Round Table Movement, by Wikipedia

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Re: Round Table Movement, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Oct 13, 2019 5:40 am

Sir Michael Sadler [Sadleir](educationist)
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 10/12/19

Milner was the creator of the Round Table Group (since this is but another name for the Kindergarten) and remained in close personal contact with it for the rest of his life. In the sketch of Milner in the Dictionary of National Biography, written by Basil Williams of the Kindergarten, we read: "He was always ready to discuss national questions on a non-party basis, joining with former members of his South African 'Kindergarten' in their 'moot,' from which originated the political review, The Round Table, and in a more heterogeneous society, the 'Coefficients,' where he discussed social and imperial problems with such curiously assorted members as L. S. Amery, H. G. Wells, (Lord) Haldane, Sir Edward Grey, (Sir) Michael Sadler, Bernard Shaw, J. L. Garvin, William Pember Reeves, and W. A. S. Hewins.""

-- The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden, by Carroll Quigley


Image
Michael Ernest Sadler
Sadler in 1914
Born 3 July 1861
Barnsley, England
Died 14 October 1943 (aged 82)
Oxford
Occupation Writer
Subject Education
Spouse Mariam Olaa

Sir Michael Ernest Sadler KCSI CB (3 July 1861 – 14 October 1943) was an English historian, educationalist and university administrator.[1] He worked at the universities of Manchester and was the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Leeds. He also was a champion of the English public school system.[2]

Early life and education

Michael Ernest Sadler, born into a radical home in 1861 at Barnsley in the industrial north of England, died in Oxford in 1943.[3]

His early youth was coloured by the fact that one of his forebears, Michael Thomas Sadler, was among the pioneers of the Factory Acts. His early memories were full of associations with the leaders of the working-class movement in the north of England. Remembering these pioneers, Sadler recorded: "I can see how much religion deepened their insight and steadied their judgement, and saved them from coarse materialism in their judgement of economic values. This common heritage was a bond of social union. A social tradition is the matrix of education."[4]

Sadler's schooling was typical of his times. It gave him a diverse background, which was to be reflected throughout his life in his interpretation of the process and content of education. When he was 10 years old, he was sent to a private boarding school at Winchester, where the atmosphere was markedly conservative. Sadler recalls:

Think of the effect on my mind of being swug from the Radical West Riding... where I never heard the Conservative point of view properly put, to where I was thrown into an entirely new atmosphere in which the old Conservative and Anglican traditions were still strong.[4]


From this preparatory school he moved to Rugby in the English Midlands, where he spent his adolescence in an atmosphere entirely different from that of the Winchester school. His masters were enthusiastic upholders of Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Revolution. The young Sadler soon found himself in critical revolt against the Cavalier and Anglican traditions.

He went to Trinity College, Oxford in 1880. There he soon came under the spell of leading historians such as T. H. Green and Arnold Toynbee, but it was John Ruskin who overwhelmed him as an undergraduate. Sadler has left on record how, in his second year at Trinity, a short course of lectures by Ruskin was announced, to be given in the Oxford University Museum. Tickets were difficult to get because of the popularity of the speaker. After a warm description of Ruskin's picturesque appearance, Sadler articulates a favourite conviction when he writes:

Nominally these lectures of Ruskin's were upon Art. Really they dealt with the economic and spiritual problems of English national life. He believed, and he made us believe, that every lasting influence in an educational system requires an economic structure of society in harmony with its ethical ideal.[4]


That belief persisted to the end of Sadler's life and is recurrent in his many analyses of foreign systems of education.[3] When, in July 1882, the examinations lists were issued, Sadler had gained a first-class degree in Literae Humaniores. A month earlier he had become President Elect of the Oxford Union, a field of public debating experience that has produced many English politicians.

Career

In 1885, he was elected Secretary of Oxford's Extensions Lectures Sub-Committee, providing outreach lectures. He was a "student" (the equivalent of a fellow) at Christ Church, Oxford from 1890–95. In 1895, he was appointed to a government post as Director of the Office of Special Inquiries and Reports, resigning from the Board of Education in 1903. A special professorship in History and Administration of Education was created for him at the University of Manchester, where he was impressed by the work of the educational theorist Catherine Isabella Dodd and her experimental school.[5]

He became Vice-Chancellor of the University of Leeds in 1911, where he now has a building named in his honour, and returned to Oxford in 1923 as Master of University College, Oxford. There he continued to influence national educational policy and promote the work of various modernist artists.

Leeds Arts Club

Image
The Michael Sadler building at the University of Leeds was named in his honour.

Whilst in Leeds, Sadler became President of the avant-garde modernist cultural group the Leeds Arts Club. Founded in 1903 by Alfred Orage, the Leeds Arts Club was an important meeting ground for radical artists, thinkers, educationalists and writers in Britain, and had strong leanings to the cultural, political and theoretical ideas coming out of Germany at this time.[6]

Using his personal links with Wassily Kandinsky in Munich, Sadler built up a remarkable collection of expressionist and abstract expressionist art
at a time when such art was either unknown or dismissed in London, even by well-known promoters of modernism such as Roger Fry. Most notable in his collection was Kandinsky's abstract painting Fragment for Composition VII, of 1912,[7] a painting that was in Leeds and on display at the Leeds Arts Club in 1913. Sadler also owned Paul Gauguin's celebrated painting "The Vision After the Sermon", and according to Patrick Heron, Sadler even had Kandinsky visit Leeds before the First World War, although this claim is uncorroborated by other sources.[8]

With Frank Rutter, Sadler also co-founded the Leeds Art Collections Fund to help Leeds City Art Gallery. In particular the aim of the Fund was to bypass the financial restraints placed on the Gallery by the municipal authorities in Leeds, who had, in the opinion of Sadler, a dislike of modern art.[6]

The Sadler Commission

In 1917 to 1919, Sadler led the "Sadler Commission" which looked at the state of Indian Education.[2]

Towards the end of the First World War, the Secretary of State for India, Austen Chamberlain, invited Sadler to accept the chairmanship of a commission the government proposed to appoint to inquire into the affairs of the University of Calcutta. Chamberlain wrote: "Lord Chelmsford [the Viceroy] informs me that they hope for the solution of the big political problems of India through the solution of the educational problems."[4] After some hesitation, Sadler accepted the invitation. Under his direction the Commission far exceeded its initial terms of reference.[9] The result was thirteen volumes issued in 1919,[10] providing a comprehensive sociological account of the context in which Mahatma Gandhi was campaigning for the end of the British Raj and the independence of India. From the lines of inquiry pursued, it is possible to deduce a conception of expanding higher education that goes far beyond the traditional university image in its search to relate higher education to the 20th century, with its increasing availability of educational opportunities to women. Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee, known as the Tiger of Bengal, was a member of this commission.

Before the publication of the Calcutta University Report, Sadler delivered a private address to the Senate of the University of Bombay. He put forward his personal conclusions as he surveyed The Educational Movement in India and Britain. It was characteristic of Sadler's belief in the inter-relationship of all the various levels of education and the importance of teacher training. He warned his listeners about producing an academic proletariat with job expectations that could not be fulfilled. And finally he told the members of the Senate:

And in India you stand on the verge of the most hazardous and inevitable of adventures—the planning of primary education for the unlettered millions of a hundred various races. I doubt whether the European model will fit Indian conditions. If you want social dynamite, modern elementary education of the customary kind will give it to you. It is the agency that will put the masses in motion. But to what end or issue no one can foretell.[4]


Honours

Sadler received the honorary degree LL.D. from Columbia University in June 1902.[11] He was awarded CB in the 1911 Coronation Honours.[12]

In 1919, Sadler was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India (KCSI).

Later life

From 1923 to 1934, Sadler served as Master of University College, Oxford. He collected paintings and encouraged artists.

Personal life

Sadler was married to Mary Ann Harvey Sadler, "a wealthy Yorkshire heiress".[13] Their only child was Michael Sadleir (1888–1957), a British publisher, novelist, book collector and bibliographer.

See also

• Leeds Arts Club

Sources

• The text above calls freely on the text published by UNESCO below, which "may be reproduced free of charge as long as acknowledgement is made of the source."[3]

References

1. "Sadler, Sir Michael Ernest", The Concise Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 1992.
2. Sir Michael Ernest Sadler at Britannica.com J. H. Higginson accessed July 2007
3. A detailed biography from UNESCO accessed July 2007
4. J. H. Higginson (ed.), Selections from Michael Sadler, p. 11. Liverpool: Dejall & Meyorre, 1980. The article In the Days of My Youth is reproduced in full.
5. Visit to a School with a New Work (1904). Cited in A. B. Robertson, "Dodd, Catherine Isabella (1860–1932)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, UK: OUP, 2004 Retrieved 1 October 2017. Subscription required.
6. Tom Steele, Alfred Orage and the Leeds Arts Club 1893–1923 (Mitcham, Orage Press, 2009) 218f
7. Michael Sadler, The Avant-Garde in Interwar England (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999) 52
8. see Heron interview in B. Read and D. Thistlewood, Herbert Read: A British Vision of World Art, London 1993
9. The report was meant to be about "the affairs of Calcutta University"... amongst other things it created Lucknow University.
10. Chakraborty, Rachana (2012). "University of Calcutta". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
11. "Court Circular". The Times (36792). London. 12 June 1902. p. 12.
12. "No. 28505". The London Gazette (Supplement). 19 June 1911. p. 4593.
13.
Michael Sadler Papers, 1797-1958, unc.edu. Retrieved 15 July 2017.

External links

A detailed biography from UNESCO
• Archival material at Leeds University Library
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Re: Round Table Movement, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Oct 13, 2019 7:40 am

Michael Sadleir [Sadler]
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 10/13/19

Image
Micheal Sadleir
Born December 25, 1888
Oxford, England
Died December 13, 1957 (aged 68)
Bisley, Gloucestershire
Occupation Writer (novelist)
Nationality British
Period 20th century
Genre History, fiction

Michael Sadleir (25 December 1888 – 13 December 1957[1]), born Michael Thomas Harvey Sadler, was a British publisher, novelist, book collector, and bibliographer.

Biography

Image
Bookplate of Michael Sadleir

Image
Michael Sadleir

Michael Sadleir was born in Oxford, the son of Sir Michael Ernest Sadler and Mary Ann Harvey.[2] He adopted the older variant of his surname to differentiate himself from his father, a historian, educationist, and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Leeds. Sadleir was educated at Rugby School and was a contemporary of Rupert Brooke, with whom he was romantically involved,

Image

Rupert Chawner Brooke (3 August 1887 – 23 April 1915[1]) was an English poet known for his idealistic war sonnets written during the First World War, especially "The Soldier". He was also known for his boyish good looks, which were said to have prompted the Irish poet W. B. Yeats to describe him as "the handsomest young man in England".[2][3]

-- Rupert Brooke, by Wikipedia


and Geoffrey Keynes.

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Sir Geoffrey Langdon Keynes (/ˈkeɪnz/ KAYNZ; 25 March 1887, Cambridge – 5 July 1982, Cambridge) was an English surgeon and author.[2] He began his career as a medic in World War I, before becoming a doctor at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London, where he made notable innovations in the fields of blood transfusion and breast cancer surgery. Keynes was also a publishing scholar and bibliographer of English literature and English medical history, focussing primarily on William Blake and William Harvey.... Geoffrey Keynes was the third child, after his older brother, the prominent economist John Maynard Keynes.

-- Sir Geoffrey Langdon Keynes, by Wikipedia


He then attended Balliol College, Oxford, where he read history and won the 1912 Stanhope prize. Before the First World War, Sadleir and his father were keen collectors of contemporary art, and purchased works by young English artists such as Stanley Spencer and Mark Gertler. They were amongst the first collectors (and certainly the first English collectors) of the paintings of the Russian-born German Expressionist artist Wassily Kandinsky. In 1913, both Sadleir and his father travelled to Germany to meet Kandinsky in Munich.[3] This visit led to Sadleir translating into English Kandinsky's seminal written work on expressionism, Concerning the Spiritual In Art in 1914. This was one of the first coherent arguments for abstract art in the English language and its effects were profound. Extracts from it were published in the Vorticist literary magazine BLAST in 1914, and it had a major impact on the development of abstract art in Britain and North America right up until the 1960s. Sadleir's translation is still in print, and it remains one of the most commonly used versions of Kandinsky's book in the English language.

Sadleir began to work for the publishing firm of Constable & Co. in 1912, becoming a director in 1920, and chairman in 1954. In 1920 as editor of Bliss and Other Stories by Katherine Mansfield for Constable he insisted on censoring sections of her short story Je ne parle pas français which show the cynical attitudes to love and sex of the narrator. Her husband John Middleton Murry persuaded Sadlier to reduce the cuts slightly (Murry and Sadleir had founded the avant-garde quarterly Rhythm in 1912) [4]

After the end of World War I, he served as a British delegate to the Paris Peace Conference, 1919, and worked at the secretariat of the newly formed League of Nations. As a literary historian, he specialized in 19th century English fiction, notably the work of Anthony Trollope. Together with Ian Fleming and others, Sadleir was a director and contributor to The Book Handbook, later renamed The Book Collector, published by Queen Anne Press. He also conducted research on Gothic fiction and discovered rare original editions of the Northanger Horrid Novels mentioned in the novel Northanger Abbey by Jane Austen. Beforehand, some of these books, with their lurid titles, were thought to be figments of Austen's imagination.[5] Sadleir and Montague Summers demonstrated that they did really exist. He was President of the Bibliographical Society from 1944 to 1946.[6]

Sadleir's best known novel was Fanny by Gaslight (1940), a fictional exploration of prostitution in Victorian London. It was adapted under that name as a 1944 film. The 1947 novel Forlorn Sunset further explored the characters of the Victorian London underworld. His writings also include a biography of his father, published in 1949, and a privately published memoir of one of his sons, who was killed in World War II.

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Michael Sadleir book sticker

The remarkable collection Victorian fiction compiled by Sadleir, now at the UCLA Department of Special Collections, is the subject of a catalogue published in 1951. His collection of Gothic fiction is at the University of Virginia Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library.

Sadleir lived at Througham Court, Bisley, in Gloucestershire, a fine Jacobean farmhouse altered for him by the architect Norman Jewson, c. 1929.

Bibliography

• Excursions in Victorian Bibliography (London: Chaundy & Cox, 1922)
• Desolate Splendour (1923)
• The Noblest Frailty (1925)
• Trollope: A Commentary (1927)
• Trollope: A Bibliography (1928)
• Evolution of Publishers' Binding Styles (1930)
• Bulwer: A Panorama (1931)
• Authors and Publishers: A Study in Mutual Esteem (1932)
• Blessington D'Orsay: A Masquerade (1933)
• Archdeacon Francis Wrangham (1937)
• These Foolish Things (1937)
• Fanny by Gaslight (Constable & Co., 1940)
• Things Past (1944)
• Forlorn Sunset (1947)
• XIX Century Fiction: A Bibliographical Record (Constable & Co. and University of California Press, 1951)

See also

• Leeds Arts Club
• Bibliographical Society

References

1. "Derek Hudson, 'Sadleir, Michael Thomas Harvey (1888–1957)', rev. Sayoni Basu, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscriber access only)". Retrieved 2008-05-09.
2. Michael Sadleir Papers, 1797-1958, unc.edu. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
3. Tom Steele, Alfred Orage and the Leeds Arts Club (1893-1923) (Aldershot, Ashgate 1990) 179
4. Alpers (editor), Antony (1984). The Stories of Katherine Mansfield. Auckland: Oxford University Press. pp. 551, 560. ISBN 0-19-558113-X.
5. Sadleir, Michael (1927). A Footnote to Jane Austen. Oxford: OUP.
6. The Bibliographical Society -- Past Presidents Archived 2009-08-04 at the Wayback Machine, bibsoc.org.uk (archived webpage). Retrieved 15 July 2017.

External links

• Online text of a brief autobiography, Passages from the Autobiography of a Bibliomaniac

Library collections

• "Nineteenth Century Literature". UCLA Library Research Guides. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved 7 April 2017. More than 4600 titles mainly from the 19th century including important novelists, series, and cheaply published yellowbacks.
• The Sadleir-Black Collection of Gothic Fiction, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library at the University of Virginia. collection of Gothic fiction titles assembled by Sadleir, Arthur Hutchinson and Robert Kerr Black.
• Michael Sadleir Papers, 1797-1958 description of archival material held in the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
• Michael Sadleir papers, MSS 2053 at L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Brigham Young University
• Sadleir MSS and Sadleir MSS III brief descriptions of manuscripts at the Lilly Library, Indiana University

Online editions

• Works by Michael Sadleir at Project Gutenberg
• Works by Michael Sadleir at Faded Page (Canada)
• Works by or about Michael Sadleir at Internet Archive
• Works by Michael Sadleir at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
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Re: Round Table Movement, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Oct 13, 2019 8:59 am

Lionel George Curtis
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 10/13/19

Image
Lionel George Curtis
Born 1872
Died 1955
Nationality British
Alma mater University of Oxford
Occupation Professor
Known for Leading Milner's Kindergarten

Lionel George Curtis CH (1872–1955) was a British official and author. He advocated British Empire Federalism[1] and, late in life, a world state. His ideas concerning dyarchy were important in the development of the Government of India Act 1919 and more generally, his writings influenced the evolution of the Commonwealth of Nations.

Life

Curtis was born at Coddington, Herefordshire in 1872, the youngest of the four children of an Anglican rector.[2] He was educated at Haileybury College and then at New College, Oxford, where he read law. He fought in the Second Boer War with the City Imperial Volunteers and served as secretary to Lord Milner (a position that had also been held by adventure-novelist John Buchan), during which time he dedicated himself to working for a united self-governing South Africa. Following Milner's death in 1925, he became the second leader of Milner's Kindergarten until his own death in 1955. His experience led him to conceptualize his version of a Federal World Government, which became his life work. In pursuit of this goal, he founded (1910) the quarterly Round Table. He was appointed (1912) Beit lecturer in colonial history at the University of Oxford, and a Fellow of All Souls College.

In 1919 Curtis led a delegation of British and American experts to organize the Royal Institute of International Affairs during the Peace Conference of Paris.[3]

In 1947, Curtis was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize; in 1949, he was appointed a Companion of Honour, on the thirtieth anniversary of the founding of Chatham House.[4]


Works

Curtis' most important books were:

• The Commonwealth of Nations (1916);
• Dyarchy (1920); and,
• Civitas Dei: The Commonwealth of God (1938), arguing that the United States must rejoin the British commonwealth and that the Commonwealth must evolve into a world government.

Notes

1. Fromkin, David (1989). A Peace to End All Peace. p. 232.
2. Tom Cargill: How to build a better world. History Today, Vol. 63, No. 2 (February 2013).
3. Edgar Trevor Williams, A. F. Madden, David Kenneth Fieldhouse. Oxford and the Idea of Commonwealth. Routledge, 1982. (Pages 39, 98)
4. May, Alex (2006). Curtis, Lionel George (1872–1955). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press.

References

• World Revolution In The Cause of Peace, Basil Blackwell, Oxford (1949)
• From Empire to International Commonwealth: A Biography of Lionel Curtis by Deborah Lavin, Oxford University Press (1995), ISBN 0-19-812616-6
• The Round Table movement and imperial union by John Edward Kendle, University of Toronto Press (1975), ISBN 0-8020-5292-4
• The Anglo-American Establishment by Professor Carroll Quigley
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Re: Round Table Movement, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Oct 13, 2019 9:10 am

Wickham Steed
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 10/13/19

On May 8, 1920, an article[56] in The Times followed German translation and appealed for an inquiry into what it called an "uncanny note of prophecy". In the leader (editorial) titled "The Jewish Peril, a Disturbing Pamphlet: Call for Inquiry", Wickham Steed wrote about The Protocols:

What are these 'Protocols'? Are they authentic? If so, what malevolent assembly concocted these plans and gloated over their exposition? Are they forgery? If so, whence comes the uncanny note of prophecy, prophecy in part fulfilled, in part so far gone in the way of fulfillment?".[57]


Steed retracted his endorsement of The Protocols after they were exposed as a forgery.[58]

-- The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, by Wikipedia


Another well-known author in the 1920s, Henry Wickham Steed describes in the second volume of his Through 30 Years 1892-1922 (p. 302) how he attempted to bring the Jewish-conspiracy concept to the attention of Colonel Edward M. House and President Woodrow Wilson. One day in March 1919 Wickham Steed called Colonel House and found him disturbed over Steed's recent criticism of U.S. recognition of the Bolsheviks. Steed pointed out to House that Wilson would be discredited among the many peoples and nations of Europe and "insisted that, unknown to him, the prime movers were Jacob Schiff, Warburg and other international financiers, who wished above all to bolster up the Jewish Bolshevists in order to secure a field for German and Jewish exploitation of Russia." [1] According to Steed, Colonel House argued for the establishment of economic relations with the Soviet Union.

-- Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, by Antony C. Sutton


THE STORY OF JOEL BRAND

Mr. Wickham Steed, columnist for the Manchester Guardian in England, states: "Two Nazi or Hungarian agents called on the Allies with a certain extortion proposal, which the Allies scorned with indignation."

This mysterious item about Joel Brand and his desperate mission was reprinted in Ben-Gurion's newspaper Davar on July 28, 1944. This and no more ... before Joel Brand's Banquo-like appearance in Judge Halevi's court room nine years later.

The mysterious item was on view in the government press after emissary Joel Brand had been handed over to the British, and after Hungarian Jewry had been dumped into the German ash barrels....


Ben-Gurion's Davar reportage quoting the illusive "Wickham Steed" did not even mention the B.B.C. broadcast, made in London on June 20, 1944, on which the item was based. Communist dictators, too, consider it correct procedure to keep their constituencies uninformed about what the wretched world outside is saying. This outside world is usually saying things of a derogatory nature. But what is there derogatory about the B.B.C. broadcast? Why is it cut down to unintelligibility by Ben-Gurion's paper? Here is the broadcast:

"Two emissaries of the Hungarian Government arrived in Turkey to present the Allied representatives with the following offer from the Hungarian Government -- all the Jews remaining alive in Hungary will receive exit permits in return for a certain quantity of medical supplies and transport trucks from England and America. The promise was also made that these materials would not be used on the Western Front.

"At this time, the names of the emissaries cannot be revealed.

"Authoritative British circles consider this offer as a crude attempt to weaken the Allies, whose sympathy for the Hungarian Jews is well known; also to create dissension among the Allies.

"There is not the slightest possibility that the British and American governments will agree to enter into any negotiations of this short, although they would like to help the Hungarian Jews."


This was not entirely bad reporting. The emissaries were from the Germans, not the Hungarians. And there was only one emissary, sent out to the world's Jews, not to the Allies. The objective cited, "a crude attempt to weaken the Allies," was one of the possible reasons involved. And the British, speaking for the Allies, do not quite "scorn with indignation" as Davar states. Instead they make a cool and cautious statement that cannot be nailed as a lie. They "would like to help the Hungarian Jews."

Who wouldn't "like to help" a million human beings about to be tortured and murdered? The myriad of men, women, and children entering the death houses in Auschwitz don't know about this Christian wish "to help" them, but it is there, spoken with true British restraint by the B.B.C. announcer.

The princes of Israel are so efficient in their silence technique that Tamir, in Judge Halevi's court room, has never even heard of the Joel Brand story.

But the Joel Brand Story comes now to Tamir.

It comes as the whisper of a nightmare. A friend brings him word that there is a certain man in Tel Aviv who has a story to tell about the slaughter of the Hungarian Jews and the connivance of Israel's leaders in it -- a story that might fit into the trial.


-- Perfidy, by Ben Hecht


The Milner Group did not own The Times before 1922, but clearly controlled it at least as far back as 1912. Even before this last date, members of the innermost circle of the Milner Group were swarming about the great newspaper. In fact, it would appear that The Times had been controlled by the Cecil Bloc since 1884 and was taken over by the Milner Group in the same way in which All Souls was taken over, quietly and without a struggle. The midwife of this process apparently was George E. Buckle (1854-1935), graduate of New College in 1876, member of All Souls since 1877, and editor of The Times from 1884 to 1912. (2) The chief members of the Milner Group who were associated with The Times have already been mentioned. Amery was connected with the paper from 1899 to 1909. During this period he edited and largely wrote the Times History of the South African War. Lord Esher was offered a directorship in 1908. Grigg was a staff writer in 1903-1905, and head of the Imperial Department in 1908-1913. B. K. Long was head of the Dominion Department in 1913-1921 and of the Foreign Department in 1920-1921. Monypenny was assistant editor both before and after the Boer War (1894-1899, 1903-1908) and on the board of directors after the paper was incorporated (1908-1912). Dawson was the paper's chief correspondent in South Africa in the Selborne period (1905-1910), while Basil Williams was the reporter covering the National Convention there (1908-1909). When it became clear in 1911 that Buckle must soon retire, Dawson was brought into the office in a rather vague capacity and, a year later, was made editor. The appointment was suggested and urged by Buckle. (3) Dawson held the position from 1912 to 1941, except for the three years 1919-1922. This interval is of some significance, for it revealed to the Milner Group that they could not continue to control The Times without ownership. The Cecil Bloc had controlled The Times from 1884 to 1912 without ownership, and the Milner Group had done the same in the period 1912-1919, but, in this last year, Dawson quarreled with Lord Northcliffe (who was chief proprietor from 1908-1922) and left the editor's chair. As soon as the Milner Group, through the Astors, acquired the chief proprietorship of the paper in 1922, Dawson was restored to his post and held it for the next twenty years. Undoubtedly the skillful stroke which acquired the ownership of The Times from the Harmsworth estate in 1922 was engineered by Brand. During the interval of three years during which Dawson was not editor, Northcliffe entrusted the position to one of The Time's famous foreign correspondents, H. W. Steed.

-- The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden, by Carroll Quigley


Image
Henry Wickham Steed
Wickham Steed in 1920
Born Henry Wickham Steed
10 October 1871
Long Melford, Suffolk, England
Died 13 January 1956 (aged 84)
Wootton, England
Occupation Journalist, editor, and historian

Henry Wickham Steed (10 October 1871 – 13 January 1956) was an English journalist and historian. He was editor of The Times from 1919 until 1922.

Early life

Born in Long Melford, England, Steed was educated at Sudbury Grammar School and the universities of Jena, Berlin and Paris. While in Europe, he demonstrated an early interest in social democracy and met with a range of left-wing figures, including Friedrich Engels, Wilhelm Liebknecht, August Bebel, and Alexandre Millerand. His encounters formed the basis of his first book, The Socialist and Labour Movement in England, Germany & France (1894).[citation needed]

Foreign correspondent

Appointed by Joseph Pulitzer as Paris correspondent for the New York World, Steed joined The Times in 1896 as a foreign correspondent, working briefly out of Berlin before transferring successively to Rome (from 1897 until 1902) and then Vienna (1902–13). In 1914, he moved to London to take over as foreign editor of The Times. During his time in Vienna he acquired a deep contempt for Austria-Hungary.[1] An anti-Semite and a Germanophobe, in an editorial published in The Times on 31 July 1914, Steed labelled efforts to stop the impending war as "a dirty German-Jewish international financial attempt to bully us into advocating neutrality".[2] From 22 July 1914 on, Steed, in close agreement with The Times' proprietor, Lord Northcliffe, took a very bellicose line and in editorials written on 29 and 31 July, Steed urged that the British Empire should enter the coming war.[3]

Seen as a leading expert on Eastern Europe, Steed's views had much influence with decision-makers such as high-level bureaucrats and Cabinet politicians in the First World War and its aftermath. During the war, Steed befriended anti-Habsburg émigrés such as Edvard Beneš, Ante Trumbić, Tomáš Masaryk and Roman Dmowski and advised the British government to seek the liquidation of Austria-Hungary as a war aim. In particular, Steed was a very strong advocate of uniting all of the South Slavic peoples such as the Croats, the Serbs and the Slovenes into a federation to be called Yugoslavia. The British Ambassador to Italy claimed in a diplomatic dispatch that Steed's fondness for the Yugoslav concept derived from a relationship he maintained for a number of years "filially I believe rather maritally" with a Slavic woman from the Balkans.[1] In October 1918, Steed met with the Serbian Prime Minister Nikola Pašić to gain his support for the Yugoslav concept; Steed was deeply angered when he learned that Pašić saw the new state as merely as extension of Greater Serbia and had no intention of sharing power with the Croats or the Slovenes.[1] Steed charged Pašić with being a new "sultan" and severed his friendship with him.[1]

Editor of The Times

When the editor of The Times, Geoffrey Dawson, resigned from his post in February 1919, Steed was Northcliffe's first choice to succeed him. Steed had worked closely with Northcliffe during the war, becoming an adviser to him on foreign affairs. Steed was forced to contend with Northcliffe throughout most of his tenure as editor, as the press baron retained considerable control over the affairs of the newspaper.[citation needed]

After the war, Steed strongly disapproved of the Bolshevik regime in Russia. In an editorial written in another Northcliffe paper, the Daily Mail on 28 March 1919, Steed accused the British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, whom Steed detested, of betraying the White Russians because of a plot by "international Jewish financiers" and the Germans to help the Bolsheviks stay in power.[4]

In 1920, Steed endorsed as genuine a notorious anti-Semitic forgery, The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, writing in an editorial in The Times, where he blamed the Jews for World War I and the Bolshevik regime, and called them the greatest threat to the British Empire. However, he retracted his view on the Protocols in 1921, when his paper's Constantinople correspondent proved them a forgery.[5]

Although Steed was Northcliffe's personal choice for the editorship, by 1922 the press baron was increasingly frustrated by Steed's failure to return The Times to profitability. After Northcliffe's death in August 1922, the new owners, John Jacob Astor and John Walter, dismissed Steed on 24 October and brought back Dawson as editor.[citation needed]

Final years

In 1923, Steed became editor of Review of Reviews (1923–30), the journal established by William Thomas Stead in 1890. In the early 1930s, he was one of the first English speakers to express alarm about the new German dictatorial chancellor, Adolf Hitler. In 1934, he caused sensation with an article claiming to have evidence of secret German experiments in airborne biological warfare.[6] The British government was sufficiently alarmed to start stockpiling vaccines,[7] although a retrospective analysis by the epidemiologist Martin Hugh-Jones has suggested that Steed's evidence could not have amounted to much.[8] On the title page of his 1934 work, Hitler Whence and Whither?, Steed is described as a lecturer in Central European History at King's College London.

He died in Wootton, West Oxfordshire.

In media

Steed, played by actor Andrew Keir, appears in the 1974 miniseries Fall of Eagles, bringing a rumour of the impending Bosnian crisis to the attention of King Edward VII, Georges Clemenceau, and Alexander Izvolsky.

Works

• The Habsburg Monarchy (1913)
• A Short History of Austria-Hungary and Poland (1914)
• Through Thirty Years, 1892-1922: A personal narrative (1924)
• Journalism (1928)
• The Real Stanley Baldwin (1930)
• The Antecedents of Post-war Europe (1932)
• A Way to Social Peace (1934)
• Hitler Whence and Whither? (1934)
• The Meaning of Hitlerism (1934)
• Vital Peace: A study of risks (1936)
• The Doom of the Habsburgs (1937)
• The Press (1938)
• Our War Aims (1939)

See also

• Robert William Seton-Watson

References

Notes


1. Margaret Macmillan, Paris 1919, p. 114f.
2. Niall Ferguson, The Pity of War, p. 32, 195.
3. Niall Ferguson, The Pity of War, p. 217.
4. Margaret Macmillan, Paris 1919, p. 80.
5. Andre Liebich: "The Antisemitism of Henry Steed", Patterns of Prejudice, Vol. 46, No. 2, 2002. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
6. H. Wickham Steed, "Aerial warfare: secret German plans", Nineteenth Century and After 116 (1934), 1–15.
7. Brett Holman, Airminded: The Wickham Steed affair in popular culture, 17 February 2007
8. Martin Hugh-Jones, 'Wickham Steed and German biological warfare research', Intelligence and National Security 7 (1992), 379–402.

Bibliography

• Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, London: Basic Books, 1999.
• Macmillan, Margaret Paris 1919 New York: Random House, 2002.

External links

• Works by or about Wickham Steed at Internet Archive
• The Habsburg Monarchy (1913)) eLibrary Austria Project (eLib Projekt) full text
• A Short History of Austria-Hungary and Poland (1914) Historical Text Archive full text
• Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
• Works written by or about Wickham Steed at Wikisource
• Newspaper clippings about Wickham Steed in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
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