Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Mohotiwatta Gunananda
by Theosophy Wiki
Accessed: 12/19/19

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Mohotiwatta Gunananda (d. January 21, 1890) was Buddhist monk in Sri Lanka who is known for his oratory in debating the merits of Buddhism with Christian missionaries. He and Venerable H. Sri Sumangala participated in the Panadurawadaya, three days of debates that took place at Panadura in 1873. Gunananda built the Temple Mutwalward.

Involvement with Theosophical Society

After Theosophical Society founders H. P. Blavatsky and Colonel Henry Olcott heard about the debates, they wrote to Gunananda and Sumangala, who invited them to visit in Ceylon. Gunananda became an early member of the TS and remained such until his death. His membership certificate is serial number 116 of 1877.[1] He translated a portion of Isis Unveiled to Sinhalese.

Additional resources

"Gunananda, Mohotiwatta" in Theosopedia.

Notes

1. C. V. Agarwal, The Buddhist and Theosophical Movements (Sarnath, Varanasi: Maha Bodhi Society of India, 2001), 16.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Dec 09, 2019 11:04 pm

Council of Christians and Jews
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/9/19

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The Council of Christians and Jews (CCJ) is a voluntary organisation in the United Kingdom. It is composed of Christians and Jews working together to counter anti-semitism and other forms of intolerance in Britain. Their patron is Queen Elizabeth II.

The CCJ was founded, in 1942, by Chief Rabbi Joseph H. Hertz and Archbishop William Temple during a time of all-out warfare and Nazi persecution of Jews. In late 1954, and reflecting the theology of the era, the Vatican instructed the head of English Catholics to resign from the CCJ due to its perceived indifferentism, with Catholics not returning until the reforms introduced by the Second Vatican Council.[1]

Background

Prior to the foundation of the Council of Christians and Jews a number of initiatives had already taken place. The London Society for the Study of Religions,founded in 1904, included Jews in its membership.[2] In 1924 the Presbyterian Church of England General Assembly agreed to form a sub committee to discuss the lack of understanding between Jews and Christians. The committee wished to abandon proselytising and instead promote cooperative methods of action.[3]

In 1925 Herbert Lowe, a Jewish Cambridge scholar, addressed the General Assembly for the first time.

"The love of God and love of man are the foundations of our faith and of yours. We have a vast heritage in common...We recognise that we are put on earth to serve each other...When we consider the framework on which our creeds are built the wonder is not that our views of life are similar, but that we should have been so long in discovering the similarity, the wonder is that centuries of ignorance and hatred should have intervened between us..I am convinced that our partnership in the fight against oppression and injustice and race-hatred can be successful, and our efforts can never be blessed until we learn to respect the standpoint of each other."[4]


In 1924 the Social Service Committee of the Liberal Jewish Synagogue convened a meeting for Jews and Christians to confer together on the basis of their common ideals and with mutual respect for differences of belief'. From this developed the Society of Jews and Christians in 1927 that provided a platform for a number of notable speakers.[5] The inter war years was marked by a reappraisal by Christian scholars of Jewish religion. In 1930 James Parkes published 'The Jew and his neighbour', setting out the causes of anti-Semitism and its Christian roots.[6] Parkes would later be placed on Hitler's list of those he wanted killed.[7]

With the rise of Nazi anti-Semitism a few Christians did speak out. In 1934 The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland noted the 'age-long sufferings of the Jewish people' and that during 'the present outbreaks of anti-Semitic fanaticism', declared its 'heart-felt sympathy for the Jewish people' and deplored their present treatment as being 'abhorrent'.[8]

A Youth Council on Jewish-Christian Relations was formed in 1934 that included several Christian organisations and by 1940 also included Jewish groups. By the middle of the decade various groups made up of Jews and Christians were involved in giving aid to Jewish refugees from Germany, whose number rose sharply after Kristallnacht. The Refugee Children's Movement took care to ensure that whenever a Jewish child was placed in a Christian home the child would not be subject to proselytisation and that contact was established with the nearest Rabbi.[9]

Anglican, Free church and Roman Catholic Churches came together in 1938 to form a Christian Council for Refugees following the passing of the Nuremberg Decrees.[10] The council's secretary was W. W. Simpson, a Methodist minister, who would dedicate his life to the improvement of Christian-Jewish relations. His 1939 pamphlet 'The Christian and the Jewish Problem' recognised the part of Christianity in Jewish suffering, involving factors such deicide, the Crusades, the ghettos, the Inquisition and their influence on present day persecution.[11]

Formation

Out of the diverse groups that marked Jewish-Christian dialogue and aid during the 1930s a proposal was circulated with a view to forming an organization built on a national network. The Archbishop of York, William Temple, invited leaders of various communities to discuss these proposals in 1941. Temple outlined the mission of what was to become the Council of Christians and Jews. The Council would work against all forms of discrimination and promote the 'fundamental ethical teachings which are common to Judaism and Christianity' The Chief Rabbi, Dr. Hertz, agreed with this approach and highlighted the central point as being 'the danger to civilisation involved in antisemitism, as well as the steps that might be taken by Christians, working in consultation with Jews, to prevent its spread in this country', noting also how Pius XI had recently affirmed that 'Anti-semitism is a movement in which we Christians can have no part whatsoever. Spiritually we are Semites'.[12] Hertz made it clear that Jews and Christians would be responsible for their own religious teaching without mutual interference.[13]

At a meeting chaired by William Temple, now the nominated Archbishop of Canterbury, on 20 March 1942 the formation of the Council of Christians and Jews was agreed. The aims of the council were specified as:

(a) To check and combat religious and racial intolerance.

(b) To promote mutual understanding and goodwill between Christians and Jews in all sections of the community, especially in connection with problems arising from conditions created by the war.

(c) To promote fellowship between Christian and Jewish youth organisations in educational and cultural activities.

(d) To foster co-operation of Christians and Jews in study and service directed to post-war reconstruction.[14]

The initial membership of the CCJ was composed of leaders of Christian and Jewish organisations. The Roman Catholic prelate, Cardinal Hinsley, agreed to be a Joint President subject to the condition that any statements be approved by him prior to publication. The formation of the CCJ was announced on radio and in the press on 1 October 1942.[15]

Early years

The CCJ was formed at a time of Nazi persecution of Jews but the full scale of the extermination process, and the response of organisations such as the CCJ, was to an extent governed by the amount of factual information then available in the public domain.[16] In 1942 deputations were sent to the Foreign Office and Anthony Eden regarding the accounts then emerging about the Nazi extermination process, followed by a letter published in The Times on 5 December speaking of a 'horror beyond what imagination can grasp...burning indignation at this atrocity, to which the records of barbarous ages scarcely provide a parallel.” The letter criticised the delays in officialdom, branding their excuses as having an 'air of irrelevance', and called for the prosecution of those involved in the extermination process after the war.[17] Temple, at the behest of the CCJ, made a broadcast to the Hungarian people using the BBC World Service and appealed:

"do your utmost to save from persecution, it may be from massacre, those who are now threatened as a result of German occupation...Help them to hide from their tormentors, help them, if possible, to escape. Do all you can to prevent the extermination of people whose only fault is the race from which they are born or the independence of their minds and constancy of their convictions".[18]


Some political voices raised concerns that such protestations could make things worse for the Jews but by early 1943 it had already become clear that nothing could be worse than what the Jews were currently suffering.[19] Archbishop Temple addressed the House of Lords in March 1943 in which he referenced the massacre of Jews taking place, urging all means of action and condemned the procrastination of officialdom. He concluded: "We at this moment have upon us a tremendous responsibility. We stand at the bar of history, of humanity, and of God."[20]

In November 1943 the Council issued the first of its "Occasional Reviews" which contained a statement by the Archbishop of Canterbury on the "Basis of Co-operation between Jews and Christians." and a response by the Chief Rabbi on the Jewish attitude to the Five Peace Points of Pope Pius XII.[21]

In June 1944 the Council published a declaration affirming that "the moral law must govern world order " followed by six related principles.The Council said: "The significance of the afocument lies in the fact that it is the first statement of its kind to be published in this country with the approval of the heads of the Protestant, Roman Catholic and Jewish communities and on behalf of a representative hody of Christians end Jews." It was also announced that Catholic Archbishop Griffin had become a Joint President of the Council in succession to the late Cardinal Hinsley.[22]

At 1944 annual general meeting of the Council Bishop Mathews described anti-Semitism as a type of "category dislikes": "Dislike by category is always evil. always unjustified, whether the category is the Jewish people, the negroes in the United States, or the Roman Catholics or any other body. I have an example fairly close home in the feeling of widespread indignation rooted in the population of Northern Ireland with regard to Roman Catholics. The first thing to be said about such dislike by category is that though it is evil in itself it attacks wide sections of the population. It becomes a mass instinct added to local patriotsm."[23]

In November 1944 the Catholic Archbishop of Westminster gave an address to the Council of Christians and Jews:

I should like to tell you, something of what the present Holy Father and the Vatican authorities have done to alleviate the suffering and the persecution of the Jews in many lands. There are thousands of Jews who owe their lives to the speedy intervention of the Pope when they were on the point of being massacred. Towards the end of June I was asked by the World Jewish Congress to support their appeal to the Holy Father to intervene on behalf of Hungarian Jews and it may interest you to hear the reply I received from the late Cardinal Secretary of State: "reference your telegram July 3 I beg to assure Your Excellency Holy See even through Papal Nunciature Budapest has left nothing undone and is still doing everything possible to alleviate sorrowful plight all those who are suffering on account of nationality or race."


The Archbishop proposed points for future cooperation:

Firstly by a common pledge to observe the laws of God and to fulfil Our duties to Him and to our fellow-men. Secondly. by urging the recognition on the part of all States, of the liberties and rights of man and by a clear acknowledgment of man's personal dignity, irrespective of race, creed Or Colour. Thirdly, by a deepening of the mutual understanding between Christians and Jews of our respective ideals and difficulties. And fourthly, by a solemn promise to protect effectively those who may be oppressed or persecuted for race. nationality, or creed.[24]


Braybook (1991) notes that "Much is said of the silence of the Churches, which was often all too evident" but he picks out Temple, and the leaders of the various Churches who supported him, as an outspoken critic on this issue. The World Jewish Congress spoke of him as "the champion of the Jews".[25]

At a meeting of the CCJ held on the 50th anniversary of Kristallnacht in 1988 Dr. Robert Runcie, the Archbishop of Canterbury acknowledged that the roots of these events lay in the preceding centuries of Christian anti-Semitism:

'Without centuries of Christian anti-Semitism, Hitlers passionate hatred would never have been so passionately echoed....The travesty of Kristallnacht and all that followed is that so much was perpetrated in Christ's name. To glorify the Third Reich, the Christian faith was betrayed. We cannot say, "We did not know", We did - and stood by.. And even today there are many Christians who fail to see it as self evident and why this blindness? Because for centuries Christians have held Jews collectively responsible for the death of Jesus. On Good Friday Jews have, in times past, cowered behind locked doors for fear of a Christian mob seeking 'revenge' for deicide. Without the poisoning of Christian minds through the centuries, the holocaust is unthinkable'.[26]


International Council of Christians and Jews

During the blitz of 1942 some British Christians and Jews met with members of the American National Conference of Christians and Jews (NCCJ) who were visiting London. It was agreed that after the war an international conference should be held for all the bodies who were active in the field of Christian-Jewish relationships.[27] The American group had not been formed to counterattacks on Jews, as was the case in London, but rather through anti-Catholicism agitation stirred up by the Ku Klux Klan at the time when Catholic Al Smith was standing for president. Jewish and Protestant leaders in the United States reacted and this led Catholics to join them in solidarity.[28]

The conference was held in Oxford in 1946 and over one hundred delegates from fifteen countries attended.[29] A public meeting held on the eve of the conference included as guest speakers the Archbishop of Canterbury, Reinhold Niebuhr, R. A. Butler and Rabbi Leo Baeck, a survivor of Theresienstadt concentration camp.[30] Various commissions were set up, a resolution was sent to the Paris Peace Conference, an agreement reached to hold an emergency conference dealing with anti-Semitism in Europe, and that a committee should research the possibility of forming an International Council of Christians and Jews which would bring together all the various national bodies.[31] Jacques Maritain was elected to serve as co-Chairman with Dr. MacCracken of U.S.A. and the Marquess of Reading on the board of the proposed International Council of Christians and Jews.[32]

An emergency conference took place in Seelisberg Switzerland in 1947. "The Ten Points of Seelisberg" agreed at the conference became a reference for many future statements by various Churches regarding new approaches to Judaism.[33]

The Ten Points of Seelisberg

Pere de Lopinit who had worked in Italian camps in which Jews had been interred during the war took the document back to the Vatican and a form of nihil obstat was received. Cardinal Griffiths was dismissive of the plan but in time the ten points may have been a formative influence in the declaration on religious liberty of Vatican II (Nostra aetate)[35] The plan for an International Council of Christians and Jews did not come to fruition until 1974 due to differences regarding how it should be implemented .[36]

British, French German and Swiss representatives agreed a constitution for the proposed International Council in 1948 but the American NCCJ didn't as it felt that the use of "Christian" in the organisations title would be a barrier to some people through the use of the word by some European political parties in their titles. Everett Clinchy of the NCCJ now directed his efforts into the "World Brotherhood" and the plans for an International Council for Christians and Jews were stalled.[37] Enthusiasm for an international organization was also limited through fears of religious indifferentism from a Roman Catholic perspective and a lack of sympathy to interfaith understanding in the prevailing Protestant theological climate.[38] In the early 1950s a directive was sent to all national Catholic hierarchies from the Vatican warning against involvement in the International Council of Christians and Jews for fear that it was tending towards religious indifferentism - see following section. Cardinal Griffin asked if it also applied to the British Council and two years later the Vatican advised that it did and all Catholic members were told to withdraw. It did not happen anywhere else and William Simpson was of the opinion that if Cardinal Griffiths had not asked the question there would have been no trouble.[39]

An International Consultative Committee of Organizations for Christian-Jewish Cooperation was finally established, without NCCJ participation, in January 1962 at a meeting in Frankfurt.[40] They held a conference in 1966 which issued a critique of the Vatican II Declaration Nostra aetate, the WCC's New Delhi statement on Christian-Jewish relations and a definition of dialogue:

The dialogue is essentially a dialogue between persons, an attitude to life and not a mere technique. It is a relationship which has been found in experience to be capable of deepening the spiritual life of all the participants alike, for each is given in dialogue full opportunity to express his position in all freedom. It has proved and enrichment of their faith in God to committed Jews and Christians, and has dispelled many misunderstandings of each about the faith and practice of the other. We believe that it is not only consistent with our several loyalties to Church and Synagogue, but that it also increases interreligious harmony as we face together the problems and needs of our changing world.[41]


In 1974 the NCCJ did join and at their suggestion the name of the organisation was changed to the International Council of Christians and Jews (ICCJ).[42] In 1975 the ICCJ met in Hamburg and such conferences developed into an annual event focussed on certain themes such as "When Religion is Used as a Weapon ...The Use and Misuse of Religion in Defence of National and Fundamental Values" (1991)[43] The first international youth conference was hosted by the CCJ in Wales in 1977.[44]

Relations with the Roman Catholic Church

See also Pope Pius XII and Judaism

During the pontificate of Pope Pius XII "a heavy blow fell on the Council" when in November 1954 Cardinal Griffin announced that the Roman Catholic Church would be withdrawing from the CCJ following an instruction received from the Vatican indicating that the educational work being done by the council could result in religious indifferentism. Leading Roman Catholics resigned from the CCJ in the aftermath.[45] The Catholic Herald reported in December 1954:

It has now been publicly announced that the Holy See has instructed Catholics to relinquish their membership of the Council of Christians and Jews. Cardinal Griffin, one of the presidents. Lord Perth, a joint treasurer. and Lord Pekenham resigned some time ago. Discussions have been going on for a considerable time "in the hope" says The Times, "of finding a way to restore the united outlook on those matters of common concern for which the council have stood since they were set up in 1942. The council's aim was to combat religious and racial intolerance. promote understanding and good will between Christians and Jews and to foster co-operation.[46]


The popular press was highly critical of this development with headlines such as "The Pope bans Queen's Council" and criticising Roman Catholic intolerance.[47] The Catholic periodical "The Tablet" expressed the view that the public resignations ought to have been avoided, further discussions held, and that the Vatican should have made the reasons for the withdrawal explicit.[48] The reasons for the withdrawal were never clearly explained, however Roman Catholic theologian Jacques Maritain had previously warned the CCJ that Rome was suspicious of any cooperative ventures between Jews, Protestants and Catholics.[49] A Church source commented: "From the Roman Catholic side there was no failure to appreciate the aims and objects to promote which this council exists, but the Vatican was not satisfied with some of the ways and means adopted by the council in pursuit of those aims."[50]

During the pontificate of Pope John XXIII Catholics were once again permitted to join the CCJ, including notable figures such as Lord Longford and Lord Perth.[51] In 1962 the Earl of Perth and two Catholic laymen served on the Council with ecclesiastical approval. In 1964 Archbishop Heenan addressed the CCJ and expressed the opinion that the original withdrawal from the Council was due to a misunderstanding in Rome.[52] The Archbishop said many people, had been "disappointed even scandalised" by the original decision and that it was "possible and even probable that the Vatican was misinformed,"[53] In June 1964 Archbishop Heenan accepted the invitation to become a joint president of the Council with the Catholic Herald commenting "By so doing, the break which has lasted ten years between the Council and the Catholic Church has been fully mended."[54] The Council's other four presidents were the Chief Rabbi, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and the Moderator of the Free Church Federal Council.[55]

The early difficulties associated with Roman Catholic membership largely disappeared in the aftermath of the issuing of Nostra aetate by the Second Vatican Council.[56] In 1980 and 1990 Pope John Paul II met delegations from the CCJ and conferred a knighthood on Sir Sigmund Sternberg who was joint treasurer of the CCJ and chairman of the International Council of Christians and Jews.[57]

Later years

The CCJ established The Robert Waley Cohen Memorial Lectureship in 1956 as a tribute to Robert Waley Cohen and his service to the Council. Annual lecturers have included Sir Isaiah Berlin (John Stuart Mill and the Ends of Life, 1959), Abba Eban (The Final Solution, 1961), Dr Michael Ramsay (The Crisis of Human Freedom, 1962), Henry Chadwick (Some Reflections on Conscience: Greek, Jewish and Christian, 1968), Gregory Baum (Christian Theology After Auchwitz, 1976)[58] In 1979 the CCJ established the annual The Sigmund Sternberg Award for individuals who had made a contribution to furthering Christian-Jewish relations.[59] Local councils were encouraged when the CCJ was formed but the relationship between local councils and the national Council was not always easy through a want of a democratic framework. This was addressed in a revised constitution in 1990.[60] By 1991 the CCJ had 47 local branches in the U.K.[61]

"Children of One God"

In 1992 Marcus Braybrooke, a former executive director of CCJ, published A History of the Council of Christians and Jews: Children of One God which has been described as "the essential locus classicus" for the history of the Councils origins and development during its first fifty years.[62] The Tablet in its review commented:

With an index, a body of footnotes, pages of photographs, several appendices and a well-researched, well-documented text, it is a valuable resource for any student. But the approach the author has chosen and his very conscientiousness are both a strength and a weakness. Some of the material makes compelling reading, but there are pages which, inevitably, are of interest primarily to the specialist.[63]


The Catholic Herald in its review commented:

To members of the council, this book will be a most helpful account of the origins and history of the movement which has held them enthralled ever since they joined it. To others it will be an eye opener, but regrettably there will be many Christians and Jews who will still not want to know in case their prejudices are disturbed. The author has written a factual account of the growth of the Council of Christians and Jews from its birth in 1941 up to the present. It is obviously meticulously researched, in great detail, and gives no all over golden picture.[64]


See also

• Christian–Jewish reconciliation
• Relations between Catholicism and Judaism

References

• "A History of the Council of Christians and Jews: Children of One God", Marcus Braybrooke, Vallentine Mitchell, 1991, ISBN 0-85303-242-4

Notes

1. "History: Council of Christians and Jews", CCJ Web site, retrieved 15 June 2009 [1] Archived 9 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine
2. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 1
3. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.2
4. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 3
5. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 3
6. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p4
7. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 4
8. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.6
9. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, pp. 6-7
10. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 7
11. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.9
12. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, pp. 11-12
13. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.12
14. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.14
15. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 17
16. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 20
17. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p21
18. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 22
19. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 22
20. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 23
21. Christians and Jews AN " OCCASIONAL REVIEW", Catholic Herald, 19 November 1943, p. 5 [2]
22. "JEWS AND CHRISTIANS Issue a Significant Document", Catholic Herald, 9 June 1944, p. 6 [3]
23. Category Dislikes, Catholic Herald, 23 June 1944, p. 1
24. "Co-operation between Christians and Jews urged by Dr. Griffin", Catholic herald, 10 November 1944 [4]
25. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews,p. 23
26. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews,pp. 83, 181
27. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.118
28. "Christians and Jews(2)" Christopher Howse, The Tablet, 27 April 1985, p.8 [5]
29. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.119
30. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.119
31. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 119
32. "Praise for Work of Jesuit on Council of Jews and Christians", Catholic Herald, PAGE 6, 14TH NOVEMBER 1947 [6]
33. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.119
34. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.2
35. Christians and Jews Christopher Howse, The Tablet, 27 April 1985, p.8
36. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.120, 121
37. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews,pp. 119-120
38. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 120
39. Christians and Jews Christopher Howse, The Tablet, 27 April 1985, p.8
40. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews,pp. 120-121
41. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 121-22
42. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 122
43. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 122
44. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 123
45. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.33
46. Catholics Resign, Catholic Herald, 31 December 1954, p. 1
47. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.35
48. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.35
49. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.36
50. "Council of Christians and Jews", Catholic Herald, 18 March 1955, p.1
51. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.38
52. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.39
53. Christians and Jews, The Tablet, 14 March 1964, p. 21
54. Ten year rift is healed by Dr. Heenan, Catholic Herald, 19 June 1964, p.3 [7]
55. "The Church in the World", The Tablet, 20 June 1964, p.24]
56. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.40
57. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.41
58. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.149-150
59. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p.151
60. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 100
61. A History of the Council of Christians and Jews, p. 156
62. "Church and synagogue", The Tablet, 7 March 1992, p.18
63. Church and synagogue, The Tablet, 7 March 1992, p.18
64. A history of dialogue, Catholic Herald, 16 August 1991, p. 6

External links

• Official CCJ website
• Commission of the Holy See for Religious Relations with the Jews
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Dec 10, 2019 6:41 am

Laurence Waddell
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/9/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.




Image
Laurence Austine Waddell.

Image
British Army officers in Tibet during 1904, Laurence Waddell (center)

Lieutenant Colonel Laurence Austine Waddell,[1] CB, CIE, F.L.S., L.L.D, M.Ch., I.M.S. RAI, F.R.A.S (1854–1938) was a British explorer, Professor of Tibetan, Professor of Chemistry and Pathology, Indian Army surgeon,[2] collector in Tibet, and amateur archaeologist. Waddell also studied Sumerian and Sanskrit; he made various translations of seals and other inscriptions. His reputation as a Assyriologist gained little to no academic recognition and his books on the history of civilization have caused controversy. Some of his book publications however were popular with the public, and he is regarded by some today to have been a real-life precursor of the fictional character Indiana Jones.[3]

Life

Image
A Chinese Horse-Dragon, Reproduced in Waddell's, "The Buddhism of Tibet: Or Lamaism, with Its Mystic Cults, Symbolism and Mythology ...", 1895. Unknown Chinese artist.

Image
A Tibetan Lung-Horse, Reproduced in Waddell's, "The Buddhism of Tibet: Or Lamaism, with Its Mystic Cults, Symbolism and Mythology ...", 1895. Unknown Tibetan artist.

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A photo of Paljor Dorje Shatra, Reproduced in Waddell's "Lhasa and Its Mysteries-With a Record of the British Tibetan Expedition of 1903-1904", 1905.

Laurence Waddell was born on 29 May 1854, and was the son of Rev. Thomas Clement Waddell, a Doctor of Divinity at Glasgow University and Jean Chapman, daughter of John Chapman of Banton, Stirlingshire.[4] Laurence Waddell obtained a bachelor's degree in Medicine followed by a master's degree in both Surgery and Chemistry at Glasgow University in 1878. His first job was as a resident surgeon near the university and was also the President of Glasgow University's Medical Society.[5] In 1879 he visited Ceylon and Burma and was 'irresistibly attracted' towards Buddhism which in later years led him to study the tenets, history and art of Buddhism[6]. In 1880 Waddell joined the British Indian Army and served as a medical officer with the Indian Medical Service (I.M.S), subsequently he was stationed in India and the Far East (Tibet, China and Burma). The following year he became a Professor of Chemistry and Pathology at the Medical College of Kolkata, India. While working in India, Waddell also studied Sanskrit and edited the Indian Medical Gazette. He became Assistant Sanitary Commissioner under the government of India.[4]

After Waddell worked as a Professor of Chemistry and Pathology for 6 years, he became involved in military expeditions across Burma and Tibet.[7] Between 1885-1887 Waddell took part in the British expedition that annexed Upper Burma, which defeated Thibaw Min the last king of the Konbaung dynasty.[8] After his return from Burma Waddell was stationed in Darjeeling district, India, and was appointed Principal Medical Officer in 1888. In the 1890s Waddell, while in Patna, established that Agam Kuan was part of Ashoka's Hell.
[9] His first publications were essays and articles on medicine and zoology, most notably "The Birds of Sikkim" (1893).[10] In 1895 he obtained a doctorate in law.[11]

Image
Map of 1895 excavations by Laurence Waddell at Pataliputra.

Waddell traveled extensively in India throughout the 1890s (including Sikkim and areas on the borders of Nepal and Tibet) and wrote about the Tibetan Buddhist religious practices he observed there. Stationed with the British army in Darjeeling, Waddell learned the Tibetan language and even visited Tibet several times secretly, in disguise. He was the cultural consultant on the 1903-1904 British invasion of Tibet led by Colonel Sir Francis Edward Younghusband, and was considered alongside Sir Charles Bell as one of the foremost authorities on Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism. Waddell studied archaeology and ethnology in-between his military assignments across India and Tibet, and his exploits in the Himalayas were published in his highly successful book Among the Himalayas (1899). Various archaeological excavations were also carried out and supervised by Waddell across India, including Pataliputra, of which he did not receive recognition of discovery until long after his death, in 1982, by the government of Bengal. His discoveries at Pataliputra were published in an official report in 1892.[4]

During the 1890s Waddell specialised in Buddhist antiquities and became a collector, between 1895-97 he published "Reports on collections of Indo-Scythian Buddhist Sculptures from the Swat Valley", in 1893 he also read a paper to the International Congress of Orientalists: "On some newly found Indo-Grecian Buddhistic Sculptures from the Swat Valley".[4] In 1895 Waddell published his book Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism, which was one of the first works published in the west on Buddhism. As a collector, Waddell had come across many Tibetan manuscripts and maps, but was disappointed to not find a single reference to a lost ancient civilization, which he had hoped to discover.

Waddell continued his military service with the Indian Medical Service. He was in China during the Boxer Rebellion (1898-1901), including the Relief of Peking in August 1900, for which he was mentioned in despatches, received the China War Medal (1900) with clasp, and was in 1901 appointed a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE).[12] By late 1901 he had moved to North-West Frontier Province and was present during the Mahsud-Waziri Blockade, 1901–02. He was in Malakand in 1902 and took part in the Tibet Mission to Lhasa 1903–04, for which he was again mentioned in despatches, received a medal with clasp and was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB). Waddell then returned to England where he briefly became Professor of Tibetan at the University College of London (1906–1908).

In 1908, Waddell began to learn Sumerian.[13] Thus in his later career he turned to studying the ancient near east, especially Sumeria and dedicated his time to deciphering or translating ancient cuneiform tablets or seals, most notably including the Scheil dynastic tablet. In 1911, Waddell published two entries in the Encyclopædia Britannica.[14] By 1917, Waddell was fully retired and first started exclusively writing on Aryans, beginning in an article published in the Asiatic Review entitled "Aryan Origin of the World's Civilization".[4] From the 1920s Waddell published several works which attempted to prove an Aryan (i.e., Indo-European) origin of the alphabet and the appearance of Indo-European myth figures in ancient Near Eastern mythologies (e.g., Hittite, Sumerian, Babylonian). The foundation of his argument is what he saw as a persistence of cult practices, religious symbols, mythological stories and figures, and god and hero names throughout Western and Near Eastern civilizations, but also based his arguments on his deciphered Sumerian and Indus-Valley seals, and other archaeological findings.

Waddell died in 1938. That same year, he had completed writing Trojan Origin of World Civilization. The book was never published.[15]

Discovery of Buddha's Birthplace

Waddell had actively travelled around British controlled India in search for Kapilavastu, the Buddha's supposed birthplace. Cunningham had previously identified Kapilavastu as the village of Bhuila in India which Waddell and other orientalists concluded to be incorrect. They were searching for the birthplace by taking into account the topographical and geographical hints left by the ancient chinese travellers, Fa Hien and Hiuen Tsiang. Waddell was first to point out the importance of the discovery of Asoka's pillar in Nigliva in 1893 and estimate Buddha's birthplace as Lumbini. He subsequently corresponded with Government of India and arranged for the exploration of the area. It was also Waddell who was appointed to conduct the exploration to recover the inscriptions, etc.; but at the last moment, when due to adverse circumstances prevented him from proceeding, and Mr. Führer was sent to carry out the exploration arranged by him, he found the Lumbini grove, etc., with their inscriptions at the very spots pointed out by him[16].

Waddell's theories

Waddell's voluminious writings after his retirement were based on an attempt to prove the Sumerians (who he identified as Aryans) as the progenitors of other ancient civilizations, such as the Indus Valley Civilization and ancient Egyptians to "the classic Greeks and Romans and Ancient Britons, to whom they [the Sumerians] passed on from hand to hand down the ages the torch of civilization".[17] He is perhaps most remembered for his controversial translations; the Scheil dynastic tablet, the Bowl of Utu and Newton Stone, as well as his British Edda.

Phoenicians

See also: Newton Stone

Waddell in Phoenician Origin of Britons, Scots, and Anglo-Saxons (1924) argued for a Syro-Hittite and Phoenician colonization of the British Isles, turning to British folklore that mentions Trojans, such as the "Brutus Stone" in Totnes and Geoffrey of Monmouth; place-names that supposedly preserve the Hittite language, and inscriptions, as evidence.

According to Waddell the "unknown" script on the Newton Stone is Hitto-Phoenician. His translation is as follows:

This Sun-Cross (Swastika) was raised to Bil (or Bel, the God of Sun-Fire) by the Kassi (or Cassi-bel[-an]) of Kast of the Siluyr (sub-clan) of the "Khilani" (or Hittite-palace-dwellers), the Phoenician (named) Ikar of Cilicia, the Prwt (or Prat, that is 'Barat' or 'Brihat' or Brit-on).


Brutus of Troy, Waddell also regarded to be a real historical figure. In a chapter entitled "COMING OF THE "BRITONS" OR ARYAN BRITO-PHOENICIANS UNDER KING BRUTUS-THE-TROJAN TO ALBION ABOUT 1103, B.C", Waddell writes:

This migration of King Brutus and his Trojan and Phoenician refugees from Asia Minor and Phoenicia to establish a new homeland colony in Albion, which event the British Chronicle historical tradition places at 1103 B.C. was probably associated with, and enforced by, not merely the loss of Troy, but also by the massacring invasion of Hittite Asia Minor, Cilicia and the Syria-Phoenician coast of the Mediterranean by the Assyrian King Tiglath Pileser I. about 1107 B.C. to 1105 B.C.


Reception

Image
Book cover "Lhasa and its Mysteries" 3rd edition in 1906

Waddell's contemporaries reviewed the book very negatively. One reviewer considered the content to be "admirable fooling", but that he had "an uneasy feeling that the author really believes it".[18] It has also been pointed out that Waddell took the Historia Regum Britanniae to be literal history which is why he was almost asking to be ridiculed by historians:

"Contrary to the general opinion of historians, he [Waddell] accepts as authentic the chronicle of Geoffrey of Monmouth, and regards as historical the legend of King Brut of Troy having reached Britain with his followers about the year 1103 BC, founded London a few years later, and spread through the land Phoenician culture, religion and art [...] His views indeed are so unorthodox that he is no doubt prepared for strong criticism, and even ridicule. King Brut of Troy has long been relegated to the company of old wives' tales."[19]


Indus-Valley seals

See also: Indus script and Dravidian people

The first Indus Valley or Harappan seal was published by Alexander Cunningham in 1872.[20] It was half a century later, in 1912, when more Indus Valley seals were discovered by J. Fleet, prompting an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921–22, resulting in the discovery of the ancient civilization at Harappa (later including Mohenjo-daro). As seals were discovered from the Indus Valley, Waddell in 1925 first attempted to decipher them and claimed they were of Sumerian origin in his Indo-Sumerian Seals Deciphered.

Reception

In the 1920s, Waddell's theory that the Indus-Valley seals were Sumerian had some academic support, despite criticisms; Ralph Turner considered Waddell's work to be "fantasy".[21][22][23][24] Two notable supporters of Waddell included John Marshall, the Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India until 1928, and Stephen Herbert Langdon.[25] Marshall had led the main excavation campaign at Harappa and published his support for Waddell's Sumerian decipherment in 1931. Preston however in a section of her biography of Waddell entitled "Opposition to Indo-Sumerian Seals Deciphered" points out that support for Waddell's theory had disappeared by the early 1940s through the work of Mortimer Wheeler:

"However, a shift, which made his [Waddell's] claim appear untenable, occurred in the consensus in archaeology after Sir Mortimer Wheeler was put in charge of the Archaeological Survey of India [...] Wheeler's interpretation of the archaeological data was the guideline for scholars who appear to have ruled out the possibility that the language of the seals could be akin to Sumerian and Proto-Elamite."[26]


Sumerian language

See also: Sumerian language

The non-Semitic source of the Sumerian language was established in the late 19th century by Julius Oppert and Henry Rawlinson from which many different theories were proposed as to its origin. In his works Aryan Origin of the Alphabet and Sumer-Aryan Dictionary (1927) Waddell attempted to show the Sumerian language was of Aryan (Indo-European) root.

Reception

Waddell's Sumerian-Aryan equation did not receive any support at the time, despite having sent personal copies of his two books to Archibald Sayce.[27] Professor Langdon, who had earlier offered Waddell his support for a Sumerian or Proto-Elamite decipherment of the Indus-Valley seals, dismissed Waddell's publications on the Sumerian language itself:

"The author [Waddell] has slight knowledge of Sumerian, and commits unpardonable mistakes [...] The meanings assigned to Sumerian roots are almost entirely erroneous. One can only regret the publication of such fantastic theories, which cannot possibly do service to serious science in any sense whatsoever."[28]


Chronology

See also: Waddell's chronology

Waddell in The Makers of Civilization (1929) and Egyptian Civilization Its Sumerian Origin and Real Chronology (1930) revised conventional dates for most ancient civilizations and king lists. For example, he believed the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt began c. 2700 BC, not c. 3100 BC, arguing that Menes, was Manis-Tusu, the son of Sargon, who in turn was King Minos of Crete. For Waddell, the earliest ancient rulers or mythological kings of Sumer, Egypt, Crete and the Indus Valley civilizations were all identical Aryan personages.

Reception

To support his revised chronology, Waddell acquired and translated several artefacts including the Scheil dynastic tablet and the Bowl of Utu. Waddell was praised for his acquisition of the latter.[29] However Waddell's translations were always highly unorthodox and not taken serious. The Makers of Civilization was panned in a review by Harry L. Shapiro:

"The reader does not need to peruse this work very far to become aware of its distinct bias and unscientific method. Fortunately the 'Nordic race-mongers' have become discredited that there is little to fear from the effect of this opus on the intelligent lay public. Succinctly, Mr. Waddell believes that the beginning of all civilization dates from the Nordic [Aryan] Sumerians who were blond Nordics with blue eyes."[30]


Waddell during his own life, was deemed to be anachronistic by most scholars because of his supremacist views regarding the Aryan race:

"One of the reasons for the literary oblivion of Waddell's works on the history of civilization with an Aryan theme is [...] in relation to the fact that he did not give up the quest for the Aryans in terms of racial origins when it was abandoned in the 1870s, and it was very influential in his choice of career [...] His comparative studies and decipherment led him to a completely controversial and alternative perspective of ancient history. Furthermore, the titles that are now little known may have been sidelined due his use of the term 'Aryan' as it became associated with the rise of Nazism."[31]


Pan-Sumerism

Waddell from 1917 (having first published the article "Aryan Origin of the World's Civilization") until his death was a proponent of hyperdiffusionism ("Pan-Sumerism") arguing that many cultures and ancient civilizations, such as the Indus Valley Civilization, Minoan Crete, Phoenicia, and Dynastic Egypt, were the product of Aryan Sumerian colonists.

Grafton Elliot Smith who pioneered hyperdiffusionism (but of the Egyptians) was an influential correspondent to Waddell.[32]

Reception

R. Sawyer (1985) points out that Waddell "was of the eccentric opinion that Western, Indian and ancient Egyptian culture derived from a common Sumerian ancestry" and that his ideas were far-fetched to untenable.[33] Gabriel Moshenska of the UCL Institute of Archaeology has noted:

"Waddell's hopes of rewriting the story of civilization with the Aryan race as the first and only protagonist rapidly faded as his works and ideas remained restricted to, if well rooted in, the ultra right wing fringes of society and scholarship. J. H. Harvey, member of the pro-Nazi Imperial Fascist League and later a respected medievalist, wrote a short book The Heritage of Britain (1940) which aimed to summarise Waddell's works for a narrower audience on the fringes of the British Fascist movement (Macklin 2008). The British-Israelite W. T. F. Jarrold used Waddell's study of the Newton Stone to support a Biblical origin for the Anglo-Saxon race (1927). Today Waddell's works are read and referenced most commonly by white supremacists, esoteric scholars and conspiracy theorists such as David Icke (1999)."[34]


Collections

Waddell collected bird specimens and it was on the basis of one of them that Henry Dresser named the species Babax waddelli (the giant babax) in 1905. His collections were donated in 1894 to the Hunterian Museum at the University of Glasgow. Some specimens are in the Manchester Museum and at the Natural History Museum at London. The University of Glasgow holds Waddell's papers and manuscript collection.

Published books

(for book descriptions see footnotes)

• The non-bacillar nature of abrus-poison : with observations on its chemical and physiological properties (1884)
• The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism, With Its Mystic Cults, Symbolism and Mythology and in Its Relation to Indian Buddhism (1895)[35]
• Among the Himalayas (1899)[36]
• The Tribes of the Brahmaputra valley (1901)
• Lhasa and Its Mysteries - With a Record of the British Tibetan Expedition of 1903-1904 (1905)[37]
• The "Dhāranī" cult in Buddhism: its origin, deified literature and images (1912)
• Phoenician Origin of the Britons, Scots, and Anglo-Saxons (1924, 2nd ed. 1925)
• Indo-Sumerian Seals Deciphered discovering Sumerians of Indus Valley as Phoenicians, Barats, Goths & famous Vedic Aryans 3100-2300 B.C. (1925)
• Sumer-Aryan Dictionary. An Etymological Lexicon of the English and other Aryan Languages Ancient and Modern and the Sumerian Origin of Egyptian and its Hieroglyphs (1927)
• Aryan-Sumerian Origin of the Alphabet (1927)
• Questionary on the Sumerian markings upon prehistoric pottery found in the Danube & associated valleys of Middle Europe (1928, small booklet)
• Makers of Civilization in Race and History (1929)
• Egyptian Civilization Its Sumerian Origin and Real Chronology (1930)
• The British Edda (1930) [38]

Sources

• Buckland, C. E. (1906). Dictionary of Indian Biography. London : S. Sonnenschein.
• Thomas, F. W. (1939). "Colonel L. A. Waddell". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 3 (3): 499–504. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00089577. JSTOR 25201976.
• Preston, C. (2009). The Rise of Man in the Gardens of Sumeria: A Biography of L.A. Waddell. Sussex Academic Press.
• Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: Waddell, Lawrence Augustine (1854–1938). [1]
• Waddell Collection at the University of Glasgow:[2] A collection of over 700 volumes dealing mainly with Assyrian and Sumerian languages, Archaeology, Asian history and folk-lore, and Buddhism. He made a notable contribution to the history of Buddhism. The printed book collection is supplemented by associated correspondence, working notes, photographs and press cuttings. Some of the books have manuscript annotations and inserts.

See also

• David MacRitchie
• Christian O'Brien
• William James Perry
• Ethel Bristowe
• Grafton Elliot Smith

References & Footnotes

1. Most sources have "Laurence Austine", such as:
 British Edda at Library of Congress
 Among the Himalayas at Library of Congress
 Among the Himalayas at Google Books
 Among the Himalayas, OCLC 191983018
At least one source has "Laurence Augustine":
 Laurence Augustine Waddell at the Manuscripts Catalogue, University of Glasgow —According to this catalogue, L. A. Waddell was born with the name "Laurence Augustine Waddell" and at some unknown later time began using "Austine" as his middle name. His books have the name "L. Austine Waddell" and Indian sources often refer to him as "Lawrence Austine Waddell."
2. "WADDELL, Lieut.-Col. Laurence Austine". Who's Who. Vol. 59. 1907. p. 1811.
3. Preston, Christine (2009). The Rise of Man in the Gardens of Sumeria: A Biography of L.A. Waddell. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-84519-315-7. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
4. Thomas, 1939.
5. Preston, 2009: 25.
6. The Buddhism of Tibet, or Lamaism, Preface to the Second Edition
7. Preston, 2009: 30.
8. Preston, 2009: 31.
9. "Agam Kuan". Directorate of Archaeology, Govt. of Bihar, official website. Retrieved 19 April 2013. Waddell on his exploration of the ruins of Pataliputra during 1890s identified Agam Kuan with the legendary hell built by Ashoka for torturing people as cited by the Chinese travellers of the 5th and 7th centuries A.D.
10. Preston, 2009: 36.
11. Waddell Archive
12. "No. 27337". The London Gazette (Supplement). 24 July 1901. p. 4917.
13. Preston, 2009: 20.
14. “Lhasa” in Encyclopædia Britannica, (11th ed.), 1911. “Tibet” in Encyclopædia Britannica, (11th ed.), 1911.
15. Preston, 2009: 194.
16. Journal of Royal Asiatic Society , Volume 29, Issue 3 July 1897 , pp. 644-651
17. Waddell, L. (1929). Makers of Civilization in Race & History. London: Luzac. p. 497.
18. Turner, R. L. (1925). "The Phoenician Origin of Britons, Scots, and Anglo-Saxons [Review]". Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London. 3 (4): 808–810. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00000562. JSTOR 607096.
19. Crownhart-Vaughan, E. A. P. (1925). "The Phoenician Origin of Britons, Scots, and Anglo-Saxons [Review]". The Geographical Journal. 65 (5): 446–447. doi:10.2307/1782555. JSTOR 1782555.
20. Cunningham, A., 1875. Archaeological Survey of India, Report for the Year 1872-73, 5: 105-8 and pl. 32-3. Calcutta: Archaeological Survey of India
21. Turner, R. L. (1926). "Indo-Sumerian Seals Deciphered by L. A. Waddell [Review]". Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London. 4 (2): 376. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00089436.
22. Charpentier, J (1925). "The Indo-Sumerian Seals Deciphered by L. A. Waddell [Review]". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 4 (4): 797–799. JSTOR 25220872.
23. Barton, George A (1926). "On the So-Called Sumero-Indian Seals". The Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 8: 79–95. doi:10.2307/3768527. JSTOR 3768527.
24. Brown, G (1927). "The Indo-Sumerian Seals Deciphered by L. A. Waddell [Review]". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 47: 284–285. doi:10.2307/593279. JSTOR 593279.
25. Preston, 2009: 169.
26. Preston, 2009: 21.
27. Preston, 2009: 85.
28. Langdon, S (1927). "The Aryan Origin of the Alphabet; A Sumer-Aryan Dictionary by L. A. Waddell [Review]". The Scottish Historical Review. 25 (97): 53. JSTOR 25525780.
29. Preston, 2009: 143.
30. Shapiro, H. L. (1930). "The Makers of Civilization in Race and History". Pacific Affairs. 3 (12): 1168–1169. doi:10.2307/2750262. JSTOR 2750262.
31. Preston, 2009: 195.
32. Preston, 2009: 5, footnotes; "Waddell's thesis mirrored contemporary Grafton Elliot Smith's better-known theory of Egypt".
33. Sawyer, R (1985). "To Know the Histories: L. A. Waddell's Sumer and Akkad". Paideuma. 14 (1): 79–94.
34. The Later Works of Lieutenant-Colonel Professor Laurence Austine Waddell
35. Waddell's best-known work, and was one of the first books published in the west to offer such extensive observations of Buddhism, ranging from metaphysics to practical magic. Waddell explains the whole Tibetan pantheon, including transcriptions of hundreds of charms and mantras and detailed coverage of the doctrine of incarnation and reincarnation.
36. An engaging journal of fourteen years of travel. In Waddell's own words, "During the past fourteen years I have traversed portions of the borderlands of Sikkim nearly every year, sketching, shooting, collecting, and especially exploring the customs of the people on the frontiers of Tibet, and of Nepal. This illustrated narrative of my journeyings I hope may reflect, in some measure, the keen enjoyment of travel in these regions, may awaken further interest in a fascinating though little known land, may assist in guiding the traveler to those features that are of greatest general interest, and bring home to the reader a whiff of the bracing breezes of the Himalayas."
37. Documents the people and religion of the Tibetan capital, including British-Tibetan military clashes and peace negotiations.
38. Waddell reconstructs the Old Icelandic Poetic Edda under the notion that the text is very ancient and actually "British." His pursuit is apparent the subtitle: "The great epic poem of the ancient Britons of the exploits of King Thor, Arthur, or Adam and his knights in establishing civilization reforming Eden & capturing the Holy Grail about 3380-3350 B.C." For this he uses the language and art of Indo-European and Semitic peoples, and draws lines through mythologies connecting ancient gods and stories to those in the medieval manuscripts of the Edda.

External links

• The Later Works of Lieutenant-Colonel Professor Laurence Austine Waddell
• Works written by or about Laurence Waddell at Wikisource
• Waddell, Lieut.-Colonel Lawrence Austine in The Indian Biographical Dictionary (1915)
• Waddell Collection (University of Glasgow)
• Laurence Waddell Family Archive
• A Biography of L. A. Waddell
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 11, 2019 1:33 am

Alexander Mackenzie (civil servant)
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19

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Image
Sir Alexander Mackenzie
Born: 28 June 1842, Dumfries, Scotland
Died: 10 November 1902 (aged 60), London
Occupation: civil servant

Sir Alexander Mackenzie, KCSI (28 June 1842 in Dumfries – 10 November 1902 in London) served as Chief Commissioner of the British Crown Colony of Burma from December 1890 to April 1895.[1]

Biography

Alexander Mackenzie was born on Dumfries, Scotland and moved to Birmingham with his father Reverend John R. Mackenzie and Alexanderina Mackenzie.[1] He attended King Edward's School and Trinity College, Cambridge. Upon obtaining his BA and completion of his Indian Civil Service exans, Mackenzie went to Calcutta in 1862 and later became the Lieutenant-governor of Bengal.

Alexander Mackenzie held many positions of civil service appointments in Asia:

• Home Secretary to the Government of British India 1882
• Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces 1887
• Chief Commissioner of Burma 1890
• Member of the Supreme Council of Burma 1895

After his service in Burma, he was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Bengal (1895–1898).
His absence and negligence during his time in office made him unpopular amongst locals, but did not result in his removal from office.

In 1891 he became a Knight in Commander of the Star of India.

Retired in 1898 due to poor health, he return to Britain and became Chairman of the India Development Company. He died on London on 10 November 1902. He was predeceased by wife Georgina Louisa Huntly Bremner (born 1838 India,[2] married 1863 and died 1892 Birmingham) and survived by second wife Mabel E. Elliot (m. 1893). His second wife married another civil servant, The Hon. Noel Farrer[3]

References

1. http://www.brebner.com/obituaries/alex_ ... e_obit.pdf
2. FIBIS East India Register Birth Announcements, April 2009.
3. ‘FARRER, Hon. Noel (Maitland)’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2007; online edn, Oxford University Press, December 2007 accessed 15 December 2013

External links

• Myanmar (Burma) at http://www.worldstatesmen.org
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 11, 2019 1:46 am

Prince Henri of Orléans
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19

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Prince Henri
Drawing by Adolphe Lalauze, c. 1897
Born: 16 October 1867, Ham, London, England
Died: 9 August 1901 (aged 33), Saigon, Cochinchina
Full name: Henri Philippe Marie d'Orléans
House: Orléans
Father: Robert, Duke of Chartres
Mother: Marie-Françoise of Orléans
Religion: Roman Catholic

Prince Henri of Orléans (16 October 1867 – 9 August 1901) was the son of Prince Robert, Duke of Chartres, and Princess Françoise of Orléans.

Biography

Henri, the second eldest son and third child of Prince Robert, Duke of Chartres, was born at Ham, London on 16 October 1867.[1]

In 1889, at the instance of his father, who paid the expenses of the tour, he undertook, in company with Gabriel Bonvalot and Father Constant de Deken (1852-1896), a journey through Siberia to French Indochina. In the course of their travels they crossed the mountain range of Tibet and the fruits of their observations, submitted to the Geographical Society of Paris (and later incorporated in De Paris au Tonkin à travers le Tibet inconnu, published in 1892),[2][3] brought them conjointly the gold medal of that society.[4]

In 1892 the prince made a short journey of exploration in East Africa, and shortly afterwards visited Madagascar, proceeding thence to Tongkin in today Vietnam.[4] In April 1892 he visited Luang Prabang in Laos. It brings him to writing a letter to "Politique Coloniale" in January 1893.[5] From this point he set out for Assam, and was successful in discovering the source of the Irrawaddy River, a brilliant geographical achievement which secured the medal of the Geographical Society of Paris and the Cross of the Legion of Honour. In 1897 he revisited Abyssinia, and political differences arising from this trip led to a duel with Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Turin.[4]

While on a trip to Assam in 1901, he died at Saigon on the 9th of August. Prince Henri was a somewhat violent Anglophobe, and his diatribes against Great Britain contrasted rather curiously with the cordial reception which his position as a traveller obtained for him in London, where he was given the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society.[4]

Duel

In 1897, in several articles for Le Figaro, Prince Henri described the Italian soldiers being held captive in Ethiopia, during the first First Italo–Ethiopian War, as cowards. Prince Vittorio Emanuele thus challenged him to a duel. The sword was agreed upon as the weapon of choice, as the Italians thought that duel with pistols, favored by the French, was worthy of betrayed husbands, not of princes of royal blood.[6]

The duel with swords, which lasted 26 minutes, took place at 5:00 am on 15 August 1897, in the Bois de Marechaux at Vaucresson, France. Vittorio Emanuele defeated Prince Henri after 5 reprises.[7] The "Monseigneur" Henri received a serious wound to his right abdomen, and the doctors of both parties considered the injury serious enough to put him in a state of obvious inferiority, causing the end of the duel, and making the Count of Turin famous in Europe.[8]

In popular culture

Literature


• Race to Tibet by Sophie Schiller (2015) ISBN 978-0692254097

Notes

1. Chisholm 1911, p. 283.
2. Chisholm 1911, pp. 283–284.
3. Across Thibet (translation of De Paris au Tonkin à travers le Tibet inconnu by C. B. Pitman, 1891)
4. Chisholm 1911, p. 284.
5. Albert de Pouvourville, "L' Affaire de Siam; 1886 - 1896"
6. "Un duello per l'Italia". Torino. 1952.
7. "Verbale dello scontro tra il Conte di Torino e il Principe Enrico d'Orléans". Torino. 1897.
8. "Prince Henri in a Duel". New York Times. 17 August 1897. p. 9.

References

• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Orleans, Henri, Prince of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 283–284.

Further reading

• Henri of Orléans (1894). Around Tonkin and Siam. London: Chapman & Hall.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Mahendralal Sarkar
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Accessed: 12/10/19

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Mahendralal Sarkar
Born: 2 November 1833, Paikpara village, Howrah district, India
Died: 23 February 1904 (aged 70), Calcutta, India
Occupation: Physician, academic
Spouse(s): Rajkumari

Mahendralal Sarkar CIE (other spellings: মহেন্দ্রলাল সরকার, Mahendra Lal Sarkar, Mahendralal Sircar, Mahendralal Sircir; 2 November 1833 – 23 February 1904) was a Bengali medical doctor (MD), the second MD graduated from the Calcutta Medical College, social reformer, and propagator of scientific studies in nineteenth-century India. He was the founder of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science.[1][2]

Early life and education

Mahendralal Sarkar was born at Paikpara village in Howrah district, near Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal Province of British India. He lost both his parents early in life, his father when he was five years old and his mother when he was nine years old. His mother had shifted to his maternal uncles' house earlier, and subsequently he was brought up by his maternal uncles, Iswar Chandra Ghosh and Mahesh Chandra Ghosh in their house at Nebutala in Calcutta. First he was sent to a "gurumasai" or tutor to learn Bengali, and subsequently to another tutor named Thakurdas Dey, to learn English. On learning some English he secured admission in Hare School as a free student in 1840. In 1849, he passed the junior scholarship examination and joined Hindu College, where he studied up to 1854. At that time, Hindu College did not have facilities for teaching science and as he was bent upon studying medicine, he transferred to Calcutta Medical College.

At Calcutta Medical College he was so esteemed by his professors that in the second year of his course he was invited by them to deliver a series of lectures on optics to his fellow students, a task he performed honourably. He had a brilliant career at that college, where, besides winning several scholarships, he passed the final examination in 1860 with the highest honours in medicine, surgery and midwifery. In 1863, he took the degree of M.D. with special success.[3] He and Jagabandhu Bose were the second MDs of the Calcutta University after Chandrakumar De (1862).[1][4][5]

Career

Although educated in the traditional European system of medicine, Mahendralal Sarkar turned to homoeopathy. He was influenced by reading William Morgan's The Philosophy of Homeopathy, and by interaction with Rajendralal Dutt, a leading homoeopathic practitioner of Calcutta. In a meeting of the Bengal branch of the British Medical Association, he proclaimed homoeopathy to be superior to the "Western medicine" of the time. Consequently, he was ostracised by the British doctors, and had to undergo loss in practice for some time.[6] However, soon he regained his practice and went on to become a leading homoeopathic practitioner in Calcutta, as well as India.[1]

In the course of his career, he treated several notable persons of those days, including the author Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay, the ascetic Ramakrishna, the Maharaja of Tripura and others.

Campaigning scientific knowledge and higher education

Image
Bust of ML Sircar at Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science in front of ML Sircar Hall.

Mahendralal Sarkar started a campaign in 1867 for a national science association. He planned for an association that would be funded, run, and managed by native Indians, with the aim of turning out a pool of scientists for national reconstruction.[1] The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) was established in 1876, and Sarkar was its first secretary.[7] IACS was the first national science association of India.[8] Basic science departments such as Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Physiology, Geology, Botany, etc. were established, and notable Indian scientists participated in the association. Regular lectures and demonstrations were arranged for the public to popularise science.[8]

Sarkar supported women's education in nineteenth-century India, when higher education among women was rare. For example, he was a supporter of Abala Bose's decision to pursue the study of medicine at Madras Medical College instead of Calcutta Medical College, where admission of females was not permitted. He also arranged for Sarala Devi Chaudhurani's attendance in the evening lectures at IACS, so that she could pursue higher studies in physics.[9]

Awards and honours

He was a fellow of Calcutta University and an honorary magistrate and Sheriff of Calcutta (1887). He was made a CIE in 1883 and honoured with an honorary doctorate degree by University of Calcutta in 1898.[5]

References

1. Palit, Chittabrata (2012). "Sircir, Mahendralal". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
2. Arun Kumar Biswas. Gleanings of the past and the science movement : in the diaries of Drs. Mahendralal and Amritalal Sircar, Calcutta : The Asiatic Society, 2000; see also Collected works of Mahendralal Sircar, Eugene Lafont, and science movement, 1860–1910, Kolkata : Asiatic Society, 2003
3. Dr. Mahendralal Sircar – Frank Parlato Jr. Vivekananda.net. Retrieved on 12 November 2018.
4. Sastri, Sivanath, Ramtanu Lahiri O Tatkalin Banga Samaj, 1903/2001, (in Bengali), pp. 170–176, New Age Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
5. Sengupta, Subodh Chandra and Bose, Anjali (editors), 1998 edition, Sansad Bangali Charitabhidhan (Biographical dictionary) Vol I, (in Bengali), p. 408, ISBN 81-85626-65-0
6. Das, Eswara (2005). "India". History & Status of Homoeopathy Around the World. B. Jain Publishers. pp. 103–107. ISBN 81-8056-573-4.
7. IACSCC. "Introduction(About) of IACS". http://www.iacs.res.in. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
8. Palit, Chittabrata (2012). "Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
9. Thorner, Alice; Raj, Maithreyi Krishna (2000). Ideals, Images, and Real Lives: Women in Literature and History. Sameeksha Trust. Orient Longman. pp. 51–52. ISBN 81-250-0843-8.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


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Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
Seal of IACS
Motto: To cultivate Science in all its departments with a view to its advancement by original research and with a view to its varied application to the arts and comforts of life.
Type: Deemed University
Established: 29 July 1876
Founder: Dr. Mahendra Lal Sircar
Affiliation: UGC
President: Man Mohan Sharma
Director: Santanu Bhattacharya [1]
Location: 2A & 2B Raja S C Mullick Road Kolkata-700032, West Bengal, India
22.4983°N 88.3686°E
Campus: Urban
Website: http://www.iacs.res.in

Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) is an institute of higher learning in Kolkata, India.[2][3] Established in 1876 by Mahendra Lal Sarkar, a private medical practitioner, it focuses on fundamental research in basic sciences.[4] It is India's oldest research institute [5][6] Located at Jadavpur, South Kolkata beside Jadavpur University, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute and Indian Institute of Chemical Biology it is spread over a limited area of 9.5 acres.[7]. In May 2018, the Ministry of Human Resource Development announced that IACS[8] had been granted the status of Deemed University[9] under De-novo Category under section 3 of the University Grants Commission (UGC) Act 1956.

Academic programme

The institute is engaged in fundamental research in various fields of physics, chemistry and chemical biology. It is one of the most active research institutes in India and publishes on an average ~ 500 research articles in peer reviewed journals including top journals like Physical Review Letters, Journal of American Chemical Society and Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Recent interests include research in energy, fuel cells, nano materials like graphene and carbon nanotubes. The institute emphasizes PhD programmes, the degree being provided either by Jadavpur University or by University of Calcutta. There is also full-fledged Integrated PhD programme for post-Bachelor's students. From academic year 2005-2006 it started an integrated PhD programme in chemistry.[7] There are 8 departments in IACS, 4 units and 3 centres namely Materials Science, Solid state physics, Theoretical physics, Spectroscopy, Physical Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Biological Chemistry, Polymer Science unit, Energy research unit, Raman centre for atomic and molecular sciences, Centre for advanced materials, Center for Mathematical, Computational and Data Sciences, MLS Professor's unit and Director's Research Unit. After getting Deemed to be University status by UGC, the department structure has been replaced by School Structure. At present there are six schools namely School of Applied & Interdisciplinary Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, School of Chemical Sciences, School of Materials Sciences, School of Mathematical & Computational Sciences and School of Physical Sciences. There are about 70 working scientists in IACS. One important distinctive aspect of IACS is the presence of a majority of young scientist who are bringing new research areas and directions to IACS.

Nobel laureate Sir C. V. Raman did his groundbreaking work in Raman effect in this institute.[10] His work was first published in the Indian Journal of Physics, which is published by IACS.[11]

Apart from the works of C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan in Optics, IACS has produced several important paradigms in modern science. IACS has a very strong group in theoretical chemistry and quantum chemistry. Debashis Mukherjee developed the Mk-MRCC method to account for electron correlations in molecular systems which is considered as a "gold-standard" in computational chemistry. Another important discovery has been in the area of solvation dynamics of molecules and particular the dynamics of water molecules around the surfaces of membranes. These experiments performed by Professor Kankan Bhattacharyya have provided a fundamental insights into the behavior of water near biological surfaces and led to the coining of the word "biological water" in the physical chemistry community. Anirban Bandyopadhyay, who did his PhD at IACS went on to do research on neuroscience. Later at the Japanese National Institute for Materials Science, Anirban detected quantum states in microtubules that as per Orchestrated objective reduction play a key role in human consciousness.

Administration

At its inception, the IACS was headed by a President, with the Honorary Secretary responsible for the day-to-day running of the Society. Until 1911, the office of President was de facto held by the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, when the Lieutenant-Governor (Governor from 1912) became the co-patron of the Society alongside the Viceroy of India, whose office-holders were automatically Patrons of the Society until 1947.[12][note 1] Following India's independence in 1947, the administration of the IACS was reconstituted, with the designation of "Honorary Director" substituted for "Honorary Secretary."[13] The Director's prefix of "Honorary" was dropped in 1953.[14]

Presidents of the IACS (1876-present)

Sir Richard Temple, 1st Baronet FRS (1876-1877)
The Hon. Sir Ashley Eden FASB (1877-1882)
Sir Augustus Rivers Thompson (1882-1887)
Sir Steuart Bayley (1887-1890)
Sir Charles Alfred Elliott FASB (1890-1895)
Sir Alexander Mackenzie (1895-1898)
Sir John Woodburn (1898-1903)
• Sir Andrew Henderson Leith Fraser FASB (1903-1909)
• Sir Edward Norman Baker (1909-1911)
• Raja Pyare Mohan Mukherjee FASB (1911-1922)[15]
• Hon. Justice Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee FASB, FRSE, FRAS, MRIA (1922-1924)[16]
• Sir Rajendra Nath Mookerjee FASB (1924-1934?)[17]
• Sir Nilratan Sircar (1934-1942)[18]
• Prof. Rai Bahadur Sir Upendranath Brahmachari FNI, FASB (1942-1946)[19][20]
• Prof. Meghnad Saha FNI, FASB, FRS (1946-1951)[20][21]
• Prof. Sir Jnan Chandra Ghosh FNI (1951-1954)[22][23]
• Hon. Justice Charu Chandra Biswas (1954-1957)[24]
• Hon. Chief Justice Phani Bhusan Chakravartti (1957-1958)[25]
• Prof. Satyendra Nath Bose FNI, FRS (1958-1962)[26][27]
• Hon. Justice Rama Prasad Mookerjee (1962-1965)[27]
• Prof. Jnanendra Nath Mukherjee FNI, FCS (1965-1968)[28]
• Prof. Basanti Dulal Nagchaudhuri FNA (first term, 1968-1970)[29][note 2]
• Prof. Sushil Kumar Mukherjee FNA (first term, 1970-1973)[30][31]
• Prof. Sukumar Chandra Sirkar FNA (1973-1974)[31]
• Prof. Basanti Dulal Nagchaudhuri FNA (second term, 1974-1977)[32][33]
• Prof. Bimal Kumar Bachhawat FNA (1977-1983)[33]
• Prof. Sushil Kumar Mukherjee FNA (second term, 1983-1997)[34][35]
• Prof. Arun Kumar Sharma FNA, FASc (1997-2000)[35]
• Prof. M. M. Chakraborty (2000-2003)[36][37]
• Prof. Ashesh Prosad Mitra FNA, FASc, FRS (2003-2007)[38]
• Prof. Shri Krishna Joshi FNA, FASc (2007-2014)[39]
• Prof. Man Mohan Sharma FNA, FASc, FRS, FREng (2014-present)[40]

Secretaries and Directors of the IACS

Honorary Secretaries of the IACS (1876-1947)


• Dr. Mahendralal Sarkar (Founder-Secretary, 1876-1904)[41]
• Dr. Amritalal Sarkar (1904-1919)[41][18]
• Prof. Sir C. V. Raman (1919-1933)[18]
• Prof. K. S. Krishnan (1933-June 1934)[18]
• Prof. Sisir Kumar Mitra (June 1934-November 1935)[18]
• Prof. Jnanendra Nath Mukherjee FNI, FCS (November 1935-April 1944)[42]
• Prof. Meghnad Saha FNI, FASB, FRS (April 1944-1945)[43][44]
• Prof. Priyadaranjan Ray FNI (1945-1947)[44]
Honorary Directors of the IACS (1947-1953)[edit]
• Prof. Priyadaranjan Ray FNI (1947-1953)[13][14]

Directors of the IACS (1953-present)

• Prof. Meghnad Saha FNI, FASB, FRS (1953-1956)[14][24]
• Prof. Priyadaranjan Ray FNI (officiating, 1956-1958)[24][26]
o Prof. Sukumar Chandra Sirkar FNI (acting, 1958-1959)[26][45]
• Prof. Kedareswar Banerjee FNI (1959-1965)[45][28]
o Prof. Bishwambhar Nath Srivastava FNI (acting, 1965-1968)[28][29]
• Prof. Debidas Basu (1968-1980)[29][46]
o G. S. Banerjee IAS (acting, September 1980-March 1981)[46]
• Prof. Sadhan Basu FNA, FASc (March 1981-August 1982, on medical leave from July)[46][34]
o G. S. Banerjee IAS (acting, July-December 1982)[34]
• Prof. Asok Kumar Barua FASc (December 1982-1989)[34]
• Prof. Usha Ranjan Ghatak FNA, FASc (1989-1993)[47]
• Prof. Dipankar Chakravorty FNA, FASc (1993-1999)[48]
• Prof. Debashis Mukherjee FNA, FASc (1999-2008)[49][50]
• Prof. Kankan Bhattacharyya FNA, FASc (2008-2013)[50][51]
o Prof. Subhas Chandra Roy (acting, February-September 2013)[51]
o Prof. Deb Shankar Ray FNA, FASc (acting, September 2013-April 2015)[52]
• Prof. Santanu Bhattacharya FNA, FASc (April 2015 - present)[40]

Notes

1. With the exceptions of Sir (later Lord) Antony MacDonnell (Lieutenant-Governor 1893-1895), Sir Charles Cecil Stevens (Lieutenant-Governor 1897-1898), James Bourdillon (Lieutenant-Governor 1902-1903), Sir Lancelot Hare (Lieutenant-Governor 1906) and Francis Slacke (Lieutenant-Governor 1906-1908).
2. Prior to 1970, the Indian National Science Academy was named the "National Institute of Sciences of India", and its fellows bore the post-nominal "FNI". The post-nominal became "FNA" in 1970 when the association adopted its present name.

References

1. "IACS director". iacs.res.in. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
2. Uma Dasgupta (2011). Science and Modern India: An Institutional History, C. 1784-1947. Pearson Education India. ISBN 9788131728185.
3. Bernhard Joseph Stern. Science and Society. p. 84.
4. "Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata". dst.gov.in. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
5. "saha.ac.in". Retrieved 8 October 2017.
6. "Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science". twas.org. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
7. "About IACS". iacs.res.in. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
8. Aswathi Pacha (13 February 2018). "IACS' new source of white light". The Hindu. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
9. Subhankar Chowdhury (3 June 2018). "Tag boost for research hub". The Telegraph. India. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
10. "Sir Venkata Raman - Biographical". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
11. "Indian Journal of Physics". springer.com. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
12. Report of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science for the Year 1915. Anglo-Sanskrit Press. 1915. p. 144.
13. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1947-1948. 1948. pp. 25–26.
14. "The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1952-53" (PDF). Archive - IACS. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
15. Report of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science for the Year 1923. Anglo-Sanskrit Press. 1923. p. 11.
16. "IACS - Annual Report for the Year 1924" (PDF). Archive - IACS. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
17. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1935. 1935. p. 1.
18. "Raman, Krishnan and the IACS Episodes of the 1930s" (PDF). INSA - Indian Journal of History of Science. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
19. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1942. 1942. p. 20.
20. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1946. 1946. p. 1.
21. "The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1950-51" (PDF). Archive - IACS. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
22. "The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1951-52" (PDF). Archive - IACS. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
23. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1953-54. 1954. p. 2.
24. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1955-56. 1956. p. 2.
25. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1957-58. 1958. p. 2.
26. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1958-59. 1959. p. 2.
27. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1961-62. 1962. p. 2.
28. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1965-66. 1966. pp. 2–4.
29. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1968-69. 1969. p. 1.
30. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1970-71. 1971. p. 1.
31. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1973-74. 1974. p. 1.
32. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1974-75. 1975. p. 1.
33. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1977-78. 1978. p. 1.
34. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1982-83. 1983. pp. 1–4.
35. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1997-98. IACS. 1998. p. 3.
36. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2000-2001. IACS. 2001. p. 3.
37. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2002-2003. IACS. 2003. p. 6.
38. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2003-2004. IACS. 2004. p. 1.
39. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2007-2008. IACS. 2008. pp. 8–11.
40. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2014-15. IACS. 2015. p. 11.
41. Report of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science for the Year 1904. Anglo-Sanskrit Press. 1904. p. 1.
42. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1943. 1943. p. 2.
43. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1944. 1944. p. 16.
44. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1945. 1945. p. 15.
45. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1959-60. IACS. 1960. p. 2.
46. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1980-81. IACS. 1981. p. 2.
47. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1989-90. IACS. 1990. p. 1.
48. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1992-93. IACS. 1992. p. 1.
49. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1999-2000. IACS. 2000. p. 1.
50. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2008-09. IACS. 2009. p. 7.
51. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2012-13. IACS. 2013. p. 9.
52. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2013-14. IACS. 2014. p. 11.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Sir Richard Temple, 1st Baronet
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
The Right Honourable Sir Richard Temple, Bt GCSI CIE FRS
Governor of Bombay
In office: 1877–1880
Preceded by: Sir Philip Wodehouse
Succeeded by: Sir James Fergusson
Personal details
Born: 8 March 1826
Died: 15 March 1902 (aged 76)
Alma mater: East India Company College

Sir Richard Temple II, 1st Baronet, GCSI, CIE, PC, FRS (8 March 1826 – 15 March 1902) was an administrator in British India and a British politician.

Early life

Temple was the son of Richard Temple I (1800-1874) and his first wife Louisa Anne Rivett-Carnac (d. 1837), a daughter of James Rivett-Carnac. His paternal ancestor, William Dicken, of Sheinton, Shropshire, married in the middle of the 18th century the daughter and co-heiress of Sir William Temple, 5th Baronet (1694-1760), of the Temple of Stowe baronets. Their son assumed the surname Temple in 1796, and inherited the Temple manor-house and estate of The Nash, near Kempsey in Worcestershire. Richard Temple (born 1826) inherited the estate on his father's death in 1874.[1]

Career

Image
"Burra Dick". Temple as caricatured by Spy (Leslie Ward) in Vanity Fair, January 1881

After being educated at Rugby and the East India Company College at Haileybury, Temple joined the Bengal Civil Service in 1846. His hard work and literary skill were soon recognised; he was private secretary for some years to John Lawrence in the Punjab, and gained useful financial experience under James Wilson. He served as Chief Commissioner for the Central Provinces until 1867, when he was appointed Resident at Hyderabad. In 1867 he was made Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India (KCSI). In 1868 he became a member of the supreme government, first as foreign secretary and then as finance minister.[2]

He was made lieutenant-governor of Bengal Presidency in 1874, and did admirable work during the famine of 1874, importing half a million tons of rice from Burma to bring substantial relief to the starving. The British government, dogmatically committed to a laissez-faire economic policy, castigated Temple for interfering in the workings of the market. He was appointed by the Viceroy as a plenipotentiary famine delegate to Madras during the famine of 1877 there. Seeing this appointment as an opportunity to "retrieve his reputation for extravagance in the last famine" Temple implemented relief policies that failed to relieve widespread starvation and prevent the death of millions.[3]

Temple tried to determine the minimum amount of food Indians could survive on. In his experiments, "strapping fine fellows" were starved until they resembled "little more than animated skeletons ... utterly unfit for any work", he noted. In the labour camps he set up, inmates were given fewer daily calories than in the Buchenwald concentration camp 80 years later.[4]

His services were recognised with a baronetcy in 1876. In 1877 he was made Governor of Bombay Presidency, and his activity during the Afghan War of 1878-80 was untiring.[2]

In 1880, when Temple was departing India, it was proposed that a commemorative statue for his 33 years in the Indian Civil Service[a] be erected. The standing marble statue was completed by Thomas Brock in 1884. It shows him carrying his cloak over his arm and an elaborate 19th-century dress uniform with swags, ties and medals. They are, in fact, the costume of a Grand Commander of the Star of India, the formal attire for Governors of the Presidencies. The statue was unveiled with much pomp at the North end of Bombay's Oval. It was moved in August 1965 to the grounds beside the Bhau Daji Lad Museum, Byculla, Bombay (Victoria and Albert Museum).[5]

Five years later, in 1885, Temple was returned as a Conservative MP for the Evesham division of Worcestershire. Meanwhile, he produced several books on Indian subjects. In parliament, he was assiduous in his attendance, and he spoke on Indian subjects with admitted authority. He was not otherwise a parliamentary success, and to the public, he was best known from caricatures in Punch, which exaggerated his physical peculiarities and made him look like a lean and hungry tiger. In 1885 he became vice-chairman of the London School Board, and as chairman of its finance committee, he did useful and congenial work. In 1892 he changed his constituency for the Kingston division, but in 1895 he retired from parliament. In 1896 he was appointed a Privy Councillor.[2]

Temple had kept a careful journal of his parliamentary experiences, intended for posthumous publication; and he self-published a short volume of reminiscences. He died at his residence at Hampstead on 15 March 1902, from heart failure.[1]

Publications

Works by Temple include:[1]


• India in 1880
• Lord Lawrence
• Men and Events of My Time in India
• Oriental Experience
• Essays and Addresses
• Journal at Hyderabad
• Palestine Illustrated
• John Lawrence, a monoraph on John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence
• James Thomason, a monograph on James Thomason
• Sir Richard Carnac Temple (1887). Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal. W. H. Allen.
Temple also edited the 17th-century seaman Thomas Bowrey's A Geographical Account of Countries Round the Bay of Bengal, 1669 to 1679, published in 1905.[6]

Family

Temple was twice married. First, in 1849, to Charlotte Frances Martindale, daughter of Benjamin Martindale. She died in 1855, leaving him with two young sons and a daughter:[1]

• Richard Carnac Temple, 2nd Baronet (1850-1931)
• Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Martindale Temple, ISC (1853-1905), of the diplomatic service
• Edith Frances Temple (1855-1933)

He remarried, in 1871, Mary Augusta Lindsay, daughter of Charles Robert Lindsay, of the Indian Civil Service, and a member of the family of the Earls of Crawford and Balcarres.[1] Lady Temple was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Crown of India (CI) on its institution in 1878.[7] She died in 1924, and they had a son from the marriage:

• Charles Lindsay Temple (1871-1929), later Lieutenant-Governor of Northern Nigeria[8]

Arms

Image
Coat of arms of Sir Richard Temple, 1st Baronet
Crest: On a ducal coronet a martlet Or.
Escutcheon: Quarterly 1st & 4th Or an eagle displayed Sable; 2nd & 3rd Argent two bars Sable each charged with three martlets Or.
Motto: Templa Quam Dilecta [How Lovely Temples][9]

References

Notes


1. The Indian Civil Service was established in 1858 after the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Temple's 33 years includes his time in the civil service of the East India Company, which preceded this.

Citations

1. "Death of Sir Richard Temple". The Times (36718). London. 18 March 1902. p. 4.
2. Chisholm 1911.
3. Davis, Mike (2001). Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World. pp. 36–37. ISBN 978-1-85984-382-6.
4. Eugene Linden: [https://www.theglobalist.com/the-global-famine-of-1877-and-1899/, 6 Sep 2006.
5. Steggles, Mary Ann; Barnes, Richard (2011). British Sculpture in India: New Views and Old Memories. Norfolk, UK: Frontier. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-872914-41-1.
6. Bowrey, Thomas (1905). Temple, Richard (ed.). A Geographical Account of Countries Round the Bay of Bengal, 1669 to 1679. Hakluyt Society.
7. "No. 24539". The London Gazette. 4 January 1878. p. 113.
8. Alderman, C. J. F. (2004). "Temple, Charles Lindsay (1871–1929), colonial official and author". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 28 September 2016. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
9. Burke's Peerage. 1949.

Other

• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Temple, Sir Richard". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
• Steele, David (2004). "Temple, Sir Richard, first baronet (1826–1902), administrator in India". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 28 September 2016. (subscription or UK public library membership required)

Further reading

• Autobiographical Memoir: Men and Events of My Time in India by Richard Temple

External links

• "Temple, Sir Richard, Bart (TML883R)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
• Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sir Richard Temple
• "Temple, Sir Richard (1826-1902) 1st Baronet MP Anglo Indian Administrator". National Archives.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 11, 2019 2:30 am

Ashley Eden
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19

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The Honourable Sir Ashley Eden, KCSI CIE
Chief Commissioner of Burma
In office: 18 April 1871 – 14 April 1875
Preceded by: Albert Fytche
Succeeded by: Augustus Rivers Thompson
Personal details
Born: 13 November 1831, Hertingfordbury, Hertfordshire
Died: 8 July 1887 (aged 55)
Nationality: British
Spouse(s): Eva Maria Money
Relations: Robert Eden, 3rd Baron Auckland
Alma mater: Winchester
Occupation: Administrator

Sir Ashley Eden KCSI CIE (13 November 1831 – 8 July 1887) was an official and diplomat in British India.

Background and education

Eden was born at Hertingfordbury, Hertfordshire, the third son of Robert Eden, 3rd Baron Auckland, Bishop of Bath and Wells, by Mary Hurt, daughter of Francis Edward Hurt, of Alderwasley, Derbyshire. His uncle was George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland. He was educated first at Rugby and then at Winchester, until 1849, in which year he received a nomination to the Indian civil service.

Public life

Eden spent 1850 and 1851 at the East India Company's college at Haileybury, but did not pass out last of his term until December 1851. In 1852 he reached India, and was first posted as assistant to the magistrate and collector of Rájsháhí. In the year 1854 he was recruited as a sub divisional officer of Jangipur. In 1856 he was promoted to be magistrate at Moorshedábád, and during the Indian Mutiny he checked sympathy with the revolt in that city. In 1860 he was appointed secretary to the government of Bengal and an ex officio member of the Bengal legislative council. This post he held for eleven years, during the last part of Sir John Peter Grant's lieutenant-governorship, and throughout Sir Cecil Beadon's and Sir William Grey's terms of office.

In 1860 Eden accompanied a force ordered to invade the hill state of Sikkim in the Himalayas, as political agent, and in March 1861 he signed the Treaty of Tumlong with the raja, Sidkeong Namgyal, which secured protection to travellers and free trade.[1] This success caused Eden to be appointed special envoy to the hill state of Bhutan in 1863. He was accompanied by no armed force and his demands were rejected. He signed a treaty favourable to the Bhutiás. This treaty was not ratified by the supreme government, and the Bhutan War resulted.[2]

The Bhutia (བོད་རིགས; Sikkimese: Drenjongpa / Drenjop ; Tibetan: འབྲས་ལྗོངས་པ་, Wylie: Bras-ljongs-pa; "inhabitants of Sikkim"; in Bhutan: Dukpa) are a community of people of Tibetan ancestry, who speak Lhopo or Sikkimese, a Tibetan dialect fairly mutually intelligible with standard Tibetan. In 2001, the Bhutia numbered around 70,300. Bhutia here refers to Sikkimese of Tibetan ancestry; in contrast, the Bhotiya are a larger family of related Tibetan peoples in northeastern Nepal of which the Bhutia are one member group.

-- Bhutia, by Wikipedia


In 1871 Eden became the first civilian governor of British Burma, a post he held until his appointment in 1877 as lieutenant-governor of Bengal. In 1878 he was made a K.C.S.I., and in 1882 resigned the lieutenant-governorship.[2] After his retirement from India, on being appointed a member of the secretary of state's council in 1882, admirers founded in his honour the Eden Hospital for Women and Children in Calcutta, and a statue was erected. The Eden canal joins the Ganges and the Tistá, and was intended to relieve Bihar from famine. Eden returned to England and attended the Council of India for the remainder of his life.

Personal life

Eden married Eva Maria Money, daughter of Vice-Admiral Rowland Money. They had no children. Eden died suddenly of paralysis on 9 July 1887, aged 55.

Notes

1. Arora, Vibha (2008). "Routing the Commodities of Empire through Sikkim (1817-1906)". Commodities of Empire: Working Paper No.9 (PDF). Open University. ISSN 1756-0098.
2. Chisholm 1911.

References

• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Eden, Sir Ashley". Encyclopædia Britannica. 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 923.
• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Eden, Ashley". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
• Stephens, H. M.; Prior, Katherine. "Eden, Sir Ashley (1831–1887)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/8447.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

Further reading

• Buckland, Charles Edward (1901). Bengal Under The Lieutenant-Governors. 2. Calcutta: S. K. Lahiri & Co. pp. 686–759.
• William Ferguson Beatson Laurie (1888). Distinguished Anglo-Indians. pp. 99–124.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 11, 2019 2:40 am

Council of India
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/19/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


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The Supreme Indian Council, Simla, 1864

The Council of India was the name given at different times to two separate bodies associated with British rule in India.

The original Council of India was established by the Charter Act of 1833 as a council of four formal advisors to the Governor-General at Fort William. The Governor-General in Council was subordinate only to the East India Company's Court of Directors and to the British Crown.

In 1858 the Company's involvement in India's government was transferred by the Government of India Act 1858 to the British government.[1] The Act created a new governmental department in London (the India Office), headed by the cabinet-ranking Secretary of State for India, who was in turn to be advised by a new Council of India (also based in London). In consequence, the existing council in India was formally renamed by the Act (s. 7) as the Council of the Governor General of India.

Governor-General's council (1833-1858)

The 1773 Act provided for the election of four counsellors by the East India Company's Court of Directors. The Governor-General had a vote along with the counsellors, but he also had an additional casting vote. The decision of the Council was binding on the Governor-General. The Council of Four, as it was known in its early days, did in fact attempt to impeach the first Governor-General, Warren Hastings, but in his subsequent trial by Parliament he was found to be not guilty.

In 1784, the Council was reduced to three members; the Governor-General continued to have both an ordinary vote and a casting vote. In 1786, the power of the Governor-General was increased even further, as Council decisions ceased to be binding.

The Charter Act 1833 made further changes to the structure of the Council. The Act was the first law to distinguish between the executive and legislative responsibilities of the Governor-General. As provided under the Act, there were to be four members of the Council elected by the Court of Directors. The first three members were permitted to participate on all occasions, but the fourth member was only allowed to sit and vote when legislation was being debated.

In 1858, the Court of Directors ceased to have the power to elect members of the Council. Instead, the one member who had a vote only on legislative questions came to be appointed by the Sovereign, and the other three members by the Secretary of State for India.

Secretary of State's Council

The Council of the Secretary of State, also known as the India Council was based in Whitehall. In 1907, two Indians Sir Krishna Govinda Gupta and Nawab Syed Hussain Bilgrami were appointed by Lord Morley as members of the council. Bilgrami retired early in 1910 owing to ill-health and his place was taken by Mirza Abbas Ali Baig.[2][3] Other members included P. Rajagopalachari (1923-1925), Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana (1924-1934) and Sir Abdul Qadir.

The Secretary of State's Council of India was abolished by the Government of India Act 1935.

Members of the Council Of India in London

Term start / Term end / Name / Birth / Death / Notes

1888 / November 1902 / Right Hon. Sir Alfred Comyn Lyall, GCIE, KCB, PC / 1835 / 1911 / --
1888 / November 1902 / Sir James Braithwaite Peile, KCSI / 1833 / 1906 / --
1900 / March 1907 / General Sir Alexander Robert Badcock, KCB, CSI / 1844 / 1907 / --
November 1902[4]/ -- / Sir Antony Patrick MacDonnell, GCSI, PC / 1844 / 1925 / Lieutenant Governor of Bengal 1893–1895; Lieutenant Governor of United Provinces 1895–1901
November 1902[4] / 1910 / Sir William Lee-Warner, GCSI / 1846 / 1914 / --


See also

• India Office
• English Education Act 1835
• Central Legislative Assembly
• Viceroy's Executive Council
• Council of State (India)
• Imperial Legislative Council
• Interim Government of India

References

1. "Official, India". World Digital Library. 1890–1923. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
2. Chirol, Valentine. Indian Unrest.
3. Wikisource:Page:The Indian Biographical Dictionary.djvu/41
4. "The Council of india". The Times (36904). London. 21 October 1902. p. 6.

Further reading

• A Constitutional History of India, 1600–1935, by Arthur Berriedale Keith, published by Methuen & Co., London, 1936
• The Imperial Legislative Council of India from 1861 to 1920: A Study of the Inter-action of Constitutional Reform and National Movement with Special Reference to the Growth of Indian Legislature up to 1920, by Parmatma Sharan, published by S. Chand, 1961
• Imperialist Strategy and Moderate Politics: Indian Legislature at Work, 1909-1920, by Sneh Mahajan, published by Chanakya Publications, 1983
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