Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Fri Sep 20, 2019 10:03 am

Litton Industries
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/19/19



Litton Industries
Litton logo at time of Northrop-Grumman merger in 2001.
Litton B1-A Advanced Extra-Vehicular Suit, Litton Industries, 1969 - Kennedy Space Center - Cape Canaveral, Florida - DSC02895.jpg
Industry Defense
Fate Acquired by Northrop Grumman
Successor Northrop Grumman
Founded 1953
Defunct 2001
Headquarters Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.
Website Edit this on Wikidata

Litton Industries was a large defense contractor in the United States named after inventor Charles Litton, Sr..

During the 1960s, the company began acquiring many unrelated firms and became one of the largest conglomerates in the United States. At its peak, in addition to many defense related companies, it also owned both Royal Typewriters and Adler, Moffat major appliances, Stouffer's frozen foods, and various office equipment and furniture companies.

Like many conglomerates, the company suffered significant declines in the 1970s, selling off many of its unrelated brands and had largely returned to its defense roots by the 1980s. The company continued to shrink after the ending of the cold war and by the late 1990s was a corporate takeover target. The company was purchased by Northrop Grumman in 2001.

Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE: NOC) is an American global aerospace and defense technology company. With over 85,000 employees[4] and an annual revenue in excess of $30 billion, it is one of the world's largest weapons manufacturers and military technology providers.[5][6][7][2] The firm ranks number 118 on the 2018 Fortune 500 list of America's largest corporations.[8]

Northrop Grumman and its industry partners have won the Collier Trophy eight times, most recently for developing the X-47B, the first-ever unmanned, autonomous air system operating from an aircraft carrier.[9] In 2004, Scaled Composites, a subsidiary of Northrop Grumman, won the Collier Trophy for the SpaceShipOne which was successful developed for the first privately financed, built, and flown space vehicle.[9] Northrop Grumman currently leads the development of B-21 Raider, a long-range, stealth strategic bomber capable of delivering conventional and thermonuclear weapons; it will replace Northrop's own B-2 Spirit, the only known stealth bomber in the world.

-- Northrop Grumman, by Wikipedia


Litton started in 1953 as an electronics company building navigation, communications and electronic warfare equipment. They diversified and became a much bigger business, with major shipyards, and manufacturing microwave ovens.

In the early 1990s, Litton Industries split into separate military and commercial companies. The US$2 billion commercial business, which included Litton's oilfield services, business and automated assembly line operations, was named Western Atlas, Inc.

The early "li" logo was designed by Robert Miles Runyan, but was modified in 1986 by designer Gregory Thomas after a worldwide comprehensive study and analysis of the corporate identity. For much of the early 1980s and 90s, "li SWEDA" and "li COLE" were commonly found on product goods but it was modified to bring emphasis to the parent company, whose name was little known.

In 1998, Litton Industries bought TASC, Inc.. In 2000, TASC sold three stand-alone commercial operations: Adesso Software, WSI (Weather Services International) Corporation[1] and Emerge. In 2001, Northrop Grumman bought Litton Industries.


• Litton Industries, Potentiometer Division, Mount Vernon, NY
• Litton Airtron, Morris Plains, NJ (microwave waveguide, subsystems and components, AMDL-Advanced Material Development Laboratories for solid state crystal and substrate material growth and marketing and Diamonair gems and jewelry... As a by-product of AMDL crystal material.
• Litton Airtron-SYNOPTICS (Synthetic Optics and Crystals). Airtron purchased Allied Chemicals crystal growth facility in Charlotte, NC and merged AMDL into that facility eventually becoming Northrop Grumman-Synoptics after NGC acquisition.
• Litton Guidance and Control Systems
• Litton Aero Products
• Litton Computer Services
• Litton Electron Devices → now L3 Technologies, Electron Devices: Torrance CA & Williamsport PA
• Litton Data Systems
• Litton Space Systems
• Litton Integrated Systems
• Litton Ship Systems
o Avondale Shipyards
o Ingalls Shipyards

Litton Marine Systems logo
Litton Automated Marine Systems (AMS)
o Sperry Marine
o C.Plath
o Load monitoring System for Spanish Product Carriers (IMP-16 based embedded system w/real-time monitoring and calculation of shear forces and bending moment for load officers)
o Decca Radar (formerly a division of Racal)
 Decca Navigator, a historical VLF navigation system
• Litton Systems Canada
• Litton Italia
• Litton Encoder
• Litton Network Access Systems
• Litton PRC
• LITEF (Litton Technische Werke Freiburg, Germany)
• Litton Kester, a manufacturer of electronics grade solders, particularly the "eutectic" Sn63Pb37 alloy (lowest melting point of any purely tin-lead alloy)
• Litton Advanced Systems (formerly Litton Amecom)
• Litton Life Support Systems (formerly Bendix Instruments and Life Support Division) Davenport, Iowa
• Litton Datalog (formerly the New York Times Facsimile Company and the printer part of Monroe Calculator; merged into Amecom 1982)
• Litton Westrex (Formerly Western Electric, provider to the film industry of magnetic and photographic sound recording systems. Credits on nearly every Columbia, Fox, M-G-M, Paramount and Universal features, and several independents, including Quinn Martin. Developer of the 45-45 system of stereo phonograph recording, StereoDisk.)
• Litton Bionetics, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD
• Western Atlas, a joint venture formed with Dresser Industries, including former Litton subsidiary Western Geophysical. Spun off in 1994.
• Litton Revenue Control Systems, formerly Taller and Cooper on Front Street in Brooklyn, manufacturer of highway toll ticket dispensing and reading machines.

Consumer and office products:

• Litton Cole (filing cabinets and office furniture)
• Litton Moffat (major appliances)
• Litton Sweda (cash registers)
• Litton Monroe (adding machines/calculators)
• Litton Royal (typewriters)
• Litton Adler (typewriters)
• Stouffer's (frozen food products, restaurants, and hotels; purchased in 1967, sold to Nestlé in 1973)[2]

See also

• Litton Industries bombing


1. aviation week, February 14, 2000
2. "Stouffer Corporation". Ohio History Central. Ohio Historical Society. Retrieved December 1, 2013.

Further reading

• Robert Sobel The Money Manias: The Eras of Great Speculation in America, 1770–1970 (1973) reprinted (2000).

External links

• Official website
• Northrop Grumman website
• LITTON Industries Alumni - LITTON Industries Alumni group on LinkedIn
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Fri Sep 20, 2019 10:53 am

Arthur D. Little
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/20/19



Arthur D. Little
Type: Incorporated partnership
Industry: Management consulting
Founded: 1886; 133 years ago
Founder: Arthur Dehon Little
Headquarters: Brussels, Belgium[1]
Number of locations: 38 offices[2]
Key people: Ignacio Garcia Alves, Global CEO
Products: Management consulting services
Number of employees: 1000 [3]

Arthur D. Little is an international management consulting firm originally headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, and formally incorporated by that name in 1909[4] by Arthur Dehon Little, an MIT chemist who had discovered acetate. Arthur D. Little pioneered the concept of contracted professional services. The company played key roles in the development of business strategy, operations research, the word processor, the first synthetic penicillin, LexisNexis, SABRE and NASDAQ. Today the company is a multi-national management consulting firm operating as a partnership.

Early history

Arthur D. Little's eponymous founder

The Arthur D. Little Inc. building at 30 Memorial Drive in Cambridge, Massachusetts, near MIT, which opened in 1917.

Entrance to 30 Memorial Drive ADL building

The roots of the company were started in 1886 by Arthur Dehon Little, an MIT chemist, and co-worker Roger B. Griffin (Russell B. Griffin), another chemist and a graduate of the University of Vermont who had met when they both worked for Richmond Paper Company. Their new company, Little & Griffin, was located in Boston where MIT was also located. Griffin and Little prepared a manuscript for The Chemistry of Paper-making[5] which was for many years an authoritative text in the area. The book had not been entirely finished when Griffin was killed in a laboratory accident in 1893.[4]

Little, who had studied Chemistry at MIT, collaborated with MIT and William Hultz Walker of the MIT Chemistry department, forming a partnership, Little & Walker, which lasted from 1900 to 1905, while both MIT and Little's company were still located in Boston.[4] The partnership dissolved in 1905 when Walker dedicated all of his time to being in charge of the new Research Laboratory of Applied Chemistry at MIT.[4]

Little continued on his own and formally incorporated the company, Arthur D. Little (ADL), in 1909.[4] He conducted analytical studies, the precursor of the consulting studies for which the firm would later become famous. He also taught papermaking at MIT from 1893 to 1916.[6]

In 1917, the company, originally based at 103 Milk Street in Boston, moved to a building of its own, the Arthur D. Little Inc., Building, at 30 Memorial Drive on the Charles River next to the new campus of MIT, which had also relocated from Boston to Cambridge.[4][7] The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. In November 1953, ADL opened a 40-acre site for its Acorn Park labs in west Cambridge, Massachusetts, about 6 miles (10 km) from MIT.[7] The new site took its name from the company motto - "Glandes Sparge Ut Quercus Crescant," translated as "Scatter Acorns That Oaks May Grow." [8] The Memorial Drive Trust, a tax-exempt retirement trust for the benefit of its employees, was set up.[9] From 1972 to 2001 ADL owned Cambridge Consultants Ltd in Cambridge UK and both companies forged close links.

Seminal Projects

As the pioneer firm in professional services, Arthur D. Little played a key role in numerous 20th-century business initiatives:

In 1911 ADL organized General Motors' first R&D lab,[10] leading to the formation of the firm's dedicated management consulting division, and the birth of the management consulting industry.[11]

In 1916 ADL was commissioned by the Canadian Pacific Railway to do a survey of Canada's natural resources.[10]

In 1921 the firm succeeded in using a bucket of sows' ears to make a silk purse.[10] This revolutionary achievement later became part of the Smithsonian Institute's collection.[12]

In 1968 ADL designed the NASDAQ stock exchange systems for London and Tokyo.[10]

In 1980, ADL produced the European Commission's first white paper on telecommunications deregulation, having completed the first worldwide telecommunications database on phones installed, markets, technical trends, services and regulatory information.[10] It also helped privatize British Rail, generally regarded as one of the most complex privatization exercises in the world.

The Altran Era

By 2001, Arthur D. Little reached its peak as a global consulting firm. However, a new management team mismanaged the company's core business and engaged in manipulation of the Memorial Drive Trust. The ADL Board of Trustees replaced this management team. However, the damage had been done, and Arthur D. Little filed Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in 2002.[13] At an auction in 2002, Paris-based Altran Technologies bought the non-U.S. assets and brand name of Arthur D. Little.

Under Altran's ownership, Arthur D. Little operated primarily as a European-centric company initially, rebuilding and strengthening its core practices in oil and gas, telecommunications, automotive, manufacturing, and chemicals. Later ADL grew and expanded throughout Europe, the Middle East, and Asia and continued to be recognized for its expertise in areas combining aspects of technology, innovation, and strategy.

Refounding - Current Partnership Organization

A group of partners led a management buyout from the Altran group in 2011.[14] The MBO was completed on 30 December 2011 with the vast majority of ADL directors becoming partners and shareholders. A small number of principals, as well as the CFO and COO, are also shareholders. The firm is led by the elected Global CEO, Ignacio Garcia-Alves, who was also the leader of the MBO team.[15] Currently the firm operates with an elected board of directors and several elected committees - Compensation Committee, Partnership Committee, and an Audit Committee. Since the MBO, ADL opened new offices in Turkey, Oslo, Buenos Aires, Mexico City, Singapore, and Hong Kong. In addition, ADL recently re-established itself in the US market and has opened offices in Boston, Houston, New York, and San Francisco.[16]

Practice areas

Arthur D. Little is organized across a number of industry specialty groups including Automotive, Energy / Utilities / Chemicals, Telecommunication / Information / Media / Electronics (TIME), Consumer Goods & Retail, Healthcare & Life Sciences, Engineering / Manufacturing, Public Services, and Travel & Transportation.[17] Major service lines are in Strategy & Organization, Technology Innovation Management, Operations Management, and Risk/Safety.[18]

Rankings, Awards, and Recognitions

In 2019, Arthur D. Little is rated #10 and #11 in Vault's 2019 Consulting rankings for Europe[19] and Asia[20] respectively.

ADL recently re-established itself the US market and has been recognized by Forbes in 2016, 2017, and 2018 as one of "America's Best Management Consulting Firms" [21] and made its debut as #34 in Vault's 2017 North America Consulting rankings.[22]

On Vault's global rankings of key employment factors, ADL was ranked #7 for firm culture.[23] #9 for international opportunities,[24]



• Guillebaud, David (2016). Disruption Denial: How Companies Are Ignoring What Is Staring Them in the Face. LID Publishing. ISBN 1910649775.
• Träm, Michael (2010). Innovate Your Company: Trends to Follow for a Competitive Advantage. Wiley. ISBN 9783527505227.
• Deneux, François; Rouach, Daniel; Louzoun, Steve (2010). Incubators of the World. Pearson. ISBN 2744064599.
• Scott-Morgan, Peter; Hoving, Erik (2001). The End of Change: How Your Company Can Sustain Growth and Innovation While Avoiding Change Fatigue. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0071357009.
• Senge, Peter (1999). The Dance of Change: The Challenges to Sustaining Momentum in a Learning Organization. Crown Business. ISBN 0385493223.
• Deschamps, Jean-Philippe; Nayak, P. Ranganath (1995). Product Juggernauts: How Companies Mobilize to Generate a Stream of Market Winners. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. ISBN 0-87584-341-7. OCLC 31330407.
• Scott-Morgan, Peter (1994). The Unwritten Rules of the Game: Master Them, Shatter Them, and Break Through the Barriers to Organizational Change. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0070570752.
• Jonash, Ronald; Sommerlatte, Tom (1994). The Innovation Premium: How Next Generation Companies Are Achieving Peak Performance And Profitability. Perseus Publishing. ISBN 978-0738203607.
• Nayak, P. Ranganath; Ketteringham, John M. (1994). Breakthroughs!. Pfeiffer. ISBN 0893842508.
• Roussel, Philip A.; Saad, Kamal N.; Erickson, Tamara J. (1991). Third Generation R & D: Managing the Link to Corporate Strategy. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. ISBN 0-87584-252-6. OCLC 22596604.

Studies and Viewpoints

Arthur D. Little publishes a number of regular global studies including:

• Twice a year, Arthur D. Little publishes its latest thinking on strategy, technology and innovation in its corporate magazine Prism.[25]
• The Annual Arthur D. Little - Exane BNP Paribas report[26] which has provided in-depth analysis of the telecoms sector since 2001

In addition, Arthur D. Little frequently publishes topical or industry-centric reports. Recent examples include:

• Media Flow of Funds 2017 : Consolidate, Diversity, or Perish,[27] which is the most recent in a multi-year study assessing the digital shifts in the content industry and the associated shifts in value along the industry ecosystem.
• Telecoms & Media Flagship Report 2017 : Major strategic choices ahead of TelCos: Reconfiguring for value[28] which assesses how digitalization will impact telecommunication operators' configuration.
• The Future of Urban Mobility Study (2014 version in cooperation with International Association of Public Transport)[29] which is a comprehensive global urban mobility benchmarking report
• The Global Innovation Excellence Study[30][31] which benchmarks innovation performance is published every 2–3 years and is in its 9th iteration
• Socioeconomic Effects of Broadband Speed [32]

Career education

In 1961, Arthur D. Little launched the first management education program to focus exclusively on training general managers from developing countries. Originally known as the Arthur D. Little Management Education Institute, this was a fully accredited academic institution with master's degree granting status.[33] In 1996, the Arthur D. Little School of Management formed a partnership with Boston College's Carroll School of Management in order to gain access to faculty and facilities.[34]
The Arthur D. Little School of Management became Hult International Business School in 2002, following a structural reorganization of Arthur D. Little Inc.


In 1987, ADL claimed that sabotage was likely the cause of the Bhopal disaster, which resulted in the death of thousands.[35] ADL's investigation was funded by Union Carbide, the company that owned the chemical plant responsible for the chemical disaster.[36] Analysis by Arthur D. Little argues that the Negligence argument was impossible for several tangible reasons.[37]

In 2001, ADL wrote a Philip Morris-funded report saying that smoking can help Czech economy: Public Finance Balance of Smoking in the Czech Republic.

Notable current and former employees


• Al Angrisani, Angrisani Turnarounds, LLC
• William J. J. Gordon and George M. Prince, creators of synectics.
• Bruce Henderson, founder of the Boston Consulting Group
Charles Koch, chairman and chief executive officer, Koch Industries
• Royal Little, founder of Textron, Inc.
• H. Donald Wilson, first president of LexisNexis database

Politics and public service

Merrill Cook, former member of the United States House of Representatives from Utah.
• Glen Fukushima, advisor to U.S. President Bill Clinton
• James M. Gavin, US Army Lieutenant General, World War II veteran, Commander of the 82nd Airborne Division, and later US Ambassador to France

• David Brown, Chief Executive IChemE (Institution of Chemical Engineers)[38]


Karl P. Stevenson, Arthur D. Little's president and chairman of the Ad Hoc Committee on Chemical and Biological Warfare that in 1950 expedited the creation of Camp Detrick's Special Operations Division that consolidated chemical and biological warfare projects in one location.[39]
• Winnett Boyd, engineer
• Fischer Black, economist who co-developed option pricing, which led to a Nobel Prize for his co-authors (the Nobel prize is not awarded posthumously)
Philip Chapman, Australian-born American astronaut
• Peter Glaser, inventor of the Solar power satellite
• David Levy, inventor
• Pamela Low, developed the flavored coating for Cap'n Crunch cereal
• Donald Schön, academic
• Jack Treynor, economist
• Bernard Vonnegut, atmospheric scientist, and brother of Kurt Vonnegut


1. Arthur D. Little. "Arthur D. Little: Locations".
2. "Locations". Arthur D. Little. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
3. "About Us". Archived from the original on 2015-07-14. Retrieved 2012-02-13.
4. Scatter Acorns That Oaks May Grow: An Arthur D. Little Exhibit, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The Institute Archives and Special Collections, 2009-08-25
5. Little, A.D.; Griffin, R.B., "The Chemistry of Paper-Making, together with the principles of general chemistry; a handbook for the student and manufacturer", New York : Howard Lockwood & Co., 1894.
6. Report: "On the Making of Silk Purses from Sows' Ears," 1921, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The Institute Archives and Special Collections, 2009-08-25
7. Photographs: Early Days/30 Memorial Drive, Cambridge/Arthur D. Little/Acorn Park, Cambridge, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The Institute Archives and Special Collections, 2010-03-18
8. "Arthur D. Little, Inc.: Exhibits: Institute Archives & Special Collections: MIT".
9. "COMPANY NEWS; Plenum Bidding for Arthur D. Little". 14 July 1987.
10. "ADL History Timeline" - ADL
11. "The Birth of Management Consulting - The MIT Campaign for a Better World".
12. "Report: "On the Making of Silk Purses from Sows' Ears," 1921" - ADL
13. Glater, Jonathan (2002-06-02). "Arthur D. Little Plans Bankruptcy Filing". NY Times. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
14. Altran website "The Group signed, on November 1st, 2011, a termsheet for an MBO concerning the disposal of Arthur D. Little due to be finalised by the year-end"
15. "Arthur D. Little announces the successful completion of its Management Buy-Out - Business Wire".
16. "Arthur D. Little Announces More Than 20 New Partners Through External Hiring and Promotions - Business Wire".
17. "Industries". Arthur D. Little. Archived from the original on August 2, 2017. Retrieved April 17,2017.
18. "Services". Arthur D. Little. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
19. "Best European consulting company to work".
20. "Best Asian Consulting companies to work".
21. "America's Best Management Consulting Firms".
22. "Best companies to work".
23. "Best Asia Pacific companies to work".
24. "Best companies to work".
25. Prism is available from its website or free on demand from any of the corporate offices.
26. Arthur D. Little - Exane BNP Paribas report available from ADL website
27. Little, Arthur D. "Arthur D. Little - Publications: Viewpoints".
28. Little, Arthur D. "Arthur D. Little - Publications: Viewpoints".
29. Arthur D. Little - The Future of Urban Mobility 2.0 available from ADL website
30. "Arthur D. Little Study Says External Business Intelligence Boosts Innovation and Profits - The CIO Report - WSJ". WSJ.
31. ADL Global Innovation Excellence Study available from ADL website
32. "Socioeconomic Effects of Broadband Speed" (PDF). Ericsson. September 2013.
33. "Arthur D. Little, Inc.: Exhibits: Institute Archives & Special Collections: MIT".
34. "Arthur D. Little, Inc.: Exhibits: Institute Archives & Special Collections: MIT".
35. BBC. "Response: Union Carbide and Dow Chemical". BBC Website. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
36. Laymon, Brent. "Carbide Consultant Says Sabotage Caused Bhopal Tragedy". AP Report. Associated Press. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
37. Kalelkar AS, Little AD (1988). Investigation of Large-magnitude Incidents: Bhopal as a Case Study. London: Presented at the Institution of Chemical Engineers conference on preventing major chemical accidents.
38. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-09-03.
39. A Terrible Mistake:The Murder of Frank Olson and the CIA’s Secret Cold War Experiments A Terrible Mistake:The Murder of Frank Olson and the CIA’s Secret Cold War Experiments - H.P. Albarelli - July 1, 2009 - ISBN 0-9777953-7-3
Further reading[edit]
• James Adams (1992). Bull's eye: the assassination and life of supergun inventor Gerald Bull. (Chapter Seven) Times Books.
• Eagar, Rick, “Who says it can't be done?” : A brief history of Arthur D. Little, PRISM magazine, 2006 (issue for the 120th anniversary of the company)
• Peter Herman (2006). Managing other people's business, but not our own.
• E. J. Kahn, Jr. (1986). The Problem Solvers. Little Brown.

External links

• Arthur D. Little official website
• Prism: Bi-Annual Thought Leadership Collection
• Of Silk Purses and Lead Balloons
• ICHEME official website
• Alumni Association
• The Original ADL Alumni Association
• ADL Chronicles Products and Inventions from the ADL Labs
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Sat Sep 21, 2019 2:25 am

Donald Tresidder
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/20/19



Donald Bertrand Tresidder
Donald Tresidder in front of the Ahwahnee Hotel, Yosemite National Park, California
4th President of Stanford University
In office: October 14, 1943 – January 28, 1948
Preceded by: Ray Lyman Wilbur
Succeeded by: Alvin C. Eurich (acting)
Personal details
Born: April 7, 1894, Tipton, Indiana
Died: January 28, 1948 (aged 53), New York City
Spouse(s): Mary Curry
Alma mater: Stanford University
Profession: Businessman

Donald Bertrand Tresidder (April 7, 1894 – January 28, 1948) was the fourth president of Stanford University, serving from 1943 until his sudden death in 1948. He also had a longtime association with Yosemite National Park.

Early life

Son of John Treloar Tresidder (from Cornwall), Tresidder was born in Tipton, Indiana.


At the age of 20 he took a trip with his sister to Southern California. However, the railroad tracks were washed out and they went to Yosemite Valley instead. There he met many Stanford faculty, who convinced him to enroll in Stanford University.[1]

On that visit to Yosemite, Tresidder also met his future wife Mary Curry, daughter of David and Jennie Curry, the owners of Camp Curry. Tresidder spent his summers working in Yosemite as a porter and other various odd jobs, and was briefly fired for taking his future wife rock climbing up the back side of Half Dome. They married June 17, 1920.

After graduating from Stanford he became president of Yosemite Park and Curry Company. During his tenure he presided over the construction of new roads, the Badger Pass Ski Area, and the Ahwahnee Hotel, built in 1927 and now a National Historic Landmark.[1]

For many years, Tresidder played the role of the Squire at the Bracebridge Dinner, a lavish Christmas feast which was held every Christmas Day at the Ahwahnee Hotel in Yosemite. His wife played the role of Lady Bracebridge. It was Tresidder who, in 1929, asked photographer Ansel Adams to take over as director of the Dinner, which Adams agreed to do.


Tresidder later described himself on arrival at Stanford as an undergraduate: "a gangling youth from the Midwest, wearing a jacket with sleeves too short to cover his long arms, shambling nervously up Palm Drive carrying a battered suitcase. But each student he passed waved and spoke to him cheerfully. At last he encountered President (David Starr) Jordan. The president tipped his broadbrimmed hat, bowed and greeted the young man from Indiana. Tresidder never forgot that welcome."[1]

He earned his M.D. from Stanford Medical School in San Francisco; however, he never practiced medicine. While attending medical school he was a member of Phi Chi Medical Fraternity.[2]

While serving as president of the Yosemite concession, he was active as a Stanford supporter, raising funds and serving as co-chair of the 50th anniversary celebration. In 1942 he became president of the Stanford board of trustees. When Stanford president Ray Lyman Wilbur retired, he took over as president.

He served as president of Stanford from 1943 until 1948 and brought the school through the difficult years of World War II. He often said that his main job at Stanford was fundraising for the school. Tresidder set up a professional fundraising organization and streamlined administrative and accounting practices. He established a scholarship program and upgraded the music program to a full department. Tresidder also abolished the sorority system on campus in 1944, after female students voted to support the move, saying there was "serious disunity" between women who pledged sororities and women who lived in dormitories.[3]

Tresidder also helped establish the Stanford Research Institute. The organization's first director, William F. Talbot, was initially instructed by Tresidder to avoid work that would conflict with the university's interests, particularly federal contracts that might attract political pressure.[4] The drive to find work and the lack of support from Stanford University faculty caused the new research institute to violate this directive six months later through the pursuit of a contract with the Office of Naval Research.[4] As a result, Talbot was fired and replaced by Jesse Hobson, who had previously led the Armour Research Foundation, but the pursuit of contract work remained.[5]

Tresidder died of a heart attack at The St. Regis Hotel in New York City on January 28, 1948, while on University business.[6]


• Tresidder Peak[7] in Yosemite National Park is named for him.
• The Tresidder Memorial Union[8] at Stanford University, dedicated in 1962, is named for him.
• The Tresidder Bollards[9], also at Stanford University, are named for him.
• The Ahwahnee Hotel in Yosemite has a Mary Curry Tresidder suite and an Underwood/Tresidder suite which incorporates the Tresidder Library.[10]


1. "Donald Tresidder: Stanford's Overlooked Treasure", by Edwin Kiester Jr., Stanford Historical Society, 1992
2. Cannon, Daniel H. (1989). The History of Phi Chi Medical Fraternity Inc. Centennial Edition 1889-1989. Phi Chi Quarterly Office.
3. Nielson, Donald (2006). A Heritage of Innovation: SRI's First Half Century. Menlo Park, California: SRI International. pp. B–3 – B–4. ISBN 978-0974520810.
5. Lowen, Rebecca (July–August 1997). "Exploiting a Wonderful Opportunity". Stanford Magazine. Stanford Alumni Association. Retrieved 2011-12-27.
6. "Donald Bertrand Tresidder". Stanford University. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved 2012-03-11.
7. U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Tresidder Peak
8. U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Tresidder Memorial Union
9. "Tresidder Bollards".
10. "Ahwahnee Hotel accommodations".

Further reading

• Edwin Kiester, Jr., Donald Tresidder: Stanford's Overlooked Treasure (Stanford Historical Society, 1992)
• Shirley Sargent, Yosemite’s Innkeepers (1975, 2000).
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Sat Sep 21, 2019 2:30 am

Jesse E. Hobson
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/20/19



Jesse E. Hobson
Born: May 2, 1911, Marshall, Indiana
Died: November 5, 1970 (aged 59), Seattle, Washington
Nationality American
Awards IEEE Fellow
Scientific career
Institutions SRI International
Armour Research Foundation

Jesse Edward Hobson (May 2, 1911 – November 5, 1970) was the director of SRI International from 1947 to 1955.[1][2][3] Prior to SRI, he was the director of the Armour Research Foundation.[4][5]

Early life and education

Hobson was born in Marshall, Indiana.[6] He received bachelor's and master's degrees in electrical engineering from Purdue University and a PhD in electrical engineering from the California Institute of Technology.[3] Hobson was also selected as a nationally outstanding engineer.[3]

Hobson married Jessie Eugertha Bell on March 26, 1939, and they had five children.[7]

Awards and memberships

Hobson was named an IEEE Fellow in 1948.[8]


1. Associated Press (1970-11-06). "DR.JESSE HOBSON, RESEARCHER, DIES; Former Head of Stanford Institute Was 59". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
2. Nielson, Donald (2006). A Heritage of Innovation: SRI's First Half Century. SRI International. pp. F1–4. ISBN 978-0-9745208-1-0.
3. Gillmor, C. Stewart (2004-09-22). Fred Terman at Stanford: building a discipline, a university, and Silicon Valley. Stanford University Press. pp. 291–293. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
4. "J. E. Hobson". SRI International. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
5. "Illinois Tech Announces New Agency for License of Armour Wire Recorder". Billboard. 1946-06-06. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
6. [1]
7. "Obituary: Jessie Eugertha Bell Hobson". The Powhatan County Historical Society. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
8. "Awards to Staff by Professional Societies". SRI International. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Sat Sep 21, 2019 2:41 am

Dr. Jesse Hobson, Researcher, Dies
by New York Times
Nov. 7, 1970



SEATTLE, Nov. 6 (AP)—Dr. Jesse E. Hobson, educational consultant and former director of the Stanford Research Institute, died last evening of a heart attack, while on a business trip here. He was 59 years old.

Headed Institute 8 Years

Dr. Hobson had headed Stanford, one of the country's “think tanks,” at Menlo Park, Calif., from 1948 to 1956. The institute's staff rose from 25 workers to more than 1,500 during his eight years as its director.

He was graduated from Purdue University with a doctorate in physics and had another in electrical engineering from the California Institute of Technology.

He had been vice president for research and planning of the United Fruit Company, Boston, and vice president of Southern Methodist University, Dallas, and director of planning and development of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio.

Four years ago, Dr. Hobson joined Henry T. Heald, former president of New York University and president of the Ford Foundation, when Mr. Heald left the Ford post to form Heald, Hobson & Associates, at 230 Park Avenue. The concern, which acted as a consultant to higher‐education institutions, recently opened an office in Beverly Hills, Calif., and Dr. Hobson moved last March from New York to Los Angeles.

Dr. Hobson was a native of Marshall, Ind. and spent his boyhood on a farm. Besides his violin, he liked history and biography best and this led him to decide to prepare for a teaching career.

It was at Purdue that he found an even greater interest in electricity, which led him to study and do research on high‐voltage equipment and the building of measuring equipment in California. This then turned him into the field of pure research.

Surviving are his widow, Louise; a daughter, Mrs. Caro lyn Tracy of Indianapolis, and his father, Clayton A. Hobson of Marshall, Ind.


J. E. Hobson
by Stanford Research International Alumni Hall of Fame
Accessed: 9/20/19

Jesse Hobson was the second Director (now called President) of Stanford Research Institute. Dr. Hobson, an electrical engineer, came to SRI early in 1948, from a similar position at the Armour Research Foundation in Chicago, a well known contract research organization similar to what SRI was to become.

Hobson remained in his new SRI position until the end of 1955, when he resigned to enter private industry as a research consultant. By the time Hobson left SRI, after less than 8 years, the staff had increased from 40 to more than 1,000 and annual revenues had moved from $230,000 to beyond $10 million.

When Hobson arrived, SRI was indeed a small and slow-moving institute. Its annual report for 1947 had carried the theme that the Institute has been founded, but was not yet established. For lack of resources and other reasons, there was no development program for the future. Projects were sought first and professional staff later.

Hobson was distressed about the Institute's size, growth rate, inadequate equipment, space, practically no public relations program, and a bare minimum of service facilities and office space. However, he was highly enthusiastic about SRI's purpose, location, and possibilities for the future.

With help from his new colleagues, research and administrative, Hobson lost no time in developing an aggressive program. He laid it out and led the way with a new theme: "Simultaneous Action on Five Fronts."

The five fronts included almost all aspects of SRI's meager operations: a search for added staff first and projects second, instead of the reverse. He asked for some $325,000 to start his proposed development plan. He got only about a third of the amount needed to get a plan under way, but SRI was soon on its way, even with loans, contributions, and deficit financing.

For his accomplishments in getting SRI off the ground, great credit is due.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Sat Sep 21, 2019 2:48 am

IIT Research Institute [Armour Research Foundation]
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/20/10



Non-profit organization[1]
Industry Contract Research Organizations
Founded 1936
Headquarters Chicago, Illinois
Products pre-clinical
drug development services
Number of employees

IITRI Tower (Built 1964–65; Dedicated 1966)

IIT Research Institute (IITRI),[2][3][4][note 1] also known historically and interchangeably as IIT Research Center,[2][5][6][note 2][note 3] is a high-technology scientific research organization and applied research laboratory located in Chicago, Illinois. Previously known as the Armour Research Foundation,[7][8][note 4] the IITRI is an independent corporation that operates collaboratively with the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and the U.S. Government.

History of IITRI

IITRI was formed in 1936[9][note 5] as the Armour Research Foundation (ARF), and was renamed IITRI in 1963. Initially, ARF was formed to support the research endeavors of faculty members from the Armour Institute of Technology, predecessor to the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT).

IITRI is headquartered on the IIT campus in Chicago, but operates as an independent, not-for-profit research organization.[1] Between its founding in 1936 and 2000, IITRI developed research operations in approximately two dozen locations[10] across the United States. The IITRI staff grew to approximately 1700 employees who performed research and development programs with an annual research budget exceeding $200 M per year. Historically, as a major national science research center, work involved both unclassified and classified (secret) research.

In 2002, IITRI became entirely focused on the life sciences. All other science and engineering divisions were spun off into Alion Science and Technology,[11] a separate employee-owned corporation. Since 2002, research at IITRI has been entirely focused on biomedical research,[1] with particular emphasis on pre-clinical toxicology,[1] safety evaluations, and drug discovery and development.

In 2006, IITRI formed Technology Research, Inc. (TRI), as a wholly owned subsidiary in which research programs that fall outside of IITRI's not-for-profit charter can be conducted.

Cover of A Study of Lunar Research Flights – Volume I technical report on 1959 June 19 by Leonard Reiffel of the Armour Research Foundation involving flight paths for Project A119.

Research history

Research and development programs explored as an engineering think tank over the decades have involved many areas of science, including applied physics, high energy physics, upper atmosphere research (aeronomy),[4] nuclear physics, nuclear attack survival, numerical and computer simulations, electron microscopes and microscopy, police technologies, military, luminescence, aerosols, spacecraft thermal protective coatings,[12] material effects by solar radiation,[13] energy work,[14] and mining engineering. The invention of the modern cellphone was developed here. Early research into magnetics here would cause the development of early wire recorders[15][16] (fostering modern tape recording),[15] and later the new field of computer science.


Numerous patents over the decades have resulted from work by its researchers, including as an assignee under "IIT Research Institute".[17][18][note 6]


Several of its engineer scientists have distinguished themselves as recipients of the National Medal of Technology or the National Medal of Science, in addition to other awards.

Current activities

Current investigations at IITRI are focused on biomedicine as a contract research organization (CRO), with particular emphasis on non-clinical toxicology, inhalation toxicology and technology, microbiology and molecular biology,[19] and drug discovery[20] and development for cancer[20] and infectious diseases.[19] IITRI conducts research programs with particular emphasis on studies to support Investigational New Drug applications and New Drug applications to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Current Divisions of IITRI

IITRI currently performs research in five Technical Divisions: Toxicology, Inhalation Toxicology, Microbiology and Molecular Biology,[19] Carcinogenesis and Cancer Chemoprevention,[20] and Drug Discovery.[20]


Scientists working in IITRI's Toxicology Division have performed non-clinical toxicology studies for U.S. Government and medical industry sponsors for more than thirty years. Current programs involve acute, subchronic and chronic studies in both rodent and non-rodent model systems to support new drug research. In addition to general toxicology studies, IITRI scientists routinely perform pharmacokinetics and metabolism (PK/ADME) studies, reproductive toxicology studies, safety pharmacology studies, and studies involving a variety of specializations and clinical endpoints. A particular strength of the scientific staff is the integration of non-routine evaluations (genomics/gene expression, cell biology, biochemistry, and enzymology) into the conduct of non-clinical toxicology protocols.

Inhalation Toxicology

IITRI's Inhalation Toxicology Division integrates the efforts of doctoral-level inhalation scientists and engineers with experienced, doctoral-level toxicologists to conduct non-clinical toxicology studies in support of Investigational New Drug (IND) and New Drug (NDA) Applications. Studies are performed in both rodent and non-rodent species.

Nose-only and whole body exposures are performed using metered dose inhalaers, nebulizers, atomizers, powder dispensers, and vapor generation systems, with continuous on-line monitoring to document test atmosphere composition. Study endpoints are similar to those performed by scientists of the Toxicology Division, and commonly involve safety evaluations.

Safety Pharmacology studies are performed to determine the effects of drugs and other xeniobiotics on the function of the central nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, and urinary/renal systems. Cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies are performed using telemetry instrumentation.

Microbiology and Molecular Biology

Scientists working in IITRI's Microbiology and Molecular Biology Division[19] work in genetic toxicology, immunotoxicology, applied microbiology, genomics and gene expression, and molecular diagnostics.

Genetic Toxicologists at IITRI routinely perform bacterial mutagenesis assays (Ames Tests), mammalian mutagenesis assays (mouse lymphoma and other tests), DNA damage assays (micronucleus and chromosomal aberration assays), and cytotoxicity assays.

Molecular biologists perform a wide range of studies in gene expression, including genomics evaluations using several different platforms.

IITRI has studied immunotoxicology for more than 25 years. In the early 1980s, IITRI scientists were key participants in the original tripartite program (with the NIEHS and the Medical College of Virginia) in which murine immunotoxicology bioassays were developed and validated. Subsequently, IITRI scientists played a major role in the development and validation of the local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the rapid detection of agents that induce hypersensitivity.

IITRI's Microbiology and Molecular Biology Division[19] operates both Biosafety Level-2 and Biosafety Level-3 laboratories for in vitro and in vivo studies, and is approved by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to conduct studies with a broad range of pathogenic agents. This work involves molecular diagnostics, drug and vaccine efficacy evaluations, drug and vaccine safety evaluations, and decontamination studies.

Carcinogenesis and Cancer Chemoprevention

The focus of research efforts in Carcinogenesis and Cancer Chemoprevention Division[20] is the prevention of cancer by pharmacologic, nutritional, or hormonal interventions. IITRI has done preclinical studies of cancer prevention for more than 30 years, and IITRI scientists have published more than 200 peer-reviewed papers in the field.

Originally focused entirely on the prevention of experimental breast cancer, scientists working in IITRI's Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention Division[20] have conducted studies directed at mechanisms of carcinogenesis and prevention of cancer in the breast, prostate, lung, colon, urinary bladder, oral cavity, liver, skin, and hematopoietic system, among other organ sites. The earliest studies conducted by this group (in the 1970s) focused on the prevention of cancer by natural and synthetic analogs of vitamin A (retinoids). This work has expanded substantially since that time, and currently involves a wide range of natural products (soy isoflavones and protease inhibitors, tea polyphenols, organic selenium compounds, vitamin D and derivatives), hormones and hormone analogs, and pharmacologic agents originally developed for other indications. Mechanistic studies are performed at the cell, biochemical, and molecular levels, and preclinical drug discovery and development studies involve a wide range of in vitro and in vivo screening, efficacy, and preclinical toxicology programs.

Drug Discovery

The various research efforts in the foregoing divisions supports Drug Discovery Division[20] with Investigational New Drug (IND) Applications and New Drug Applications (NDA) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, as well as submissions to other regulatory agencies. Studies comply with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations. IITRI's expertise in non-clinical studies also supports the development of drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.

See also

• California Institute of Technology
• Massachusetts Institute of Technology
• McCrone Research Institute
• SRI International
• Association of Independent Technological Universities
• Project A119
• End point of clinical trials
• Drug development
• Pharmacodynamics


1. "IITRI" (or "iiTRi") is used on cover sheets of technical paper documents in prior decades.
2. "IIT Research Center" appears under document title heading labels used on cover sheets of technical paper documents in prior decades. This can also appear together on the same sheet with the background abbreviation "IITRI" (or "iiTRi").
3. "IIT Research Center" appears on one of the recipient address pages (p. 23) in Rome, New York on the lower right side of the Gama; et al. (2004) reference.
4. Actual letter stationery in the period notes in its header "IIT Research Institute" as the primary letterhead first line. The second line underneath has the name "Formerly Armour Research Foundation of Illinois Institute of Technology". Both lines are in upper case block type with address, etc. information below as the third line. The left of the letterhead has an IITRI upended rectangular box with five straight non-parallel intersecting lines with a dark field, and the letters IITRI in caps at the box bottom in its own white background field (the second "I" and the "R" being subscript slightly to the rest of the letters). For example, see the Zerlaut; et al. (1964) ref. Additionally, some journal articles of the transition period, particularly for author information, show "IIT Research Institute (formerly Armour Research Foundation)". For example, see the Weil & Daniel (1964) ref.
5. Incorporation date shows as 1936 April 06, which is the original date of the Armour Research Foundation. The file name is currently under the entity of IIT Research Institute, which would have been done by filing a change of name as an amendment to the articles of incorporation at a later date, thus allowing retention of the original Armour incorporation date.
6. For example: U.S. Patent 3,564,154, issued February 16, 1971, by inventor Marvin Camras, for "Cathode Ray Tube Magnetic Reproducer For Video"; and more recently U.S. Patent 6,461,290, issued October 8, 2002, by inventor David A. Reichman; et al., for "Collapsible Isolation Apparatus", involving isolation of a patient in a controlled environment protecting the transported patient against biological or chemical hazards.

References (citations)

1. IIT 2003 Annual Report on Research, p. 41.
2. Greenbaum & Wheeler (1967), cover sheet (technical paper).
3. Szpakiewicz; et al. (1990), cover sheet i (technical paper).
4. McCormac; et al. (1967), p. i (book).
5. Gama; et al. (2004), p. 23 (technical paper).
6. Szpakiewicz; et al. (1990), cover sheet ii (technical paper).
7. Zerlaut; et al. (1964), p. 1 (Technical Letter Report).
8. Weil & Daniel (1964), p. 268 (journal article).
9. Corporation File Report, Illinois Secretary of State.
10. IIT 2003 Annual Report on Research, p. 23.
11. IIT 2003 Annual Report on Research, p. 21.
12. Gilligan & Harada (1976) (technical report).
13. Firestone & Harada (1979) (technical report).
14. Boston Globe, 1980 March 25, p. 1 (Economy).
15. Morton (1998) (journal article).
16. Los Angeles Times, 1942 June 21, p. 17.
17. U.S. Utility Patent 3,564,154.
18. U.S. Utility Patent 6,461,290.
19. Sagripanti; et al. (2010) (journal article) [see author affiliations].
20. Mehta; et al. (2010) (journal article) [see author affiliations].

References (books)

• McCormac, Billy M. (editor); et al. (authors)(1967), (book), Aurora and Airglow, Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held at the University of Keele, Staffordshire, England, August 15–26, 1966, p. i [title page]; McCormac as editor, of the Physics Division, IIT Research Institute [p. i], Chicago, Illinois; 1967 [p. ii] Reinhold Publishing Corporation.

References (journals)

• Mehta, Rajendra G.; Murillo, Genoveva; Naithani, Rajesh; & Peng, Xinjian (2010), (journal article), "Cancer Chemoprevention by Natural Products: How Far Have We Come?", Pharmaceutical Research (ISSN 0724-8741), Vol. 27, Issue 6, pp. 950–961; Springer (publisher); 2010 June.
• Morton, David (1998) (journal article), "Armour Research Foundation and the Wire Recorder: How Academic Entrepreneurs Fail", Technology and Culture (ISSN 0040-165X), Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 213–244; Society for the History of Technology (publisher); 1998 April.
• Sagripanti, Jose-Luis; Rom, Amanda M.; & Holland, Louis E. (2010), (journal article), "Persistence in darkness of virulent alphaviruses, Ebola virus, and Lassa virus deposited on solid surfaces", Archives of Virology (ISSN 0304-8608), Vol. 155, Issue 12, pp. 2035–2039, December 2010.
• Weil, N.A.; & Daniels, I.M. (1964), (journal article), "Analysis of Fracture Probabilities in Nonuniformly Stressed Brittle Materials", Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 47, Issue 6, pp. 268–274, 1964 June.

References (newspapers)

• Boston Globe, 1980 March 25, p. 1 (Economy); McMillan, Gary (Globe staff); "Four leaders of America's energy business".
• Los Angeles Times, 1942 June 21, p. 17; "Recording of Sound on Wire Thin as Human Hair Developed".

References (technical literature, & other)

• Firestone, Ross F.; & Harada, Yoshiro (1979), (technical report), "Evaluation of the Effects of Solar Radiation on Glass", IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois; for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center; IITRI Project D6139; Final Report No. D6139; 1979 January 31; U.S. Government Accession No. N79-26209.
• Gama, Bazle A.; Xiao, Jia-Run; Haque, Md. J.; Yen, Chian-Fong; & Gillespie, Jr., John W. (2004), (technical paper), "Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Damage and Delamination in Thick Plain Weave S-2 Glass Composites Under Quasi-Static Punch Shear Loading", Army Research Laboratory (ARL), ARL-CR-534, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland; [prepared by] Center for Composite Materials [CCM], University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, 2004 February; under contract DAAD19-01-2-0001 and DAAD19-01-2-0005; p. 23; [CCM: Gama, Xiao, Haque, Gillespie; MSC (Material Sciences Corporation): Yen].
• Gilligan, J.E.; & Harada, Y. (1976), (technical report), "Development of Space-Stable Thermal Control Coatings for Use on Large Space Vehicles", IIT Research Center, Chicago, Illinois; for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center; 1976 March 15; Report No. IITRI-C6233-57; U.S. Government Accession No. N76-23584.
• Greenbaum, Miles A.; & Wheeler, W. John (1967), (technical paper), "Textile Technology From Aerospace Research", [Prepared under NASA contract by] IIT Research Center, Technology Utilization Center, 1967 June 9; NASA Ref. No. CR97195; U.S. Government Accession No. N68-36655.
• Illinois Institute of Technology (2004), (annual report), 2003 Fiscal Year "Report on Research": "Inventing the Future Together (A Report on Research at IIT) (Highlighting advances in basic and applied research, technology transfer and commercialization."; published by the Graduate College at Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois; copyright 2004.
• Szpakiewicz, Michael; Schatzinger, R.; Jackson, S.; Sharma, B.; Cheng, A.; & Honarpour, Matt (1990), (technical paper), "Selection of a Second Barrier Island Reservoir System for Expanding the Shoreline Barrier Reservoir Model and Refining NIPER Reservoir Characterization Methodology" [Status Report], NIPER-472, National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER), IIT Research Institute [cover sheet i]/IIT Research Center [cover sheet ii], Bartlesville, Oklahoma, 1990 April.
• Zerlaut, Gene A. (letter author); (with contributing personnel) Allen, Mrs. J.; Raziunas, Mr. Victor; Kaye, Dr. Brian; & Katz, Dr. Sidney, (1964), (technical letter report), "Investigation of Light Scattering in Highly Reflecting Pigmented Coatings", "January 1 through March 1, 1964" [quarterly progress letter], 6 pages (pp. 1–4 report letter; pp. 5–6 distribution list), Letter of 1964 March 13; addressed to: Director, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Attention: Office of Grants and Research Contracts; Report No. IITRI-C6018-7; NASA Ref. No. CR53523; U.S. Government Accession No. N65-16474.

External links

• Official website
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Sat Sep 21, 2019 3:00 am

Stanford Research International Corporate History
by Stanford Research International
Accessed: 9/20/19



Learn about the key steps in SRI's founding and rise to prominence as a world-class research institute and innovation center.


Robert Swain

Dr. Robert E. Swain, Stanford University professor of chemistry, championed the idea of an interdisciplinary research institute within the University. Early supporters included Stanford alumnus and trustee, Herbert Hoover, the 31st U.S. President.


Ray Lyman Wilbur

Stanford President Ray Lyman Wilbur recommended that an institute plan be developed.


Stanford's annual report presented a faculty proposal for a research institute. The institute idea was tabled in 1930 as the Great Depression spreads.

1939 Stanford's faculty committee discussed the institute idea while meeting at the Bohemian Grove in Northern California. Ray Lyman Wilbur presented the idea to University trustees.

1941 The institute idea was again tabled when the U.S. enters World War II.

1945 Plans for a research foundation were presented to Stanford President Donald Tresidder and Vice President Alvin Eurich, and to California Governor Earl Warren (later the 14th chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court). San Francisco businessman Atholl McBean and Ernest Black of the Pacific Research Foundation in Los Angeles met with Eurich at Stanford.

Stanford President Donald Tresidder

California Governor Earl Warren (later the 14th chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court)

San Francisco businessman Atholl McBean

1946 Atholl McBean continued to campaign for a foundation dedicated to research in science, technology, industry, economics, and management. His dedication led to his eventual acknowledgment as the founder, along with the Stanford University Board of Trustees, of Stanford Research Institute.

1946 Stanford University trustees approved in principle the proposal for a research institute. Articles of incorporation for Stanford Research Institute were signed and filed with the state of California on November 6, and SRI was granted nonprofit status. Stanford University trustees elected 11 SRI directors.

SRI's first research project began in this year—an investigation of improving of the guayule plant as a source of rubber.


The institute moved from the Stanford University campus to Stanford Village, the former site of the U.S. Army's Dibble Hospital in Menlo Park, California—still SRI's headquarters today.

William F. Talbot was named SRI's executive director, and Donald B. Tresidder, president of Stanford University, was named SRI's first chairman. At year's end, the institute had seven employees.

Hoot Gibson

Weldon B. "Hoot" Gibson joined SRI as its third staff member and first chairman of business and economics. He held numerous executive roles, including senior director emeritus from 1988 until his death in 2001. Known as "Mr. SRI", Gibson is credited with building SRI’s international programs and bringing SRI to worldwide prominence.


Jesse E. Hobson

SRI inaugurated the International Division. The institute had 60 active research projects and 198 staff members. Jesse E. Hobson was named SRI's executive director.


SRI opened its Washington, D.C. facility.


SRI's Poulter Laboratory, named after researcher and explorer Thomas Poulter, was founded, marking the beginning of 60 years of research in the response of materials and structures to impacts, fatigue, explosions, and fractures.

Poulter Applied Mechanics

SRI’s Poulter Applied Mechanics, established in 1953, combines experimental and computational capabilities to develop novel solutions related to counter-terrorism, mine neutralization, target breaching, directed energy effects, and a variety of defense problems. The laboratory also works with commercial companies on projects to ensure public safety.

Aerial view of SRI's remote test site.

SRI's privately owned test site contains specialized testing laboratories and hazard testing facilities such as a shock tube for explosive testing, explosive airblast simulation, a large water pool for underwater explosion experiments, and a gas-propelled-projectile launch facility for impact studies. The facility is frequently used to perform studies to ensure that emerging fuels, such as hydrogen and natural gas, can be produced, distributed, and used in a safe manner.

Poulter Laboratory has developed many unique scale-model experimental techniques to evaluate the response of structures to severe dynamic loading, providing significant cost savings in comparison to full-scale testing. The laboratory also develops tailored explosive experiments and systems for reducing collateral damage, such as SRI's patented Dilute Explosive Tile (DET) technology.


E. Finley Carter

E. Finley Carter became SRI's executive director (a title to be changed to president in 1958).


SRI began a 13-year series of transactions to purchase from Stanford University all the land it presently occupies in Menlo Park, California.


SRI's Molecular Physics Laboratory is founded. The lab performs fundamental and applied research in laser sensors, mass spectroscopy, and atmospheric processes. By year's end, the institute had 742 research projects and a staff of 1,408.


Karl A. Folkers

Karl A. Folkers was appointed SRI's president, and SRI opened its Tokyo, Japan office.


SRI's pioneering Artificial Intelligence Center was founded.

Artificial Intelligence Center

SRI's Artificial Intelligence Center (AIC) researches the computational principles underlying intelligence in man and machines. We develop methods for building computer-based systems to learn, perceive and interact with the world, reason, and make decisions. Our activities include:

• Machine learning, with applications to understanding text, speech, and video
• Mixed-initiative planning and workflow management for military and commercial processes
• Intelligent, personalized assistance for information and task management
• Vision, localization, navigation, coordination, and grasping for mobile robots and human-robot interaction
• Acquisition, visualization, and prediction of biochemical pathways in support of drug discovery and engineering new organisms

Leading AI Innovation from R&D to Application

Founded in 1966, the AIC is the source of many seminal contributions to AI in the areas of mobile robotics (Shakey and Centibots), search (the A* algorithm), expert systems (PROSPECTOR), image understanding (the RANSAC algorithm), information extraction from texts (FASTUS), and intelligent agents (PRS).

Technology developed in the center has been fielded in military applications, notably as part of the U.S. Army’s Command Post of the Future (CPoF), and has been licensed to several SRI spin-off ventures such as Siri (acquired by Apple), Trapit (merged with Addvocate), Tempo AI (acquired by Salesforce), Desti (acquired by Nokia), and Kasisto.


Charles A. Anderson became SRI's president.


Stanford Research Institute became independent from Stanford University on January 13.


Stanford Research Institute was renamed SRI International on May 16.


William Miller

William F. Miller was named SRI's president.

SRI established the SRI Fellows Award to recognize the technical, scientific, and professional contributions of SRI staff members.


Sarnoff Corporation (then known as RCA Laboratories) became a wholly owned subsidiary of SRI. In 2011, Sarnoff was integrated fully into SRI.

The head of RCA during World War II was Colonel David Sarnoff, a stocky, square-set, determined man with a slow, subdued voice, who came from Russia as an immigrant at the turn of the century and began as a newspaper seller, messenger boy, and Marconi Wireless operator. He became world famous in 1912, at the age of twenty-one, as the young telegraph operator who first picked up word of the sinking of the Titanic: for seventy-two hours he conducted ships to the stricken vessel. He rose rapidly in the Marconi company, from inspector to commercial manager in 1917. He became general manager of RCA in 1922 at the age of thirty-one and president just before he was 40. Under his inspired organization NBC inaugurated network broadcasting and RCA and NBC became one of the most colossal of the American multinational corporations, pioneers in television and telecommunications.

After Pearl Harbor, Sarnoff cabled Roosevelt, "All of our facilities and personnel are ready and at your instant service. We await your command." Sarnoff played a crucial role, as crucial as Behn's, in the U.S. war effort, and, like Behn, he was given a colonelcy in the U.S. Signal Corps. He solved complex problems, dealt with a maze of difficult requirements by the twelve million members of the U.S. armed forces, and coordinated details related to the Normandy landings. He prepared the whole printed and electronic press-coverage of V-J day; in London in 1944, with headquarters at Claridge's Hotel, he was Eisenhower's inspired consultant and earned the Medal of Merit for his help in the occupation of Europe.

Opening in 1943 with a chorus of praise from various generals, the new RCA laboratories had proved to be indispensable in time of war.

But the public, which thought of Sarnoff as a pillar of patriotism, would have been astonished to learn of his partnership with the enemy through Transradio and TTP. The British public, beleaguered and bombed, would have been equally shocked to learn that British Cable and Wireless, 10 percent owned by the British government, and under virtual government control in wartime, was in fact also in partnership with the Germans and Italians through the same companies and proxies.

Immediately after Pearl Harbor, Hans Blume, manager of Transradio in Chile, set up an arrangement in connection with his related clandestine station, PYL, to transmit Nazi propaganda, coordinate espionage routes, give ship arrivals and departures, supply information on U.S. military aid, U.S. exports, the Latin American defense measures, and set up communications with German embassies throughout South America. Transradio was equally active in Rio and Buenos Aires.

In Brazil, Transradio was known as Radiobras, its mixed American, British, Nazi, and Italian shares permanently deposited in -- of course -- the National City Bank of New York in Rio. Its directors were American, Italian, German, and French. Transradio's London bank transferred as much as a quarter of a million shares of Transradio stock from Nazi-controlled banks to the National City Bank branch in 1942.

In Argentina the board was again a mixture of Nazi, Italian, and Allied members. Like the members of the Bank for International Settlements, though with even less excuse, the directors sat around a table discussing the future of Fascist alliances. So extreme was the situation that many messages could not be sent to Allied capitals by U.S. embassies or consulates without going through Axis hands first.

On March 15, 1942, Transradio in London instructed its Buenos Aires branch to open a radio-photograph circuit to Tokyo. Since British post office authorities were in charge of British Cable and Wireless's wartime operations, the British government was presumed to have authorized this act. On March 16 the U.S. Embassy in Buenos Aires reported to the State Department in Washington that the opening of the radio-photograph circuit "would appear to offer the Japanese opportunity of transmitting news photos unfavorable to the United Nations to Buenos Aires for distribution here and in other countries."

On March 16, Thomas Burke of the State Department sent a note to State's Breckinridge Long saying, over three months after Pearl Harbor, "Now that we are at war and parties to Resolution XL of the Rio Conference, it seems proper to require our companies to desist from carrying any Axis traffic in the other American republics. It is our understanding in this connection that the Treasury Department in the future will require licenses of American communications companies desiring to carry traffic of this nature. ... As far as the past is concerned, it is believed that we can give oral assurances to the companies that they will not be prosecuted against." It is of interest to note that those assurances extended into the future and that indeed the companies were not prosecuted against at any time.

At the same time, London allegedly authorized Transradio to transmit messages from South American capitals direct to Rome. The British authorities had cut off ltalcable's line to Rome at Gibraltar in 1939, but Transradio now took over its Italian partner's transmissions at a 50 percent discount.

Simultaneously, the Transradio stations, according to State Department reports with the full knowledge of David Sarnoff, kept up a direct line to Berlin. The amount of intelligence passed along the lines can scarcely be calculated. The London office was in constant touch with New York throughout the war, sifting through reports from Argentina, Brazil, and Chile and sending company reports to the Italian and German interests.

-- Trading With the Enemy: An Expose of the Nazi-American Money Plot 1933-1949, by Charles Higham


James Tietjen

James Tietjen was appointed SRI's president.


Bill Sommers

William P. Sommers was named SRI's president.

SRI established the Mimi Award as the highest recognition for staff members who have fostered the personal and professional growth of their co-workers.


Commemorating SRI's 50 years, the SRI Alumni Association was established to recognize former staff members whose professional contributions have had significant impact for staff, management, or clients.


BusinessWeek dubbed SRI "Spin-off City"—an innovation engine that creates new businesses to capitalize on SRI technology developments and move them into the marketplace.

Curtis R. Carlson

Curtis R. Carlson became SRI's president and chief executive officer.

He served as the president of SRI International from 1998 to 2014,[3] and oversaw Sarnoff Corporation's full integration into SRI in January 2011.[4][5] During that period he was Chairman of the Sarnoff Corporation....

Carlson has served on several government task forces including the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, the Army Science Board and the Defense Science Board task force on bio-chemical defense. He also serves on the National Academy of Engineering Committee on Manufacturing, Design, and Innovation, and is a council member on the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable, a joint body of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.[3] He is a member of the Highlands Group, which makes recommendations to government officials regarding technological developments of interest to the government.

-- Curtis Carlson, by Wikipedia


SRI established the Gibson Achievement Award to honor staff members whose contributions have had a noteworthy impact on the standard of living and on the peace and prosperity of society.


Bill Clinton and Douglas Engelbart

SRI Senior Technical Advisor Emeritus Dr. Doug Engelbart, inventor of the mouse and other foundations of personal computing, received the National Medal of Technology and Innovation—the U.S.' highest technology honor.

Computer Mouse and Interactive Computing

The world's first computer mouse was developed by SRI

Development of the mouse began in the early 1960s by SRI's Douglas Engelbart, while he was exploring the interactions between humans and computers. Bill English, then the chief engineer at SRI, built the first computer mouse prototype in 1964. Designs with multiple buttons soon followed.

A single wheel or a pair of wheels was used to translate the motion of the mouse into cursor movement on the screen. Engelbart was the inventor on the basic patent for what was then called the "X-Y Position Indicator for a Display System." The patent was filed in 1967 and issued in 1970.

SRI licensed the computer mouse technology to Apple, Xerox, and other companies. The mouse became commercially viable in 1984, three years before the patent's expiration.

Mother of All Demos Legacy

Engelbart rehearses "Mother of All Demos"

For Engelbart, the mouse was one part of a much larger technological system whose purpose was to facilitate organizational learning and global online collaboration. When he was a graduate student in electrical engineering, Engelbart began to imagine ways in which all sorts of information could be displayed on the screens of cathode ray tubes, and he dreamed of "flying" through a variety of information spaces.

In early 1959, Engelbart pursued his visionary ideas by formulating a theoretical framework for the co-evolution of human skills, knowledge, and organizations. At the heart of his vision was the computer as an extension of human communication capabilities and a resource for the augmentation of human intellect.

Researchers prepare for demo

By 1968, Engelbart created and became the director of SRI's Augmentation Research Center. With a group of young computer scientists and electrical engineers from the center, on December 9, 1968 he staged a 90-minute public multimedia demonstration at the 1968 Fall Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco. It was the world debut of personal and interactive computing, featuring a computer mouse that controlled a networked computer system to demonstrate hypertext linking, real-time text editing, multiple windows with flexible view control, cathode display tubes, and shared-screen teleconferencing.

For its impact on computing and the world, the 1968 event has been dubbed "the mother of all demos."


With support of state and regional funds, SRI opened new research facilities in Harrisonburg, Virginia and St. Petersburg, Florida.

SRI Shenandoah Valley

SRI Shenandoah Valley focuses on health and biomedical research and drug discovery and development with the ultimate goal of bringing new therapies and diagnostics to market. As part of SRI Biosciences, the research complements research and development (R&D) capabilities at other SRI locations, including SRI's Menlo Park, California headquarters.

SRI’s state-of-the-art 40,000-square-foot research facility is located in Harrisonburg, Virginia on a 25-acre campus in the Innovation Village at Rockingham. The facility provides a convenient base for collaboration with academia, entrepreneurs, government, industry, and investors in Virginia and the greater Washington, D.C. area. SRI moved into its Shenandoah Valley laboratory facility in 2009 and further expanded in 2011 and 2013 to accommodate growth in its R&D programs.

Scientific research at SRI Shenandoah Valley focuses on prevention, detection and treatment of diseases. Activities span basic research in emerging infectious disease, metabolic disease and proteomics; applied research in therapeutics including drugs, biologics, and vaccines; and personalized medicine through the development of companion diagnostics and biomarkers.

Examples of activities at SRI Shenandoah Valley include:

• Virology research in the Center for Immunology and Infectious Diseases focuses on the study of the pathogenesis and transmission of emerging and re-emerging viruses to better inform therapeutic and vaccine discovery for influenza, SARS-CoV, hantaviruses, paramyxoviruses, poxviruses, and flaviviruses. Recent studies have focused on the emerging Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus and the development of potential inhibitors for this acute viral disease.
• One research program in the Center for Chemical Biology focuses on novel and collaborative applications of the fluorescence-based CombiFluor™ technology platform for proteolytic enzyme-based biomarker discovery for therapeutic and diagnostic development.
• The Preclinical Development Section evaluates the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of a broad range of therapeutics in support of research grants and preclinical development contracts under the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and for other clients.
• The proteomics team in the Center for Cancer and Metabolism has developed a method to find proteins that bind drugs and are thus potential drug targets. This novel method does not require an affinity tag on the drug of interest, which means that it can be applied to any drug, natural product, repurposed drug, or hit from a high-throughput screen. The method is being applied by SRI’s cancer drug discovery program to identify potential novel drug targets.

SRI SV is contributing to regional innovation, with two spin-off companies created to date:

• Redcoat Solutions is developing products to detect and treat infestations of bed bugs (parasitic insects that feed on human blood and cause a number of adverse health effects). The products will allow users to quickly determine when a room is infested with bed bugs before obvious signs of infestation are visible.
• RioGin is researching a technology to increase the half-life and reduce the side-effects of important classes of drugs, such as those used to treat cancer or diabetes.

As SRI Shenandoah Valley conducts cutting-edge research on globally important problems, it serves as a magnet and resource for local faculty and students to actively engage in R&D with real-world applications. SRI's collaborations with leading Virginia academic institutions are facilitated by government funding, sponsored industrial research, and private foundation support.

SRI Shenandoah Valley was established in 2006 as the SRI Center for Advanced Drug Research (CADRE) to foster economic development centered on research and technology. The new facility received support from the Commonwealth of Virginia and partnerships with James Madison University, Rockingham County, the City of Harrisonburg, the Virginia Economic Development Partnership, and the Shenandoah Valley Partnership. Stakeholders include the education sector, business and industry, economic development advocates, workforce development groups, community organizations, and local government.

SRI St. Petersburg

SRI established operations in St. Petersburg, Florida in 2007 with the help of the state's Innovation Incentive Program. The fund invested $20 million over a five-year period to support startup activities and establish a base for the growth of SRI's marine technology and maritime security programs. A partnership with the City of St. Petersburg, Pinellas County, and the State of Florida provided an additional $10 million in funding and land to build a new building for SRI's operations. The city's contribution included the waterfront site at the Port of St. Petersburg and a 10-year facility lease.


Vern Clark

Admiral Vern Clark is named chairman of the SRI Board of Directors.

SRI sold off its spin-off venture Siri to Apple.


SRI subsidiary Sarnoff Corporation, a leader in vision, video, and semiconductor technology innovations, was fully integrated into SRI on January 1.


SRI has conducted more than $4 billion in R&D in the last decade.


SRI has 2,300 employees at 20 locations.


Marianne Byerwalter

Mariann Byerwalter, Chairman, SRI Board of Directors, and Chairman, JDN Corporate Advisory LLC

Mariann Byerwalter joined SRI's Board in 1998 and was named its Chairman in 2014. Byerwalter was previously Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Stanford Hospital and Clinics and is a former Trustee of Stanford University. Prior to that, she served as Chief Financial Officer of Stanford University. Her broad business, finance, and administrative responsibilities at Stanford included government cost and rate studies, business development, and information technology systems and services.

Prior to this she was an entrepreneur and co-founded America First Financial Corporation, which raised funds to purchase and turn-around failed savings and loans from the government. Byerwalter served as Chief Financial Officer at Eurekabank, and Chief Operating Officer of America First Eureka Holdings. She was Vice President of Strategic Planning and Corporate Development at Bank America Corporation.

Byerwalter currently serves on the Boards of Directors of Burlington Capital Group; Franklin Resources, Inc.; Lucile Packard Children's Hospital; Pacific Life Insurance; Redwood Trust, Inc.; Stanford Health Care; and WageWorks.

Byerwalter holds a B.A. degree from Stanford University and an MBA from Harvard Business School. She received the 1998 Financial Woman of the Year Award from the Financial Women's Association of San Francisco, is a Distinguished Honoree for the Harvard Business School Association of Northern California’s “50 Years of Women at HBS,” and has been selected as an Outstanding Director for 2014 by the San Francisco Business Times and Silicon Valley Business Journal.

and William Jeffrey

Mariann Byerwalter is named chairman of the SRI Board of Directors.

William Jeffrey became SRI's president and chief executive officer.

William Jeffrey, Chief Executive Officer

William Jeffrey, Ph.D., is chief executive officer of SRI International, a leading research and development organization serving government and industry. Jeffrey joined SRI in 2014. From 2008 to 2014, Jeffrey was president and CEO of HRL Laboratories, a corporate R&D organization owned by The Boeing Company and General Motors.

Prior to joining HRL, Jeffrey served in the George W. Bush Administration as director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Jeffrey also served in the Executive Office of the President as senior director for homeland and national security and as assistant director for space and aeronautics within the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP).

Earlier in his career, Jeffrey was deputy director for the Advanced Technology Office and chief scientist for the Tactical Technology Office at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and assistant deputy for technology at the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office. Jeffrey started his professional career at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA).

Jeffrey is an elected Fellow of the American Physical Society, an elected Honorary Member of the International Society of Automation, a recipient of the 2008 Navigator Award from the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, and a recipient of the Secretary of Defense Medal for Outstanding Public Service.

Jeffrey serves on the board of TE Connectivity, and serves on the Office of Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) Technical Advisory Board. He is also on the Lawrence Livermore National Lab External Review Committee.

Jeffrey received his M.A. and Ph.D. in astronomy from Harvard University, and his B.Sc. in physics is from MIT.

SRI's Phase 1 Clinical Trial and Strategic Development Services facility opened in Plymouth, Michigan.

Phase 1 Clinical Trial and Strategic Development Services Facility

SRI’s Phase 1 Clinical Trial and Strategic Development Services unit operates a state-of-the-art clinical trial facility to provide clients and partners with comprehensive early-stage human research capabilities for new medicines and medical devices. As part of SRI Biosciences, the research leverages research and development (R&D) capabilities at other SRI locations, including SRI's Menlo Park, California headquarters, to provide integrated, comprehensive support and extend product development continuity from the preclinical to the clinical phase.

The Phase I Clinical Trials facility was completed late 2014 and occupies a purpose-built, approximately 9,400 square-foot expansion of the Michigan Life Science and Innovation Center in Plymouth, Michigan, which is centrally situated near academic medical centers in Ann Arbor, Detroit, and Royal Oak and within 20 minutes of the Detroit International Airport. With support from the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC), the facility was established to advance business, innovation, and human health in this region and beyond.

Phase 1 Clinical Research and Operations

The unit offers Phase 1 clinical studies in patients and healthy volunteers. The 13-bed and 3-infusion chair, state-of-the-art facility includes the examination and research subject rooms and office, reception, pharmacy, and laboratory processing space necessary to enable Phase I clinical research operations and overnight stays for research subjects. Studies include integrated single and multiple ascending dose studies, bioequivalence studies, food-effect studies, and drug-drug interaction studies, as well as Phase 1b trials in patients drawing on a patient base managed by therapeutic area specialists in multiple areas. Access to SRI’s existing strengths in biomarker development facilitates Phase 1b studies in patients with translational biomarker endpoints, which serves to mitigate the risk of late-stage clinical development failure.

Clinical Strategy Development

The unit provides early strategic guidance in the refinement of efficient, scientifically sound development plans leading to a future drug product or device that addresses a well-defined, unmet medical need. The unit’s capabilities build on decades of SRI experience in clinical development and translational medicine across many therapeutic areas in the biotechnology, biopharmaceutical, and nonprofit sectors. Investigators apply SRI Biosciences’ strategic insight, scientific depth and resources, biomarker development and validation strengths, and executional expertise to design and implement customized clinical research programs that maximize the potential for regulatory and commercial success.

View a list of the unit's capabilities and services.

Study Volunteers

Phase 1 Clinical Research and Operations: New medical cures depend on healthy volunteers to participate in research studies of potential new therapeutics, and SRI compensates study participants for their time. Learn more or sign up here.


To expand its capability to meet strategic U.S. Army needs, SRI established a facility in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

Meeting Strategic Army Client Requirements at Aberdeen Proving Ground
by Jonathan B. Cory
April 30, 2015

Technitial at proving ground

SRI engages strategic partners within the U.S. Army and the small business community to offer a new operational approach to moving information systems into sustainment. Our cost-effective, iterative, and seamless approach involves subject matter experts from across SRI’s multidisciplinary technology R&D focus areas. To expand our capabilities for Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) clients, SRI’s Information and Intelligence Systems (I2S) group has opened a new location inside the APG gates.

APG is home to the Army’s Communications and Electronics Command (CECOM), Research and Development Command (RDECOM), Army Research Lab (ARL), Army’s Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) and Program Executive Offices for Command, Control, Computers Tactical (C3T) and Intelligence Electronic Warfare & Sensors (IEW&S). SRI has provided ongoing support to commands at this location since 2007. We have also supported the Army Reprogramming Analysis Team (ARAT) since 1991, and recently secured a new contract to support ARAT for another three years.

SRI’s new location at APG strategically aligns its business segments to further engage the U.S. Army’s counterparts and shape emerging opportunities within SRI’s R&D divisions. The I2S group has four strategic goals for the facility:

• Develop solutions for clients that bridge gaps in bringing systems from original equipment manufacturer (OEM) support into a U.S. Army program of record.
• Help clients transition systems from R&D to sustainment.
• Partner with emerging small businesses to provide technical depth and capability on restricted contracts.
• Grow SRI’s professional engineering services in the region with links to SRI’s core areas of R&D strength.

As we launch our new facility, we look forward to working together with the local small business community and shape opportunities within the Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) community.


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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Sat Sep 21, 2019 3:28 am

Walt Disney's World War II propaganda production
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/16/19



DESPITE A PASSIONATE OPPOSITION to socialism and to any government meddling with free enterprise, Walt Disney relied on federal funds in the 1940s to keep his business afloat. The animators' strike had left the Disney Studio in a precarious financial condition. Disney began to seek government contracts - and those contracts were soon responsible for 90 percent of his studio's output. During World War II, Walt Disney produced scores of military training and propaganda films, including Food Will Win the War, High-Level Precision Bombing, and A Few Quick Facts About Venereal Disease. After the war, Disney continued to work closely with top military officials and military contractors, becoming America's most popular exponent of Cold War science. For audiences living in fear of nuclear annihilation, Walt Disney became a source of reassurance, making the latest technical advances seem marvelous and exciting. His faith in the goodness of American technology was succinctly expressed by the title of a film that the Disney Studio produced for Westinghouse Electric: The Dawn of Better Living.

Disney's passion for science found expression in "Tomorrowland," the name given to a section of his theme park and to segments of his weekly television show. Tomorrowland encompassed everything from space travel to the household appliances of the future, depicting progress as a relentless march toward greater convenience for consumers. And yet, from the very beginning, there was a dark side to this Tomorrowland. It celebrated technology without moral qualms. Some of the science it espoused later proved to be not so benign - and some of the scientists it promoted were unusual role models for the nation's children.

In the mid-1950s Wernher von Braun cohosted and helped produce a series of Disney television shows on space exploration. "Man in Space" and the other Tomorrowland episodes on the topic were enormously popular and fueled public support for an American space program. At the time, von Braun was the U.S. Army's leading rocket scientist. He had served in the same capacity for the German army during World War II. He had been an early and enthusiastic member of the Nazi party, as well as a major in the SS. At least 20,000 slave laborers, many of them Allied prisoners of war, died at Dora-Nordhausen, the factory where von Braun's rockets were built. Less than ten years after the liberation of Dora-Nordhausen, von Braun was giving orders to Disney animators and designing a ride at Disneyland called Rocket to the Moon. Heinz Haber, another key Tomorrowland adviser - and eventually the chief scientific consultant to Walt Disney Productions - spent much of World War II conducting research on high-speed, high-altitude flight for the Luftwaffe Institute for Aviation Medicine. In order to assess the risks faced by German air force pilots, the institute performed experiments on hundreds of inmates at the Dachau concentration camp near Munich. The inmates who survived these experiments were usually killed and then dissected. Haber left Germany after the war and shared his knowledge of aviation medicine with the U.S. Army Air Force. He later cohosted Disney's "Man in Space" with von Braun. When the Eisenhower administration asked Walt Disney to produce a show championing the civilian use of nuclear power, Heinz Haber was given the assignment. He hosted the Disney broadcast called "Our Friend the Atom" and wrote a popular children's book with the same title, both of which made nuclear fission seem fun, instead of terrifying. "Our Friend the Atom" was sponsored by General Dynamics, a manufacturer of nuclear reactors. The company also financed the atomic submarine ride at Disneyland's Tomorrowland.

The future heralded at Disneyland was one in which every aspect of American life had a corporate sponsor. Walt Disney was the most beloved children's entertainer in the country. He had unrivaled access to impressionable young minds - and other corporations, with other agendas to sell, were eager to come along for the ride. Monsanto built Disneyland's House of the Future, which was made of plastic. General Electric backed the Carousel of Progress, which featured an Audio-Animatronic housewife, standing in her futuristic kitchen, singing about "a great big beautiful tomorrow." Richfield Oil offered utopian fantasies about cars and a ride aptly named Autopia. "Here you leave Today," said the plaque at the entrance to Disneyland, "and enter the world of Yesterday, Tomorrow, and Fantasy."

-- Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal [EXCERPT], by Eric Schlosser

Between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, Walt Disney was involved in the production of propaganda films for the U.S. government. The widespread familiarity of Disney's productions benefited the U.S. government in producing pro-American war propaganda in an effort to increase support for the war.

Disney's involvement

Upon the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by the Axis-affiliated Empire of Japan on December 7, 1941, 500 United States Army troops moved in the next day to occupy Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California for the next eight months—the only Hollywood film studio under military occupation in history—as America began a massive build up to fight in World War II. The soldiers were stationed there to protect a nearby Lockheed aircraft plant from enemy air raids, convert parking garages into ammunition depots, and fixing equipment in large soundstages.[1] From there, Disney was approached with requests from the U.S. services to produce propaganda films.[2] The Navy was the first, and other branches of the government, including the Army Air Forces, the Department of Agriculture, and the Treasury Department, rapidly caught on to Disney’s creative approach to generating educational films, propaganda, and insignias.

During World War II, Disney made films for every branch of the United States Armed Forces and government.[3][4] This was accomplished through the use of animated graphics by means of expediting the intelligent mobilization of servicemen and civilians for the cause of the war. Over 90% of Disney employees were devoted to the production of training and propaganda films for the government.[3] Throughout the duration of the war, Disney produced over 400,000 feet of educational war films, most at cost, which is equal to 68 hours of continuous films. In 1943 alone, 204,000 feet of film was produced. [2]

As well as producing films for different government divisions from 1942 to 1943, Disney was asked to create animation for a series of pictures produced by Colonel Frank Capra for the U.S. Army.[2] This series included films such as Prelude to War and America goes to War. Although these films were originally intended for servicemen, they were released to theaters because of their popularity.

The Navy productions

The Navy first requested 90,000 feet of film to be ready in three months. The purpose of these films was to educate sailors on navigation tactics. This was a shock for Disney, as he was used to creating 27,000 feet of film in a year.[2]

The Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs also requested educational films for aviation branches of the government. The subjects of these films varied widely from aerology and not compact tactics to ground crew aircraft maintenance.[5]

The Treasury Department productions

Disney created The New Spirit (1942) after a request from the Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau, Jr., to make Americans accept the payment of income taxes. The film was followed by The Spirit of '43 (1943). In this film, Donald Duck deals with income taxes and shows their benefit to the American war effort.[6] The film was seen by 26 million people. In a later Gallup poll 37% admitted that the film played a factor on their willingness to pay taxes. Disney also made a book for children to try to encourage them to purchase War Savings stamps.[7]

The Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF) productions

Aerology film production was supervised by naval aviation experts and some members of Disney's team learned how to fly to better understand the problems the Army Air Forces encountered.[3] Victory Through Air Power (1943) is one of the propaganda films Disney produced for air warfare.[5] This film is an attempt to sell Major Alexander de Seversky's theories about the practical uses of long range strategic bombing. The animated film humorously tells about the development of air warfare and then switches to the Major illustrating how his ideas could win the war for the Allies.

Propaganda productions

As requested by the U.S. Government, Walt Disney created a number of anti-German and anti-Japanese films for the servicemen and the U.S. public. He wanted to portray these countries and their leaders as manipulative without morals. A few of the films he produced were Reason and Emotion (1943), Der Fuehrer's Face (1942), Education for Death - The Making of a Nazi (1943), and Commando Duck (1944).

In Der Fuehrer’s Face, Donald Duck experiences a day in a Nazi country where he has to make do with eating ridiculous Nazi food rations (smell of bacon and eggs, coffee made with one bean, and a slice of stale bread) experiences a day at a Nazi artillery factory and breaks down. He wakes up realizing that the experience was a nightmare, embraces a model of the Statue of Liberty and exclaims Am I glad to be a citizen of the United States of America!

Education for Death - The Making of a Nazi was a wartime propaganda film that takes on the perspective of Hans, a young German boy. As the movie progresses and Hans is exposed to Hitler youth and the Nazi culture, his ability to value human life decreases. In Commando Duck, Donald, by himself, destroys an entire Japanese airbase.

Further reading

• "Disney's Troupe Goes to War". Times. 15 November 1942. p. 20–21

See also

• The Walt Disney Company
o List of Walt Disney World War II propaganda productions
• United States home front during World War II
• American propaganda during World War II
• Propaganda film
• World War II and American animation


1. Moseley, Doobie (December 7, 2015). "Pearl Harbor Changed Everything, Even the Disney Studio". Laughing Place. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
2. "Walt Disney's Animated War". Flying. March 1945. p. 50–51
3. "Walt Disney Goes to War". Life magazine. 31 August 1942.p. 61–69.
4. "Walt Disney: Great Teacher; His Films for War are Revolutionizing the Technique of Education". Fortune. August 1942. p. 90–95
5. {{cite journal |date=September 1942 | title =Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck Work for Victory | journal =Popular Science | volume =141.3 | issue =September 1942 | pages =98
6. "The New Pictures". Time Magazine. February 9, 1942.
7. "Disney Studio at War". Theater Arts. Jan 1943. p. 31–39

External links

• "World War II: Propaganda". Retrieved 2007-10-05.
• Veteran's Day School Kit
• "Transcript of interview with Disney about his propaganda ideas". Archived from the original on April 6, 2008.
• Disney at War
• The short film All Together (1941) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Attack in the Pacific (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Case of the Tremendous Trifle (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Cleanliness Brings Health (1945) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Camouflage (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Defense Against Invasion (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Dental Health is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Der Fuehrer's Face is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Donald's Decision (1941) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Education for Death: The Making of the Nazi is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Environmental Sanitation (1946) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Flak (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Food Will Win the War (1942) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Four Methods of Flush Riveting (1942) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Grain That Built A Hemisphere (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Human Body (Spanish) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Ice Formation On Aircraft is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Infant Care and Feeding (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Infant Care and Feeding (Spanish) (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Insects as Carriers of Disease (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Insects as Carriers of Disease (Spanish) (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film It's Your War Too (1944) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The New Spirit (1942) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Out of the Frying Pan Into the Firing Line (1942) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Planning for Good Eating (1946) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Report from the Aleutians (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Seven Wise Dwarfs (1941) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Spirit of '43 (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Stillwell Road is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Stop That Tank! (1942) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Thrifty Pig (1941) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Unseen Enemy (1945) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film Victory Through Air Power (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Winged Scourge (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
• The short film The Winged Scourge (Spanish) (1943) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Sat Sep 21, 2019 5:10 am

Part 1 of 2

Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal [EXCERPT]
by Eric Schlosser
© 2002, 2001 by Eric Schlosser



Chapter 1: The American Way

The Founding Fathers

CARL N. KARCHER is one of the fast food industry's pioneers. His career extends from the industry's modest origins to its current hamburger hegemony. His life seems at once to be a tale by Horatio Alger, a fulfillment of the American dream, and a warning about unintended consequences. It is a fast food parable about how the industry started and where it can lead. At the heart of the story is southern California, whose cities became prototypes for the rest of the nation, whose love of the automobile changed what America looks like and what Americans eat.

Carl was born in 1917 on a farm near Upper Sandusky, Ohio. His father was a sharecropper who moved the family to new land every few years .. The Karchers were German-American, industrious, and devoutly Catholic. Carl had six brothers and a sister. "The harder you work." their father always told them, "the luckier you become." Carl dropped out of school after the eighth grade and worked twelve to fourteen hours a day on the farm, harvesting with a team of horses, baling hay, milking and feeding the cows. In 1937, Ben Karcher, one of Carl's uncles, offered him a job in Anaheim, California. After thinking long and hard and consulting with his parents, Carl decided to go west He was twenty years old and six-foot-four, a big strong farm boy. He had never set foot outside of northern Ohio. The decision to leave home felt momentous, and the drive to California took a week. When he arrived in Anaheim - and saw the palm trees and orange groves, and smelled the citrus in the air - Carl said to himself, "This is heaven."

Anaheim was a small town in those days, surrounded by ranches and farms. It was located in the heart of southern California's citrus belt, an area that produced almost all of the state's oranges, lemons, and tangerines. Orange County and neighboring Los Angeles County were the leading agricultural counties in the United States, growing fruits, nuts, vegetables, and flowers on land that only a generation earlier had been a desert covered in sagebrush and cactus. Massive irrigation projects, built with public money to improve private land, brought water from hundreds of miles away. The Anaheim area alone boasted about 70,000 acres of Valencia oranges, as well as lemon groves and walnut groves. Small ranches and dairy farms dotted the land, and sunflowers lined the back roads. Anaheim had been settled in the late nineteenth century by German immigrants hoping to create a local wine industry and by a group of Polish expatriates trying to establish a back-to-the-land artistic community. The wineries flourished for three decades; the art colony collapsed within a few months. After World War I, the heavily German character of Anaheim gave way to the influence of newer arrivals from the Midwest, who tended to be Protestant and conservative and evangelical about their faith. Reverend Leon L. Myers - pastor of the Anaheim Christian Church and founder of the local Men's Bible Club - turned the Ku Klux Klan into one of the most powerful organizations in town. During the early 1920s, the Klan ran Anaheim's leading daily newspaper, controlled the city government for a year, and posted signs on the outskirts of the City greeting newcomers with the acronym "KIGY" (Klansmen I Greet You).

Carl's uncle Ben owned Karcher's Feed and Seed Store, right in the middle of downtown Anaheim. Carl worked there seventy-six hours a week, selling goods to local farmers for their chickens, cattle, and hogs. During Sunday services at St. Boniface Catholic Church, Carl spotted an attractive young woman named Margaret Heinz sitting in a nearby pew. He later asked her out for ice cream, and the two began. dating. Carl became a frequent visitor to the Heinz farm on North Palm Street. It had ten acres of orange trees and a Spanish-style house where Margaret, her parents, her seven brothers, and her seven sisters lived. The place seemed magical. In the social hierarchy of California's farmers, orange growers stood at the very top; their homes were set amid fragrant evergreen trees that produced a lucrative income. As a young boy in Ohio, Carl had been thrilled on Christmas mornings to receive a single orange as a gift from Santa. Now oranges seemed to be everywhere.

Margaret worked as a secretary at a law firm downtown. From her office window on the fourth floor, she could watch Carl grinding feed outside his uncle's store. After briefly returning to Ohio, Carl went to work for the Armstrong Bakery in Los Angeles. The job soon paid $.24 a week, $6 more than he'd earned at the feed store - and enough to start a family. Carl and Margaret were married in 1939 and had their first child within a year.

Carl drove a truck for the bakery, delivering bread to restaurants and markets in west L.A. He was amazed by the number of hot dog stands that were opening and by the number of buns they went through every week. When Carl heard that a hotdog cart was for sale - on Florence Avenue across from the Goodyear factory - he decided to buy it. Margaret strongly opposed the idea, wondering where he'd find the money. He borrowed $311 from the Bank of America, using his car as collateral for the loan, and persuaded his wife to give him $15 in cash from her purse. ''I'm in business for myself now," Carl thought, after buying the cart, "I'm on my way." He kept his job at the bakery and hired two young men to work the cart during the hours he was delivering bread. They sold hot dogs, chili dogs, and tamales for a dime each, soda for a nickel. Five months after Carl bought the cart, the United States entered World War II, and the Goodyear plant became very busy. Soon he had enough money to buy a second hot dog cart, which Margaret often ran by herself, selling food and counting change while their daughter slept nearby in the car.

Southern California had recently given birth to an entirely new lifestyle -- and a new way of eating. Both revolved around cars. The cities back East had been built in the railway era, with central business districts linked to outlying suburbs by commuter train and trolley. But the tremendous growth of Los Angeles occurred at a time when automobiles were finally affordable. Between 1920 and 1940, the population of southern California nearly tripled, as about 2 million people arrived from across the United States. While cities in the East expanded through immigration and became more diverse, Los Angeles became more homogenous and white. The city was inundated with middle-class arrivals from the Midwest, especially in the years leading up to the Great Depression. Invalids, retirees, and small businessmen were drawn to southern California by real estate ads promising a warm climate and a good life. It was the first large-scale migration conducted mainly by car. Los Angeles soon became unlike any other city the world had ever seen, sprawling and horizontal, a thoroughly suburban metropolis of detached homes - a glimpse of the future, molded by the automobile. About 80 percent of the population had been born elsewhere; about half had rolled into town during the previous five years. Restlessness, impermanence, and speed were embedded in the culture that soon emerged there, along with an openness to anything new. Other cities were being transformed by car ownership, but none was so profoundly altered. By 1940, there were about a million cars in Los Angeles, more cars than in forty-one states.

The automobile offered drivers a feeling of independence and control. Daily travel was freed from the hassles of rail schedules, the needs of other passengers, and the location of trolley stops. More importantly, driving seemed to cost much less than using public transport - an illusion created by the fact that the price of a new car did not include the price of building new roads. Lobbyists from the oil, tire, and automobile industries, among others, had persuaded state and federal agencies to assume that fundamental expense. Had the big auto companies been required to pay for the roads - in the same way that trolley companies had to lay and maintain track - the landscape of the American West would look quite different today.

The automobile industry, however, was not content simply to reap the benefits of government-subsidized road construction. It was determined to wipe out railway competition by whatever means necessary. In the late 1920s, General Motors secretly began to purchase trolley systems throughout the United States, using a number of front corporations. Trolley systems in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Montgomery, Alabama, in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and El Paso, Texas, in Baltimore, Chicago, New York City, and Los Angeles - more than one hundred trolley systems in all- were purchased by GM and then completely dismantled, their tracks ripped up, their overhead wires torn down. The trolley companies were turned into bus lines, and the new buses were manufactured by GM.

General Motors eventually persuaded other companies that benefited from road building to help pay for the costly takeover of America's trolleys. In 1947, GM and a number of its allies in the scheme were indicted on federal antitrust charges. Two years later, the workings of the conspiracy, and its underlying intentions, were. exposed during a trial in Chicago. GM, Mack Truck, Firestone, and Standard Oil of California were all found guilty on one of the two counts by the federal jury. The investigative journalist Jonathan Kwitny later argued that the case was "a fine example of what can happen when important matters of public policy are abandoned by government to the self-interest of corporations." Judge William J. Campbell was not so outraged. As punishment, he ordered GM and the other companies to pay a fine of $5,000 each. The executives who had secretly plotted and carried out the destruction of America's light rail network were fined $1 each. And the postwar reign of the automobile proceeded without much further challenge.

The nation's car culture reached its height in southern California, inspiring innovations such as the world's first motel and the first drive-in bank. A new form of eating place emerged. "People with cars are so lazy they don't want to get out of them to eat!" said Jesse G. Kirby, the founder of an early drive-in restaurant chain. Kirby's first "Pig Stand" was in Texas, but the chain soon thrived in Los Angeles, alongside countless other food stands offering "curb service." In the rest of the United States, drive-ins were usually a seasonal phenomenon, closing at the end of every summer. In southern California, it felt like summer all year long, the drive-ins never closed, and a whole new industry was born.

The southern California drive-in restaurants of the early 1940s tended to be gaudy and round, topped with pylons, towers, and flashing signs. They were "circular-meccas of neon," in the words of drive-in historian Michael Witzel, designed to be easily spotted from the road. The triumph of the automobile encouraged not only a geographic separation between buildings, but also a manmade landscape that was loud and bold. Architecture could no longer afford to be subtle; it had to catch the eye of motorists traveling at high speed. The new drive-ins competed for attention, using all kinds of visual lures, decorating their buildings in bright colors and dressing their waitresses in various costumes. Known as "carhops," the waitresses - who carried trays of food to patrons in parked cars - often wore short skirts and dressed up like cowgirls, majorettes, Scottish lasses in kilts. They were likely to be attractive, often received no hourly wages, and earned their money through tips and a small commission on every item they sold. The carhops had a strong economic incentive to be friendly to their customers, and drive-in restaurants quickly became popular hangouts for teenage boys. The drive-ins fit perfectly with the youth culture of Los Angeles. They were something genuinely new and different, they offered a combination of girls and cars and late-night food, and before long they beckoned from intersections all over town.

Speedee Service

BY THE END OF 1944, Carl Karcher owned four hot dog carts in Los Angeles. In addition to running the carts, he still worked full-time for the Armstrong Bakery. When a restaurant across the street from the Heinz farm went on sale, Carl decided to buy it. He quit the bakery, bought the restaurant, fixed it up, and spent a few weeks learning how to cook. On January 16, 1945, his twenty-eighth birthday, Carl's Drive-In Barbeque opened its doors. The restaurant was small, rectangular, and unexceptional, with red tiles on the roof. Its only hint of flamboyance was a five-pointed star atop the neon sign in the parking lot. During business hours, Carl did the cooking, Margaret worked behind the cash register, and carhops served most of the food. After closing time, Carl stayed late into the night, cleaning the bathrooms and mopping the floors. Once a week, he prepared the "special sauce" for his hamburgers, making it in huge kettles on the back porch of his house, stirring it with a stick and then pouring it into one-gallon jugs.

After World War II, business soared at Carl's Drive-In Barbeque, along with the economy of southern California. The oil business and the film business had thrived in Los Angeles during the 1920s and 1930s. But it was World War II that transformed southern California into the most important economic region in the West. The war's effect on the state, in the words of historian Carey McWilliams, was a "fabulous boom." Between 1940 and 1945, the federal government spent . nearly $20 billion in California, mainly in and around Los Angeles, building airplane factories and steel mills, military bases and port facilities. During those six years, federal spending was responsible for nearly half of the personal income in southern California. By the end of World War II, Los Angeles was the second-largest manufacturing center in America, with an industrial output surpassed only by that of Detroit. While Hollywood garnered most of the headlines, defense spending remained the focus of the local economy for the next two decades, providing about one-third of its jobs.

The new prosperity enabled Carl and Margaret to buy a house five blocks away from their restaurant. They added more rooms as the family grew to include twelve children: nine girls and three boys. In the early 1950s Anaheim began to feel much less rural and remote. Walt Disney bought 160 acres of orange groves just a few miles from Carl's Drive-In Barbeque, chopped down the trees, and started to build Disneyland. In the neighboring town of Garden Grove, the Reverend Robert Schuller founded the nation's first Drive-in Church, preaching on Sunday mornings at a drive-in movie theater, spreading the Gospel through the little speakers at each parking space, attracting large crowds with the slogan "Worship as you are ... in the family car." The city of Anaheim started to recruit defense contractors, eventually persuading Northrop, Boeing, and North American Aviation to build factories there. Anaheim soon became the fastest-growing city in the nation's fastest-gr-owing state. Carl's Drive-In Barbeque thrived, and Carl thought its future was secure. And then he heard about a restaurant in the "Inland Empire." sixty miles east of Los Angeles, that was selling high-quality hamburgers for 15 cents each - 20 cents less than what Carl charged. He drove to E Street in San Bernardino and saw the shape of things to come. Dozens of people were standing in line to buy bags of "McDonald's Famous Hamburgers."

Richard and Maurice McDonald had left New Hampshire for southern California at the start of the Depression, hoping to find jobs in Hollywood. They worked as set builders on the Columbia Film Studios back lot, saved their money, and bought a movie theater in Glendale. The theater was not a success. In 1937 they opened a drive-in restaurant in Pasadena, trying to cash in on the new craze, hiring three carhops and selling mainly hot dogs. A few years later they moved to a larger building on E Street in San Bernardino and opened ,the McDonald Brothers Burger Bar Drive-In. The new restaurant was located near a high school, employed twenty carhops, and promptly made the brothers rich. Richard and "Mac" McDonald bought one of the largest houses in San Bernardino, a hillside mansion with a tennis court and a pool.

By the end of the 1940s the McDonald brothers had grown dissatisfied with the drive-in business. They were tired of constantly looking for new carhops and short-order cooks - who were in great demand - as the old ones left for higher-paying jobs elsewhere. They were tired of replacing the dishes, glassware, and silverware their teenage customers constantly broke or ripped off. And they were tired of their teenage customers. The brothers thought about selling the restaurant. Instead, they tried something new.

The McDonalds fired all their carhops in 1948, closed 'their restaurant, installed larger grills, and reopened three months later with a radically new method of preparing food. It was designed to increase .the speed, lower prices, and raise the volume of sales. The brothers eliminated almost two-thirds of the items on their old menu. They got rid of everything that had to be eaten with a knife, spoon, or fork. The only sandwiches now sold were hamburgers or cheeseburgers. The brothers got rid of their dishes and glassware, replacing them with paper cups, paper bags, and paper plates. They divided the food preparation into separate tasks performed by different workers. To fill a typical order, one person grilled the. hamburger; another "dressed" and wrapped it; another prepared the milk shake; another made the fries; and another worked the counter. For the first time, the guiding principles of a factory assembly line were applied to a commercial kitchen. The new division of labor meant that a worker only had to be taught how to perform one task. Skilled and expensive short-order cooks were no longer necessary. All of the burgers were sold with the same condiments: ketchup, onions, mustard, and two pickles. No substitutions were allowed. The McDonald brothers' Speedee Service System revolutionized the restaurant business. An ad of theirs seeking franchisees later spelled out the benefits of the system: "Imagine -- No Carhops - No Waitresses - No Dishwashers "- No Bus Boys - The McDonald's System is Self-Service!"

Richard McDonald designed a new building for the restaurant, hoping to make it easy to spot from the road. Though untrained as an architect, he came up with a design that was simple, memorable, and archetypal. On two sides of the roof he put golden arches, lit by neon at night, that from a distance formed the letter M. The building effortlessly fused advertising with architecture and spawned one of the most famous corporate logos in the world.

The Speedee Service System, however, got off to a rocky start. Customers pulled up to the restaurant and honked their horns, wondering what had happened to the carhops, still expecting to be served. People were not yet accustomed to waiting in line and getting their own food. Within a few weeks, however, the new system gained acceptance, as word spread about the low prices and good hamburgers. The McDonald brothers now aimed for a much broader clientele. They . employed only young men, convinced that female workers would attract teenage boys to the restaurant and drive away other customers. Families soon lined up to eat at McDonald's. Company historian John F. Love explained the lasting significance of McDonald's new self-service system: "Working-class families could finally afford to feed their kids restaurant food."

San Bernardino at the time was an ideal setting for all sorts of cultural experimentation. The town was an odd melting-pot of agriculture and industry located 'on the periphery of the southern California boom, a place that felt out on the edge. Nicknamed "San Berdoo," it was full of citrus' groves, but sat next door to the smokestacks and steel mills of Fontana. San Bernardino had just sixty thousand inhabitants;· but millions of people passed through there every year. It was the last stop on Route 66, end of the line for truckers, tourists, and migrants from the East. Its main street was jammed with drive-ins and cheap motels. The same year the McDonald brothers opened their new self-service restaurant, a group of World War II veterans in San Berdoo, alienated by the dullness of civilian life, formed a local motorcycle club, borrowing the nickname of the U.S. Army's Eleventh Airborne Division: "Hell's Angels." The same town that gave the world the golden arches also gave it a biker gang that stood for a totally antithetical set of values. The Hell's Angels flaunted their dirtiness, celebrated disorder, terrified families and small children instead of trying to sell them burgers, took drugs, sold drugs, and injected into American pop culture an anger and a darkness and a fashion statement - T-shirts and tom jeans, black leather jackets and boots, long hair, facial hair, swastikas, silver skull rings and other satanic trinkets, earrings, nose rings, body piercings, and tattoos - that would influence a long line of rebels from Marlon Brando to Marilyn Manson. The Hell's Angels were the anti-McDonald's, the opposite of clean and cheery. They didn't care if you had a nice day, and yet were as deeply American in their own way as any purveyors of Speedee Service. San Bernardino in 1948 supplied the nation with a new yin and yang, new models of conformity and rebellion. "They get angry when they read about how filthy they are," Hunter Thompson later wrote of the Hell's Angels, "but instead of shoplifting some deodorant, they strive to become even filthier."

Burgerville USA

AFTER VISITING SAN BERNARDINO and seeing the long lines at McDonald's, Carl Karcher went home to Anaheim and decided to open his own self-service restaurant. Carl instinctively grasped that the new car culture would forever change America. He saw what was coming, and his timing was perfect. The first Carl's Jr. restaurant opened' in 1956 - the same year that America got its first shopping mall and that Congress passed the Interstate Highway Act. President Dwight D. Eisenhower had pushed hard for such a bill; during World War II, he'd been enormously impressed by Adolf Hitler's Reichsautobahn, the world's first superhighway system. The Interstate Highway Act brought autobahns to the United States and became the largest public works project in the nation's history, building 46,000 miles of road with more than $130 billion of federal money. The new highways spurred car sales, truck sales, and the construction of new suburban homes. Carl's first self-service restaurant was a success, and he soon opened others near California's new freeway off-ramps. The star atop his drive-in sign became the mascot of his fast food chain. It was a smiling star in little booties, holding a burger and a shake.

Entrepreneurs from all over the country went to San Bernardino, visited the new McDonald's, and built imitations of the restaurant in their hometowns. "Our food was exactly the same as McDonald's." the founder of a rival chain later admitted. "If I had looked at McDonald's . and saw someone flipping hamburgers while he was hanging by his feet, I would have copied it." America's fast food chains were not launched by large corporations relying upon focus groups and market research. They were started by door-to-door salesmen, short-order cooks, orphans, and dropouts, by eternal optimists looking for a piece of the next big thing. The start-up costs of a fast food restaurant were low, the profit margins promised to be high, and a wide assortment of ambitious people were soon buying grills and putting up signs.

William Rosenberg dropped out of school at the age of fourteen, delivered telegrams for Western Union, drove an ice cream truck, worked as a door-to-door salesman, sold sandwiches and coffee to factory workers in Boston, and then opened a small doughnut shop in 1948, later calling it Dunkin' Donuts. Glen W. Bell, Jr., was a World War II veteran, a resident of San Bernardino who ate at the new McDonald's and decided to copy it, using the assembly-line system to make Mexican food and founding a restaurant chain later known as Taco Bell. Keith G. Cramer, the owner of Keith's Drive-In Restaurant in Daytona Beach, Florida, heard about the McDonald brothers' new restaurant, flew to southern California, ate at McDonald's, returned to Florida, and with his father-in-law, Matthew Burns, opened the first Insta-Burger-King in 1953. Dave Thomas started working in a restaurant at the age of twelve, left his adoptive father, took a room at the YMCA, dropped out of school at fifteen, served as a busboy and a cook, and eventually opened his own place in Columbus, Ohio, calling it Wendy's Old-Fashioned Hamburgers restaurant. Thomas S. Monaghan spent much of his childhood in a Catholic orphanage and a series of foster homes, worked as a soda jerk, barely graduated from high school, joined the Marines, and bought a pizzeria in Ypsilanti, Michigan, with his brother, securing the deal through a down payment of $75. Eight months later Monaghan's brother decided to quit and accepted a used Volkswagen Beetle for his share of a business later known as Domino's.

The story of Harland Sanders is perhaps the most remarkable. Sanders left school at the age of twelve, worked as a farm hand, a mule tender, and a railway fireman. At various times he worked as a lawyer without having a law degree, delivered babies as a part-time obstetrician without having a medical degree, sold insurance door to door, sold Michelin tires, and operated a gas station in Corbin, Kentucky. He served home-cooked food at a small dining-room table in the back, later opened a popular restaurant and motel, sold them to pay off debts, and at the age of sixty-five became a traveling salesman once again, offering restaurant owners the "secret recipe" for his fried chicken. The first Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurant opened in 1952, near Salt Lake City, Utah. Lacking money to 'promote the new chain, Sanders dressed up like a Kentucky colonel, sporting a white suit and a black string tie. By the early 19605, Kentucky Fried Chicken was the largest restaurant chain in the United States, and Colonel Sanders was a household name. In his autobiography, Life As I Have Known It Has Been "Finger-lickin' Good," Sanders described his ups and downs, his decision at the age of seventy-four to be rebaptized and born again, his lifelong struggle to stop cursing. Despite his best efforts and a devout faith in Christ, Harland Sanders admitted that it was still awfully hard "not to call a no-good, lazy, incompetent, dishonest s.o.b. by anything else but his rightful name."

For every fast food idea that swept the nation, there were countless others that flourished briefly - or never had a prayer. There were chains with homey names, like Sandy's, Carrol's, Henry's, Winky's, and Mr. Fifteen's. There were chains with futuristic names, like the Satellite Hamburger System and Kelly's Jet System. Most of all, there were chains named after their main dish: Burger Chefs, Burger Queens, Burgerville USAs, Yumy Burgers, Twitty Burgers, Whataburgers, Dundee Burgers, Biff-Burgers, O.K. Big Burgers, and Burger Boy Food-O-Ramas.

Many of the new restaurants advertised an array of technological wonders. Carhops were rendered obsolete by various remote-control ordering systems, like the Fone-A-Chef, the Teletray, and the ElectroHop. The Motormat was an elaborate rail system that transported food and beverages from the kitchen to parked cars. At the Biff-Burger chain, Biff-Burgers were "roto-broiled" beneath glowing quartz tubes that worked just like a space heater. Insta-Burger-King restaurants featured a pair of "Miracle Insta Machines," one to make milk shakes, the other to cook burgers. "Both machines have been thoroughly perfected," the company assured prospective franchisees, "are of foolproof design - can be easily operated even by a moron." The InstaBurger Stove was an elaborate contraption. Twelve hamburger patties entered it in individual wire baskets: circled two electric heating elements, got cooked on both sides, and then slid down a chute into a pan of sauce, while hamburger buns toasted in a nearby slot. This Miracle Insta Machine proved overly complex, frequently malfunctioned, and was eventually abandoned by the Burger King chain.

The fast food wars in southern California - the birthplace of Jack in the Box, as well as McDonald's, Taco Bell, and Carl's Jr. - were especially fierce. One by one, most of the old drive-ins closed, unable to compete against the less expensive, self-service burger joints. But Carl kept at it, opening new restaurants up and down the state, following the new freeways. Four of these freeways - the Riverside, the Santa Ana, the Costa Mesa, and the Orange - soon. passed through Anaheim. Although Carl's Jr. was a great success, a few of Carl's other ideas should have remained on the drawing board. Carl's Whistle Stops featured employees dressed as railway workers, "Hobo Burgers," and toy electric trains that took orders to the kitchen. Three were built in 1966 and then converted to Carl's Jr. restaurants a few years later. A coffee shop chain with a Scottish theme also never found its niche. The waitresses at "Scot's" wore plaid skirts, and the dishes had unfortunate names, such as "The Clansman."

The leading fast food chains spread nationwide; between 1960 and 1973, the number of McDonald's restaurants grew from roughly 250 to 3,000. The Arab oil embargo of 1973 gave the fast food industry a bad scare, as long lines at gas stations led many to believe that America's car culture was endangered. Amid gasoline shortages, the value of McDonald's stock fell. When the crisis passed, fast food stock prices recovered, and McDonald's intensified its efforts to open urban, as well as suburban, restaurants. Wall Street invested heavily in the fast food chains, and corporate managers replaced many of the early pioneers. What had begun as a series of small, regional businesses became a fast food industry, a major component of the American economy.


IN 1976, THE NEW HEADQUARTERS of Carl Karcher Enterprises, Inc. (CKE) was built on the same land in Anaheim where the Heinz farm had once stood. The opening-night celebration was one of the high points of Carl's life. More than a thousand people gathered for a black-tie party at a tent set up in the parking lot. There was dinner and dancing on a beautiful, moonlit night. Thirty-five years after buying his first hot dog cart, Carl Karcher now controlled one of the largest privately owned fast food chains in the United States. He owned hundreds of restaurants. He considered many notable Americans to be his friends, including Governor Ronald Reagan, former president Richard Nixon, Gene Autry, Art Linkletter, Lawrence Welk, and Pat Boone. Carl's nickname was "Mr. Orange County." He was a benefactor of Catholic charities, a Knight of Malta, a strong supporter of right-to-life causes. He attended private masses at the Vatican with the Pope. And then, despite all the hard work, Carl's luck began to change.

During the 1980s CKE went public, opened Carl's Jr. restaurants in Texas, added higher-priced dinners to the menu, and for the first time began to expand by selling franchises. The new menu items and the restaurants in Texas fared poorly. The value of CKE's stock fell. In 1988, Carl and half a dozen members of his family were accused of insider trading by the Securities, and Exchange Commission (SEC). They had sold large amounts of CKE stock right before its price tumbled. Carl vehemently denied the charges and felt humiliated by the publicity surrounding the case. Nevertheless, Carl agreed to a settlement with the SEC - to avoid a long and expensive legal battle, he said - and paid more than half a million dollars in fines.

During the early 1990s, a number of Carl's real estate investments proved unwise. When new subdivisions in Anaheim and the Inland Empire went bankrupt, Carl was saddled with many of their debts. He had allowed real estate developers to use his CKE stock as collateral for their bank loans. He became embroiled in more than two dozen lawsuits. He suddenly owed more than $70 million to various banks. The falling price of CKE stock hampered his ability to repay the loans. In May of 1992, his brother Don - a trusted adviser and the president of CKE - died. The new president tried to increase sales at Carl's Jr. restaurants by purchasing food of a lower quality and cutting prices. The strategy began to drive customers away.

As the chairman of CKE, Carl searched for ways to save his company and payoff his debts. He proposed selling Mexican food at Carl's Jr. restaurants as part of a joint venture with a chain called Green Burrito. But some executives at CKE opposed the plan, arguing that it would benefit Carl much more than the company. Carl had a financial stake in the deal; upon its acceptance by the board of CKE, he would receive a $6 million personal loan from Green Burrito. Carl was outraged that his motives were being questioned and that his business was being run into the ground. CKE now felt like a much different company than the one he'd founded. The new management team had ended the longtime practice of starting every executive meeting with the prayer of St. Francis of Assisi and the pledge of allegiance to the flag. Carl insisted that the Green Burrito plan would work and demanded that the board of directors vote on it. When the board rejected the plan, Carl tried to oust its members. Instead, they ousted him. On March 1, 1993, CKE's board voted five to two to fire Carl N. Karcher. Only Carl and his son Carl Leo opposed the dismissal. Carl felt deeply betrayed. He had known many of the board members for years; they were old friends; he had made them rich. In a statement released after the firing, Carl described the CKE board as "a bunch of turncoats" and called it "one of the saddest days" of his life. At the age of seventy-six, more than five decades after starting the business, Carl N. Karcher was prevented from entering his own office, and new locks were put on the doors.

The headquarters of CKE is still located on the property where the Heinz family once grew oranges. Today there's no smell of citrus in the air, no orange groves in sight. In a town that once had endless rows of orange and lemon trees, stretching far as the eye could see, there's not an acre of them left, not a single acre devoted to commercial citrus growing. Anaheim's population is now about three hundred thousand, roughly thirty times what it was when Carl first arrived. On the comer where Carl's Drive-In Barbeque once stood, there's a strip mall. Near the CKE headquarters on Harbor Boulevard, there's an Exxon station, a discount mattress store, a Shoe City, a Las Vegas Auto Sales store, and an off-ramp of the Riverside Freeway. The CKE building has a modern, Spanish design, with white columns, red brick arches, and dark plate-glass. windows. When I visited recently, it was cool and quiet inside. After passing a life-size wooden statue of St. Francis of Assisi on a stairway landing, I was greeted at the top of the stairs by Carl N. Karcher.

Carl looked like a stylish figure from the big-band era, wearing a brown checked jacket, a white shirt, a brown tie, and jaunty two-tone shoes. He was tall and strong, and seemed in remarkably good shape. The walls of his office were covered with plaques and mementos, with photographs of Carl beside presidents, famous ballplayers, former employees, grandchildren, priests, cardinals, Mikhail Gorbachev, the Pope. Carl proudly removed a framed object from the wall and handed it to me. It was the original receipt for $326, confirming the purchase of his first hot dog cart.

Eight weeks after being locked out of his office in 1993, Carl engineered a takeover of the company. Through a complex series of transactions, a partnership headed by financier William P. Foley II assumed some of Carl's debts, received much of his stock in return, and took control of CKE. Foley became the new chairman of the board. Carl was named chairman emeritus and got his old office back. Almost all of the executives and directors who had opposed him subsequently left the company. The Green Burrito plan was adopted and proved a success. The new management at CKE seemed to have turned the company around, raising the value of its stock. In July of 1997, CKE purchased Hardee's for $327 million, thereby becoming the fourth-largest hamburger chain in the United States, joining· McDonald's, Burger King, and Wendy's at the top. And signs bearing the Carl's Jr. smiling little star started going up across the United States.

Carl seemed amazed by his own life story as he told it. He'd been married to Margaret for sixty years. He'd lived in the same Anaheim house for almost fifty years. He had twenty granddaughters and twenty grandsons. For a man of eighty, he had an impressive memory, quickly rattling off names, dates, and addresses from half a century ago. He exuded the genial optimism and good humor of his old friend Ronald Reagan. "My whole philosophy is - never give up," Carl told me. "The word 'can't' should not exist ... Have a great attitude ... Watch the pennies and the dollars will take care of themselves ... Life is beautiful, life is fantastic, and that is how I feel about every day of my life." Despite CKE's expansion, Carl remained millions of dollars in debt. He'd secured new loans to payoff the old ones. During the worst of his financial troubles, advisers pleaded with him to declare bankruptcy. Carl refused; he'd borrowed more than $8 million from family members and friends, and he would not walk away from his obligations. Every weekday he was attending Mass at six o'clock in the morning and getting to the office by seven. "My goal in the next two years," he said, "is to payoff all my debts."

1 looked out the window and asked how he felt driving through Anaheim today, with its fast food restaurants, subdivisions, and strip malls. "Well, to be frank about it." he said, "I couldn't be happier." Thinking that he'd misunderstood the question, 1 rephrased it, asking if he ever missed the old Anaheim, the ranches and citrus groves.

"No," he answered. "I believe in Progress."

Carl grew up on a farm without running water or electricity. He'd escaped a hard rural life. The view outside his office window was not disturbing to him, I realized. It was a mark of success.

"'When I first met my wife." Carl said, "this road here was gravel ... and now it's blacktop."

Chapter 2: Your Trusted Friends

BEFORE ENTERING the Ray A. Kroc Museum, you have to walk through McStore. Both sit on the ground floor of McDonald's corporate headquarters, located at One McDonald's Plaza in Oak Brook, Illinois. The headquarters building has oval windows and a gray concrete facade - a look that must have seemed space-age when the building opened three decades ago. Now it seems stolid and drab, an architectural relic of the Nixon era. It resembles the American embassy compounds that always used to attract antiwar protesters, student demonstrators, flag burners. The eighty-acre campus of Hamburger University, McDonald's managerial training center, is a short drive from headquarter~. Shuttle buses constantly go back and forth between the campus and McDonald's Plaza, ferrying clean-cut young men and women in khakis who've come to study for their "Degree in Hamburgerology." The course lasts two weeks and trains a few thousand managers, executives, and franchisees each year. Students from out of town stay at the Hyatt on the McDonald's campus. Most of the classes are devoted to personnel issues, teaching lessons in teamwork and employee motivation, promoting "a common McDonald's language" and "a common McDonald's culture." Three flagpoles stand in front of McDonald's Plaza, the heart of the hamburger empire. One flies the Stars and Stripes, another flies the Illinois state flag, and the third flies a bright red flag with golden arches.

You can buy bean-bag McBurglar dolls at McStore, telephones shaped like french fries, ties, clocks, key chains, golf bags and duffel bags, jewelry, baby clothes, lunch boxes, mouse pads, leather jackets, postcards, toy trucks, and much more, all of it bearing the stamp of McDonald's. You can buy T-shirts decorated with a new version of the American flag. The fifty white stars have been replaced by a pair of golden arches.

At the back of McStore, past the footsteps of Ronald McDonald stenciled on the floor, past the shelves of dishes and glassware, a bronze bust of Ray Kroc marks the entrance to his museum. Kroc was the founder of the McDonald's Corporation, and his philosophy of QSC and V - Quality, Service, Cleanliness, and Value - still guide it. The man immortalized in ,bronze is balding and middle-aged, with smooth cheeks and an intense look in his eyes. A glass display case nearby holds plaques, awards, and letters of praise. "One of the highlights of my sixty-first birthday celebration." President Richard Nixon wrote in 1974, "was when Tricia suggested we needed a 'break' on our drive to Palm Springs, and we turned in at McDonald's. I had heard for years from our girls that the 'Big Mac' was really something special, and while I've often credited Mrs. Nixon with making the best hamburgers in the world, we -are both convinced that McDonald's runs a close second ... The next time the cook has a night off we will know where to go for fast service, cheerful hospitality - and probably one of the best food buys in America." Other glass cases contain artifacts of Kroc's life, mementos of his long years of struggle and his twilight as a billionaire. The museum is small and dimly lit, displaying each object with reverence. The day I visited, the place was empty and still. It didn't feel like a traditional museum, where objects are coolly numbered, catalogued, and described. It felt more like a shrine.

Many of the exhibits at the Ray A. Kroc Museum incorporate neat technological tricks. Dioramas appear and then disappear when certain buttons are pushed. The voices of Kroc's friends and coworkers - one of them identified as a McDonald's "vice president of individuality" - boom from speakers at the appropriate cue. Darkened glass cases are suddenly illuminated from within, revealing their contents. An artwork on the wall, when viewed from the left, displays an image of Ray Kroc. Viewed from the right, it shows the letters QSC and V. The museum does not have a life-size, Audio-Animatronic version of McDonald's founder telling jokes and anecdotes. But one wouldn't be out of place. An interactive exhibit called "Talk to Ray" shows video clips of Kroc appearing on the Phil Donahue Show, being interviewed by Tom Snyder, and chatting with Reverend Robert Schuller at the altar of Orange County's Crystal Cathedral. "Talk to Ray" permits the viewer to ask Kroc as many as thirty-six predetermined questions about various subjects; old videos of Kroc supply the answers. The exhibit wasn't working properly the day of my visit. Ray wouldn't take my questions, and so I just listened to him repeating the same speeches.

The Disneyesque tone of the museum reflects, among other things, many of the similarities between the McDonald's Corporation and the Walt Disney Company. It also reflects the similar paths of the two men who founded these corporate giants. Ray Kroc and Walt Disney were both from Illinois; they were born a year apart, Disney in 1901, Kroc in 1902; they knew each other as young men, serving together in the same World War I ambulance corps; and they both fled the Midwest and settled in southern California, where they played central roles in the creation of new American industries. The film critic Richard Schickel has described Disney's powerful inner need "to order, control, and keep clean any environment he inhabited." The same could easily be said about Ray Kroc, whose obsession with cleanliness and control became one of the hallmarks of his restaurant chain. Kroc cleaned the holes in his mop wringer with a toothbrush.

Kroc and Disney both dropped out of high school and later added the trappings of formal education to their companies. The training school for Disney's theme-park employees was named Disneyland University. More importantly, the two men shared the same vision of America, the same optimistic faith in technology, the same conservative political views. They were charismatic figures who provided an overall corporate vision and grasped the public mood, relying on others to handle the creative and financial details. Walt Disney neither wrote, nor drew the animated classics that bore his name. Ray Kroc's attempts to add new dishes to McDonald's menu - such as Kolacky, a Bohemian pastry, and the Hulaburger, a sandwich featuring grilled pineapple and cheese - were unsuccessful. Both men, however, knew how to find and motivate the right talent. While Disney was much more famous and achieved success sooner, Kroc may have been more influential. His company inspired more imitators, wielded more power over the American economy - and spawned a mascot even more famous than Mickey Mouse.

Despite all their success as businessmen and entrepreneurs, as cultural figures and advocates for a particular brand of Americanism, perhaps the most significant achievement of these two men lay elsewhere. Walt Disney and Ray Kroc were masterful salesmen. They perfected the art of selling things to children. And their success led many others to aim marketing efforts at kids, turning America's youngest consumers into a demographic group that is now avidly studied, analyzed, and targeted by the world's largest corporations.

Walt and Ray

RAY KROC TOOK THE McDonald brothers' Speedee Service System and spread it nationwide, creating a fast food empire. Although he founded a company that came to symbolize corporate America, Kroc was never a buttoned-down corporate type. He was a former jazz musician who'd played at speakeasies - and at a bordello, on at least one occasion - during Prohibition. He was a charming, funny, and indefatigable traveling salesman who endured many years of disappointment, a Willy Loman who finally managed to hit it big in his early sixties. Kroc grew up in Oak Park, Illinois, not far from Chicago. His father worked for Western Union. As a high school freshman, Ray Kroc discovered the joys of selling while employed at his uncle's soda fountain. "That was where I learned you could influence people with a smile and enthusiasm." Kroc recalled in his autobiography, Grinding It Out, "and sell them a sundae when what they'd come for was a cup of coffee."

Over the years, Kroc sold coffee beans, sheet music, paper cups, Florida real estate, powdered instant beverages called "Malt-a-Plenty" and "Shake-a-Plenty," a gadget that could dispense whipped cream or shaving lather, square ice cream scoops, and a collapsible table-and-bench combination called "Fold-a-Nook" that retreated into the wall like a Murphy bed. The main problem with square scoops of ice cream, he found, was that they slid off the plate when you tried to eat them. Kroc used the same basic technique to sell all these things: he tailored his pitch to fit the buyer's tastes. Despite one setback after another, he kept at it, always convinced that success was just around the corner. "If you believe in it, and you believe in it hard." Kroc later told audiences, "it's impossible to fail. I don't care what it is - you can get it!"

Ray Kroc was selling milk-shake mixers in 1954 when he first visited the new McDonald's Self-Service Restaurant in San Bernardino. The McDonald brothers were two of his best customers. The Multi~ mixer unit that Kroc sold could make five milk shakes at once. He wondered why the McDonald brothers needed eight of the machines. Kroc had visited a lot of restaurant kitchens, out on the road, demonstrating the Multimixer - and had never seen anything like the McDonald's Speedee Service System. "When I saw it." he later wrote, "I felt like some latter-day Newton who'd just had an Idaho potato caromed off his skull." He looked at the restaurant "through the eyes of a salesman" and envisioned putting a McDonald's at busy intersections all across the land.

Richard and "Mac" McDonald were less ambitious. They were clearing $100,000 a year in profits from the restaurant, a huge sum in those days. They already owned a big house and three Cadillacs. They didn't like to travel. They'd recently refused an offer from the Carnation Milk Company, which thought that opening more McDonald's would increase the sales of milk shakes. Nevertheless, Kroc convinced the brothers to sell him the right to franchise McDonald's nationwide. The two could stay at home, while Kroc traveled the country, making them even richer. A deal was signed. Years later Richard McDonald described his first memory of Kroc, a moment that would soon lead to the birth of the world's biggest restaurant chain: "This little fellow comes in, with a high voice, and says, 'hi.'"

After finalizing the agreement with the McDonald brothers, Kroc sent a letter to Walt Disney. In 1917 the two men had both lied about their ages to join the Red Cross and see battle in Europe. A long time had clearly passed since their last conversation. "Dear Walt," the letter said. "I feel somewhat presumptuous addressing you in this way yet I feel sure you would not want me to address you any other way. My name is Ray A. Kroc ... I look over the Company A picture we had taken at Sound Beach, Conn., many times and recall a lot of pleasant memories." After the warm-up came the pitch: "I have very recently taken over the national franchise of the McDonald's system. I would like to inquire if there may be an opportunity for a McDonald's in your Disneyland Development."

Walt Disney sent Kroc a cordial reply and forwarded his proposal to an executive in charge of the theme park's concessions. Disneyland was still under construction, its opening was eagerly awaited by millions of American children, and Kroc may have had high hopes. According to one account, Disney's company asked Kroc to raise the price of McDonald's french fries from ten cents to fifteen cents; Disney would keep the extra nickel as payment for granting the concession; and the story ends with Ray Kroc refusing to gouge his loyal customers. The account seems highly unlikely, a belated effort by someone at McDonald's to put the best spin on a sales pitch that went nowhere. When Disneyland opened in July of 1955 - an event that Ronald Reagan cohosted for ABC - it had food stands run by Welch's, Stouffer's, and Aunt Jemima's, but no McDonald's. Kroc was not yet in their league. His recollection of Walt Disney as a young man, briefly mentioned in Grinding It Out, is not entirely flattering. "He was regarded as a strange duck," Kroc wrote of Disney, "because whenever we had time off and went out on the town to chase girls, he stayed in camp drawing pictures."

Whatever feelings existed between the two men, Walt Disney proved in many respects to be a role model for Ray Kroc. Disney's success had come much more quickly. At the age of twenty-one he'd left the Midwest and opened his own movie studio in Los Angeles. He was famous before turning thirty. In The Magic Kingdom (1997) Steven Watts describes Walt Disney's efforts to apply the techniques of mass production to Hollywood moviemaking. He greatly admired Henry Ford and introduced an assembly line and a rigorous division of labor at the Disney Studio, which was soon depicted as a "fun factory." Instead of drawing entire scenes, artists were given narrowly defined tasks, meticulously sketching and inking Disney characters while supervisors watched them and timed how long it took them to complete each cel. During the 1930s the production system at the studio was organized to function like that of an automobile plant. "Hundreds of young people were being trained and fitted," Disney explained, "into a machine for the manufacture of entertainment."
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

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Part 2 of 2

Henry Ford II and Walt Disney in 1962, Viewing the 1964-65 New York World's Fair Ford Pavilion Model. For their pavilion at the 1964-65 New York World's Fair, Ford Motor Company brought in Walt Disney to design a "unique and memorable entertainment adventure" that would outshine its competitors. This became the Magic Skyway ride, in which guests sat in Ford convertibles through a Disney-designed show. Here, Walt Disney reviews the attraction model with Henry Ford II.

Letter from Walt Disney regarding Making a Ford Motor Company War Work for Women Film, February 18, 1943

February 18, 1943.
Dear Mr. [John W.] Thompson [Director, Ford News Bureau]:
I have been thinking about your problem of how to get women interested in working in industry and here is a thought that might be the basis for a film which was suggested to me by a recent newspaper item.
During the Civil War women played a big part in industry – they worked in foundries and factories at a time when working conditions were really bad. I believe you will also find that we had a large percentage of women working in industry in the last war. This might be an interesting theme for the opening of a film and then lead up to our present working conditions, showing the wonderful rest-rooms, commissaries, medical facilities and so on.
Big industry, these days, every often looks after its people in a far better manner than they do, themselves. Contrast these facts with conditions of the past and I believe you can build up something very interesting.
Then from the amusing side, you could bring in the costumes of the Civil War period – women working in their bustles, with the long, full skirts and quaint hats. You could also show the styles current during World War I. Perhaps some wood cuts of the Civil War could be used with an interesting commentary, against these amusing shots, building up the modern industrial setup which I believe would make something that would be enticing to the theatre-man to run.
I shall try to locate the newspaper item that suggested this thought and mail it on to you.
Vern Caldwell has made arrangements with the RKO Exchange in Detroit to make available to you all Disney theatrical films, and I am trying to get the CORN and MALARIA films sent to you for a showing.
Just heard from Caldwell and he is carrying on with the Ford Liberator insignia sketches and he will be contacting you very soon.
I enjoyed my visit to the Ford plant very much, especially the informal chat with Mr. Edsel Ford. I am quite enthused about the theatre film idea you discussed on the history of Ford. This idea affords very interesting material and I think something good could be made from it.
With kindest regards,
Walt Disney
Mr. John W. Thompson, Director,
Ford News Bureau
Administration Building,
3000 Schaefer Road,
Dearborn, Michigan.

P.S. - The OWI through its Film Bureau, headed by Arch Mercey, made a film for the Martin plant for the same purposes as the one you have in mind, that is to interest women. It might be worth your while to see this, or through the OWI you might get them to make one for the Detroit interests. W.D.

The working conditions at Disney's factory, however, were not always fun. In 1941 hundreds of Disney animators went on strike, expressing support for the Screen Cartoonists Guild. The other major cartoon studios in Hollywood had already signed agreements with the union. Disney's father was an ardent socialist, and Disney's films had long expressed a populist celebration of the common man. But Walt's response to the strike betrayed a different political sensibility. He fired employees who were sympathetic to the union, allowed private guards to rough up workers on the picket line, tried to impose a phony company union, brought in an organized crime figure from Chicago to rig a settlement, and placed a full-page ad in Variety that accused leaders of the Screen Cartoonists Guild of being Communists. The strike finally ended when Disney acceded to the union's demands. The experience left him feeling embittered. Convinced that Communist agents had been responsible for his troubles, Disney subsequently appeared as a friendly witness before the House Un-American Activities Committee, served as a secret informer for the FBI, and strongly supported the Hollywood blacklist. During the height of labor tension at his studio, Disney had made a speech to a group of employees, arguing that the solution to their problems rested not with a labor union, but with a good day's work. "Don't forget this," Disney told them, "it's the law of the universe that the strong shall survive and the weak must fall by the way, and I don't give a damn what idealistic plan is cooked up, nothing can change that."

Decades later, Ray Kroc used similar language to outline his own political philosophy. Kroc's years on the road as a traveling salesman - carrying his own order forms and sample books, knocking on doors, facing each new customer alone, and having countless doors slammed in his face - no doubt influenced his view of humanity. "Look, it is ridiculous to call this an industry," Kroc told a reporter in 1972, dismissing any high-minded analysis of the fast food business. "This is not. This is rat eat rat, dog eat dog. I'll kill 'em, and I'm going to kill 'em before they kill me. You're talking about the American way of survival of the fittest."

While Disney backed right-wing groups and produced campaign ads for the Republican Party, Kroc remained aloof from electoral politics - with one notable exception. In 1972, Kroc gave $250,000 to President Nixon's reelection campaign, breaking the gift into smaller donations, funneling the money through various state and local Republican committees. Nixon had every reason to like McDonald's, long before tasting one of its hamburgers. Kroc had never met the president; the gift did not stem from any personal friendship or fondness. That year the fast food industry was lobbying Congress and the White House to pass new legislation - known as the "McDonald's bill" - that would allow employers to pay sixteen- and seventeen- year-old kids wages 20 percent lower than the minimum wage. Around the time of Kroc's $250,000 donation, McDonald's crew members earned about $1.60 an hour. The subminimum wage proposal would reduce some wages to $1.28 an hour.

The Nixon administration supported the McDonald's bill and permitted McDonald's to raise the price of its Quarter Pounders, despite the mandatory wage and price controls restricting other fast food chains. The size and the timing of Kroc's political contribution sparked Democratic accusations of influence peddling. Outraged by the charges, Kroc later called his critics "sons of bitches." The uproar left him wary of backing political candidates. Nevertheless, Kroc retained a soft spot for Calvin Coolidge, whose thoughts on hard work and self-reliance were prominently displayed at McDonald's corporate headquarters.

Better Living

DESPITE A PASSIONATE OPPOSITION to socialism and to any government meddling with free enterprise, Walt Disney relied on federal funds in the 1940s to keep his business afloat. The animators' strike had left the Disney Studio in a precarious financial condition. Disney began to seek government contracts - and those contracts were soon responsible for 90 percent of his studio's output. During World War II, Walt Disney produced scores of military training and propaganda films, including Food Will Win the War, High-Level Precision Bombing, and A Few Quick Facts About Venereal Disease. After the war, Disney continued to work closely with top military officials and military contractors, becoming America's most popular exponent of Cold War science. For audiences living in fear of nuclear annihilation, Walt Disney became a source of reassurance, making the latest technical advances seem marvelous and exciting. His faith in the goodness of American technology was succinctly expressed by the title of a film that the Disney Studio produced for Westinghouse Electric: The Dawn of Better Living.

Disney's passion for science found expression in "Tomorrowland." the name given to a section of his theme park and to segments of his weekly television show. Tomorrowland encompassed everything from space travel to the household appliances of the future, depicting progress as a relentless march toward greater convenience for consumers. And yet, from the very beginning, there was a dark side to this Tomorrowland. It celebrated technology without moral qualms. Some of the science it espoused later proved to be not so benign - and some of the scientists it promoted were unusual role models for the nation's children.

In the mid-1950s Wernher von Braun cohosted and helped produce a series of Disney television shows on space exploration. "Man in Space" and the other Tomorrowland episodes on the topic were enormously popular and fueled public support for an American space program. At the time, von Braun was the U.S. Army's leading rocket scientist. He had served in the same capacity for the German army during World War II. He had been an early and enthusiastic member of the Nazi party, as well as a major in the SS. At least 20,000 slave laborers, many of them Allied prisoners of war, died at Dora-Nordhausen, the factory where von Braun's rockets were built. Less than ten years after the liberation of Dora-Nordhausen, von Braun was giving orders to Disney animators and designing a ride at Disneyland called Rocket to the Moon. Heinz Haber, another key Tomorrowland adviser - and eventually the chief scientific consultant to Walt Disney Productions - spent much of World War II conducting research on high-speed, high-altitude flight for the Luftwaffe Institute for Aviation Medicine. In order to assess the risks faced by German air force pilots, the institute performed experiments on hundreds of inmates at the Dachau concentration camp near Munich. The inmates who survived these experiments were usually killed and then dissected. Haber left Germany after the war and shared his knowledge of aviation medicine with the U.S. Army Air Force. He later cohosted Disney's "Man in Space" with von Braun. When the Eisenhower administration asked Walt Disney to produce a show championing the civilian use of nuclear power, Heinz Haber was given the assignment. He hosted the Disney broadcast called "Our Friend the Atom" and wrote a popular children's book with the same title, both of which made nuclear fission seem fun, instead of terrifying. "Our Friend the Atom" was sponsored by General Dynamics, a manufacturer of nuclear reactors. The company also financed the atomic submarine ride at Disneyland's Tomorrowland.

The future heralded at Disneyland was one in which every aspect of American life had a corporate sponsor. Walt Disney was the most beloved children's entertainer in the country. He had unrivaled access to impressionable young minds - and other corporations, with other agendas to sell, were eager to come along for the ride. Monsanto built Disneyland's House of the Future, which was made of plastic. General Electric backed the Carousel of Progress, which featured an Audio-Animatronic housewife, standing in her futuristic kitchen, singing about "a great big beautiful tomorrow." Richfield Oil offered utopian fantasies about cars and a ride aptly named Autopia. "Here you leave Today," said the plaque at the entrance to Disneyland, "and enter the world of Yesterday, Tomorrow, and Fantasy."

At first, Disneyland offered visitors an extraordinary feeling of escape; people had never seen anything like it. The great irony, of course, is that Disney's suburban, corporate world of Tomorrow would soon become the Anaheim of Today. Within a decade of its opening, Disneyland was no longer set amid a rural idyll of orange groves, it was stuck in the middle of cheap motels, traffic jams on the Santa Ana freeway, fast food joints, and industrial parks. Walt Disney frequently slept at his small apartment above the firehouse in Disneyland's Main Street, USA. By the early 1960s, the hard realities of Today were more and more difficult to ignore, and Disney began dreaming of bigger things, of Disney World, a place even farther removed from the forces he'd helped to unleash, a fantasy that could be even more thoroughly controlled.

Among other cultural innovations, Walt Disney pioneered the marketing strategy now known as "synergy." During the 1930s, he signed licensing agreements with dozens of firms, granting them the right to use Mickey Mouse on their products and in their ads. In 1938 Snow White proved a turning point in film marketing: Disney had signed seventy licensing deals prior to the film's release. Snow White toys, books, clothes, snacks, and records were already for sale when the film opened. Disney later used television to achieve a degree of synergy beyond anything that anyone had previously dared. His first television broadcast, One Hour in Wonderland (1950), culminated in a promotion for the upcoming Disney film Alice in Wonderland. His first television series, Disneyland (1954), provided weekly updates on the construction work at his theme park. ABC, which broadcast the show, owned a large financial stake in the Anaheim venture. Disneyland's other major investor, Western Printing and Lithography, printed Disney books such as The Walt Disney Story of Our Friend the Atom. In the guise of televised entertainment, episodes of Disneyland were often thinly disguised infomercials, promoting films, books, toys, an amusement park - and, most of all, Disney himself, the living, breathing incarnation of a brand, the man who neatly tied all the other commodities together into one cheerful, friendly, patriotic idea.

Ray Kroc could only dream, during McDonald's tough early years, of having such marketing tools at his disposal. He was forced to rely instead on his wits, his charisma, and his instinct for promotion. Kroc believed completely in whatever he sold and pitched McDonald's franchises with an almost religious fervor. He also knew a few things about publicity, having auditioned talent for a Chicago radio station in the 1920s and performed in nightclubs for years. Kroc hired a publicity firm led by a gag writer and a former MGM road manager to get McDonald's into the news. Children would be the new restaurant chain's target customers. The McDonald brothers had aimed for a family crowd, and now Kroc improved and refined their marketing strategy. He'd picked the right moment. America was in the middle of a baby boom; the number of children had soared in the decade after World War II. Kroc wanted to create a safe, clean, all-American place for kids. The McDonald's franchise agreement required every new restaurant to fly the Stars and Stripes. Kroc understood that how he sold food was just as important as how the food tasted. He liked to tell people that he was really in show business, not the restaurant business. Promoting McDonald's to children was a clever, pragmatic decision. "A child who loves our TV commercials," Kroc explained, "and brings her grandparents to a McDonald's gives us two more customers."

The McDonald's Corporation's first mascot was Speedee, a winking little chef with a hamburger for a head. The character was later renamed Archie McDonald. Speedy was the name of Alka-Seltzer's mascot, and it seemed unwise to imply any connection between the two brands. In 1960, Oscar Goldstein, a McDonald's franchisee in Washington, D.C., decided to sponsor Bozo's Circus, a local children's television show. Bozo's appearance at a McDonald's restaurant drew large crowds. When the local NBC station canceled Bozo's Circus in 1963, Goldstein hired its star - Willard Scott, later the weatherman on NBC's Today show - to invent a new clown who could make restaurant appearances. An ad agency designed the outfit, Scott came up with the name Ronald McDonald, and a star was born. Two years later the McDonald's Corporation introduced Ronald McDonald to the rest of the United States through a major ad campaign. But Willard Scott no longer played the part. He was deemed too overweight; McDonald's wanted someone thinner to sell its burgers, shakes, and fries.

The late-1960s expansion of the McDonald's restaurant chain coincided with declining fortunes at the Walt Disney Company. Disney was no longer alive, and his vision of America embodied just about everything that kids of the sixties were rebelling against. Although McDonald's was hardly a promoter of whole foods and psychedelia, it had the great advantage of seeming new - and there was something trippy about Ronald McDonald, his clothes, and his friends. As McDonald's mascot began to rival Mickey Mouse in name recognition, Kroc made plans to create his own Disneyland. He was a highly competitive man who liked, whenever possible, to settle the score. "If they were drowning to death," Kroc once said about his business rivals, "I would put a hose in their mouth." He planned to buy 1,500 acres of land northeast of Los Angeles and build a new amusement park there. The park, tentatively called Western World, would have a cowboy theme. Other McDonald's executives opposed the idea, worried that Western World would divert funds from the restaurant business and lose millions. Kroc offered to option the land with his own money, but finally listened to his close advisers and scrapped the plan. The McDonald's Corporation later considered buying Astro World in Houston. Instead of investing in a large theme park, the company pursued a more decentralized approach. It built small Playlands and McDonaldlands all over the United States.

The fantasy world of McDonaldland borrowed a good deal from Walt Disney's Magic Kingdom. Don Ament, who gave McDonaldland its distinctive look, was a former Disney set designer. Richard and Robert Sherman - who had written and composed, among other things, all the songs in Disney's Mary Poppins, Disneyland's "It's a Great, Big, Beautiful Tomorrow" and "It's a Small World, After All" - were enlisted for the first McDonaldland commercials. Ronald McDonald, Mayor McCheese, and the other characters in the ads made McDonald's seem like more than just another place to eat. McDonaldland - with its hamburger patch, apple pie trees, and Filet- O-Fish fountain - had one crucial thing in common with Disneyland. Almost everything in it was for sale. McDonald's soon loomed large in the imagination of toddlers, the intended audience for the ads. The restaurant chain evoked a series of pleasing images in a youngster's mind: bright colors, a playground, a toy, a clown, a drink with a straw, little pieces of food wrapped up like a present. Kroc had succeeded, like his old Red Cross comrade, at selling something intangible to children, along with their fries.

Kid Kustomers

TWENTY-FIVE YEARS AGO, only a handful of American companies directed their marketing at children - Disney, McDonald's, candy makers, toy makers, manufacturers of breakfast cereal. Today children are being targeted by phone companies, oil companies, and automobile companies, as well as clothing stores and restaurant chains. The explosion in children's advertising occurred during the 1980s. Many working parents, feeling guilty about spending less time with their kids, started spending more money on them; One marketing expert has called the 1980s "the decade of the child consumer." After largely ignoring children for years, Madison Avenue began to scrutinize and pursue them. Major ad agencies now have children's divisions, and a variety of marketing firms focus solely on kids. These groups tend to have sweet-sounding names: Small Talk, Kid Connection, Kid2Kid, the Gepetto Group, Just Kids, Inc. At least three industry publications - Youth Market Alert, Selling to Kids, and Marketing to Kids Report -- cover the latest ad campaigns and market research. The growth in children's advertising has been driven by efforts to increase not just current, but also future, consumption. Hoping that nostalgic childhood memories of a brand will lead to a lifetime of purchases, companies now plan "cradle-to-grave" advertising strategies. They have come to believe what Ray Kroc and Walt Disney realized long ago - a person's "brand loyalty" may begin as early as the age of two. Indeed, market research has found that children often recognize a brand logo before they can recognize their own name.

The discontinued Joe Camel ad campaign, which used a hip cartoon character to sell cigarettes, showed how easily children can be influenced by the right corporate mascot. A 1991 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that nearly all of America's six-year-olds could identify Joe Camel, who was just as familiar to them as Mickey Mouse. Another study found that one-third of the cigarettes illegally sold to minors were Camels. More recently, a marketing firm conducted a survey in shopping malls across the country, asking children to describe their favorite TV ads. According to the CME KidCom Ad Traction Study II, released at the 1999 Kids' Marketing Conference in San Antonio, Texas, the Taco Bell commercials featuring a talking chihuahua were the most popular fast food ads. The kids in the survey also liked Pepsi and Nike commercials, but their favorite television ad was for Budweiser.

The bulk of the advertising directed at children today has all immediate goal. "It's not just getting kids to whine," one marketer explained in Selling to Kids, "it's giving them a specific reason to ask for the product." Years ago sociologist Vance Packard described children as "surrogate salesmen" who had to persuade other people, usually their parents, to buy what they wanted. Marketers now use different terms to explain the intended response to their ads - such as "leverage," "the nudge factor," "pester power." The aim of most children's advertising is straightforward: get kids to nag their parents and nag them well.

James U. McNeal, a professor of marketing at Texas A&M University, is considered America's leading authority on marketing to children. In his book Kids As Customers (1992), McNeal provides marketers with a thorough analysis of "children's requesting styles and appeals." He classifies juvenile nagging tactics into seven major categories. A pleading nag is one accompanied by repetitions of words like "please" or "mom, mom, mom." A persistent nag involves constant requests for the coveted product and may include the phrase ''I'm gonna ask just one more time." Forceful nags are extremely pushy and may include subtle threats, like "Well, then, I'll go and ask Dad." Demonstrative nags are the most high-risk, often characterized by full-blown tantrums in public places, breath-holding, tears, a refusal to leave the store. Sugar-coated nags promise affection in return for a purchase and may rely on seemingly heartfelt declarations like "You're the best dad in the world." Threatening nags are youthful forms of blackmail, vows of eternal hatred and of running away if something isn't bought. Pity nags claim the child will be heartbroken, teased, or socially stunted if the parent refuses to buy a certain item. "All of these appeals and styles may be used in combination." McNeal's research has discovered, "but kids tend to stick to one or two of each that prove most effective ... for their own parents."

McNeal never advocates turning children into screaming, breath-holding monsters. He has been studying "Kid Kustomers" for more than thirty years and believes in a more traditional marketing approach. "The key is getting children to see a firm ... in much the same way as [they see 1 mom or dad, grandma or grandpa." McNeal argues. "Likewise, if a company can ally itself with universal values such as patriotism, national defense, and good health, it is likely to nurture belief in it among children."

Before trying to affect children's behavior, advertisers have to learn about their tastes. Today's market researchers not only conduct surveys of children in shopping malls, they also organize focus groups for kids as young as two or ·three. They analyze children's artwork, hire children to run focus groups, stage slumber parties and then question children into the night. They send cultural anthropologists into homes, stores, fast food restaurants, and other places where kids like to gather, quietly and surreptitiously observing the behavior of prospective customers. They study the academic literature on child development, seeking insights from the work of theorists such as Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. They study the fantasy lives of young children, then apply the findings in advertisements and product designs.

Dan S. Acuff - the president of Youth Market System Consulting and the author of What Kids Buy and Why (1997) - stresses the importance of dream research. Studies suggest that until the age of six, roughly 80 percent of children's dreams are about animals. Rounded, soft creatures like Barney, Disney's animated characters; and the Teletubbies therefore have an obvious appeal to young children. The Character Lab, a division of Youth Market System Consulting, uses a proprietary technique called Character Appeal Quadrant Analysis to help companies develop new mascots. The technique purports to create imaginary characters who perfectly fit the targeted age group's level of cognitive and neurological, development.

Children's clubs have for years been considered an effective means of targeting ads and collecting demographic information; the clubs appeal to a child's fundamental need for status and belonging. Disney's Mickey Mouse Club, formed in 1930, was one of the trailblazers. During the 1980s and 1990s, children's dubs proliferated, as corporations used them to solicit the names, addresses, zip codes, and personal comments of young customers. "Marketing messages sent through a dub not only can be personalized," James McNeal advises, "they can be tailored for a certain age or geographical group." A well~ designed and well-run children's dub can be extremely good for business. According to one Burger King executive, the creation of a Burger King Kids Club in 1991 increased the sales of children's meals as much as 300 percent.

The Internet has become another powerful tool for assembling data about children. In 1998 a federal investigation of Web sites aimed at children found that 89 percent requested personal information from kids; only 1 percent required that children obtain parental approval before supplying the .information. A character on the McDonald's Web site told children that Ronald McDonald was "the ultimate authority in everything." The site encouraged kids to send Ronald an email revealing their favorite menu item at McDonald's, their favorite book, their favorite sports team - and their name. Fast food Web sites no longer ask children to provide personal information without first gaining parental approval; to do so is now a violation of federal law, thanks to the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act, which took effect in April of 2000.

Despite the growing importance of the Internet, television remains the primary medium for children's advertising. The effects of these TV ads have long been a subject of controversy. In 1978, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) tried to ban all television ads directed at children seven years old or younger. Many studies had found that young children often could not tell the difference between television programming and television advertising. They also could not comprehend the real purpose of commercials and trusted that advertising claims were true. Michael Pertschuk, the head of the FTC, argued that children need to be shielded from advertising that preys upon their immaturity. "They cannot protect themselves." he said, "against adults who exploit their present-mindedness."

The FTC's proposed ban was supported by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the National Congress of Parents and Teachers, the Consumers Union, and the Child Welfare League, among others. But it was attacked by the National Association of Broadcasters, the Toy Manufacturers of America, and the Association of National Advertisers. The industry groups lobbied Congress to prevent any restrictions on children's ads and sued in federal court to block Pertschuk from participating in future FTC meetings on the subject. In April of 1981, three months after the inauguration of President Ronald Reagan, an FTC staff report argued that a ban on ads aimed at children would be impractical, effectively killing the proposal. "We are delighted by the FTC's reasonable recommendation." said the head of the National Association of Broadcasters.

The Saturday-morning children's ads that caused angry debates twenty years ago now seem almost quaint. Far from being banned, TV advertising aimed at kids is now broadcast twenty-four hours a day, closed-captioned and in stereo. Nickelodeon, the Disney Channel, the Cartoon Network, and the other children's cable networks are now responsible for about 80 percent of all television viewing by kids. None of these networks existed before 1979. The typical American child now spends about twenty-one hours a week watching television -- roughly one and a half months of TV every year. That does not include the time children spend in front of a screen watching videos, playing video games, or using the computer. Outside of school, the typical American child spends more time watching television than doing any other activity except sleeping. During the course of a year, he or she watches more than thirty thousand TV commercials. Even the nation's youngest children are watching a great deal of television. About one-quarter of American children between the ages of two and five have a TV in their room.

Perfect Synergy

ALTHOUGH THE FAST FOOD chains annually spend about $3 billion on television advertising, their marketing efforts directed at children extend far beyond such conventional ads. The McDonald's Corporation now operates more than eight thousand playgrounds at its restaurants in the United States. Burger King has more than two thousand. A manufacturer of "playlands" explains why fast food operators build these largely plastic structures: "Playlands bring in children; who bring in parents, who bring in money." As American cities and towns spend less money on children's recreation, fast food restaurants have become gathering spaces for families with young children. Every month about 90 percent of American children between the ages of three and nine visit a McDonald's. The seesaws, slides, and pits full of plastic balls have proven to be an effective lure. "But when it gets down to brass tacks," a Brandweek article on fast food notes, "the key to attracting kids is toys, toys, toys."

The fast food industry has forged promotional links with the nation's leading toy manufacturers, giving away simple toys with children's meals and selling more elaborate ones at a discount. The major toy crazes of recent years - including Pokemon cards, Cabbage Patch Kids, and Tamogotchis - have been abetted by fast food promotions. A successful promotion easily doubles or triples the weekly sales volume of children's meals. The chains often distribute numerous versions of a toy, encouraging repeat visits by small children and adult collectors who hope to obtain complete sets. In 1999 McDonald's distributed eighty different types of Furby. According to a publication called Tomart's Price Guide to McDonald's Happy Meal Collectibles, some fast food giveaways are now worth hundreds of dollars.

Rod Taylor, a Brandweek columnist, called McDonald's 1997 Teenie Beanie Baby giveaway one of the most successful promotions in the history of American advertising. At the time McDonald's sold about 10 million Happy Meals in a typical week. Over the course of ten days in April of 1997, by including a Teenie Beanie Baby with each purchase, McDonald's sold about 100 million Happy Meals. Rarely has a marketing effort achieved such an extraordinary rate of sales among its intended consumers. Happy Meals are marketed to children between the ages of three and nine; within ten days about four Teenie Beanie Baby Happy Meals were sold for every American child in that age group. Not all of those Happy Meals were purchased for children. Many adult collectors bought Teenie Beanie Baby Happy Meals, kept the dolls, and threw away the food.

The competition for young customers has led the fast food chains to form marketing alliances not just with toy companies, but with sports leagues and Hollywood studios. McDonald's has staged promotions with the National Basketball Association and the Olympics. Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, and KFC signed a three-year deal with the NCAA. Wendy's has linked with the National Hockey League. Burger King and Nickelodeon, Denny's and Major League Baseball, McDonald's and the Fox Kids Network have all formed partnerships that mix advertisements for fast food with children's entertainment. Burger King has sold chicken nuggets shaped like Teletubbies. McDonald's now has its own line of children's videos starring Ronald McDonald. The Wacky Adventures of Ronald McDonald is being produced by Klasky-Csupo, the company that makes Rugrats and The Simpsons. The videos feature the McDonaldland characters and sell for $3.49. "We see this as a great opportunity." a McDonald's executive said in a press release, "to create a more meaningful relationship between Ronald and kids."

All of these cross-promotions have strengthened the ties between Hollywood and the fast food industry. In the past few years, the major studios have started to recruit fast food executives. Susan Frank, a former director of national marketing for McDonald's, later became a marketing executive at the Fox Kids Network. She now runs a new family-oriented cable network jointly owned by Hallmark Entertainment and the Jim Henson Company, creator of the Muppets. Ken Snelgrove, who for many years worked as a marketer for Burger King and McDonald's, now works at MGM. Brad Ball, a former senior vice president of marketing at McDonald's, is now the head of marketing for Warner Brothers. Not long after being hired, Ball told the Hollywood Reporter that there was little difference between selling films and selling hamburgers. John Cywinski, the former head of marketing at Burger King, became the head of marketing for Walt Disney's film division in 1996, then left the job to work for McDonald's. Forty years after Bozo's first promotional appearance at a McDonald's, amid all the marketing deals, giveaways, and executive swaps, America's fast food culture has become indistinguishable from the popular culture of its children.

In May of 1996, the Walt Disney Company signed a ten-year global marketing agreement with the McDonald's Corporation. By linking with a fast food company, a Hollywood studio typically gains anywhere from $25 million to $45 million in additional advertising for a film, often doubling its ad budget. These licensing deals are usually negotiated on a per-film basis; the 1996 agreement with Disney gave McDonald's exclusive rights to that studio's output of films and videos. Some industry observers thought Disney benefited more from the deal, gaining a steady source of marketing funds. According to the terms of the agreement, Disney characters could never be depicted sitting in a McDonald's restaurant or eating any of the chain's food. In the early 1980s, the McDonald's Corporation had turned away offers to buy Disney; a decade later, McDonald's executives sounded a bit defensive about having given Disney greater control over how their joint promotions would be run. "A lot of people can't get used to the fact that two big global brands with this kind of credibility can forge this kind of working relationship," a McDonald's executive told a reporter. "It's about their theme parks, their next movie, their characters, their videos ... It's bigger than a hamburger. It's about the integration of our two brands, long-term."

The life's work of Walt Disney and Ray Kroc had come full-circle, uniting in perfect, synergy. McDonald's began to sell its hamburgers and french fries at Disney's theme parks. The ethos of McDonaldland and of Disneyland, never far apart, have finally become one. Now you can buy a Happy Meal at the Happiest Place on Earth.

The Brand Essence

THE BEST INSIGHT INTO the thinking of fast food marketers comes from their own words. Confidential documents from a recent McDonald's advertising campaign give a clear sense of how the restaurant chain views its customers. The McDonald's Corporation was facing a long list of problems. "Sales are decreasing," one memo noted. "People are telling us Burger King and Wendy's are doing a better job of giving ... better food at the best price," another warned. Consumer research indicated that future sales in some key areas were at risk. "More customers are telling us," an executive wrote, "that McDonald's is a big company that just wants to sell ... sell as much as it can." An emotional connection to McDonald's that customers had formed "as toddlers" was now eroding. The new radio. and television advertising had to make people feel that McDonald's still cared about them. It had to link the McDonald's of today to the one people loved in the past: "The challenge of the campaign," wrote Ray Bergold, the chain's top marketing executive, "is to make customers believe that McDonald's is their 'Trusted Friend.'"

According to these documents, the marketing alliances with other brands were intended to create positive feelings about McDonald's,  making consumers associate one thing they liked with another. Ads would link the company's french fries "to the excitement and fanaticism people feel about the NBA." The feelings of pride inspired by the Olympics would be used in ads to help launch a new hamburger with more meat than the Big Mac. The link with the Walt Disney Company was considered by far the most important, designed to "enhance perceptions of Brand McDonald's." A memo sought to explain the underlying psychology behind many visits to McDonald's: parents took their children to McDonald's because they "want the kids to love them ... it makes them feel like a good parent." Purchasing something from Disney was the "ultimate' way to make kids happy, but it was too expensive to do every day. The advertising needed to capitalize on these feelings, letting parents know that "ONLY MCDONALD'S MAKES IT EASY TO GET A BIT OF DISNEY MAGIC." The ads aimed at "minivan parents" would carry an unspoken message about taking your children to McDonald's: "It's an easy way to feel like a good parent."

The fundamental goal of the "My McDonald's" campaign that stemmed from these proposals was to make a customer feel that McDonald's "cares about me" and "knows about me." A corporate memo introducing the campaign explained: "The essence McDonald's is embracing is 'Trusted Friend' ... 'Trusted Friend' captures all the goodwill and the unique emotional connection customers have with the McDonald's experience ... [Our goal is to make] customers believe McDonald's is their 'Trusted Friend: Note: this should be done without using the words 'Trusted Friend' ... Every commercial [should be] honest ... Every message will be in good taste and feel like it comes from a trusted friend." The words "trusted friend" were never to be mentioned in the ads because doing so might prematurely "wear out a brand essence" that could prove valuable in the future for use among different national, ethnic, and age groups. Despite McDonald's faith in its trusted friends, the opening page of this memo said in bold red letters: "ANY UNAUTHORIZED USE OR COPYING OF THIS MATERIAL MAY LEAD TO CIVIL OR CRIMINAL PROSECUTION."

McTeachers and Coke Dudes

NOT SATISFIED WITH MARKETING to children through playgrounds, toys, cartoons, movies, videos, charities, and amusement parks, through contests, sweepstakes, games, and clubs, via television, radio, magazines, and the Internet, fast food chains are now gaining access to the last advertising-free outposts of American life. In 1993 District 11 in Colorado Springs started a nationwide trend, becoming the first public school district in the United States to place ads for Burger King in its hallways and on the sides of its school buses. Like other school systems in Colorado, District 11 faced revenue shortfalls, thanks to growing enrollments and voter hostility to tax increases for education. The initial Burger King and King Sooper ad contracts were a disappointment for the district, gaining it just $37,500 a year - little more than $1 per student. In 1996, school administrators decided to seek negotiating help from a professional, hiring Dan DeRose, president of DD Marketing, Inc., of Pueblo, Colorado. DeRose assembled special advertising packages for corporate sponsors. For $12,000, a company got five school-bus ads, hallway ads in all fifty-two of the district's schools, ads in their school newspapers, a stadium banner, ads over the stadium's public-address system during games, and free tickets to high school sporting events.

Within a year, DeRose had nearly tripled District 11's ad revenues. But his greatest success was still to come. In August of 1997, DeRose brokered a ten-year deal that made Coca-Cola the district's exclusive beverage supplier, bringing the schools up to $11 million during the life of the contract (minus DD Marketing's fee). The deal also provided free use of a 1998 Chevy Cavalier to a District 11 high school senior, chosen by lottery, who had good grades and a perfect attendance record.

District 11's marketing efforts were soon imitated by other school districts in Colorado, by districts in Pueblo, Fort Collins, Denver, and Cherry Creek. Administrators in Colorado Springs did not come up with the idea of using corporate sponsorship to cover shortfalls in a school district's budget. But they took it to a whole new level, packaging it, systematizing it, leading the way. Hundreds of public school districts across the United States are now adopting or considering similar arrangements. Children spend about seven hours a day, one hundred and fifty days a year, in school. Those hours have in the past been largely free of advertising, promotion, and market research - a source of frustration to many companies. Today the nation's fast food chains are marketing their products in public schools through conventional ad campaigns, classroom teaching materials, and lunchroom franchises, as well as a number of unorthodox means.

The proponents of advertising in the schools argue that it is necessary to prevent further cutbacks; opponents contend that schoolchildren are becoming a captive audience for marketers, compelled by law to attend school and then forced to look at ads as a means of paying for their own education. America's schools now loom as a potential gold mine for companies in search of young customers ... "Discover your own river of revenue at the schoolhouse gates," urged a brochure at the 1997 Kids Power Marketing Conference. "Whether it's first-graders learning to read or teenagers shopping for their first car, we ·can guarantee an introduction of your product and your company to these students in the traditional setting of the classroom."

DD Marketing, with offices in Colorado Springs and Pueblo, has emerged as perhaps the nation's foremost negotiator of ad contracts for schools. Dan DeRose began his career as the founder of the Minor League Football System, serving in the late 1980s as both a team owner and a player. In 1991, he became athletic director at the University of Southern Colorado in Pueblo. During his first year, he raised $250,000 from corporate sponsors for the school's teams. Before long he was raising millions of dollars to build campus sports facilities. He was good at getting money out of big corporations, and formed DD Marketing to use this skill on behalf of schools and nonprofits. Beverage companies and athletic shoe companies had long supported college sports programs, and, during the 1980s began to put up the money for new high school scoreboards. Dan DeRose saw marketing opportunities that were still untapped. After negotiating his first Colorado Springs package deal in 1996, he went to work for the Grapevine- Colleyville School District in Texas. The district would never have sought advertising, its deputy superintendent told the Houston Chronicle, "if it weren't for the acute need for funds." DeRose started to solicit ads not only for the district's hallways, stadiums, and buses, but also for its rooftops - so that passengers flying in or out of the nearby Dallas-Forth Worth airport could see them - and for its voice-mail systems. "You've reached Grapevine-Colleyville school district, proud partner of Dr Pepper," was a message that DeRose proposed. Although some people in the district were skeptical about the wild ideas of this marketer from Colorado, DeRose negotiated a $3.4 million dollar exclusive deal between the Grapevine-Colleyville School District and Dr Pepper in June of 1997. And Dr Pepper ads soon appeared on school rooftops.

Dan DeRose tells reporters that his work brings money to school districts that badly need it. By pitting one beverage company against another in bidding wars for exclusive deals, he's raised the prices being offered to schools. "In Kansas City they were getting 67 cents a kid before," he told one reporter, "and now they're getting $27." The major beverage companies do not like DeRose and prefer not to deal with him. He views their hostility as a mark of success. He doesn't think that advertising in the schools will corrupt the nation's children and has little tolerance for critics of the trend. "There are critics to penicillin," he told the Fresno Bee. In the three years following his groundbreaking contract for School District 11 in Colorado Springs, Dan DeRose negotiated agreements for seventeen universities and sixty public school systems across the United States, everywhere from Greenville, North Carolina, to Newark, New Jersey. His 1997 deal with a school district in Derby, Kansas, included the commitment to open a Pepsi GeneratioNext Resource Center at an elementary school. Thus far, DeRose has been responsible for school and university beverage deals worth more than $200 million. He typically accepts no money up front, then charges Schools a commission that takes between 25 and 35 percent of the deal's total revenues.

The nation's three major beverage manufacturers are now spending large sums to increase the amount of soda that American children consume. Coca-Cola, Pepsi, and Cadbury-Schweppes (the maker of Dr Pepper) control 90.3 percent of the U.S. market, but have been hurt by declining sales in Asia. Americans already drink soda at an annual rate of about fifty-six gallons per person - that's nearly six hundred twelve-ounce cans of soda per person. Coca-Cola has set itself the goal of raising consumption of its products in the United States by at least 25 percent a year. The adult market is stagnant; selling more soda to kids has become one of the easiest ways to meet sales projections. "Influencing elementary school students is very important to soft drink marketers," an article in the January 1999 issue of Beverage Industry explained, "because children are still establishing their tastes and habits." Eight-year-olds are considered ideal customers; they have about sixty-five years of purchasing in front of them. "Entering the schools makes perfect sense," the trade journal concluded.

The fast food chains also benefit enormously when children drink more soda. The chicken nuggets, hamburgers, and other main courses sold at fast food restaurants usually have the lowest profit margins. Soda has by far the highest. "We at McDonald's are thankful," a top executive once told the New York Times, "that people like drinks with their sandwiches." Today McDonald's sells more Coca-Cola than anyone else in the world. The fast food chains purchase Coca-Cola syrup for about $4.25 a gallon. A medium Coke that sells for $1.29 contains roughly 9 cents' worth of syrup. Buying a large Coke for $1.49 instead, as the cute girl behind the counter always suggests, will add another 3 cents' worth of syrup - and another 17 cents in pure profit for McDonald's.

"Liquid Candy," a 1999 study by the Center for Science in the Public Interest, describes who is not benefiting from the beverage industry's latest marketing efforts: the nation's children. In 1978, the typical teenage boy in the United States drank about seven ounces of soda every day; today he drinks nearly three times that amount, deriving 9 percent of his daily caloric intake from soft drinks. Soda consumption among teenaged girls has doubled within the same period, reaching an average of twelve ounces a day. A significant number of teenage boys are now drinking five or more cans of soda every day. Each can contains the equivalent of about ten teaspoons of sugar. Coke, Pepsi, Mountain Dew, and Dr Pepper also contain caffeine. These sodas provide empty calories and have replaced far more nutritious beverages in the American diet. Excessive soda· consumption in childhood can lead to calcium deficiencies and a greater likelihood of bone fractures. Twenty years ago, teenage boys in the United States drank twice as much milk as soda; now they drink twice as much soda as milk. Soft-drink consumption has also become commonplace among American toddlers. About one-fifth of the nation's one- and two-year-olds now drink soda. "In one of the most despicable marketing gambits," Michael Jacobson, the author of "Liquid Candy" reports, "Pepsi, Dr Pepper and Seven-Up encourage feeding soft drinks to babies by licensing their logos to a major maker of baby bottles, Munchkin Bottling, Inc." A 1997 study published in the Journal of Dentistry for Children found that many infants were indeed being fed soda in those bottles.

The school marketing efforts of the large soda companies have not gone entirely unopposed. Administrators in San Francisco and Seattle have refused to allow any advertising in their schools. "It's our responsibility to make it clear that schools are here to serve children, not commercial interests." declared a member of the San Francisco Board of Education. Individual protests have occurred as well. In March of 1998,1,200 students at Greenbrier High School in Evans, Georgia, assembled in the school parking lot, many of them wearing red and white clothing, to spell out the word "Coke." It was Coke in Education Day at the school, and a dozen Coca-Cola executives had come for the occasion. Greenbrier High was hoping for a $500 prize, which had been offered to the local high school that came up with the best marketing plan for Coca-Cola discount cards. As part of the festivities, Coke executives had lectured the students on economics and helped them bake a Coca-Cola cake. A photographer was hoisted above the parking lot by a crane, ready to record the human C-O-K-E for posterity. When the photographer started to take pictures, Mike Cameron - a Greenbrier senior, standing amid the letter C - suddenly revealed a T-shirt that said "Pepsi." His act of defiance soon received nation-wide publicity, as did the fact that he was immediately suspended from school. The principal said Cameron could have been suspended for a week for the prank, but removed him from classes for just a day. "I don't consider this a prank," Mike Cameron told the Washington Post. "I like to be an individual. That's the way I am."

Most school advertising campaigns are more subtle than Greenbrier High's Coke in Education Day. The spiraling cost of textbooks has led thousands of American school districts to use corporate-sponsored teaching materials. A 1998 study of these teaching materials by the Consumers Union found that 80 percent were biased, providing students with incomplete or slanted information that favored the sponsor's products and views. Procter & Gamble's Decision Earth program taught that clear-cut logging was actually good for the environment; teaching aids distributed by the Exxon Education Foundation said that fossil fuels created few environmental problems and that alternative sources of energy were too expensive; a study guide sponsored by the American Coal Foundation dismissed fears of a greenhouse effect, claiming that "the earth could benefit rather than be harmed from increased carbon dioxide." The Consumers Union found Pizza Hut's Book It! Program - which awards a free Personal Pan Pizza to children who reach targeted reading levels - to be "highly commercial." About twenty million elementary school students participated in Book It! during the 1999-2000 school year; Pizza Hut recently expanded the program to include a million preschoolers.

Lifetime Learning Systems is the nation's largest marketer and producer of corporate-sponsored teaching aids. The group claims that its publications are used by more than 60 million students every year. "Now you can enter the classroom through custom-made learning materials created with your specific marketing objectives in mind." Lifetime Learning said in one of its pitches to Corporate sponsors. "Through these materials, your product or point of view becomes the focus of discussions in the classroom." it said in another, " ... the centerpiece in a dynamic process that generates long-term awareness and lasting attitudinal change." The tax cuts that are hampering America's schools have proved to be a marketing bonanza for companies like Exxon, Pizza Hut, and McDonald's. The money that these corporations spend on their "educational" materials is fully tax-deductible.

The fast food chains run ads on Channel One, the commercial television network whose programming is now shown in classrooms, almost every school day, to eight million of the nation's middle, junior, and high school students - a teen audience fifty times larger than that of MTV. The fast food chains place ads with Star Broadcasting, a Minnesota company that pipes Top 40 radio into school hallways, lounges, and cafeterias. And the chains now promote their food by selling school lunches, accepting a lower profit margin in order to create brand loyalty. At least twenty school districts in the United States have their own Subway franchises; an additional fifteen hundred districts have Subway delivery contracts; and nine operate Subway sandwich carts. Taco Bell products are sold in about forty-five hundred school cafeterias. Pizza Hut, Domino's, and McDonald's are now selling food in the nation's schools. The American School Food Service Association estimates that about 30 percent of the public high schools in the United States offer branded fast food. Elementary schools in Fort Collins, Colorado, now serve food from Pizza Hut, McDonald's, and Subway on special lunch days. "We try to be more like the fast food places where these kids are hanging out." a Colorado school administrator told the Denver Post. "We want kids to think school lunch is a cool thing, the cafeteria a cool place, that we're 'with it: that we're not institutional ... "

The new corporate partnerships often put school officials in an awkward position. The Coca-Cola deal that DD Marketing negotiated for Colorado Springs School District 11 was not as lucrative as it first seemed. The contract specified annual sales quotas. School District 11 was obligated to sell at least seventy thousand cases of Coca-Cola products a year, within the first three years of the contract, or it would face reduced payments by Coke. During the 1997-98 school year, the district's elementary, middle, and high schools sold only twenty-one thousand cases of Coca-Cola products. Cara DeGette, the news editor of the Colorado Springs Independent, a weekly newspaper, obtained a memorandum sent to school principals by John Bushey, a District 11 administrator. On September 28, 1998, at the start of the new school year, Bushey warned the principals that beverage sales were falling short of projections and that as a result school revenues might be affected. Allow students to bring Coke products into the classrooms, he suggested; move Coke machines to places where they would be accessible to students all day. "Research shows that vendor purchases are closely linked to availability," Bushey wrote. "Location, location, location is the key." If the principals felt uncomfortable allowing kids to drink Coca-Cola during class, he recommended letting them drink the fruit juices, teas, and bottled waters also sold in the Coke machines. At the end of the memo, John Bushey signed his name and then identified himself as "the Coke dude."

Bushey left Colorado Springs in 2000 and moved to Florida. He is now the principal of the high school in Celebration, a planned community run by The Celebration Company, a subsidiary of Disney.  
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