Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19

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Image
Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
Seal of IACS
Motto: To cultivate Science in all its departments with a view to its advancement by original research and with a view to its varied application to the arts and comforts of life.
Type: Deemed University
Established: 29 July 1876
Founder: Dr. Mahendra Lal Sircar
Affiliation: UGC
President: Man Mohan Sharma
Director: Santanu Bhattacharya [1]
Location: 2A & 2B Raja S C Mullick Road Kolkata-700032, West Bengal, India
22.4983°N 88.3686°E
Campus: Urban
Website: http://www.iacs.res.in

Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) is an institute of higher learning in Kolkata, India.[2][3] Established in 1876 by Mahendra Lal Sarkar, a private medical practitioner, it focuses on fundamental research in basic sciences.[4] It is India's oldest research institute [5][6] Located at Jadavpur, South Kolkata beside Jadavpur University, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute and Indian Institute of Chemical Biology it is spread over a limited area of 9.5 acres.[7]. In May 2018, the Ministry of Human Resource Development announced that IACS[8] had been granted the status of Deemed University[9] under De-novo Category under section 3 of the University Grants Commission (UGC) Act 1956.

Academic programme

The institute is engaged in fundamental research in various fields of physics, chemistry and chemical biology. It is one of the most active research institutes in India and publishes on an average ~ 500 research articles in peer reviewed journals including top journals like Physical Review Letters, Journal of American Chemical Society and Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Recent interests include research in energy, fuel cells, nano materials like graphene and carbon nanotubes. The institute emphasizes PhD programmes, the degree being provided either by Jadavpur University or by University of Calcutta. There is also full-fledged Integrated PhD programme for post-Bachelor's students. From academic year 2005-2006 it started an integrated PhD programme in chemistry.[7] There are 8 departments in IACS, 4 units and 3 centres namely Materials Science, Solid state physics, Theoretical physics, Spectroscopy, Physical Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Biological Chemistry, Polymer Science unit, Energy research unit, Raman centre for atomic and molecular sciences, Centre for advanced materials, Center for Mathematical, Computational and Data Sciences, MLS Professor's unit and Director's Research Unit. After getting Deemed to be University status by UGC, the department structure has been replaced by School Structure. At present there are six schools namely School of Applied & Interdisciplinary Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, School of Chemical Sciences, School of Materials Sciences, School of Mathematical & Computational Sciences and School of Physical Sciences. There are about 70 working scientists in IACS. One important distinctive aspect of IACS is the presence of a majority of young scientist who are bringing new research areas and directions to IACS.

Nobel laureate Sir C. V. Raman did his groundbreaking work in Raman effect in this institute.[10] His work was first published in the Indian Journal of Physics, which is published by IACS.[11]

Apart from the works of C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan in Optics, IACS has produced several important paradigms in modern science. IACS has a very strong group in theoretical chemistry and quantum chemistry. Debashis Mukherjee developed the Mk-MRCC method to account for electron correlations in molecular systems which is considered as a "gold-standard" in computational chemistry. Another important discovery has been in the area of solvation dynamics of molecules and particular the dynamics of water molecules around the surfaces of membranes. These experiments performed by Professor Kankan Bhattacharyya have provided a fundamental insights into the behavior of water near biological surfaces and led to the coining of the word "biological water" in the physical chemistry community. Anirban Bandyopadhyay, who did his PhD at IACS went on to do research on neuroscience. Later at the Japanese National Institute for Materials Science, Anirban detected quantum states in microtubules that as per Orchestrated objective reduction play a key role in human consciousness.

Administration

At its inception, the IACS was headed by a President, with the Honorary Secretary responsible for the day-to-day running of the Society. Until 1911, the office of President was de facto held by the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, when the Lieutenant-Governor (Governor from 1912) became the co-patron of the Society alongside the Viceroy of India, whose office-holders were automatically Patrons of the Society until 1947.[12][note 1] Following India's independence in 1947, the administration of the IACS was reconstituted, with the designation of "Honorary Director" substituted for "Honorary Secretary."[13] The Director's prefix of "Honorary" was dropped in 1953.[14]

Presidents of the IACS (1876-present)

Sir Richard Temple, 1st Baronet FRS (1876-1877)
The Hon. Sir Ashley Eden FASB (1877-1882)
Sir Augustus Rivers Thompson (1882-1887)
Sir Steuart Bayley (1887-1890)
Sir Charles Alfred Elliott FASB (1890-1895)
Sir Alexander Mackenzie (1895-1898)
Sir John Woodburn (1898-1903)
• Sir Andrew Henderson Leith Fraser FASB (1903-1909)
• Sir Edward Norman Baker (1909-1911)
• Raja Pyare Mohan Mukherjee FASB (1911-1922)[15]
• Hon. Justice Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee FASB, FRSE, FRAS, MRIA (1922-1924)[16]
• Sir Rajendra Nath Mookerjee FASB (1924-1934?)[17]
• Sir Nilratan Sircar (1934-1942)[18]
• Prof. Rai Bahadur Sir Upendranath Brahmachari FNI, FASB (1942-1946)[19][20]
• Prof. Meghnad Saha FNI, FASB, FRS (1946-1951)[20][21]
• Prof. Sir Jnan Chandra Ghosh FNI (1951-1954)[22][23]
• Hon. Justice Charu Chandra Biswas (1954-1957)[24]
• Hon. Chief Justice Phani Bhusan Chakravartti (1957-1958)[25]
• Prof. Satyendra Nath Bose FNI, FRS (1958-1962)[26][27]
• Hon. Justice Rama Prasad Mookerjee (1962-1965)[27]
• Prof. Jnanendra Nath Mukherjee FNI, FCS (1965-1968)[28]
• Prof. Basanti Dulal Nagchaudhuri FNA (first term, 1968-1970)[29][note 2]
• Prof. Sushil Kumar Mukherjee FNA (first term, 1970-1973)[30][31]
• Prof. Sukumar Chandra Sirkar FNA (1973-1974)[31]
• Prof. Basanti Dulal Nagchaudhuri FNA (second term, 1974-1977)[32][33]
• Prof. Bimal Kumar Bachhawat FNA (1977-1983)[33]
• Prof. Sushil Kumar Mukherjee FNA (second term, 1983-1997)[34][35]
• Prof. Arun Kumar Sharma FNA, FASc (1997-2000)[35]
• Prof. M. M. Chakraborty (2000-2003)[36][37]
• Prof. Ashesh Prosad Mitra FNA, FASc, FRS (2003-2007)[38]
• Prof. Shri Krishna Joshi FNA, FASc (2007-2014)[39]
• Prof. Man Mohan Sharma FNA, FASc, FRS, FREng (2014-present)[40]

Secretaries and Directors of the IACS

Honorary Secretaries of the IACS (1876-1947)


• Dr. Mahendralal Sarkar (Founder-Secretary, 1876-1904)[41]
• Dr. Amritalal Sarkar (1904-1919)[41][18]
• Prof. Sir C. V. Raman (1919-1933)[18]
• Prof. K. S. Krishnan (1933-June 1934)[18]
• Prof. Sisir Kumar Mitra (June 1934-November 1935)[18]
• Prof. Jnanendra Nath Mukherjee FNI, FCS (November 1935-April 1944)[42]
• Prof. Meghnad Saha FNI, FASB, FRS (April 1944-1945)[43][44]
• Prof. Priyadaranjan Ray FNI (1945-1947)[44]
Honorary Directors of the IACS (1947-1953)[edit]
• Prof. Priyadaranjan Ray FNI (1947-1953)[13][14]

Directors of the IACS (1953-present)

• Prof. Meghnad Saha FNI, FASB, FRS (1953-1956)[14][24]
• Prof. Priyadaranjan Ray FNI (officiating, 1956-1958)[24][26]
o Prof. Sukumar Chandra Sirkar FNI (acting, 1958-1959)[26][45]
• Prof. Kedareswar Banerjee FNI (1959-1965)[45][28]
o Prof. Bishwambhar Nath Srivastava FNI (acting, 1965-1968)[28][29]
• Prof. Debidas Basu (1968-1980)[29][46]
o G. S. Banerjee IAS (acting, September 1980-March 1981)[46]
• Prof. Sadhan Basu FNA, FASc (March 1981-August 1982, on medical leave from July)[46][34]
o G. S. Banerjee IAS (acting, July-December 1982)[34]
• Prof. Asok Kumar Barua FASc (December 1982-1989)[34]
• Prof. Usha Ranjan Ghatak FNA, FASc (1989-1993)[47]
• Prof. Dipankar Chakravorty FNA, FASc (1993-1999)[48]
• Prof. Debashis Mukherjee FNA, FASc (1999-2008)[49][50]
• Prof. Kankan Bhattacharyya FNA, FASc (2008-2013)[50][51]
o Prof. Subhas Chandra Roy (acting, February-September 2013)[51]
o Prof. Deb Shankar Ray FNA, FASc (acting, September 2013-April 2015)[52]
• Prof. Santanu Bhattacharya FNA, FASc (April 2015 - present)[40]

Notes

1. With the exceptions of Sir (later Lord) Antony MacDonnell (Lieutenant-Governor 1893-1895), Sir Charles Cecil Stevens (Lieutenant-Governor 1897-1898), James Bourdillon (Lieutenant-Governor 1902-1903), Sir Lancelot Hare (Lieutenant-Governor 1906) and Francis Slacke (Lieutenant-Governor 1906-1908).
2. Prior to 1970, the Indian National Science Academy was named the "National Institute of Sciences of India", and its fellows bore the post-nominal "FNI". The post-nominal became "FNA" in 1970 when the association adopted its present name.

References

1. "IACS director". iacs.res.in. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
2. Uma Dasgupta (2011). Science and Modern India: An Institutional History, C. 1784-1947. Pearson Education India. ISBN 9788131728185.
3. Bernhard Joseph Stern. Science and Society. p. 84.
4. "Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata". dst.gov.in. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
5. "saha.ac.in". Retrieved 8 October 2017.
6. "Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science". twas.org. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
7. "About IACS". iacs.res.in. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
8. Aswathi Pacha (13 February 2018). "IACS' new source of white light". The Hindu. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
9. Subhankar Chowdhury (3 June 2018). "Tag boost for research hub". The Telegraph. India. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
10. "Sir Venkata Raman - Biographical". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
11. "Indian Journal of Physics". springer.com. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
12. Report of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science for the Year 1915. Anglo-Sanskrit Press. 1915. p. 144.
13. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1947-1948. 1948. pp. 25–26.
14. "The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1952-53" (PDF). Archive - IACS. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
15. Report of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science for the Year 1923. Anglo-Sanskrit Press. 1923. p. 11.
16. "IACS - Annual Report for the Year 1924" (PDF). Archive - IACS. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
17. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1935. 1935. p. 1.
18. "Raman, Krishnan and the IACS Episodes of the 1930s" (PDF). INSA - Indian Journal of History of Science. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
19. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1942. 1942. p. 20.
20. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1946. 1946. p. 1.
21. "The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1950-51" (PDF). Archive - IACS. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
22. "The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1951-52" (PDF). Archive - IACS. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
23. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1953-54. 1954. p. 2.
24. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1955-56. 1956. p. 2.
25. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1957-58. 1958. p. 2.
26. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1958-59. 1959. p. 2.
27. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1961-62. 1962. p. 2.
28. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1965-66. 1966. pp. 2–4.
29. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1968-69. 1969. p. 1.
30. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1970-71. 1971. p. 1.
31. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1973-74. 1974. p. 1.
32. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1974-75. 1975. p. 1.
33. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1977-78. 1978. p. 1.
34. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1982-83. 1983. pp. 1–4.
35. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1997-98. IACS. 1998. p. 3.
36. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2000-2001. IACS. 2001. p. 3.
37. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2002-2003. IACS. 2003. p. 6.
38. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2003-2004. IACS. 2004. p. 1.
39. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2007-2008. IACS. 2008. pp. 8–11.
40. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2014-15. IACS. 2015. p. 11.
41. Report of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science for the Year 1904. Anglo-Sanskrit Press. 1904. p. 1.
42. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1943. 1943. p. 2.
43. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1944. 1944. p. 16.
44. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for the Year 1945. 1945. p. 15.
45. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1959-60. IACS. 1960. p. 2.
46. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1980-81. IACS. 1981. p. 2.
47. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1989-90. IACS. 1990. p. 1.
48. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1992-93. IACS. 1992. p. 1.
49. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 1999-2000. IACS. 2000. p. 1.
50. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2008-09. IACS. 2009. p. 7.
51. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2012-13. IACS. 2013. p. 9.
52. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science: Annual Report for 2013-14. IACS. 2014. p. 11.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 11, 2019 2:14 am

Sir Richard Temple, 1st Baronet
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
The Right Honourable Sir Richard Temple, Bt GCSI CIE FRS
Governor of Bombay
In office: 1877–1880
Preceded by: Sir Philip Wodehouse
Succeeded by: Sir James Fergusson
Personal details
Born: 8 March 1826
Died: 15 March 1902 (aged 76)
Alma mater: East India Company College

Sir Richard Temple II, 1st Baronet, GCSI, CIE, PC, FRS (8 March 1826 – 15 March 1902) was an administrator in British India and a British politician.

Early life

Temple was the son of Richard Temple I (1800-1874) and his first wife Louisa Anne Rivett-Carnac (d. 1837), a daughter of James Rivett-Carnac. His paternal ancestor, William Dicken, of Sheinton, Shropshire, married in the middle of the 18th century the daughter and co-heiress of Sir William Temple, 5th Baronet (1694-1760), of the Temple of Stowe baronets. Their son assumed the surname Temple in 1796, and inherited the Temple manor-house and estate of The Nash, near Kempsey in Worcestershire. Richard Temple (born 1826) inherited the estate on his father's death in 1874.[1]

Career

Image
"Burra Dick". Temple as caricatured by Spy (Leslie Ward) in Vanity Fair, January 1881

After being educated at Rugby and the East India Company College at Haileybury, Temple joined the Bengal Civil Service in 1846. His hard work and literary skill were soon recognised; he was private secretary for some years to John Lawrence in the Punjab, and gained useful financial experience under James Wilson. He served as Chief Commissioner for the Central Provinces until 1867, when he was appointed Resident at Hyderabad. In 1867 he was made Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India (KCSI). In 1868 he became a member of the supreme government, first as foreign secretary and then as finance minister.[2]

He was made lieutenant-governor of Bengal Presidency in 1874, and did admirable work during the famine of 1874, importing half a million tons of rice from Burma to bring substantial relief to the starving. The British government, dogmatically committed to a laissez-faire economic policy, castigated Temple for interfering in the workings of the market. He was appointed by the Viceroy as a plenipotentiary famine delegate to Madras during the famine of 1877 there. Seeing this appointment as an opportunity to "retrieve his reputation for extravagance in the last famine" Temple implemented relief policies that failed to relieve widespread starvation and prevent the death of millions.[3]

Temple tried to determine the minimum amount of food Indians could survive on. In his experiments, "strapping fine fellows" were starved until they resembled "little more than animated skeletons ... utterly unfit for any work", he noted. In the labour camps he set up, inmates were given fewer daily calories than in the Buchenwald concentration camp 80 years later.[4]

His services were recognised with a baronetcy in 1876. In 1877 he was made Governor of Bombay Presidency, and his activity during the Afghan War of 1878-80 was untiring.[2]

In 1880, when Temple was departing India, it was proposed that a commemorative statue for his 33 years in the Indian Civil Service[a] be erected. The standing marble statue was completed by Thomas Brock in 1884. It shows him carrying his cloak over his arm and an elaborate 19th-century dress uniform with swags, ties and medals. They are, in fact, the costume of a Grand Commander of the Star of India, the formal attire for Governors of the Presidencies. The statue was unveiled with much pomp at the North end of Bombay's Oval. It was moved in August 1965 to the grounds beside the Bhau Daji Lad Museum, Byculla, Bombay (Victoria and Albert Museum).[5]

Five years later, in 1885, Temple was returned as a Conservative MP for the Evesham division of Worcestershire. Meanwhile, he produced several books on Indian subjects. In parliament, he was assiduous in his attendance, and he spoke on Indian subjects with admitted authority. He was not otherwise a parliamentary success, and to the public, he was best known from caricatures in Punch, which exaggerated his physical peculiarities and made him look like a lean and hungry tiger. In 1885 he became vice-chairman of the London School Board, and as chairman of its finance committee, he did useful and congenial work. In 1892 he changed his constituency for the Kingston division, but in 1895 he retired from parliament. In 1896 he was appointed a Privy Councillor.[2]

Temple had kept a careful journal of his parliamentary experiences, intended for posthumous publication; and he self-published a short volume of reminiscences. He died at his residence at Hampstead on 15 March 1902, from heart failure.[1]

Publications

Works by Temple include:[1]


• India in 1880
• Lord Lawrence
• Men and Events of My Time in India
• Oriental Experience
• Essays and Addresses
• Journal at Hyderabad
• Palestine Illustrated
• John Lawrence, a monoraph on John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence
• James Thomason, a monograph on James Thomason
• Sir Richard Carnac Temple (1887). Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal. W. H. Allen.
Temple also edited the 17th-century seaman Thomas Bowrey's A Geographical Account of Countries Round the Bay of Bengal, 1669 to 1679, published in 1905.[6]

Family

Temple was twice married. First, in 1849, to Charlotte Frances Martindale, daughter of Benjamin Martindale. She died in 1855, leaving him with two young sons and a daughter:[1]

• Richard Carnac Temple, 2nd Baronet (1850-1931)
• Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Martindale Temple, ISC (1853-1905), of the diplomatic service
• Edith Frances Temple (1855-1933)

He remarried, in 1871, Mary Augusta Lindsay, daughter of Charles Robert Lindsay, of the Indian Civil Service, and a member of the family of the Earls of Crawford and Balcarres.[1] Lady Temple was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Crown of India (CI) on its institution in 1878.[7] She died in 1924, and they had a son from the marriage:

• Charles Lindsay Temple (1871-1929), later Lieutenant-Governor of Northern Nigeria[8]

Arms

Image
Coat of arms of Sir Richard Temple, 1st Baronet
Crest: On a ducal coronet a martlet Or.
Escutcheon: Quarterly 1st & 4th Or an eagle displayed Sable; 2nd & 3rd Argent two bars Sable each charged with three martlets Or.
Motto: Templa Quam Dilecta [How Lovely Temples][9]

References

Notes


1. The Indian Civil Service was established in 1858 after the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Temple's 33 years includes his time in the civil service of the East India Company, which preceded this.

Citations

1. "Death of Sir Richard Temple". The Times (36718). London. 18 March 1902. p. 4.
2. Chisholm 1911.
3. Davis, Mike (2001). Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World. pp. 36–37. ISBN 978-1-85984-382-6.
4. Eugene Linden: [https://www.theglobalist.com/the-global-famine-of-1877-and-1899/, 6 Sep 2006.
5. Steggles, Mary Ann; Barnes, Richard (2011). British Sculpture in India: New Views and Old Memories. Norfolk, UK: Frontier. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-872914-41-1.
6. Bowrey, Thomas (1905). Temple, Richard (ed.). A Geographical Account of Countries Round the Bay of Bengal, 1669 to 1679. Hakluyt Society.
7. "No. 24539". The London Gazette. 4 January 1878. p. 113.
8. Alderman, C. J. F. (2004). "Temple, Charles Lindsay (1871–1929), colonial official and author". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 28 September 2016. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
9. Burke's Peerage. 1949.

Other

• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Temple, Sir Richard". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
• Steele, David (2004). "Temple, Sir Richard, first baronet (1826–1902), administrator in India". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 28 September 2016. (subscription or UK public library membership required)

Further reading

• Autobiographical Memoir: Men and Events of My Time in India by Richard Temple

External links

• "Temple, Sir Richard, Bart (TML883R)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
• Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sir Richard Temple
• "Temple, Sir Richard (1826-1902) 1st Baronet MP Anglo Indian Administrator". National Archives.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 11, 2019 2:30 am

Ashley Eden
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
The Honourable Sir Ashley Eden, KCSI CIE
Chief Commissioner of Burma
In office: 18 April 1871 – 14 April 1875
Preceded by: Albert Fytche
Succeeded by: Augustus Rivers Thompson
Personal details
Born: 13 November 1831, Hertingfordbury, Hertfordshire
Died: 8 July 1887 (aged 55)
Nationality: British
Spouse(s): Eva Maria Money
Relations: Robert Eden, 3rd Baron Auckland
Alma mater: Winchester
Occupation: Administrator

Sir Ashley Eden KCSI CIE (13 November 1831 – 8 July 1887) was an official and diplomat in British India.

Background and education

Eden was born at Hertingfordbury, Hertfordshire, the third son of Robert Eden, 3rd Baron Auckland, Bishop of Bath and Wells, by Mary Hurt, daughter of Francis Edward Hurt, of Alderwasley, Derbyshire. His uncle was George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland. He was educated first at Rugby and then at Winchester, until 1849, in which year he received a nomination to the Indian civil service.

Public life

Eden spent 1850 and 1851 at the East India Company's college at Haileybury, but did not pass out last of his term until December 1851. In 1852 he reached India, and was first posted as assistant to the magistrate and collector of Rájsháhí. In the year 1854 he was recruited as a sub divisional officer of Jangipur. In 1856 he was promoted to be magistrate at Moorshedábád, and during the Indian Mutiny he checked sympathy with the revolt in that city. In 1860 he was appointed secretary to the government of Bengal and an ex officio member of the Bengal legislative council. This post he held for eleven years, during the last part of Sir John Peter Grant's lieutenant-governorship, and throughout Sir Cecil Beadon's and Sir William Grey's terms of office.

In 1860 Eden accompanied a force ordered to invade the hill state of Sikkim in the Himalayas, as political agent, and in March 1861 he signed the Treaty of Tumlong with the raja, Sidkeong Namgyal, which secured protection to travellers and free trade.[1] This success caused Eden to be appointed special envoy to the hill state of Bhutan in 1863. He was accompanied by no armed force and his demands were rejected. He signed a treaty favourable to the Bhutiás. This treaty was not ratified by the supreme government, and the Bhutan War resulted.[2]

The Bhutia (བོད་རིགས; Sikkimese: Drenjongpa / Drenjop ; Tibetan: འབྲས་ལྗོངས་པ་, Wylie: Bras-ljongs-pa; "inhabitants of Sikkim"; in Bhutan: Dukpa) are a community of people of Tibetan ancestry, who speak Lhopo or Sikkimese, a Tibetan dialect fairly mutually intelligible with standard Tibetan. In 2001, the Bhutia numbered around 70,300. Bhutia here refers to Sikkimese of Tibetan ancestry; in contrast, the Bhotiya are a larger family of related Tibetan peoples in northeastern Nepal of which the Bhutia are one member group.

-- Bhutia, by Wikipedia


In 1871 Eden became the first civilian governor of British Burma, a post he held until his appointment in 1877 as lieutenant-governor of Bengal. In 1878 he was made a K.C.S.I., and in 1882 resigned the lieutenant-governorship.[2] After his retirement from India, on being appointed a member of the secretary of state's council in 1882, admirers founded in his honour the Eden Hospital for Women and Children in Calcutta, and a statue was erected. The Eden canal joins the Ganges and the Tistá, and was intended to relieve Bihar from famine. Eden returned to England and attended the Council of India for the remainder of his life.

Personal life

Eden married Eva Maria Money, daughter of Vice-Admiral Rowland Money. They had no children. Eden died suddenly of paralysis on 9 July 1887, aged 55.

Notes

1. Arora, Vibha (2008). "Routing the Commodities of Empire through Sikkim (1817-1906)". Commodities of Empire: Working Paper No.9 (PDF). Open University. ISSN 1756-0098.
2. Chisholm 1911.

References

• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Eden, Sir Ashley". Encyclopædia Britannica. 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 923.
• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Eden, Ashley". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
• Stephens, H. M.; Prior, Katherine. "Eden, Sir Ashley (1831–1887)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/8447.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

Further reading

• Buckland, Charles Edward (1901). Bengal Under The Lieutenant-Governors. 2. Calcutta: S. K. Lahiri & Co. pp. 686–759.
• William Ferguson Beatson Laurie (1888). Distinguished Anglo-Indians. pp. 99–124.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Council of India
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/19/19

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The Supreme Indian Council, Simla, 1864

The Council of India was the name given at different times to two separate bodies associated with British rule in India.

The original Council of India was established by the Charter Act of 1833 as a council of four formal advisors to the Governor-General at Fort William. The Governor-General in Council was subordinate only to the East India Company's Court of Directors and to the British Crown.

In 1858 the Company's involvement in India's government was transferred by the Government of India Act 1858 to the British government.[1] The Act created a new governmental department in London (the India Office), headed by the cabinet-ranking Secretary of State for India, who was in turn to be advised by a new Council of India (also based in London). In consequence, the existing council in India was formally renamed by the Act (s. 7) as the Council of the Governor General of India.

Governor-General's council (1833-1858)

The 1773 Act provided for the election of four counsellors by the East India Company's Court of Directors. The Governor-General had a vote along with the counsellors, but he also had an additional casting vote. The decision of the Council was binding on the Governor-General. The Council of Four, as it was known in its early days, did in fact attempt to impeach the first Governor-General, Warren Hastings, but in his subsequent trial by Parliament he was found to be not guilty.

In 1784, the Council was reduced to three members; the Governor-General continued to have both an ordinary vote and a casting vote. In 1786, the power of the Governor-General was increased even further, as Council decisions ceased to be binding.

The Charter Act 1833 made further changes to the structure of the Council. The Act was the first law to distinguish between the executive and legislative responsibilities of the Governor-General. As provided under the Act, there were to be four members of the Council elected by the Court of Directors. The first three members were permitted to participate on all occasions, but the fourth member was only allowed to sit and vote when legislation was being debated.

In 1858, the Court of Directors ceased to have the power to elect members of the Council. Instead, the one member who had a vote only on legislative questions came to be appointed by the Sovereign, and the other three members by the Secretary of State for India.

Secretary of State's Council

The Council of the Secretary of State, also known as the India Council was based in Whitehall. In 1907, two Indians Sir Krishna Govinda Gupta and Nawab Syed Hussain Bilgrami were appointed by Lord Morley as members of the council. Bilgrami retired early in 1910 owing to ill-health and his place was taken by Mirza Abbas Ali Baig.[2][3] Other members included P. Rajagopalachari (1923-1925), Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana (1924-1934) and Sir Abdul Qadir.

The Secretary of State's Council of India was abolished by the Government of India Act 1935.

Members of the Council Of India in London

Term start / Term end / Name / Birth / Death / Notes

1888 / November 1902 / Right Hon. Sir Alfred Comyn Lyall, GCIE, KCB, PC / 1835 / 1911 / --
1888 / November 1902 / Sir James Braithwaite Peile, KCSI / 1833 / 1906 / --
1900 / March 1907 / General Sir Alexander Robert Badcock, KCB, CSI / 1844 / 1907 / --
November 1902[4]/ -- / Sir Antony Patrick MacDonnell, GCSI, PC / 1844 / 1925 / Lieutenant Governor of Bengal 1893–1895; Lieutenant Governor of United Provinces 1895–1901
November 1902[4] / 1910 / Sir William Lee-Warner, GCSI / 1846 / 1914 / --


See also

• India Office
• English Education Act 1835
• Central Legislative Assembly
• Viceroy's Executive Council
• Council of State (India)
• Imperial Legislative Council
• Interim Government of India

References

1. "Official, India". World Digital Library. 1890–1923. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
2. Chirol, Valentine. Indian Unrest.
3. Wikisource:Page:The Indian Biographical Dictionary.djvu/41
4. "The Council of india". The Times (36904). London. 21 October 1902. p. 6.

Further reading

• A Constitutional History of India, 1600–1935, by Arthur Berriedale Keith, published by Methuen & Co., London, 1936
• The Imperial Legislative Council of India from 1861 to 1920: A Study of the Inter-action of Constitutional Reform and National Movement with Special Reference to the Growth of Indian Legislature up to 1920, by Parmatma Sharan, published by S. Chand, 1961
• Imperialist Strategy and Moderate Politics: Indian Legislature at Work, 1909-1920, by Sneh Mahajan, published by Chanakya Publications, 1983
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Steuart Bayley
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Accessed: 12/10/19

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Sir Steuart Colvin Bayley

Sir Steuart Colvin Bayley GCSI CIE (26 November 1836 – 3 June 1925) was a British civil servant and Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal from 1887-1890.

Early life

He was the son of William Butterworth Bayley, who rose to be acting Governor-General of India, and Anne Augusta Jackson. His middle name is a reference to the well-connected Colvin family of Anglo-Indian administrators, just as John Russell Colvin named his son after his boss, George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland. He was educated at Eton and Haileybury College.

Career

Bayley entered the Bengal Civil Service in 1856. He held the office of Commissioner of the Patna Division in 1873. He was invested Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India (KCSI) in 1878. He held the office of Chief Commissioner of Assam in 1878. He held the office of Resident at Hyderabad in 1881. He held the office of Member of the Governor-General's Council in 1882.[1] Bayley held the office of Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal between 1887 and 1890.[2] He was Secretary of the Political and Secret Department, India Office in 1891.

Image
Funerary monument, Brompton Cemetery, London

Personal life

Bayley married Anna Farquharson, daughter of Robert Nesham Farquharson, on 21 November 1860 at Patna, India. They had 13 children.

Later life

Bayley died in 1925 and was interred in Brompton Cemetery, London. His portrait is held by the National Portrait Gallery.[3]

Notes

1. Buckland, Charles Edward (1906). Dictionary of Indian Biography. London: Swan & Co. p. 31.
2. Buckland, Charles Edward (1901). Bengal Under The Lieutenant-Governors. 2. Calcutta: S. K. Lahiri & Co. p. 837.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Augustus Rivers Thompson
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Accessed: 12/101/9

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Sir Augustus Rivers Thompson, KCSI CIE
Chief Commissioner of Burma
In office: 14 April 1875 – 30 March 1878
Preceded by: Ashley Eden
Succeeded by: Charles Umpherston Aitchison
Lieutenant Governor of Bengal
In office: 1882–1887
Preceded by: Ashley Eden
Succeeded by: Steuart Colvin Bayley
Personal details
Born: 12 September 1829
Died: 27 November 1890 (aged 61)
Nationality: British
Occupation: Administrator

Sir Augustus Rivers Thompson KCSI CIE (12 September 1829 – 27 November 1890) served as Chief Commissioner of the British Crown Colony of Burma from April 1875 to March 1878. He was Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal between 1882 and 1887.[1]

Thompson was appointed a CSI in 1877, a CIE in 1883 and knighted with the KCSI [Knight Commander Star of India] in 1885.


He was president of the executive committee of the Calcutta International Exhibition (1883-1884).[2] He established the R.T. Girls' High School in Suri, Birbhum.

References

1. Buckland, Charles Edward (1901). Bengal Under The Lieutenant-Governors. 2. Calcutta: S. K. Lahiri & Co. p. 760.
2. Pelle, Findling, ed. (2008). "Appendix C:Fair Officials". Encyclopedia of World's Fairs and Expositions. McFarland & Company, Inc. pp. 418–419. ISBN 978-0-7864-3416-9.

Further reading

• Laurie, William Ferguson Beatson (1999) [1888]. Distinguished Anglo-Indians (Reprinted ed.). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 205–211. ISBN 9788120613058.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Charles Alfred Elliott
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Accessed: 12/10/19

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Sir Charles Alfred Elliott KCSI (1835–1911), was a Lieutenant Governor of Bengal.

Life

He was born on 8 December 1835 at Brighton, was son of Henry Venn Elliott, vicar of St. Mary's, Brighton, by his wife Julia, daughter of John Marshall of Hallsteads, Ulleswater, who was elected MP for Leeds with Thomas Babington Macaulay in 1832. After some education at Brighton College, Charles was sent to Harrow, and in 1854 won a scholarship at Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1856 the civil service of India was thrown open to public competition. Elliott, abandoning his Cambridge career, was appointed by the directors, under the provisions of the Government of India Act 1853 (16 & 17 Vict c 95), one of fifteen members of the civil service of the East India Company (Despatch, 1 October 1856). He was learning his work unattached to any district, when the mutiny broke out at Meerut, and he was then posted on 12 June 1857 as assistant magistrate to Mirzapur in the Benares division of the North Western Provinces. That large district of 5238 square miles was the scene of fierce conflicts with the rebels. Elliott led several small expeditions from headquarters to quell disturbances, was favourably mentioned in despatches, and received the mutiny medal.[1]

In the following year he became an assistant-commissioner in Oudh, where he served in Unao, Cawnpore, and other districts until 1863. In Unao he gave early proof of his industry by collecting information about its history, its folklore, and its families. He published in 1862 at Allahabad for private circulation Chronicles of Oonao, believing "that a knowledge of the popular traditions and ballads gives to its possessor both influence over the people and the key to their hearts." When this treatise was printed he was serving in the North Western Provinces, and in the following year (Sir) Richard Temple, wishing to strengthen the administrative staff of the Central Provinces, then under his control, secured Elliott's transfer, entrusting to him the settlement of the Hoshangabad district. This task, which greatly raised his reputation, was completed in 1865, being regarded as a most successful operation, which has stood the test of time. Taking furlough, Elliott returned to duty in the North Western Provinces, and was entrusted with the settlement of the Farukhabad district. He had assessed the whole district except the Tahwatahsil, when in 1870 he was chosen by Sir William Muir to be secretary to government. The final report, drawn up by H. F. Evans, 22 July 1875, included the rent rate reports written by Elliott "in that elaborate and careful manner which," according to Sir Charles Crosthwaite, "has become the model for similar reports." The cost of the settlement exceeded five lakhs, and although the rates charged were moderate, government received additional revenue of 22 per cent, on the expenditure, while the records were a permanent gain to the people. Settlement work, to which Elliott had thus devoted his best years, was in those days the most important and most coveted employment in the civil service, and it gave Elliott a thorough acquaintance with the needs of the people and the administrative machinery. From 1872 to 1875 he held the post of secretary to the government of the North Western Provinces, being concerned chiefly with settlement and revenue questions, with measures for suppressing infanticide in certain Rajput communities, and municipal administrations. Knowing every detail, he was inclined to interfere too much with subordinate authorities. After Sir John Strachey had succeeded to the government of Sir William Muir, he went to Meerut as commissioner. Thence he was summoned by Lord Lytton to visit Madras, and subsequently to apply to Mysore the famine policy of the paramount power. As Lord Lytton wrote in November 1878, when reviewing his famine report on Mysore, "he organised and directed relief operations with a patience and good sense which overcame all difficulties, and with the fullest tenderness to the people in dire calamity." Elliott did not minimise the human suffering and the administrative shortcomings which he witnessed, and his experience and report indicated him as the best secretary possible to the royal commission on Indian famines (16 May 1878). Other commissions in 1898 and 1901 have built on the foundation laid by the famous report of 7 July 1878, but it will always remain a landmark in Indian history; for from that date the British government determined to fight with all its resources recurring and inevitable droughts, which had previously entailed heavy loss of life. For the planning of requisite organisation no knowledge detail was superfluous, and no better secretary could have been found for guiding and assisting the commissioners.[1]

This work completed, Elliott became for a few months census commissioner for the first decennial census for 1881 which followed the imperfect enumeration of 1872. In March 1881 he became chief commissioner of Assam, and in Feb. 1886 was entrusted with the unpopular task of presiding over a committee appointed to inquire into public expenditure throughout India, and report on economies. A falling exchange and a heavy bill for war operations compelled Lord Dufferin to apply the shears to provincial expenditure, and while the committee inevitably withdrew funds needed by the local governments, it was generally recognised that immense pains were taken by Elliott and his colleagues. Elliott, who had been made C.S.I. in 1878, was promoted K.C.S.I. [Knight Commander Star of India] in 1887, and from 6 January 1888 to 17 December 1890 he was a member successively of Lord Dufferin's and then of Lord Lansdowne's executive councils. On the retirement of Sir Steuart Bayley, Elliott, although he had never served in Bengal, became lieutenant-governor of that province, holding the post, save for a short leave in 1893, until 18 Dec. 1895. The greatest service which Elliott rendered to Bengal was the prosecution of the survey and the compilation of the record of rights in Bihar, carried out in spite of much opposition from the zemindars, opposition that received some support from Lord Randolph Churchill. Sir Antony MacDonnell's views as to the maintenance of the record were not in harmony with those of Elliott, but Lord Lansdowne intervened to reduce the controversy to its proper dimensions. Public opinion has finally endorsed the opinion expressed by Mr. C. E. Buckland in Bengal under the Lieutenant-Governors (1901), that "there was not another man in India who could have done the settlement work he did in Bihar and Bengal, so much of it and so well." In his zeal for the public service Elliott courageously faced unpopularity. Economy as well as efficiency were his principles of government. Towards the native press he took a firm attitude, prosecuting the editor and manager of the Bangobasi for sedition in the teeth of hostile criticism. He was inclined to establish a press bureau, but Lord Lansdowne's government did not sanction his proposals. With the distressed Eurasian community he showed generous sympathy, and, always on the watch for the well-being of the masses he pushed on sanitary and medical measures, being largely instrumental in the widespread distribution of quinine as a remedy against fever. In foreign affairs he was impatient of Chinese delays in the delimitation of the frontiers of Tibet and Sikkim, and urged Lord Elgin to occupy the Chambi Valley (19 November 1895), and even to annex it.[1]

After a strenuous service of forty years he retired in December 1895, and was soon afterwards co-opted a member of the London School Board as a member of the moderate party, being elected for the Tower Hamlets division in 1897 and 1900. In 1904 he was co-opted a member of the education committee of the London County Council, serving till 1906. From 1897 to 1904 he was chairman of the finance committee of the school board, and his annual estimates were remarkable for their exceptional agreement with the actual expenditure. A strong churchman, he took active part in the work of missionary and charitable societies; he was a member of the House of Laymen as well as of the Representative Church Council. He was also chairman of Toynbee Hall. He died at Wimbledon on 28 May 1911. He married twice: firstly on 20 June 1866 Louisa Jane (d. 1877), daughter of G. W. Dumbell of Belmont, Isle of Man, by whom he had three sons and one daughter; and secondly on 22 September 1887 Alice Louisa, daughter of Thomas Gaussen of Hauteville, Guernsey, and widow of T. J. Murray of the I.C.S., by whom he had one son, Claude, who was fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge. His eldest son by his first marriage, Henry Venn Elliott, was vicar of St. Mark's, Brighton. In his possession was a portrait of his father by Hugh Riviere. As a memorial to Elliott it was proposed to add a wing to St. Mary's Hall, Brighton, a church school in which he was especially interested.[1]

Elliott's contributions to Indian literature were mainly official. They included, besides the Chronicles of Oonao mentioned above, Report on the Hoshangabad Settlement (1866); Report on the Mysore Famine (1878); Report on the Famine Commission (1879); and Report on the Finance Commission (1887).[1]

Notes

1. Lee-Warner 1912.

References

• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee-Warner, William (1912). "Elliott, Charles Alfred". Dictionary of National Biography (2nd supplement). London: Smith, Elder & Co.
• Washbrook, David. "Elliott, Sir Charles Alfred (1835–1911)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33004.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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John Woodburn (civil servant)
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Accessed: 12/10/19

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Sir John Woodburn KCSI (13 July 1843 – 21 November 1902) was an Indian Civil Servant, who later served as Lieutenant Governor of Bengal from 1898 to 1902.[1]

Early life and education

He was born at Barrackpore in British India to David Woodburn. After early education at Arya Academy in Bengal, he went to England to study at Glasgow University and Edinburgh University.[1][2]

Career

He joined the Indian Civil Service in 1863 and arrived in India. He served on various positions in North West Frontier Province, Oudh, Central Province and other posts in Central Government. He served as Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces from 1893 to 1895.[1][3] In 1892, he was appointed a CSI and was knighted with the KCSI [Knight Commander Star of India] in 1897.[1] He was member of Governor-General's Legislative Council for years 1891 and 1893 and was a member of Supreme Council - 1895-97. In April 1898, he was selected the successor of Sir Charles Stevens to the post of the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal, which position he retained till his death on 21 November 1902.[1][4][5] He served as President of The Asiatic Society for years 1900-01.[6]

Image
Statue of Sir John Woodburn, which earlier stood at Dalhousie Square, Calcutta. Image of 1905.

Death

He died after a short illness at Calcutta. He died on 21 November 1902 and was buried at Circular Road Cemetery of Calcutta.

He was succeeded by Sir Andrew Fraser as next Governor of Bengal.

Works

Woodbrun's published works include his memoirs Sir John Woodburn, K.C.S.I., Lieut.-Governor of Bengal from 1898 to 1902: a Biographical Retrospect by Sir John Woodburn (K.C.S.I.), Jessy J. Matheson. published in 1926.[4]

Memorials

• A bronze statue of him was unveiled in 1905, which earlier stood at Dalhouse Square of Kolkata - has now been shifted to Victoria Memeorial.
• A street in Kolkata was named after him, as Woodburn Street in Kolkata.
• A park is named as Woodburn Park after him and road was earlier known as Woodburn Park Road also at Kolkata.
• Woodburn Ward of SSKM Hospital, Kolkata is also named after him, where at present special patients like VVIP, VIP are treated.

References

1. Dictionary of Indian Biography By C. E. Buckland. 1999. p. 460.
2. Memories of the old college of Glasgow: Some chapters in the ... - Volume 2 by David Murray - 1927 - Page 578
3. Statues of the Raj by Mary Ann Steggles, British Association for Cemeteries in South Asia, 2000 - Page 221
4. Sir John Woodburn, K.C.S.I., Lieut.-Governor of Bengal from 1898 to 1902: a Biographical Retrospect by Sir John Woodburn (K.C.S.I.), Jessy J. Matheson. 1926
5. Notes and Queries: For Readers and Writers, Collectors and Librarians, Oxford University Press, 1913 - Page 206.
6. Asiatic Society - List of Presidents
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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The Asiatic Society [Asiatic Society of Bengal / Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal]
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Accessed: 12/10/19

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Not to be confused with Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

Miscellaneous Presentations.

Proceedings of the Anjuman-i-Panjab. October to December 1880. Fep., Lahore, 1880.
-- PRESIDENT, ANJUMAN-I-PANJAB.

JONG, DR. P. DE. Al-Moschtabih, auctore Schamso’d-din Abu Abdallah Mohammed ibn Ahmed. 8 vo., Lugduni-Batavorum, 1881.
HOUTSMA, M. TH. Kitabo-‘l – Adhdad sive liber de vocabulis Arabic is quae plures habent significations inter se oppositas auctore Abu Bekr ibno-‘l-Anbari. 8vo., Lugduni-Batavorum, 1881.
-- M.J. DE GOEJE.

Report on the Cholera Epidemic of 1879 in Northern India, with special reference to the supposed influence of the Hurdwar Fair. Fep., Calcutta, 1880.
-- SANITARY COMMISSIONER WITH THE GOVT. OF INDIA.

BLANFORD, H.F. Report on the Administration of the Meteorological Department of the Government of India in 1879-80. Fep., Calcutta, 1880.
-- METEOROLOGICAL REPORTER TO THE GOVT. OF INDIA.

GORDON, R. Report on the Irrawaddy River, Parts I, II, III and IV. Fep., Rangoon, 1879.
-- PUBLIC WORKS DEPT., B. BURMAH.

Report on the Administration of the Panjab and its Dependencies for 1879-80. Royal 8vo., Lahore, 1880.
-- PUNJAB GOVERNMENT.

Report on Public Instruction in the Madras Presidency for 1877-78 and 1878-79. Royal 8vo., Madras, 1879.
-- MADRAS GOVERNMENT.

Report on the Administration of the Customs Department in the Bengal Presidency for the year 1879-80. Fep., Calcutta, 1880.
Report on Vaccination in the Province of Bengal for 1879-80. Fep., Calcutta, 1880.
Report on the Internal Trade of Bengal, for the year 1879-80. Fep., Calcutta, 1880.
Report on the Administration of Bengal, 1879-80. Royal 8vo., Calcutta, 1880.
Records of the Geological Survey of India – Vol. XIII, Part 4.
-- BENGAL GOVERNMENT

The Indian Antiquary, Vol. IX, Part 113, December 1880.
-- HOME, REVENUE AND AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT.

--Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [Feb. 1881], by Asiatic Society of Bengal


Image
The Asiatic Society
Established 1784
Location 1 Park Street
Kolkata – 700016
West Bengal, India
Type Library
President Isha Mohammad
Website asiaticsocietykolkata.org

Image
The Asiatic Society building. April 2013.

The Asiatic Society was founded by civil servant Sir William Jones on 15 January 1784 in a meeting presided over by Sir William Jones, Justice of the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William at the Fort William in Calcutta, then capital of the British Raj, to enhance and further the cause of Oriental research. At the time of its foundation, this Society was named as "Asiatick Society". In 1825, the society dropped the antique k without any formal resolution and the Society was renamed as "The Asiatic Society". In 1832 the name was changed to "The Asiatic Society of Bengal" and again in 1936 it was renamed as "The Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal". Finally, on 1 July 1951, the name of the society was changed to its present one. The Society is housed in a building at Park Street in Kolkata (Calcutta). The Society moved into this building during 1808. In 1823, the Medical and Physical Society of Calcutta was formed and all the meetings of this society were held in the Asiatic Society.

History

In January 1784 Sir William Jones sent out a circular-letter to a selected number of British residents of Calcutta with a view to establish a society for the Asiatic studies. At his invitation, thirty British residents met in the Grand Jury Room of the Supreme Court (in Calcutta's Fort William) on 15 January 1784. The meeting was presided over by Sir Robert Chambers. At this meeting, Jones explained the aims of the Society he would establish. The Memorandum of Articles of the Asiatic Society, prepared by Jones said:[1]

The bounds of investigations will be the geographical limits of Asia, and within these limits its enquiries will be extended to whatever is performed by man or produced by nature.


Notable early members were Charles Wilkins and Alexander Hamilton (the cousin of the American statesman). Initially, the Grand Jury Room of the Supreme Court was used for the meetings of the members, who had to pay a quarterly fee of two mohurs. The members were elected through ballot-voting. On 29 September 1796 the Society decided to have its own building. J.H. Harrington, then Vice-President selected the corner of Park Street and Chowringhee Road (present location) for the Society's house. The site was granted to the society on 15 May 1805. The original plan for the new building was prepared by Captain Thomas Preston. The French architect, Jean-Jacques Pichou[2] made certain modifications to it and constructed a two storeyed building at the site. This 15,071 ft² building was built at a cost of Rs. 30,000.00. The first quarterly meeting of the Society for 1808 was held at its new building on 3 February 1808.[1]

From 1784 to 1828, only Europeans were elected members of the Society. In 1829, at the initiative of H.H. Wilson, a number of Indians were elected members, which include Dwarakanath Tagore, Sivchandra Das, Maharaja Baidyanath Roy, Maharaja Bunwari Govind Roy, Raja Kalikrishna Bahadur, Rajchunder Das, Ram Comul Sen and Prasanna Coomar Tagore. On 12 December 1832 Ram Comul Sen was elected 'Native Secretary'. Later, Rajendralal Mitra became the first Indian President in 1885.[1] Both the orientalist, Brajendranath De, and one of his grandsons, the historian, Barun De, were for sometime vice president of the Asiatic Society.[3][4][5]

Library

One of the main activities of the Asiatic Society was to collect the old manuscripts of India.[6] There was an enormous collection of Sanskrit manuscripts with the society. [6] At present], the library of the Asiatic Society has a collection of about 117,000 books and 79,000 journals printed in almost all the major languages of the world. It has also a collection of 293 maps, microfiche of 48,000 works, microfilm of 387,003 pages, 182 paintings, 2500 pamphlets and 2150 photographs. The earliest printed book preserved in this library is Juli Firmici's Astronomicorum Libri published in 1499.[1] It has in its possession a large number of books printed in India in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The library also possesses many rare and scarcely available books. The library has a rich collection of about 47,000 manuscripts in 26 scripts. The most notable amongst them are an illustrated manuscript of the Qur'an, a manuscript of the Gulistan text, and a manuscript of Padshah Nama bearing the signature of Emperor Shahjahan. The number of journals in the possession of the library is about 80,000 at present.

The early collection of this library was enriched by the contributions it received from its members. On 25 March 1784 the library received seven Persian manuscripts from Henri Richardson. The next contribution came from William Marsden, who donated his book, The History of Sumatra (1783) on 10 November 1784. Robert Home, the first Library-in-Charge (1804) donated his small but valuable collection of works on art. The first accession of importance was a gift from the Seringapatam Committee on 3 February 1808 consisting of a collection from the Palace Library of Tipu Sultan. The library received the Surveyor-General Colonel Mackenzie's collection of manuscripts and drawings in December 1822.

Since 1849, the Society has printed Bibliotheca Indica, a collection of rare and unpublished works belonging to or treating of Oriental literature and containing original text-editions as well as translations into English, and also grammars, dictionaries, bibliographies, and studies.

Museum

Image
The Bairat Minor Rock Edict of Ashoka (circa 250 BCE) is visible at the Asiatic Society. Image of the full display.

The museum of the Society was founded in 1814 under the superintendence of Nathaniel Wallich. The rapid growth of its collection is evident from its first catalogue, published in 1849. By 1849 the Society had its own museum consisting of inscriptions in stone and metal, icons, old coins and Sanskrit manuscripts etc. [6]

When the Indian Museum of Calcutta was established in 1814, the Society handed over most of its valuable collections to it. The Society however still has a museum of its own which possesses a rock edict of Asoka (c. 250 BCE) and a significant collection of copper plate inscriptions, coins, sculptures, manuscripts and archival records. Some masterpieces, like Joshua Reynolds’ Cupid asleep on Cloud, Guido Cagnacci's Cleopatra, Thomas Daniell's A Ghat at Benares and Peter Paul Rubens’ Infant Christ are also in the possession of this museum.

See also

• Asiatic Society of Bombay
• Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
• Francis Wilford
• List of Presidents of The Asiatic Society of Bengal
• Panchanan Mitra
• Société Asiatique
• South Asian Studies

Works

• Asiatic Society of Bengal (1832). Asiatic researches or transactions of the Society instituted in Bengal, for inquiring into the history and antiquities, the arts, sciences, and literature, of Asia, Volume 17. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
• Asiatick researches. 1832. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
• Asiatick Researches, Or, Transactions of the Society Instituted in Bengal, for Inquiring Into the History and Antiquities, the Arts, Sciences, and Literature of Asia, Volume 17. Contributor Asiatick Society (Calcutta, India). Bengal Military Orphans Press. 1832. Retrieved 24 April 2014.

References

1. Chakrabarty, R. (2008). The Asiatic Society:1784-2008, An Overview in Time Past and Time Present: Two Hundred and Twenty-five Years of the Asiatic Society' Kolkata: The Asiatic Society, pp.2-24
2. Sometimes written Pichon (or Jean Jacques Pissaun)
3. "Birth Centenary of B.De Celebrated" in The Statesman, Wednesday, 24 December 1952
4. "He Rehabilitated Persian in Bengal: Tributes to Late B.De: Birthday Celebration" in Amrita Bazar Patrika, Wednesday, 24 December 1952
5. "Historian and Administrator" - Aniruddha Ray Retrieved 2015-03-03
6. Saraswati, H.D Swami Prakashanand. The True History and the Religion of India. International Society of Divine Love. pp. 297. ISBN 0-9673823-1-9.

Sources

• Mitra, S.K. (1974). The Asiatic Society, Calcutta: The Asiatic Society.

External links

• Official website
• "Asiatic Society", Banglapedia. On Line.
• "Asiatic Society of Bengal", Scholarly Societies Project.
• Scanned volumes of the Journal of the Asiatic Society
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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William Jones (philologist)
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Image
William Jones
A steel engraving of Sir William Jones, after a painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds
Puisne judge of the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William in Bengal
In office: 22 October 1783[1] – 27 April 1794[2]
Personal details
Born: September 28, 1746, Westminster, London
Died: April 27, 1794 (aged 47), Calcutta

Sir William Jones FRS FRSE (28 September 1746 – 27 April 1794) was an Anglo-Welsh philologist, a puisne judge on the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William in Bengal, and a scholar of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among European and Indian languages, which he coined as Indo-European.

Jones is also credited for establishing the Asiatic Society of Bengal in the year 1784.

Biography

William Jones was born in London at Beaufort Buildings, Westminster; his father William Jones (1675–1749) was a mathematician from Anglesey in Wales, noted for introducing the use of the symbol π. The young William Jones was a linguistic prodigy, who in addition to his native languages English and Welsh,[3] learned Greek, Latin, Persian, Arabic, Hebrew and the basics of Chinese writing at an early age.[4] By the end of his life he knew eight languages with critical thoroughness, was fluent in a further eight, with a dictionary at hand, and had a fair competence in another twelve.[5]

Jones' father died when he was aged three, and his mother Mary Nix Jones raised him. He was sent to Harrow School in September 1753 and then went on to University College, Oxford. He graduated there in 1768 and became M.A. in 1773. Financially constrained, he took a position tutoring the seven-year-old Lord Althorp, son of Earl Spencer. For the next six years he worked as a tutor and translator. During this time he published Histoire de Nader Chah (1770), a French translation of a work originally written in Persian by Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi. This was done at the request of King Christian VII of Denmark: he had visited Jones, who by the age of 24 had already acquired a reputation as an orientalist. This would be the first of numerous works on Persia, Turkey, and the Middle East in general.

Image
Tomb of William Jones in Calcutta

In 1770, Jones joined the Middle Temple and studied law for three years, a preliminary to his life-work in India. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society on 30 April 1772. After a spell as a circuit judge in Wales, and a fruitless attempt to resolve the conflict that eventually led to the American Revolution in concert with Benjamin Franklin in Paris, he was appointed puisne judge to the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William in Calcutta, Bengal on 4 March 1783, and on 20 March he was knighted. In April 1783 he married Anna Maria Shipley, the eldest daughter of Dr. Jonathan Shipley, Bishop of Llandaff and Bishop of St Asaph. Anna Maria used her artistic skills to help Jones document life in India. On 25 September 1783 he arrived in Calcutta.

Jones was a radical political thinker, a friend of American independence. His work, The principles of government; in a dialogue between a scholar and a peasant (1783), was the subject of a trial for seditious libel after it was reprinted by his brother-in-law William Shipley.

In the Subcontinent he was entranced by Indian culture, an as-yet untouched field in European scholarship, and on 15 January 1784 he founded the Asiatic Society in Calcutta[3] and started a journal called Asiatick Researches. He studied the Vedas with Rāmalocana, a pandit teaching at the Nadiya Hindu university, becoming a proficient Sanskritist.[3] Jones kept up a ten-year correspondence on the topic of jyotisa or Hindu astronomy with fellow orientalist Samuel Davis.[6] He learnt the ancient concept of Hindu Laws from Pandit Jagannath Tarka Panchanan.[7]

Over the next ten years he would produce a flood of works on India
, launching the modern study of the subcontinent in virtually every social science. He also wrote on the local laws, music, literature, botany, and geography, and made the first English translations of several important works of Indian literature.

Sir William Jones sometimes also went by the nom de plume Youns Uksfardi (یونس اوکسفردی, "Jones of Oxford"). This pen name can be seen on the inner front cover of his Persian Grammar published in 1771 (and in subsequent editions).

He died in Calcutta on 27 April 1794 at the age of 47 and is buried in South Park Street Cemetery.[8]

Scholarly contributions

Jones is known today for making and propagating the observation about relationships between the Indo-European languages. In his Third Anniversary Discourse to the Asiatic Society (1786) he suggested that Sanskrit, Greek and Latin languages had a common root, and that indeed they may all be further related, in turn, to Gothic and the Celtic languages, as well as to Persian.[9] Although his name is closely associated with this observation, he was not the first to make it. In the 16th century, European visitors to India became aware of similarities between Indian and European languages[10] and as early as 1653 Van Boxhorn had published a proposal for a proto-language ("Scythian") for Germanic, Romance, Greek, Baltic, Slavic, Celtic and Iranian.[11] Finally, in a memoir sent to the French Academy of Sciences in 1767 Gaston-Laurent Coeurdoux, a French Jesuit who spent all his life in India, had specifically demonstrated the existing analogy between Sanskrit and European languages.[12][13] In 1786 Jones postulated a proto-language uniting Sanskrit, Iranian, Greek, Latin, Germanic and Celtic, but in many ways his work was less accurate than his predecessors', as he erroneously included Egyptian, Japanese and Chinese in the Indo-European languages, while omitting Hindustani[11] and Slavic[14]

Nevertheless, Jones' third annual discourse before the Asiatic Society on the history and culture of the Hindus (delivered on 2 February 1786 and published in 1788) with the famed "philologer" passage is often cited as the beginning of comparative linguistics and Indo-European studies.[15]

The Sanscrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which, perhaps, no longer exists; there is a similar reason, though not quite so forcible, for supposing that both the Gothic and the Celtic, though blended with a very different idiom, had the same origin with the Sanscrit; and the old Persian might be added to the same family.


This common source came to be known as Proto-Indo-European.[16]

Jones was the first to propose a racial division of India involving an Aryan invasion but at that time there was insufficient evidence to support it. It was an idea later taken up by British administrators such as Herbert Hope Risley but remains disputed today.[17]

Jones also propounded theories that might appear peculiar today but were less so in his time. For example, he believed that Egyptian priests had migrated and settled down in India in prehistoric times. He also posited that the Chinese were originally Hindus belonging to the Kshatriya caste.[18]

Jones, in his 1772 ‘Essay on the Arts called Imitative’, was one of the first to propound an expressive theory of poetry, valorising expression over description or imitation: “If the arguments, used in this essay, have any weight, it will appear, that the finest parts of poetry, musick, and painting, are expressive of the passions...the inferior parts of them are descriptive of natural objects”.[19] He thereby anticipated Wordsworth in grounding poetry on the basis of a Romantic subjectivity.[20]

Jones was a contributor to Hyde's Notebooks during his term on the bench of the Supreme Court of Judicature. The notebooks are a valuable primary source of information for life in late 18th century Bengal and are the only remaining source for the proceedings of the Supreme Court.

Encounter with Anquetil duperron

In Europe a discussion as to the authenticity of the work of first translation of Avesta arose. It was the first evidence of an indo-european language as old as sanskrit that had been translated into a european language. It was suggested that the so-called Zend-Avesta was not the genuine work of Zoroaster, but was a forgery. Foremost among the detractors, it is to be regretted, was the distinguished Orientalist, Sir William Jones. He claimed, in a letter published in French (1771), that Anquetil had been duped, that the Parsis of Surat had palmed off upon him a conglomeration of worthless fabrications and absurdities. In England, Sir William Jones was supported by Richardson and Sir John Chardin; in Germany, by Meiners. Anquetil du Perron was labelled an impostor who had invented his own script to support his claim.[21] It is not curious that Jones didn't include Iranian in his naming the cluster of indoeuropean languages, especially since he hadn't any idea about the relationship between avestan and sanskrit as the two main branches of this language family.

Chess poem

In 1763, at the age of 17, Jones wrote the poem Caissa, based on a 658-line poem called "Scacchia, Ludus" published in 1527 by Marco Girolamo Vida, giving a mythical origin of chess that has become well known in the chess world. This poem he wrote in English.

In the poem the nymph Caissa initially repels the advances of Mars, the god of war. Spurned, Mars seeks the aid of the god of sport, who creates the game of chess as a gift for Mars to win Caissa's favour. Mars wins her over with the game.

Caissa has since been characterised as the "goddess" of chess, her name being used in several contexts in modern chess playing.

Schopenhauer's citation

Arthur Schopenhauer referred to one of Sir William Jones's publications in §1 of The World as Will and Representation (1819). Schopenhauer was trying to support the doctrine that "everything that exists for knowledge, and hence the whole of this world, is only object in relation to the subject, perception of the perceiver, in a word, representation." He quoted Jones's original English:

... how early this basic truth was recognized by the sages of India, since it appears as the fundamental tenet of the Vedânta philosophy ascribed to Vyasa, is proved by Sir William Jones in the last of his essays: "On the Philosophy of the Asiatics" (Asiatic Researches, vol. IV, p. 164): "The fundamental tenet of the Vedânta school consisted not in denying the existence of matter, that is solidity, impenetrability, and extended figure (to deny which would be lunacy), but in correcting the popular notion of it, and in contending that it has no essence independent of mental perception; that existence and perceptibility are convertible terms."


Schopenhauer used Jones's authority to relate the basic principle of his philosophy to what was, according to Jones, the most important underlying proposition of Vedânta. He made more passing reference to Sir William Jones's writings elsewhere in his works.

Oration by Hendrik Arent Hamaker

In 1822 the Dutch orientalist Hendrik Arent Hamaker accepted a professorship at the University of Leiden, and gave as his inaugural lecture in Latin De vita et meritis Guilielmi Jonesii (Leiden, 1823).[22]

Cited by Edgar Allan Poe

Edgar Allan Poe's short story "Berenice" starts with a motto, the first half of a poem, by Ibn Zaiat: Dicebant mihi sodales si sepulchrum amicae visitarem, curas meas aliquantulum fore levatas. It was taken from the works of William Jones, and here is the missing part (from Complete Works, Vol. 2, London, 1799):

Dixi autem, an ideo aliud praeter hoc pectus habet sepulchrum?

My companions said to me, if I would visit the grave of my friend, I might somewhat alleviate my worries. I answered "could she be buried elsewhere than in my heart?"


Bibliography

Listing in most cases only editions and reprints that came out during Jones's own lifetime, books by, or prominently including work by, William Jones, are:

• Muhammad Mahdī, Histoire de Nader Chah: connu sous le nom de Thahmas Kuli Khan, empereur de Perse / Traduite d'un manuscrit persan, par ordre de Sa majesté le roi de Dannemark. Avec des notes chronologiques, historiques, géographiques. Et un traité sur la poésie orientale, par Mr. Jones, 2 vols (London: Elmsly, 1770), later published in English as The history of the life of Nader Shah: King of Persia. Extracted from an Eastern manuscript, ... With an introduction, containing, I. A description of Asia ... II. A short history of Persia ... and an appendix, consisting of an essay on Asiatick poetry, and the history of the Persian language. To which are added, pieces relative to the French translation / by William Jones (London: T. Cadell, 1773)
• William Jones, Kitāb-i Shakaristān dar naḥvī-i zabān-i Pārsī, taṣnīf-i Yūnus Ūksfurdī = A grammar of the Persian language (London: W. and J. Richardson, 1771) [2nd edn. 1775; 4th edn. London: J. Murray, S. Highley, and J. Sewell, 1797]
• [anonymously], Poems consisting chiefly of translations from the Asiatick languages: To which are added two essays, I. On the poetry of the Eastern nations. II. On the arts, commonly called imitative (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1772) [2nd edn. London: N. Conant, 1777]
• [William Jones], Poeseos Asiaticæ commentariorum libri sex: cum appendice; subjicitur Limon, seu miscellaneorum liber / auctore Gulielmo Jones (London: T. Cadell, 1774) [repr. Lipsiae: Apud Haeredes Weidmanni et Reichium, 1777]
• [anonymously], An inquiry into the legal mode of suppressing riots: with a constitutional plan of future defence (London: C. Dilly, 1780) [2nd edn, no longer anonymously, London: C. Dilly, 1782]
• William Jones, An essay on the law of bailments (London: Charles Dilly, 1781) [repr. Dublin: Henry Watts, 1790]
• William Jones, The muse recalled, an ode: occasioned by the nuptials of Lord Viscount Althorp and Miss Lavinia Bingham (Strawberry-Hill: Thomas Kirgate, 1781) [repr. Paris: F. A. Didot l'aîné, 1782]
• [anonymously], An ode, in imitation of Callistratus: sung by Mr. Webb, at the Shakespeare Tavern, on Tuesday the 14th day of May, 1782, at the anniversary dinner of the Society for Constitutional Information ([London, 1782])
• William Jones, A speech of William Jones, Esq: to the assembled inhabitants of the counties of Middlesex and Surry, the cities of London and Westminster, and the borough of Southwark. XXVIII May, M. DCC. LXXXII (London: C. Dilly, 1782)
• William Jones, The Moallakát: or seven Arabian poems, which were suspended on the temple at Mecca; with a translation, and arguments (London: P. Elmsly, 1783), https://books.google.com/books?id=qbBCAAAAcAAJ
• [anonymously], The principles of government: in a dialogue between a scholar and a peasant / written by a member of the Society for Constitutional Information ([London: The Society for Constitutional Information, 1783])
• William Jones, A discourse on the institution of a society for enquiring into the history, civil and natural, the antiquities, arts, sciences, and literature of Asia (London: T. Payne and son, 1784)
• William Davies Shipley, The whole of the proceedings at the assizes at Shrewsbury, Aug. 6, 1784: in the cause of the King on Friday August the sixth, 1784, in the cause of the King on the prosecution of William Jones, attorney-at-law, against the Rev. William Davies Shipley, Dean of St. Asaph, for a libel ... / taken in short hand by William Blanchard (London: The Society for Constitutional Information, 1784)
• William Davies Shipley, The whole proceedings on the trial of the indictment: the King, on the prosecution of William Jones, gentleman, against the Rev. William Davies Shipley, Dean of St. Asaph, for a libel, at the assize at Shrewsbury, on Friday the 6th of August, 1784, before the Hon. Francis Buller ... / taken in short-hand by Joseph Gurney (London: M. Gurney, [1784])
• Jones, William (1786). "A dissertation on the orthography of Asiatick words in Roman letters". Asiatick Researches. 1: 1–56.
• Works by William Jones at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
• [William Jones (ed.)], Lailí Majnún / a Persian poem of Hátifí (Calcutta: M. Cantopher, 1788)
• [William Jones (trans.), Sacontalá: or, The fatal ring: an Indian drama / by Cálidás ; translated from the original Sanscrit and Prácrit (London: Edwards, 1790) [repr. Edinburgh: J. Mundell & Co., 1796]
• W. Jones [et al.], Dissertations and miscellaneous pieces relating to the history and antiquities, the arts, sciences, and literature, of Asia, 4 vols (London: G. Nicol, J. Walter, and J. Sewell, 1792) [repr. Dublin: P. Byrne and W. Jones, 1793]
• William Jones, Institutes of Hindu law: or, the ordinances of Menu, according to the gloss of Cullúca. Comprising the Indian system of duties, religious and civil / verbally translated from the original Sanscrit. With a preface, by Sir William Jones (Calcutta: by order of the government, 1796) [repr. London: J. Sewell and J. Debrett, 1796] [trans. by Johann Christian Hüttner, Hindu Gesetzbuch: oder, Menu's Verordnungen nach Cullucas Erläuterung. Ein Inbegriff des indischen Systems religiöser und bürgerlicher Pflichten. / Aus der Sanscrit Sprache wörtlich ins Englische übersetzt von Sir W. Jones, und verteutschet (Weimar, 1797)
• [William Jones], The works of Sir William Jones: In six volumes, ed. by A[nna] M[arie] J[ones], 6 vols (London: G. G. and J. Robinson, and R. H. Evans, 1799) [with two supplemental volumes published 1801], [repr. The works of Sir William Jones / with the life of the author by Lord Teignmouth, 13 vols (London: J. Stockdale and J. Walker, 1807)], vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3, vol. 4, vol. 5, vol. 6, supplemental vol. 1, supplemental vol. 2

See also

• Gaston-Laurent Coeurdoux
• James Prinsep
• Alexander Cunningham
• Anquetil duperron

Notes

1. Curley, Thomas M. (1998). Sir Robert Chambers: Law, Literature, & Empire in the Age of Johnson. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 353. ISBN 0299151506. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
2. Curley 1998, p. 434.
3. Anthony 2010, p. 6.
4. Said 1978, p. 77.
5. Edgerton 2002, p. 10.
6. Davis & Aris 1982, p. 31.
7. "Dictionary of Indian Biography". Retrieved 10 March 2019.
8. The South Park Street Cemetery, Calcutta, published by the Association for the Preservation of Historical Cemeteries in India, 5th ed., 2009
9. Patil, Narendranath B. (2003). The Variegated Plumage: Encounters with Indian Philosophy : a Commemoration Volume in Honour of Pandit Jankinath Kaul "Kamal". Motilal Banarsidass Publications. p. 249.
10. Auroux, Sylvain (2000). History of the Language Sciences. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 1156. ISBN 3-11-016735-2.
11. Roger Blench Archaeology and Language: methods and issues. In: A Companion To Archaeology. J. Bintliff ed. 52–74. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2004.
12. Wheeler, Kip. "The Sanskrit Connection: Keeping Up With the Joneses". Dr.Wheeler's Website. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
13. See:
 Anquetil Duperron (1808) "Supplément au Mémoire qui prècéde" (Supplement to the preceding memoir), Mémoires de littérature, tirés des registres de l'Académie royale des inscriptions et belles-lettres (Memoirs on literature, drawn from the records of the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Belle-lettres), 49 : 647-697.
 John J. Godfrey (1967) "Sir William Jones and Père Coeurdoux: A philological footnote," Journal of the American Oriental Society, 87 (1) : 57-59.
14. Campbell & Poser 2008, p. 37.
15. Jones, Sir William (1824). Discourses delivered before the Asiatic Society: and miscellaneous papers, on the religion, poetry, literature, etc., of the nations of India. Printed for C. S. Arnold. p. 28.
16. Damen, Mark (2012). "SECTION 7: The Indo-Europeans and Historical Linguistics". Retrieved 16 April 2013.
17. Bates, Crispin (1995). "Race, Caste and Tribe in Central India: the early origins of Indian anthropometry". In Robb, Peter (ed.). The Concept of Race in South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-19-563767-0. Retrieved 2 December2011.
18. Singh 2004, p. 9.
19. Quoted in M H Abrams, ‘’The Mirror and the Lamp’’ (Oxford 1971) p. 88
20. M Franklin, ‘’Orientalist Jones’’ (2011) p. 86
21. "The First European Translation of the Holy Avesta". http://www.zoroastrian.org.uk. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
22. P.J. Blok, P.C. Molhuysen, p. 534, Nieuw Nederlandsch biografisch woordenboek. D.3 (1914).

References

• Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
• Edgerton, Franklin (2002) [1936]. "Sir William Jones, 1746-1794". In Sebeok, Thomas A. (ed.). Portrait of Linguists. Volume 1. Thoemmes Press. pp. 1–17. ISBN 978-1-441-15874-1.
• Cannon, Garland H. (1964). Oriental Jones: A biography of Sir William Jones, 1746–1794. Bombay: Asia Pub. House Indian Council for Cultural Relations.
• Cannon, Garland H. (1979). Sir William Jones: A bibliography of primary and secondary sources. Amsterdam: Benjamins. ISBN 90-272-0998-7.
• Cannon, Garland H.; & Brine, Kevin. (1995). Objects of enquiry: Life, contributions and influence of Sir William Jones. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-1517-6.
• Franklin, Michael J. (1995). Sir William Jones. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-1295-0.
• Jones, William, Sir. (1970). The letters of Sir William Jones. Cannon, Garland H. (Ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-812404-X.
• Mukherjee, S. N. (1968). Sir William Jones: A study in eighteenth-century British attitudes to India. London, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-05777-9.
• Poser, William J. and Lyle Campbell (1992). Indo-european practice and historical methodology, Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, pp. 214–236.
• Campbell, Lyle; Poser, William (2008). Language Classification: History and Method. Cambridge University Press. p. 536. ISBN 052188005X.
• Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Jones, Sir William" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 501.
• "Sir William Jones (1746 - 1794): As a Philologist, a Persian Scholar and Founder of Asiatic Society" by R M Chopra, INDO-IRANICA, Vol.66, (1 to 4), 2013.
• Singh, Upinder (2004). The discovery of ancient India: early archaeologists and the beginnings of archaeology. Permanent Black. ISBN 9788178240886.
• Said, Edward W. (1978). Orientalism. Random House. ISBN 9780804153867.
• Anthony, David W. (2010). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton University Press. ISBN 1400831105.
• Davis, Samuel; Aris, Michael (1982). Views of Medieval Bhutan: the diary and drawings of Samuel Davis, 1783. Serindia.

External links

• Works by or about William Jones at Internet Archive
• Urs App: William Jones's Ancient Theology. Sino-Platonic Papers Nr. 191 (September 2009) (PDF 3.7 Mb PDF, 125 p.; includes third, sixth, and ninth anniversary discourses)
• The Third Anniversary Discourse, On The Hindus
• Caissa or The Game at Chess; a Poem.
• The principles of government; in a dialogue between a scholar and a peasant. (London?; 1783)
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