Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Alexander Mackenzie (civil servant)
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Accessed: 12/10/19

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Sir Alexander Mackenzie
Born: 28 June 1842, Dumfries, Scotland
Died: 10 November 1902 (aged 60), London
Occupation: civil servant

Sir Alexander Mackenzie, KCSI (28 June 1842 in Dumfries – 10 November 1902 in London) served as Chief Commissioner of the British Crown Colony of Burma from December 1890 to April 1895.[1]

Biography

Alexander Mackenzie was born on Dumfries, Scotland and moved to Birmingham with his father Reverend John R. Mackenzie and Alexanderina Mackenzie.[1] He attended King Edward's School and Trinity College, Cambridge. Upon obtaining his BA and completion of his Indian Civil Service exans, Mackenzie went to Calcutta in 1862 and later became the Lieutenant-governor of Bengal.

Alexander Mackenzie held many positions of civil service appointments in Asia:

• Home Secretary to the Government of British India 1882
• Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces 1887
• Chief Commissioner of Burma 1890
• Member of the Supreme Council of Burma 1895

After his service in Burma, he was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Bengal (1895–1898).
His absence and negligence during his time in office made him unpopular amongst locals, but did not result in his removal from office.

In 1891 he became a Knight in Commander of the Star of India.

Retired in 1898 due to poor health, he return to Britain and became Chairman of the India Development Company. He died on London on 10 November 1902. He was predeceased by wife Georgina Louisa Huntly Bremner (born 1838 India,[2] married 1863 and died 1892 Birmingham) and survived by second wife Mabel E. Elliot (m. 1893). His second wife married another civil servant, The Hon. Noel Farrer[3]

References

1. http://www.brebner.com/obituaries/alex_ ... e_obit.pdf
2. FIBIS East India Register Birth Announcements, April 2009.
3. ‘FARRER, Hon. Noel (Maitland)’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2007; online edn, Oxford University Press, December 2007 accessed 15 December 2013

External links

• Myanmar (Burma) at http://www.worldstatesmen.org
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Prince Henri of Orléans
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Accessed: 12/10/19

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Prince Henri
Drawing by Adolphe Lalauze, c. 1897
Born: 16 October 1867, Ham, London, England
Died: 9 August 1901 (aged 33), Saigon, Cochinchina
Full name: Henri Philippe Marie d'Orléans
House: Orléans
Father: Robert, Duke of Chartres
Mother: Marie-Françoise of Orléans
Religion: Roman Catholic

Prince Henri of Orléans (16 October 1867 – 9 August 1901) was the son of Prince Robert, Duke of Chartres, and Princess Françoise of Orléans.

Biography

Henri, the second eldest son and third child of Prince Robert, Duke of Chartres, was born at Ham, London on 16 October 1867.[1]

In 1889, at the instance of his father, who paid the expenses of the tour, he undertook, in company with Gabriel Bonvalot and Father Constant de Deken (1852-1896), a journey through Siberia to French Indochina. In the course of their travels they crossed the mountain range of Tibet and the fruits of their observations, submitted to the Geographical Society of Paris (and later incorporated in De Paris au Tonkin à travers le Tibet inconnu, published in 1892),[2][3] brought them conjointly the gold medal of that society.[4]

In 1892 the prince made a short journey of exploration in East Africa, and shortly afterwards visited Madagascar, proceeding thence to Tongkin in today Vietnam.[4] In April 1892 he visited Luang Prabang in Laos. It brings him to writing a letter to "Politique Coloniale" in January 1893.[5] From this point he set out for Assam, and was successful in discovering the source of the Irrawaddy River, a brilliant geographical achievement which secured the medal of the Geographical Society of Paris and the Cross of the Legion of Honour. In 1897 he revisited Abyssinia, and political differences arising from this trip led to a duel with Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Turin.[4]

While on a trip to Assam in 1901, he died at Saigon on the 9th of August. Prince Henri was a somewhat violent Anglophobe, and his diatribes against Great Britain contrasted rather curiously with the cordial reception which his position as a traveller obtained for him in London, where he was given the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society.[4]

Duel

In 1897, in several articles for Le Figaro, Prince Henri described the Italian soldiers being held captive in Ethiopia, during the first First Italo–Ethiopian War, as cowards. Prince Vittorio Emanuele thus challenged him to a duel. The sword was agreed upon as the weapon of choice, as the Italians thought that duel with pistols, favored by the French, was worthy of betrayed husbands, not of princes of royal blood.[6]

The duel with swords, which lasted 26 minutes, took place at 5:00 am on 15 August 1897, in the Bois de Marechaux at Vaucresson, France. Vittorio Emanuele defeated Prince Henri after 5 reprises.[7] The "Monseigneur" Henri received a serious wound to his right abdomen, and the doctors of both parties considered the injury serious enough to put him in a state of obvious inferiority, causing the end of the duel, and making the Count of Turin famous in Europe.[8]

In popular culture

Literature


• Race to Tibet by Sophie Schiller (2015) ISBN 978-0692254097

Notes

1. Chisholm 1911, p. 283.
2. Chisholm 1911, pp. 283–284.
3. Across Thibet (translation of De Paris au Tonkin à travers le Tibet inconnu by C. B. Pitman, 1891)
4. Chisholm 1911, p. 284.
5. Albert de Pouvourville, "L' Affaire de Siam; 1886 - 1896"
6. "Un duello per l'Italia". Torino. 1952.
7. "Verbale dello scontro tra il Conte di Torino e il Principe Enrico d'Orléans". Torino. 1897.
8. "Prince Henri in a Duel". New York Times. 17 August 1897. p. 9.

References

• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Orleans, Henri, Prince of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 283–284.

Further reading

• Henri of Orléans (1894). Around Tonkin and Siam. London: Chapman & Hall.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 11, 2019 1:54 am

Mahendralal Sarkar
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Accessed: 12/10/19

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Mahendralal Sarkar
Born: 2 November 1833, Paikpara village, Howrah district, India
Died: 23 February 1904 (aged 70), Calcutta, India
Occupation: Physician, academic
Spouse(s): Rajkumari

Mahendralal Sarkar CIE (other spellings: মহেন্দ্রলাল সরকার, Mahendra Lal Sarkar, Mahendralal Sircar, Mahendralal Sircir; 2 November 1833 – 23 February 1904) was a Bengali medical doctor (MD), the second MD graduated from the Calcutta Medical College, social reformer, and propagator of scientific studies in nineteenth-century India. He was the founder of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science.[1][2]

Early life and education

Mahendralal Sarkar was born at Paikpara village in Howrah district, near Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal Province of British India. He lost both his parents early in life, his father when he was five years old and his mother when he was nine years old. His mother had shifted to his maternal uncles' house earlier, and subsequently he was brought up by his maternal uncles, Iswar Chandra Ghosh and Mahesh Chandra Ghosh in their house at Nebutala in Calcutta. First he was sent to a "gurumasai" or tutor to learn Bengali, and subsequently to another tutor named Thakurdas Dey, to learn English. On learning some English he secured admission in Hare School as a free student in 1840. In 1849, he passed the junior scholarship examination and joined Hindu College, where he studied up to 1854. At that time, Hindu College did not have facilities for teaching science and as he was bent upon studying medicine, he transferred to Calcutta Medical College.

At Calcutta Medical College he was so esteemed by his professors that in the second year of his course he was invited by them to deliver a series of lectures on optics to his fellow students, a task he performed honourably. He had a brilliant career at that college, where, besides winning several scholarships, he passed the final examination in 1860 with the highest honours in medicine, surgery and midwifery. In 1863, he took the degree of M.D. with special success.[3] He and Jagabandhu Bose were the second MDs of the Calcutta University after Chandrakumar De (1862).[1][4][5]

Career

Although educated in the traditional European system of medicine, Mahendralal Sarkar turned to homoeopathy. He was influenced by reading William Morgan's The Philosophy of Homeopathy, and by interaction with Rajendralal Dutt, a leading homoeopathic practitioner of Calcutta. In a meeting of the Bengal branch of the British Medical Association, he proclaimed homoeopathy to be superior to the "Western medicine" of the time. Consequently, he was ostracised by the British doctors, and had to undergo loss in practice for some time.[6] However, soon he regained his practice and went on to become a leading homoeopathic practitioner in Calcutta, as well as India.[1]

In the course of his career, he treated several notable persons of those days, including the author Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay, the ascetic Ramakrishna, the Maharaja of Tripura and others.

Campaigning scientific knowledge and higher education

Image
Bust of ML Sircar at Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science in front of ML Sircar Hall.

Mahendralal Sarkar started a campaign in 1867 for a national science association. He planned for an association that would be funded, run, and managed by native Indians, with the aim of turning out a pool of scientists for national reconstruction.[1] The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) was established in 1876, and Sarkar was its first secretary.[7] IACS was the first national science association of India.[8] Basic science departments such as Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Physiology, Geology, Botany, etc. were established, and notable Indian scientists participated in the association. Regular lectures and demonstrations were arranged for the public to popularise science.[8]

Sarkar supported women's education in nineteenth-century India, when higher education among women was rare. For example, he was a supporter of Abala Bose's decision to pursue the study of medicine at Madras Medical College instead of Calcutta Medical College, where admission of females was not permitted. He also arranged for Sarala Devi Chaudhurani's attendance in the evening lectures at IACS, so that she could pursue higher studies in physics.[9]

Awards and honours

He was a fellow of Calcutta University and an honorary magistrate and Sheriff of Calcutta (1887). He was made a CIE in 1883 and honoured with an honorary doctorate degree by University of Calcutta in 1898.[5]

References

1. Palit, Chittabrata (2012). "Sircir, Mahendralal". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
2. Arun Kumar Biswas. Gleanings of the past and the science movement : in the diaries of Drs. Mahendralal and Amritalal Sircar, Calcutta : The Asiatic Society, 2000; see also Collected works of Mahendralal Sircar, Eugene Lafont, and science movement, 1860–1910, Kolkata : Asiatic Society, 2003
3. Dr. Mahendralal Sircar – Frank Parlato Jr. Vivekananda.net. Retrieved on 12 November 2018.
4. Sastri, Sivanath, Ramtanu Lahiri O Tatkalin Banga Samaj, 1903/2001, (in Bengali), pp. 170–176, New Age Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
5. Sengupta, Subodh Chandra and Bose, Anjali (editors), 1998 edition, Sansad Bangali Charitabhidhan (Biographical dictionary) Vol I, (in Bengali), p. 408, ISBN 81-85626-65-0
6. Das, Eswara (2005). "India". History & Status of Homoeopathy Around the World. B. Jain Publishers. pp. 103–107. ISBN 81-8056-573-4.
7. IACSCC. "Introduction(About) of IACS". http://www.iacs.res.in. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
8. Palit, Chittabrata (2012). "Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
9. Thorner, Alice; Raj, Maithreyi Krishna (2000). Ideals, Images, and Real Lives: Women in Literature and History. Sameeksha Trust. Orient Longman. pp. 51–52. ISBN 81-250-0843-8.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 11, 2019 2:06 am

Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

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Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
Seal of IACS
Motto: To cultivate Science in all its departments with a view to its advancement by original research and with a view to its varied application to the arts and comforts of life.
Type: Deemed University
Established: 29 July 1876
Founder: Dr. Mahendra Lal Sircar
Affiliation: UGC
President: Man Mohan Sharma
Director: Santanu Bhattacharya [1]
Location: 2A & 2B Raja S C Mullick Road Kolkata-700032, West Bengal, India
22.4983°N 88.3686°E
Campus: Urban
Website: http://www.iacs.res.in

Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) is an institute of higher learning in Kolkata, India.[2][3] Established in 1876 by Mahendra Lal Sarkar, a private medical practitioner, it focuses on fundamental research in basic sciences.[4] It is India's oldest research institute [5][6] Located at Jadavpur, South Kolkata beside Jadavpur University, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute and Indian Institute of Chemical Biology it is spread over a limited area of 9.5 acres.[7]. In May 2018, the Ministry of Human Resource Development announced that IACS[8] had been granted the status of Deemed University[9] under De-novo Category under section 3 of the University Grants Commission (UGC) Act 1956.

Academic programme

The institute is engaged in fundamental research in various fields of physics, chemistry and chemical biology. It is one of the most active research institutes in India and publishes on an average ~ 500 research articles in peer reviewed journals including top journals like Physical Review Letters, Journal of American Chemical Society and Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Recent interests include research in energy, fuel cells, nano materials like graphene and carbon nanotubes. The institute emphasizes PhD programmes, the degree being provided either by Jadavpur University or by University of Calcutta. There is also full-fledged Integrated PhD programme for post-Bachelor's students. From academic year 2005-2006 it started an integrated PhD programme in chemistry.[7] There are 8 departments in IACS, 4 units and 3 centres namely Materials Science, Solid state physics, Theoretical physics, Spectroscopy, Physical Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Biological Chemistry, Polymer Science unit, Energy research unit, Raman centre for atomic and molecular sciences, Centre for advanced materials, Center for Mathematical, Computational and Data Sciences, MLS Professor's unit and Director's Research Unit. After getting Deemed to be University status by UGC, the department structure has been replaced by School Structure. At present there are six schools namely School of Applied & Interdisciplinary Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, School of Chemical Sciences, School of Materials Sciences, School of Mathematical & Computational Sciences and School of Physical Sciences. There are about 70 working scientists in IACS. One important distinctive aspect of IACS is the presence of a majority of young scientist who are bringing new research areas and directions to IACS.

Nobel laureate Sir C. V. Raman did his groundbreaking work in Raman effect in this institute.[10] His work was first published in the Indian Journal of Physics, which is published by IACS.[11]

Apart from the works of C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan in Optics, IACS has produced several important paradigms in modern science. IACS has a very strong group in theoretical chemistry and quantum chemistry. Debashis Mukherjee developed the Mk-MRCC method to account for electron correlations in molecular systems which is considered as a "gold-standard" in computational chemistry. Another important discovery has been in the area of solvation dynamics of molecules and particular the dynamics of water molecules around the surfaces of membranes. These experiments performed by Professor Kankan Bhattacharyya have provided a fundamental insights into the behavior of water near biological surfaces and led to the coining of the word "biological water" in the physical chemistry community. Anirban Bandyopadhyay, who did his PhD at IACS went on to do research on neuroscience. Later at the Japanese National Institute for Materials Science, Anirban detected quantum states in microtubules that as per Orchestrated objective reduction play a key role in human consciousness.

Administration

At its inception, the IACS was headed by a President, with the Honorary Secretary responsible for the day-to-day running of the Society. Until 1911, the office of President was de facto held by the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, when the Lieutenant-Governor (Governor from 1912) became the co-patron of the Society alongside the Viceroy of India, whose office-holders were automatically Patrons of the Society until 1947.[12][note 1] Following India's independence in 1947, the administration of the IACS was reconstituted, with the designation of "Honorary Director" substituted for "Honorary Secretary."[13] The Director's prefix of "Honorary" was dropped in 1953.[14]

Presidents of the IACS (1876-present)

Sir Richard Temple, 1st Baronet FRS (1876-1877)
The Hon. Sir Ashley Eden FASB (1877-1882)
Sir Augustus Rivers Thompson (1882-1887)
Sir Steuart Bayley (1887-1890)
Sir Charles Alfred Elliott FASB (1890-1895)
Sir Alexander Mackenzie (1895-1898)
Sir John Woodburn (1898-1903)
• Sir Andrew Henderson Leith Fraser FASB (1903-1909)
• Sir Edward Norman Baker (1909-1911)
• Raja Pyare Mohan Mukherjee FASB (1911-1922)[15]
• Hon. Justice Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee FASB, FRSE, FRAS, MRIA (1922-1924)[16]
• Sir Rajendra Nath Mookerjee FASB (1924-1934?)[17]
• Sir Nilratan Sircar (1934-1942)[18]
• Prof. Rai Bahadur Sir Upendranath Brahmachari FNI, FASB (1942-1946)[19][20]
• Prof. Meghnad Saha FNI, FASB, FRS (1946-1951)[20][21]
• Prof. Sir Jnan Chandra Ghosh FNI (1951-1954)[22][23]
• Hon. Justice Charu Chandra Biswas (1954-1957)[24]
• Hon. Chief Justice Phani Bhusan Chakravartti (1957-1958)[25]
• Prof. Satyendra Nath Bose FNI, FRS (1958-1962)[26][27]
• Hon. Justice Rama Prasad Mookerjee (1962-1965)[27]
• Prof. Jnanendra Nath Mukherjee FNI, FCS (1965-1968)[28]
• Prof. Basanti Dulal Nagchaudhuri FNA (first term, 1968-1970)[29][note 2]
• Prof. Sushil Kumar Mukherjee FNA (first term, 1970-1973)[30][31]
• Prof. Sukumar Chandra Sirkar FNA (1973-1974)[31]
• Prof. Basanti Dulal Nagchaudhuri FNA (second term, 1974-1977)[32][33]
• Prof. Bimal Kumar Bachhawat FNA (1977-1983)[33]
• Prof. Sushil Kumar Mukherjee FNA (second term, 1983-1997)[34][35]
• Prof. Arun Kumar Sharma FNA, FASc (1997-2000)[35]
• Prof. M. M. Chakraborty (2000-2003)[36][37]
• Prof. Ashesh Prosad Mitra FNA, FASc, FRS (2003-2007)[38]
• Prof. Shri Krishna Joshi FNA, FASc (2007-2014)[39]
• Prof. Man Mohan Sharma FNA, FASc, FRS, FREng (2014-present)[40]

Secretaries and Directors of the IACS

Honorary Secretaries of the IACS (1876-1947)


• Dr. Mahendralal Sarkar (Founder-Secretary, 1876-1904)[41]
• Dr. Amritalal Sarkar (1904-1919)[41][18]
• Prof. Sir C. V. Raman (1919-1933)[18]
• Prof. K. S. Krishnan (1933-June 1934)[18]
• Prof. Sisir Kumar Mitra (June 1934-November 1935)[18]
• Prof. Jnanendra Nath Mukherjee FNI, FCS (November 1935-April 1944)[42]
• Prof. Meghnad Saha FNI, FASB, FRS (April 1944-1945)[43][44]
• Prof. Priyadaranjan Ray FNI (1945-1947)[44]
Honorary Directors of the IACS (1947-1953)[edit]
• Prof. Priyadaranjan Ray FNI (1947-1953)[13][14]

Directors of the IACS (1953-present)

• Prof. Meghnad Saha FNI, FASB, FRS (1953-1956)[14][24]
• Prof. Priyadaranjan Ray FNI (officiating, 1956-1958)[24][26]
o Prof. Sukumar Chandra Sirkar FNI (acting, 1958-1959)[26][45]
• Prof. Kedareswar Banerjee FNI (1959-1965)[45][28]
o Prof. Bishwambhar Nath Srivastava FNI (acting, 1965-1968)[28][29]
• Prof. Debidas Basu (1968-1980)[29][46]
o G. S. Banerjee IAS (acting, September 1980-March 1981)[46]
• Prof. Sadhan Basu FNA, FASc (March 1981-August 1982, on medical leave from July)[46][34]
o G. S. Banerjee IAS (acting, July-December 1982)[34]
• Prof. Asok Kumar Barua FASc (December 1982-1989)[34]
• Prof. Usha Ranjan Ghatak FNA, FASc (1989-1993)[47]
• Prof. Dipankar Chakravorty FNA, FASc (1993-1999)[48]
• Prof. Debashis Mukherjee FNA, FASc (1999-2008)[49][50]
• Prof. Kankan Bhattacharyya FNA, FASc (2008-2013)[50][51]
o Prof. Subhas Chandra Roy (acting, February-September 2013)[51]
o Prof. Deb Shankar Ray FNA, FASc (acting, September 2013-April 2015)[52]
• Prof. Santanu Bhattacharya FNA, FASc (April 2015 - present)[40]

Notes

1. With the exceptions of Sir (later Lord) Antony MacDonnell (Lieutenant-Governor 1893-1895), Sir Charles Cecil Stevens (Lieutenant-Governor 1897-1898), James Bourdillon (Lieutenant-Governor 1902-1903), Sir Lancelot Hare (Lieutenant-Governor 1906) and Francis Slacke (Lieutenant-Governor 1906-1908).
2. Prior to 1970, the Indian National Science Academy was named the "National Institute of Sciences of India", and its fellows bore the post-nominal "FNI". The post-nominal became "FNA" in 1970 when the association adopted its present name.

References

1. "IACS director". iacs.res.in. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
2. Uma Dasgupta (2011). Science and Modern India: An Institutional History, C. 1784-1947. Pearson Education India. ISBN 9788131728185.
3. Bernhard Joseph Stern. Science and Society. p. 84.
4. "Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata". dst.gov.in. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
5. "saha.ac.in". Retrieved 8 October 2017.
6. "Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science". twas.org. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
7. "About IACS". iacs.res.in. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
8. Aswathi Pacha (13 February 2018). "IACS' new source of white light". The Hindu. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
9. Subhankar Chowdhury (3 June 2018). "Tag boost for research hub". The Telegraph. India. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
10. "Sir Venkata Raman - Biographical". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
11. "Indian Journal of Physics". springer.com. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
12. Report of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science for the Year 1915. Anglo-Sanskrit Press. 1915. p. 144.
13. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1947-1948. 1948. pp. 25–26.
14. "The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1952-53" (PDF). Archive - IACS. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
15. Report of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science for the Year 1923. Anglo-Sanskrit Press. 1923. p. 11.
16. "IACS - Annual Report for the Year 1924" (PDF). Archive - IACS. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
17. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1935. 1935. p. 1.
18. "Raman, Krishnan and the IACS Episodes of the 1930s" (PDF). INSA - Indian Journal of History of Science. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
19. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1942. 1942. p. 20.
20. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1946. 1946. p. 1.
21. "The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1950-51" (PDF). Archive - IACS. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
22. "The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1951-52" (PDF). Archive - IACS. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
23. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1953-54. 1954. p. 2.
24. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1955-56. 1956. p. 2.
25. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1957-58. 1958. p. 2.
26. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1958-59. 1959. p. 2.
27. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1961-62. 1962. p. 2.
28. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1965-66. 1966. pp. 2–4.
29. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1968-69. 1969. p. 1.
30. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1970-71. 1971. p. 1.
31. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1973-74. 1974. p. 1.
32. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1974-75. 1975. p. 1.
33. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1977-78. 1978. p. 1.
34. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1982-83. 1983. pp. 1–4.
35. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1997-98. IACS. 1998. p. 3.
36. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2000-2001. IACS. 2001. p. 3.
37. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2002-2003. IACS. 2003. p. 6.
38. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2003-2004. IACS. 2004. p. 1.
39. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2007-2008. IACS. 2008. pp. 8–11.
40. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2014-15. IACS. 2015. p. 11.
41. Report of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science for the Year 1904. Anglo-Sanskrit Press. 1904. p. 1.
42. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1943. 1943. p. 2.
43. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1944. 1944. p. 16.
44. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1945. 1945. p. 15.
45. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1959-60. IACS. 1960. p. 2.
46. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1980-81. IACS. 1981. p. 2.
47. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1989-90. IACS. 1990. p. 1.
48. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1992-93. IACS. 1992. p. 1.
49. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1999-2000. IACS. 2000. p. 1.
50. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2008-09. IACS. 2009. p. 7.
51. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2012-13. IACS. 2013. p. 9.
52. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2013-14. IACS. 2014. p. 11.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 11, 2019 2:14 am

Sir Richard Temple, 1st Baronet
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Accessed: 12/10/19

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The Right Honourable Sir Richard Temple, Bt GCSI CIE FRS
Governor of Bombay
In office: 1877–1880
Preceded by: Sir Philip Wodehouse
Succeeded by: Sir James Fergusson
Personal details
Born: 8 March 1826
Died: 15 March 1902 (aged 76)
Alma mater: East India Company College

Sir Richard Temple II, 1st Baronet, GCSI, CIE, PC, FRS (8 March 1826 – 15 March 1902) was an administrator in British India and a British politician.

Early life

Temple was the son of Richard Temple I (1800-1874) and his first wife Louisa Anne Rivett-Carnac (d. 1837), a daughter of James Rivett-Carnac. His paternal ancestor, William Dicken, of Sheinton, Shropshire, married in the middle of the 18th century the daughter and co-heiress of Sir William Temple, 5th Baronet (1694-1760), of the Temple of Stowe baronets. Their son assumed the surname Temple in 1796, and inherited the Temple manor-house and estate of The Nash, near Kempsey in Worcestershire. Richard Temple (born 1826) inherited the estate on his father's death in 1874.[1]

Career

Image
"Burra Dick". Temple as caricatured by Spy (Leslie Ward) in Vanity Fair, January 1881

After being educated at Rugby and the East India Company College at Haileybury, Temple joined the Bengal Civil Service in 1846. His hard work and literary skill were soon recognised; he was private secretary for some years to John Lawrence in the Punjab, and gained useful financial experience under James Wilson. He served as Chief Commissioner for the Central Provinces until 1867, when he was appointed Resident at Hyderabad. In 1867 he was made Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India (KCSI). In 1868 he became a member of the supreme government, first as foreign secretary and then as finance minister.[2]

He was made lieutenant-governor of Bengal Presidency in 1874, and did admirable work during the famine of 1874, importing half a million tons of rice from Burma to bring substantial relief to the starving. The British government, dogmatically committed to a laissez-faire economic policy, castigated Temple for interfering in the workings of the market. He was appointed by the Viceroy as a plenipotentiary famine delegate to Madras during the famine of 1877 there. Seeing this appointment as an opportunity to "retrieve his reputation for extravagance in the last famine" Temple implemented relief policies that failed to relieve widespread starvation and prevent the death of millions.[3]

Temple tried to determine the minimum amount of food Indians could survive on. In his experiments, "strapping fine fellows" were starved until they resembled "little more than animated skeletons ... utterly unfit for any work", he noted. In the labour camps he set up, inmates were given fewer daily calories than in the Buchenwald concentration camp 80 years later.[4]

His services were recognised with a baronetcy in 1876. In 1877 he was made Governor of Bombay Presidency, and his activity during the Afghan War of 1878-80 was untiring.[2]

In 1880, when Temple was departing India, it was proposed that a commemorative statue for his 33 years in the Indian Civil Service[a] be erected. The standing marble statue was completed by Thomas Brock in 1884. It shows him carrying his cloak over his arm and an elaborate 19th-century dress uniform with swags, ties and medals. They are, in fact, the costume of a Grand Commander of the Star of India, the formal attire for Governors of the Presidencies. The statue was unveiled with much pomp at the North end of Bombay's Oval. It was moved in August 1965 to the grounds beside the Bhau Daji Lad Museum, Byculla, Bombay (Victoria and Albert Museum).[5]

Five years later, in 1885, Temple was returned as a Conservative MP for the Evesham division of Worcestershire. Meanwhile, he produced several books on Indian subjects. In parliament, he was assiduous in his attendance, and he spoke on Indian subjects with admitted authority. He was not otherwise a parliamentary success, and to the public, he was best known from caricatures in Punch, which exaggerated his physical peculiarities and made him look like a lean and hungry tiger. In 1885 he became vice-chairman of the London School Board, and as chairman of its finance committee, he did useful and congenial work. In 1892 he changed his constituency for the Kingston division, but in 1895 he retired from parliament. In 1896 he was appointed a Privy Councillor.[2]

Temple had kept a careful journal of his parliamentary experiences, intended for posthumous publication; and he self-published a short volume of reminiscences. He died at his residence at Hampstead on 15 March 1902, from heart failure.[1]

Publications

Works by Temple include:[1]


• India in 1880
• Lord Lawrence
• Men and Events of My Time in India
• Oriental Experience
• Essays and Addresses
• Journal at Hyderabad
• Palestine Illustrated
• John Lawrence, a monoraph on John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence
• James Thomason, a monograph on James Thomason
• Sir Richard Carnac Temple (1887). Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal. W. H. Allen.
Temple also edited the 17th-century seaman Thomas Bowrey's A Geographical Account of Countries Round the Bay of Bengal, 1669 to 1679, published in 1905.[6]

Family

Temple was twice married. First, in 1849, to Charlotte Frances Martindale, daughter of Benjamin Martindale. She died in 1855, leaving him with two young sons and a daughter:[1]

• Richard Carnac Temple, 2nd Baronet (1850-1931)
• Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Martindale Temple, ISC (1853-1905), of the diplomatic service
• Edith Frances Temple (1855-1933)

He remarried, in 1871, Mary Augusta Lindsay, daughter of Charles Robert Lindsay, of the Indian Civil Service, and a member of the family of the Earls of Crawford and Balcarres.[1] Lady Temple was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Crown of India (CI) on its institution in 1878.[7] She died in 1924, and they had a son from the marriage:

• Charles Lindsay Temple (1871-1929), later Lieutenant-Governor of Northern Nigeria[8]

Arms

Image
Coat of arms of Sir Richard Temple, 1st Baronet
Crest: On a ducal coronet a martlet Or.
Escutcheon: Quarterly 1st & 4th Or an eagle displayed Sable; 2nd & 3rd Argent two bars Sable each charged with three martlets Or.
Motto: Templa Quam Dilecta [How Lovely Temples][9]

References

Notes


1. The Indian Civil Service was established in 1858 after the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Temple's 33 years includes his time in the civil service of the East India Company, which preceded this.

Citations

1. "Death of Sir Richard Temple". The Times (36718). London. 18 March 1902. p. 4.
2. Chisholm 1911.
3. Davis, Mike (2001). Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World. pp. 36–37. ISBN 978-1-85984-382-6.
4. Eugene Linden: [https://www.theglobalist.com/the-global-famine-of-1877-and-1899/, 6 Sep 2006.
5. Steggles, Mary Ann; Barnes, Richard (2011). British Sculpture in India: New Views and Old Memories. Norfolk, UK: Frontier. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-872914-41-1.
6. Bowrey, Thomas (1905). Temple, Richard (ed.). A Geographical Account of Countries Round the Bay of Bengal, 1669 to 1679. Hakluyt Society.
7. "No. 24539". The London Gazette. 4 January 1878. p. 113.
8. Alderman, C. J. F. (2004). "Temple, Charles Lindsay (1871–1929), colonial official and author". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 28 September 2016. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
9. Burke's Peerage. 1949.

Other

• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Temple, Sir Richard". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
• Steele, David (2004). "Temple, Sir Richard, first baronet (1826–1902), administrator in India". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 28 September 2016. (subscription or UK public library membership required)

Further reading

• Autobiographical Memoir: Men and Events of My Time in India by Richard Temple

External links

• "Temple, Sir Richard, Bart (TML883R)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
• Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sir Richard Temple
• "Temple, Sir Richard (1826-1902) 1st Baronet MP Anglo Indian Administrator". National Archives.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 11, 2019 2:30 am

Ashley Eden
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19

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The Honourable Sir Ashley Eden, KCSI CIE
Chief Commissioner of Burma
In office: 18 April 1871 – 14 April 1875
Preceded by: Albert Fytche
Succeeded by: Augustus Rivers Thompson
Personal details
Born: 13 November 1831, Hertingfordbury, Hertfordshire
Died: 8 July 1887 (aged 55)
Nationality: British
Spouse(s): Eva Maria Money
Relations: Robert Eden, 3rd Baron Auckland
Alma mater: Winchester
Occupation: Administrator

Sir Ashley Eden KCSI CIE (13 November 1831 – 8 July 1887) was an official and diplomat in British India.

Background and education

Eden was born at Hertingfordbury, Hertfordshire, the third son of Robert Eden, 3rd Baron Auckland, Bishop of Bath and Wells, by Mary Hurt, daughter of Francis Edward Hurt, of Alderwasley, Derbyshire. His uncle was George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland. He was educated first at Rugby and then at Winchester, until 1849, in which year he received a nomination to the Indian civil service.

Public life

Eden spent 1850 and 1851 at the East India Company's college at Haileybury, but did not pass out last of his term until December 1851. In 1852 he reached India, and was first posted as assistant to the magistrate and collector of Rájsháhí. In the year 1854 he was recruited as a sub divisional officer of Jangipur. In 1856 he was promoted to be magistrate at Moorshedábád, and during the Indian Mutiny he checked sympathy with the revolt in that city. In 1860 he was appointed secretary to the government of Bengal and an ex officio member of the Bengal legislative council. This post he held for eleven years, during the last part of Sir John Peter Grant's lieutenant-governorship, and throughout Sir Cecil Beadon's and Sir William Grey's terms of office.

In 1860 Eden accompanied a force ordered to invade the hill state of Sikkim in the Himalayas, as political agent, and in March 1861 he signed the Treaty of Tumlong with the raja, Sidkeong Namgyal, which secured protection to travellers and free trade.[1] This success caused Eden to be appointed special envoy to the hill state of Bhutan in 1863. He was accompanied by no armed force and his demands were rejected. He signed a treaty favourable to the Bhutiás. This treaty was not ratified by the supreme government, and the Bhutan War resulted.[2]

The Bhutia (བོད་རིགས; Sikkimese: Drenjongpa / Drenjop ; Tibetan: འབྲས་ལྗོངས་པ་, Wylie: Bras-ljongs-pa; "inhabitants of Sikkim"; in Bhutan: Dukpa) are a community of people of Tibetan ancestry, who speak Lhopo or Sikkimese, a Tibetan dialect fairly mutually intelligible with standard Tibetan. In 2001, the Bhutia numbered around 70,300. Bhutia here refers to Sikkimese of Tibetan ancestry; in contrast, the Bhotiya are a larger family of related Tibetan peoples in northeastern Nepal of which the Bhutia are one member group.

-- Bhutia, by Wikipedia


In 1871 Eden became the first civilian governor of British Burma, a post he held until his appointment in 1877 as lieutenant-governor of Bengal. In 1878 he was made a K.C.S.I., and in 1882 resigned the lieutenant-governorship.[2] After his retirement from India, on being appointed a member of the secretary of state's council in 1882, admirers founded in his honour the Eden Hospital for Women and Children in Calcutta, and a statue was erected. The Eden canal joins the Ganges and the Tistá, and was intended to relieve Bihar from famine. Eden returned to England and attended the Council of India for the remainder of his life.

Personal life

Eden married Eva Maria Money, daughter of Vice-Admiral Rowland Money. They had no children. Eden died suddenly of paralysis on 9 July 1887, aged 55.

Notes

1. Arora, Vibha (2008). "Routing the Commodities of Empire through Sikkim (1817-1906)". Commodities of Empire: Working Paper No.9 (PDF). Open University. ISSN 1756-0098.
2. Chisholm 1911.

References

• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Eden, Sir Ashley". Encyclopædia Britannica. 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 923.
• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Eden, Ashley". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
• Stephens, H. M.; Prior, Katherine. "Eden, Sir Ashley (1831–1887)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/8447.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

Further reading

• Buckland, Charles Edward (1901). Bengal Under The Lieutenant-Governors. 2. Calcutta: S. K. Lahiri & Co. pp. 686–759.
• William Ferguson Beatson Laurie (1888). Distinguished Anglo-Indians. pp. 99–124.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 11, 2019 2:40 am

Council of India
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/19/19

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The Supreme Indian Council, Simla, 1864

The Council of India was the name given at different times to two separate bodies associated with British rule in India.

The original Council of India was established by the Charter Act of 1833 as a council of four formal advisors to the Governor-General at Fort William. The Governor-General in Council was subordinate only to the East India Company's Court of Directors and to the British Crown.

In 1858 the Company's involvement in India's government was transferred by the Government of India Act 1858 to the British government.[1] The Act created a new governmental department in London (the India Office), headed by the cabinet-ranking Secretary of State for India, who was in turn to be advised by a new Council of India (also based in London). In consequence, the existing council in India was formally renamed by the Act (s. 7) as the Council of the Governor General of India.

Governor-General's council (1833-1858)

The 1773 Act provided for the election of four counsellors by the East India Company's Court of Directors. The Governor-General had a vote along with the counsellors, but he also had an additional casting vote. The decision of the Council was binding on the Governor-General. The Council of Four, as it was known in its early days, did in fact attempt to impeach the first Governor-General, Warren Hastings, but in his subsequent trial by Parliament he was found to be not guilty.

In 1784, the Council was reduced to three members; the Governor-General continued to have both an ordinary vote and a casting vote. In 1786, the power of the Governor-General was increased even further, as Council decisions ceased to be binding.

The Charter Act 1833 made further changes to the structure of the Council. The Act was the first law to distinguish between the executive and legislative responsibilities of the Governor-General. As provided under the Act, there were to be four members of the Council elected by the Court of Directors. The first three members were permitted to participate on all occasions, but the fourth member was only allowed to sit and vote when legislation was being debated.

In 1858, the Court of Directors ceased to have the power to elect members of the Council. Instead, the one member who had a vote only on legislative questions came to be appointed by the Sovereign, and the other three members by the Secretary of State for India.

Secretary of State's Council

The Council of the Secretary of State, also known as the India Council was based in Whitehall. In 1907, two Indians Sir Krishna Govinda Gupta and Nawab Syed Hussain Bilgrami were appointed by Lord Morley as members of the council. Bilgrami retired early in 1910 owing to ill-health and his place was taken by Mirza Abbas Ali Baig.[2][3] Other members included P. Rajagopalachari (1923-1925), Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana (1924-1934) and Sir Abdul Qadir.

The Secretary of State's Council of India was abolished by the Government of India Act 1935.

Members of the Council Of India in London

Term start / Term end / Name / Birth / Death / Notes

1888 / November 1902 / Right Hon. Sir Alfred Comyn Lyall, GCIE, KCB, PC / 1835 / 1911 / --
1888 / November 1902 / Sir James Braithwaite Peile, KCSI / 1833 / 1906 / --
1900 / March 1907 / General Sir Alexander Robert Badcock, KCB, CSI / 1844 / 1907 / --
November 1902[4]/ -- / Sir Antony Patrick MacDonnell, GCSI, PC / 1844 / 1925 / Lieutenant Governor of Bengal 1893–1895; Lieutenant Governor of United Provinces 1895–1901
November 1902[4] / 1910 / Sir William Lee-Warner, GCSI / 1846 / 1914 / --


See also

• India Office
• English Education Act 1835
• Central Legislative Assembly
• Viceroy's Executive Council
• Council of State (India)
• Imperial Legislative Council
• Interim Government of India

References

1. "Official, India". World Digital Library. 1890–1923. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
2. Chirol, Valentine. Indian Unrest.
3. Wikisource:Page:The Indian Biographical Dictionary.djvu/41
4. "The Council of india". The Times (36904). London. 21 October 1902. p. 6.

Further reading

• A Constitutional History of India, 1600–1935, by Arthur Berriedale Keith, published by Methuen & Co., London, 1936
• The Imperial Legislative Council of India from 1861 to 1920: A Study of the Inter-action of Constitutional Reform and National Movement with Special Reference to the Growth of Indian Legislature up to 1920, by Parmatma Sharan, published by S. Chand, 1961
• Imperialist Strategy and Moderate Politics: Indian Legislature at Work, 1909-1920, by Sneh Mahajan, published by Chanakya Publications, 1983
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 11, 2019 2:57 am

Steuart Bayley
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19

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Sir Steuart Colvin Bayley

Sir Steuart Colvin Bayley GCSI CIE (26 November 1836 – 3 June 1925) was a British civil servant and Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal from 1887-1890.

Early life

He was the son of William Butterworth Bayley, who rose to be acting Governor-General of India, and Anne Augusta Jackson. His middle name is a reference to the well-connected Colvin family of Anglo-Indian administrators, just as John Russell Colvin named his son after his boss, George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland. He was educated at Eton and Haileybury College.

Career

Bayley entered the Bengal Civil Service in 1856. He held the office of Commissioner of the Patna Division in 1873. He was invested Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India (KCSI) in 1878. He held the office of Chief Commissioner of Assam in 1878. He held the office of Resident at Hyderabad in 1881. He held the office of Member of the Governor-General's Council in 1882.[1] Bayley held the office of Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal between 1887 and 1890.[2] He was Secretary of the Political and Secret Department, India Office in 1891.

Image
Funerary monument, Brompton Cemetery, London

Personal life

Bayley married Anna Farquharson, daughter of Robert Nesham Farquharson, on 21 November 1860 at Patna, India. They had 13 children.

Later life

Bayley died in 1925 and was interred in Brompton Cemetery, London. His portrait is held by the National Portrait Gallery.[3]

Notes

1. Buckland, Charles Edward (1906). Dictionary of Indian Biography. London: Swan & Co. p. 31.
2. Buckland, Charles Edward (1901). Bengal Under The Lieutenant-Governors. 2. Calcutta: S. K. Lahiri & Co. p. 837.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 11, 2019 3:11 am

Augustus Rivers Thompson
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/101/9

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Sir Augustus Rivers Thompson, KCSI CIE
Chief Commissioner of Burma
In office: 14 April 1875 – 30 March 1878
Preceded by: Ashley Eden
Succeeded by: Charles Umpherston Aitchison
Lieutenant Governor of Bengal
In office: 1882–1887
Preceded by: Ashley Eden
Succeeded by: Steuart Colvin Bayley
Personal details
Born: 12 September 1829
Died: 27 November 1890 (aged 61)
Nationality: British
Occupation: Administrator

Sir Augustus Rivers Thompson KCSI CIE (12 September 1829 – 27 November 1890) served as Chief Commissioner of the British Crown Colony of Burma from April 1875 to March 1878. He was Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal between 1882 and 1887.[1]

Thompson was appointed a CSI in 1877, a CIE in 1883 and knighted with the KCSI [Knight Commander Star of India] in 1885.


He was president of the executive committee of the Calcutta International Exhibition (1883-1884).[2] He established the R.T. Girls' High School in Suri, Birbhum.

References

1. Buckland, Charles Edward (1901). Bengal Under The Lieutenant-Governors. 2. Calcutta: S. K. Lahiri & Co. p. 760.
2. Pelle, Findling, ed. (2008). "Appendix C:Fair Officials". Encyclopedia of World's Fairs and Expositions. McFarland & Company, Inc. pp. 418–419. ISBN 978-0-7864-3416-9.

Further reading

• Laurie, William Ferguson Beatson (1999) [1888]. Distinguished Anglo-Indians (Reprinted ed.). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 205–211. ISBN 9788120613058.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 11, 2019 3:43 am

Charles Alfred Elliott
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Accessed: 12/10/19

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Sir Charles Alfred Elliott KCSI (1835–1911), was a Lieutenant Governor of Bengal.

Life

He was born on 8 December 1835 at Brighton, was son of Henry Venn Elliott, vicar of St. Mary's, Brighton, by his wife Julia, daughter of John Marshall of Hallsteads, Ulleswater, who was elected MP for Leeds with Thomas Babington Macaulay in 1832. After some education at Brighton College, Charles was sent to Harrow, and in 1854 won a scholarship at Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1856 the civil service of India was thrown open to public competition. Elliott, abandoning his Cambridge career, was appointed by the directors, under the provisions of the Government of India Act 1853 (16 & 17 Vict c 95), one of fifteen members of the civil service of the East India Company (Despatch, 1 October 1856). He was learning his work unattached to any district, when the mutiny broke out at Meerut, and he was then posted on 12 June 1857 as assistant magistrate to Mirzapur in the Benares division of the North Western Provinces. That large district of 5238 square miles was the scene of fierce conflicts with the rebels. Elliott led several small expeditions from headquarters to quell disturbances, was favourably mentioned in despatches, and received the mutiny medal.[1]

In the following year he became an assistant-commissioner in Oudh, where he served in Unao, Cawnpore, and other districts until 1863. In Unao he gave early proof of his industry by collecting information about its history, its folklore, and its families. He published in 1862 at Allahabad for private circulation Chronicles of Oonao, believing "that a knowledge of the popular traditions and ballads gives to its possessor both influence over the people and the key to their hearts." When this treatise was printed he was serving in the North Western Provinces, and in the following year (Sir) Richard Temple, wishing to strengthen the administrative staff of the Central Provinces, then under his control, secured Elliott's transfer, entrusting to him the settlement of the Hoshangabad district. This task, which greatly raised his reputation, was completed in 1865, being regarded as a most successful operation, which has stood the test of time. Taking furlough, Elliott returned to duty in the North Western Provinces, and was entrusted with the settlement of the Farukhabad district. He had assessed the whole district except the Tahwatahsil, when in 1870 he was chosen by Sir William Muir to be secretary to government. The final report, drawn up by H. F. Evans, 22 July 1875, included the rent rate reports written by Elliott "in that elaborate and careful manner which," according to Sir Charles Crosthwaite, "has become the model for similar reports." The cost of the settlement exceeded five lakhs, and although the rates charged were moderate, government received additional revenue of 22 per cent, on the expenditure, while the records were a permanent gain to the people. Settlement work, to which Elliott had thus devoted his best years, was in those days the most important and most coveted employment in the civil service, and it gave Elliott a thorough acquaintance with the needs of the people and the administrative machinery. From 1872 to 1875 he held the post of secretary to the government of the North Western Provinces, being concerned chiefly with settlement and revenue questions, with measures for suppressing infanticide in certain Rajput communities, and municipal administrations. Knowing every detail, he was inclined to interfere too much with subordinate authorities. After Sir John Strachey had succeeded to the government of Sir William Muir, he went to Meerut as commissioner. Thence he was summoned by Lord Lytton to visit Madras, and subsequently to apply to Mysore the famine policy of the paramount power. As Lord Lytton wrote in November 1878, when reviewing his famine report on Mysore, "he organised and directed relief operations with a patience and good sense which overcame all difficulties, and with the fullest tenderness to the people in dire calamity." Elliott did not minimise the human suffering and the administrative shortcomings which he witnessed, and his experience and report indicated him as the best secretary possible to the royal commission on Indian famines (16 May 1878). Other commissions in 1898 and 1901 have built on the foundation laid by the famous report of 7 July 1878, but it will always remain a landmark in Indian history; for from that date the British government determined to fight with all its resources recurring and inevitable droughts, which had previously entailed heavy loss of life. For the planning of requisite organisation no knowledge detail was superfluous, and no better secretary could have been found for guiding and assisting the commissioners.[1]

This work completed, Elliott became for a few months census commissioner for the first decennial census for 1881 which followed the imperfect enumeration of 1872. In March 1881 he became chief commissioner of Assam, and in Feb. 1886 was entrusted with the unpopular task of presiding over a committee appointed to inquire into public expenditure throughout India, and report on economies. A falling exchange and a heavy bill for war operations compelled Lord Dufferin to apply the shears to provincial expenditure, and while the committee inevitably withdrew funds needed by the local governments, it was generally recognised that immense pains were taken by Elliott and his colleagues. Elliott, who had been made C.S.I. in 1878, was promoted K.C.S.I. [Knight Commander Star of India] in 1887, and from 6 January 1888 to 17 December 1890 he was a member successively of Lord Dufferin's and then of Lord Lansdowne's executive councils. On the retirement of Sir Steuart Bayley, Elliott, although he had never served in Bengal, became lieutenant-governor of that province, holding the post, save for a short leave in 1893, until 18 Dec. 1895. The greatest service which Elliott rendered to Bengal was the prosecution of the survey and the compilation of the record of rights in Bihar, carried out in spite of much opposition from the zemindars, opposition that received some support from Lord Randolph Churchill. Sir Antony MacDonnell's views as to the maintenance of the record were not in harmony with those of Elliott, but Lord Lansdowne intervened to reduce the controversy to its proper dimensions. Public opinion has finally endorsed the opinion expressed by Mr. C. E. Buckland in Bengal under the Lieutenant-Governors (1901), that "there was not another man in India who could have done the settlement work he did in Bihar and Bengal, so much of it and so well." In his zeal for the public service Elliott courageously faced unpopularity. Economy as well as efficiency were his principles of government. Towards the native press he took a firm attitude, prosecuting the editor and manager of the Bangobasi for sedition in the teeth of hostile criticism. He was inclined to establish a press bureau, but Lord Lansdowne's government did not sanction his proposals. With the distressed Eurasian community he showed generous sympathy, and, always on the watch for the well-being of the masses he pushed on sanitary and medical measures, being largely instrumental in the widespread distribution of quinine as a remedy against fever. In foreign affairs he was impatient of Chinese delays in the delimitation of the frontiers of Tibet and Sikkim, and urged Lord Elgin to occupy the Chambi Valley (19 November 1895), and even to annex it.[1]

After a strenuous service of forty years he retired in December 1895, and was soon afterwards co-opted a member of the London School Board as a member of the moderate party, being elected for the Tower Hamlets division in 1897 and 1900. In 1904 he was co-opted a member of the education committee of the London County Council, serving till 1906. From 1897 to 1904 he was chairman of the finance committee of the school board, and his annual estimates were remarkable for their exceptional agreement with the actual expenditure. A strong churchman, he took active part in the work of missionary and charitable societies; he was a member of the House of Laymen as well as of the Representative Church Council. He was also chairman of Toynbee Hall. He died at Wimbledon on 28 May 1911. He married twice: firstly on 20 June 1866 Louisa Jane (d. 1877), daughter of G. W. Dumbell of Belmont, Isle of Man, by whom he had three sons and one daughter; and secondly on 22 September 1887 Alice Louisa, daughter of Thomas Gaussen of Hauteville, Guernsey, and widow of T. J. Murray of the I.C.S., by whom he had one son, Claude, who was fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge. His eldest son by his first marriage, Henry Venn Elliott, was vicar of St. Mark's, Brighton. In his possession was a portrait of his father by Hugh Riviere. As a memorial to Elliott it was proposed to add a wing to St. Mary's Hall, Brighton, a church school in which he was especially interested.[1]

Elliott's contributions to Indian literature were mainly official. They included, besides the Chronicles of Oonao mentioned above, Report on the Hoshangabad Settlement (1866); Report on the Mysore Famine (1878); Report on the Famine Commission (1879); and Report on the Finance Commission (1887).[1]

Notes

1. Lee-Warner 1912.

References

• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee-Warner, William (1912). "Elliott, Charles Alfred". Dictionary of National Biography (2nd supplement). London: Smith, Elder & Co.
• Washbrook, David. "Elliott, Sir Charles Alfred (1835–1911)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33004.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
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