Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

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McCarthyism
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/21/19

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U.S. anti-communist propaganda of the 1950s, specifically addressing the entertainment industry
AMERICANS …
DON’T PATRONIZE REDS!!!!
YOU CAN DRIVE THE REDS OUT OF TELEVISION, RADIO AND HOLLYWOOD …
THIS TRACT WILL TELL YOU HOW.
WHY WE MUST DRIVE THEM OUT:
1) The REDS have made our Screen, Radio and TV Moscow’s most effective Fifth Column in America …
2) The REDS of Hollywood and Broadway have always been the chief financial support of Communist propaganda in America …
3) OUR OWN FILMS, made by RED Producers, Directors, Writers and STARS, are being used by Moscow in ASIA, Africa, the Balkans and throughout Europe to create hatred of America …
4) RIGHT NOW films are being made to craftily glorify MARXISM, UNESCO and ONE-WORLDISM … and via your TV Set they are being piped into your Living Room – and are poisoning the minds of your children under your very eyes!!!
So REMEMBER – If you patronize a film made by RED Producers, Writers, Stars and STUDIOS you are aiding and abetting COMMUNISM … every time you permit REDS to come into your Living Room VIA YOUR TV SET you are helping MOSCOW and the INTERNATIONALISTS to destroy America!!!


McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence.[1] The term refers to U.S. senator Joseph McCarthy (R-Wisconsin) and has its origins in the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare, lasting from the late 1940s through the 1950s.[2] It was characterized by heightened political repression and a campaign spreading fear of communist influence on American institutions and of espionage by Soviet agents.[2]

What would become known as the McCarthy era began before McCarthy's rise to national fame. Following the First Red Scare, in 1947, President Truman signed an executive order to screen federal employees for association with organizations deemed "totalitarian, fascist, communist, or subversive", or advocating "to alter the form of Government of the United States by unconstitutional means." In 1949, a high-level State Department official was convicted of perjury in a case of espionage, and the Soviet Union tested an atomic bomb. The Korean War started the next year, raising tensions in the United States. In a speech in February 1950, Senator McCarthy presented an alleged list of members of the Communist Party working in the State Department, which attracted press attention. The term "McCarthyism" was published for the first time in late March of that year in the Christian Science Monitor, and in a political cartoon by Herblock in the Washington Post. The term has since taken on a broader meaning, describing the excesses of similar efforts. In the early 21st century, the term is used more generally to describe reckless, unsubstantiated accusations, and demagogic attacks on the character or patriotism of political adversaries.

During the McCarthy era, hundreds of Americans were accused of being "communists" or "communist sympathizers"
; they became the subject of aggressive investigations and questioning before government or private industry panels, committees, and agencies. The primary targets of such suspicions were government employees, those in the entertainment industry, academicians, and labor-union activists. Suspicions were often given credence despite inconclusive or questionable evidence, and the level of threat posed by a person's real or supposed leftist associations or beliefs were sometimes exaggerated. Many people suffered loss of employment or destruction of their careers; some were imprisoned. Most of these punishments came about through trial verdicts that were later overturned,[3] laws that were later declared unconstitutional,[4] dismissals for reasons later declared illegal[5] or actionable,[6] or extra-legal procedures, such as informal blacklists, that would come into general disrepute.

The most notable examples of McCarthyism include the so-called investigations conducted by Senator McCarthy, and the hearings conducted by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC).

Origins

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One of the earliest uses of the term McCarthyism was in a cartoon by Herbert Block ("Herblock"), published in the Washington Post, March 29, 1950.

President Harry S. Truman's Executive Order 9835 of March 21, 1947, required that all federal civil-service employees be screened for "loyalty". The order said that one basis for determining disloyalty would be a finding of "membership in, affiliation with or sympathetic association" with any organization determined by the attorney general to be "totalitarian, fascist, communist or subversive" or advocating or approving the forceful denial of constitutional rights to other persons or seeking "to alter the form of Government of the United States by unconstitutional means."[7]

The historical period that came to be known as the McCarthy era began well before Joseph McCarthy's own involvement in it. Many factors contributed to McCarthyism, some of them with roots in the First Red Scare (1917–20), inspired by communism's emergence as a recognized political force and widespread social disruption in the United States related to unionizing and anarchist activities. Owing in part to its success in organizing labor unions and its early opposition to fascism, and offering an alternative to the ills of capitalism during the Great Depression, the Communist Party of the United States increased its membership through the 1930s, reaching a peak of about 75,000 members in 1940–41.[8] While the United States was engaged in World War II and allied with the Soviet Union, the issue of anti-communism was largely muted. With the end of World War II, the Cold War began almost immediately, as the Soviet Union installed communist puppet régimes in areas it had occupied across Central and Eastern Europe. The United States backed anti-communist forces in Greece and China.

Although the Igor Gouzenko and Elizabeth Bentley affairs had raised the issue of Soviet espionage in 1945, events in 1949 and 1950 sharply increased the sense of threat in the United States related to communism. The Soviet Union tested an atomic bomb in 1949, earlier than many analysts had expected, raising the stakes in the Cold War. That same year, Mao Zedong's communist army gained control of mainland China despite heavy American financial support of the opposing Kuomintang. Many U.S. policy people did not fully understand the situation in China, despite the efforts of China experts to explain conditions. In 1950, the Korean War began, pitting U.S., U.N., and South Korean forces against communists from North Korea and China.

During the following year, evidence of increased sophistication in Soviet Cold War espionage activities was found in the West. In January 1950, Alger Hiss, a high-level State Department official, was convicted of perjury. Hiss was in effect found guilty of espionage; the statute of limitations had run out for that crime, but he was convicted of having perjured himself when he denied that charge in earlier testimony before the HUAC. In Britain, Klaus Fuchs confessed to committing espionage on behalf of the Soviet Union while working on the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the War. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were arrested in 1950 in the United States on charges of stealing atomic-bomb secrets for the Soviets, and were executed in 1953.

It was not McCarthy and the Republicans, but the liberal Democratic Truman administration, whose Justice Department initiated a series of prosecutions that intensified the nation's anti-Communist mood. The most important of these was the prosecution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg in the summer of 1950.

-- The People's History, by Howard Zinn


Other forces encouraged the rise of McCarthyism. The more conservative politicians in the United States had historically referred to progressive reforms, such as child labor laws and women's suffrage, as "communist" or "Red plots", trying to raise fears against such changes.[9] They used similar terms during the 1930s and the Great Depression when opposing the New Deal policies of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Many conservatives equated the New Deal with socialism or Communism, and thought the policies were evidence of too much influence by allegedly communist policy makers in the Roosevelt administration.[10] In general, the vaguely defined danger of "Communist influence" was a more common theme in the rhetoric of anti-communist politicians than was espionage or any other specific activity.

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Senator Joseph McCarthy

McCarthy's involvement in these issues began publicly with a speech he made on Lincoln Day, February 9, 1950, to the Republican Women's Club of Wheeling, West Virginia. He brandished a piece of paper, which he claimed contained a list of known communists working for the State Department. McCarthy is usually quoted as saying: "I have here in my hand a list of 205—a list of names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department."[11] This speech resulted in a flood of press attention to McCarthy and helped establish his path to becoming one of the most recognized politicians in the United States.

The first recorded uses of the term "McCarthyism" were in the Christian Science Monitor on March 28, 1950 ("Their little spree with McCarthyism is no aid to consultation");[12] and then, on the following day, in a political cartoon by Washington Post editorial cartoonist Herbert Block (Herblock). The cartoon depicts four leading Republicans trying to push an elephant (the traditional symbol of the Republican Party) to stand on a platform atop a teetering stack of ten tar buckets, the topmost of which is labeled "McCarthyism". Block later wrote:

"nothing [was] particularly ingenious about the term, which is simply used to represent a national affliction that can hardly be described in any other way. If anyone has a prior claim on it, he's welcome to the word and to the junior senator from Wisconsin along with it. I will also throw in a set of free dishes and a case of soap."[13]


Institutions

A number of anti-communist committees, panels, and "loyalty review boards" in federal, state, and local governments, as well as many private agencies, carried out investigations for small and large companies concerned about possible Communists in their work forces.

In Congress, the primary bodies that investigated Communist activities were the HUAC, the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, and the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Between 1949 and 1954, a total of 109 investigations was carried out by these and other committees of Congress.[14]

On December 2, 1954, the United States Senate voted 65 to 22 to condemn McCarthy for "conduct that tends to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute".

Executive branch

Loyalty-security reviews


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Executive Order 9835, signed by President Truman in 1947

Executive Order 9835
by President of the United States
Prescribing Procedures for the Administration of an Employees Loyalty Program in the Executive Branch of the Government

Whereas, each employee of the Government of the United States is endowed with a measure of trusteeship over the democratic processes which are the heart and sinew of the United States; and

Whereas, it is of vital importance that persons employed in the Federal service be of complete and unswerving loyalty to the United States; and

Whereas, although the loyalty of by far the overwhelming majority of all Government employees is beyond question, the presence within the Government service of any disloyal or subversive person constitutes a threat to our democratic processes; and

Whereas, maximum protection must be afforded the United States against infiltration of disloyal persons into the ranks of its employees, and equal protection from unfounded accusations of disloyalty must be afforded the loyal employees of the Government:

Now, Therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, including the Civil Service Act of 1883 (22 Stat. 403), as amended, and section 9A of the act approved August 2, 1939 (18 U.S.C. 61i), and as President and Chief Executive of the United States, it is hereby, in the interest of the internal management of the Government, ordered as follows:

PART I — INVESTIGATION OF APPLICANTS

1. There shall be a loyalty investigation of every person entering the civilian employment of any department or agency of the executive branch of the Federal Government.
1. Investigations of persons entering the competitive service shall be conducted by the Civil Service Commission, except in such cases as are covered by a special agreement between the Commission and any given department or agency.
2. Investigations of persons other than those entering the competitive service shall be conducted by the employing department or agency. Departments and agencies without investigative organizations shall utilize the investigative facilities of the Civil Service Commission.
2. The investigations of persons entering the employ of the executive branch may be conducted after any such person enters upon actual employment therein, but in any such case the appointment of such person shall be conditioned upon a favorable determination with respect to his loyalty.
1. Investigations of persons entering the competitive service shall be conducted as expeditiously as possible; provided, however, that if any such investigation is not completed within 18 months from the date on which a person enters actual employment, the condition that his employment is subject to investigation shall expire, except in a case in which the Civil Service Commission has made an initial adjudication of disloyalty and the case continues to be active by reason of an appeal, and it shall then be the responsibility of the employing department or agency to conclude such investigation and make a final determination concerning the loyalty of such person.
3. An investigation shall be made of all applicants at all available pertinent sources of information and shall include reference to:
1. Federal Bureau of Investigation files.
2. Civil Service Commission files.
3. Military and naval intelligence files.
4. The files of any other appropriate government investigative or intelligence agency.
5. House Committee on un-American Activities files.
6. Local law-enforcement files at the place of residence and employment of the applicant, including municipal, county, and State law-enforcement files.
7. Schools and colleges attended by applicant.
8. Former employers of applicant.
9. References given by applicant.
10. Any other appropriate source.
4. Whenever derogatory information with respect to loyalty of an applicant is revealed a full investigation shall be conducted. A full field investigation shall also be conducted of those applicants, or of applicants for particular positions, as may be designated by the head of the employing department or agency, such designations to be based on the determination by any such head of the best interests of national security.

PART II — INVESTIGATION OF EMPLOYEES

1. The head of each department and agency in the executive branch of the Government shall be personally responsible for an effective program to assure that disloyal civilian officers or employees are not retained in employment in his department or agency.
1. He shall be responsible for prescribing and supervising the loyalty determination procedures of his department or agency, in accordance with the provisions of this order, which shall be considered as providing minimum requirements.
2. The head of a department or agency which does not have an investigative organization shall utilize the investigative facilities of the Civil Service Commission.
2. The head of each department and agency shall appoint one or more loyalty boards, each composed of not less than three representatives of the department or agency concerned, for the purpose of hearing loyalty cases arising within such department or agency and making recommendations with respect to the removal of any officer or employee of such department or agency on grounds relating to loyalty, and he shall prescribe regulations for the conduct of the proceedings before such boards.
1. An officer or employee who is charged with being disloyal shall have a right to an administrative hearing before a loyalty board in the employing department or agency. He may appear before such board personally, accompanied by counsel or representative of his own choosing, and present evidence on his own behalf, through witnesses or by affidavit.
2. The officer or employee shall be served with a written notice of such hearing in sufficient time, and shall be informed therein of the nature of the charges against him in sufficient detail, so that he will be enabled to prepare his defense. The charges shall be stated as specifically and completely as, in the discretion of the employing department or agency, security considerations permit, and the officer or employee shall be informed in the notice (1) of his right to reply to such charges in writing within a specified reasonable period of time, (2) of his right to an administrative hearing on such charges before a loyalty board, and (3) of his right to appear before such board personally, to be accompanied by counsel or representative of his own choosing, and to present evidence on his behalf, through witness or by affidavit.
3. A recommendation of removal by a loyalty board shall be subject to appeal by the officer or employee affected, prior to his removal, to the head of the employing department or agency or to such person or persons as may be designated by such head, under such regulations as may be prescribed by him, and the decision of the department or agency concerned shall be subject to appeal to the Civil Service Commission’s Loyalty Review Board, hereinafter provided for, for an advisory recommendation.
4. The rights of hearing, notice thereof, and appeal therefrom shall be accorded to every officer or employee prior to his removal on grounds of disloyalty, irrespective of tenure, or of manner, method, or nature of appointment, but the head of the employing department or agency may suspend any officer or employee at any time pending a determination with respect to loyalty.
5. The loyalty boards of the various departments and agencies shall furnish to the Loyalty Review Board, hereinafter provided for, such reports as may be requested concerning the operation of the loyalty program in any such department or agency.

PART III — RESPONSIBILITIES OF CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION

1. There shall be established in the Civil Service Commission a Loyalty Review Board of not less than three impartial persons, the members of which shall be officers or employees of the Commission.
1. The Board shall have authority to review cases involving persons recommended for dismissal on grounds relating to loyalty by the loyalty board of any department or agency and to make advisory recommendations thereon to the head of the employing department or agency. Such cases may be referred to the Board either by the employing department or agency, or by the officer or employee concerned.
2. The Board shall make rules and regulations, not inconsistent with the provisions of this order, deemed necessary to implement statutes and Executive orders relating to employee loyalty.
3. The Loyalty Review Board shall also:
1. Advise all departments and agencies on all problems relating to employee loyalty.
2. Disseminate information pertinent to employee loyalty programs.
3. Coordinate the employee loyalty policies and procedures of the several departments and agencies.
4. Make reports and submit recommendations to the Civil Service Commission for transmission to the President from time to time as may be necessary to the maintenance of the employee loyalty program.
2. There shall also be established and maintained in the Civil Service Commission a central master index covering all persons on whom loyalty investigations have been made by any department or agency since September 1, 1939. Such master index shall contain the name of each person investigated, adequate identifying information concerning each such person, and a reference to each department and agency which has conducted a loyalty investigation concerning the person involved.
1. All executive departments and agencies are directed to furnish to the Civil Service Commission all information appropriate for the establishment and maintenance of the central master index.
2. The reports and other investigative material and information developed by the investigating department or agency shall be retained by such department or agency in each case.
3. The loyalty Review Board shall currently be furnished by the Department of Justice the name of each foreign or domestic organization, association, movement, group or combination of persons which the Attorney General, after appropriate investigation and determination, designates as totalitarian, fascist, communist or subversive, or as having adopted a policy of advocating or approving the commission of acts of force or violence to deny others their rights under the Constitution of the United States, or as seeking to alter the form of government of the United States by unconstitutional means.
1. The Loyalty Review Board shall disseminate such information to all departments and agencies.

PART IV — SECURITY MEASURES IN INVESTIGATIONS

1. At the request of the head of any department or agency of the executive branch an investigative agency shall make available to such head, personally, all investigative material and information collected by the investigative agency concerning any employee or prospective employee of the requesting department or agency, or shall make such material and information available to any officer or officers designated by such head and approved by the investigative agency.
2. Notwithstanding the foregoing requirement, however, the investigative agency may refuse to disclose the names of confidential informants, provided it furnishes sufficient information about such informants on the basis of which the requesting department or agency can make an adequate evaluation of the information furnished by them, and provided it advises the requesting department or agency in writing that it is essential to the protection of the informants or to the investigation of other cases that the identity of the informants not be revealed. Investigative agencies shall not use this discretion to decline to reveal sources of information where such action is not essential.
3. Each department and agency of the executive branch should develop and maintain, for the collection and analysis of information relating to the loyalty of its employees and prospective employees, a staff specially trained in security techniques, and an effective security control system for protecting such information generally and for protecting confidential sources of such information particularly.

PART V — STANDARDS

1. The standard for the refusal of employment or the removal from employment in an executive department or agency on grounds relating to loyalty shall be that, on all the evidence, reasonable grounds exist for belief that the person involved is disloyal to the Government of the United States.
2. Activities and associations of an applicant or employee which may be considered in connection with the determination of disloyalty may include one or more of the following:
1. Sabotage, espionage, or attempts or preparations therefor, or knowingly associating with spies or saboteurs;
2. Treason or sedition or advocacy thereof;
3. Advocacy of revolution or force or violence to alter the constitutional form of government of the United States;
4. Intentional, unauthorized disclosure to any person, under circumstances which may indicate disloyalty to the United States, of documents or information of a confidential or non-public character obtained by the person making the disclosure as a result of his employment by the Government of the United States;
5. Performing or attempting to perform his duties, or otherwise acting, so as to serve the interests of another government in preference to the interests of the United States.
6. Membership in, affiliation with or sympathetic association with any foreign or domestic organization, association, movement, group or combination of persons, designated by the Attorney General as totalitarian, fascist, communist, or subversive, or as having adopted a policy of advocating or approving the commission of acts of force or violence to deny other persons their rights under the Constitution of the United States, or as seeking to alter the form of government of the United States by unconstitutional means.

PART VI — MISCELLANEOUS

1. Each department and agency of the executive branch, to the extent that it has not already done so, shall submit, to the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the Department of Justice, either directly or through the Civil Service Commission, the names (and such other necessary identifying material as the Federal Bureau of Investigation may require) of all of its incumbent employees.
1. The Federal Bureau of Investigation shall check such names against its records of persons concerning whom there is substantial evidence of being within the purview of paragraph 2 of Part V hereof, and shall notify each department and agency of such information.
2. Upon receipt of the above-mentioned information from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, each department and agency shall make, or cause to be made by the Civil Service Commission, such investigation of those employees as the head of the department or agency shall deem advisable.
2. The Security Advisory Board of the State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee shall draft rules applicable to the handling and transmission of confidential documents and other documents and information which should not be publicly disclosed, and upon approval by the President such rules shall constitute the minimum standards for the handling and transmission of such documents and information, and shall be applicable to all departments and agencies of the executive branch.
3. The provisions of this order shall not be applicable to persons summarily removed under the provisions of section 3 of the act of December 17, 1942, 56 Stat. 1053, of the act of July 5, 1946, 60 Stat. 453, or of any other statute conferring the power of summary removal.
4. The Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy, and the Secretary of the Treasury with respect to the Coast Guard, are hereby directed to continue to enforce and maintain the highest standards of loyalty within the armed services, pursuant to the applicable statutes, the Articles of War, and the Articles for the Government of the Navy.
5. This order shall be effective immediately, but compliance with such of its provisions as require the expenditure of funds shall be deferred pending the appropriation of such funds.
6. Executive Order No. 9300 of February 5, 1943, is hereby revoked.

HARRY S. TRUMAN
THE WHITE HOUSE,
March 21, 1947.


In the federal government, President Truman's Executive Order 9835 initiated a program of loyalty reviews for federal employees in 1947. It called for dismissal if there were "reasonable grounds ... for belief that the person involved is disloyal to the Government of the United States."[15] Truman, a Democrat, was probably reacting in part to the Republican sweep in the 1946 Congressional election and felt a need to counter growing criticism from conservatives and anti-communists.[16]

When President Dwight Eisenhower took office in 1953, he strengthened and extended Truman's loyalty review program, while decreasing the avenues of appeal available to dismissed employees. Hiram Bingham, chairman of the Civil Service Commission Loyalty Review Board, referred to the new rules he was obliged to enforce as "just not the American way of doing things."[17] The following year, J. Robert Oppenheimer, scientific director of the Manhattan Project that built the first atomic bomb, then working as a consultant to the Atomic Energy Commission, was stripped of his security clearance after a four-week hearing. Oppenheimer had received a top-secret clearance in 1947, but was denied clearance in the harsher climate of 1954.

Similar loyalty reviews were established in many state and local government offices and some private industries across the nation. In 1958, an estimated one of every five employees in the United States was required to pass some sort of loyalty review.[18] Once a person lost a job due to an unfavorable loyalty review, finding other employment could be very difficult. "A man is ruined everywhere and forever," in the words of the chairman of President Truman's Loyalty Review Board. "No responsible employer would be likely to take a chance in giving him a job."[19]

The Department of Justice started keeping a list of organizations that it deemed subversive beginning in 1942. This list was first made public in 1948, when it included 78 groups. At its longest, it comprised 154 organizations, 110 of them identified as Communist. In the context of a loyalty review, membership in a listed organization was meant to raise a question, but not to be considered proof of disloyalty. One of the most common causes of suspicion was membership in the Washington Bookshop Association, a left-leaning organization that offered lectures on literature, classical music concerts, and discounts on books.[20]

J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI

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J. Edgar Hoover in 1961

FBI director J. Edgar Hoover designed President Truman's loyalty-security program, and its background investigations of employees were carried out by FBI agents. This was a major assignment that led to the number of agents in the bureau being increased from 3,559 in 1946 to 7,029 in 1952. Hoover's sense of the communist threat and the standards of evidence applied by his bureau resulted in thousands of government workers losing their jobs. Due to Hoover's insistence upon keeping the identity of his informers secret, most subjects of loyalty-security reviews were not allowed to cross-examine or know the identities of those who accused them. In many cases, they were not even told of what they were accused.[21]

Hoover's influence extended beyond federal government employees and beyond the loyalty-security programs. The records of loyalty review hearings and investigations were supposed to be confidential, but Hoover routinely gave evidence from them to congressional committees such as HUAC.[22]

From 1951 to 1955, the FBI operated a secret "Responsibilities Program" that distributed anonymous documents with evidence from FBI files of communist affiliations on the part of teachers, lawyers, and others. Many people accused in these "blind memoranda" were fired without any further process.[23]

The FBI engaged in a number of illegal practices in its pursuit of information on communists, including burglaries, opening mail, and illegal wiretaps.[24] The members of the left-wing National Lawyers Guild were among the few attorneys who were willing to defend clients in communist-related cases, and this made the NLG a particular target of Hoover's. The office of this organization was burgled by the FBI at least 14 times between 1947 and 1951.[25] Among other purposes, the FBI used its illegally obtained information to alert prosecuting attorneys about the planned legal strategies of NLG defense lawyers.[26]

The FBI also used illegal undercover operations to disrupt communist and other dissident political groups. In 1956, Hoover was becoming increasingly frustrated by Supreme Court decisions that limited the Justice Department's ability to prosecute communists. At this time, he formalized a covert "dirty tricks" program under the name COINTELPRO.[24] COINTELPRO actions included planting forged documents to create the suspicion that a key person was an FBI informer, spreading rumors through anonymous letters, leaking information to the press, calling for IRS audits, and the like. The COINTELPRO program remained in operation until 1971.


Historian Ellen Schrecker calls the FBI "the single most important component of the anti-communist crusade" and writes: "Had observers known in the 1950s what they have learned since the 1970s, when the Freedom of Information Act opened the Bureau's files, 'McCarthyism' would probably be called 'Hooverism'."[27]

Congress

House Committee on Un-American Activities


Main article: House Un-American Activities Committee

The House Committee on Un-American Activities – commonly referred to as the HUAC – was the most prominent and active government committee involved in anti-communist investigations. Formed in 1938 and known as the Dies Committee, named for Rep. Martin Dies, who chaired it until 1944, HUAC investigated a variety of "activities", including those of German-American Nazis during World War II. The committee soon focused on Communism, beginning with an investigation into Communists in the Federal Theatre Project in 1938. A significant step for HUAC was its investigation of the charges of espionage brought against Alger Hiss in 1948. This investigation ultimately resulted in Hiss's trial and conviction for perjury, and convinced many of the usefulness of congressional committees for uncovering Communist subversion.

HUAC achieved its greatest fame and notoriety with its investigation into the Hollywood film industry. In October 1947, the Committee began to subpoena screenwriters, directors, and other movie-industry professionals to testify about their known or suspected membership in the Communist Party, association with its members, or support of its beliefs. At these testimonies, what became known as "the $64,000 question" was asked: "Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party of the United States?"[28] Among the first film industry witnesses subpoenaed by the committee were ten who decided not to cooperate. These men, who became known as the "Hollywood Ten", cited the First Amendment's guarantee of free speech and free assembly, which they believed legally protected them from being required to answer the committee's questions. This tactic failed, and the ten were sentenced to prison for contempt of Congress. Two of them were sentenced to six months, the rest to a year.

In the future, witnesses (in the entertainment industries and otherwise) who were determined not to cooperate with the committee would claim their Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination. While this usually protected them from a contempt-of-Congress citation, it was considered grounds for dismissal by many government and private-industry employers. The legal requirements for Fifth Amendment protection were such that a person could not testify about his own association with the Communist Party and then refuse to "name names" of colleagues with communist affiliations.[29] Thus, many faced a choice between "crawl[ing] through the mud to be an informer," as actor Larry Parks put it, or becoming known as a "Fifth Amendment Communist"—an epithet often used by Senator McCarthy.[30]

Senate committees

In the Senate, the primary committee for investigating communists was the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS), formed in 1950 and charged with ensuring the enforcement of laws relating to "espionage, sabotage, and the protection of the internal security of the United States." The SISS was headed by Democrat Pat McCarran and gained a reputation for careful and extensive investigations. This committee spent a year investigating Owen Lattimore and other members of the Institute of Pacific Relations. As had been done numerous times before, the collection of scholars and diplomats associated with Lattimore (the so-called China Hands) were accused of "losing China", and while some evidence of pro-communist attitudes was found, nothing supported McCarran's accusation that Lattimore was "a conscious and articulate instrument of the Soviet conspiracy". Lattimore was charged with perjuring himself before the SISS in 1952. After many of the charges were rejected by a federal judge and one of the witnesses confessed to perjury, the case was dropped in 1955.[31]

McCarthy headed the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations in 1953 and 1954, and during that time, used it for a number of his communist-hunting investigations. McCarthy first examined allegations of communist influence in the Voice of America, and then turned to the overseas library program of the State Department. Card catalogs of these libraries were searched for works by authors McCarthy deemed inappropriate. McCarthy then recited the list of supposedly pro-communist authors before his subcommittee and the press. Yielding to the pressure, the State Department ordered its overseas librarians to remove from their shelves "material by any controversial persons, Communists, fellow travelers, etc." Some libraries actually burned the newly forbidden books.[32]

McCarthy's committee then began an investigation into the United States Army. This began at the Army Signal Corps laboratory at Fort Monmouth. McCarthy garnered some headlines with stories of a dangerous spy ring among the Army researchers, but ultimately nothing came of this investigation.[33]

McCarthy next turned his attention to the case of a U.S. Army dentist who had been promoted to the rank of major despite having refused to answer questions on an Army loyalty review form. McCarthy's handling of this investigation, including a series of insults directed at a brigadier general, led to the Army–McCarthy hearings, with the Army and McCarthy trading charges and counter-charges for 36 days before a nationwide television audience. While the official outcome of the hearings was inconclusive, this exposure of McCarthy to the American public resulted in a sharp decline in his popularity.[34] In less than a year, McCarthy was censured by the Senate, and his position as a prominent force in anti-communism was essentially ended.[35]

Blacklists

On November 25, 1947, the day after the House of Representatives approved citations of contempt for the Hollywood Ten, Eric Johnston, president of the Motion Picture Association of America, issued a press release on behalf of the heads of the major studios that came to be referred to as the Waldorf Statement. This statement announced the firing of the Hollywood Ten and stated: "We will not knowingly employ a Communist or a member of any party or group which advocates the overthrow of the government of the United States..." This marked the beginning of the Hollywood blacklist. In spite of the fact that hundreds would be denied employment, the studios, producers, and other employers did not publicly admit that a blacklist existed.

At this time, private loyalty-review boards and anti-communist investigators began to appear to fill a growing demand among certain industries to certify that their employees were above reproach. Companies that were concerned about the sensitivity of their business, or which, like the entertainment industry, felt particularly vulnerable to public opinion made use of these private services. For a fee, these teams would investigate employees and question them about their politics and affiliations.

At such hearings, the subject would usually not have a right to the presence of an attorney, and as with HUAC, the interviewee might be asked to defend himself against accusations without being allowed to cross-examine the accuser. These agencies would keep cross-referenced lists of leftist organizations, publications, rallies, charities, and the like, as well as lists of
individuals who were known or suspected communists. Books such as Red Channels and newsletters such as Counterattack and Confidential Information were published to keep track of communist and leftist organizations and individuals.[36] Insofar as the various blacklists of McCarthyism were actual physical lists, they were created and maintained by these private organizations.

Laws and arrests

See also: Smith Act trials of communist party leaders

Efforts to protect the United States from the perceived threat of communist subversion were particularly enabled by several federal laws. The Alien Registration Act or Smith Act of 1940 made the act of "knowingly or willfully advocate, abet, advise or teach the ... desirability or propriety of overthrowing the Government of the United States or of any State by force or violence, or for anyone to organize any association which teaches, advises or encourages such an overthrow, or for anyone to become a member of or to affiliate with any such association" a criminal offense.

Hundreds of communists and others were prosecuted under this law between 1941 and 1957. Eleven leaders of the Communist Party were convicted under the Smith Act in 1949 in the Foley Square trial. Ten defendants were given sentences of five years and the eleventh was sentenced to three years. The defense attorneys were cited for contempt of court and given prison sentences.[37] In 1951, 23 other leaders of the party were indicted, including Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, a founding member of the American Civil Liberties Union. Many were convicted on the basis of testimony that was later admitted to be false.[38] By 1957, 140 leaders and members of the Communist Party had been charged under the law, of whom 93 were convicted.[39]


The McCarran Internal Security Act, which became law in 1950, has been described by scholar Ellen Schrecker as "the McCarthy era's only important piece of legislation"[40] (the Smith Act technically antedated McCarthyism). However, the McCarran Act had no real effect beyond legal harassment. It required the registration of Communist organizations with the U.S. Attorney General and established the Subversive Activities Control Board to investigate possible communist-action and communist-front organizations so they could be required to register. Due to numerous hearings, delays, and appeals, the act was never enforced, even with regard to the Communist Party of the United States itself, and the major provisions of the act were found to be unconstitutional in 1965 and 1967.[41] In 1952, the Immigration and Nationality, or McCarran–Walter, Act was passed. This law allowed the government to deport immigrants or naturalized citizens engaged in subversive activities and also to bar suspected subversives from entering the country.

The Communist Control Act of 1954 was passed with overwhelming support in both houses of Congress after very little debate. Jointly drafted by Republican John Marshall Butler and Democrat Hubert Humphrey, the law was an extension of the Internal Security Act of 1950, and sought to outlaw the Communist Party by declaring that the party, as well as "Communist-Infiltrated Organizations" were "not entitled to any of the rights, privileges, and immunities attendant upon legal bodies."
While the Communist Control Act had an odd mix of liberals and conservatives among its supporters, it never had any significant effect.

The act was successfully applied only twice. In 1954 it was used to prevent Communist Party members from appearing on the New Jersey state ballot, and in 1960, it was cited to deny the CPUSA recognition as an employer under New York state's unemployment compensation system. The New York Post called the act "a monstrosity", "a wretched repudiation of democratic principles," while The Nation accused Democratic liberals of a "neurotic, election-year anxiety to escape the charge of being 'soft on Communism' even at the expense of sacrificing constitutional rights."[42]

Repression in the individual states

In addition to the federal laws and responding to the worries of the local opinion, several states enacted anti-communist statutes.

By 1952, several states had enacted statutes against criminal anarchy, criminal syndicalism, and sedition; banned from public employment or even from receiving public aid, communists and "subversives"; asked for loyalty oaths from public servants, and severely restricted or even banned the Communist Party. In addition, six states, among them California[43] (see California Senate Factfinding Subcommittee on Un-American Activities) had equivalents to the HUAC.[44]

Some of these states had very severe, or even extreme, laws against communism. In 1950, Michigan enacted life imprisonment for subversive propaganda; the following year, Tennessee enacted death penalty for advocating the violent overthrow of the government.[44] Death penalty for membership of the Communist Party was discussed in Texas by Governor Allan Shivers, who described it as "worse than murder."[45][46]

Municipalities and counties also enacted anti-communist ordinances: Los Angeles banned any communist or "Muscovite model of police-state dictatorship" from owning any arm and Birmingham, Alabama, and Jacksonville, Florida, banned any communist from being within the city's limits.[44]


Popular support

Image
Flier issued in May 1955 by the Keep America Committee urging readers to "fight communistic world government" by opposing public health programs
At the Sign of THE UNHOLY THREE
FLUORIDATED WATER
POLIO MONKEY SERUMS
MENTAL HYGIENE, ETC.
UNINFORMED PUBLIC
Are you willing to PUT IN PAWN to the UNHOLY THREE all of the material, mental and spiritual resources of this GREAT REPUBLIC:
FLUORIDATED WATER
1. Water containing Fluorine (rat poison -- no antidote) is already the only water in many of our army camps, making it very easy for saboteurs to wipe out an entire camp personnel. If this happens, every citizen will be at the mercy of the enemy -- already within our gates.
POLIO SERUM
2. Polio Serum, it is reported, has already killed and maimed children; its future effect on minds and bodies cannot be guaged. This vaccine drive is the entering wedge for nation-wide socialized medicine, by the U.S. Public Health Service, (heavily infiltrated by Russian-born doctors, according to Congressman Clare Hoffman.) In enemy hands it can destroy a whole generation.
MENTAL HYGIENE
3. Mental Hygiene is a subtle and diabolical plan of the enemy to transform a free and intelligent people into a cringing horde of zombies.
Rabbi Spitz in the American Hebrew, March 1, 1946: "American Jews must come to grips with our contemporary anti Semites; we must fill our insane asylums with anti-Semitic lunatics."
FIGHT COMMUNISTIC WORLD GOVERNMENT by destroying THE UNHOLY THREE!!! It is later than you think!
KEEP AMERICA COMMITTEE
Box 3094
Los Angeles 54 Calif.
May 16, 1953


McCarthyism was supported by a variety of groups, including the American Legion and various other anti-communist organizations. One core element of support was a variety of militantly anti-communist women's groups such as the American Public Relations Forum and the Minute Women of the U.S.A.. These organized tens of thousands of housewives into study groups, letter-writing networks, and patriotic clubs that coordinated efforts to identify and eradicate what they saw as subversion.[47]

Although far-right radicals were the bedrock of support for McCarthyism, they were not alone. A broad "coalition of the aggrieved" found McCarthyism attractive, or at least politically useful. Common themes uniting the coalition were opposition to internationalism, particularly the United Nations; opposition to social welfare provisions, particularly the various programs established by the New Deal; and opposition to efforts to reduce inequalities in the social structure of the United States.[48]

One focus of popular McCarthyism concerned the provision of public-health services, particularly vaccination, mental health care services, and fluoridation, all of which were denounced by some to be communist plots to poison or brainwash the American people. Such viewpoints led to collisions between McCarthyite radicals and supporters of public-health programs, most notably in the case of the Alaska Mental Health Bill controversy of 1956.[49]

William F. Buckley Jr., the founder of the influential conservative political magazine National Review, wrote a defense of McCarthy, McCarthy and his Enemies, in which he asserted that "McCarthyism ... is a movement around which men of good will and stern morality can close ranks."[50]

In addition, as Richard Rovere points out, many ordinary Americans became convinced that there must be "no smoke without fire" and lent their support to McCarthyism. The Gallup poll found that at his peak in January 1954, 50% of the American public supported McCarthy, while 29% had an unfavorable opinion. His support fell to 34% in June 1954.[51] Republicans tended to like what McCarthy was doing and Democrats did not, and McCarthy also had significant support from traditional Democratic ethnic groups, especially Catholics, as well as many unskilled workers and small-business owners. (McCarthy himself was a Catholic.) He had very little support among union activists and Jews.[52]

Portrayals of Communists

Those who sought to justify McCarthyism did so largely through their characterization of communism, and American communists in particular. Proponents of McCarthyism claimed that the CPUSA was so completely under Moscow's control that any American communist was a puppet of the Soviet intelligence services. This view is supported by recent documentation from the archives of the KGB[53] as well as post-war decodes of wartime Soviet radio traffic from the Venona Project,[54] showing that Moscow provided financial support to the CPUSA and had significant influence on CPUSA policies. J. Edgar Hoover commented in a 1950 speech, "Communist members, body and soul, are the property of the Party."

This attitude was not confined to arch-conservatives. In 1940, the American Civil Liberties Union ejected founding member Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, saying that her membership in the Communist Party was enough to disqualify her as a civil libertarian. In the government's prosecutions of Communist Party members under the Smith Act (see above), the prosecution case was based not on specific actions or statements by the defendants, but on the premise that a commitment to violent overthrow of the government was inherent in the doctrines of Marxism–Leninism. Passages of the CPUSA's constitution that specifically rejected revolutionary violence were dismissed as deliberate deception.[55]

In addition, the party was often claimed to not allow any member to resign, so a person who had been a member for a short time decades previously could be considered as suspect as a current member. Many of the hearings and trials of McCarthyism featured testimony by former Communist Party members such as Elizabeth Bentley, Louis Budenz, and Whittaker Chambers, speaking as expert witnesses.[56][57]

Various historians and pundits have discussed alleged Soviet-directed infiltration of the U.S. government and the possible collaboration of high U.S. government officials.[58][59][60][61]
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Part 2 of 2

Victims of McCarthyism

See also: List of Films by the Hollywood Ten, Hollywood blacklist, and Lavender scare

Estimating the number of victims of McCarthy is difficult. The number imprisoned is in the hundreds, and some ten or twelve thousand lost their jobs.[62] In many cases, simply being subpoenaed by HUAC or one of the other committees was sufficient cause to be fired.[63] Many of those who were imprisoned, lost their jobs, or were questioned by committees did, in fact, have a past or present connection of some kind with the Communist Party.

For the vast majority, though, both the potential for them to do harm to the nation and the nature of their communist affiliation were tenuous.[64] After the extremely damaging "Cambridge Five" spy scandal (Guy Burgess, Donald Maclean, Kim Philby, Anthony Blunt, et al.), suspected homosexuality was also a common cause for being targeted by McCarthyism. The hunt for "sexual perverts", who were presumed to be subversive by nature, resulted in over 5,000 federal workers being fired, and thousands were harassed and denied employment.[65][66] Many have termed this aspect of McCarthyism the "lavender scare".[67][68]

Homosexuality was classified as a psychiatric disorder in the 1950s.[69] However, in the context of the highly politicized Cold War environment, homosexuality became framed as a dangerous, contagious social disease that posed a potential threat to state security.[69] As the family was believed to be the cornerstone of American strength and integrity,[70] the description of homosexuals as "sexual perverts" meant that they were both unable to function within a family unit and presented the potential to poison the social body.[71] This era also witnessed the establishment of widely spread FBI surveillance intended to identify homosexual government employees.[72]

The McCarthy hearings and according "sexual pervert" investigations can be seen to have been driven by a desire to identify individuals whose ability to function as loyal citizens had been compromised.[71] McCarthy began his campaign by drawing upon the ways in which he embodied traditional American values to become the self-appointed vanguard of social morality.[73]

Image
Dalton Trumbo and his wife, Cleo, at the HUAC in 1947

In the film industry, more than 300 actors, authors, and directors were denied work in the U.S. through the unofficial Hollywood blacklist. Blacklists were at work throughout the entertainment industry, in universities and schools at all levels, in the legal profession, and in many other fields. A port-security program initiated by the Coast Guard shortly after the start of the Korean War required a review of every maritime worker who loaded or worked aboard any American ship, regardless of cargo or destination. As with other loyalty-security reviews of McCarthyism, the identities of any accusers and even the nature of any accusations were typically kept secret from the accused. Nearly 3,000 seamen and longshoremen lost their jobs due to this program alone.[74]

Some of the notable people who were blacklisted or suffered some other persecution during McCarthyism include:

• Nelson Algren, writer[75]
• Lucille Ball, actress, model, and film studio executive.[76]
• Alvah Bessie, Abraham Lincoln Brigade, writer, journalist, screenwriter, Hollywood Ten
• Elmer Bernstein, composer and conductor[77]
• Leonard Bernstein, conductor, pianist, composer[78]
• David Bohm, physicist and philosopher[79]
• Bertolt Brecht, poet, playwright, screenwriter
• Archie Brown, Abraham Lincoln Brigade, WW II vet, union leader, imprisoned. Successfully challenged Landrum–Griffin Act provision[80]
• Esther Brunauer, forced from the U.S. State Department[81]
• Luis Buñuel, film director, producer[82]
• Charlie Chaplin, actor and director[83]
• Aaron Copland, composer[84]
• Bartley Crum, attorney[85]
• Howard Da Silva, actor[86]
• Jules Dassin, director[87]
• Dolores del Río, actress[88]
• Edward Dmytryk, director, Hollywood Ten
• W.E.B. Du Bois, civil rights activist and author[89]
• George A. Eddy, pre-Keynesian Harvard economist, US Treasury monetary policy specialist[90]
Albert Einstein, Nobel Prize-winning physicist, philosopher, mathematician, activist[91]
• Hanns Eisler, composer[92]
• Howard Fast, writer[93]
• Lion Feuchtwanger, novelist and playwright[94]
• Carl Foreman, writer of High Noon
• John Garfield, actor[84]
• C.H. Garrigues, journalist[95]
• Jack Gilford, actor[86]
Allen Ginsberg, Beat poet
• Ruth Gordon, actress[86]
• Lee Grant, actress[96]
• Dashiell Hammett, author[84]
• Elizabeth Hawes, clothing designer, author, equal rights activist[97]
• Lillian Hellman, playwright[84]
• Dorothy Healey, union organizer, CPUSA official[98]
• Lena Horne, singer[86]
• Langston Hughes, writer, poet, playwright[84]
• Marsha Hunt, actress
• Sam Jaffe, actor[84]
• Theodore Kaghan, diplomat[99]
• Garson Kanin, writer and director[84]
• Danny Kaye, comedian, singer[100][full citation needed]
• Benjamin Keen, historian[101]
• Otto Klemperer, conductor and composer[102]
• Gypsy Rose Lee, actress and stripper[84]
• Cornelius Lanczos, mathematician and physicist[103]
• Ring Lardner Jr., screenwriter, Hollywood Ten
• Arthur Laurents, playwright[86]
• Philip Loeb, actor[104]
• Joseph Losey, director[84]
• Albert Maltz, screenwriter, Hollywood Ten
• Heinrich Mann, novelist[105]
• Klaus Mann, writer[105]
Thomas Mann, Nobel Prize winning novelist and essayist[105]
• Thomas McGrath, poet
• Burgess Meredith, actor[84]
• Arthur Miller, playwright and essayist[84]
• Jessica Mitford, author, muckraker. Refused to testify to HUAC.
• Dimitri Mitropoulos, conductor, pianist, composer[106]
• Zero Mostel, actor[84]
• Joseph Needham, biochemist, sinologist, historian of science
• J. Robert Oppenheimer, physicist, scientific director of the Manhattan Project[107]
• Dorothy Parker, writer, humorist[84]
• Linus Pauling, chemist, Nobel prizes for Chemistry and Peace[108]
• Samuel Reber, diplomat[109]
• Al Richmond, union organizer, editor[110]
• Martin Ritt, actor and director[111]
• Paul Robeson, actor, athlete, singer, writer, political activist[112]
• Edward G. Robinson, actor[84]
• Waldo Salt, screenwriter[113]
• Jean Seberg, actress[114]
• Pete Seeger, folk singer, songwriter[84]
• Artie Shaw, jazz musician, bandleader, author[84]
• Irwin Shaw, writer[86]
• William L. Shirer, journalist, author[115]
• Lionel Stander, actor[116]
• Dirk Jan Struik, mathematician, historian of maths[117]
• Paul Sweezy, economist and founder-editor of Monthly Review[118]
• Charles W. Thayer, diplomat[119]
• Dalton Trumbo screenwriter, Hollywood Ten
• Tsien Hsue-shen, physicist[120]
• Sam Wanamaker, actor, director, responsible for recreating Shakespeare's Globe Theatre in London, England.
• Orson Welles, actor, author, film director[121]
• Gene Weltfish, anthropologist fired from Columbia University[122]

In 1953, Robert K. Murray, a young professor of history at Pennsylvania State University who had served as an intelligence officer in World War II, was revising his dissertation on the Red Scare of 1919–20 for publication until Little, Brown and Company decided that "under the circumstances ... it wasn't wise for them to bring this book out." He learned that investigators were questioning his colleagues and relatives. The University of Minnesota press published his volume, Red Scare: A Study in National Hysteria, 1919–1920, in 1955.[123]

Critical reactions

The nation was by no means united behind the policies and activities that have come to be associated with McCarthyism. The many critics of various aspects of McCarthyism included many figures not generally noted for their liberalism.

For example, in his overridden veto of the McCarran Internal Security Act of 1950, President Truman wrote, "In a free country, we punish men for the crimes they commit, but never for the opinions they have."[124] Truman also unsuccessfully vetoed the Taft–Hartley Act, which among other provisions denied trade unions National Labor Relations Board protection unless union leaders signed affidavits swearing they were not and had never been Communists. In 1953, after he left office, Truman criticized the current Eisenhower administration:

It is now evident that the present Administration has fully embraced, for political advantage, McCarthyism. I am not referring to the Senator from Wisconsin. He is only important in that his name has taken on the dictionary meaning of the word. It is the corruption of truth, the abandonment of the due process law. It is the use of the big lie and the unfounded accusation against any citizen in the name of Americanism or security. It is the rise to power of the demagogue who lives on untruth; it is the spreading of fear and the destruction of faith in every level of society.[125]


It was not McCarthy and the Republicans, but the liberal Democratic Truman administration, whose Justice Department initiated a series of prosecutions that intensified the nation's anti-Communist mood. The most important of these was the prosecution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg in the summer of 1950.

-- The People's History, by Howard Zinn


On June 1, 1950, Senator Margaret Chase Smith, a Maine Republican, delivered a speech to the Senate she called a "Declaration of Conscience". In a clear attack upon McCarthyism, she called for an end to "character assassinations" and named "some of the basic principles of Americanism: The right to criticize; The right to hold unpopular beliefs; The right to protest; The right of independent thought". She said "freedom of speech is not what it used to be in America", and decried "cancerous tentacles of 'know nothing, suspect everything' attitudes".[126] Six other Republican senators—Wayne Morse, Irving M. Ives, Charles W. Tobey, Edward John Thye, George Aiken, and Robert C. Hendrickson—joined Smith in condemning the tactics of McCarthyism.

Image
Joseph N. Welch (left) and Senator McCarthy, June 9, 1954

Elmer Davis, one of the most highly respected news reporters and commentators of the 1940s and 1950s, often spoke out against what he saw as the excesses of McCarthyism. On one occasion he warned that many local anti-communist movements constituted a "general attack not only on schools and colleges and libraries, on teachers and textbooks, but on all people who think and write ... in short, on the freedom of the mind".[127]

In 1952, the Supreme Court upheld a lower-court decision in Adler v. Board of Education of New York, thus approving a law that allowed state loyalty review boards to fire teachers deemed "subversive". In his dissenting opinion, Justice William O. Douglas wrote: "The present law proceeds on a principle repugnant to our society—guilt by association.... What happens under this law is typical of what happens in a police state. Teachers are under constant surveillance; their pasts are combed for signs of disloyalty; their utterances are watched for clues to dangerous thoughts."[128]


Image
Broadcast journalist Edward R. Murrow

One of the most influential opponents of McCarthyism was the famed CBS newscaster and analyst Edward R. Murrow. On October 20, 1953, Murrow's show See It Now aired an episode about the dismissal of Milo Radulovich, a former reserve Air Force lieutenant who was accused of associating with Communists. The show was strongly critical of the Air Force's methods, which included presenting evidence in a sealed envelope that Radulovich and his attorney were not allowed to open.

On March 9, 1954, See It Now aired another episode on the issue of McCarthyism, this one attacking Joseph McCarthy himself. Titled "A Report on Senator Joseph R. McCarthy", it used footage of McCarthy speeches to portray him as dishonest, reckless, and abusive toward witnesses and prominent Americans.
In his concluding comment, Murrow said:

We must not confuse dissent with disloyalty. We must remember always that accusation is not proof and that conviction depends upon evidence and due process of law. We will not walk in fear, one of another. We will not be driven by fear into an age of unreason, if we dig deep in our history and our doctrine, and remember that we are not descended from fearful men.[30]


This broadcast has been cited as a key episode in bringing about the end of McCarthyism.[129]

In April 1954, McCarthy was also under attack in the Army–McCarthy hearings. These hearings were televised live on the new American Broadcasting Company network, allowing the public to view first-hand McCarthy's interrogation of individuals and his controversial tactics. In one exchange, McCarthy reminded the attorney for the Army, Joseph Welch, that he had an employee in his law firm who had belonged to an organization that had been accused of Communist sympathies. In an exchange that reflected the increasingly negative public opinion of McCarthy, Welch rebuked the senator: "Have you no sense of decency, sir? At long last, have you left no sense of decency?"[130]

Decline

In the mid and late 1950s, the attitudes and institutions of McCarthyism slowly weakened. Changing public sentiments heavily contributed to the decline of McCarthyism. Its decline may also be charted through a series of court decisions.

A key figure in the end of the blacklisting of McCarthyism was John Henry Faulk. Host of an afternoon comedy radio show, Faulk was a leftist active in his union, the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists. He was scrutinized by AWARE, Inc., one of the private firms that examined individuals for signs of communist "disloyalty". Marked by AWARE as unfit, he was fired by CBS Radio. Almost uniquely among the many victims of blacklisting, Faulk decided to sue AWARE in 1957 and finally won the case in 1962.[131]

With this court decision, the private blacklisters and those who used them were put on notice that they were legally liable for the professional and financial damage they caused. Although some informal blacklisting continued, the private "loyalty checking" agencies were soon a thing of the past.
[132] Even before the Faulk verdict, many in Hollywood had decided it was time to break the blacklist. In 1960, Dalton Trumbo, one of the best known members of the Hollywood Ten, was publicly credited with writing the films Exodus and Spartacus.

Much of the undoing of McCarthyism came at the hands of the Supreme Court. As Richard Rovere wrote in his biography of Joseph McCarthy, "[T]he United States Supreme Court took judicial notice of the rents McCarthy was making in the fabric of liberty and thereupon wrote a series of decisions that have made the fabric stronger than before."[133] Two Eisenhower appointees to the court—Earl Warren (who was made Chief Justice) and William J. Brennan, Jr.—proved to be more liberal than Eisenhower had anticipated, and he would later refer to the appointment of Warren as his "biggest mistake".[134]

In 1956, the Supreme Court heard the case of Slochower v. Board of Education. Harry Slochower was a professor at Brooklyn College who had been fired by New York City for invoking the Fifth Amendment when McCarthy's committee questioned him about his past membership in the Communist Party. The court prohibited such actions, ruling "...we must condemn the practice of imputing a sinister meaning to the exercise of a person's constitutional right under the Fifth Amendment.... The privilege against self-incrimination would be reduced to a hollow mockery if its exercise could be taken as equivalent either to a confession of guilt or a conclusive presumption of perjury."[135]

The 1956 Cole v. Young ruling also greatly weakened the ability to discriminate in the federal civilian workforce.[136]

Another key decision was in the 1957 case Yates v. United States, in which the convictions of fourteen Communists were reversed. In Justice Black's opinion, he wrote of the original "Smith Act" trials: "The testimony of witnesses is comparatively insignificant. Guilt or innocence may turn on what Marx or Engels or someone else wrote or advocated as much as a hundred years or more ago.... When the propriety of obnoxious or unfamiliar view about government is in reality made the crucial issue, ... prejudice makes conviction inevitable except in the rarest circumstances."[137]

Also in 1957, the Supreme Court ruled on the case of Watkins v. United States, curtailing the power of HUAC to punish uncooperative witnesses by finding them in contempt of Congress. Justice Warren wrote in the decision: "The mere summoning of a witness and compelling him to testify, against his will, about his beliefs, expressions or associations is a measure of governmental interference. And when those forced revelations concern matters that are unorthodox, unpopular, or even hateful to the general public, the reaction in the life of the witness may be disastrous."[138][139]

In its 1958 decision in Kent v. Dulles, the Supreme Court halted the State Department from using the authority of its own regulations to refuse or revoke passports based on an applicant's communist beliefs or associations.[140]

Repercussions

The political divisions McCarthyism created in the United States continue to make themselves manifest, and the politics and history of a anti-communism in the United States are still contentious. Portions of the massive security apparatus established during the McCarthy era still exist. Loyalty oaths are still required by the California Constitution for all officials and employees of the government of California (which is highly problematic for Quakers and Jehovah's Witnesses whose beliefs preclude them from pledging absolute loyalty to the state).[141] At the federal level, a few portions of the McCarran Internal Security Act remain in effect.

A number of observers have compared the oppression of liberals and leftists during the McCarthy period to recent actions against suspected terrorists, most of them Muslims. In The Age of Anxiety: McCarthyism to Terrorism, author Haynes Johnson compares the "abuses suffered by aliens thrown into high-security U.S. prisons in the wake of 9/11" to the excesses of the McCarthy era.[142] Similarly, David D. Cole has written that the Patriot Act "in effect resurrects the philosophy of McCarthyism, simply substituting 'terrorist' for 'communist'".[143]

From the opposite pole, conservative writer Ann Coulter devotes much of her book Treason to drawing parallels between past opposition to McCarthy and McCarthyism and the policies and beliefs of modern-day liberals, arguing that the former hindered the anti-communist cause and the latter hinder the War on Terrorism.[144] Other authors who have drawn on a comparison between current anti-terrorism policies and McCarthyism include Geoffrey R. Stone,[145] Ted Morgan,[146] and Jonah Goldberg.[147]

McCarthyism also attracts controversy purely as a historical issue. Through declassified documents from Soviet archives and Venona project decryptions of coded Soviet messages, the Soviet Union was found to have engaged in substantial espionage activities in the United States during the 1940s. The Communist Party USA also was substantially funded and its policies controlled by the Soviet Union, and accusations existed that CPUSA members were often recruited as spies.[148]

In the view of some contemporary commentators, these revelations stand as at least a partial vindication of McCarthyism.[149] Some feel that a genuinely dangerous subversive element was in the United States, and that this danger justified extreme measures.[147] Others, while acknowledging that inexcusable excesses occurred during McCarthyism, argue that some contemporary historians of McCarthyism underplay the depth of Soviet espionage in America[150] or the undemocratic nature of the CPUSA,[151] the latter concern being shared by some Trotskyites who felt that they, and anti-Stalin socialists in general, were persecuted by the CPUSA.[152]

The opposing view holds that, recent revelations notwithstanding, by the time McCarthyism began in the late 1940s, the CPUSA was an ineffectual fringe group, and the damage done to U.S. interests by Soviet spies after World War II was minimal.[153] Historian Ellen Schrecker, herself criticised for pro-Stalinist leanings,[154] has written, "in this country, McCarthyism did more damage to the constitution than the American Communist Party ever did."[155]

Later use of the term

Since the time of McCarthy, the word McCarthyism has entered American speech as a general term for a variety of practices: aggressively questioning a person's patriotism, making poorly supported accusations, using accusations of disloyalty to pressure a person to adhere to conformist politics or to discredit an opponent, subverting civil and political rights in the name of national security, and the use of demagoguery are all often referred to as McCarthyism.[156][157][158] McCarthyism can also be synonymous with the term witch-hunt, both referring to mass hysteria and moral panic.[159]

In popular culture

The 1951 novel The Troubled Air by Irwin Shaw tells the story of the director of a (fictional) radio show, broadcast live at the time, who is given a deadline to investigate his cast for alleged links to communism. The novel recounts the devastating effects on all concerned.[160]

The 1952 Arthur Miller play The Crucible used the Salem witch trials as a metaphor for McCarthyism, suggesting that the process of McCarthyism-style persecution can occur at any time or place. The play focused on the fact that once accused, a person had little chance of exoneration, given the irrational and circular reasoning of both the courts and the public. Miller later wrote: "The more I read into the Salem panic, the more it touched off corresponding images of common experiences in the fifties."[161]

The 1976 film The Front starring Woody Allen dealt with the McCarthy-era Hollywood blacklist. The film was made by those blacklisted: producer and director Martin Ritt; writer Walter Bernstein; and actors Zero Mostel, Herschel Bernardi, Michael Murphy, John Randolph, Lloyd Gough, and Joshua Shelley.[162]

Guilty by Suspicion is a 1991 American drama film about the Hollywood blacklist, McCarthyism, and the activities of the HUAC. Written and directed by Irwin Winkler, it starred Robert De Niro, Annette Bening, and George Wendt.

The 2005 film Good Night, and Good Luck by George Clooney starred David Strathairn as broadcast journalist Edward R. Murrow and contained archival footage of McCarthy.[163]

See also

• Conservatism portal
• Socialism portal
• Communism portal
• Hatch Act of 1939
• Mundt–Ferguson Communist Registration Bill of 1950
• Red-baiting
• Anti anti-communism
• Palmer Raids

References

Citations


1. "The Cold War Home Front: McCarthyism". AuthenticHistory.com. AuthenticHistory.com. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
2. Storrs, Landon R. Y. (2015-07-02). "McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare". American History. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199329175.001.0001/acrefore-9780199329175-e-6.
3. For example, Yates v. United States (1957) and Watkins v. United States (1957): Fried (1997), pp. 205, 207.
4. For example, California's "Levering Oath" law, declared unconstitutional in 1967: Fried (1997), p. 124.
5. For example, Slochower v. Board of Education (1956): Fried (1997), p. 203.
6. For example, Faulk vs. AWARE Inc., et al. (1962): Fried (1997), p. 197.
7. Robert J, Goldstein (2006). "Prelude to McCarthyism: The Making of a Blacklist". Prologue Magazine. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration.
8. Weir (2007), pp. 148–49.
9. Fried (1990), p. 41.
10. Brinkley (1995), p. 141; Fried (1990), pp. 6, 15, 78–80.
11. Griffith (1970), p. 49.
12. "McCarthyism, n.". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.); citing Christian Science Monitor, March 28, 1950, p. 20.
13. Block (1952), p. 152.
14. Fried (1990), p. 150.
15. McCoy, Donald R. (1991). Fausold, Martin; Shank, Alan (eds.). The Constitution of the Truman Presidency and the Post–World War II Era. The Constitution and the American Presidency. SUNY Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-7914-0468-3.
16. Fried (1997).
17. Fried (1990), p. 133.
18. Brown (1958).
19. Schrecker (1998), p. 271.
20. Fried (1990), p. 70.
21. Schrecker (1998), pp. 211, 266 et seq.
22. Schrecker (2002), p. 65.
23. Schrecker (1998), p. 212.
24. Cox and Theoharis (1988), p. 312.
25. Schrecker (1998), p. 225.
26. Yoder, Traci (April 2014). "Breach of Privilege: Spying on Lawyers in the United States" (PDF).
27. Schrecker (1998), pp. 239, 203.
28. Case, Sue-Ellen; Reinelt, Janelle G. (editors) (1991). The Performance of Power: Theatrical Discourse and Politics. University of Iowa Press. p. 153. ISBN 9781587290343.
29. Fried (1990), pp. 154–55; Schrecker (2002), p. 68.
30. "See it Now: A Report on Senator Joseph R. McCarthy (transcript)". CBS-TV. March 9, 1954. Retrieved 2007-03-16.
31. Fried (1990), pp. 145–50.
32. Griffith (1970), p. 216.
33. Stone (2004), p. 384.
34. Fried (1990), p. 138.
35. 83rd U.S. Congress (July 30, 1954). "Senate Resolution 301: Censure of Senator Joseph McCarthy". U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
36. Fried (1997), p. 116.
37. Fried (1997), pp. 13, 15, 27, 110–12, 165–68.
38. Fried (1997), pp. 201–02.
39. Levin, Daniel, "Smith Act", in Paul Finkelman (ed.) (2006). Encyclopedia of American Civil Liberties. CRC Press. p. 1488. ISBN 0-415-94342-6.
40. Schrecker (1998), p. 141.
41. Fried (1990), p. 187.
42. McAuliff (1978), p. 142.
43. "California Creates Un-American Activities Committee". Today in Civil Liberties History. Retrieved 2017-07-09.
44. Linfield, Michael (1990). Freedom Under Fire: U.S. Civil Liberties in Times of War. South End Press. pp. 107–11. ISBN 9780896083745.
45. Richards, Dave (2009-08-19). "So Long to the Communist Threat". The Texas Observer. Retrieved 2017-07-09.
46. McEnteer, James (2004). Deep in the Heart: The Texas Tendency in American Politics. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 87. ISBN 9780275983062.
47. Nickerson, Michelle M., "Women, Domesticity, and Postwar Conservatism Archived March 10, 2003, at the Wayback Machine", OAH Magazine of History 17 (January 2003). ISSN 0882-228X.
48. Rovere (1959), pp. 21–22.
49. Marmor, Judd, Viola W. Bernard, and Perry Ottenberg, "Psychodynamics of Group Opposition to Mental Health Programs", in Judd Marmor (1994). Psychiatry in Transition (2nd ed.). Transaction. pp. 355–73. ISBN 1-56000-736-2.
50. Buckley (1954), p. 335.
51. Robert Griffith (1987). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. Univ of Massachusetts Press. p. 263. ISBN 0870235559.
52. Arthur Herman (2000). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Simon and Schuster. pp. 160–61. ISBN 9780684836256.
53. Andrew, Christopher; Vasili Mitrokhin (1999). The Sword and the Shield. New York: Basic Books. pp. 108, 110, 122, 148, 164, 226, 236–37, 279–80, 294–306. ISBN 0-465-00310-9.
54. Haynes, John; Harvey Klehr (1999). Venona – Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. Connecticut: Yale University. pp. 221–26. ISBN 0-300-07771-8.
55. Schrecker (1998), pp. 161, 193–94.
56. Chambers, Whittaker (1952). Witness. New York: Random House. p. 799. ISBN 978-0-8488-0958-4.
57. Schrecker (1998), pp. 130–37.
58. Herman, Arthur (2000). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press. pp. 5–6.
59. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America – The Stalin Era (New York: Modern Library, 2000) ISBN 978-0-375-75536-1, pp. 48, 158, 162, 169, 229
60. M. Stanton Evans. Blacklisted by History: The Untold Story of Senator Joe McCarthy and His Fight against America's Enemies. Crown Forum, 2007 pp. 19–21.
61. John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr. Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. Yale University Press, 1999, p. 18.
62. Schrecker (1998), p. xiii.
63. Schrecker (2002), pp. 63–64.
64. Schrecker (1998), p. 4.
65. Sears, Brad; Hunter, Nan D.; Mallory, Christy (September 2009). Documenting Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in State Employment (PDF). Los Angeles: The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Public Policy at UCLA School of Law. pp. 5–3. From 1947 to 1961, more than 5,000 allegedly homosexual federal civil servants lost their jobs in the purges for no reason other than sexual orientation, and thousands of applicants were also rejected for federal employment for the same reason. During this period, more than 1,000 men and women were fired for suspected homosexuality from the State Department alone—a far greater number than were dismissed for their membership in the Communist party. The Cold War and anticommunist efforts provided the setting in which a sustained attack upon gay men and lesbians took place. The history of this 'lavender scare' by the federal government has been extensively documented by historian David Johnson, who has demonstrated that during this era, government officials intentionally engaged in campaigns to associate homosexuality with Communism: 'homosexual' and 'pervert' became synonyms for 'Communist' and 'traitor.' LGBT people were treated as a national-security threat, demanding the attention of Congress, the courts, statehouses, and the media.
66. D'Emilio (1998), pp. 41–49.
67. David K. Johnson, The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Government. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.), pg 10
68. "An interview with David K. Johnson author of The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Government". press.uchicago.edu. The University of Chicago. 2004. The Lavender Scare helped fan the flames of the Red Scare. In popular discourse, communists and homosexuals were often conflated. Both groups were perceived as hidden subcultures with their own meeting places, literature, cultural codes, and bonds of loyalty. Both groups were thought to recruit to their ranks the psychologically weak or disturbed. And both groups were considered immoral and godless. Many people believed that the two groups were working together to undermine the government.
69. Gary Kinsman and Patrizia Gentile. The Canadian War on Queers: National Security as Sexual Regulation. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2010, p. 65.
70. Elizabeth Lapovsky Kennedy and Madeline Davis. Boots of Leather, Slippers of Gold. New York: Routledge, 1993, p. 75.
71. Kinsman and Gentile, p. 8.
72. John D'Emilio and Estelle B. Freedman. Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America, 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012, p. 316.
73. David K. Johnson, p. 96.
74. Schrecker (1998), p. 267.
75. Publication canceled after FBI contact: Horvath, Brooke (2005). Understanding Nelson Algren. University of South Carolina Press. p. 84. ISBN 1-57003-574-1.
76. Investigated by the FBI and brought before HUAC for having registered as a Communist supporter in 1936: "Lucille Ball". FBI Records: The Vault. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
77. On Hollywood "graylist": "Composer Elmer Bernstein Dead at 82". msnbc.com. Associated Press. August 19, 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
78. Schrecker, Ellen (2002). The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents. New York, Palgrave. p. 244. ISBN 0-312-29425-5.
79. Lost his job, exiled: Jessica Wang (1999). American Science in an Age of Anxiety: scientists, anticommunism, & the cold war. The University of North Carolina Press. pp. 277–78. ISBN 978-0-8078-2447-4.
80. "Obituary", The New York Times, November 25, 1990. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
81. "McCarthy Target Ousted" (PDF). The New York Times. November 21, 1952. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
82. Buhle, Paul & David Wagner (2003b). Blacklisted: The Film Lover's Guide to the Hollywood Blacklist. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6145-X.
83. Harassed by anti-Communist groups, denied reentry to United States while traveling abroad: Lev, Peter (1999). Transforming the Screen, 1950–1959. University of California Press. p. 159. ISBN 0-520-24966-6.
84. On the Red Channels blacklist of artists and entertainers: Schrecker (2002), p. 244.
85. Blacklisted in his profession, committed suicide in 1959: Bosworth, Patricia (1998). Anything Your Little Heart Desires: An American Family Story. Touchstone. ISBN 0-684-83848-6.
86. "The Authentic History Center: Red Channels, The Blacklist". Retrieved 21 July 2010.[dead link]
87. On Hollywood blacklist: Buhle and Wagner (2003), p. 105.
88. Harassed by anti-Communist groups, denied reentry to United States, thus prevented from acting in the movie Broken Lance: Ramón, David (1997). Dolores del Río. Clío. p. 44. ISBN 968-6932-35-6.
89. Indicted under the Foreign Agents Registration Act: Du Bois, W.E.B. (1968). The Autobiography of W. E. B. Du Bois. International Publishers. ISBN 0-7178-0234-5.
90. Craig, R. Bruce (2004). Treasonable Doubt. University Press of Kansas. p. 496. ISBN 978-0-7006-1311-3.
91. Jerome, Fred (2002). The Einstein File: J. Edgar Hoover's Secret War Against the World's Most Famous Scientist. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-28856-5.
92. Herman, Jan (1995). A Talent for Trouble: The Life of Hollywood's Most Acclaimed Director, William Wyler. Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo. ISBN 0-306-80798-X.
93. Blacklisted, imprisoned for three months for contempt of Congress: Sabin (1999), p. 75.
94. Alexander, Stephan (2007). Überwacht. Ausgebürgert. Exiliert: Schriftsteller und der Staat. Bielefeld: Aisthesis Verlag. pp. 36–52. ISBN 978-3-89528-634-6.
95. Investigation of Communist Activities in the Los Angeles Area — Part 5, United States Congress, House Committee on Un-American Activities
96. On Hollywood blacklist: Buhle and Wagner (2003), p. 31.
97. Berch, Bettina (1988). Radical By Design: The Life and Style of Elizabeth Hawes. Dutton Adult. ISBN 0-525-24715-7.
98. "Dorothy Healey Lifelong Communist Fought for Workers", Los Angeles Times, Dennis McLellan, August 08, 2006. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
99. ""Theodore Kaghan, 77; Was in Foreign Service". The New York Times, August 11, 1989. Accessed March 7, 2011.
100. Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Section. "Subject: Danny Kaye". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
101. Keith Haynes "Benjamin Keen 1913–2002" Hispanic American Historical Review 83.2 (2003) 357–59
102. Heyworth, Peter (1996). Otto Klemperer: Vol. 2, 1933–1973: His Life and Times. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521244886.
103. Louis Komzsik (2003). The Lanczos Method:Evolution and Application. SIAM. p. 79.
104. Blacklisted and unemployed, committed suicide in 1955: Fried (1990), p. 156.
105. Stephan, Alexander (1995). Im Visier des FBI: deutsche Exilschriftsteller in den Akten amerikanischer Geheimdienste. Metzler. ISBN 3-476-01381-2.
106. Trotter, William R. (1995). Priest of Music. The Life of Dimitri Mitropoulos. Amadeus Press. ISBN 0-931340-81-0.
107. Security clearance withdrawn: Schrecker (2002), p. 41.
108. Repeatedly denied passport: Thompson, Gail & R. Andrew Viruleg. "Linus Pauling". Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation. Archived from the original on 2007-12-24. Retrieved 2007-12-11.
109. Robert D. Dean, The Imperial Brotherhood: Gender and the Making of Cold War Foreign Policy (University of Massachusetts Press, 2001), 65, 127, 140
110. "Obituary", The New York Times, November 9, 1987. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
111. On Hollywood blacklist: Buhle and Wagner (2003), p. 18.
112. Blacklisted, passport revoked: Marable, Manning, John McMillian, and Nishani Frazier (eds.) (2003). Freedom on My Mind: The Columbia Documentary History of the African American Experience. Columbia University Press. p. 559. ISBN 0-231-10890-7.
113. On Hollywood blacklist: Buhle and Wagner (2003), p. 208.
114. Brodeur, Paul (1997). A Writer in the Cold War. Faber and Faber. pp. 159–65. ISBN 978-0-571-19907-5.
115. Herbert Mitgang. "William L. Shirer, Author, Is Dead at 89". The New York Times, December 29, 1993. Accessed March 5, 2011.
116. Lawrence Van Gelder. "Lionel Stander Dies at 86; Actor Who Defied Blacklist". The New York Times, December 2, 1994. Accessed March 5, 2011.
117. http://www.dwc.knaw.nl/DL/levensbericht ... 003184.pdf,[permanent dead link] p. 7
118. Subpoenaed by New Hampshire Attorney General, indicted for contempt of court: Heale, M. J. (1998). McCarthy's Americans: Red Scare Politics in State and Nation, 1935–1965. University of Georgia Press. p. 73. ISBN 0-8203-2026-9.
119. Robert D. Dean, Imperial Brotherhood: Gender and the Making of Cold War Foreign Policy (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001), 141–44
120. Passport revoked, incarcerated: Chang, Iris (1996). Thread of the Silkworm. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00678-7.
121. Evan, Anderson. "7 Artists Whose Careers Were Almost Derailed by the Hollywood Blacklist". History.com. A+E Networks. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
122. David H. Price. 2004. Threatening Anthropology: McCarthyism and the FBI's Surveillance of Activist Anthropologists. Duke University Press, March 30, 2004
123. Organization of American Historians: Lee W. Formwalt, "Robert Murray's Two Red Scares," in OAH Newsletter, November 2003 Archived September 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, accessed January 28, 2011
124. Truman, Harry S. (September 1950). "Veto of the Internal Security Bill". Truman Presidential Museum and Library. Archived from the original on 2007-03-01. Retrieved 2006-08-07.
125. Doherty (2005), pp. 14–15.
126. Smith, Margaret Chase (June 1, 1950). "Declaration of Conscience". Margaret Chase Smith Library. Archived from the original on October 8, 2006. Retrieved 2006-08-04.
127. Fried (1990), p. 29.
128. Fried (1997), p. 114.
129. Streitmatter (1998), p. 154.
130. Doherty (2005), p. 207.
131. Faulk, John Henry (1963). Fear on Trial. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-72442-X.
132. Fried (1997), p. 197.
133. Rovere (1959), p. 264.
134. Sabin (1999), p. 5.
135. Fried (1997), p. 203.
136. "Cole v. Young 351 U.S. 536 (1956)".
137. Fried (1997), p. 205.
138. Fried (1997), p. 207.
139. full text (http://caselaw.findlaw.com)
140. Fried (1997), p. 211.
141. Paddock, Richard C. (May 11, 2008), "Loyalty oath poses ethical dilemmas", San Francisco Chronicle
142. Johnson, Haynes (2005). The Age of Anxiety: McCarthyism to Terrorism. Harcourt. p. 471. ISBN 0-15-101062-5.
143. Cole, David, "National Security State", The Nation (December 17, 2001). See also Cole, David, "The New McCarthyism: Repeating History in the War on Terrorism", Harvard Civil Rights–Civil Liberties Law Review 38, no. 1 (Winter 2003).
144. Coulter, Ann (2003). Treason: Liberal Treachery from the Cold War to the War on Terrorism. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 1-4000-5032-4.
145. Geoffrey R. Stone (October 17, 2004). "America's new McCarthyism". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
146. Morgan, Ted (2004). Reds: McCarthyism in Twentieth-Century America. Random House. p. 597 et seq. ISBN 0-8129-7302-X.
147. Goldberg, Jonah (February 26, 2003). "Two Cheers for "McCarthyism"?". National Review Online. Archived from the original on 2006-12-10. Retrieved 2007-01-25.
148. Marshall, Joshua, "Exhuming McCarthy", American Prospect 10, no. 43 (1999).
149. David Aaronovitch McCarthy: There Were Reds Under the Bed BBC Radio 4 airdate 9 August 2010
150. Radosh, Ronald (July 11, 2001). "The Persistence of Anti-Anti-Communism". FrontPageMagazine.com. Archived from the original on July 30, 2012. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
151. Haynes, John Earl. "Reflections on Ellen Schrecker and Maurice Isserman's essay, "The Right's Cold War Revision"".
152. Shannon Jones Account of McCarthy period slanders socialist opponents of Stalinism International Committee of the Fourth International 24 March 1999
Any serious assessment of McCarthyism must consider fore and center the criminal role played by the Stalinist Communist Party, which, by associating socialism with terrible crimes against the working class, helped create the political climate in which red-baiting could flourish.
153. Theoharis, Athan (2002). Chasing Spies: How the FBI Failed in Counter-Intelligence But Promoted the Politics of McCarthyism in the Cold War Years. Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 1-56663-420-2.
154. Jones, Shannon (24 March 1999). "Account of McCarthy period slanders socialist opponents of Stalinism". World Socialist Web Site. International Committee of the Fourth International. Retrieved 2011-09-04.
... her pro-Stalinist outlook and the school of anticommunism share a common premise – the claim that the Soviet regime as it developed under Stalin was the embodiment of Marxist principles.
155. Schrecker, Ellen (Winter 2000). "Comments on John Earl Haynes' The Cold War Debate Continues". Journal of Cold War Studies. Harvard University – Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 2009-02-27. Emphasis in original.
156. Rosenthal, Jack (October 7, 1984). "President vs. Demagogue". The New York Times. Retrieved December 20,2017.
157. Boot, Max (April 2000). "Joseph McCarthy by Arthur Herman". Commentary. Archived from the original on July 21, 2010. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
158. What Qualifies as Demagoguery? (October 19, 2004). "What Qualifies as Demagoguery?". History News Network. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
159. Murphy, Brenda (2003-11-13). Congressional Theatre: Dramatizing McCarthyism on Stage, Film, and Television. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521891660.
160. "The Troubled Air". Open Road Media.
161. Miller, Arthur (October 21, 1996). "Why I Wrote The Crucible". The New Yorker.
162. Georgakas, Dan. ""The Hollywood Blacklist"". http://www.english.illinois.edu. Retrieved 2018-08-15.
163. "'Good Night and Good Luck': Murrow vs. McCarthy".

Sources

• Block, Herbert (1952). The Herblock Book. Beacon. ISBN 1-4992-5346-X.
• Brinkley, Alan (1995). The End of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War. Vintage. ISBN 0-679-75314-1.
• Brown, Ralph S. (1958). Loyalty and Security: Employment Tests in the United States. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-306-70218-5.
• Buckley, William F. (1977). A Hymnal: The Controversial Arts. G.P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 0399-12227-3.
• Buckley, William F. (1954). McCarthy and His Enemies: The Record and Its Meaning. Regnery. ISBN 0-89526-472-2.
• Buhle, Paul & David Wagner (2003). Hide in Plain Sight: The Hollywood Blacklistees in Film and Television, 1950–2002. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6144-1.
• Cox, John Stuart & Athan G. Theoharis (1988). The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition. Temple University Press. ISBN 0-87722-532-X.
• D'Emilio, John (1998). Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities (2d ed.). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-14267-1.
• Doherty, Thomas (2005). Cold War, Cool Medium: Television, McCarthyism, and American Culture. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12953-X.
• Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509701-7.
• Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504361-8.
• Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-87023-555-9.
• Haynes, John Earl, and Harvey Klehr (2000). Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08462-5.
• Herman, Herman (2000). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. The Free Press. ISBN 0-68483625-4.
• McAuliff, Mary Sperling (1978). Crisis on the Left: Cold War Politics and American Liberals, 1947–1954. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-87023-241-X.
• Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20472-7.
• Sabin, Arthur J. (1999). In Calmer Times: The Supreme Court and Red Monday. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3507-X.
• Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-77470-7.
• Schrecker, Ellen (2002). The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents (2d ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-29425-5.
• Stone, Geoffrey R. (2004). Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime from the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism. W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-05880-8.
• Streitmatter, Rodger (1998). Mightier Than the Sword: How the News Media Have Shaped American History. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3211-7.
• Weir, Robert E. (2007). Class in America: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-33720-9.

Historiography

• Haynes, John Earl. "The Cold War debate continues: A traditionalist view of historical writing on domestic Communism and anti-Communism." Journal of Cold War Studies 2.1 (2000): 76-115.
• Hixson Jr, William B. Search for the American right wing: An analysis of the social science record, 1955–1987 (Princeton University Press, 2015).
• Reeves, Thomas C. "McCarthyism: Interpretations since Hofstadter." Wisconsin Magazine of History (1976): 42–54. online
• Selverstone, Marc J. "A Literature So Immense: The Historiography of Anticommunism." Organization of American Historians Magazine of History 24.4 (2010): 7–11.

Further reading

• Andrew, Christopher; Mitrokhin, Vasili (2000). The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00312-5.
• Byman, Jeremy (2004). Showdown at High Noon: Witch-hunts, Critics, and the End of the Western. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-4998-4.
• Caballero, Raymond. McCarthyism vs. Clinton Jencks. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2019.
• Caute, David (1978). The Great Fear: The Anti-Communist Purge Under Truman and Eisenhower. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-22682-7.
• Coulter, Ann (2003). Treason: Liberal Treachery from the Cold War to the War on Terrorism. Crown Forum. ISBN 1-4000-5030-8.
• Evans, M. Stanton (2007). Blacklisted by History: The Untold Story of Senator Joe McCarthy and His Fight Against America's Enemies. Crown Publishing. ISBN 1-4000-8105-X.
• Haynes, John Earl (2000). Red Scare or Red Menace?: American Communism and Anti Communism in the Cold War Era. Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 1-56663-091-6.
• Haynes, John Earl & Harvey Klehr (2003). In Denial: Historians, Communism, and Espionage. Encounter. ISBN 1-893554-72-4.
• Latham, Earl (ed.). The Meaning of McCarthyism (1965). excerpts from primary and secondary sources
• Lichtman, Robert M. The Supreme Court and McCarthy-Era Repression: One Hundred Decisions. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2012.
• McDaniel, Rodger. Dying for Joe McCarthy's Sins: The Suicide of Wyoming Senator Lester Hunt. WordsWorth, 2013.
• Morgan, Ted (2004). Reds: McCarthyism in Twentieth-Century America. Random House. ISBN 0-8129-7302-X.
• Navasky, Victor S. (1980). Naming Names. Hill and Wang. ISBN 0-8090-0183-7.
• Powers, Richard Gid (1997). Not Without Honor: A History of American Anticommunism. Free Press. ISBN 0-300-07470-0.
• Schrecker, Ellen (1994). The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents. Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-08349-1.
• Storrs, Landon R.Y., The Second Red Scare and the Unmaking of the New Deal Left. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2013.
• Weinstein, Allen, and Alexander Vassiliev (2000). The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—The Stalin Era. Modern Library. ISBN 0-375-75536-5.

External links

• Badash, Lawrence (October 30, 2007). "Science in the McCarthy Period: Training Ground for Scientists as Public Citizens". Oregon State University. Retrieved 2008-01-16.
• Beyer, Mary & Michael Beyer (January 2006). "McCarthyism Today". International Journal of Baudrillard Studies. Archived from the original on 2006-10-01. Retrieved 2006-11-02.
• "McCarthyism / The "Red Scare"". Dwight D. Eisenhower Online Documents. Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library, Museum, and Boyhood Home. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
• Navasky, Victor S. (June 28, 2001). "Cold War Ghosts". The Nation. Retrieved 2006-11-02.
• Rusher, William A. (Fall 2004). "A Closer Look Under The Bed". Claremont Review of Books. Claremont Institute. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved 2011-12-27.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Sat Sep 21, 2019 10:04 am

German American Bund
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/21/19

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Quotes from "Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives

The three documents which are presented in this report speak for themselves…..

They attest the ruthless efficiency of the military set-up which characterizes Hitler's machine in Germany….

The discipline to which members of the German-American Bund are subject is clearly reflected in the endless rules and regulations which extend to the minute details of the Bund members' lives. The documents speak of "absolute loyalty" and "blind obedience."…

The German-American Bund organization clearly anticipates violence by its assertion that "the OD man gives assurance that our movement will, at the sacrifice of life if necessary, remain the inexorable opponents of Jewish Marxism….

According to Document #3, "anyone who is not filled with this unshakable faith and courage and cannot march along as a fanatical fighter does not belong in the OD; to have embraced the National Socialist view of things means definitively breaking off all ties with liberal halfway measures" (p. 1611). This is a clear espousal of the totalitarian, as opposed to the democratic, way of life….

The following quotations indicate something of the religious bigotry of the Germany-American Bund: "All OD men and OD Leaders in particular are required to procure a certificate of Aryan blood" (p. 1610). "We are looking for men who enter our organization not in order to procure personal advantages or to be allowed to play soldier pleasantly, but who intend with their whole power to eradicate the red Jewish pestilence in America"…

the defensive and offensive movement of the national consciousness of American Germanism dedicated philosophically (Weltanschaulich), national-socialistically, and politically to the service of an actually independent, aryan-governed United States of North America"…

Document #1 reveals the keeping of systematic records on "enemies" of the German-American Bund….Hitler explained to Rauschning his system of keeping just such a card file on "friends" and "enemies."….

Document #1 specifies the manner in which a meeting of the Bund shall be closed, as follows: "To a free. Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a three-fold rousing 'Free America! Free America! Free America!"….

These Nazi activities in the United States are traceable to and linked with Government-controlled agencies in Nazi Germany…

the official newspaper of the German-American Bund has had advance information on what was about to transpire in Germany and gave every evidence of intimate knowledge of events to come….

all of the Nazi activities here are on lines identical with those used abroad….

the German-American Bund can muster within its own ranks a uniformed force of 5,000 storm troops and it was testified that in time of necessity this force could be augmented with "strong-arm" detachments of allied groups, such as Italian Black Shirts, Silver Shirts, Ukrainians, White Russians, and similar organizations…

this storm-troop division of the Bund is patterned after the Hitler storm troops and its members are the political soldiers of a Hitler-inspired movement in the United States….

from the manpower of this force the Bund, working hand in hand with the German Government, can draft men for a sabotage, machine and spy net….

members of that organization in all parts of the United States have privately admitted that they are not American citizens but are German citizens and in many cases have boasted that they never intend to become American citizens….

elections were conducted along the lines of recent European plebiscites where everything is under such control that no one dares vote against the machine…

crews of German warships have been entertained by the storm troops of the Bund. German World War veterans are active in storm-troop ranks and help train and drill the men….

Members of the Nazi groups have been found to be working in some of the great aviation manufacturing companies of the United States. They were found working in the United States Navy shipyards where they had succeeded in securing positions which placed them in direct possession of secret plans for the construction of United States Navy battleships of the latest type. They have even been assigned to trial runs on the latest type of these ships…

the Foreign Institute of the Nazi Government at Stuttgart was one of the instrumentalities used in assisting the German-American Bund in spreading propaganda in this country…

German consulates in the United States have been the clearing houses for much of the Nazi activity here…

the groups operated in this country are directed by organizations in Germany which get their support and direction from the German Government itself….

In fact, the Foreign Institute at Stuttgart is being conducted by one Fritz Gissibl, a former leader of the Nazi group in this country and whose brother even now is a member and leader of the Nazi group in Chicago….

every effort is being expended by the bund's high command to instill in these boys and girls, most of whom have never even been outside the United States, the doctrines of racial and religious hatreds preached under the pagan German kultur …

a worship of Hitlerism is inculcated in these youthful unsuspecting minds….

Health, Hitler, Heils, and Hatred are the "4-H's" used by United States Nazis…

They must learn to speak fluent German and to understand the Nazi ideology. They listen to lectures on the Hitler philosophy and the policies of the Third Reich….

the camps are completely Nazi Germany….

The scouts eat, sleep, talk, and dream nazi-ism with the same fervor of the regimented youth of Germany. They are taught to avoid outside "contaminating influences."…

Youngsters are thrust into the Jungvolk organization when only 5 and 6 years old. They wear uniforms of brown and blue shorts or skirts, white blouses with Hitler-brown scarfs. Older boys wear brown shirts with Sam Browne belts, military trousers and boots, and are armed with long hunting knives and spears.

Youths graduate into the "Ordnungs Dienst," the storm-troop organization of the bund, and are trained mentally and physically to lead the troops when the often predicted "trouble" comes. Scouts are told they must be prepared to withstand the onrush of the coming "red" revolution….

At Siegfried and at other eastern bund camps, separate tent encampments for boys and girls are set back in the woods, away from the main building and cottages where their parents drink beer and dance…. Visitors — even parents of the scouts — are not permitted in the youth camps proper. Scouts on duty in the camps must come to the entrances to visit with their parents….

Commands and conversations among the scouts are entirely in German…

Heels click together and the right arm goes out in a Hitler salute when a scout, boy or girl, is addressed by a youth leader or any storm trooper in uniform….

the signs over Nazi youth camps: "You were born to die for Germany."…

Nazi propaganda was slyly worked into the public schools of that city in recent months under the guise of summer German-language classes; that ostensibly, the plan was to simply teach the German language and sing German folk songs, but before very long it became apparent this was not at all the real purposes of the classes. Instead, instructions drifted into Nazi doctrines….

After every Saturday class, trucks picked up some 50 of the children and carried them 55 miles to a Nazi camp near Stanton, Mo. This camp site is operated by the Deutsch-Amerikanische Berufgemeinschaft and is under the direction of Eberhard von Blankenhagen, former Consul Secretary of the German Embassy in Washington….

So closely related is the youth movement of the German-American Bund to that of the Hitler youth in Germany that they even sing the songs of the Hitler youth and reprint them in their song books…

One of the most alarming ways of Nazi propaganda along this line has swept through the ranks of exchange students to universities….

Take, for instance, the case of the Committee on American Youth Camp in Germany. This committee arranges trips and stays for American youths in Germany….

Dr. Colin Ross is a Nazi propagandist who spends his time between Germany and the United States. He has been one of the outstanding speakers for the German-American Bund and has been a writer for the Weckruf, official organ of the bund….

children six years old were shown with the swastika, regulation German Army steel helmets and spears…

Denials to the contrary notwithstanding, this committee was greatly impressed with the evidence presented showing that there is a relationship existing between the German Government and the German-American Bund through the activities of Nazi consuls in this country.

Fritz Kuhn, leader of the German-American Bund, informed this committee's investigator at a time when the latter was disguised as a storm trooper that not only did he have power over the Ambassador and consular set-up in the United States but that he also had a special secret arrangement directly with Adolf Hitler, of Germany.

Ramifications of this "arrangement," Kuhn declared, also included a secret relationship between the German-American Bund and Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present German Ambassador to the United States, and German consuls throughout the country. (See vol, 2, p. 1149.)

In his executive office on the second floor of the bund national headquarters at 178 East Eighty-fifth Street, New York City, on the night of August 16, 1937, this committee's investigator testified that he spoke with Kuhn concerning a trip he had made to the Pacific coast and told him of the difficulties the Los Angeles Post had had with the German consul there….

You see, I have a certain special arrangement with Hitler and Germany that whenever any of our groups have trouble with the consulates in their districts that they are to report it to me in full detail. I then take it up with the Ambassador. Germany is not to be troubled with it unless I get no satisfaction from the Ambassador.

That is exactly why there is a new Ambassador to the United States, and that is exactly why many consuls have been and still are being removed. All the new consuls are National Socialists and are under special instructions to give us the fullest cooperation in every way.


It should be pointed out that Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present Ambassador, was sent to the United States, May 14, 1938, to replace Dr. Hans Luther, whose policy, bund leaders said, did not coincide with those of the bund and the Nazi Party in Germany. There have been numerous consulate changes during the last 2 years, and bund leaders a year ago predicted that more would follow….

Consul von Killinger was also reported as stating that the activities against certain religious groups in this country, as practiced by the German American Bund, are "for the good of America."

The committee had before it evidence (vol. 2, p. 1151) that certain American citizens residing in California had made trips to Germany for the purpose of being schooled in the art of Nazi propaganda and enlightenment. In one instance the father of one of these men (vol. 2, p. 1151) told this committee's investigator that his son's expenses to Germany had been paid through a secret arrangement between the German-American Bund and the Nazi Government….

American Citizens have received Nazi propaganda by mail in packages carrying the imprint of the Nazi consulate at St. Louis…

Propaganda direct from the German Ministry of Propaganda and Enlightenment is distributed by bund officials and evidence was introduced showing definitely that printed propaganda material was shipped from Germany to United States citizens directly. These packages contained, according to the testimony, considerable Nazi propaganda which was printed in Germany for distribution in the United States, considerable Fascist propaganda which was printed in Great Britain for distribution here, and much material of antiracial and antireligious character which was printed here, shipped to German Government agencies, and then reshipped to the United States for distribution in this country….

The packages coming here from abroad contained printed material from the pen of Ernst Goerner, of Milwaukee, Wis.; pamphlets from the Knights of the White Camellia, an organization founded by George E. Deatherage, of Charleston, W. Va.; leaflets from the Russian National Union; and issues from the Christian Free Press, printed in Glendale, Calif….

many Germans living in the United States go abroad and take an oath of fealty to the Fuehrer of Germany…

Repeatedly we have been told that there is no connection between the German-American Bund and the Nazi Government or its political subdivisions, repeatedly we have been told that no allegiance to Adolf Hitler is required, and yet here we have an officially inspired newspaper published in Germany telling us that an oath of fealty was taken….

A target range was set up at Camp Siegfried, Yaphank, Long Island, and on one occasion Herman Schwarzmann, head of the Astoria, Long Island, group, announced that the men were to be "trained to shoot and to take care of guns"…

Bund fuehrers informed storm troops that the various German World War veterans in their ranks would train the younger men in the use of arms….

Within the past year one section of the Gestapo, service section No. 2, under the direction of Colonel Nicolai, has added three new departments, Nos. 23, 24, and 25, all three specifically devoted to espionage in the United States.

Department 23 specializes in economic espionage — the obtaining of American manufacturing and industrial secrets.

Department 24 specializes in military intelligence.

Department 25 specializes in Nazi propaganda….

the German-American Bund receives its inspiration, program, and direction from the Nazi Government of Germany through the various propaganda organizations which have been set up by that Government and which function under the control and supervision of the Nazi Ministry of Propaganda and Enlightenment….

In 1936 Fritz Kulin accompanied a large delegation of bund members to Germany ostensibly for the purpose of visiting the Olympic games. The group paraded in uniform of the Orderly Division (storm troops), and the parade was reviewed by Adolf Hitler. Following the parade, Fritz Kuhn and other officials of the German-American Bund were received by the German Fuehrer…

It was established through the testimony of Fritz Kuhn that the bund had worked sympathetically with other organizations throughout the United States and cooperates with them. Kuhn testified that some of these groups are the Christian Front, the Christian Mobilizers, the Christian Crusaders, the Social Justice Society, the Silver Shirt Legion of America, the Knights of the White Camellia and various Italian Fascist, White Russian, and Ukranian organizations. Kuhn testified that some of the leaders of these groups had addressed meetings sponsored by the bund and that representatives of the bund in turn frequently appeared as speakers at meetings and gatherings sponsored by the above-named groups. It was also established that the bund cooperated with some of these organizations and their leaders by exchanging literature and publications with them and by publishing material emanating from them in the official organ of the bund. Numerous articles have appeared in the bund newspaper expressing the bund's approval of the activities of the organizations already mentioned….

the following are standard reading in bund camps: Hitler's Mein Kampf, Pelley's booklets and publication, Liberation, the books of Julius Streicher (German propagandist), and the Rev. Charles E. Coughlin's publication, Social Justice….

uniforms worn by the members of the youth groups, their camps and program of activities were similar in every respect to those of the Hitler youth movement, and that the Nazi salute was the accepted gesture of greeting….

a group of 15 boys and 15 girls from various parts of the United States who were selected by the bund to be sent to Germany for special training….

there is a political agent on all German ships and that these political agents maintain contact with the Nazi representatives in foreign countries. They are intermediaries for transmission of instructions to the bund leaders in the United States and they receive reports from these leaders concerning the bund's activities, according to the witnesses….

German agents engaged in espionage activities, contacted bund leaders in the United States and sought and received their cooperation. This witness also testified that he had heard discussions among bund leaders with reference to the manner in which the bund, through its members in various industrial plants, could effectively carry out a program of sabotage in case such action became necessary….

members of the bund had assisted German agents whose arrests were sought by officials in the United States in avoiding apprehension and had helped get them out of the United States with the cooperation of German ships….

Nazi propaganda agencies, through officials of the German Government in the United States, have attempted to propagandize educational institutions in this country. It was testified that a German consul general had offered, on behalf of the German Government to subsidize German departments in American universities provided the professors were "acceptable'' to the Nazis….

in August 1938 a so-called anti-Communist convention was held at the bund headquarters in Los Angeles…

the following persons participated in this convention:

Kenneth Alexander, Southern California leader of the Silver Shirts; J. H. Peyton, of the American Rangers; Chas. B. Hudson, of Omaha, Nebr., organizer and leader of America Awake, who accompanied General Moseley when he appeared before the committee; Mrs. Leslie Fry, alias Paquita Louise De Shishmareff, mysterious international figure who has since fled the country, then leader of the Militant Christian Patriots; representatives of Italian Fascist and White Russian organizations; and a number of others of similar point of view….

Bund literature mingled with that of William Dudley Pelley, Robert Edmondson, Mrs. Fry, and George Deatherage on the tables of this convention.

It is clear to the committee that this convention was in no real sense an anti-Communist convention but rather another of a series of attempts to unite some of the various forces of intolerance, racial hatred, Naziism and Fascism in order to achieve greater influence in the United States….

Allen went to Atlanta, Ga., to attempt to "buy the Ku Klux Klan" for Mrs. Fry for the sum of $75,000. He testified that he talked to Hiram W. Evans, head of the Klan, but that Evans "was not interested in the idea."…

-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities


Image
German American Bund
Amerikadeutscher Volksbund
Flag of the German American Bund
Also known as "German American Federation"
Country United States
Leader(s) Fritz Julius Kuhn
Foundation 1936
Dissolved 1941
Preceded by Friends of New Germany
Active region(s) All United States, mainly New York,[1] Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Midwest
Ideology: Nazism, Germanisation, Pan-Germanism, Anti-Semitism, Non-interventionism[2]
Political position: Far-right
Major actions: Embezzlement, Ethnic violence, Sedition
Status Defunct
Size 25,000[3]

The German American Bund, or German American Federation (German: Amerikadeutscher Bund; Amerikadeutscher Volksbund, AV), was a German-American pro-Nazi organization established in 1936 to succeed Friends of New Germany (FoNG), the new name being chosen to emphasize the group's American credentials after press criticism that the organization was unpatriotic.[4] The Bund was to consist only of American citizens of German descent.[5] Its main goal was to promote a favorable view of Nazi Germany.

Friends of New Germany

Main article: Friends of New Germany

In May 1933, Nazi Deputy Führer Rudolf Hess gave German immigrant and German Nazi Party member Heinz Spanknöbel authority to form an American Nazi organization.[6] Shortly thereafter, with help from the German consul in New York City, Spanknöbel created the Friends of New Germany[6] by merging two older organizations in the United States, Gau-USA and the Free Society of Teutonia, which were both small groups with only a few hundred members each. The FoNG was based in New York City but had a strong presence in Chicago.[6] Members wore a uniform, a white shirt and black trousers for men with a black hat festooned with a red symbol. Women members wore a white blouse and a black skirt.[7]

The organization led by Spanknöbel was openly pro-Nazi, and engaged in activities such as storming the German language New Yorker Staats-Zeitung with the demand that Nazi-sympathetic articles be published, and the infiltration of other non-political German-American organizations. One of the Friends early initiatives was to counter, with propaganda, the Jewish boycott of German goods, which started in March 1933 to protest Nazi anti-Semitism.


In an internal battle for control of the Friends, Spanknöbel was ousted as leader and subsequently deported in October 1933 because he had failed to register as a foreign agent.[6]

At the same time, Congressman Samuel Dickstein, Chairman of the Committee on Naturalization and Immigration, became aware of the substantial number of foreigners legally and illegally entering and residing in the country, and the growing anti-Semitism along with vast amounts of anti-Semitic literature being distributed in the country. This led him to investigate independently the activities of Nazi and other fascist groups, leading to the formation of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities Authorized to Investigate Nazi Propaganda and Certain Other Propaganda Activities. Throughout the rest of 1934, the Committee conducted hearings, bringing before it most of the major figures in the American fascist movement.[8] Dickstein's investigation concluded that the Friends represented a branch of German dictator Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party in the United States.[9][10]

The organization existed into the mid-1930s, although it always remained small, with a membership of between 5,000 and 10,000, consisting mostly of German citizens living in the United States and German emigrants who only recently had become citizens.[6] In December 1935, Rudolf Hess ordered all German citizens to leave the FoNG and recalled all of its leaders to Germany.[6]

Bund activities

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German American Bund parade on East 86th St., New York City, October 30, 1939

On March 19, 1936, the German American Bund was established as a follow-up organization for the Friends of New Germany in Buffalo, New York.[6][11] The Bund elected a German-born American citizen Fritz Julius Kuhn as its leader (Bundesführer).[12] Kuhn was a veteran of the Bavarian infantry during World War I and an Alter Kämpfer (old fighter) of the Nazi Party who, in 1934, was granted American citizenship. Kuhn was initially effective as a leader and was able to unite the organization and expand its membership but came to be seen simply as an incompetent swindler and liar.[6]

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Sowilo rune on the flag of the youth organization

The administrative structure of the Bund mimicked the regional administrative subdivision of the Nazi Party. The German American Bund divided the United States into three Gaue: Gau Ost (East), Gau West and Gau Midwest.[13] Together the three Gaue comprised 69 Ortsgruppen (local groups): 40 in Gau Ost (17 in New York), 10 in Gau West and 19 in Gau Midwest.[13] Each Gau had its own Gauleiter and staff to direct the Bund operations in the region in accordance with the Führerprinzip.[13] The Bund's national headquarters was located at 178 East 85th Street in the New York City borough of Manhattan.[1]

The Bund established a number of training camps, including Camp Nordland in Sussex County, New Jersey, Camp Siegfried in Yaphank, New York, Camp Hindenburg in Grafton, Wisconsin, Deutschhorst Country Club in Sellersville, Pennsylvania,[14] Camp Bergwald in Bloomingdale, New Jersey,[6][15][16][17][14] and Camp Highland in New York state.[18] The Bund held rallies with Nazi insignia and procedures such as the Hitler salute and attacked the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jewish-American groups, Communism, "Moscow-directed" trade unions and American boycotts of German goods.[6][19] The organization claimed to show its loyalty to America by displaying the flag of the United States alongside the flag of Nazi Germany at Bund meetings, and declared that George Washington was "the first Fascist" who did not believe democracy would work.[20]

Kuhn and a few other Bundmen traveled to Berlin to attend the 1936 Summer Olympics. During the trip, he visited the Reich Chancellery, where his picture was taken with Hitler.[6]
This act did not constitute an official Nazi approval for Kuhn's organization:


The German-American Bund followed closely the pattern of treason made familiar by the Nazis in such organizations as those of Norway's Quisling, Czechoslovakia's Henlein, Belgium's Degrelle, and Jugoslavia's Pavelic. Operating under the flimsy pretext of cultural objectives and general German-American welfare, the bund was always and everywhere a Nazi agency working for disruption, espionage, sabotage, and treason. The bund's pious pretenses were so shallow that it is impossible to believe that any considerable proportion of its membership was ever truly deceived concerning its objectives....

the committee found the following things:

1. That the bund was characterized by the same ruthless efficiency of the military set-up which characterized Hitler's machine in Germany.

2. That bund members were subjected to "absolute loyalty" and "blind obedience" to the bund's fuehrer.

3. That the bund demanded that its members be "fanatical fighters" for national socialism.

4. That the bund anticipated the necessity of violence in carrying out its program.

5. That the bund was characterized by extreme religious bigotry.

6. That the bund aimed at the establishment of a new kind of government in the United States, one which should incorporate the principle of Nazi religious bigotry.

7. That the bund kept a systematic record of its enemies.

8. That the bund specified that its meetings should be closed with the following declaration: "To a free, Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a threefold rousing 'Free America! Free America! Free America!'"

9. That the bund was an absolutely secret organization.

10. That the bund looked upon all Americans of German descent as owing loyalty to the Reich.

11. And that the bund was ideologically and organizationally tied to Nazi Germany....

Fritz Julius Kuhn was born in Munich, Germany, on May 15, 1896. According to his own testimony, he received his education in Munich, completing a university course there.

In the First World War Kuhn was a machine gunner in the infantry of the German Army. He states that he served 4-1/2 years with the German forces, and by the end of the war had attained the rank of lieutenant.

Kuhn's brother, Max, was appointed a member of the German Supreme Court by Hitler — sufficient evidence that the Kuhn family stands in well with the Nazi Fuehrer....

Mr. Fritz Kuhn became a member of the Nazi Party in 1921 and was active under the then Munich police commissioner, one of the first leading Nazi officials, Dr. Poehner....

When on November 9, 1923, in front of the Feldherrenhalle in Munich, Bavarian police shot at the Nazis marching under the leadership of Hitler and Ludendorff, Kuhn was among the marching Nazis....

After his entry into the United States, Kuhn proceeded directly to Detroit, where he obtained employment in the Henry Ford Hospital and later as a chemical engineer in the Ford Motor Co. Kuhn's employment in these Ford institutions lasted about 8 years....

In the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official bund newspaper, the visit of Kuhn and a delegation of German-American Bund storm troopers to Germany was described with obvious pride in both words and pictures. The accounts of this visit, which took place in 1936, are found in the Deutscher Weckruf and Beobachter for August 6, August 27, and September 10, 1936. When these bund storm troopers paraded in Berlin before Hitler himself, the Nazi Feuhrer stood on the balcony of the Chancellory. As Hitler stood there viewing this parade, Fritz Kuhn went to the balcony and, according to the words of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter itself, "Bund Leader Fritz Kuhn reported to him."... It cannot be denied that Hitler in this manner gave the highest official recognition of the fact that the German-American Bund was a Nazi agency and that Bundesfuehrer Fritz Kuhn was a subordinate of Hitler himself. According to the report which was published in the bund's own newspaper, Hitler replied to Kuhn, "Now you go back and continue your struggle."

-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part VII: Report on the Axis Front Movement in the United States [Excerpt from pp. 59-85], Special Committee on Un-American Activities


German Ambassador to the United States Hans-Heinrich Dieckhoff expressed his disapproval and concern over the group to Berlin, causing distrust between the Bund and the Nazi regime.[6] The organization received no financial or verbal support from Germany.

Denials to the contrary notwithstanding, this committee was greatly impressed with the evidence presented showing that there is a relationship existing between the German Government and the German-American Bund through the activities of Nazi consuls in this country.

Fritz Kuhn, leader of the German-American Bund, informed this committee's investigator at a time when the latter was disguised as a storm trooper that not only did he have power over the Ambassador and consular set-up in the United States but that he also had a special secret arrangement directly with Adolf Hitler, of Germany.

Ramifications of this "arrangement," Kuhn declared, also included a secret relationship between the German-American Bund and Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present German Ambassador to the United States, and German consuls throughout the country. (See vol, 2, p. 1149.)

In his executive office on the second floor of the bund national headquarters at 178 East Eighty-fifth Street, New York City, on the night of August 16, 1937, this committee's investigator testified that he spoke with Kuhn concerning a trip he had made to the Pacific coast and told him of the difficulties the Los Angeles Post had had with the German consul there. According to this testimony, Kuhn exclaimed:

My God, what's the matter with them. They know what to do. Why don't they let me know about it? I've heard before of this trouble in Los Angeles. Schwinn talked it over with me.


(This Schwinn is Hermann Schwinn, western leader of the German-American Bund. He is from Los Angeles.)

Oh, well, maybe Schwinn took my order of instructions with him to Germany and forgot to send it to his district.


It was at this point that Kuhn made the following statement to the investigator for the committee:

You see, I have a certain special arrangement with Hitler and Germany that whenever any of our groups have trouble with the consulates in their districts that they are to report it to me in full detail. I then take it up with the Ambassador. Germany is not to be troubled with it unless I get no satisfaction from the Ambassador.

That is exactly why there is a new Ambassador to the United States, and that is exactly why many consuls have been and still are being removed. All the new consuls are National Socialists and are under special instructions to give us the fullest cooperation in every way.


It should be pointed out that Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present Ambassador, was sent to the United States, May 14, 1938, to replace Dr. Hans Luther, whose policy, bund leaders said, did not coincide with those of the bund and the Nazi Party in Germany. There have been numerous consulate changes during the last 2 years, and bund leaders a year ago predicted that more would follow.

-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities


In response to the outrage of Jewish war veterans, Congress in 1938 passed the Foreign Agents Registration Act requiring foreign agents to register with the State Department. On March 1, 1938, the Nazi government decreed that no Reichsdeutsche [German nationals] could be a member of the Bund, and that no Nazi emblems were to be used by the organization.[6] This was done both to appease the U.S. and to distance Germany from the Bund, which was increasingly a cause of embarrassment with its rhetoric and actions.[6]

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German American Bund rally poster at Madison Square Garden, February 20, 1939

Arguably, the zenith of the Bund's activities was the rally at Madison Square Garden in New York City on February 20, 1939.[21] Some 20,000 people attended and heard Kuhn criticize President Roosevelt by repeatedly referring to him as "Frank D. Rosenfeld", calling his New Deal the "Jew Deal" and denouncing what he believed to be Bolshevik-Jewish American leadership. Most shocking to American sensibilities was the outbreak of violence between protesters and Bund storm troopers. The rally, which attracted 20,000 Nazi supporters, was the subject of the 2017 short documentary A Night at the Garden by Marshall Curry.[22]

Decline

In 1939, a New York tax investigation determined that Kuhn had embezzled $14,000 from the Bund. The Bund did not seek to have Kuhn prosecuted, operating on the principle (Führerprinzip) that the leader had absolute power. However, New York City's district attorney prosecuted him in an attempt to cripple the Bund. On December 5, 1939, Kuhn was sentenced to two and a half to five years in prison for tax evasion and embezzlement.[23]

New Bund leaders replaced Kuhn, most notably Gerhard Kunze, but only for brief periods. A year after the outbreak of World War II, Congress enacted a peacetime military draft in September 1940. The Bund counseled members of draft age to evade conscription, a criminal offense punishable by up to five years in jail and a $10,000 fine. Gerhard Kunze fled to Mexico in November 1941.[7]

U.S. Congressman Martin Dies (D-Texas) and his House Committee on Un-American Activities were active in denying any Nazi-sympathetic organization the ability to operate freely during World War II. In the last week of December 1942, led by journalist Dorothy Thompson, fifty leading German-Americans (including baseball icon Babe Ruth) signed a "Christmas Declaration by men and women of German ancestry" condemning Nazism, which appeared in ten major American daily newspapers.

While Kuhn was in prison, his citizenship was canceled on June 1, 1943.[24] Upon his release after 43 months in state prison, Kuhn was re-arrested on June 21, 1943, as an enemy alien and interned by the federal government at a camp in Crystal City, Texas. After the war, Kuhn was interned at Ellis Island and deported to Germany on September 15, 1945.[24] He died on December 14, 1951, in Munich, Germany.

See also

• Fascist League of North America, a group similar to the German American Bund, of pro-Fascist Italian Americans that supported Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime in Italy
• Free Society of Teutonia, one of the two predecessor societies alongside Friends of New Germany that formed the German American Bund
• Camp Nordland, the largest German American Bund camp
• Friends of New Germany
Silver Legion of America
• Christian Party (United States, 1930s)
• Christian Front (United States)
• America First Committee
• Neo-Nazism, for pro-Nazi groups in North America, Europe, South Africa, and Asia seeking to revive Nazism post-World War II
• Neo-Nazi groups of the United States, post-1945
• American Nazi Party, prominent pro-Nazi group formed in the 1950s

References

Notes


1. Federal Bureau of Investigation. "German American Federation/Bund Part 11 of 11". FBI Records: The Vault.
2. "American Nazi organization rally at Madison Square Garden, 1939". Rare Historical Photos. February 19, 2014.
3. "German American Bund". Holocaust Encyclopedia. July 2, 2016.
4. Erik V. Wolter, Loyalty On Trial: One American's Battle With The FBI. (iUniverse, 2004) ISBN 9780595327034. p. 65
5. Van Ells, Mark D. (August 2007). Americans for Hitler – The Bund. America in WWII. 3. pp. 44–49. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
7. IMDb Biography
8. Chip Berlet, Matthew Nemiroff Lyons (2000). Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort. Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-57230-562-5.
9. Shaffer, Ryan (Spring 2010). "Long Island Nazis: A Local Synthesis of Transnational Politics". 21(2). Journal of Long Island History. Archived from the original on June 21, 2010. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
10. Investigation of un-American propaganda activities in the United States. Hearings before a Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Seventy-fifth Congress, third session-Seventy-eighth Congress, second session, on H. Res. 282, to investigate (l) the extent, character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, (2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propaganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary remedial legislation
11. "Fritz Kuhn Death in 1951 Revealed. Lawyer Says Former Leader of German-American Bund Succumbed in Munich". Associated Press in New York Times. February 2, 1953. Retrieved 2008-07-20. Fritz Kuhn, once the arrogant, noisy leader of the pro-Hitler German-American Bund, died here more than a year ago – a poor and obscure chemist, unheralded and unsung.
12. Cyprian Blamires; Paul Jackson (2006). World fascism: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 270. ISBN 0-8223-0772-3.
13. Cornelia Wilhelms (1998). Bewegung oder Verein?: nationalsozialistische Volkspolitik in dem USA. Franz Steiner Verlag. p. 167. ISBN 3-515-06805-8.
14. "German-American Bund". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
15. "German films about Camp Bergwald, the Bund Camp on Federal Hill, Riverdale, NJ". Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Branch (NWDNM), National Archives. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
16. Jackson, Kenneth T. The Encyclopedia of New York City. The New York Historical Society, Yale University Press, 1995, 462.
17. David Mark Chalmers (1987). Hooded Americanism: The History of the Ku Klux Klan. ISBN 1-57607-940-6. When Arthur Bell, your Grand Giant, and Mr. Smythe asked us about using Camp Nordlund for this patriotic meeting, we decided to let them have it ...
18. Birchall, Guy (September 12, 2017). "Inside Hitler's terrifying AMERICAN summer camps where US boys were taught twisted Nazi ideology and trained to shoot, march and salute". TheSun.co.uk. Retrieved September 12, 2017.
19. Patricia Kollander; John O'Sullivan (2005). "I must be a part of this war": a German American's fight against Hitler and Nazism. Fordham Univ Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-8232-2528-3.
20. "Nazis Hail George Washington as First Fascist". Life. 1938-03-07. p. 17. Retrieved November 25,2011.
21. "Bund Activities Widespread. Evidence Taken by Dies Committee Throws Light on Meaning of the Garden Rally". New York Times. February 26, 1939. Retrieved 2015-02-19. Disorders attendant upon Nazi rallies in New York and Los Angeles this week again focused attention upon the Nazi movement in the United States and inspired conjectures as to its strength and influence.
22. Buder, Emily (10 October 2017). "When 20,000 American Nazis Descended Upon New York City". The Atlantic. Retrieved 6 December 2017. In 1939, the German American Bund organized a rally of 20,000 Nazi supporters at Madison Square Garden in New York City.
23. Adams, Thomas (2005). Germany and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History: A MultiDisciplinary Encyclopedia. G – N, volume 2. ABC-CLIO. p. 631. ISBN 1-85109-628-0. Retrieved January 11,2011.
24. "Fritz Kuhn, Former Bund Chief, Ordered Back to Germany". The Evening Independent. September 7, 1945.

Further reading

• Allen, Joe, "'It Can't Happen Here?': Confronting the Fascist Threat in the US in the Late 1930s," International Socialist Review, Part One: whole no. 85 (Sept.-Oct. 2012), pp. 26–35; Part Two: whole no. 87 (Jan.-Feb. 2013), pp. 19–28.
• Bell, Leland V. In Hitler's Shadow; The Anatomy of American Nazism, 1973
• Canedy, Susan. Americas Nazis: A Democratic Dilemma a History of the German American Bund Markgraf Pubns Group, 1990
• Diamond, Sander. The Nazi Movement in the United States: 1924–1941. Ithaca: Cornell University, 1974.
• Grams, Grant W.: Gustav Hittler, Bund Organizer in Montreal and Return Migrant to Germany, Kevin Christiano (ed.) Quebec Studies Journal, 2016
• Jenkins, Philip. Hoods and Shirts: The Extreme Right in Pennsylvania, 1925–1950 University of North Carolina Press, 1997
• MacDonnell, Francis. Insidious Foes: The Axis Fifth Column and the American Home Front Oxford University Press, 1995
• Miller, Marvin D. Wunderlich's Salute: The Interrelationship of the German-American Bund, Camp Siegfried, Yaphank, Long Island, and the Young Siegfrieds and Their Relationship with American and Nazi Institutions Malamud-Rose Publishers, November 1983(1st Edition)
• Norwood, Stephen H. "Marauding Youth and the Christian Front: Antisemitic Violence in Boston and New York during World War II" American Jewish History, Vol. 91, 2003
• Schneider, James C. Should America Go to War? The Debate over Foreign Policy in Chicago, 1939–1941 University of North Carolina Press, 1989
• St. George, Maximiliam and Dennis, Lawrence. A Trial on Trial: The Great Sedition Trial of 1944 National Civil Rights Committee, 1946
• Strong, Donald S. Organized Anti-Semitism in America: The Rise of Group Prejudice during the Decade 1930–40 1941
• Van Ells, Mark D. (August 2007). Americans for Hitler – The Bund. America in WWII. 3. pp. 44–49. Retrieved May 13, 2016.

External links

• Home Grown Nazis - A 13 part series for the Chicago Times in Sept. 1937 on Nazi activities in Chicago based on undercover reporting of Chicago Times reporters.
• Collection of articles in the Mid-Island Mail related to Bund activity in Yaphank, New York (1935–1941) (Longwood Public Library)
• Mp3 of National Leader Fritz Julius Kuhn address at the 1939 Madison Square Garden rally (from Talking History: The Radio Archives)
• What Price the Federal Reserve? – Illustrated anti-Semitic pamphlet issued by the Bund
• Free America – A collection of the speeches from the infamous Madison Square Garden rally in February 1939
• Awake and Act – Pamphlet listing the purposes and aims of the German American Bund
• German-American Bund.org
• U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum article on German-American Bund
• "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2011. – Article by Jim Bredemus
• FBI Records: German American Federation/Bund
• Materials produced by the Bund are found in the Florence Mendheim Collection of Anti-Semitic Propaganda (#AR 25441); Leo Baeck Institute, New York.
• "A Night at the Garden". Field of Vision. 11 October 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Tue Sep 24, 2019 3:58 am

Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/23/19

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The OD man who looks to the future will gladly undergo any hardship that causes him to become stronger than his foes in health, in character and in mind. The effeminate and lazy man is headed for the abyss; whoever wants to have the right to life must be a fighter, who can be hard even to himself!

Therefore let no OD man expect to be received gently into our ranks. We are looking for men who enter our organization not in order to procure personal advantages or to be allowed to play soldier pleasantly, but who intend with their whole power to eradicate the red Jewish pestilence in America....

“Free America! Free America! Free America!”


-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities


AMERICANS …
DON’T PATRONIZE REDS!!!!
YOU CAN DRIVE THE REDS OUT OF TELEVISION, RADIO AND HOLLYWOOD …
THIS TRACT WILL TELL YOU HOW.
WHY WE MUST DRIVE THEM OUT:
1) The REDS have made our Screen, Radio and TV Moscow’s most effective Fifth Column in America …
2) The REDS of Hollywood and Broadway have always been the chief financial support of Communist propaganda in America …
3) OUR OWN FILMS, made by RED Producers, Directors, Writers and STARS, are being used by Moscow in ASIA, Africa, the Balkans and throughout Europe to create hatred of America …
4) RIGHT NOW films are being made to craftily glorify MARXISM, UNESCO and ONE-WORLDISM … and via your TV Set they are being piped into your Living Room – and are poisoning the minds of your children under your very eyes!!!
So REMEMBER – If you patronize a film made by RED Producers, Writers, Stars and STUDIOS you are aiding and abetting COMMUNISM … every time you permit REDS to come into your Living Room VIA YOUR TV SET you are helping MOSCOW and the INTERNATIONALISTS to destroy America!!!


-- McCarthyism, by Wikipedia


The Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals (MPAPAI, also MPA) was an American organization of high-profile, politically conservative members of the Hollywood film industry. It was formed in 1944 for the stated purpose of defending the film industry, and the country as a whole, against what its founders claimed was communist and fascist infiltration.[1][2]

History

The initial, immediate purpose in forming the organization was to assemble a group of well-known show business figures willing to attest, under oath, before Congress to the supposed presence of Communists in their industry.[3] When the House Un-American Activities Committee investigated the motion picture industry, the vast majority of "friendly witnesses" were supplied by the Alliance.[3][4][5]

The Alliance officially disbanded in 1975.[6]

In August 1938 a so-called anti-Communist convention was held at the bund headquarters in Los Angeles…

the following persons participated in this convention:

Kenneth Alexander, Southern California leader of the Silver Shirts; J. H. Peyton, of the American Rangers; Chas. B. Hudson, of Omaha, Nebr., organizer and leader of America Awake, who accompanied General Moseley when he appeared before the committee; Mrs. Leslie Fry, alias Paquita Louise De Shishmareff, mysterious international figure who has since fled the country, then leader of the Militant Christian Patriots; representatives of Italian Fascist and White Russian organizations; and a number of others of similar point of view….

Bund literature mingled with that of William Dudley Pelley, Robert Edmondson, Mrs. Fry, and George Deatherage on the tables of this convention.

It is clear to the committee that this convention was in no real sense an anti-Communist convention but rather another of a series of attempts to unite some of the various forces of intolerance, racial hatred, Naziism and Fascism in order to achieve greater influence in the United States.


-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities


Members

Image
John Wayne served four one-year terms as president of the Alliance from March 1949 to June 1953.[7]

Prominent members of the Alliance included Robert Arthur, Martin Berkeley, Ward Bond, Walter Brennan, Roy Brewer, Clarence Brown, Charles Coburn, Gary Cooper, Laraine Day, Cecil B. DeMille, Walt Disney, Irene Dunne, Victor Fleming, John Ford, Clark Gable, Cedric Gibbons, Hedda Hopper, Leo McCarey, James Kevin McGuinness, Adolphe Menjou, Robert Montgomery, George Murphy, Fred Niblo, Dick Powell, Ayn Rand, Ronald Reagan, Ginger Rogers, Morrie Ryskind, Barbara Stanwyck, Norman Taurog, Robert Taylor, King Vidor, John Wayne, Frank Wead and Sam Wood.[3][5][8][9]

Statement of Principles

Shortly after its formation in 1944, the Alliance issued a "Statement of Principles":

We believe in, and like, the American way of life: the liberty and freedom which generations before us have fought to create and preserve; the freedom to speak, to think, to live, to worship, to work, and to govern ourselves as individuals, as free men; the right to succeed or fail as free men, according to the measure of our ability and our strength.

Believing in these things, we find ourselves in sharp revolt against a rising tide of communism, fascism, and kindred beliefs, that seek by subversive means to undermine and change this way of life; groups that have forfeited their right to exist in this country of ours, because they seek to achieve their change by means other than the vested procedure of the ballot and to deny the right of the majority opinion of the people to rule.

In our special field of motion pictures, we resent the growing impression that this industry is made of, and dominated by, Communists, radicals, and crackpots. We believe that we represent the vast majority of the people who serve this great medium of expression. But unfortunately it has been an unorganized majority. This has been almost inevitable. The very love of freedom, of the rights of the individual, make this great majority reluctant to organize. But now we must, or we shall meanly lose "the last, best hope on earth."

As Americans, we have no new plan to offer. We want no new plan, we want only to defend against its enemies that which is our priceless heritage; that freedom which has given man, in this country, the fullest life and the richest expression the world has ever known; that system which, in the present emergency, has fathered an effort that, more than any other single factor, will make possible the winning of this war.

As members of the motion-picture industry, we must face and accept an especial responsibility. Motion pictures are inescapably one of the world's greatest forces for influencing public thought and opinion, both at home and abroad. In this fact lies solemn obligation. We refuse to permit the effort of Communist, Fascist, and other totalitarian-minded groups to pervert this powerful medium into an instrument for the dissemination of un-American ideas and beliefs. We pledge ourselves to fight, with every means at our organized command, any effort of any group or individual, to divert the loyalty of the screen from the free America that give it birth. And to dedicate our work, in the fullest possible measure, to the presentation of the American scene, its standards and its freedoms, its beliefs and its ideals, as we know them and believe in them.[2]


Ayn Rand pamphlet

In 1947, Ayn Rand wrote a pamphlet for the Alliance, entitled Screen Guide for Americans, based on her personal impressions of the American film industry. It read, in excerpt:

The purpose of the Communists in Hollywood is not the production of political movies openly advocating Communism. Their purpose is to corrupt our moral premises by corrupting non-political movies — by introducing small, casual bits of propaganda into innocent stories — thus making people absorb the basic principles of Collectivism by indirection and implication.

The principle of free speech requires that we do not use police force to forbid the Communists the expression of their ideas — which means that we do not pass laws forbidding them to speak. But the principle of free speech does not require that we furnish the Communists with the means to preach their ideas, and does not imply that we owe them jobs and support to advocate our own destruction at our own expense.[10][11]


Rand cited examples of popular and critically acclaimed films that in her view contained hidden Communist or Collectivist messages that had not been recognized as such, even by conservatives. Examples included The Best Years of Our Lives (because it portrayed businessmen negatively, and suggested that bankers should give veterans collateral-free loans), and A Song to Remember (because it implied that Chopin sacrificed himself for a patriotic cause rather than devoting himself to his music).[12]

See also

• Friends of Abe
• Hollywood Congress of Republicans

References

1. Watts, Steven (2001). The Magic Kingdom: Walt Disney and the American Way of Life. University of Missouri. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-8262-1379-2. Retrieved February 25, 2012.
2. "Hollywood Renegades Archive: The Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals". Cobblestone Entertainment. Retrieved January 22, 2011.
3. Ceplair, Larry; Englund, Steven (1983). The Inquisition in Hollywood: Politics in the Film Community, 1930-1960. University of California Press. pp. 210–214. ISBN 978-0-520-04886-7. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
4. Robert T. Mann (2002). The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Cold War. Alpha. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-02-864246-8. Retrieved 10 August 2010.
5. Sragow, Michael (2008). Victor Fleming: An American Movie Master. Pantheon. pp. 429–430. ISBN 978-0-375-40748-2. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
6. Kazanjian, Howard; Enss, Chris (2006). The Young Duke: The Early Life of John Wayne. TwoDot. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-7627-3898-4. Retrieved March 15, 2012.
7. Roberts, Randy; Olson, James Stuart (1997). John Wayne: American. Bison Books. p. 338. ISBN 978-0-8032-8970-3. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
8. Manchel, Frank (1990). Film Study: An Analytical Bibliography. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 1081. ISBN 978-0-8386-3412-7. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
9. McBride, Joseph (2003). Searching for John Ford: A Life. St. Martin's Griffin. pp. 372–373. ISBN 978-0-312-31011-0. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
10. Branden, Barbara (1986). The Passion of Ayn Rand. p. 199.
11. Becker, Charotte B. (2001). Encyclopedia of Ethics. Taylor & Francis. p. 1441. ISBN 0-415-93675-6.
12. Journals of Ayn Rand, Chapter 10.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Tue Sep 24, 2019 4:20 am

Meryl Streep calls Walt Disney 'anti-Semitic' 'gender bigot' during Disney celebration: Meryl Streep shocked diners attending an event for the National Board of Review earlier this week
by Jenn Selby
Thursday 9 January 2014 14:23

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Image
The Baftas red carpet – and the best actress award – belonged to Meryl Streep, who won for her role as Margaret Thatcher in The Iron Lady ( AP )

Meryl Streep shocked diners attending an event for the National Board of Review earlier this week by attacking late animator Walt Disney for being a “gender bigot” and a racist member of an anti-Semitic lobby group.

Which wouldn’t have been so bizarre, had she not, in the same breath, have been honouring peer Emma Thompson for her star turn as PL Travers in Disney film Saving Mr Banks.

The movie is based around Walt Disney’s courting of the rights to Travers’ classic Mary Poppins, and detailed the lengths the animator went to persuade her to adapt the novel for the big screen.

On the one hand, Streep labelled Thompson "a beautiful artist" who is "practically a saint", before reading out a heart-felt, self-penned poem about the British actress called "An Ode to Emma, Or What Emma is Owed".

"Not only is she not irascible, she’s practically a saint. There’s something so consoling about that old trope, but Emma makes you want to kill yourself, because she’s a beautiful artist, she’s a writer, she’s a thinker, she’s a living, acting conscience," she said ahead of the reading.

On the other, Streep launched into a tirade about Disney, calling the late animator a "hideous anti-Semite" who "formed and supported an anti-Semitic industry lobby".

"And he was certainly, on the evidence of his company’s policies, a gender bigot," she added, before quoting a letter he wrote to an aspiring female animator in 1938.

"Women do not do any of the creative work in connection with preparing the cartoons for the screen, as that task is performed entirely by young men," it read.

She went on to quote Disney's colleague Walter Kimball, who apparently said that his boss "didn't trust women or cats," Variety reports.


Streep did, however, throw a little water on the fire by adding: "There is a piece of received wisdom that says that the most creative people are often odd, or irritating, eccentric, damaged, difficult. That along with enormous creativity comes certain deficits in humanity or decency.

"We are familiar with this trope in our business: Mozart, Van Gogh, Tarantino, Eminem," she added.

Disney was plagued by allegations of anti-Semitism during his life and after his death. Sure enough, ethnic stereotypes common to films of the 1930s were included in several of his early cartoons.

For example, Three Little Pigs featured the Big Bad Wolf sneaking up to the door dressed as a Jewish peddler.

Image


And The Opry House, during which Mickey Mouse dresses up and dances like a Hasidic Jew.

Other rumours centred around his acceptance of female German filmmaker (and notorious Nazi propagandist) Leni Riefenstahl to Hollywood to promote her film Olympia in 1938. He was criticised for not cancelling her invitation even after news of Kristallnacht broke.

Further still, Jewish animator Art Babbitt, who maintained a "difficult relationship" with Disney throughout his career, claimed to have seen Disney and his lawyer, Gunther Lessing, attending meetings of pro-Nazi organisation the German American Bund in the late 1930s.


However, Disney biographer Neal Gabler, who was the first writer to gain unrestricted access to the Disney archives in 2006, concluded based on the evidence available that he was not an anti-Semite. At least, not in the conventional sense.

In summary, he said: "He got the reputation because, in the 1940s, he got himself allied with a group called the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, which was an anti-Communist and antisemitic organization.

"And though Walt himself, in my estimation, was not antisemitic, nevertheless, he willingly allied himself with people who were antisemitic, and that reputation stuck. He was never really able to expunge it throughout his life."

According to The Walt Disney Family Museum, the company also gave money to several Jewish charities, including the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, Yeshiva College and The American League for a Free Palestine.

Meanwhile, in other awards news, the BAFTAs nominations were revealed this week. Streep's August: Osage County co-star Julia Roberts found herself up for an award while Emma Thompson is up for Best Actress for her role as PL Travers in Saving Mr Banks. Find out who else received nods in the gallery below.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Tue Sep 24, 2019 4:27 am

Not so supercalifragilisticexpialidocious
by Robert Liftig, EdD
Jewish Ledger
December 31, 2013

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“Saving Mr. Banks” – the newly released film about the making of “Mary Poppins” – paints a warm and fuzzy portrait of the late animation giant Walt Disney. But what the film, starring Tom Hanks and Emma Thompson (a darling of the Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions – BDS – movement, by the way), doesn’t touch on is the lovable “Uncle Walt’s” not so lovable attitude towards the Jewish people. Robert Liftig sets the record straight.

“I once made the mistake of asking Walt a question … and he replied by saying, ‘Let me check that with my Jew.’” Peter Bart (Editor, Variety)


Walt Disney looked just like my Uncle Max, so I never missed his show at 7 p.m. on Sunday evenings. I especially enjoyed the end, when former German rocket scientist Wernher von Braun would make a kindly appearance and take apart a model rocket and put it together again, and then explain how something like this could take “us” to the moon someday. Wernher was the “Friendly Dutch Uncle” I never had: twinkled of eye, deft of hand, and filled with fantastic ideas about “our” fabulous future in the final frontier. Disney, who personally introduced each of his shows, often used my Dutch Uncle to close them. They must be pals, I thought. Maybe Disney was Jewish too.

One Sunday evening my Dad ambled through the living room just as Uncle Wernher was chattering in his heavy Reichish accent: “That guy was a damn Nazi,” Dad said. “His rockets bombed England. He would have bombed us too, if he had the chance. Now he’s on American TV and you’re watching him! Unbelievable! Who’s this Disney guy, really?”

Dad was a World War II veteran, and knew these things before other people knew them.

It wasn’t until Walt Disney died in 1966, that rumors of his antisemitism began to circulate, and they are debated even today all over the Internet. Though it has never been claimed by anyone that Disney was a Nazi, even his acolytes stop short of portraying him as just another pre-War, Midwestern White Bread kid who might – wouldn’t anyone? – feel awkward attending a friend’s bar mitzvah.

Here are some fairly hard facts about the man who invented the “Magic Kingdom.”

In 1938 Disney welcomed German filmmaker and Nazi propagandist Leni Riefenstahl to Hollywood to promote her film “Olympia.” Even after news of Kristallnacht broke, Disney did not cancel his invitation, and met with her.

In the 1940s, Disney joined the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, an anti-Communist and antisemitic organization.

Even the Walt Disney Family Museum acknowledges that Disney had “difficult relationships” with Jews, and that ethnic stereotypes can be seen in his early films, including: “Three Little Pigs” (in which the Big Bad Wolf comes to the door dressed as a Jewish peddler) and “The Opry House” (in which Mickey Mouse is dressed and dances like a Chasidic Jew.)

Image
The Big Bad Wolf shown dressed as a Jewish peddler In the original short, “Three Little Pigs.”

Many of Disney’s attempts at Jewish stereotyping had to be edited out by more objective minds. (Stephen Propatier says, “In the original short ‘Three Little Pigs’, the Big Bad Wolf is dressed as a Jewish peddler attempting to fool the little pigs. It was excised from the film after its release drew criticism, and was re-animated, so that the Wolf would be a Fuller Brush Man. Albeit one with a Yiddish accent, plus the nose, glasses and beard disguise also remained.”)

Disney associated with pro-Nazi Fritz Kuhn, a leader of the German American Bund prior to World War II, who became a naturalized United States citizen in 1934, but had his citizenship revoked in 1943 and, two years later, was deported, and there are sourced claims that Disney attended German American Bund meetings.

Disney was said to be prone to making antisemitic remarks.

Disney is considered to be among those non-Jewish pioneers of the movie industry – including Edison – who believed that Jews were making big profits from what essentially were their inventions (both Edison and Disney felt they had been undercut by the Jewish movie producer and distributor Carl Laemmel). Disney was considered part of the cult that believed: “The Jews Are Taking Over Hollywood.”

When the U.S. Army contacted Disney early in World War II and asked him to join the wartime propaganda effort, Disney accepted, but said he had been forced to by “that Jew” [Secretary of the Treasury Henry] Morgenthau who wanted Disney to use Mickey Mouse to deliver films that supported the war effort.


How two women were tricked by Jewish lawyers

Image

"Well, Colleague Morgenthau, we did a good piece of business today." "Splendid, Colleague Silberstein. We took the lovely money from the two Goy women and can put it in our own pockets."

This story tells how a Jewish lawyer, by making the same promises to two German women, complainant and defendant, takes fees from both. In the court judgment is given: Both women are guilty. Both must pay.

After the court proceedings the two Jewish lawyers who have so arranged the case congratulate one another on the good business they have done:

Now we have jewed the two Gojas of their money, we can put it in our sack!

The two German women recognise they have been cheated, make peace with one another, and take the experience as a warning never to quarrel again and:

Never to go again to Jewish lawyers.

We will remember all our lives this saying:

The Jewish lawyer
Has no feeling for justice.
He only goes to court
Because of the prospect of money.

Whether brave and good people
Wear themselves out and bleed,
Leaves the Jew completely cold.
Never go to a Jewish lawyer!


-- The Poisonous Mushroom: A children's book, by Ernst Hiemer


Then there is the Disney outreach to Wernher von Braun – at a most important juncture in the ex-Nazi’s resurrection as “All American Hero.” Von Braun, a former SS-Sturmbannführer (Major), was the guy my Dad said created the V-2 rocket – which he did; and which did – Dad was right again – bomb England.

Having surrendered to the U.S. Army at the end of World War II, von Braun was “sanitized” by our grateful government (grateful that the Russians didn’t get him first), then was settled near Fr. Bliss near El Paso, Texas where he lived with his German cousin-wife, began work on American missile systems, and, in 1955, became a U.S. citizen and a consultant to Walt Disney and the Disney Studios as technical director for films about space exploration. Shortly thereafter, my former Dutch Uncle was named the first director of NASA.

In 2014, Walt Disney will be lionized on the silver screen in “Saving Mr. Banks,” a film starring Tom Hanks, and there’s nothing I can do about it. But when you head out the door to your local moving picture emporium, you may want to take along a copy of this article, and post it on the wall beside the ticket booth.

Antisemite Rating: 8 (out of a possible 15)

Dr. Robert A. Liftig is an adjunct professor of ethics at Fairfield University and a freelance writer. He lives in Westport.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Tue Sep 24, 2019 4:55 am

Fritz Julius Kuhn
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/23/19

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Image
Fritz Julius Kuhn
Kuhn in 1938
Born Fritz Julius Kuhn
May 15, 1896
Munich, German Empire
Died December 14, 1951 (aged 55)
Munich, West Germany
Known for German American Bund
Spouse(s) Elsa
Children Walter, Waltraut
Parent(s)
Georg Kuhn
Julia Justyna Beuth

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Madison Square Garden rally 1939

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Kuhn appearing on the street after leaving a courthouse in Webster, Massachusetts in 1939

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Kuhn speaking at a "Bund"-camp-rally

Fritz Julius Kuhn (May 15, 1896 – December 14, 1951) was the leader of the German American Bund before World War II. He became a naturalized United States citizen in 1934, but his citizenship was cancelled in 1943, and he was deported in 1945. He was an American supporter of the German Nazi government led by Adolf Hitler that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.[1]

Life and career

Kuhn was born in Munich, then the German Empire, on May 15, 1896, the son of Georg Kuhn and Julia Justyna Beuth. During World War I, Kuhn earned an Iron Cross as a German infantry lieutenant.[2] After the war, he graduated from the Technical University of Munich with a master's degree in chemical engineering. In the 1920s, Kuhn moved to Mexico. In 1928, he moved to the United States and, in 1934, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.[3] He worked at a Ford factory in Detroit before assuming control of the Bund in Buffalo, New York, in 1936.[4]

A Congressional committee headed by Samuel Dickstein concluded that the Friends of New Germany supported a branch of German dictator Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party in the United States,[5] and the Friends of New Germany disbanded. However, in March 1936, the German American Bund was established in Buffalo as a follow-up organization.[6] The Bund elected the German-born American citizen Kuhn as its leader.[7]

Kuhn, while describing the Bund as "sympathetic to the Hitler government", denied that the organization received money or took orders from the government of Germany. Kuhn also denied that the Bund had any agenda of introducing fascism to the United States.[8][9]

Kuhn enlisted thousands of Americans by using what would be criticized as antisemitic, anticommunist, and pro-German propaganda. One of his first tasks was to plan a trip to Germany with 50 of his American followers. The purpose was to be in the presence of Hitler and to personally witness National-Socialism in practice.

At this time, Germany was preparing to host the 1936 Olympics. Kuhn anticipated a warm welcome from Adolf Hitler, but the encounter was a disappointment. This did not stop Kuhn from elaborating more propaganda to his followers once he returned to the United States about how Hitler acknowledged him as the "American Führer".[10]

As his profile grew, so did the tension against him. Not only Jewish-Americans, but also German-Americans who did not want to be associated with Nazis, protested against the Bund. These protests were occasionally violent, making the Bund front page news in the United States. In response to the outrage of Jewish war veterans, Congress in 1938 passed the Foreign Agents Registration Act requiring foreign agents to register with the State Department.[10] The negative attention to the American Nazis was not to Hitler's liking because he wanted the Nazi Party in the United States to be strong, but stealthy. Hitler needed to keep the U.S. neutral throughout the coming war and sought to avoid provoking Americans, whereas Kuhn was eager to stir media attention. On March 1, 1938, the Nazi government decreed that no German national (Reichsdeutsche) could be a member of the Bund and that no Nazi emblems were to be used by the organization.[6]

Undaunted, on February 20, 1939, Kuhn held the largest and most publicized rally in the Bund's history at Madison Square Garden in New York City.[11] Some 20,000 people attended and heard Kuhn mock President Franklin D. Roosevelt as "Frank D. Rosenfeld", calling his New Deal the "Jew Deal" and denouncing what he called Bolshevik-Jewish American leadership. Kuhn also stated:"The Bund is fighting shoulder to shoulder with patriotic Americans to protect America from a race that is not the American race, that is not even a white race ... The Jews are enemies of the United States." Most shocking was the outbreak of violence between Bund storm troopers and thousands of angry protesters in the streets. During Kuhn's speech, a Jewish protester, Isadore Greenbaum, rushed the stage and had to be rescued by police after he was beaten and stripped by storm troopers.[12][13][14]

Later in 1939, seeking to cripple the Bund, New York City Mayor Fiorello La Guardia ordered the city to investigate the Bund's taxes. It found that Kuhn had embezzled over $14,000 from the organization, spending part of the money on a mistress. District Attorney Thomas E. Dewey issued an indictment and won a conviction against Kuhn. On December 5, 1939, Kuhn was sentenced to two and a half to five years in prison for tax evasion and embezzlement.[15] Despite his criminal conviction for embezzlement, followers of the Bund continued to hold Kuhn in high regard, in line with the Nazi Führerprinzip, which gives the leader absolute power.

While in Sing Sing[4] prison, Kuhn's citizenship was canceled on June 1, 1943, on grounds of it having been obtained fraudulently as shown by his ongoing activity as a foreign agent of, and person with loyalty including oaths of military service towards, Germany and the Nazi Party.[3] Upon his release after spending 43 months in prison, Kuhn was re-arrested on June 21, 1943, as an enemy agent and interned by the federal government at a camp in Crystal City, Texas. After the war, Kuhn was sent to Ellis Island and deported to Germany on September 15, 1945.[3] Upon his arrival in Germany, he wanted to return to the United States,[16] but was imprisoned, then released shortly before his death.[17] While in prison, Kuhn reportedly sent a message to Jewish columnist Walter Winchell, who had helped lead media counterattacks against the Bund back in New York City. It read: "Tell Herr Vinchell, I will lift to piss on his grafe [sic]."[18]

He died on December 14, 1951, in Munich, Germany. The New York Times obituary said that he died "a poor and obscure chemist, unheralded and unsung".[1]

Appearance in media

In the alternative historical dystopian television series The Man in the High Castle, a high school on Long Island is named after Kuhn.

References

1. "Fritz Kuhn Death in 1951 Revealed. Lawyer Says Former Leader of German-American Bund Succumbed in Munich". The New York Times. Associated Press. February 2, 1953. Retrieved 2008-07-20. Fritz Kuhn, once the arrogant, noisy leader of the pro-Hitler German-American Bund, died here more than a year ago – a poor and obscure chemist, unheralded and unsung.
2. Riess, Curt. Total Espionage: Germany's Information and Disinformation Apparatus 1932-40, 2017.
3. "Fritz Kuhn, Former Bund Chief, Ordered Back to Germany". The Evening Independent. September 7, 1945.
4. O'Haire, Hugh (May 8, 1977). "When the Bund Strutted in Yaphankl". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
5. U.S. Congress, House Special Committee on Un-American Activities (1938). Investigation of un-American propaganda activities in the United States. United States Congress. p. 1090. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
6. Jim Bredemus. "American Bund – The Failure of American Nazism: The German-American Bund's Attempt to Create an American 'Fifth Column'". TRACES. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
7. Cyprian Blamires; Paul Jackson (2006). World fascism: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 270. ISBN 0-8223-0772-3.
8. Says Hitler Group is 200,000 strong. Kuhn Denies Trying to Set Up Fascism in U.S. Associated Press in Reading Eagle, March 12, 1937
9. Kuhn Bares Bund Record Destruction. "Kuhn steadfastly denied that the German government had any connection with his organization." Associated Press in Reading Eagle, August 16, 1939
10. Nazi America: A Secret History (2000), History Channel (92 min)
11. Ratzis Fritz Kuhn and the Bund, 1939 by Jay Maeder Sunday, May 31st 1998[permanent dead link]
12. "Fight Nazis in Big N.Y. Rally" (February 21, 1939). Chicago Tribune Archive. Chicago Tribune News Service. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
13. Philpot, Robert (February 22, 2019). "Eighty years ago this week: the night the Nazis played Madison Square Garden". The Jewish Chronicle. London. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
14. Philip Bump, When Nazis rallied in Manhattan, one working-class Jewish man from Brooklyn took them on, 20 February 2017, The Washington Post
15. Adams, Thomas (2005). Germany and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History: A MultiDisciplinary Encyclopedia. G – N, volume 2. ABC-CLIO. p. 631. ISBN 1-85109-628-0. Retrieved January 11,2011.
16. Shaffer, Ryan (Spring 2010). "Long Island Nazis: A Local Synthesis of Transnational Politics". 21(2). Journal of Long Island History. Archived from the original on 2010-06-21. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
17. IMDb Biography
18. Bernstein, Arnie (May 28, 2017). "Walter Winchell, Nazi Fighter". The New York Times Book Review: 6. Retrieved 27 May 2017.

External links

• Talking History Archive - Recording of Fritz Kuhn's speech at the German-American Bund Rally, New York City, Feb. 20, 1939, at the University of Albany
• Fritz Julius Kuhn - Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
• "American Bund: The Failure of American Nazism; The German-American Bund’s Attempt to Create an American 'Fifth Column'" Article by Jim Bredemus on Traces.org
• Fritz Julius Kuhn on IMDb
• Newspaper clippings about Fritz Julius Kuhn in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Tue Sep 24, 2019 5:25 am

“Swastika Nation”: Fritz Kuhn and the German-American Bund (Book Review)
by Alex Constantine
October 23, 2013

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The rise and fall of a small but threatening Nazi movement

Everyone is familiar with Adolf Hitler and the rise and fall of Nazi Germany. Few remember that in the mid- to late-1930s the United States experienced a Nazi crusade of its own, one led by Fritz Julius Kuhn (1896-1951), a radical anti-Semite who dreamed of a fascist America led by a Nazi president. Kuhn never realized his dream, but he did develop a national Nazi movement—complete with propaganda wing, youth group, and its own version of the Schutzstaffel (SS)—that inspired a concerted effort (among politicians, law enforcement and media alike) to destroy him and his organization.

But on February 20, 1939—the day Kuhn’s German-American Bund (Der Amerikadeutsche Volksbund) held a Nuremberg-style rally at New York’s Madison Square Garden—Kuhn and his rabid followers seemed a very real threat to order. Tens of thousands of protestors surrounded the Garden while Bundesführer Kuhn addressed 17,000 enthusiastic supporters—men and women who demonstrated their support by extending their right arms straight out, palms down, in that instantly-recognizable salute, all the while shouting “Free America! Free America! Free America!”

We believe in, and like, the American way of life: the liberty and freedom which generations before us have fought to create and preserve; the freedom to speak, to think, to live, to worship, to work, and to govern ourselves as individuals, as free men; the right to succeed or fail as free men, according to the measure of our ability and our strength.

-- Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, by Wikipedia


Yet that night would mark the peak of the Bund’s reach and influence, as the New York-based group was effectively marginalized later that year when Kuhn was convicted of larceny and forgery and sent to prison at Sing Sing, the state’s infamous maximum-security prison.

In the new book “Swastika Nation” (St. Martin’s Press), author Arnie Bernstein deftly chronicles the rise and fall of the German-American Bund, which emerged from the remnants of a group known as the Friends of New Germany. “Kuhn did a remarkable job of marshaling the movement,” says Bernstein. If Kuhn was running a corporation instead of a Nazi movement he would have been [considered] an astute businessman.”

The Bund maintained a diversified income stream derived from annual dues and various ancillary fees, as well as the mandatory purchase of uniforms, armbands, pins and badges. Uniforms for both the rank-and-file and the group’s Ordnungsdienst (“well-dressed bodyguards who undertook their duties with brutal seriousness,” according to Bernstein) had to be purchased from Bund-approved tailors. In fact, the Bund strongly encouraged its membership to spend their hard-earned dollars at Aryan-owned businesses that were a part of the Deutscher Konsum Verband (D.K.V.), or German Business League.


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Fritz Kuhn

Meanwhile, the organization’s publishing arm (the AV Publishing Company, the name derived from the initials of the Bund’s German name, Amerikadeutscher Volksbund), pushed out books and propaganda materials, and also published a weekly newspaper, The German Wakeup Call and Observer (Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter). Members were obligated to subscribe to the newspaper, and to buy a copy of Hitler’s autobiography/manifesto “Mein Kampf,” among other propaganda materials.

There were various subsidiary organizatoons directly affiliated, or otherwise connected, with the German-American Bund. Among them were --

German-American Business League (Deutscher Konsum Verband): The German-American Business League was a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was head of both organizations. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.) The committee has a complete membership list of the German-American Business League for New York and New Jersey.

A.V. Development Corporation: The A.V. Development Corporation was also a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was president of the A.V. Development Corporation. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.)

A.V. Publishing Corporation: The A.V. Publishing Corporation was a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was president of the corporation. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.) The A.V. Publishing Corporation published the bund's New York newspaper, the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter.

Prospective Citizens' League: The Prospective Citizens' League was an auxiliary of the German-American Bund. (See p. 3755 of the committee's hearings.) The ostensible purpose of the Prospective Citizens' League was to provide a method whereby those who had not yet taken out their final citizenship papers could nevertheless be actively associated with the German-American Bund.

German-American Settlement League: The German-American Settlement League was the holding corporation for the German-American Bund's camp at Yaphank, Long Island. This camp was known as Camp Siegfried. Fritz Kuhn was one of the directors of the German-American Settlement League. (See. p. 3758 of the committee's hearings.)

German-American Bund Auxiliary: The German-American Bund Auxiliary was the holding corporation for the bund's camp in New Jersey, Camp Nordland. )See p. 3759 and p. 8265 of the committee's hearings.) August Klapprott, eastern leader of the bund, was president of the German-American Bund Auxiliary.

-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part VII: Report on the Axis Front Movement in the United States [Excerpt from pp. 59-85]


But what really drew the ire of the American public were the Bund’s camps and retreats—Camp Siegfried in Yaphank, New York, and Camp Nordland in Andover Township, New Jersey, for example—where thousands of Bund members gathered en masse to picnic and swim. Think summer camp with a Nazi twist.

The retreats were a key component of the Bund’s youth initiative, which was loosely modeled after Germany’s Hitler Youth and female counterpart, the League of German Girls. As in Germany, youth group retreats were sexually charged gatherings. “They encouraged the boys and girls to sleep with each other to produce good Aryan children for the day that they would take over,” notes Bernstein.

How quickly a German-American boy can become a part of the Hitler youth program was explained to a witness who appeared before the committee, by a woman bund member. She said, according to this witness, her youthful cousin scorned the camp idea at first, but after one visit came home singing Nazi songs and remarked that the German scouts were "real kameraden." After another visit, he became a member. Today, at 19, he is a fuehrer and has learned to speak German....

So closely related is the youth movement of the German-American Bund to that of the Hitler youth in Germany that they even sing the songs of the Hitler youth and reprint them in their song books…

Uniforms worn by the members of the youth groups, their camps and program of activities were similar in every respect to those of the Hitler youth movement, and that the Nazi salute was the accepted gesture of greeting.


-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities


Predictably, neighbors didn’t take kindly to the idea of Bund members goose-stepping the streets of Yaphank or Andover Township in Nazi-styled uniforms, and the pushback against the camps attracted media coverage coast-to-coast. Syndicated newspaper columnist Walter Winchell painted Kuhn and his followers in a particularly unflattering light, the former taking delight in referring to the Bund leader as Phffftz Kuhn, Fritz Kuhnfucious, or simply Fat Fritz Kuhn. In fact, Winchell became Kuhn’s chief antagonist, so much so that The German Wakeup Call and Observer declared Winchell “Kuhn’s worst enemy.” Worse yet, Kuhn promised to “blacken Walter Winchell’s eyes” (promise kept, courtesy of two thugs) and to piss on his grave (promise not kept).

Hitler and the rest of Germany’s Nazi leadership didn’t think much of Kuhn, either. In the summer of 1936, the Bundesführer and his lieutenants visited Germany and, via a mutual connection, managed to gain an audience with the Führer. “It was basically one of those grip-and-grin photo ops. Hitler shook Kuhn’s hand and said, ‘Go over there and continue the fight,’” recalls Bernstein, a statement that Kuhn viewed as an official endorsement. “Of course, Hitler meant nothing by it,” continues the author. In fact, Hitler was embarrassed by Kuhn, and Nazi officials wanted nothing to do with the German-American Bund, viewing the “stupid and noisy” group as damaging to the Third Reich’s image in America.

The German-American Bund followed closely the pattern of treason made familiar by the Nazis in such organizations as those of Norway's Quisling, Czechoslovakia's Henlein, Belgium's Degrelle, and Jugoslavia's Pavelic. Operating under the flimsy pretext of cultural objectives and general German-American welfare, the bund was always and everywhere a Nazi agency working for disruption, espionage, sabotage, and treason. The bund's pious pretenses were so shallow that it is impossible to believe that any considerable proportion of its membership was ever truly deceived concerning its objectives....

the committee found the following things:

1. That the bund was characterized by the same ruthless efficiency of the military set-up which characterized Hitler's machine in Germany.

2. That bund members were subjected to "absolute loyalty" and "blind obedience" to the bund's fuehrer.

3. That the bund demanded that its members be "fanatical fighters" for national socialism.

4. That the bund anticipated the necessity of violence in carrying out its program.

5. That the bund was characterized by extreme religious bigotry.

6. That the bund aimed at the establishment of a new kind of government in the United States, one which should incorporate the principle of Nazi religious bigotry.

7. That the bund kept a systematic record of its enemies.

8. That the bund specified that its meetings should be closed with the following declaration: "To a free, Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a threefold rousing 'Free America! Free America! Free America!'"

9. That the bund was an absolutely secret organization.

10. That the bund looked upon all Americans of German descent as owing loyalty to the Reich.

11. And that the bund was ideologically and organizationally tied to Nazi Germany....

Fritz Julius Kuhn was born in Munich, Germany, on May 15, 1896. According to his own testimony, he received his education in Munich, completing a university course there.

In the First World War Kuhn was a machine gunner in the infantry of the German Army. He states that he served 4-1/2 years with the German forces, and by the end of the war had attained the rank of lieutenant.

Kuhn's brother, Max, was appointed a member of the German Supreme Court by Hitler — sufficient evidence that the Kuhn family stands in well with the Nazi Fuehrer....

Mr. Fritz Kuhn became a member of the Nazi Party in 1921 and was active under the then Munich police commissioner, one of the first leading Nazi officials, Dr. Poehner....

When on November 9, 1923, in front of the Feldherrenhalle in Munich, Bavarian police shot at the Nazis marching under the leadership of Hitler and Ludendorff, Kuhn was among the marching Nazis....

After his entry into the United States, Kuhn proceeded directly to Detroit, where he obtained employment in the Henry Ford Hospital and later as a chemical engineer in the Ford Motor Co. Kuhn's employment in these Ford institutions lasted about 8 years....

In the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official bund newspaper, the visit of Kuhn and a delegation of German-American Bund storm troopers to Germany was described with obvious pride in both words and pictures. The accounts of this visit, which took place in 1936, are found in the Deutscher Weckruf and Beobachter for August 6, August 27, and September 10, 1936. When these bund storm troopers paraded in Berlin before Hitler himself, the Nazi Feuhrer stood on the balcony of the Chancellory. As Hitler stood there viewing this parade, Fritz Kuhn went to the balcony and, according to the words of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter itself, "Bund Leader Fritz Kuhn reported to him."... It cannot be denied that Hitler in this manner gave the highest official recognition of the fact that the German-American Bund was a Nazi agency and that Bundesfuehrer Fritz Kuhn was a subordinate of Hitler himself. According to the report which was published in the bund's own newspaper, Hitler replied to Kuhn, "Now you go back and continue your struggle."

-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part VII: Report on the Axis Front Movement in the United States [Excerpt from pp. 59-85], Special Committee on Un-American Activities


Meanwhile, back in the U.S., powerful forces began amassing against the Bund. In August 1937 United States Attorney General Homer Cummings launched an FBI probe of Bund camps, and five months later issued his findings in a fourteen-volume report, Nazi Camps in the United States.

But the campaign to bring down Kuhn went into high gear shortly after the Madison Square Garden rally, when New York mayor Fiorello LaGuardia and prosecutor Thomas Dewey seized the Bund’s financial records, hoping to put Kuhn away on tax evasion charges. The plan worked: Kuhn was charged with grand larceny and forgery for embezzling from the Bund’s bank accounts. After being found guilty he was sent to prison, first to Sing Sing, then to Clinton Correctional Facility in Dannemora, New York, where he was incarcerated until being paroled on June 18, 1943. He spent the remainder of the war in the federal internment camp system for wartime enemy aliens, and was subsequently deported to Germany, where he spent the next several years in and out of prison.

Though the Bund attempted to soldier on under the leadership of Bund Führer Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze, “the movement flopped around like a fish on a deck for a couple more years,” quips Bernstein. “Then Pearl Harbor happened and that was that.”



But what might have been lost to history as an ugly curiosity has proven to be a Pandora’s box, as the Internet age has given Ford’s anti-Semitic literature a powerful new life. Today, a century after Ford purchased the Dearborn Independent and 72 years after his death, his legacy of hate is stronger than ever -- it flourishes on the websites and forums of white nationalists, racists and others who hate Jews.

Today, “The International Jew” by Henry Ford plays a significant role in fomenting resentment as the United States grapples with rising numbers of hate crimes and anti-Semitic incidents, ascendant white nationalism and a gunman armed with an AR-15-style assault rifle who massacred 11 people at a Pittsburgh synagogue in October. When he surrendered, the gunman told police he “wanted all Jews to die.”

An essay posted by the Anti-Defamation League on its website says that by resurrecting decades-old texts such as “The International Jew,” today's anti-Semites demonstrate the longevity of their beliefs, legitimizing them to both dedicated followers and potential recruits.

Because of Ford’s fame, “The International Jew” has been a “particularly powerful tool for haters trying to validate their hostile beliefs,” the essay adds.

Two examples of Ford’s influence online today: On Stormfront, a white nationalist online forum, a contributor has taken the screen name Dr. Ford and uses a photo of Henry Ford as a profile image. On the same forum, a participant whose screen name is AllisonRM wrote last year:


“I'm currently reading The International Jew: Essays from the Dearborn Independent (Ford)… Read these great books!...We, the white race, need to encourage ourselves and our children.”


Heidi Beirich, an expert on extremism in the United States at the Alabama-based Southern Poverty Law Center, said extremist websites contain thousands of references to Ford and “The International Jew.”

“In the world of the racist right, Henry Ford is almost a living, breathing human being, “ Beirich said in an interview. She added that extremist leaders use Ford “as an inspiration” and “validator” to impress people while enlisting them to join the movement.


-- 100 Years Later, Dearborn Confronts The Hate Of Hometown Hero Henry Ford, by Bill McGraw


McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence. The term refers to U.S. senator Joseph McCarthy (R-Wisconsin) and has its origins in the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare, lasting from the late 1940s through the 1950s. It was characterized by heightened political repression and a campaign spreading fear of communist influence on American institutions and of espionage by Soviet agents.

-- McCarthyism, by Wikipedia


The Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals (MPAPAI, also MPA) was an American organization of high-profile, politically conservative members of the Hollywood film industry. It was formed in 1944 for the stated purpose of defending the film industry, and the country as a whole, against what its founders claimed was communist and fascist infiltration.

-- Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, by Wikipedia


The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states (the Eastern Bloc), and the United States with its allies (the Western Bloc) after World War II.

-- Cold War, by Wikipedia


Operation Paperclip was a secret program of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) largely carried out by Special Agents of Army CIC, in which more than 1,600 German scientists, engineers, and technicians, such as Wernher von Braun and his V-2 rocket team, were taken from Germany to America for U.S. government employment, primarily between 1945 and 1959. Many were former members, and some were former leaders, of the Nazi Party.

-- Operation Paperclip, by Wikipedia


Orville Liscum Hubbard (April 2, 1903 – December 16, 1982) was the mayor of Dearborn, Michigan for 36 years, from 1942 to 1978. Sometimes referred to as the "Dictator of Dearborn", Hubbard was the most outspoken segregationist north of the Mason-Dixon line. During his administration, non-whites were aggressively discouraged from residing in Dearborn, and Hubbard's longstanding campaign to "Keep Dearborn Clean" was widely understood to mean "Keep Dearborn White."

-- Orville L. Hubbard, by Wikipedia


As for Kuhn, his death attracted little notice; the news didn’t reach the United States until two years later. “Hitler’s U.S. Bund Chief Fritz Kuhn Died Friendless in Germany,” announced Winchell in his February 6, 1953, column for the Daily Mirror. Kuhn had fallen so far, so fast that the columnist had little to say about the disgraced Bundesführer. Winchell’s final words about Kuhn and his dream of a Nazi America were: “(End of shrug).”

Quotes from "Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives

The three documents which are presented in this report speak for themselves…..

They attest the ruthless efficiency of the military set-up which characterizes Hitler's machine in Germany….

The discipline to which members of the German-American Bund are subject is clearly reflected in the endless rules and regulations which extend to the minute details of the Bund members' lives. The documents speak of "absolute loyalty" and "blind obedience."…

The German-American Bund organization clearly anticipates violence by its assertion that "the OD man gives assurance that our movement will, at the sacrifice of life if necessary, remain the inexorable opponents of Jewish Marxism….

According to Document #3, "anyone who is not filled with this unshakable faith and courage and cannot march along as a fanatical fighter does not belong in the OD; to have embraced the National Socialist view of things means definitively breaking off all ties with liberal halfway measures" (p. 1611). This is a clear espousal of the totalitarian, as opposed to the democratic, way of life….

The following quotations indicate something of the religious bigotry of the Germany-American Bund: "All OD men and OD Leaders in particular are required to procure a certificate of Aryan blood" (p. 1610). "We are looking for men who enter our organization not in order to procure personal advantages or to be allowed to play soldier pleasantly, but who intend with their whole power to eradicate the red Jewish pestilence in America"…

the defensive and offensive movement of the national consciousness of American Germanism dedicated philosophically (Weltanschaulich), national-socialistically, and politically to the service of an actually independent, aryan-governed United States of North America"…

Document #1 reveals the keeping of systematic records on "enemies" of the German-American Bund….Hitler explained to Rauschning his system of keeping just such a card file on "friends" and "enemies."….

Document #1 specifies the manner in which a meeting of the Bund shall be closed, as follows: "To a free. Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a three-fold rousing 'Free America! Free America! Free America!"….

These Nazi activities in the United States are traceable to and linked with Government-controlled agencies in Nazi Germany…

the official newspaper of the German-American Bund has had advance information on what was about to transpire in Germany and gave every evidence of intimate knowledge of events to come….

all of the Nazi activities here are on lines identical with those used abroad….

the German-American Bund can muster within its own ranks a uniformed force of 5,000 storm troops and it was testified that in time of necessity this force could be augmented with "strong-arm" detachments of allied groups, such as Italian Black Shirts, Silver Shirts, Ukrainians, White Russians, and similar organizations…

this storm-troop division of the Bund is patterned after the Hitler storm troops and its members are the political soldiers of a Hitler-inspired movement in the United States….

from the manpower of this force the Bund, working hand in hand with the German Government, can draft men for a sabotage, machine and spy net….

members of that organization in all parts of the United States have privately admitted that they are not American citizens but are German citizens and in many cases have boasted that they never intend to become American citizens….

elections were conducted along the lines of recent European plebiscites where everything is under such control that no one dares vote against the machine…

crews of German warships have been entertained by the storm troops of the Bund. German World War veterans are active in storm-troop ranks and help train and drill the men….

Members of the Nazi groups have been found to be working in some of the great aviation manufacturing companies of the United States. They were found working in the United States Navy shipyards where they had succeeded in securing positions which placed them in direct possession of secret plans for the construction of United States Navy battleships of the latest type. They have even been assigned to trial runs on the latest type of these ships…

the Foreign Institute of the Nazi Government at Stuttgart was one of the instrumentalities used in assisting the German-American Bund in spreading propaganda in this country…

German consulates in the United States have been the clearing houses for much of the Nazi activity here…

the groups operated in this country are directed by organizations in Germany which get their support and direction from the German Government itself….

In fact, the Foreign Institute at Stuttgart is being conducted by one Fritz Gissibl, a former leader of the Nazi group in this country and whose brother even now is a member and leader of the Nazi group in Chicago….

every effort is being expended by the bund's high command to instill in these boys and girls, most of whom have never even been outside the United States, the doctrines of racial and religious hatreds preached under the pagan German kultur …

a worship of Hitlerism is inculcated in these youthful unsuspecting minds….

Health, Hitler, Heils, and Hatred are the "4-H's" used by United States Nazis…

They must learn to speak fluent German and to understand the Nazi ideology. They listen to lectures on the Hitler philosophy and the policies of the Third Reich….

the camps are completely Nazi Germany….

The scouts eat, sleep, talk, and dream nazi-ism with the same fervor of the regimented youth of Germany. They are taught to avoid outside "contaminating influences."…

Youngsters are thrust into the Jungvolk organization when only 5 and 6 years old. They wear uniforms of brown and blue shorts or skirts, white blouses with Hitler-brown scarfs. Older boys wear brown shirts with Sam Browne belts, military trousers and boots, and are armed with long hunting knives and spears.

Youths graduate into the "Ordnungs Dienst," the storm-troop organization of the bund, and are trained mentally and physically to lead the troops when the often predicted "trouble" comes. Scouts are told they must be prepared to withstand the onrush of the coming "red" revolution….

At Siegfried and at other eastern bund camps, separate tent encampments for boys and girls are set back in the woods, away from the main building and cottages where their parents drink beer and dance…. Visitors — even parents of the scouts — are not permitted in the youth camps proper. Scouts on duty in the camps must come to the entrances to visit with their parents….

Commands and conversations among the scouts are entirely in German…

Heels click together and the right arm goes out in a Hitler salute when a scout, boy or girl, is addressed by a youth leader or any storm trooper in uniform….

the signs over Nazi youth camps: "You were born to die for Germany."…

Nazi propaganda was slyly worked into the public schools of that city in recent months under the guise of summer German-language classes; that ostensibly, the plan was to simply teach the German language and sing German folk songs, but before very long it became apparent this was not at all the real purposes of the classes. Instead, instructions drifted into Nazi doctrines….

After every Saturday class, trucks picked up some 50 of the children and carried them 55 miles to a Nazi camp near Stanton, Mo. This camp site is operated by the Deutsch-Amerikanische Berufgemeinschaft and is under the direction of Eberhard von Blankenhagen, former Consul Secretary of the German Embassy in Washington….

So closely related is the youth movement of the German-American Bund to that of the Hitler youth in Germany that they even sing the songs of the Hitler youth and reprint them in their song books…

One of the most alarming ways of Nazi propaganda along this line has swept through the ranks of exchange students to universities….

Take, for instance, the case of the Committee on American Youth Camp in Germany. This committee arranges trips and stays for American youths in Germany….

Dr. Colin Ross is a Nazi propagandist who spends his time between Germany and the United States. He has been one of the outstanding speakers for the German-American Bund and has been a writer for the Weckruf, official organ of the bund….

children six years old were shown with the swastika, regulation German Army steel helmets and spears…

Denials to the contrary notwithstanding, this committee was greatly impressed with the evidence presented showing that there is a relationship existing between the German Government and the German-American Bund through the activities of Nazi consuls in this country.

Fritz Kuhn, leader of the German-American Bund, informed this committee's investigator at a time when the latter was disguised as a storm trooper that not only did he have power over the Ambassador and consular set-up in the United States but that he also had a special secret arrangement directly with Adolf Hitler, of Germany.

Ramifications of this "arrangement," Kuhn declared, also included a secret relationship between the German-American Bund and Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present German Ambassador to the United States, and German consuls throughout the country. (See vol, 2, p. 1149.)

In his executive office on the second floor of the bund national headquarters at 178 East Eighty-fifth Street, New York City, on the night of August 16, 1937, this committee's investigator testified that he spoke with Kuhn concerning a trip he had made to the Pacific coast and told him of the difficulties the Los Angeles Post had had with the German consul there….

You see, I have a certain special arrangement with Hitler and Germany that whenever any of our groups have trouble with the consulates in their districts that they are to report it to me in full detail. I then take it up with the Ambassador. Germany is not to be troubled with it unless I get no satisfaction from the Ambassador.

That is exactly why there is a new Ambassador to the United States, and that is exactly why many consuls have been and still are being removed. All the new consuls are National Socialists and are under special instructions to give us the fullest cooperation in every way.


It should be pointed out that Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present Ambassador, was sent to the United States, May 14, 1938, to replace Dr. Hans Luther, whose policy, bund leaders said, did not coincide with those of the bund and the Nazi Party in Germany. There have been numerous consulate changes during the last 2 years, and bund leaders a year ago predicted that more would follow….

Consul von Killinger was also reported as stating that the activities against certain religious groups in this country, as practiced by the German American Bund, are "for the good of America."

The committee had before it evidence (vol. 2, p. 1151) that certain American citizens residing in California had made trips to Germany for the purpose of being schooled in the art of Nazi propaganda and enlightenment. In one instance the father of one of these men (vol. 2, p. 1151) told this committee's investigator that his son's expenses to Germany had been paid through a secret arrangement between the German-American Bund and the Nazi Government….

American Citizens have received Nazi propaganda by mail in packages carrying the imprint of the Nazi consulate at St. Louis…

Propaganda direct from the German Ministry of Propaganda and Enlightenment is distributed by bund officials and evidence was introduced showing definitely that printed propaganda material was shipped from Germany to United States citizens directly. These packages contained, according to the testimony, considerable Nazi propaganda which was printed in Germany for distribution in the United States, considerable Fascist propaganda which was printed in Great Britain for distribution here, and much material of antiracial and antireligious character which was printed here, shipped to German Government agencies, and then reshipped to the United States for distribution in this country….

The packages coming here from abroad contained printed material from the pen of Ernst Goerner, of Milwaukee, Wis.; pamphlets from the Knights of the White Camellia, an organization founded by George E. Deatherage, of Charleston, W. Va.; leaflets from the Russian National Union; and issues from the Christian Free Press, printed in Glendale, Calif….

many Germans living in the United States go abroad and take an oath of fealty to the Fuehrer of Germany…

Repeatedly we have been told that there is no connection between the German-American Bund and the Nazi Government or its political subdivisions, repeatedly we have been told that no allegiance to Adolf Hitler is required, and yet here we have an officially inspired newspaper published in Germany telling us that an oath of fealty was taken….

A target range was set up at Camp Siegfried, Yaphank, Long Island, and on one occasion Herman Schwarzmann, head of the Astoria, Long Island, group, announced that the men were to be "trained to shoot and to take care of guns"…

Bund fuehrers informed storm troops that the various German World War veterans in their ranks would train the younger men in the use of arms….

Within the past year one section of the Gestapo, service section No. 2, under the direction of Colonel Nicolai, has added three new departments, Nos. 23, 24, and 25, all three specifically devoted to espionage in the United States.

Department 23 specializes in economic espionage — the obtaining of American manufacturing and industrial secrets.

Department 24 specializes in military intelligence.

Department 25 specializes in Nazi propaganda….

the German-American Bund receives its inspiration, program, and direction from the Nazi Government of Germany through the various propaganda organizations which have been set up by that Government and which function under the control and supervision of the Nazi Ministry of Propaganda and Enlightenment….

In 1936 Fritz Kulin accompanied a large delegation of bund members to Germany ostensibly for the purpose of visiting the Olympic games. The group paraded in uniform of the Orderly Division (storm troops), and the parade was reviewed by Adolf Hitler. Following the parade, Fritz Kuhn and other officials of the German-American Bund were received by the German Fuehrer…

It was established through the testimony of Fritz Kuhn that the bund had worked sympathetically with other organizations throughout the United States and cooperates with them. Kuhn testified that some of these groups are the Christian Front, the Christian Mobilizers, the Christian Crusaders, the Social Justice Society, the Silver Shirt Legion of America, the Knights of the White Camellia and various Italian Fascist, White Russian, and Ukranian organizations. Kuhn testified that some of the leaders of these groups had addressed meetings sponsored by the bund and that representatives of the bund in turn frequently appeared as speakers at meetings and gatherings sponsored by the above-named groups. It was also established that the bund cooperated with some of these organizations and their leaders by exchanging literature and publications with them and by publishing material emanating from them in the official organ of the bund. Numerous articles have appeared in the bund newspaper expressing the bund's approval of the activities of the organizations already mentioned….

the following are standard reading in bund camps: Hitler's Mein Kampf, Pelley's booklets and publication, Liberation, the books of Julius Streicher (German propagandist), and the Rev. Charles E. Coughlin's publication, Social Justice….

uniforms worn by the members of the youth groups, their camps and program of activities were similar in every respect to those of the Hitler youth movement, and that the Nazi salute was the accepted gesture of greeting….

a group of 15 boys and 15 girls from various parts of the United States who were selected by the bund to be sent to Germany for special training….

there is a political agent on all German ships and that these political agents maintain contact with the Nazi representatives in foreign countries. They are intermediaries for transmission of instructions to the bund leaders in the United States and they receive reports from these leaders concerning the bund's activities, according to the witnesses….

German agents engaged in espionage activities, contacted bund leaders in the United States and sought and received their cooperation. This witness also testified that he had heard discussions among bund leaders with reference to the manner in which the bund, through its members in various industrial plants, could effectively carry out a program of sabotage in case such action became necessary….

members of the bund had assisted German agents whose arrests were sought by officials in the United States in avoiding apprehension and had helped get them out of the United States with the cooperation of German ships….

Nazi propaganda agencies, through officials of the German Government in the United States, have attempted to propagandize educational institutions in this country. It was testified that a German consul general had offered, on behalf of the German Government to subsidize German departments in American universities provided the professors were "acceptable'' to the Nazis….

in August 1938 a so-called anti-Communist convention was held at the bund headquarters in Los Angeles…

the following persons participated in this convention:

Kenneth Alexander, Southern California leader of the Silver Shirts; J. H. Peyton, of the American Rangers; Chas. B. Hudson, of Omaha, Nebr., organizer and leader of America Awake, who accompanied General Moseley when he appeared before the committee; Mrs. Leslie Fry, alias Paquita Louise De Shishmareff, mysterious international figure who has since fled the country, then leader of the Militant Christian Patriots; representatives of Italian Fascist and White Russian organizations; and a number of others of similar point of view….

Bund literature mingled with that of William Dudley Pelley, Robert Edmondson, Mrs. Fry, and George Deatherage on the tables of this convention.

It is clear to the committee that this convention was in no real sense an anti-Communist convention but rather another of a series of attempts to unite some of the various forces of intolerance, racial hatred, Naziism and Fascism in order to achieve greater influence in the United States….

Allen went to Atlanta, Ga., to attempt to "buy the Ku Klux Klan" for Mrs. Fry for the sum of $75,000. He testified that he talked to Hiram W. Evans, head of the Klan, but that Evans "was not interested in the idea."…

-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities
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Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part VII: Report on the Axis Front Movement in the United States [Excerpt from pp. 59-85]
Special Committee on Un-American Activities
House of Representatives
Seventy-Eighth Congress
H. Res. 282

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GERMAN-AMERICAN BUND
(Amerikadeutscher Volksbund)


The German-American Bund followed closely the pattern of treason made familiar by the Nazis in such organizations as those of Norway's Quisling, Czechoslovakia's Henlein, Belgium's Degrelle, and Jugoslavia's Pavelic. Operating under the flimsy pretext of cultural objectives and general German-American welfare, the bund was always and everywhere a Nazi agency working for disruption, espionage, sabotage, and treason. The bund's pious pretenses were so shallow that it is impossible to believe that any considerable proportion of its membership was ever truly deceived concerning its objectives.

THE COMMITTEE'S INVESTIGATION

On August 12, 1938, this committee held its first public hearings. In an all-day session, the committee heard four witnesses who testified concerning the German-American Bund and its counterpart for German nationals, the German Bund.

The most important of the committee's first witnesses was Peter Gissibl, who had been active in the pro-Nazi organizations which preceded the formation of the German-American Bund and had later, for a period of more than a year, been the local leader of the bund in Chicago.

It was definitely established through the testimony of Gissibl that Fritz Kuhn had ordered the destruction of bund correspondence and membership lists in order to prevent their coming into the hands of this committee.
At the very outset of its investigations, therefore, the committee was faced with the defiance and recalcitrance of the bund leaders. Nevertheless, the very act of destroying its records strongly confirmed the widely held suspicion of the subversive character and aims of the German-American Bund

During the latter half of 1938, the committee employed as an investigator a man who had become a member of the bund in order to obtain evidence of the bund's character from the inside.

The committee heard 23 witnesses on the bund in public sessions. These included some of the outstanding leaders of the bund itself.

The following is a tabulation of the witnesses who appeared before the committee in public sessions and gave testimony on the German-American Bund, together with the dates of their appearance and the pages of the committee's hearings on which their testimony may be found:

Image
Witness
John C. Metcalfe.
Peter Gissibl
Frank Davin
James J. Metcalfe
John M. Sweeney
Roy P. Monohan
John C. Metcalfe
Arnold Gingrich
John C. Metcalfe
Bernhard Hoffman
LeRoy Schulz
John C. Metcalfe
Theodore Graebner
John C. Metcalfe
Fritz Kuhn
Helen Vooros
John C. Metcalfe
Henry D. Allen
Robert B. Barker
Gerhart H. Seger
Neil Howard Ness
Fritz Kuhn
Richard T. Forbes
Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze
August Klapprott
Arthur H. Bell
A. M. Young
Otto Hohner
Herman A. Ries
Richard W. Werner


In addition to the foregoing witnesses who were heard in public sessions of the committee, 56 other witnesses were heard on the bund in executive sessions of the committee.

For several months the committee employed special investigators who were acquainted with the German language. These investigators spent their entire time in examining the publications of the German-American Bund, particularly the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, which was the bund's official organ.

THE COMMITTEE'S REPORTS ON THE BUND

In its first report to the House of Representatives in January 1939, this committee dealt at length with the German-American Bund. (See pp. 91-113 of that report.) The same was done in subsequent annual reports to the House.

In January 1941, the committee issued a special report of 178 pages dealing exclusively with the bund. This report is known as Appendix — Part IV. This report was introduced by the prosecution in the recent trial of bund leaders in New York, a trial which resulted in the conviction of all the defendants. In this report, based largely upon documents obtained from the personal effects of Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze, the committee found the following things:

1. That the bund was characterized by the same ruthless efficiency of the military set-up which characterized Hitler's machine in Germany.

2. That bund members were subjected to "absolute loyalty" and "blind obedience" to the bund's fuehrer.

3. That the bund demanded that its members be "fanatical fighters" for national socialism.

4. That the bund anticipated the necessity of violence in carrying out its program.

5. That the bund was characterized by extreme religious bigotry.  

6. That the bund aimed at the establishment of a new kind of government in the United States, one which should incorporate the principle of Nazi religious bigotry.

7. That the bund kept a systematic record of its enemies.

8. That the bund specified that its meetings should be closed with the following declaration: "To a free, Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a threefold rousing 'Free America! Free America! Free America!'"

9. That the bund was an absolutely secret organization.

10. That the bund looked upon all Americans of German descent as owing loyalty to the Reich.

11. And that the bund was ideologically and organizationally tied to Nazi Germany.


OUTLINE OF THE BUND's HISTORY

Tracing the organizational background of the German-American Bund briefly, we find the following stages:

(1) The first definitely Nazi group organized on American soil was formed in Chicago in October 1924. The group was known as Teutonia and its founder was Fritz Gissibl. Gissibl, who was an alien, at the time, later became a member of the National Socialist German Labor Party (the full English title of the Nazi Party in Germany). He was born in Nuremberg, Germany, and came to the United States in December 1923. A period of only 10 months elapsed between time of his arrival in this country and the time of his forming Teutonia. He made no secret of his allegiance to Adolf Hitler. Gissibl was a printer by trade and was employed on the Chicago Daily News until his Nazi activities were publicly exposed.
According to Gissibl's sworn statements, Teutonia never had more than 50 members in Chicago. In 1931, a branch of Teutonia was formed in Detroit. The Detroit branch was still smaller, having an approximate membership of 12. The leader of the Detroit branch of Teutonia was one Walter Hentschel. Hubert Schnuch succeeded Fritz Gissibl as leader of the Chicago branch of Teutonia. According to Gissibl, Teutonia was disbanded in 1932. Approximtely 1 year later, most of the members of Teutonia joined the Friends of New Germany. Peter Gissibl, Fritz's brother, and Hubert Schnuch both testified that Teutonia was the forerunner of the Friends of New Germany.

(2) Between the time of the dissolution of Teutonia and the time of the formation of the Friends of New Germany, approximately 1 year elapsed. During that interim of 1 year, locals of the National Socialist German Labor Party were organized in Chicago and Detroit. A local of the Nazi Party had previously been organized in New York City. In April 1933, on orders from Rudolf Hess, deputy leader of the Nazi Party in Germany, these American locals of the National Socialist German Labor Party were disbanded.

(3) In July 1933, the Friends of New Germany was formed in Chicago. According to Fritz Gissibl, "the left-overs of the former Nazi Party and their friends" sent delegates to Chicago for the purpose of setting up the Friends of New Germany.
The Chicago convention elected Heinz Spanknoebel as leader and Fritz Gissibl as deputy leader of the new organization. New York City was chosen as the seat of the organization's national headquarters. Spanknoebel, a photoengraver by trade, claimed that he was a clergyman at the time he entered the United States. At the public hearings of the McCormack committee (Special Committee on Un-American Activities) on June 6, 1934, a letter from Heinz Spanknoebel to Walter Kappe was introduced in evidence. This letter read, in part, as follows:

First of all, confidentially, for technical reasons my commission must continue as leader of the defense and enlightenment in the U. S. A., for which also the necessary funds have been appropriated. * * * Our office here leans closely on the consul general, and at present, I am occupied with negotiations and with furnishing the office. * * * Have full authorizations from the Supreme Party Office as well as from the Ministry for Propaganda.


This letter was dated July 6, 1933.

(4) On December 1, 1935, Fritz Kuhn became the head or fuehrer of the Friends of New Germany. In March 1936, in Buffalo, the Friends of New Germany became the German-American Bund and Fritz Kuhn was made its leader. Kuhn remained as leader until December 1939, when he was convicted of the misuse of the funds of the organization. Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze thereupon succeeded Kuhn as the bund's fuehrer.

FRITZ KUHN

Fritz Julius Kuhn was born in Munich, Germany, on May 15, 1896. According to his own testimony, he received his education in Munich, completing a university course there.

In the First World War Kuhn was a machine gunner in the infantry of the German Army. He states that he served 4-1/2 years with the German forces, and by the end of the war had attained the rank of lieutenant.

Kuhn's brother, Max, was appointed a member of the German Supreme Court by Hitler — sufficient evidence that the Kuhn family stands in well with the Nazi Fuehrer.

When Kuhn was a witness before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, he stated that he had never at any time been a member of the National Socialist Party in Germany. However, his testimony on this point was in conflict with a statement which appeared in the official publication of the Friends of New Germany, the Nazi organization which preceded the German-American Bund. In this publication, a picture of Kuhn was carried in the issue of December 30, 1935. Kuhn, who had just become the recognized national leader of the Nazi element among Germans in this country, was introduced to his Nazi followers with the following statement:

Mr. Fritz Kuhn became a member of the Nazi Party in 1921 and was active under the then Munich police commissioner, one of the first leading Nazi officials, Dr. Poehner.


Kuhn further testified before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities that he had had no part in the Munich beer hall putsch of November 9, 1923. This, too, was in direct conflict with the statement which appeared under his picture in the Friends of New Germany paper of December 30, 1935, which declared:

When on November 9, 1923, in front of the Feldherrenhalle in Munich, Bavarian police shot at the Nazis marching under the leadership of Hitler and Ludendorff, Kuhn was among the marching Nazis.


Whether Kuhn committed perjury on the foregoing questions when he was a witness before the committee, or whether the Nazi newspaper deliberately falsified his record and background, the committee is not in a position to state. One thing is certain, however, and that is that the Friends of New Germany desired very much to present itself as a bona fide Nazi organization by correctly or falsely, as the case may be, introducing its fuehrer as one of the original and devoted followers of Adolf Hitler.

Kuhn entered the United States at Laredo, Tex., on or about May 18, 1927. Prior to that date, he claims to have had a residence of about 3 years in Mexico.

After his entry into the United States, Kuhn proceeded directly to Detroit, where he obtained employment in the Henry Ford Hospital and later as a chemical engineer in the Ford Motor Co. Kuhn's employment in these Ford institutions lasted about 8 years.

In addition to scheming to overthrow the Soviet Union in league with National Socialists, Aufbau played a pivotal role in coordinating Hitler's preparations for a putsch against the Weimar Republic. Aufbau helped the National Socialist Party to build a substantial war chest for its intended coup by contributing funds from Aufbau members or allies such as Kirill as well as by channeling funds from Henry Ford, the wealthy American industrialist and politician....

Some White emigre Aufbau members possessed valuable American connections. Colonel Boris Brazol resided in New York, where he played a leading role in the Russkoe natsionalnoe obschestvo (Russian National Society). This organization supported Grand Prince Kirill Romanov's candidacy for Tsar. As we shall see, Aufbau increasingly backed Kirill for Tsar. Brazol also worked on the staff of the American industrialist and politician Henry Ford's anti-Semitic newspaper, The Dearborn Independent. In particular, Brazol provided information on the "Jewish question." Scheubner-Richter praised Brazol as "one of the leading personalities in the Russian emigre circles of America."...

The primary American connection to the German far right was most likely the anti-Semitic industrialist and politician Henry Ford.

-- The Russian Roots of Nazism: White Emigres and the Making of National Socialism, 1917-1945, by Michael Kellogg


Kuhn was naturalized in Detroit on December 3, 1934.

Prior to his naturalization, Fritz Kuhn became a member of the Friends of New Germany, the Nazi organization which was the predecessor of the German-American Bund. Kuhn was, in fact, the local unit leader of the Friends of New Germany in Detroit. It is, therefore, apparent that, wholly apart from other evidence, Kuhn's loyalty was to Nazi Germany at the very time that he took out his final citizenship papers in the United States. Almost 3 years later, Kuhn made it unequivocally clear that his American citizenship had not interfered with his loyalty to Nazi Germany. In his bund newspaper, Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, for April 22, 1937, Kuhn wrote as follows:

We may have various citizenship papers in our drawers, but we are all Germans and part of the great German nation of a hundred million people.


The German-American Bund was formally launched at a national convention held in Buffalo, N. Y., in March 1936. Kuhn testified before the Special Committee on Un-American activities that he personally called this convention together. He was made bundesfuehrer (bund leader) of the new organization. Subsequently, Kuhn became head of three subsidiary or affiliated organizations. They were the German-American Business League, the A. V. Publishing Corporation, and the A. V. Development Corporation. (The initials A. V. Stand for the German title of the bund which is Amerika-deutscher Volksbund).

In the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official bund newspaper, the visit of Kuhn and a delegation of German-American Bund storm troopers to Germany was described with obvious pride in both words and pictures. The accounts of this visit, which took place in 1936, are found in the Deutscher Weckruf and Beobachter for August 6, August 27, and September 10, 1936. When these bund storm troopers paraded in Berlin before Hitler himself, the Nazi Feuhrer stood on the balcony of the Chancellory. As Hitler stood there viewing this parade, Fritz Kuhn went to the balcony and, according to the words of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter itself, "Bund Leader Fritz Kuhn reported to him." The German text of this episode is as follows: "Auf dem Balkon der Reichskanzlei stehend, nahm Reichskanzler Hitler den Vorbeimarsch ab, Bundesfuehrer Fritz Kuhn erstattet ihm Meldung." It cannot be denied that Hitler in this manner gave the highest official recognition of the fact that the German-American Bund was a Nazi agency and that Bundesfuehrer Fritz Kuhn was a subordinate of Hitler himself. According to the report which was published in the bund's own newspaper, Hitler replied to Kuhn, "Now you go back and continue your struggle."

Fritz Kuhn permitted himself to be described as "the American Henlein" in the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter of August 31, 1939. The treasonable role of Henlein in Czechoslovakia is, of course, a matter of public record. Kuln's career as leader of the German-American Bund and the record of the bund itself fit perfectly the pattern made familiar by Quisling in Norway, Degrelle in Belgium, and Henlein in Czechoslovakia.

From March 1936, until he was sent to prison, Kuhn occupied the position of bundesfuehrer in the German-American Bund. In the organization, his word was law. In November 1939, Kuhn was convicted of misuse of the funds of the German-American Bund and was committed to prison shortly thereafter.

Fritz Kuhn was a witness before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on August 16 and 17, and October 19, 1939. The transcript of his testimony may be found on pages 3705-3889 and 6043-6124 of the committee's published hearings.

GERHARD WILHELM KUNZE

Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze was born in Camden, N. J., on January 10, 1906.

According to his testimony before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Kunze's formal education extended through high school. He also received electrical and mechanical training in various night schools.

By occupation, Kunze was a chauffeur-mechanic and electrician up until his full-time employment with the German-American Bund.

Kunze states that he joined the Friends of New Germany in September 1933 and that he was a member of the convention which founded the German-American Bund at Buffalo, N. Y., in March 1936. From the formation of the Bund until August 1937 Kunze was employed by the German-American Bund in Philadelphia. From November 1937 until April 1939 he worked with the German-American Bund in New York on a volunteer basis. From April 1939 until the entry of the United States into the war in December 1941 Kunze was employed on a salary basis by the German-American Bund.

Kunze's position with the bund prior to the imprisonment of Fritz Kuhn was that of national public relations director. After Kuhn was convicted and sent to prison, Kunze became acting national bundesfuehrer of the German-American Bund. His term of acting bundesfuehrer extended from December 5, 1939, to September 1, 1940. On the latter date, Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze became national bundesfuehrer of the German-American Bund and continued in that capacity until the entry of the United Slates into the war in December 1941.

After the United States entered the war, Kunze fled to Mexico with the alleged intention of making an escape to Germany. In July 1942 he was apprehended by the Mexican authorities, taken to the border, where he was picked up by United States authorities and flown to New York. Kunze has been convicted on several counts including espionage.


Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze was a witness before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on October 1, 1940. The transcript of his testimony may be found on pages 8251-8283 in the committee's published hearings.

PETER GISSIBL

Peter Gissibl was born in Germany on October 2, 1900. He landed in the United States on May 10, 1923, and became a naturalized citizen of this country on April 29, 1929.

In February 1925 Gissibl joined the Teutonia Society, one of the Nazi predecessors of the German-American Bund. Gissibl was also a member and an official in the Friends of New Germany (organized in May 1933 and dissolved at the time of the formation of the German-American Bund in March 1936).

Peter Gissibl was president of the German-American Business League (Deutscher Konsum Verband), an auxiliary of the German-American Bund. He was also president of the Teutonia Publishing Co., and president of the Concordia Male Chorus.


From May 1, 1937, until May 18, 1938, Peter Gissibl was local unit leader of the German-American Bund in Chicago, a position which he states that he resigned on the latter date because of disagreements with Fritz Kuhn.

Peter Gissibl's brother, Fritz, was the founder of the Teutonia Society and later the national president of the Friends of New Germany.

Peter Gissibl was a witness before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on the first day of the committee's taking testimony at public hearings, which was on August 12, 1938. The transcript of his testimony may be found on pages 47-72 and 84-86 of the committee's published hearings.

AUGUST KLAPPROTT

August Klapprott was born in Germany on September 4, 1906. He came to the United States in 1927 and was naturalized in 1934.

For 10 years after his arrival in the United States, Klapprott worked as a bricklayer. From May 1937 until January 1940 he operated a restaurant in Nordland, N. J. In January 1940 he became a full-time salaried employee of the German American Bund.

Klapprott states that he was a member of the Friends of New Germany for a period of 2 years prior to the formation of the bund. He joined the German-American Bund at the time of its formation in March 1936.

Klapprott's position in the bund was that of eastern department leader.
In the whole of the United States, the German-American Bund has three departments, the eastern, the middle western, and the western. Klapprott's territory extended from Maine to Florida and included the inland States of Vermont and West Virginia.

August Klapprott is now under indictment for conspiracy to interfere with the operation of the Selective Service Act.

Klapprott was a witness before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on October 2, 1940. The transcript of his testimony may be found on pages 8285-8307 of the committee's published hearings.

MEETING PLACES OF THE BUND

Among the meeting places of the German-American Bund, located by the committee, were the following:

California:
Los Angeles, Deutsches Haus, 634 West Fifteenth Street.
Oakland, Hermannsohn's Park, Dublin Canyon.
San Gabriel, Grape Vine Cafe.

Connecticut:
Norwalk, South Norwalk Quartette Club, 11 River Street.
Southbury, Camp General von Steuben.
Stamford, Liedertafel Halle, 45 Greyrock Place.

Illinois:
Chicago, Germania Klubhaus, 108 Germania Place.

Maryland:
Baltimore, Deutsches Haus.

Pennsylvania:
Philadelphia, Philadelphia Turnhalle, Broad Street and Columbia Avenue.

New Jersey:
East Rutherford, Old Heidelberg Restaurant, Paterson Avenue.
Fairfield, "Deutsches Eck," Route No. 6.
Hackensack, Uhland Halle, 333 Main Street.
Irvington, Emanuels Church, Ney Avenue.
Newark, Apollo Hall.
North Bergen, Schuetzenpark-Saal, Hackensack Plankroad and Hudson Boulevard.
Passaic, Turn Hall, 240 Hope Avenue.
Riverdale, Edelweiss Restaurant, Riverdale Road.
Springfeld, Immergruen Park.
Union City, German American Bund Home, 754 Palisade Avenue.

New York:
Astoria, Broadway Tavern, 30-09 Broadway.
Astoria, Long Island Turnhalle, 44-01 Broadway.
Astoria, Steubenhaus.
Bardonia, Siegmund Restaurant.
Bronx, Ebling's Casino, One Hundred and Fifty-sixth Street and St. Ann's Avenue.
Brooklyn, O. D. Home, St. Nicholas Avenue.
Brooklyn, Prospect Hall, 261 Prospect Avenue.
Brooklyn, Woodward Inn, 675 Woodward Avenue.
Buffalo, Tanglewood Park.
College Point, Long Island, Columbia Hall, Eighteenth Avenue and One Hundred and Twenty-first Street.
Four Corners, Cardinal Lunch, Route No. 59.
Franklin Square, Long Island, Plattdeutscher Volksfest Park.
Grant City, Staten Island, Privacky's Grant City Park at Midland Avenue near Hylan Avenue.
Harrison, Scholz' Farm, 35 Harrison Avenue.
Hempstead, Long Island, Polish Hall.
Hewlett, Long Island, Castle Inn, 1218 Broadway.
Jamaica, Long Island, Jamaica Saengerbund Halle, 168-15 Ninety-first Avenue.
Kitchawan, Cuno Country Club.
Lindenhurst, Long Island, Washington Hall, North Wellwood Avenue.
New Hyde Park, Long Island, Brauhof.
New Rochelle, Alps Rest, 240 Huguenot Street.
New Rochelle, Welmot Inn, Welmot Road Corner.
New Rochelle, Grabs Hall, 18 Mechanic Street.
New York City, L, Armbruster, Inc., 1409 Third Avenue.
New York City, Jaeger's Turnhall, Eighty-fifth Street and Lexington Avenue.
New York City, Yorkville Casino, 210 East Eighty-sixth Street.
Ridgewood, Long Island, New Ridgewood Hall, 1880 Menahan Street.
Rockland County, North Mountain Casino.
Schenectady, Wenzel's Park, end of Campbell Avenue.
Stapleton, Staten Island, Atlantic Kotisserie, 191 Canal Street.
Stapleton, Staten Island, Stapleton Lyceum, 730 Van Duzer Street.  
Staten Island, Alma Guenther Restaurant.
Suffern, Fesel's Pavillion.
Trov, Germania Hall.
White Plains, 101 Main Street,
White Plains, Fritz Restaurant, East Post Road.
Woodside, Long Island, Steuben House.
Yonkers, Polish Community Center.

Washington:
Seattle, Deutsches Haus.

Wisconsin:
Grafton, Camp Hindenburg.
Milwaukee, Republican Hotel, Third Street and Kilbourne Avenue.


LEADERS OF THE BUND

While it was impossible for the committee to obtain a complete list of the bund's membership because Kuhn had ordered the destruction of all membership lists, the committee has been able to identify many, if not all, of the leaders of the German American Bund. The following is a list of bund leaders from coast to coast who were publicly active in the organization's affairs:

Ach, Karl, group leader of the bund in local New York.
Adrian, Else, leader of the girls' section of the bund in local New York, and selected by the bund for training in Stuttgart, Germany.
Andling, Paul, leader of the bund in Schenectady, N. Y.
Bachman, Karl, leader of the bund in local Albany, N. Y.
Bauer, William P., leader of the bund in San Diego, Calif.
Biedl, Franz, bund treasurer in local New York.
Biele, N., head of the bund storm troopers in Philadelphia, and head of bund Camp Deutschhorst at Sellersville, Pa.
Boening, William, leader of the bund storm troopers in Astoria, Long Island, N. Y., and alternate leader of the storm troopers for the eastern district of the bund.
Bojes, Frank, leader of the bund, local Stapleton, Staten Island.
Borchers, Walter, leader of the bund, local South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Brauns, Georg, leader of the bund, local Hudson County, N. J.
Budelmann, John, local leader of the bund, Bergen County, N. J.
Claasen, Bernard, leader of the bund in Hammond, Ind.
Cyler, Leo, leader of the bund in Lindenhurst, Long Island.
Detleff, John, acting district leader of the bund in Hempstead, Long Island.
Diebel, Hans, member of the bund in Los Angeles, and head of the Aryan Book Shop in Los Angeles.
Dinkelacker, Mrs. Erna, head or the youth camps of the bund.
Dinkelacker, Theodor, youth leader of the bund.
Dittrich, Diego, leader of the bund orchestra in Seattle, Wash.
Duell, Elizabeth, member of the bund and leader of the girls' group of the bund in Newark, N. J.
Eigenberger, Frederick, leader of the bund in Sheboygan, Wis.
Faigle, Gotthief, leader of the bund in Yonkers, N. Y.
Faller, Mrs. Anna, leader of the bund girls' group in Kenosha, Wis.
Flick, Karl, leader of the storm troopers of the bund for the Brooklyn district.
Foch, Matthias, district leader of the bund in Santa Barbara, Calif.
Folger, Duncan, head of the bund in New Rochelle, N. Y.
Frischkorn, Paul, leader of the bund in Detroit, Mich.
Fritz, William Jacob, leader of the bund in Toledo, Ohio.
Froboese, George, head of the midwestern district of the bund.
Fuchs, Anton, head of the bund in Pittsburgh, Pa.
Funk, Rudolf, leader of the youth section of the bund in Astoria, Long Island, N. Y.
Gaenger, Peter, head of the propaganda section of the bund in Pittsburgh, Pa.
Gissibl, Fritz, founder of the Teutonia and national president of the Friends of New Germany, both of which organizations were predecessors of the German-American Bund.
Gissibl, Peter, head of the bund in Chicago, Ill., and president of the Deutscher Konsum Verband, a subsidiary of the German American Bund.
Gloeckler, Hedwig, district leader of the bund in Hudson County, N. J.
Goeppel, Allen, leader of the bund in Pittsburgh, Pa.
Goetz, Susie, chief of the bund's news service.
Greis, H., district leader of the bund in New Haven, Conn.
Haas, Hugo, leader of the bund in Brooklyn and active in the bund's youth section; went to Germany to work in the League of Germans Living Abroad.
Haertel, Mrs. Elli, leader of the German Language School of the bund in Staten Island, N. Y.
Hagebusch, Ereka, youth leader of the girls' section of the bund at Camp Nordland, N. J., and leader of the bund's youth section in Astoria, Long Island, N. Y.
Hartman, Alexander H., leader of the bund in Philadelphia, Pa.
Hauck, H., leader of the bund in Jamaica, Long Island, N. Y.
Hayser, Elizabeth, leader of the bund in Milwaukee, Wis.
Heimsoth, Henri, leader of the bund in Kenosha, Wis.
Hein, Gottlieb, district leader of the bund in Oakland, Calif;
Heise, Anna, leader of the women's section of the bund in Brooklyn, N. Y.
Heise, Kurt, district leader of the bund in Long Island, N. Y.
Heller, William, leader of the bund in Poughkeepsie, N. Y.
Hesse, Karl, district leader of the bund in Spokane, Wash.
Hoeflich, Hermann J., leader of the bund in Rockland County, N. Y.
Hutten, H., district leader of the bund in Staten Island, N. Y.
Kappe, Walter, recently resigned from the German Army in which he is a lieu- tenant in order to become the head of a sabotage ring for the United States, and formerly a member of the bund in New York where he was the editor of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official organ of the German- American Bund.
Kessler, Martin, district leader of the bund in Cleveland, Ohio.
Klapprott, August, leader of the bund in New Jersey.
Klapprott, Mrs. August, leader of the girl's group of the bund in New Jersey.
Koch, Tilly, leader of the youth movement of the bund in South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Koehler, Konrad, business manager of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official organ of the bund.
Kohler, Matthias, local leader of the bund in Newark, N. J.
Kuehn, E. F., leader of the bund in Petaluma, Calif.
Kuhn, Fritz, national leader (fuehrer) of the German American Bund and all of its subsidiaries.
Kullman, Paul, local leader of the bund in Wyomissing, Pa.
Kump, Fred, head of the bund in Glendale, Long Island, N. Y.
Kunze, Mrs. A., leader of the women's section of the bund in New Milford, Bergen County, N. J.
Kunze, G. Wilhelm, successor to Fritz Kuhn as national leader (fuehrer) of the bund and its subsidiaries.
Lage, Henry, head of the bund in San Francisco, Calif.
Lattemann, W., head of the bund in Schenectady, N. Y.
Lechner, H., district leader of the bund in Seattle, Wash.
Leibiger, Gustav, district leader of the storm troopers of the bund in Westchester County, N. Y., and Connecticut.
Liebler, Fred, local leader of the bund in Jamaica, Long Island, N. Y.
Liedertafel, P. Kohl, local leader of the bund in St. Louis, Mo.
Luedtke, Willy, national officer of the bund.
I.utz, John, local leader of the bund in San Diego and San Francisco, Calif.
Markmann, Rudolf, district leader of the bund for the eastern part of the United States.
Martin, Rudolph, district leader of the bund for the eastern part of the United States.
Martin, Theo, local leader of the bund in Philadelphia, Pa.
Mettin, Richard, part owner of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official organ of the bund.
Meyer, Bans, leader of the storm troopers of the bund in New York.
Meyer, Lieselotte, head of the girl's section of the blind in Lindehhurst, Long Island, N. Y.
Muehlke, Frank, treasurer of the bund in San Diego, Calif.
Mueller, Albert, leader of the bund in St. Louis, Mo.
Mueller, Ernst, head of the bund in Camp Siegfried, Yaphank, Long Island, N. Y.
Munk, George, head of the bund in Stamford. Conn.
Nadler, Elly, leader of the girl's group of the bund in White Plains, N. Y.
Nuebeck, Hans, district leader of the bund in Buffalo, N. Y.
Nicolay, Carl, propaganda leader of the bund.
Nicolay, Franz, leader of the youth section of the bund in South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Orgel, Helen, head of the women's section of the bund in Los Angeles, Calif.
Othmer, Waldemar, leader of the bund in Trenton, N. J.
Pollmann, Mrs. M., head of the women's section of the bund in Hudson County, N. J.
Purwien, H., local leader of the bund in South Bend, Ind.
Rehfeldt, Anna, national leader of the women's group of the bund.
Reese, Edward, leader of the bund in Spokane, Wash.
Reisberger, George, treasurer of the bund in the Bronx, N. Y.
Rheinberg, Ulrich, dramatic director of the bund.
Rieper, Jacob, head of the bund in White Plains, X. Y.
Risse, Arno, district leader of the bund in Los Angeles, Calif.
Rompe, Hans, local leader of the bund in Lindenhurst, Long Island, N. Y.
Ruhnke, William, leader of the bund in Dayton, Ohio.
Sahling, Werner, head of the boys' section of the bund in New York.
Schaphorst, Henry, local leader of the bund in Fort Wayne, Ind.
Schattat, Fred, local leader of the bund in Gary, Ind.
Scheurer, Hans, local leader of the bund in Portland. Oreg.
Schnoes, E., treasurer of the bund in the Bronx, N. Y.
Schrader, Frederic F., editor of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official organ of the bund.
Schreiber, John H., local leader of the bund in Detroit, Mich., and Toledo, Ohio.
Schrick, Michael, head of the storm troopers of the bund in New York.
Schuster, Josef, district leader of the bund in New York.
Schwarzmann, H., district leader of the storm troopers of the bund for the eastern part of the United States.
Schwinn, Hermann, district leader of the bund in Los Angeles, Calif.
Seegers, Henry, leader of the bund in West Reading, Pa.
Seidel, Erich, organizer of the bund in Glendale, Long Island, N. Y.
Stoll, Paul, local leader of the bund in Seattle, Wash.
Sturn, Erna, leader of the women's group of the bund in Astoria, Long Island, N. Y.
Toener, Rudolf, district leader of the bund in Los Angeles, Calif.
Ullrich, Reinhart, head of the bund in Pittsburgh, Pa.
Vandenberg, Frederick, youth leader of the bund in Camp Siegfried, Yaphank, Long Island, N. Y.
Van den Bergh, Bertha, head of the women's section of the bund in South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Vanderbergh, Frank, local leader of the bund in Brooklyn, N. Y.
Voch, Matthias, leader of the bund in Santa Barbara, Calif.
Von Holt, Henry, local leader of the bund in the Bronx, N. Y.
Von Nasse, Eberhard, founder of the youth section of the bund.
Wagner, Carl, leader of the bund in Passaic County, N. J.
Wagner, Henry, acting head of the bund in Brooklyn, N. Y.
Wax, M., local leader of the bund in Cleveland, Ohio, and Cincinnati, Ohio.
Wegener, Otto, head of the National News Service of the bund.
Weider, Ernest, youth leader of the bund in South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Weiler, Karl, district leader of the bund in Nassau County, N. Y.
Weis, August, treasurer of the bund's Camp Siegfried.
Wheeler-Hill, James, district leader of the bund in New York.
Wieda, A., treasurer of the bund in South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Willmovski, Albert, leader of the bund in South Bend, Ind.
Willumeit, Otto, head of the bund in Chicago, Ill. Winterscheidt, Clara, leader of the women's section of the bund in New York.
Wolter, A. H., secretary of the bund in Pittsburgh, Pa.
Wuest, Karl, group leader of the storm troopers of the bund in New York.
Zimmer, Albert, leader of the bund in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Zimmerman, Hans, head of propaganda section of the bund in New York.


There were various subsidiary organizations directly affiliated, or otherwise connected, with the German-American Bund. Among them were —

GERMAN-AMERICAN BUSINESS LEAGUE
(Deutscher Konsum Verband)


The German-American Business League was a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was head of both organizations. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.)
 
The committee has a complete membership list of the German-American Business League for New York and New Jersey.

A. V. DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION

The A. V. Development Corporation was also a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was president of the A. V. Development Corporation. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.)

A. V. PUBLISHING CORPORATION

The A. V. Publishing Corporation was a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was president of the corporation. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.)

The A. V. Publishing Corporation published the bund's New York newspaper, the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter.

PROSPECTIVE CITIZENS' LEAGUE

The Prospective Citizens' League was an auxiliary of the German-American Bund. (See p. 3755 of the committee's hearings.)

The ostensible purpose of the Prospective Citizens' League was to provide a method whereby those who had not yet taken out their final citizenship papers could nevertheless be actively associated with the German-American Bund.

GERMAN-AMERICAN SETTLEMENT LEAGUE

The German-American Settlement League was the holding corporation for the German-American Bund's camp at Yaphank, Long Island. This camp was known as Camp Siegfried.

Fritz Kuhn was one of the directors of the German-American Settlement League. (See p. 3758 of the committee's hearings.)

GERMAN-AMERICAN BUND AUXILIARY

The German-American Bund Auxiliary was the holding corporation for the bund's camp in New Jersey, Camp Nordland. (See p. 3759 and p. 8265 of the committee's hearings.)  

August Klapprott, eastern leader of the bund, was president of the German-American Bund Auxiliary.
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FRIENDS OF NEW GERMANY

The Friends of New Germany (Bund der Freunde des Neuen Deutschland) was the immediate forerunner of the German-American Bund.

The Special Committee on Un-American Activities which was headed by the Honorable John McCormack made a complete investigation and exposure of the Friends of New Germany from its beginning down to 1934. This committee took up the investigation where the McCormack left off.

In March 1936 the Friends of New Germany became the German-American Bund. The change from the one to the other was effected at a convention held in Buffalo, N. Y.

NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN LABOR PARTY

In 1932 and 1933, locals of the National Socialist German Labor Party were organized in a number of American cities — New York, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Cincinnati.

In April 1933, Rudolf Hess, Deputy Fuehrer of the Nazi Party in Germany, ordered the dissolution of these Nazi locals in the United States.

Many of those who had been prominent in the formation of these Nazi locals in the United States met in Chicago in the summer of 1933 and formed the Friends of New Germany which in turn became the German-American Bund.

After Rudolf Hess dissolved the Nazi locals in America in 1933, it was believed by many that the Nazi Party, as such had disappeared from American soil. This belief was held for a number of years until 1940 when this committee uncovered documentary evidence of the existence of a well-organized and secret Nazi Party in the United States.

In November 1940 the committee published extensive evidence of the existence of this secret Nazi Party in America. (That evidence may be found on pp. 1034-1044 and 1262-1287 of appendix, pt. II, which is entitled "A Preliminary Digest and Report on the Un-American Activities of Various Nazi Organizations * * *'', etc.)

The committee discovered that F. Draeger who was consul in New York also bore the title of district leader (Kreisleiter) of the Foreign Organization of the National Socialist German Labor Party (Nazi).

GERMAN BUND

The distinction between the German Bund and the German-American Bund must be kept clearly in mind. The former was an organization of German nationals working exclusively in Chicago and vicinity. Inasmuch as the German Bund was composed exclusively of German nationals, there is no question about the organization's undivided loyalty to Hitler.

THE COMMITTEE'S INVESTIGATION

On the very first day of its public hearings in August 1938, this committee heard a witness who had been a member of the German Bund. On October 20, 1939, the same witness appeared once more before the committee to testify concerning the nature and activities of the German Bund. Also on October 20, 1939, the committee took the testimony of Fritz Heberling who had been the leader of the German Bund.

FRITZ HEBERLING

Fritz Heberling, leader of the German Bund, was born in Strasbourg (then a part of Germany), on May 29, 1903. He took up residence in the United States in 1930. At the time of his appearance before this committee, he was employed as a clerk in the German consulate in Chicago.

HISTORY OF THE GERMAN BUND

According to both of the witnesses who testified before the committee on the affairs of the German Bund, the organization was composed originally of those German nationals who withdrew of the Friends New Germany on orders from Rudolph Hess sometime in 1935. The membership of the German Bund appears to have been in the neighborhood of 300, made up chiefly of skilled workmen of German nationality who were residing in Chicago and vicinity.

The German Bund was dissolved in 1937 by order of the German consul in Chicago. According to Heberling, the consul deemed it inadvisable for the organization to continue in view of unfavorable publicity which it had received as a result of its appearance in public in the uniforms of storm troopers.

Immediately after the dissolution of the German Bund, however, a new organization composed of the same individuals was set up. This new organization was known as the German Citizens' League. Heberling translated the name of the new organization as the Alliance of German Nationals. Heberling was fuehrer or leader of the new organization as well as of the old German Bund.


PURPOSES OF THE GERMAN BUND

According to testimony received by the committee, the German Bund numbered among its purposes the planting of informers within other German and German-American organizations in Chicago and vicinity. In this manner the organization was able to report activities and trends among German nationals and Americans of German descent generally to the Nazis in Germany.

The German Bund also held joint affairs and meetings with other German organizations, including the German-American Bund.


GERMAN CITIZENS' LEAGUE

The German Citizens' League became the successor of the German Bund when the latter organization was dissolved in 1937.

On October 20, 1939, this committee heard the testimony of Fritz Heberling who was at that time the fuehrer or leader of the German Citizens' League.

Other officers of the German Citizens' League were Hugo Bamberg, treasurer, and Hendley Schickenger, secretary.

Inasmuch as the German Citizens' League was composed exclusively of German nationals, there is no question concerning the organization's absolute loyalty to nazi-ism.

KYFFHAUSERBUND

Since 1938 this committee has had under investigation an organization known as the Kyffhauserbund (League of German War Veterans). The Kyffhauserbund was organized under that name in August 1937, and incorporated in the State of Pennsylvania with headquarters in Philadelphia. It had posts in the following cities:

New York, N. Y.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Berlin, N. J.
Manhattan, N. Y.
Boston, Mass.
Scharnhorst, Chicago, Ill.
Erie, Pa.
Detroit, Mich.
Rochester, N. Y.
Houston, Tex.
Hartford, Conn.


NATIONAL OFFICERS OF THE KYFFHAUSERBUND

Karl Schumacher, national commander.
Emil Bruackner, national vice-commander.
Walter Kaeusler, national adjutant.
Karl Schultes, national treasurer.


THE COMMITTEE'S INVESTIGATION

In 1940 committee investigators made a thorough investigation into the activities of this organization in the State of Texas. All officers of the Kyffhauserbund in the State were subpenaed before the committee and gave testimony in executive session. The committee also subpenaed the records of the organization for that State and from an examination of the records and review of the testimony of the organization's various officers, it is apparent that the Kyffhauser bund was another example of a legitimate organization being prostituted by the Nazi cause of Hitler.

HISTORY OF THE KYFFHAUSERBUND

Prior to the formation of the Kyffhauserbund in 1937, there were in operation in the United States several German organizations made up of German World War veterans. Most notable of these were the Stahlhelm (steel helmet) and the Kriegerbund, both of which had their headquarters in Germany. The Stahlhelm was founded November 13, 1918, by Franz Seldte, a factory owner in Magdeburg, Germany, who remained the head of the Stahlhelm until its absorption by the Nazi Party in the early summer of 1933. The purpose of the Stahlhelm was both social and political. Its political activities aimed at fighting against the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Branches of the Stahlhelm were set up in this country and were later merged into the Kyffhauserbund. Following the formation of the latter organization in 1937, the committee has evidence that units of the Kriegerbund have also affiliated with the Kyffhauserbund.

It is now quite clear that what Nazi Germany did was to consolidate all German veterans' organizations into the Kyffhauserbund, and thus made use of it as an arm of the Nazi espionage and propaganda machine in North America.


AIMS OF THE ORGANIZATION

The committee has in its possession an original membership book of the Kyffhauserbund, dated February 1, 1939. The title of page 4 of this book, which is printed in German, will furnish an insight into the true nature of the organization. It reads as follows:

Recommendation of Organization Leader as to Members ability of being trusted with confidential work.


The aims and purposes of the Kyffhauserbund in North America are set forth on page 10 of the membership book as follows:

Aims and Purposes of the Kyffhauserbund in North America

Promote fellowship. Induce our members to become Good American-Citizens, and hold in honor our German name.

Promote and practice German Language and Culture. Work for a better understanding and good will between our homeland and the United States.

Promote Good fellowship, and work for the social welfare of our members and their families.

Promote rifle and pistol practice.


KYFFHAUSERBUND IN TEXAS

In an effort to determine whether or not the members of this organization were pro-Nazi and working in the interest of Hitler, the committee ordered a detailed investigation of the Houston, Tex., post and all of its members. This investigation showed that the fuehrer of the Houston post was one Herman Koetter of 537 Hofman Street, Houston, Tex., a German citizen who had resided in this country 17 years without becoming a citizen, and when questioned under oath by the committee's chairman he stated that he had never made up his mind as to whether or not he wanted to become an American citizen. The committee learned that Koetter had met and conferred with the captain and crew of a number of German ships when they docked in the port of Houston. Koetter is now interned in an alien concentration camp in Texas.

Another member of the Houston post of the Kyffhauserbund was Hans Ackermann, of Taylor, Tex., publisher of the pro-Nazi German language newspaper, the Texas Herold, which was exposed by this committee in 1940. A subcommittee of this committee spent 3 weeks in Austin, Tex., studying the records and files of Hans Ackermann and his newspaper, the Texas Herold. Also a number of witnesses, including Hans Ackermann and his wife, Frieda, were called to testify concerning their activities. This hearing and investigation by the subcommittee revealed that Hans Ackermann and his wife, Frieda, were given a free trip to Germany in 1939 at the expense of the Nazi government. They admitted under oath that they had met and conferred with Rudolph Hess at the Brown House in Munich and that during their stay in Germany they had sent back pro-Nazi articles and editorials concerning their visit which were printed in the Texas Herold. While they were in Germany, war broke out and it was necessary for them to go to Italy and return to the United States on the Italian steamship Rex. An examination of the issue of the Texas Herold clearly showed that it was simply a propaganda sheet for Nazi Germany, being used in an effort to influence the German population which is concentrated in and about Taylor, Tex. The personal files of Hans Ackermann contained numerous letters and communications from Wendler, former German Consul General in New Orleans, and his successor, the notorious Baron Von Spiegel. Both Wendler and Von Spiegel had made trips from New Orleans to Taylor, Tex., some 700 miles to confer with Ackermann from time to time. From the evidence before the subcommittee is was clear that Ackermann was pro-Nazi and working in the interest of Hitler's Germany.
On September 28, 1942, Hans Ackermann went on trial in Austin, Tex., before Federal Judge W. A. Keeling, where the Federal Government seeks to revoke his United States citizenship. The Government charges Ackermann with remaining loyal to Germany and with "doing all in his power to aid the German Reich in its causes."

While there were only 25 members of the Kyffhauserbund in Texas, the books and records of the organization show that it was a very active group constantly engaged in collecting money for German winter relief and other campaigns in behalf of Germany. It was brought out in the testimony of Herman Nester, secretary and treasurer of the Houston Post of the Kyffhauserbund, tha t on a number of occasions the Kyffhauserbund entertained the captain and crew of German boats which docked at Houston, Tex., and at these affairs a Nazi swastika was displayed and the meeting was opened by singing the Horst Wessel. Nester further admitted that on some occasions literature was given them by the captain of the boat. The committee also learned that several times Wendler, Consul General at New Orleans, had come to Houston, some 500 miles distance, to meet with the Kyffhauserbund. In order to determine the true nature of the organization, there is quoted here the testimony of Herman Nester, secretary and treasurer of the bund, which appears on pages 1102-1104 of the committee's hearings in executive session:

Mr. Stripling. At any meetings of the Kyffhauserbund, social or otherwise was the swastika ever displayed?

Mr. Nester. Yes.

Mr. Stripling. Is it always displayed?

Mr. Nester. No, sir.

Mr. Stripling. When was it displayed?

Mr. Nester. It was displayed twice.

Mr. Stripling. Whenever German ships came in?

Mr. Nester. Yes.

Mr. Stripling. At any other times?

Mr. Nester., There may have been other times. I believe it was when this Nazi movement came about in Germany; it may have been displayed a few times, but later on we didn't do it any more.

Mr. Stripling. Have you ever sung the Horst Wessel?

Mr. Nester. Yes; we have.

Mr. Stripling. You sing it at every meeting?

Mr. Nester. No. We sang it possibly when some of the boys from the boat was here.

Mr. Stripling. You said you received from the German ships Literature and pamphlets?

Mr. Nester. Yes.

*******

Mr. Stripling. How about Dr. Wendler?

Mr. Nester. Dr. Wendler, I know him personally, and I think he was once or twice at one of our meetings.

*******

The Chairman. Didn't you feel from your long contact with the organization that it was very much pro-Nazi; that is, the national organization; didn't it have that appearance to you?

Mr. Nester. I believe they was to a certain extent. I wouldn't say exactly pro-Nazi; they are for the new Germany more or less.

The Chairman. When you say pro-new Germany, you mean pro-Nazi Germany?

Mr. Nester. About the same; yes.

* * * * * * *

Mr. Stripling. Do you know Hans Ackermann?

Mr. Nester. Yes; I do.

Mr. Stripling. Did you ever read his paper, the Texas Herold?

Mr. Nester. I do.

Mr. Stripling. You subscribe to it?

Mr. Nester. Yes.

Mr. Stripling. Do you think his paper is pro-Hitler?

Mr. Nester. I think it is. I think he is trying to bring out the other side, the German side of the picture.

The Chairman. Do you see the possibility of an organization such as yours being used for espionage purposes, even though many of its members would have no such intention or no such purpose. In other words, to make myself clear, there will be an organization that is modeled very much along the lines of a legal and legitimate organization, and assuming that a great many of the members were only actuated by a perfectly legal and legitimate design to belong to it can you not see the danger that an agent of the foreign government could utilize that organization, or attend meetings of the organization for the purpose of gathering important information to transmit to his government?

Mr. Nester. I would think there could be such a possibility, without a majority of the members knowing it.


From the foregoing testimony, it can be seen that this organization was in such close contact with the agents of Hitler that it could very easily have been one of the espionage units of the German Government. Listed below are the 10 most active members of the Houston post of the Kyffhauserbund:

Herman Koetter, 537 Hofman Street.
John Ritzen, 207 Henley.
Herman Nester, 14 Hyde Park.
Henry Becker, 1903 South Shepherd.
George Von Der Goltz, Route 7, Box 747.
Ernst Haardt, Post Office Box 1164.
Fr. P. Friedrich, T. 5, Box 538.
Richard Knorr, Needville, Texas.
Hans Ackermann, Box 191, Taylor, Texas.
Helmuth Von Bose, Box 245, Rosenberg, Texas.


The most recent campaign of the Kyffhauserbund was the collection of money to be sent to Germany for the ostensible purpose of providing relief for German soldiers. In order to do this it was necessary that they register with the State Department, which they did on November 27, 1939. This committee's investigators made a check of all of their financial transactions and it was determined that they collected $140,567.43, of which amount they have distributed $103,024.06 for relief to German soldiers in Germany and interned German prisoners of war in the British Empire. The majority of these funds, however, were sent to Germany. Beside the $140,567.43 collected they also collected $26,004.23 in kind, which was distributed in a similar manner. On February 1, 1942, the State Department canceled their registration and they have not been officially permitted to continue in furnishing Nazi Germany with money. At the present time there is an unexpended balance of $17,000 in their account.

As an indication of the sympathetic response given this undertaking of the Kyffhauserbund, the committee found, when it subpenaed the records of the Chicago "Fuehrer" of the Kyffhauserbund, one Nicholas Mueller, that he had in his possession a list of 2,834 individuals residing in Chicago, who had contributed money to the Kyffhauserbund's campaign in behalf of German soldiers. The list of these people is on file with the committee.

GERMAN-AMERICAN NATIONAL ALLIANCE

The committee, in conducting its investigation of the German-American National Alliance (Einheitsfront — translation: United Front), took testimony in executive session from the following officers of the organization: William H. Silge, head of the organization committee; Homer H. Maertz, one of the original directors of the Alliance and its first secretary; Otto Albert Willumeit, leader of the German-American Bund in Chicago; and Ernst A. Ten Eicken, also one of the original directors of the organization.

On November 18, 1940, the committee subpenaed all of the files and records of the German-American National Alliance from their headquarters in Chicago. These records were all in German and included the membership files, the list of delegates, minutes, financial records, and correspondence of the organization. They have all been translated and from an examination of these records and a review of the testimony of the officials of the organization the following facts have been determined:

The first regular meeting of the German-American National Alliance, Inc., also known as the Einheitsfront was held at 1301 Cornelia Avenue, Chicago, 111., on October 30, 1938. The following persons were elected as directors of the organization:

Homer H. Maertz.
Ernst A. Ten Eicken.
George Joesten.
Paul Warnholtz.
Otto Schwarck.


The directors then proceeded to adopt the bylaws [and constitution which appear in this section as exhibit 1. Following this action, the officers named below were elected:

President: Ernst A. Ten Eicken.
Vice president: Otto Schwarck.
Treasurer: George Joesten.
Secretary: Homer H. Maertz.


The main strength of the organization was in and about Chicago, reaching into Indiana and Wisconsin. In 1940, there were 524 delegates to the alliance representing 17 States. A tabulation of the number of delegates from each State is included in this section as exhibit 2. The membership of the alliance was about 18,000.

The official publication of the organization was the "News Letter," with a circulation of approximately 52,000.

The principal source of its income was from contributions, membership fees, and the sale of radio advertisements.

On October 23, 1939, the leaders of the German-American National Alliance set up an association known as the "National Federation of American Citizens of German Descent," and Ten Eicken, one of the directors of the alliance, reported to the delegates of the alliance that there "were now several thousand more than 2,000,000 persons behind us." Paul Warnholtz, one of the directors of the alliance, was president of the National Federation of American Citizens of German Descent.

The "Objectives and Aims" of the alliance are set forth in its constitution as follows:

1. To promote respect for the Constitution and to defend it, the laws, and the general welfare of the United States of America:

2. To oppose the formation by the United States of America of entangling alliances with foreign nations.

3. To assure to United States citizens of Germanic blood the enjoyment of the rights and liberties guaranteed to citizens by the Constitution.


In determining the true aims and purposes of the German-American National Alliance, the committee feels that at the outset of this report it is pertinent to consider the background and views of one of the original directors and first secretary of the alliance, Homer H. Maerz (Maertz).

This committee has had Homer Maerz before it as a witness on two occasions. He was first heard in executive session in Chicago, Ill., on October 2, 1939. He was later heard in Washington, D. C., on January 19, 1942, also in executive session. It might be stated at this point that Maerz and his activities during the intervening time between his first and last appearance were under surveillance by the committee.

From Maerz's own testimony, it can be stated that he is pro-Nazi, and anti-Semitic and has engaged in various forms of un-Americanism. His full name is Herman Homer Gustus Maerz, and his address as last given was 1160 North Dearborn, Chicago, Ill. On December 29, 1939, he was sentenced to serve a term of one to ten years in the Illinois State Penitentiary for malicious mischief growing out of his anti-Semitic activities.

Homer Maerz was the founder and head of the Dearborn Crusaders, a letterhead organization which engaged in anti-Semitic activity. Maerz has been responsible for the distribution of hundreds of thousands of stickers, leaflets, and booklets defaming the Jewish people.

In his book, I Knew Hitler, published here in 1938, the Nazi agent Kurt K.W. Luedecke tells of his first trip to America in 1924 for the purpose of obtaining funds from Henry Ford. He insists that he was sent on direct orders from Hitler. Luedecke got along well with Ford's editor. He writes:

"During my visit to America I found time for several talks with the editor of the Dearborn Independent. That publication has now embarked on an anti-Jewish campaign, with William J. Cameron writing most of its articles. ... Cameron, a capable journalist who successfully phrases Henry Ford's inarticulate racial uneasiness, was receptive when I went to see him. He appeared eager for outside assistance."


-- Facts and Fascism, by George Seldes, assisted by Helen Seldes


According to his own testimony, he has been in contact with and cooperated with most of the active fascists in the United States, such as William Dudley Pelley and George Deatherage. Maerz is quite frank about his rabid hatred for the Jews and he is equally frank concerning his pro-Nazi sympathies and admiration for Hitler and Mussolini. He also admitted that he approved of the German-American Bund, that he had spoken at their meetings, and attended them regularly. He also admitted frequent visits to the German and Italian consulates in Chicago.

To substantiate the above statements, the committee quotes below excerpts from the testimony of Homer Maerz, taken in Chicago, Ill., on October 2, 1939:

(Executive Hearings, vol. 4, p. 1660)

The Chairman. Are you sympathetic with nazi-ism?

Mr. Maerz. Well, in what respect?

The Chairman. I mean, do you admire Hitler and his achievements?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; I think he is doing a fine job in Germany.

The Chairman. You approve of his attitude toward the German people?

Mr. Maerz. Yes, sir.

The Chairman. What is it that you are seeking to do in the United States?

Mr. Maerz. What I am interested in in the United States is to place Christians at the head of our Government, our business, our education, our churches, our general economic structure.

The Chairman. Put them in complete control?

Mr. Maerz. Yes, sir.

(Executive Hearings, vol. 4, p. 1661)

The Chairman. Do you attend bund meetings?

Mr. Maerz. Yes. sir; I have been there.

The Chairman. Many times?

Mr. Maerz. Yes.

The Chairman. Do you speak at bund meetings?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; I have.

The Chairman. Do you approve of the bund?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; I approve of the bund, although I will admit that they made several mistakes.

(Executive Hearings, vol. 4, pp. 1663-1664)

The Chairman. Do you ever talk to the German consulate here? Do you know any of the German consulate?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; I do.

The Chairman. A pretty good friend of theirs?

Mr. Maerz. I know them well; yes.

The Chairman. You meet with them and you all talk about this subject?

Mr. Maerz. No, sir.

The Chairman. You never talked to them about your movement?

Mr. Maerz. In what respect?

The Chairman. What do you talk about when you meet with them?

Mr. Maerz. Well, various and sundry subjects. Usually I have had occasion to go up there.

The Chairman. You talk about Jews, don't you?

Mr. Maerz. I don't like the Jews; that is true.

The Chairman. I say, you and the counsel talk about the Jews, don't you?

Mr. Maerz. I wouldn't say.

The Chairman. How is that?

Mr. Maerz. I wouldn't say that.

The Chairman. What is it you talk about. Don't you talk about your movement, the crusade movement?

Mr. Maerz. Well, more or less. I talk about the lack of understanding that exists in this country today.

The Chairman. Toward Germany?

Mr. Maerz. That's right, toward Germany.

(Executive Hearings, vol. 4, pp. 1664-1665)

Mr. Maerz. Well, I like to read books, magazines, newspapers.

The Chairman. What is the name of the consul that you talk to?

Mr. Maerz. The consul general in Chicago is Dr. Vaer.

The Chairman. And you have talked to him, haven't you?

Mr. Maerz. Yes, sir.

The Chairman. How many times have you talked to him?

Mr. Maerz. I haven't seen him for quite some time.

The Chairman. When was the last time you saw him?

Mr. Maerz. Oh, it must be — Oh, gosh, it must be 2 or 3 months ago that I seen him the last time.

The Chairman. Did you ever talk to the Italian consulate?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; I have.

The Chairman. You talked to them about the same thing?

Mr. Maerz. No; I talked to them about the vicious propaganda that appeared in such publications as Ken. That is quite some time ago, however.

The Chairman. So that there is a sympathetic feeling between the consul, the Italian consul, the German consul and the bund and your groups, a sympathetic feeling between them all?

Mr. Maerz. Well, it all depends on what way one terms that.

The Chairman. You sympathize with Italy and Germany don't you?

Mr. Maerz. Yes. I think they are doing fine jobs.

(Executive hearings, vol. 4, pp. 1669-1670)

The Chairman. What about Deatherage; are you very friendly with Deatherage?

Mr. Maerz. Deatherage is doing a fine job.

The Chairman. Pelley is doing a fine job?

Mr. Maerz. Excellent.

The Chairman. Coughlin is doing a fine job?

Mr. Maerz. Yes.

The Chairman. Hitler is doing a fine job?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; in Germany.

The Chairman. Mussolini is doing a fine job?

Mr. Maerz. In Italy; yes.


Since Maerz was one of the founders of the German-American National Alliance, it is inconceivable that a man with his past record and views could found an organization which purported to "promote respect for the Constitution and to defend it, the laws, and the general welfare of the United States of America," as set forth in the objects of the alliance's constitution and which Maerz was instrumental in drawing up. It should be stated as this point, however, that on February 11, 1939, Maerz was removed as a director and secretary of the German-American National Alliance by action of the directors on the grounds that too many inquiries had been made concerning Maerz's background and past history.

From an examination of the confidential minutes of the alliance, it is apparent that the primary objective of the organization was to prevent America's participation in the war, which of course was exactly the line that Nazi Germany was attempting to put across in the United States of America during the period of 1939-41. The secondary objective was to promote and preserve what the organization referred to as "Germanism," and to combat anti-German propaganda in this country. It will be shown further in the report that the alliance enthusiastically supported the work of various antiwar and isolationist groups, such as the America First and Keep America Out of War Committee.


The purpose of the alliance was to unite the entire German-American segment of our population into a political bloc and pressure group which would exert itself politically in domestic politics to the best interest of Nazi Germany. It was composed entirely of people of German descent who naturally would entertain some sympathy one way or another with their German homeland. The fact that the alliance was not very successful in its endeavor is largely due to the consistent barrage of publicity and exposure which was leveled against it by this committee and the press in Chicago.

In detailing the efforts of the alliance in its neutrality and antiwar campaign, the minutes of the board of directors meetings will be referred to extensively. As an illustration of the manner in which the alliance was serving Germany, the committee includes as exhibit 3 a, letter from the president of the alliance to Senator Logan of Kentucky under date of March 6, 1939, and quotes also from a letter of Paul A. Warnholtz of September 1939:

Permit us to state that we are aiming to pledge all of our members and members of all organizations which are or may become affiliated with us, to assist in preventing by lawful means any person from ever again holding a public office, who votes for the enactment of Legislation or termination of existing laws, as a result whereof the sale of arms, munitions and implements of war would be permitted in the matter of the present European conflict.


To emphasize the close adherence of the alliance to this antiwar and neutrality line which was at that time most favorable to Germany, the committee quotes from the minutes of the board of directors meeting held on August 29, 1939:

Mr. Ten Eicken reported that we will have Captain Grace as speaker but that another letter must still be written. The subject is "Keep U. S. A. out of War."


The complete minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 4.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of September 5, 1939, the following is quoted:

Twenty-five dollars was authorized to purchase auto stickers, "Keep U. S. A. Out of War."


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 5.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of October 30, 1939, the following is quoted:

Mr. Warnholtz stated that we must still take a final step in the question of the embargo. He proposed that we send a telegram to every Congressman, which however would cost more than $200. There was a long debate over the text; it was considered to be very sharp, but Mr. Warnholtz gave the assurance that even though it was sharp no one could find fault with it. The motion to send the telegram was made and accepted. The telegram was immediately dispatched and cost $231.23.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 6.

From the minutes of the delegates' meeting of November 29, 1939, held in Lincoln Turnerhalle, the following is quoted:

The next task is "to keep America out of war", and that we take our part in the coming election.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 7.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of July 3, 1940, the following is quoted:

Mr. Schwarck pointed out that it was important that we widely advertise the anti-war meeting which will be held at Soldier's Field on August 4. It is essential that the meeting be broadcast. Reference thereto should also be made in the News Letter.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 8.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of July 23, 1940, the following is quoted:

Mr. Johnk was commissioned to broadcast the great anti-war meeting at Soldier's Field on August 4.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 9.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of September 4, 1940, the following is quoted:

We are only against war and we are fighting to keep this country out of it.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 10.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of September 25, 1940, the following is quoted:

The America First Society plans to hold a mass meeting and we should remain in close contact with it. Mr. Schwarck stated that he always attended these meetings.

A long debate ensued concerning the relative merits of Roosevelt and Willkie. It is very difficult for Germans to vote for either, but perhaps one is obliged to decide that we must oppose a third term and that Willkie is perhaps the lesser evil.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 11.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of September 30, 1940, the following is quoted:

The presidential election will be the most difficult, but we have adopted a resolution committing ourselves to vote against any candidate who advises lifting the embargo.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 12.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of November 7, 1940, the following is quoted:

Mr. Schwarck pointed out that it is absolutely necessary to assist the American First Committee, since this Committee does not appear to be able to get under way properly.

The present aim of our Organization "to keep America out of war" is very important and then we will work to strengthen ourselves for the next election.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 13.

While the constitution of the German-American National Alliance does not list the promotion of Germanism as one of its objectives, it is apparent from a study of the organization's records that it was in fact one of the main purposes and functions of the Alliance. To substantiate this point, the committee refers to the minutes of the board of directors meeting of August 14, 1939, in which the following is recorded:

The battle against anti-German films must be intensified since these films are directed against Germanism in the United States.

Various organizations have joined the Alliance.

A letter from Montgomery Ward was read in which it was stated that they have not boycotted German goods but on the contrary are constantly importing goods from Germany.


It can be seen from the foregoing reference to the letter from Montgomery Ward that the alliance had concerned itself with the boycott of goods from Germany which could hardly be considered an American activity —

* * * promoting the general welfare of the United States of America —


as stated in the objectives of the constitution of the alliance. The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 14.

The committee also refers to the minutes of the delegates' meeting on October 23, 1939, at the Lincoln Turnerhalle, where the following is found:

A delegate then submitted a report concerning the Germans of the Volga who were not yet convinced that it was necessary to associate themselves with Germanism. Dr. Silge agreed to establish contact with these organizations.

There was a long discussion on how difficult it was for many members to pay the $1.00 membership dues, but in most cases it is not a question of funds but one of recognition of one's Obligation to Germanism.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit No. 15.

The committee also refers to the minutes of the board of directors' meeting on May 7, 1940, where the following is recorded:

More German should be spoken at the meetings.


The entire minutes of the meeting are included in this section as exhibit 16.

The committee attaches importance to the remarks of Paul Warnholtz, one of the directors of the alliance, as recorded in the minutes of the meeting of directors with individual sections held at the German Club, August 26, 1940, in which the following is recorded:

Mr. Warnholtz stated that he did not favor an investigation by the Dies Committee, that the whole thing is a newspaper campaign which we can only oppose with great difficulty. There are many telephone calls against which we are powerless and all we can do is hang on. The newspapers themselves do not consider us un-American. They only write continually that we are pro-Nazi, which is a somewhat vaguer term. This is not even a reflection upon us since quite naturally our sympathies are with the old country. We are now trying to arrange connections with the Bund.


While the committee has no evidence of open cooperation between the German-American Bund and the alliance, the foregoing statement of Warnholtz is significant in view of the fact that two of the original brains behind the idea and organization of the alliance were Otto Willumeit, Chicago "fuehrer" of the bund, and Homer Maerz, a supporter of the bund.
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