addressed in a revised constitution in 1990.[60] By 1991 the CCJ had 47 local branches in the U.K.[61]

"Children of One God"

In 1992 Marcus Braybrooke, a former executive director of CCJ, published A History of the Council of Christians and Jews: Children of One God which has been described as "the essential locus classicus" for the history of the Councils origins and development during its first fifty years.[62] The Tablet in its review commented:

With an index, a body of footnotes, pages of photographs, several appendices and a well-researched, well-documented text, it is a valuable resource for any student. But the approach the author has chosen and his very conscientiousness are both a strength and a weakness. Some of the material makes compelling reading, but there are pages which, inevitably, are of interest primarily to the specialist.[63]

The Catholic Herald in its review commented:

To members of the council, this book will be a most helpful account of the origins and history of the movement which has held them enthralled ever since they joined it. To others it will be an eye opener, but regrettably there will be many Christians and Jews who will still not want to know in case their prejudices are disturbed. The author has written a factual account of the growth of the Council of Christians and Jews from its birth in 1941 up to the present. It is obviously meticulously researched, in great detail, and gives no all over golden picture.[64]

See also

• Christian–Jewish reconciliation
• Relations between Catholicism and Judaism


• "A History of the Council of Christians and Jews: Children of One God", Marcus Braybrooke, Vallentine Mitchell, 1991, ISBN 0-85303-242-4


1. "History: Council of Christians and Jews", CCJ Web site, retrieved 15 June 2009 [1] Archived 9 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine
2. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 1
3. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.2
4. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 3
5. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 3
6. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p4
7. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 4
8. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.6
9. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, pp. 6-7
10. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 7
11. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.9
12. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, pp. 11-12
13. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.12
14. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.14
15. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 17
16. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 20
17. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p21
18. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 22
19. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 22
20. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 23
21. Christians and Jews AN " OCCASIONAL REVIEW", Catholic Herald, 19 November 1943, p. 5 [2]
22. "JEWS AND CHRISTIANS Issue a Significant Document", Catholic Herald, 9 June 1944, p. 6 [3]
23. Category Dislikes, Catholic Herald, 23 June 1944, p. 1
24. "Co-operation between Christians and Jews urged by Dr. Griffin", Catholic herald, 10 November 1944 [4]
25. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews,p. 23
26. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews,pp. 83, 181
27. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.118
28. "Christians and Jews(2)" Christopher Howse, The Tablet, 27 April 1985, p.8 [5]
29. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.119
30. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.119
31. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 119
32. "Praise for Work of Jesuit on Council of Jews and Christians", Catholic Herald, PAGE 6, 14TH NOVEMBER 1947 [6]
33. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.119
34. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.2
35. Christians and Jews Christopher Howse, The Tablet, 27 April 1985, p.8
36. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.120, 121
37. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews,pp. 119-120
38. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 120
39. Christians and Jews Christopher Howse, The Tablet, 27 April 1985, p.8
40. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews,pp. 120-121
41. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 121-22
42. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 122
43. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 122
44. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 123
45. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.33
46. Catholics Resign, Catholic Herald, 31 December 1954, p. 1
47. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.35
48. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.35
49. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.36
50. "Council of Christians and Jews", Catholic Herald, 18 March 1955, p.1
51. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.38
52. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.39
53. Christians and Jews, The Tablet, 14 March 1964, p. 21
54. Ten year rift is healed by Dr. Heenan, Catholic Herald, 19 June 1964, p.3 [7]
55. "The Church in the World", The Tablet, 20 June 1964, p.24]
56. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.40
57. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.41
58. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.149-150
59. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.151
60. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 100
61. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 156
62. "Church and synagogue", The Tablet, 7 March 1992, p.18
63. Church and synagogue, The Tablet, 7 March 1992, p.18
64. A history of dialogue, Catholic Herald, 16 August 1991, p. 6

External links

• Official CCJ website
• Commission of the Holy See for Religious Relations with the Jews
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Dec 10, 2019 6:41 am

Laurence Waddell
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/9/19



Laurence Austine Waddell.

British Army officers in Tibet during 1904, Laurence Waddell (center)

Lieutenant Colonel Laurence Austine Waddell,[1] CB, CIE, F.L.S., L.L.D, M.Ch., I.M.S. RAI, F.R.A.S (1854–1938) was a British explorer, Professor of Tibetan, Professor of Chemistry and Pathology, Indian Army surgeon,[2] collector in Tibet, and amateur archaeologist. Waddell also studied Sumerian and Sanskrit; he made various translations of seals and other inscriptions. His reputation as a Assyriologist gained little to no academic recognition and his books on the history of civilization have caused controversy. Some of his book publications however were popular with the public, and he is regarded by some today to have been a real-life precursor of the fictional character Indiana Jones.[3]


A Chinese Horse-Dragon, Reproduced in Waddell's, "The Buddhism of Tibet: Or Lamaism, with Its Mystic Cults, Symbolism and Mythology ...", 1895. Unknown Chinese artist.

A Tibetan Lung-Horse, Reproduced in Waddell's, "The Buddhism of Tibet: Or Lamaism, with Its Mystic Cults, Symbolism and Mythology ...", 1895. Unknown Tibetan artist.

A photo of Paljor Dorje Shatra, Reproduced in Waddell's "Lhasa and Its Mysteries-With a Record of the British Tibetan Expedition of 1903-1904", 1905.

Laurence Waddell was born on 29 May 1854, and was the son of Rev. Thomas Clement Waddell, a Doctor of Divinity at Glasgow University and Jean Chapman, daughter of John Chapman of Banton, Stirlingshire.[4] Laurence Waddell obtained a bachelor's degree in Medicine followed by a master's degree in both Surgery and Chemistry at Glasgow University in 1878. His first job was as a resident surgeon near the university and was also the President of Glasgow University's Medical Society.[5] In 1879 he visited Ceylon and Burma and was 'irresistibly attracted' towards Buddhism which in later years led him to study the tenets, history and art of Buddhism[6]. In 1880 Waddell joined the British Indian Army and served as a medical officer with the Indian Medical Service (I.M.S), subsequently he was stationed in India and the Far East (Tibet, China and Burma). The following year he became a Professor of Chemistry and Pathology at the Medical College of Kolkata, India. While working in India, Waddell also studied Sanskrit and edited the Indian Medical Gazette. He became Assistant Sanitary Commissioner under the government of India.[4]

After Waddell worked as a Professor of Chemistry and Pathology for 6 years, he became involved in military expeditions across Burma and Tibet.[7] Between 1885-1887 Waddell took part in the British expedition that annexed Upper Burma, which defeated Thibaw Min the last king of the Konbaung dynasty.[8] After his return from Burma Waddell was stationed in Darjeeling district, India, and was appointed Principal Medical Officer in 1888. In the 1890s Waddell, while in Patna, established that Agam Kuan was part of Ashoka's Hell.
[9] His first publications were essays and articles on medicine and zoology, most notably "The Birds of Sikkim" (1893).[10] In 1895 he obtained a doctorate in law.[11]

Map of 1895 excavations by Laurence Waddell at Pataliputra.

Waddell traveled extensively in India throughout the 1890s (including Sikkim and areas on the borders of Nepal and Tibet) and wrote about the Tibetan Buddhist religious practices he observed there. Stationed with the British army in Darjeeling, Waddell learned the Tibetan language and even visited Tibet several times secretly, in disguise. He was the cultural consultant on the 1903-1904 British invasion of Tibet led by Colonel Sir Francis Edward Younghusband, and was considered alongside Sir Charles Bell as one of the foremost authorities on Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism. Waddell studied archaeology and ethnology in-between his military assignments across India and Tibet, and his exploits in the Himalayas were published in his highly successful book Among the Himalayas (1899). Various archaeological excavations were also carried out and supervised by Waddell across India, including Pataliputra, of which he did not receive recognition of discovery until long after his death, in 1982, by the government of Bengal. His discoveries at Pataliputra were published in an official report in 1892.[4]

During the 1890s Waddell specialised in Buddhist antiquities and became a collector, between 1895-97 he published "Reports on collections of Indo-Scythian Buddhist Sculptures from the Swat Valley", in 1893 he also read a paper to the International Congress of Orientalists: "On some newly found Indo-Grecian Buddhistic Sculptures from the Swat Valley".[4] In 1895 Waddell published his book Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism, which was one of the first works published in the west on Buddhism. As a collector, Waddell had come across many Tibetan manuscripts and maps, but was disappointed to not find a single reference to a lost ancient civilization, which he had hoped to discover.

Waddell continued his military service with the Indian Medical Service. He was in China during the Boxer Rebellion (1898-1901), including the Relief of Peking in August 1900, for which he was mentioned in despatches, received the China War Medal (1900) with clasp, and was in 1901 appointed a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE).[12] By late 1901 he had moved to North-West Frontier Province and was present during the Mahsud-Waziri Blockade, 1901–02. He was in Malakand in 1902 and took part in the Tibet Mission to Lhasa 1903–04, for which he was again mentioned in despatches, received a medal with clasp and was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB). Waddell then returned to England where he briefly became Professor of Tibetan at the University College of London (1906–1908).

In 1908, Waddell began to learn Sumerian.[13] Thus in his later career he turned to studying the ancient near east, especially Sumeria and dedicated his time to deciphering or translating ancient cuneiform tablets or seals, most notably including the Scheil dynastic tablet. In 1911, Waddell published two entries in the Encyclopædia Britannica.[14] By 1917, Waddell was fully retired and first started exclusively writing on Aryans, beginning in an article published in the Asiatic Review entitled "Aryan Origin of the World's Civilization".[4] From the 1920s Waddell published several works which attempted to prove an Aryan (i.e., Indo-European) origin of the alphabet and the appearance of Indo-European myth figures in ancient Near Eastern mythologies (e.g., Hittite, Sumerian, Babylonian). The foundation of his argument is what he saw as a persistence of cult practices, religious symbols, mythological stories and figures, and god and hero names throughout Western and Near Eastern civilizations, but also based his arguments on his deciphered Sumerian and Indus-Valley seals, and other archaeological findings.

Waddell died in 1938. That same year, he had completed writing Trojan Origin of World Civilization. The book was never published.[15]

Discovery of Buddha's Birthplace

Waddell had actively travelled around British controlled India in search for Kapilavastu, the Buddha's supposed birthplace. Cunningham had previously identified Kapilavastu as the village of Bhuila in India which Waddell and other orientalists concluded to be incorrect. They were searching for the birthplace by taking into account the topographical and geographical hints left by the ancient chinese travellers, Fa Hien and Hiuen Tsiang. Waddell was first to point out the importance of the discovery of Asoka's pillar in Nigliva in 1893 and estimate Buddha's birthplace as Lumbini. He subsequently corresponded with Government of India and arranged for the exploration of the area. It was also Waddell who was appointed to conduct the exploration to recover the inscriptions, etc.; but at the last moment, when due to adverse circumstances prevented him from proceeding, and Mr. Führer was sent to carry out the exploration arranged by him, he found the Lumbini grove, etc., with their inscriptions at the very spots pointed out by him[16].

Waddell's theories

Waddell's voluminious writings after his retirement were based on an attempt to prove the Sumerians (who he identified as Aryans) as the progenitors of other ancient civilizations, such as the Indus Valley Civilization and ancient Egyptians to "the classic Greeks and Romans and Ancient Britons, to whom they [the Sumerians] passed on from hand to hand down the ages the torch of civilization".[17] He is perhaps most remembered for his controversial translations; the Scheil dynastic tablet, the Bowl of Utu and Newton Stone, as well as his British Edda.


See also: Newton Stone

Waddell in Phoenician Origin of Britons, Scots, and Anglo-Saxons (1924) argued for a Syro-Hittite and Phoenician colonization of the British Isles, turning to British folklore that mentions Trojans, such as the "Brutus Stone" in Totnes and Geoffrey of Monmouth; place-names that supposedly preserve the Hittite language, and inscriptions, as evidence.

According to Waddell the "unknown" script on the Newton Stone is Hitto-Phoenician. His translation is as follows:

This Sun-Cross (Swastika) was raised to Bil (or Bel, the God of Sun-Fire) by the Kassi (or Cassi-bel[-an]) of Kast of the Siluyr (sub-clan) of the "Khilani" (or Hittite-palace-dwellers), the Phoenician (named) Ikar of Cilicia, the Prwt (or Prat, that is 'Barat' or 'Brihat' or Brit-on).

Brutus of Troy, Waddell also regarded to be a real historical figure. In a chapter entitled "COMING OF THE "BRITONS" OR ARYAN BRITO-PHOENICIANS UNDER KING BRUTUS-THE-TROJAN TO ALBION ABOUT 1103, B.C", Waddell writes:

This migration of King Brutus and his Trojan and Phoenician refugees from Asia Minor and Phoenicia to establish a new homeland colony in Albion, which event the British Chronicle historical tradition places at 1103 B.C. was probably associated with, and enforced by, not merely the loss of Troy, but also by the massacring invasion of Hittite Asia Minor, Cilicia and the Syria-Phoenician coast of the Mediterranean by the Assyrian King Tiglath Pileser I. about 1107 B.C. to 1105 B.C.


Book cover "Lhasa and its Mysteries" 3rd edition in 1906

Waddell's contemporaries reviewed the book very negatively. One reviewer considered the content to be "admirable fooling", but that he had "an uneasy feeling that the author really believes it".[18] It has also been pointed out that Waddell took the Historia Regum Britanniae to be literal history which is why he was almost asking to be ridiculed by historians:

"Contrary to the general opinion of historians, he [Waddell] accepts as authentic the chronicle of Geoffrey of Monmouth, and regards as historical the legend of King Brut of Troy having reached Britain with his followers about the year 1103 BC, founded London a few years later, and spread through the land Phoenician culture, religion and art [...] His views indeed are so unorthodox that he is no doubt prepared for strong criticism, and even ridicule. King Brut of Troy has long been relegated to the company of old wives' tales."[19]

Indus-Valley seals

See also: Indus script and Dravidian people

The first Indus Valley or Harappan seal was published by Alexander Cunningham in 1872.[20] It was half a century later, in 1912, when more Indus Valley seals were discovered by J. Fleet, prompting an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921–22, resulting in the discovery of the ancient civilization at Harappa (later including Mohenjo-daro). As seals were discovered from the Indus Valley, Waddell in 1925 first attempted to decipher them and claimed they were of Sumerian origin in his Indo-Sumerian Seals Deciphered.


In the 1920s, Waddell's theory that the Indus-Valley seals were Sumerian had some academic support, despite criticisms; Ralph Turner considered Waddell's work to be "fantasy".[21][22][23][24] Two notable supporters of Waddell included John Marshall, the Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India until 1928, and Stephen Herbert Langdon.[25] Marshall had led the main excavation campaign at Harappa and published his support for Waddell's Sumerian decipherment in 1931. Preston however in a section of her biography of Waddell entitled "Opposition to Indo-Sumerian Seals Deciphered" points out that support for Waddell's theory had disappeared by the early 1940s through the work of Mortimer Wheeler:

"However, a shift, which made his [Waddell's] claim appear untenable, occurred in the consensus in archaeology after Sir Mortimer Wheeler was put in charge of the Archaeological Survey of India [...] Wheeler's interpretation of the archaeological data was the guideline for scholars who appear to have ruled out the possibility that the language of the seals could be akin to Sumerian and Proto-Elamite."[26]

Sumerian language

See also: Sumerian language

The non-Semitic source of the Sumerian language was established in the late 19th century by Julius Oppert and Henry Rawlinson from which many different theories were proposed as to its origin. In his works Aryan Origin of the Alphabet and Sumer-Aryan Dictionary (1927) Waddell attempted to show the Sumerian language was of Aryan (Indo-European) root.


Waddell's Sumerian-Aryan equation did not receive any support at the time, despite having sent personal copies of his two books to Archibald Sayce.[27] Professor Langdon, who had earlier offered Waddell his support for a Sumerian or Proto-Elamite decipherment of the Indus-Valley seals, dismissed Waddell's publications on the Sumerian language itself:

"The author [Waddell] has slight knowledge of Sumerian, and commits unpardonable mistakes [...] The meanings assigned to Sumerian roots are almost entirely erroneous. One can only regret the publication of such fantastic theories, which cannot possibly do service to serious science in any sense whatsoever."[28]


See also: Waddell's chronology

Waddell in The Makers of Civilization (1929) and Egyptian Civilization Its Sumerian Origin and Real Chronology (1930) revised conventional dates for most ancient civilizations and king lists. For example, he believed the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt began c. 2700 BC, not c. 3100 BC, arguing that Menes, was Manis-Tusu, the son of Sargon, who in turn was King Minos of Crete. For Waddell, the earliest ancient rulers or mythological kings of Sumer, Egypt, Crete and the Indus Valley civilizations were all identical Aryan personages.


To support his revised chronology, Waddell acquired and translated several artefacts including the Scheil dynastic tablet and the Bowl of Utu. Waddell was praised for his acquisition of the latter.[29] However Waddell's translations were always highly unorthodox and not taken serious. The Makers of Civilization was panned in a review by Harry L. Shapiro:

"The reader does not need to peruse this work very far to become aware of its distinct bias and unscientific method. Fortunately the 'Nordic race-mongers' have become discredited that there is little to fear from the effect of this opus on the intelligent lay public. Succinctly, Mr. Waddell believes that the beginning of all civilization dates from the Nordic [Aryan] Sumerians who were blond Nordics with blue eyes."[30]

Waddell during his own life, was deemed to be anachronistic by most scholars because of his supremacist views regarding the Aryan race:

"One of the reasons for the literary oblivion of Waddell's works on the history of civilization with an Aryan theme is [...] in relation to the fact that he did not give up the quest for the Aryans in terms of racial origins when it was abandoned in the 1870s, and it was very influential in his choice of career [...] His comparative studies and decipherment led him to a completely controversial and alternative perspective of ancient history. Furthermore, the titles that are now little known may have been sidelined due his use of the term 'Aryan' as it became associated with the rise of Nazism."[31]


Waddell from 1917 (having first published the article "Aryan Origin of the World's Civilization") until his death was a proponent of hyperdiffusionism ("Pan-Sumerism") arguing that many cultures and ancient civilizations, such as the Indus Valley Civilization, Minoan Crete, Phoenicia, and Dynastic Egypt, were the product of Aryan Sumerian colonists.

Grafton Elliot Smith who pioneered hyperdiffusionism (but of the Egyptians) was an influential correspondent to Waddell.[32]


R. Sawyer (1985) points out that Waddell "was of the eccentric opinion that Western, Indian and ancient Egyptian culture derived from a common Sumerian ancestry" and that his ideas were far-fetched to untenable.[33] Gabriel Moshenska of the UCL Institute of Archaeology has noted:

"Waddell's hopes of rewriting the story of civilization with the Aryan race as the first and only protagonist rapidly faded as his works and ideas remained restricted to, if well rooted in, the ultra right wing fringes of society and scholarship. J. H. Harvey, member of the pro-Nazi Imperial Fascist League and later a respected medievalist, wrote a short book The Heritage of Britain (1940) which aimed to summarise Waddell's works for a narrower audience on the fringes of the British Fascist movement (Macklin 2008). The British-Israelite W. T. F. Jarrold used Waddell's study of the Newton Stone to support a Biblical origin for the Anglo-Saxon race (1927). Today Waddell's works are read and referenced most commonly by white supremacists, esoteric scholars and conspiracy theorists such as David Icke (1999)."[34]


Waddell collected bird specimens and it was on the basis of one of them that Henry Dresser named the species Babax waddelli (the giant babax) in 1905. His collections were donated in 1894 to the Hunterian Museum at the University of Glasgow. Some specimens are in the Manchester Museum and at the Natural History Museum at London. The University of Glasgow holds Waddell's papers and manuscript collection.

Published books

(for book descriptions see footnotes)

• The non-bacillar nature of abrus-poison : with observations on its chemical and physiological properties (1884)
• The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism, With Its Mystic Cults, Symbolism and Mythology and in Its Relation to Indian Buddhism (1895)[35]
• Among the Himalayas (1899)[36]
• The Tribes of the Brahmaputra valley (1901)
• Lhasa and Its Mysteries - With a Record of the British Tibetan Expedition of 1903-1904 (1905)[37]
• The "Dhāranī" cult in Buddhism: its origin, deified literature and images (1912)
• Phoenician Origin of the Britons, Scots, and Anglo-Saxons (1924, 2nd ed. 1925)
• Indo-Sumerian Seals Deciphered discovering Sumerians of Indus Valley as Phoenicians, Barats, Goths & famous Vedic Aryans 3100-2300 B.C. (1925)
• Sumer-Aryan Dictionary. An Etymological Lexicon of the English and other Aryan Languages Ancient and Modern and the Sumerian Origin of Egyptian and its Hieroglyphs (1927)
• Aryan-Sumerian Origin of the Alphabet (1927)
• Questionary on the Sumerian markings upon prehistoric pottery found in the Danube & associated valleys of Middle Europe (1928, small booklet)
• Makers of Civilization in Race and History (1929)
• Egyptian Civilization Its Sumerian Origin and Real Chronology (1930)
• The British Edda (1930) [38]


• Buckland, C. E. (1906). Dictionary of Indian Biography. London : S. Sonnenschein.
• Thomas, F. W. (1939). "Colonel L. A. Waddell". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 3 (3): 499–504. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00089577. JSTOR 25201976.
• Preston, C. (2009). The Rise of Man in the Gardens of Sumeria: A Biography of L.A. Waddell. Sussex Academic Press.
• Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: Waddell, Lawrence Augustine (1854–1938). [1]
• Waddell Collection at the University of Glasgow:[2] A collection of over 700 volumes dealing mainly with Assyrian and Sumerian languages, Archaeology, Asian history and folk-lore, and Buddhism. He made a notable contribution to the history of Buddhism. The printed book collection is supplemented by associated correspondence, working notes, photographs and press cuttings. Some of the books have manuscript annotations and inserts.

See also

• David MacRitchie
• Christian O'Brien
• William James Perry
• Ethel Bristowe
• Grafton Elliot Smith

References & Footnotes

1. Most sources have "Laurence Austine", such as:
 British Edda at Library of Congress
 Among the Himalayas at Library of Congress
 Among the Himalayas at Google Books
 Among the Himalayas, OCLC 191983018
At least one source has "Laurence Augustine":
 Laurence Augustine Waddell at the Manuscripts Catalogue, University of Glasgow —According to this catalogue, L. A. Waddell was born with the name "Laurence Augustine Waddell" and at some unknown later time began using "Austine" as his middle name. His books have the name "L. Austine Waddell" and Indian sources often refer to him as "Lawrence Austine Waddell."
2. "WADDELL, Lieut.-Col. Laurence Austine". Who's Who. Vol. 59. 1907. p. 1811.
3. Preston, Christine (2009). The Rise of Man in the Gardens of Sumeria: A Biography of L.A. Waddell. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-84519-315-7. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
4. Thomas, 1939.
5. Preston, 2009: 25.
6. The Buddhism of Tibet, or Lamaism, Preface to the Second Edition
7. Preston, 2009: 30.
8. Preston, 2009: 31.
9. "Agam Kuan". Directorate of Archaeology, Govt. of Bihar, official website. Retrieved 19 April 2013. Waddell on his exploration of the ruins of Pataliputra during 1890s identified Agam Kuan with the legendary hell built by Ashoka for torturing people as cited by the Chinese travellers of the 5th and 7th centuries A.D.
10. Preston, 2009: 36.
11. Waddell Archive
12. "No. 27337". The London Gazette (Supplement). 24 July 1901. p. 4917.
13. Preston, 2009: 20.
14. “Lhasa” in Encyclopædia Britannica, (11th ed.), 1911. “Tibet” in Encyclopædia Britannica, (11th ed.), 1911.
15. Preston, 2009: 194.
16. Journal of Royal Asiatic Society , Volume 29, Issue 3 July 1897 , pp. 644-651
17. Waddell, L. (1929). Makers of Civilization in Race & History. London: Luzac. p. 497.
18. Turner, R. L. (1925). "The Phoenician Origin of Britons, Scots, and Anglo-Saxons [Review]". Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London. 3 (4): 808–810. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00000562. JSTOR 607096.
19. Crownhart-Vaughan, E. A. P. (1925). "The Phoenician Origin of Britons, Scots, and Anglo-Saxons [Review]". The Geographical Journal. 65 (5): 446–447. doi:10.2307/1782555. JSTOR 1782555.
20. Cunningham, A., 1875. Archaeological Survey of India, Report for the Year 1872-73, 5: 105-8 and pl. 32-3. Calcutta: Archaeological Survey of India
21. Turner, R. L. (1926). "Indo-Sumerian Seals Deciphered by L. A. Waddell [Review]". Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London. 4 (2): 376. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00089436.
22. Charpentier, J (1925). "The Indo-Sumerian Seals Deciphered by L. A. Waddell [Review]". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 4 (4): 797–799. JSTOR 25220872.
23. Barton, George A (1926). "On the So-Called Sumero-Indian Seals". The Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 8: 79–95. doi:10.2307/3768527. JSTOR 3768527.
24. Brown, G (1927). "The Indo-Sumerian Seals Deciphered by L. A. Waddell [Review]". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 47: 284–285. doi:10.2307/593279. JSTOR 593279.
25. Preston, 2009: 169.
26. Preston, 2009: 21.
27. Preston, 2009: 85.
28. Langdon, S (1927). "The Aryan Origin of the Alphabet; A Sumer-Aryan Dictionary by L. A. Waddell [Review]". The Scottish Historical Review. 25 (97): 53. JSTOR 25525780.
29. Preston, 2009: 143.
30. Shapiro, H. L. (1930). "The Makers of Civilization in Race and History". Pacific Affairs. 3 (12): 1168–1169. doi:10.2307/2750262. JSTOR 2750262.
31. Preston, 2009: 195.
32. Preston, 2009: 5, footnotes; "Waddell's thesis mirrored contemporary Grafton Elliot Smith's better-known theory of Egypt".
33. Sawyer, R (1985). "To Know the Histories: L. A. Waddell's Sumer and Akkad". Paideuma. 14 (1): 79–94.
34. The Later Works of Lieutenant-Colonel Professor Laurence Austine Waddell
35. Waddell's best-known work, and was one of the first books published in the west to offer such extensive observations of Buddhism, ranging from metaphysics to practical magic. Waddell explains the whole Tibetan pantheon, including transcriptions of hundreds of charms and mantras and detailed coverage of the doctrine of incarnation and reincarnation.
36. An engaging journal of fourteen years of travel. In Waddell's own words, "During the past fourteen years I have traversed portions of the borderlands of Sikkim nearly every year, sketching, shooting, collecting, and especially exploring the customs of the people on the frontiers of Tibet, and of Nepal. This illustrated narrative of my journeyings I hope may reflect, in some measure, the keen enjoyment of travel in these regions, may awaken further interest in a fascinating though little known land, may assist in guiding the traveler to those features that are of greatest general interest, and bring home to the reader a whiff of the bracing breezes of the Himalayas."
37. Documents the people and religion of the Tibetan capital, including British-Tibetan military clashes and peace negotiations.
38. Waddell reconstructs the Old Icelandic Poetic Edda under the notion that the text is very ancient and actually "British." His pursuit is apparent the subtitle: "The great epic poem of the ancient Britons of the exploits of King Thor, Arthur, or Adam and his knights in establishing civilization reforming Eden & capturing the Holy Grail about 3380-3350 B.C." For this he uses the language and art of Indo-European and Semitic peoples, and draws lines through mythologies connecting ancient gods and stories to those in the medieval manuscripts of the Edda.

External links

• The Later Works of Lieutenant-Colonel Professor Laurence Austine Waddell
• Works written by or about Laurence Waddell at Wikisource
• Waddell, Lieut.-Colonel Lawrence Austine in The Indian Biographical Dictionary (1915)
• Waddell Collection (University of Glasgow)
• Laurence Waddell Family Archive
• A Biography of L. A. Waddell
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 11, 2019 1:33 am

Alexander Mackenzie (civil servant)
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19



Sir Alexander Mackenzie
Born: 28 June 1842, Dumfries, Scotland
Died: 10 November 1902 (aged 60), London
Occupation: civil servant

Sir Alexander Mackenzie, KCSI (28 June 1842 in Dumfries – 10 November 1902 in London) served as Chief Commissioner of the British Crown Colony of Burma from December 1890 to April 1895.[1]


Alexander Mackenzie was born on Dumfries, Scotland and moved to Birmingham with his father Reverend John R. Mackenzie and Alexanderina Mackenzie.[1] He attended King Edward's School and Trinity College, Cambridge. Upon obtaining his BA and completion of his Indian Civil Service exans, Mackenzie went to Calcutta in 1862 and later became the Lieutenant-governor of Bengal.

Alexander Mackenzie held many positions of civil service appointments in Asia:

• Home Secretary to the Government of British India 1882
• Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces 1887
• Chief Commissioner of Burma 1890
• Member of the Supreme Council of Burma 1895

After his service in Burma, he was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Bengal (1895–1898).
His absence and negligence during his time in office made him unpopular amongst locals, but did not result in his removal from office.

In 1891 he became a Knight in Commander of the Star of India.

Retired in 1898 due to poor health, he return to Britain and became Chairman of the India Development Company. He died on London on 10 November 1902. He was predeceased by wife Georgina Louisa Huntly Bremner (born 1838 India,[2] married 1863 and died 1892 Birmingham) and survived by second wife Mabel E. Elliot (m. 1893). His second wife married another civil servant, The Hon. Noel Farrer[3]


1. ... e_obit.pdf
2. FIBIS East India Register Birth Announcements, April 2009.
3. ‘FARRER, Hon. Noel (Maitland)’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2007; online edn, Oxford University Press, December 2007 accessed 15 December 2013

External links

• Myanmar (Burma) at
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Prince Henri of Orléans
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19



Prince Henri
Drawing by Adolphe Lalauze, c. 1897
Born: 16 October 1867, Ham, London, England
Died: 9 August 1901 (aged 33), Saigon, Cochinchina
Full name: Henri Philippe Marie d'Orléans
House: Orléans
Father: Robert, Duke of Chartres
Mother: Marie-Françoise of Orléans
Religion: Roman Catholic

Prince Henri of Orléans (16 October 1867 – 9 August 1901) was the son of Prince Robert, Duke of Chartres, and Princess Françoise of Orléans.


Henri, the second eldest son and third child of Prince Robert, Duke of Chartres, was born at Ham, London on 16 October 1867.[1]

In 1889, at the instance of his father, who paid the expenses of the tour, he undertook, in company with Gabriel Bonvalot and Father Constant de Deken (1852-1896), a journey through Siberia to French Indochina. In the course of their travels they crossed the mountain range of Tibet and the fruits of their observations, submitted to the Geographical Society of Paris (and later incorporated in De Paris au Tonkin à travers le Tibet inconnu, published in 1892),[2][3] brought them conjointly the gold medal of that society.[4]

In 1892 the prince made a short journey of exploration in East Africa, and shortly afterwards visited Madagascar, proceeding thence to Tongkin in today Vietnam.[4] In April 1892 he visited Luang Prabang in Laos. It brings him to writing a letter to "Politique Coloniale" in January 1893.[5] From this point he set out for Assam, and was successful in discovering the source of the Irrawaddy River, a brilliant geographical achievement which secured the medal of the Geographical Society of Paris and the Cross of the Legion of Honour. In 1897 he revisited Abyssinia, and political differences arising from this trip led to a duel with Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Turin.[4]

While on a trip to Assam in 1901, he died at Saigon on the 9th of August. Prince Henri was a somewhat violent Anglophobe, and his diatribes against Great Britain contrasted rather curiously with the cordial reception which his position as a traveller obtained for him in London, where he was given the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society.[4]


In 1897, in several articles for Le Figaro, Prince Henri described the Italian soldiers being held captive in Ethiopia, during the first First Italo–Ethiopian War, as cowards. Prince Vittorio Emanuele thus challenged him to a duel. The sword was agreed upon as the weapon of choice, as the Italians thought that duel with pistols, favored by the French, was worthy of betrayed husbands, not of princes of royal blood.[6]

The duel with swords, which lasted 26 minutes, took place at 5:00 am on 15 August 1897, in the Bois de Marechaux at Vaucresson, France. Vittorio Emanuele defeated Prince Henri after 5 reprises.[7] The "Monseigneur" Henri received a serious wound to his right abdomen, and the doctors of both parties considered the injury serious enough to put him in a state of obvious inferiority, causing the end of the duel, and making the Count of Turin famous in Europe.[8]

In popular culture


• Race to Tibet by Sophie Schiller (2015) ISBN 978-0692254097


1. Chisholm 1911, p. 283.
2. Chisholm 1911, pp. 283–284.
3. Across Thibet (translation of De Paris au Tonkin à travers le Tibet inconnu by C. B. Pitman, 1891)
4. Chisholm 1911, p. 284.
5. Albert de Pouvourville, "L' Affaire de Siam; 1886 - 1896"
6. "Un duello per l'Italia". Torino. 1952.
7. "Verbale dello scontro tra il Conte di Torino e il Principe Enrico d'Orléans". Torino. 1897.
8. "Prince Henri in a Duel". New York Times. 17 August 1897. p. 9.


• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Orleans, Henri, Prince of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 283–284.

Further reading

• Henri of Orléans (1894). Around Tonkin and Siam. London: Chapman & Hall.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Mahendralal Sarkar
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19



Mahendralal Sarkar
Born: 2 November 1833, Paikpara village, Howrah district, India
Died: 23 February 1904 (aged 70), Calcutta, India
Occupation: Physician, academic
Spouse(s): Rajkumari

Mahendralal Sarkar CIE (other spellings: মহেন্দ্রলাল সরকার, Mahendra Lal Sarkar, Mahendralal Sircar, Mahendralal Sircir; 2 November 1833 – 23 February 1904) was a Bengali medical doctor (MD), the second MD graduated from the Calcutta Medical College, social reformer, and propagator of scientific studies in nineteenth-century India. He was the founder of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science.[1][2]

Early life and education

Mahendralal Sarkar was born at Paikpara village in Howrah district, near Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal Province of British India. He lost both his parents early in life, his father when he was five years old and his mother when he was nine years old. His mother had shifted to his maternal uncles' house earlier, and subsequently he was brought up by his maternal uncles, Iswar Chandra Ghosh and Mahesh Chandra Ghosh in their house at Nebutala in Calcutta. First he was sent to a "gurumasai" or tutor to learn Bengali, and subsequently to another tutor named Thakurdas Dey, to learn English. On learning some English he secured admission in Hare School as a free student in 1840. In 1849, he passed the junior scholarship examination and joined Hindu College, where he studied up to 1854. At that time, Hindu College did not have facilities for teaching science and as he was bent upon studying medicine, he transferred to Calcutta Medical College.

At Calcutta Medical College he was so esteemed by his professors that in the second year of his course he was invited by them to deliver a series of lectures on optics to his fellow students, a task he performed honourably. He had a brilliant career at that college, where, besides winning several scholarships, he passed the final examination in 1860 with the highest honours in medicine, surgery and midwifery. In 1863, he took the degree of M.D. with special success.[3] He and Jagabandhu Bose were the second MDs of the Calcutta University after Chandrakumar De (1862).[1][4][5]


Although educated in the traditional European system of medicine, Mahendralal Sarkar turned to homoeopathy. He was influenced by reading William Morgan's The Philosophy of Homeopathy, and by interaction with Rajendralal Dutt, a leading homoeopathic practitioner of Calcutta. In a meeting of the Bengal branch of the British Medical Association, he proclaimed homoeopathy to be superior to the "Western medicine" of the time. Consequently, he was ostracised by the British doctors, and had to undergo loss in practice for some time.[6] However, soon he regained his practice and went on to become a leading homoeopathic practitioner in Calcutta, as well as India.[1]

In the course of his career, he treated several notable persons of those days, including the author Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay, the ascetic Ramakrishna, the Maharaja of Tripura and others.

Campaigning scientific knowledge and higher education

Bust of ML Sircar at Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science in front of ML Sircar Hall.

Mahendralal Sarkar started a campaign in 1867 for a national science association. He planned for an association that would be funded, run, and managed by native Indians, with the aim of turning out a pool of scientists for national reconstruction.[1] The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) was established in 1876, and Sarkar was its first secretary.[7] IACS was the first national science association of India.[8] Basic science departments such as Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Physiology, Geology, Botany, etc. were established, and notable Indian scientists participated in the association. Regular lectures and demonstrations were arranged for the public to popularise science.[8]

Sarkar supported women's education in nineteenth-century India, when higher education among women was rare. For example, he was a supporter of Abala Bose's decision to pursue the study of medicine at Madras Medical College instead of Calcutta Medical College, where admission of females was not permitted. He also arranged for Sarala Devi Chaudhurani's attendance in the evening lectures at IACS, so that she could pursue higher studies in physics.[9]

Awards and honours

He was a fellow of Calcutta University and an honorary magistrate and Sheriff of Calcutta (1887). He was made a CIE in 1883 and honoured with an honorary doctorate degree by University of Calcutta in 1898.[5]


1. Palit, Chittabrata (2012). "Sircir, Mahendralal". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
2. Arun Kumar Biswas. Gleanings of the past and the science movement : in the diaries of Drs. Mahendralal and Amritalal Sircar, Calcutta : The Asiatic Society, 2000; see also Collected works of Mahendralal Sircar, Eugene Lafont, and science movement, 1860–1910, Kolkata : Asiatic Society, 2003
3. Dr. Mahendralal Sircar – Frank Parlato Jr. Retrieved on 12 November 2018.
4. Sastri, Sivanath, Ramtanu Lahiri O Tatkalin Banga Samaj, 1903/2001, (in Bengali), pp. 170–176, New Age Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
5. Sengupta, Subodh Chandra and Bose, Anjali (editors), 1998 edition, Sansad Bangali Charitabhidhan (Biographical dictionary) Vol I, (in Bengali), p. 408, ISBN 81-85626-65-0
6. Das, Eswara (2005). "India". History & Status of Homoeopathy Around the World. B. Jain Publishers. pp. 103–107. ISBN 81-8056-573-4.
7. IACSCC. "Introduction(About) of IACS". Retrieved 18 September 2016.
8. Palit, Chittabrata (2012). "Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
9. Thorner, Alice; Raj, Maithreyi Krishna (2000). Ideals, Images, and Real Lives: Women in Literature and History. Sameeksha Trust. Orient Longman. pp. 51–52. ISBN 81-250-0843-8.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19



Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
Seal of IACS
Motto: To cultivate Science in all its departments with a view to its advancement by original research and with a view to its varied application to the arts and comforts of life.
Type: Deemed University
Established: 29 July 1876
Founder: Dr. Mahendra Lal Sircar
Affiliation: UGC
President: Man Mohan Sharma
Director: Santanu Bhattacharya [1]
Location: 2A & 2B Raja S C Mullick Road Kolkata-700032, West Bengal, India
22.4983°N 88.3686°E
Campus: Urban

Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) is an institute of higher learning in Kolkata, India.[2][3] Established in 1876 by Mahendra Lal Sarkar, a private medical practitioner, it focuses on fundamental research in basic sciences.[4] It is India's oldest research institute [5][6] Located at Jadavpur, South Kolkata beside Jadavpur University, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute and Indian Institute of Chemical Biology it is spread over a limited area of 9.5 acres.[7]. In May 2018, the Ministry of Human Resource Development announced that IACS[8] had been granted the status of Deemed University[9] under De-novo Category under section 3 of the University Grants Commission (UGC) Act 1956.

Academic programme

The institute is engaged in fundamental research in various fields of physics, chemistry and chemical biology. It is one of the most active research institutes in India and publishes on an average ~ 500 research articles in peer reviewed journals including top journals like Physical Review Letters, Journal of American Chemical Society and Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Recent interests include research in energy, fuel cells, nano materials like graphene and carbon nanotubes. The institute emphasizes PhD programmes, the degree being provided either by Jadavpur University or by University of Calcutta. There is also full-fledged Integrated PhD programme for post-Bachelor's students. From academic year 2005-2006 it started an integrated PhD programme in chemistry.[7] There are 8 departments in IACS, 4 units and 3 centres namely Materials Science, Solid state physics, Theoretical physics, Spectroscopy, Physical Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Biological Chemistry, Polymer Science unit, Energy research unit, Raman centre for atomic and molecular sciences, Centre for advanced materials, Center for Mathematical, Computational and Data Sciences, MLS Professor's unit and Director's Research Unit. After getting Deemed to be University status by UGC, the department structure has been replaced by School Structure. At present there are six schools namely School of Applied & Interdisciplinary Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, School of Chemical Sciences, School of Materials Sciences, School of Mathematical & Computational Sciences and School of Physical Sciences. There are about 70 working scientists in IACS. One important distinctive aspect of IACS is the presence of a majority of young scientist who are bringing new research areas and directions to IACS.

Nobel laureate Sir C. V. Raman did his groundbreaking work in Raman effect in this institute.[10] His work was first published in the Indian Journal of Physics, which is published by IACS.[11]

Apart from the works of C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan in Optics, IACS has produced several important paradigms in modern science. IACS has a very strong group in theoretical chemistry and quantum chemistry. Debashis Mukherjee developed the Mk-MRCC method to account for electron correlations in molecular systems which is considered as a "gold-standard" in computational chemistry. Another important discovery has been in the area of solvation dynamics of molecules and particular the dynamics of water molecules around the surfaces of membranes. These experiments performed by Professor Kankan Bhattacharyya have provided a fundamental insights into the behavior of water near biological surfaces and led to the coining of the word "biological water" in the physical chemistry community. Anirban Bandyopadhyay, who did his PhD at IACS went on to do research on neuroscience. Later at the Japanese National Institute for Materials Science, Anirban detected quantum states in microtubules that as per Orchestrated objective reduction play a key role in human consciousness.


At its inception, the IACS was headed by a President, with the Honorary Secretary responsible for the day-to-day running of the Society. Until 1911, the office of President was de facto held by the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, when the Lieutenant-Governor (Governor from 1912) became the co-patron of the Society alongside the Viceroy of India, whose office-holders were automatically Patrons of the Society until 1947.[12][note 1] Following India's independence in 1947, the administration of the IACS was reconstituted, with the designation of "Honorary Director" substituted for "Honorary Secretary."[13] The Director's prefix of "Honorary" was dropped in 1953.[14]

Presidents of the IACS (1876-present)

Sir Richard Temple, 1st Baronet FRS (1876-1877)
The Hon. Sir Ashley Eden FASB (1877-1882)
Sir Augustus Rivers Thompson (1882-1887)
Sir Steuart Bayley (1887-1890)
Sir Charles Alfred Elliott FASB (1890-1895)
Sir Alexander Mackenzie (1895-1898)
Sir John Woodburn (1898-1903)
• Sir Andrew Henderson Leith Fraser FASB (1903-1909)
• Sir Edward Norman Baker (1909-1911)
• Raja Pyare Mohan Mukherjee FASB (1911-1922)[15]
• Hon. Justice Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee FASB, FRSE, FRAS, MRIA (1922-1924)[16]
• Sir Rajendra Nath Mookerjee FASB (1924-1934?)[17]
• Sir Nilratan Sircar (1934-1942)[18]
• Prof. Rai Bahadur Sir Upendranath Brahmachari FNI, FASB (1942-1946)[19][20]
• Prof. Meghnad Saha FNI, FASB, FRS (1946-1951)[20][21]
• Prof. Sir Jnan Chandra Ghosh FNI (1951-1954)[22][23]
• Hon. Justice Charu Chandra Biswas (1954-1957)[24]
• Hon. Chief Justice Phani Bhusan Chakravartti (1957-1958)[25]
• Prof. Satyendra Nath Bose FNI, FRS (1958-1962)[26][27]
• Hon. Justice Rama Prasad Mookerjee (1962-1965)[27]
• Prof. Jnanendra Nath Mukherjee FNI, FCS (1965-1968)[28]
• Prof. Basanti Dulal Nagchaudhuri FNA (first term, 1968-1970)[29][note 2]
• Prof. Sushil Kumar Mukherjee FNA (first term, 1970-1973)[30][31]
• Prof. Sukumar Chandra Sirkar FNA (1973-1974)[31]
• Prof. Basanti Dulal Nagchaudhuri FNA (second term, 1974-1977)[32][33]
• Prof. Bimal Kumar Bachhawat FNA (1977-1983)[33]
• Prof. Sushil Kumar Mukherjee FNA (second term, 1983-1997)[34][35]
• Prof. Arun Kumar Sharma FNA, FASc (1997-2000)[35]
• Prof. M. M. Chakraborty (2000-2003)[36][37]
• Prof. Ashesh Prosad Mitra FNA, FASc, FRS (2003-2007)[38]
• Prof. Shri Krishna Joshi FNA, FASc (2007-2014)[39]
• Prof. Man Mohan Sharma FNA, FASc, FRS, FREng (2014-present)[40]

Secretaries and Directors of the IACS

Honorary Secretaries of the IACS (1876-1947)

• Dr. Mahendralal Sarkar (Founder-Secretary, 1876-1904)[41]
• Dr. Amritalal Sarkar (1904-1919)[41][18]
• Prof. Sir C. V. Raman (1919-1933)[18]
• Prof. K. S. Krishnan (1933-June 1934)[18]
• Prof. Sisir Kumar Mitra (June 1934-November 1935)[18]
• Prof. Jnanendra Nath Mukherjee FNI, FCS (November 1935-April 1944)[42]
• Prof. Meghnad Saha FNI, FASB, FRS (April 1944-1945)[43][44]
• Prof. Priyadaranjan Ray FNI (1945-1947)[44]
Honorary Directors of the IACS (1947-1953)[edit]
• Prof. Priyadaranjan Ray FNI (1947-1953)[13][14]

Directors of the IACS (1953-present)

• Prof. Meghnad Saha FNI, FASB, FRS (1953-1956)[14][24]
• Prof. Priyadaranjan Ray FNI (officiating, 1956-1958)[24][26]
o Prof. Sukumar Chandra Sirkar FNI (acting, 1958-1959)[26][45]
• Prof. Kedareswar Banerjee FNI (1959-1965)[45][28]
o Prof. Bishwambhar Nath Srivastava FNI (acting, 1965-1968)[28][29]
• Prof. Debidas Basu (1968-1980)[29][46]
o G. S. Banerjee IAS (acting, September 1980-March 1981)[46]
• Prof. Sadhan Basu FNA, FASc (March 1981-August 1982, on medical leave from July)[46][34]
o G. S. Banerjee IAS (acting, July-December 1982)[34]
• Prof. Asok Kumar Barua FASc (December 1982-1989)[34]
• Prof. Usha Ranjan Ghatak FNA, FASc (1989-1993)[47]
• Prof. Dipankar Chakravorty FNA, FASc (1993-1999)[48]
• Prof. Debashis Mukherjee FNA, FASc (1999-2008)[49][50]
• Prof. Kankan Bhattacharyya FNA, FASc (2008-2013)[50][51]
o Prof. Subhas Chandra Roy (acting, February-September 2013)[51]
o Prof. Deb Shankar Ray FNA, FASc (acting, September 2013-April 2015)[52]
• Prof. Santanu Bhattacharya FNA, FASc (April 2015 - present)[40]


1. With the exceptions of Sir (later Lord) Antony MacDonnell (Lieutenant-Governor 1893-1895), Sir Charles Cecil Stevens (Lieutenant-Governor 1897-1898), James Bourdillon (Lieutenant-Governor 1902-1903), Sir Lancelot Hare (Lieutenant-Governor 1906) and Francis Slacke (Lieutenant-Governor 1906-1908).
2. Prior to 1970, the Indian National Science Academy was named the "National Institute of Sciences of India", and its fellows bore the post-nominal "FNI". The post-nominal became "FNA" in 1970 when the association adopted its present name.


1. "IACS director". Retrieved 8 October 2017.
2. Uma Dasgupta (2011). Science and Modern India: An Institutional History, C. 1784-1947. Pearson Education India. ISBN 9788131728185.
3. Bernhard Joseph Stern. Science and Society. p. 84.
4. "Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata". Retrieved 19 April 2014.
5. "". Retrieved 8 October 2017.
6. "Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science". Retrieved 19 April 2014.
7. "About IACS". Retrieved 19 April 2014.
8. Aswathi Pacha (13 February 2018). "IACS' new source of white light". The Hindu. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
9. Subhankar Chowdhury (3 June 2018). "Tag boost for research hub". The Telegraph. India. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
10. "Sir Venkata Raman - Biographical". Retrieved 19 April 2014.
11. "Indian Journal of Physics". Retrieved 19 April 2014.
12. Report of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science for the Year 1915. Anglo-Sanskrit Press. 1915. p. 144.
13. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1947-1948. 1948. pp. 25–26.
14. "The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1952-53" (PDF). Archive - IACS. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
15. Report of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science for the Year 1923. Anglo-Sanskrit Press. 1923. p. 11.
16. "IACS - Annual Report for the Year 1924" (PDF). Archive - IACS. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
17. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1935. 1935. p. 1.
18. "Raman, Krishnan and the IACS Episodes of the 1930s" (PDF). INSA - Indian Journal of History of Science. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
19. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1942. 1942. p. 20.
20. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1946. 1946. p. 1.
21. "The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1950-51" (PDF). Archive - IACS. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
22. "The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1951-52" (PDF). Archive - IACS. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
23. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1953-54. 1954. p. 2.
24. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1955-56. 1956. p. 2.
25. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1957-58. 1958. p. 2.
26. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1958-59. 1959. p. 2.
27. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1961-62. 1962. p. 2.
28. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1965-66. 1966. pp. 2–4.
29. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1968-69. 1969. p. 1.
30. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1970-71. 1971. p. 1.
31. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1973-74. 1974. p. 1.
32. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1974-75. 1975. p. 1.
33. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1977-78. 1978. p. 1.
34. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1982-83. 1983. pp. 1–4.
35. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1997-98. IACS. 1998. p. 3.
36. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2000-2001. IACS. 2001. p. 3.
37. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2002-2003. IACS. 2003. p. 6.
38. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2003-2004. IACS. 2004. p. 1.
39. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2007-2008. IACS. 2008. pp. 8–11.
40. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2014-15. IACS. 2015. p. 11.
41. Report of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science for the Year 1904. Anglo-Sanskrit Press. 1904. p. 1.
42. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1943. 1943. p. 2.
43. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1944. 1944. p. 16.
44. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1945. 1945. p. 15.
45. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1959-60. IACS. 1960. p. 2.
46. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1980-81. IACS. 1981. p. 2.
47. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1989-90. IACS. 1990. p. 1.
48. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1992-93. IACS. 1992. p. 1.
49. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1999-2000. IACS. 2000. p. 1.
50. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2008-09. IACS. 2009. p. 7.
51. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2012-13. IACS. 2013. p. 9.
52. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2013-14. IACS. 2014. p. 11.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Sir Richard Temple, 1st Baronet
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19



The Right Honourable Sir Richard Temple, Bt GCSI CIE FRS
Governor of Bombay
In office: 1877–1880
Preceded by: Sir Philip Wodehouse
Succeeded by: Sir James Fergusson
Personal details
Born: 8 March 1826
Died: 15 March 1902 (aged 76)
Alma mater: East India Company College

Sir Richard Temple II, 1st Baronet, GCSI, CIE, PC, FRS (8 March 1826 – 15 March 1902) was an administrator in British India and a British politician.

Early life

Temple was the son of Richard Temple I (1800-1874) and his first wife Louisa Anne Rivett-Carnac (d. 1837), a daughter of James Rivett-Carnac. His paternal ancestor, William Dicken, of Sheinton, Shropshire, married in the middle of the 18th century the daughter and co-heiress of Sir William Temple, 5th Baronet (1694-1760), of the Temple of Stowe baronets. Their son assumed the surname Temple in 1796, and inherited the Temple manor-house and estate of The Nash, near Kempsey in Worcestershire. Richard Temple (born 1826) inherited the estate on his father's death in 1874.[1]


"Burra Dick". Temple as caricatured by Spy (Leslie Ward) in Vanity Fair, January 1881

After being educated at Rugby and the East India Company College at Haileybury, Temple joined the Bengal Civil Service in 1846. His hard work and literary skill were soon recognised; he was private secretary for some years to John Lawrence in the Punjab, and gained useful financial experience under James Wilson. He served as Chief Commissioner for the Central Provinces until 1867, when he was appointed Resident at Hyderabad. In 1867 he was made Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India (KCSI). In 1868 he became a member of the supreme government, first as foreign secretary and then as finance minister.[2]

He was made lieutenant-governor of Bengal Presidency in 1874, and did admirable work during the famine of 1874, importing half a million tons of rice from Burma to bring substantial relief to the starving. The British government, dogmatically committed to a laissez-faire economic policy, castigated Temple for interfering in the workings of the market. He was appointed by the Viceroy as a plenipotentiary famine delegate to Madras during the famine of 1877 there. Seeing this appointment as an opportunity to "retrieve his reputation for extravagance in the last famine" Temple implemented relief policies that failed to relieve widespread starvation and prevent the death of millions.[3]

Temple tried to determine the minimum amount of food Indians could survive on. In his experiments, "strapping fine fellows" were starved until they resembled "little more than animated skeletons ... utterly unfit for any work", he noted. In the labour camps he set up, inmates were given fewer daily calories than in the Buchenwald concentration camp 80 years later.[4]

His services were recognised with a baronetcy in 1876. In 1877 he was made Governor of Bombay Presidency, and his activity during the Afghan War of 1878-80 was untiring.[2]

In 1880, when Temple was departing India, it was proposed that a commemorative statue for his 33 years in the Indian Civil Service[a] be erected. The standing marble statue was completed by Thomas Brock in 1884. It shows him carrying his cloak over his arm and an elaborate 19th-century dress uniform with swags, ties and medals. They are, in fact, the costume of a Grand Commander of the Star of India, the formal attire for Governors of the Presidencies. The statue was unveiled with much pomp at the North end of Bombay's Oval. It was moved in August 1965 to the grounds beside the Bhau Daji Lad Museum, Byculla, Bombay (Victoria and Albert Museum).[5]

Five years later, in 1885, Temple was returned as a Conservative MP for the Evesham division of Worcestershire. Meanwhile, he produced several books on Indian subjects. In parliament, he was assiduous in his attendance, and he spoke on Indian subjects with admitted authority. He was not otherwise a parliamentary success, and to the public, he was best known from caricatures in Punch, which exaggerated his physical peculiarities and made him look like a lean and hungry tiger. In 1885 he became vice-chairman of the London School Board, and as chairman of its finance committee, he did useful and congenial work. In 1892 he changed his constituency for the Kingston division, but in 1895 he retired from parliament. In 1896 he was appointed a Privy Councillor.[2]

Temple had kept a careful journal of his parliamentary experiences, intended for posthumous publication; and he self-published a short volume of reminiscences. He died at his residence at Hampstead on 15 March 1902, from heart failure.[1]


Works by Temple include:[1]

• India in 1880
• Lord Lawrence
• Men and Events of My Time in India
• Oriental Experience
• Essays and Addresses
• Journal at Hyderabad
• Palestine Illustrated
• John Lawrence, a monoraph on John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence
• James Thomason, a monograph on James Thomason
• Sir Richard Carnac Temple (1887). Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal. W. H. Allen.
Temple also edited the 17th-century seaman Thomas Bowrey's A Geographical Account of Countries Round the Bay of Bengal, 1669 to 1679, published in 1905.[6]


Temple was twice married. First, in 1849, to Charlotte Frances Martindale, daughter of Benjamin Martindale. She died in 1855, leaving him with two young sons and a daughter:[1]

• Richard Carnac Temple, 2nd Baronet (1850-1931)
• Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Martindale Temple, ISC (1853-1905), of the diplomatic service
• Edith Frances Temple (1855-1933)

He remarried, in 1871, Mary Augusta Lindsay, daughter of Charles Robert Lindsay, of the Indian Civil Service, and a member of the family of the Earls of Crawford and Balcarres.[1] Lady Temple was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Crown of India (CI) on its institution in 1878.[7] She died in 1924, and they had a son from the marriage:

• Charles Lindsay Temple (1871-1929), later Lieutenant-Governor of Northern Nigeria[8]


Coat of arms of Sir Richard Temple, 1st Baronet
Crest: On a ducal coronet a martlet Or.
Escutcheon: Quarterly 1st & 4th Or an eagle displayed Sable; 2nd & 3rd Argent two bars Sable each charged with three martlets Or.
Motto: Templa Quam Dilecta [How Lovely Temples][9]



1. The Indian Civil Service was established in 1858 after the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Temple's 33 years includes his time in the civil service of the East India Company, which preceded this.


1. "Death of Sir Richard Temple". The Times (36718). London. 18 March 1902. p. 4.
2. Chisholm 1911.
3. Davis, Mike (2001). Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World. pp. 36–37. ISBN 978-1-85984-382-6.
4. Eugene Linden: [, 6 Sep 2006.
5. Steggles, Mary Ann; Barnes, Richard (2011). British Sculpture in India: New Views and Old Memories. Norfolk, UK: Frontier. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-872914-41-1.
6. Bowrey, Thomas (1905). Temple, Richard (ed.). A Geographical Account of Countries Round the Bay of Bengal, 1669 to 1679. Hakluyt Society.
7. "No. 24539". The London Gazette. 4 January 1878. p. 113.
8. Alderman, C. J. F. (2004). "Temple, Charles Lindsay (1871–1929), colonial official and author". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 28 September 2016. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
9. Burke's Peerage. 1949.


• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Temple, Sir Richard". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
• Steele, David (2004). "Temple, Sir Richard, first baronet (1826–1902), administrator in India". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 28 September 2016. (subscription or UK public library membership required)

Further reading

• Autobiographical Memoir: Men and Events of My Time in India by Richard Temple

External links

• "Temple, Sir Richard, Bart (TML883R)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
• Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sir Richard Temple
• "Temple, Sir Richard (1826-1902) 1st Baronet MP Anglo Indian Administrator". National Archives.
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