Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

This is a broad, catch-all category of works that fit best here and not elsewhere. If you haven't found it someplace else, you might want to look here.

Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Sat Sep 21, 2019 10:04 am

German American Bund
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/21/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Quotes from "Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives

The three documents which are presented in this report speak for themselves…..

They attest the ruthless efficiency of the military set-up which characterizes Hitler's machine in Germany….

The discipline to which members of the German-American Bund are subject is clearly reflected in the endless rules and regulations which extend to the minute details of the Bund members' lives. The documents speak of "absolute loyalty" and "blind obedience."…

The German-American Bund organization clearly anticipates violence by its assertion that "the OD man gives assurance that our movement will, at the sacrifice of life if necessary, remain the inexorable opponents of Jewish Marxism….

According to Document #3, "anyone who is not filled with this unshakable faith and courage and cannot march along as a fanatical fighter does not belong in the OD; to have embraced the National Socialist view of things means definitively breaking off all ties with liberal halfway measures" (p. 1611). This is a clear espousal of the totalitarian, as opposed to the democratic, way of life….

The following quotations indicate something of the religious bigotry of the Germany-American Bund: "All OD men and OD Leaders in particular are required to procure a certificate of Aryan blood" (p. 1610). "We are looking for men who enter our organization not in order to procure personal advantages or to be allowed to play soldier pleasantly, but who intend with their whole power to eradicate the red Jewish pestilence in America"…

the defensive and offensive movement of the national consciousness of American Germanism dedicated philosophically (Weltanschaulich), national-socialistically, and politically to the service of an actually independent, aryan-governed United States of North America"…

Document #1 reveals the keeping of systematic records on "enemies" of the German-American Bund….Hitler explained to Rauschning his system of keeping just such a card file on "friends" and "enemies."….

Document #1 specifies the manner in which a meeting of the Bund shall be closed, as follows: "To a free. Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a three-fold rousing 'Free America! Free America! Free America!"….

These Nazi activities in the United States are traceable to and linked with Government-controlled agencies in Nazi Germany…

the official newspaper of the German-American Bund has had advance information on what was about to transpire in Germany and gave every evidence of intimate knowledge of events to come….

all of the Nazi activities here are on lines identical with those used abroad….

the German-American Bund can muster within its own ranks a uniformed force of 5,000 storm troops and it was testified that in time of necessity this force could be augmented with "strong-arm" detachments of allied groups, such as Italian Black Shirts, Silver Shirts, Ukrainians, White Russians, and similar organizations…

this storm-troop division of the Bund is patterned after the Hitler storm troops and its members are the political soldiers of a Hitler-inspired movement in the United States….

from the manpower of this force the Bund, working hand in hand with the German Government, can draft men for a sabotage, machine and spy net….

members of that organization in all parts of the United States have privately admitted that they are not American citizens but are German citizens and in many cases have boasted that they never intend to become American citizens….

elections were conducted along the lines of recent European plebiscites where everything is under such control that no one dares vote against the machine…

crews of German warships have been entertained by the storm troops of the Bund. German World War veterans are active in storm-troop ranks and help train and drill the men….

Members of the Nazi groups have been found to be working in some of the great aviation manufacturing companies of the United States. They were found working in the United States Navy shipyards where they had succeeded in securing positions which placed them in direct possession of secret plans for the construction of United States Navy battleships of the latest type. They have even been assigned to trial runs on the latest type of these ships…

the Foreign Institute of the Nazi Government at Stuttgart was one of the instrumentalities used in assisting the German-American Bund in spreading propaganda in this country…

German consulates in the United States have been the clearing houses for much of the Nazi activity here…

the groups operated in this country are directed by organizations in Germany which get their support and direction from the German Government itself….

In fact, the Foreign Institute at Stuttgart is being conducted by one Fritz Gissibl, a former leader of the Nazi group in this country and whose brother even now is a member and leader of the Nazi group in Chicago….

every effort is being expended by the bund's high command to instill in these boys and girls, most of whom have never even been outside the United States, the doctrines of racial and religious hatreds preached under the pagan German kultur …

a worship of Hitlerism is inculcated in these youthful unsuspecting minds….

Health, Hitler, Heils, and Hatred are the "4-H's" used by United States Nazis…

They must learn to speak fluent German and to understand the Nazi ideology. They listen to lectures on the Hitler philosophy and the policies of the Third Reich….

the camps are completely Nazi Germany….

The scouts eat, sleep, talk, and dream nazi-ism with the same fervor of the regimented youth of Germany. They are taught to avoid outside "contaminating influences."…

Youngsters are thrust into the Jungvolk organization when only 5 and 6 years old. They wear uniforms of brown and blue shorts or skirts, white blouses with Hitler-brown scarfs. Older boys wear brown shirts with Sam Browne belts, military trousers and boots, and are armed with long hunting knives and spears.

Youths graduate into the "Ordnungs Dienst," the storm-troop organization of the bund, and are trained mentally and physically to lead the troops when the often predicted "trouble" comes. Scouts are told they must be prepared to withstand the onrush of the coming "red" revolution….

At Siegfried and at other eastern bund camps, separate tent encampments for boys and girls are set back in the woods, away from the main building and cottages where their parents drink beer and dance…. Visitors — even parents of the scouts — are not permitted in the youth camps proper. Scouts on duty in the camps must come to the entrances to visit with their parents….

Commands and conversations among the scouts are entirely in German…

Heels click together and the right arm goes out in a Hitler salute when a scout, boy or girl, is addressed by a youth leader or any storm trooper in uniform….

the signs over Nazi youth camps: "You were born to die for Germany."…

Nazi propaganda was slyly worked into the public schools of that city in recent months under the guise of summer German-language classes; that ostensibly, the plan was to simply teach the German language and sing German folk songs, but before very long it became apparent this was not at all the real purposes of the classes. Instead, instructions drifted into Nazi doctrines….

After every Saturday class, trucks picked up some 50 of the children and carried them 55 miles to a Nazi camp near Stanton, Mo. This camp site is operated by the Deutsch-Amerikanische Berufgemeinschaft and is under the direction of Eberhard von Blankenhagen, former Consul Secretary of the German Embassy in Washington….

So closely related is the youth movement of the German-American Bund to that of the Hitler youth in Germany that they even sing the songs of the Hitler youth and reprint them in their song books…

One of the most alarming ways of Nazi propaganda along this line has swept through the ranks of exchange students to universities….

Take, for instance, the case of the Committee on American Youth Camp in Germany. This committee arranges trips and stays for American youths in Germany….

Dr. Colin Ross is a Nazi propagandist who spends his time between Germany and the United States. He has been one of the outstanding speakers for the German-American Bund and has been a writer for the Weckruf, official organ of the bund….

children six years old were shown with the swastika, regulation German Army steel helmets and spears…

Denials to the contrary notwithstanding, this committee was greatly impressed with the evidence presented showing that there is a relationship existing between the German Government and the German-American Bund through the activities of Nazi consuls in this country.

Fritz Kuhn, leader of the German-American Bund, informed this committee's investigator at a time when the latter was disguised as a storm trooper that not only did he have power over the Ambassador and consular set-up in the United States but that he also had a special secret arrangement directly with Adolf Hitler, of Germany.

Ramifications of this "arrangement," Kuhn declared, also included a secret relationship between the German-American Bund and Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present German Ambassador to the United States, and German consuls throughout the country. (See vol, 2, p. 1149.)

In his executive office on the second floor of the bund national headquarters at 178 East Eighty-fifth Street, New York City, on the night of August 16, 1937, this committee's investigator testified that he spoke with Kuhn concerning a trip he had made to the Pacific coast and told him of the difficulties the Los Angeles Post had had with the German consul there….

You see, I have a certain special arrangement with Hitler and Germany that whenever any of our groups have trouble with the consulates in their districts that they are to report it to me in full detail. I then take it up with the Ambassador. Germany is not to be troubled with it unless I get no satisfaction from the Ambassador.

That is exactly why there is a new Ambassador to the United States, and that is exactly why many consuls have been and still are being removed. All the new consuls are National Socialists and are under special instructions to give us the fullest cooperation in every way.


It should be pointed out that Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present Ambassador, was sent to the United States, May 14, 1938, to replace Dr. Hans Luther, whose policy, bund leaders said, did not coincide with those of the bund and the Nazi Party in Germany. There have been numerous consulate changes during the last 2 years, and bund leaders a year ago predicted that more would follow….

Consul von Killinger was also reported as stating that the activities against certain religious groups in this country, as practiced by the German American Bund, are "for the good of America."

The committee had before it evidence (vol. 2, p. 1151) that certain American citizens residing in California had made trips to Germany for the purpose of being schooled in the art of Nazi propaganda and enlightenment. In one instance the father of one of these men (vol. 2, p. 1151) told this committee's investigator that his son's expenses to Germany had been paid through a secret arrangement between the German-American Bund and the Nazi Government….

American Citizens have received Nazi propaganda by mail in packages carrying the imprint of the Nazi consulate at St. Louis…

Propaganda direct from the German Ministry of Propaganda and Enlightenment is distributed by bund officials and evidence was introduced showing definitely that printed propaganda material was shipped from Germany to United States citizens directly. These packages contained, according to the testimony, considerable Nazi propaganda which was printed in Germany for distribution in the United States, considerable Fascist propaganda which was printed in Great Britain for distribution here, and much material of antiracial and antireligious character which was printed here, shipped to German Government agencies, and then reshipped to the United States for distribution in this country….

The packages coming here from abroad contained printed material from the pen of Ernst Goerner, of Milwaukee, Wis.; pamphlets from the Knights of the White Camellia, an organization founded by George E. Deatherage, of Charleston, W. Va.; leaflets from the Russian National Union; and issues from the Christian Free Press, printed in Glendale, Calif….

many Germans living in the United States go abroad and take an oath of fealty to the Fuehrer of Germany…

Repeatedly we have been told that there is no connection between the German-American Bund and the Nazi Government or its political subdivisions, repeatedly we have been told that no allegiance to Adolf Hitler is required, and yet here we have an officially inspired newspaper published in Germany telling us that an oath of fealty was taken….

A target range was set up at Camp Siegfried, Yaphank, Long Island, and on one occasion Herman Schwarzmann, head of the Astoria, Long Island, group, announced that the men were to be "trained to shoot and to take care of guns"…

Bund fuehrers informed storm troops that the various German World War veterans in their ranks would train the younger men in the use of arms….

Within the past year one section of the Gestapo, service section No. 2, under the direction of Colonel Nicolai, has added three new departments, Nos. 23, 24, and 25, all three specifically devoted to espionage in the United States.

Department 23 specializes in economic espionage — the obtaining of American manufacturing and industrial secrets.

Department 24 specializes in military intelligence.

Department 25 specializes in Nazi propaganda….

the German-American Bund receives its inspiration, program, and direction from the Nazi Government of Germany through the various propaganda organizations which have been set up by that Government and which function under the control and supervision of the Nazi Ministry of Propaganda and Enlightenment….

In 1936 Fritz Kulin accompanied a large delegation of bund members to Germany ostensibly for the purpose of visiting the Olympic games. The group paraded in uniform of the Orderly Division (storm troops), and the parade was reviewed by Adolf Hitler. Following the parade, Fritz Kuhn and other officials of the German-American Bund were received by the German Fuehrer…

It was established through the testimony of Fritz Kuhn that the bund had worked sympathetically with other organizations throughout the United States and cooperates with them. Kuhn testified that some of these groups are the Christian Front, the Christian Mobilizers, the Christian Crusaders, the Social Justice Society, the Silver Shirt Legion of America, the Knights of the White Camellia and various Italian Fascist, White Russian, and Ukranian organizations. Kuhn testified that some of the leaders of these groups had addressed meetings sponsored by the bund and that representatives of the bund in turn frequently appeared as speakers at meetings and gatherings sponsored by the above-named groups. It was also established that the bund cooperated with some of these organizations and their leaders by exchanging literature and publications with them and by publishing material emanating from them in the official organ of the bund. Numerous articles have appeared in the bund newspaper expressing the bund's approval of the activities of the organizations already mentioned….

the following are standard reading in bund camps: Hitler's Mein Kampf, Pelley's booklets and publication, Liberation, the books of Julius Streicher (German propagandist), and the Rev. Charles E. Coughlin's publication, Social Justice….

uniforms worn by the members of the youth groups, their camps and program of activities were similar in every respect to those of the Hitler youth movement, and that the Nazi salute was the accepted gesture of greeting….

a group of 15 boys and 15 girls from various parts of the United States who were selected by the bund to be sent to Germany for special training….

there is a political agent on all German ships and that these political agents maintain contact with the Nazi representatives in foreign countries. They are intermediaries for transmission of instructions to the bund leaders in the United States and they receive reports from these leaders concerning the bund's activities, according to the witnesses….

German agents engaged in espionage activities, contacted bund leaders in the United States and sought and received their cooperation. This witness also testified that he had heard discussions among bund leaders with reference to the manner in which the bund, through its members in various industrial plants, could effectively carry out a program of sabotage in case such action became necessary….

members of the bund had assisted German agents whose arrests were sought by officials in the United States in avoiding apprehension and had helped get them out of the United States with the cooperation of German ships….

Nazi propaganda agencies, through officials of the German Government in the United States, have attempted to propagandize educational institutions in this country. It was testified that a German consul general had offered, on behalf of the German Government to subsidize German departments in American universities provided the professors were "acceptable'' to the Nazis….

in August 1938 a so-called anti-Communist convention was held at the bund headquarters in Los Angeles…

the following persons participated in this convention:

Kenneth Alexander, Southern California leader of the Silver Shirts; J. H. Peyton, of the American Rangers; Chas. B. Hudson, of Omaha, Nebr., organizer and leader of America Awake, who accompanied General Moseley when he appeared before the committee; Mrs. Leslie Fry, alias Paquita Louise De Shishmareff, mysterious international figure who has since fled the country, then leader of the Militant Christian Patriots; representatives of Italian Fascist and White Russian organizations; and a number of others of similar point of view….

Bund literature mingled with that of William Dudley Pelley, Robert Edmondson, Mrs. Fry, and George Deatherage on the tables of this convention.

It is clear to the committee that this convention was in no real sense an anti-Communist convention but rather another of a series of attempts to unite some of the various forces of intolerance, racial hatred, Naziism and Fascism in order to achieve greater influence in the United States….

Allen went to Atlanta, Ga., to attempt to "buy the Ku Klux Klan" for Mrs. Fry for the sum of $75,000. He testified that he talked to Hiram W. Evans, head of the Klan, but that Evans "was not interested in the idea."…

-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities


Image
German American Bund
Amerikadeutscher Volksbund
Flag of the German American Bund
Also known as "German American Federation"
Country United States
Leader(s) Fritz Julius Kuhn
Foundation 1936
Dissolved 1941
Preceded by Friends of New Germany
Active region(s) All United States, mainly New York,[1] Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Midwest
Ideology: Nazism, Germanisation, Pan-Germanism, Anti-Semitism, Non-interventionism[2]
Political position: Far-right
Major actions: Embezzlement, Ethnic violence, Sedition
Status Defunct
Size 25,000[3]

The German American Bund, or German American Federation (German: Amerikadeutscher Bund; Amerikadeutscher Volksbund, AV), was a German-American pro-Nazi organization established in 1936 to succeed Friends of New Germany (FoNG), the new name being chosen to emphasize the group's American credentials after press criticism that the organization was unpatriotic.[4] The Bund was to consist only of American citizens of German descent.[5] Its main goal was to promote a favorable view of Nazi Germany.

Friends of New Germany

Main article: Friends of New Germany

In May 1933, Nazi Deputy Führer Rudolf Hess gave German immigrant and German Nazi Party member Heinz Spanknöbel authority to form an American Nazi organization.[6] Shortly thereafter, with help from the German consul in New York City, Spanknöbel created the Friends of New Germany[6] by merging two older organizations in the United States, Gau-USA and the Free Society of Teutonia, which were both small groups with only a few hundred members each. The FoNG was based in New York City but had a strong presence in Chicago.[6] Members wore a uniform, a white shirt and black trousers for men with a black hat festooned with a red symbol. Women members wore a white blouse and a black skirt.[7]

The organization led by Spanknöbel was openly pro-Nazi, and engaged in activities such as storming the German language New Yorker Staats-Zeitung with the demand that Nazi-sympathetic articles be published, and the infiltration of other non-political German-American organizations. One of the Friends early initiatives was to counter, with propaganda, the Jewish boycott of German goods, which started in March 1933 to protest Nazi anti-Semitism.


In an internal battle for control of the Friends, Spanknöbel was ousted as leader and subsequently deported in October 1933 because he had failed to register as a foreign agent.[6]

At the same time, Congressman Samuel Dickstein, Chairman of the Committee on Naturalization and Immigration, became aware of the substantial number of foreigners legally and illegally entering and residing in the country, and the growing anti-Semitism along with vast amounts of anti-Semitic literature being distributed in the country. This led him to investigate independently the activities of Nazi and other fascist groups, leading to the formation of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities Authorized to Investigate Nazi Propaganda and Certain Other Propaganda Activities. Throughout the rest of 1934, the Committee conducted hearings, bringing before it most of the major figures in the American fascist movement.[8] Dickstein's investigation concluded that the Friends represented a branch of German dictator Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party in the United States.[9][10]

The organization existed into the mid-1930s, although it always remained small, with a membership of between 5,000 and 10,000, consisting mostly of German citizens living in the United States and German emigrants who only recently had become citizens.[6] In December 1935, Rudolf Hess ordered all German citizens to leave the FoNG and recalled all of its leaders to Germany.[6]

Bund activities

Image
German American Bund parade on East 86th St., New York City, October 30, 1939

On March 19, 1936, the German American Bund was established as a follow-up organization for the Friends of New Germany in Buffalo, New York.[6][11] The Bund elected a German-born American citizen Fritz Julius Kuhn as its leader (Bundesführer).[12] Kuhn was a veteran of the Bavarian infantry during World War I and an Alter Kämpfer (old fighter) of the Nazi Party who, in 1934, was granted American citizenship. Kuhn was initially effective as a leader and was able to unite the organization and expand its membership but came to be seen simply as an incompetent swindler and liar.[6]

Image
Sowilo rune on the flag of the youth organization

The administrative structure of the Bund mimicked the regional administrative subdivision of the Nazi Party. The German American Bund divided the United States into three Gaue: Gau Ost (East), Gau West and Gau Midwest.[13] Together the three Gaue comprised 69 Ortsgruppen (local groups): 40 in Gau Ost (17 in New York), 10 in Gau West and 19 in Gau Midwest.[13] Each Gau had its own Gauleiter and staff to direct the Bund operations in the region in accordance with the Führerprinzip.[13] The Bund's national headquarters was located at 178 East 85th Street in the New York City borough of Manhattan.[1]

The Bund established a number of training camps, including Camp Nordland in Sussex County, New Jersey, Camp Siegfried in Yaphank, New York, Camp Hindenburg in Grafton, Wisconsin, Deutschhorst Country Club in Sellersville, Pennsylvania,[14] Camp Bergwald in Bloomingdale, New Jersey,[6][15][16][17][14] and Camp Highland in New York state.[18] The Bund held rallies with Nazi insignia and procedures such as the Hitler salute and attacked the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jewish-American groups, Communism, "Moscow-directed" trade unions and American boycotts of German goods.[6][19] The organization claimed to show its loyalty to America by displaying the flag of the United States alongside the flag of Nazi Germany at Bund meetings, and declared that George Washington was "the first Fascist" who did not believe democracy would work.[20]

Kuhn and a few other Bundmen traveled to Berlin to attend the 1936 Summer Olympics. During the trip, he visited the Reich Chancellery, where his picture was taken with Hitler.[6]
This act did not constitute an official Nazi approval for Kuhn's organization:


The German-American Bund followed closely the pattern of treason made familiar by the Nazis in such organizations as those of Norway's Quisling, Czechoslovakia's Henlein, Belgium's Degrelle, and Jugoslavia's Pavelic. Operating under the flimsy pretext of cultural objectives and general German-American welfare, the bund was always and everywhere a Nazi agency working for disruption, espionage, sabotage, and treason. The bund's pious pretenses were so shallow that it is impossible to believe that any considerable proportion of its membership was ever truly deceived concerning its objectives....

the committee found the following things:

1. That the bund was characterized by the same ruthless efficiency of the military set-up which characterized Hitler's machine in Germany.

2. That bund members were subjected to "absolute loyalty" and "blind obedience" to the bund's fuehrer.

3. That the bund demanded that its members be "fanatical fighters" for national socialism.

4. That the bund anticipated the necessity of violence in carrying out its program.

5. That the bund was characterized by extreme religious bigotry.

6. That the bund aimed at the establishment of a new kind of government in the United States, one which should incorporate the principle of Nazi religious bigotry.

7. That the bund kept a systematic record of its enemies.

8. That the bund specified that its meetings should be closed with the following declaration: "To a free, Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a threefold rousing 'Free America! Free America! Free America!'"

9. That the bund was an absolutely secret organization.

10. That the bund looked upon all Americans of German descent as owing loyalty to the Reich.

11. And that the bund was ideologically and organizationally tied to Nazi Germany....

Fritz Julius Kuhn was born in Munich, Germany, on May 15, 1896. According to his own testimony, he received his education in Munich, completing a university course there.

In the First World War Kuhn was a machine gunner in the infantry of the German Army. He states that he served 4-1/2 years with the German forces, and by the end of the war had attained the rank of lieutenant.

Kuhn's brother, Max, was appointed a member of the German Supreme Court by Hitler — sufficient evidence that the Kuhn family stands in well with the Nazi Fuehrer....

Mr. Fritz Kuhn became a member of the Nazi Party in 1921 and was active under the then Munich police commissioner, one of the first leading Nazi officials, Dr. Poehner....

When on November 9, 1923, in front of the Feldherrenhalle in Munich, Bavarian police shot at the Nazis marching under the leadership of Hitler and Ludendorff, Kuhn was among the marching Nazis....

After his entry into the United States, Kuhn proceeded directly to Detroit, where he obtained employment in the Henry Ford Hospital and later as a chemical engineer in the Ford Motor Co. Kuhn's employment in these Ford institutions lasted about 8 years....

In the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official bund newspaper, the visit of Kuhn and a delegation of German-American Bund storm troopers to Germany was described with obvious pride in both words and pictures. The accounts of this visit, which took place in 1936, are found in the Deutscher Weckruf and Beobachter for August 6, August 27, and September 10, 1936. When these bund storm troopers paraded in Berlin before Hitler himself, the Nazi Feuhrer stood on the balcony of the Chancellory. As Hitler stood there viewing this parade, Fritz Kuhn went to the balcony and, according to the words of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter itself, "Bund Leader Fritz Kuhn reported to him."... It cannot be denied that Hitler in this manner gave the highest official recognition of the fact that the German-American Bund was a Nazi agency and that Bundesfuehrer Fritz Kuhn was a subordinate of Hitler himself. According to the report which was published in the bund's own newspaper, Hitler replied to Kuhn, "Now you go back and continue your struggle."

-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part VII: Report on the Axis Front Movement in the United States [Excerpt from pp. 59-85], Special Committee on Un-American Activities


German Ambassador to the United States Hans-Heinrich Dieckhoff expressed his disapproval and concern over the group to Berlin, causing distrust between the Bund and the Nazi regime.[6] The organization received no financial or verbal support from Germany.

Denials to the contrary notwithstanding, this committee was greatly impressed with the evidence presented showing that there is a relationship existing between the German Government and the German-American Bund through the activities of Nazi consuls in this country.

Fritz Kuhn, leader of the German-American Bund, informed this committee's investigator at a time when the latter was disguised as a storm trooper that not only did he have power over the Ambassador and consular set-up in the United States but that he also had a special secret arrangement directly with Adolf Hitler, of Germany.

Ramifications of this "arrangement," Kuhn declared, also included a secret relationship between the German-American Bund and Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present German Ambassador to the United States, and German consuls throughout the country. (See vol, 2, p. 1149.)

In his executive office on the second floor of the bund national headquarters at 178 East Eighty-fifth Street, New York City, on the night of August 16, 1937, this committee's investigator testified that he spoke with Kuhn concerning a trip he had made to the Pacific coast and told him of the difficulties the Los Angeles Post had had with the German consul there. According to this testimony, Kuhn exclaimed:

My God, what's the matter with them. They know what to do. Why don't they let me know about it? I've heard before of this trouble in Los Angeles. Schwinn talked it over with me.


(This Schwinn is Hermann Schwinn, western leader of the German-American Bund. He is from Los Angeles.)

Oh, well, maybe Schwinn took my order of instructions with him to Germany and forgot to send it to his district.


It was at this point that Kuhn made the following statement to the investigator for the committee:

You see, I have a certain special arrangement with Hitler and Germany that whenever any of our groups have trouble with the consulates in their districts that they are to report it to me in full detail. I then take it up with the Ambassador. Germany is not to be troubled with it unless I get no satisfaction from the Ambassador.

That is exactly why there is a new Ambassador to the United States, and that is exactly why many consuls have been and still are being removed. All the new consuls are National Socialists and are under special instructions to give us the fullest cooperation in every way.


It should be pointed out that Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present Ambassador, was sent to the United States, May 14, 1938, to replace Dr. Hans Luther, whose policy, bund leaders said, did not coincide with those of the bund and the Nazi Party in Germany. There have been numerous consulate changes during the last 2 years, and bund leaders a year ago predicted that more would follow.

-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities


In response to the outrage of Jewish war veterans, Congress in 1938 passed the Foreign Agents Registration Act requiring foreign agents to register with the State Department. On March 1, 1938, the Nazi government decreed that no Reichsdeutsche [German nationals] could be a member of the Bund, and that no Nazi emblems were to be used by the organization.[6] This was done both to appease the U.S. and to distance Germany from the Bund, which was increasingly a cause of embarrassment with its rhetoric and actions.[6]

Image
German American Bund rally poster at Madison Square Garden, February 20, 1939

Arguably, the zenith of the Bund's activities was the rally at Madison Square Garden in New York City on February 20, 1939.[21] Some 20,000 people attended and heard Kuhn criticize President Roosevelt by repeatedly referring to him as "Frank D. Rosenfeld", calling his New Deal the "Jew Deal" and denouncing what he believed to be Bolshevik-Jewish American leadership. Most shocking to American sensibilities was the outbreak of violence between protesters and Bund storm troopers. The rally, which attracted 20,000 Nazi supporters, was the subject of the 2017 short documentary A Night at the Garden by Marshall Curry.[22]

Decline

In 1939, a New York tax investigation determined that Kuhn had embezzled $14,000 from the Bund. The Bund did not seek to have Kuhn prosecuted, operating on the principle (Führerprinzip) that the leader had absolute power. However, New York City's district attorney prosecuted him in an attempt to cripple the Bund. On December 5, 1939, Kuhn was sentenced to two and a half to five years in prison for tax evasion and embezzlement.[23]

New Bund leaders replaced Kuhn, most notably Gerhard Kunze, but only for brief periods. A year after the outbreak of World War II, Congress enacted a peacetime military draft in September 1940. The Bund counseled members of draft age to evade conscription, a criminal offense punishable by up to five years in jail and a $10,000 fine. Gerhard Kunze fled to Mexico in November 1941.[7]

U.S. Congressman Martin Dies (D-Texas) and his House Committee on Un-American Activities were active in denying any Nazi-sympathetic organization the ability to operate freely during World War II. In the last week of December 1942, led by journalist Dorothy Thompson, fifty leading German-Americans (including baseball icon Babe Ruth) signed a "Christmas Declaration by men and women of German ancestry" condemning Nazism, which appeared in ten major American daily newspapers.

While Kuhn was in prison, his citizenship was canceled on June 1, 1943.[24] Upon his release after 43 months in state prison, Kuhn was re-arrested on June 21, 1943, as an enemy alien and interned by the federal government at a camp in Crystal City, Texas. After the war, Kuhn was interned at Ellis Island and deported to Germany on September 15, 1945.[24] He died on December 14, 1951, in Munich, Germany.

See also

• Fascist League of North America, a group similar to the German American Bund, of pro-Fascist Italian Americans that supported Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime in Italy
• Free Society of Teutonia, one of the two predecessor societies alongside Friends of New Germany that formed the German American Bund
• Camp Nordland, the largest German American Bund camp
• Friends of New Germany
Silver Legion of America
• Christian Party (United States, 1930s)
• Christian Front (United States)
• America First Committee
• Neo-Nazism, for pro-Nazi groups in North America, Europe, South Africa, and Asia seeking to revive Nazism post-World War II
• Neo-Nazi groups of the United States, post-1945
• American Nazi Party, prominent pro-Nazi group formed in the 1950s

References

Notes


1. Federal Bureau of Investigation. "German American Federation/Bund Part 11 of 11". FBI Records: The Vault.
2. "American Nazi organization rally at Madison Square Garden, 1939". Rare Historical Photos. February 19, 2014.
3. "German American Bund". Holocaust Encyclopedia. July 2, 2016.
4. Erik V. Wolter, Loyalty On Trial: One American's Battle With The FBI. (iUniverse, 2004) ISBN 9780595327034. p. 65
5. Van Ells, Mark D. (August 2007). Americans for Hitler – The Bund. America in WWII. 3. pp. 44–49. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
7. IMDb Biography
8. Chip Berlet, Matthew Nemiroff Lyons (2000). Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort. Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-57230-562-5.
9. Shaffer, Ryan (Spring 2010). "Long Island Nazis: A Local Synthesis of Transnational Politics". 21(2). Journal of Long Island History. Archived from the original on June 21, 2010. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
10. Investigation of un-American propaganda activities in the United States. Hearings before a Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Seventy-fifth Congress, third session-Seventy-eighth Congress, second session, on H. Res. 282, to investigate (l) the extent, character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, (2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propaganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary remedial legislation
11. "Fritz Kuhn Death in 1951 Revealed. Lawyer Says Former Leader of German-American Bund Succumbed in Munich". Associated Press in New York Times. February 2, 1953. Retrieved 2008-07-20. Fritz Kuhn, once the arrogant, noisy leader of the pro-Hitler German-American Bund, died here more than a year ago – a poor and obscure chemist, unheralded and unsung.
12. Cyprian Blamires; Paul Jackson (2006). World fascism: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 270. ISBN 0-8223-0772-3.
13. Cornelia Wilhelms (1998). Bewegung oder Verein?: nationalsozialistische Volkspolitik in dem USA. Franz Steiner Verlag. p. 167. ISBN 3-515-06805-8.
14. "German-American Bund". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
15. "German films about Camp Bergwald, the Bund Camp on Federal Hill, Riverdale, NJ". Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Branch (NWDNM), National Archives. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
16. Jackson, Kenneth T. The Encyclopedia of New York City. The New York Historical Society, Yale University Press, 1995, 462.
17. David Mark Chalmers (1987). Hooded Americanism: The History of the Ku Klux Klan. ISBN 1-57607-940-6. When Arthur Bell, your Grand Giant, and Mr. Smythe asked us about using Camp Nordlund for this patriotic meeting, we decided to let them have it ...
18. Birchall, Guy (September 12, 2017). "Inside Hitler's terrifying AMERICAN summer camps where US boys were taught twisted Nazi ideology and trained to shoot, march and salute". TheSun.co.uk. Retrieved September 12, 2017.
19. Patricia Kollander; John O'Sullivan (2005). "I must be a part of this war": a German American's fight against Hitler and Nazism. Fordham Univ Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-8232-2528-3.
20. "Nazis Hail George Washington as First Fascist". Life. 1938-03-07. p. 17. Retrieved November 25,2011.
21. "Bund Activities Widespread. Evidence Taken by Dies Committee Throws Light on Meaning of the Garden Rally". New York Times. February 26, 1939. Retrieved 2015-02-19. Disorders attendant upon Nazi rallies in New York and Los Angeles this week again focused attention upon the Nazi movement in the United States and inspired conjectures as to its strength and influence.
22. Buder, Emily (10 October 2017). "When 20,000 American Nazis Descended Upon New York City". The Atlantic. Retrieved 6 December 2017. In 1939, the German American Bund organized a rally of 20,000 Nazi supporters at Madison Square Garden in New York City.
23. Adams, Thomas (2005). Germany and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History: A MultiDisciplinary Encyclopedia. G – N, volume 2. ABC-CLIO. p. 631. ISBN 1-85109-628-0. Retrieved January 11,2011.
24. "Fritz Kuhn, Former Bund Chief, Ordered Back to Germany". The Evening Independent. September 7, 1945.

Further reading

• Allen, Joe, "'It Can't Happen Here?': Confronting the Fascist Threat in the US in the Late 1930s," International Socialist Review, Part One: whole no. 85 (Sept.-Oct. 2012), pp. 26–35; Part Two: whole no. 87 (Jan.-Feb. 2013), pp. 19–28.
• Bell, Leland V. In Hitler's Shadow; The Anatomy of American Nazism, 1973
• Canedy, Susan. Americas Nazis: A Democratic Dilemma a History of the German American Bund Markgraf Pubns Group, 1990
• Diamond, Sander. The Nazi Movement in the United States: 1924–1941. Ithaca: Cornell University, 1974.
• Grams, Grant W.: Gustav Hittler, Bund Organizer in Montreal and Return Migrant to Germany, Kevin Christiano (ed.) Quebec Studies Journal, 2016
• Jenkins, Philip. Hoods and Shirts: The Extreme Right in Pennsylvania, 1925–1950 University of North Carolina Press, 1997
• MacDonnell, Francis. Insidious Foes: The Axis Fifth Column and the American Home Front Oxford University Press, 1995
• Miller, Marvin D. Wunderlich's Salute: The Interrelationship of the German-American Bund, Camp Siegfried, Yaphank, Long Island, and the Young Siegfrieds and Their Relationship with American and Nazi Institutions Malamud-Rose Publishers, November 1983(1st Edition)
• Norwood, Stephen H. "Marauding Youth and the Christian Front: Antisemitic Violence in Boston and New York during World War II" American Jewish History, Vol. 91, 2003
• Schneider, James C. Should America Go to War? The Debate over Foreign Policy in Chicago, 1939–1941 University of North Carolina Press, 1989
• St. George, Maximiliam and Dennis, Lawrence. A Trial on Trial: The Great Sedition Trial of 1944 National Civil Rights Committee, 1946
• Strong, Donald S. Organized Anti-Semitism in America: The Rise of Group Prejudice during the Decade 1930–40 1941
• Van Ells, Mark D. (August 2007). Americans for Hitler – The Bund. America in WWII. 3. pp. 44–49. Retrieved May 13, 2016.

External links

• Home Grown Nazis - A 13 part series for the Chicago Times in Sept. 1937 on Nazi activities in Chicago based on undercover reporting of Chicago Times reporters.
• Collection of articles in the Mid-Island Mail related to Bund activity in Yaphank, New York (1935–1941) (Longwood Public Library)
• Mp3 of National Leader Fritz Julius Kuhn address at the 1939 Madison Square Garden rally (from Talking History: The Radio Archives)
• What Price the Federal Reserve? – Illustrated anti-Semitic pamphlet issued by the Bund
• Free America – A collection of the speeches from the infamous Madison Square Garden rally in February 1939
• Awake and Act – Pamphlet listing the purposes and aims of the German American Bund
• German-American Bund.org
• U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum article on German-American Bund
• "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2011. – Article by Jim Bredemus
• FBI Records: German American Federation/Bund
• Materials produced by the Bund are found in the Florence Mendheim Collection of Anti-Semitic Propaganda (#AR 25441); Leo Baeck Institute, New York.
• "A Night at the Garden". Field of Vision. 11 October 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 28755
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Tue Sep 24, 2019 3:58 am

Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/23/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


The OD man who looks to the future will gladly undergo any hardship that causes him to become stronger than his foes in health, in character and in mind. The effeminate and lazy man is headed for the abyss; whoever wants to have the right to life must be a fighter, who can be hard even to himself!

Therefore let no OD man expect to be received gently into our ranks. We are looking for men who enter our organization not in order to procure personal advantages or to be allowed to play soldier pleasantly, but who intend with their whole power to eradicate the red Jewish pestilence in America....

“Free America! Free America! Free America!”


-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities


AMERICANS …
DON’T PATRONIZE REDS!!!!
YOU CAN DRIVE THE REDS OUT OF TELEVISION, RADIO AND HOLLYWOOD …
THIS TRACT WILL TELL YOU HOW.
WHY WE MUST DRIVE THEM OUT:
1) The REDS have made our Screen, Radio and TV Moscow’s most effective Fifth Column in America …
2) The REDS of Hollywood and Broadway have always been the chief financial support of Communist propaganda in America …
3) OUR OWN FILMS, made by RED Producers, Directors, Writers and STARS, are being used by Moscow in ASIA, Africa, the Balkans and throughout Europe to create hatred of America …
4) RIGHT NOW films are being made to craftily glorify MARXISM, UNESCO and ONE-WORLDISM … and via your TV Set they are being piped into your Living Room – and are poisoning the minds of your children under your very eyes!!!
So REMEMBER – If you patronize a film made by RED Producers, Writers, Stars and STUDIOS you are aiding and abetting COMMUNISM … every time you permit REDS to come into your Living Room VIA YOUR TV SET you are helping MOSCOW and the INTERNATIONALISTS to destroy America!!!


-- McCarthyism, by Wikipedia


The Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals (MPAPAI, also MPA) was an American organization of high-profile, politically conservative members of the Hollywood film industry. It was formed in 1944 for the stated purpose of defending the film industry, and the country as a whole, against what its founders claimed was communist and fascist infiltration.[1][2]

History

The initial, immediate purpose in forming the organization was to assemble a group of well-known show business figures willing to attest, under oath, before Congress to the supposed presence of Communists in their industry.[3] When the House Un-American Activities Committee investigated the motion picture industry, the vast majority of "friendly witnesses" were supplied by the Alliance.[3][4][5]

The Alliance officially disbanded in 1975.[6]

In August 1938 a so-called anti-Communist convention was held at the bund headquarters in Los Angeles…

the following persons participated in this convention:

Kenneth Alexander, Southern California leader of the Silver Shirts; J. H. Peyton, of the American Rangers; Chas. B. Hudson, of Omaha, Nebr., organizer and leader of America Awake, who accompanied General Moseley when he appeared before the committee; Mrs. Leslie Fry, alias Paquita Louise De Shishmareff, mysterious international figure who has since fled the country, then leader of the Militant Christian Patriots; representatives of Italian Fascist and White Russian organizations; and a number of others of similar point of view….

Bund literature mingled with that of William Dudley Pelley, Robert Edmondson, Mrs. Fry, and George Deatherage on the tables of this convention.

It is clear to the committee that this convention was in no real sense an anti-Communist convention but rather another of a series of attempts to unite some of the various forces of intolerance, racial hatred, Naziism and Fascism in order to achieve greater influence in the United States.


-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities


Members

Image
John Wayne served four one-year terms as president of the Alliance from March 1949 to June 1953.[7]

Prominent members of the Alliance included Robert Arthur, Martin Berkeley, Ward Bond, Walter Brennan, Roy Brewer, Clarence Brown, Charles Coburn, Gary Cooper, Laraine Day, Cecil B. DeMille, Walt Disney, Irene Dunne, Victor Fleming, John Ford, Clark Gable, Cedric Gibbons, Hedda Hopper, Leo McCarey, James Kevin McGuinness, Adolphe Menjou, Robert Montgomery, George Murphy, Fred Niblo, Dick Powell, Ayn Rand, Ronald Reagan, Ginger Rogers, Morrie Ryskind, Barbara Stanwyck, Norman Taurog, Robert Taylor, King Vidor, John Wayne, Frank Wead and Sam Wood.[3][5][8][9]

Statement of Principles

Shortly after its formation in 1944, the Alliance issued a "Statement of Principles":

We believe in, and like, the American way of life: the liberty and freedom which generations before us have fought to create and preserve; the freedom to speak, to think, to live, to worship, to work, and to govern ourselves as individuals, as free men; the right to succeed or fail as free men, according to the measure of our ability and our strength.

Believing in these things, we find ourselves in sharp revolt against a rising tide of communism, fascism, and kindred beliefs, that seek by subversive means to undermine and change this way of life; groups that have forfeited their right to exist in this country of ours, because they seek to achieve their change by means other than the vested procedure of the ballot and to deny the right of the majority opinion of the people to rule.

In our special field of motion pictures, we resent the growing impression that this industry is made of, and dominated by, Communists, radicals, and crackpots. We believe that we represent the vast majority of the people who serve this great medium of expression. But unfortunately it has been an unorganized majority. This has been almost inevitable. The very love of freedom, of the rights of the individual, make this great majority reluctant to organize. But now we must, or we shall meanly lose "the last, best hope on earth."

As Americans, we have no new plan to offer. We want no new plan, we want only to defend against its enemies that which is our priceless heritage; that freedom which has given man, in this country, the fullest life and the richest expression the world has ever known; that system which, in the present emergency, has fathered an effort that, more than any other single factor, will make possible the winning of this war.

As members of the motion-picture industry, we must face and accept an especial responsibility. Motion pictures are inescapably one of the world's greatest forces for influencing public thought and opinion, both at home and abroad. In this fact lies solemn obligation. We refuse to permit the effort of Communist, Fascist, and other totalitarian-minded groups to pervert this powerful medium into an instrument for the dissemination of un-American ideas and beliefs. We pledge ourselves to fight, with every means at our organized command, any effort of any group or individual, to divert the loyalty of the screen from the free America that give it birth. And to dedicate our work, in the fullest possible measure, to the presentation of the American scene, its standards and its freedoms, its beliefs and its ideals, as we know them and believe in them.[2]


Ayn Rand pamphlet

In 1947, Ayn Rand wrote a pamphlet for the Alliance, entitled Screen Guide for Americans, based on her personal impressions of the American film industry. It read, in excerpt:

The purpose of the Communists in Hollywood is not the production of political movies openly advocating Communism. Their purpose is to corrupt our moral premises by corrupting non-political movies — by introducing small, casual bits of propaganda into innocent stories — thus making people absorb the basic principles of Collectivism by indirection and implication.

The principle of free speech requires that we do not use police force to forbid the Communists the expression of their ideas — which means that we do not pass laws forbidding them to speak. But the principle of free speech does not require that we furnish the Communists with the means to preach their ideas, and does not imply that we owe them jobs and support to advocate our own destruction at our own expense.[10][11]


Rand cited examples of popular and critically acclaimed films that in her view contained hidden Communist or Collectivist messages that had not been recognized as such, even by conservatives. Examples included The Best Years of Our Lives (because it portrayed businessmen negatively, and suggested that bankers should give veterans collateral-free loans), and A Song to Remember (because it implied that Chopin sacrificed himself for a patriotic cause rather than devoting himself to his music).[12]

See also

• Friends of Abe
• Hollywood Congress of Republicans

References

1. Watts, Steven (2001). The Magic Kingdom: Walt Disney and the American Way of Life. University of Missouri. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-8262-1379-2. Retrieved February 25, 2012.
2. "Hollywood Renegades Archive: The Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals". Cobblestone Entertainment. Retrieved January 22, 2011.
3. Ceplair, Larry; Englund, Steven (1983). The Inquisition in Hollywood: Politics in the Film Community, 1930-1960. University of California Press. pp. 210–214. ISBN 978-0-520-04886-7. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
4. Robert T. Mann (2002). The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Cold War. Alpha. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-02-864246-8. Retrieved 10 August 2010.
5. Sragow, Michael (2008). Victor Fleming: An American Movie Master. Pantheon. pp. 429–430. ISBN 978-0-375-40748-2. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
6. Kazanjian, Howard; Enss, Chris (2006). The Young Duke: The Early Life of John Wayne. TwoDot. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-7627-3898-4. Retrieved March 15, 2012.
7. Roberts, Randy; Olson, James Stuart (1997). John Wayne: American. Bison Books. p. 338. ISBN 978-0-8032-8970-3. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
8. Manchel, Frank (1990). Film Study: An Analytical Bibliography. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 1081. ISBN 978-0-8386-3412-7. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
9. McBride, Joseph (2003). Searching for John Ford: A Life. St. Martin's Griffin. pp. 372–373. ISBN 978-0-312-31011-0. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
10. Branden, Barbara (1986). The Passion of Ayn Rand. p. 199.
11. Becker, Charotte B. (2001). Encyclopedia of Ethics. Taylor & Francis. p. 1441. ISBN 0-415-93675-6.
12. Journals of Ayn Rand, Chapter 10.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 28755
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Tue Sep 24, 2019 4:20 am

Meryl Streep calls Walt Disney 'anti-Semitic' 'gender bigot' during Disney celebration: Meryl Streep shocked diners attending an event for the National Board of Review earlier this week
by Jenn Selby
Thursday 9 January 2014 14:23

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
The Baftas red carpet – and the best actress award – belonged to Meryl Streep, who won for her role as Margaret Thatcher in The Iron Lady ( AP )

Meryl Streep shocked diners attending an event for the National Board of Review earlier this week by attacking late animator Walt Disney for being a “gender bigot” and a racist member of an anti-Semitic lobby group.

Which wouldn’t have been so bizarre, had she not, in the same breath, have been honouring peer Emma Thompson for her star turn as PL Travers in Disney film Saving Mr Banks.

The movie is based around Walt Disney’s courting of the rights to Travers’ classic Mary Poppins, and detailed the lengths the animator went to persuade her to adapt the novel for the big screen.

On the one hand, Streep labelled Thompson "a beautiful artist" who is "practically a saint", before reading out a heart-felt, self-penned poem about the British actress called "An Ode to Emma, Or What Emma is Owed".

"Not only is she not irascible, she’s practically a saint. There’s something so consoling about that old trope, but Emma makes you want to kill yourself, because she’s a beautiful artist, she’s a writer, she’s a thinker, she’s a living, acting conscience," she said ahead of the reading.

On the other, Streep launched into a tirade about Disney, calling the late animator a "hideous anti-Semite" who "formed and supported an anti-Semitic industry lobby".

"And he was certainly, on the evidence of his company’s policies, a gender bigot," she added, before quoting a letter he wrote to an aspiring female animator in 1938.

"Women do not do any of the creative work in connection with preparing the cartoons for the screen, as that task is performed entirely by young men," it read.

She went on to quote Disney's colleague Walter Kimball, who apparently said that his boss "didn't trust women or cats," Variety reports.


Streep did, however, throw a little water on the fire by adding: "There is a piece of received wisdom that says that the most creative people are often odd, or irritating, eccentric, damaged, difficult. That along with enormous creativity comes certain deficits in humanity or decency.

"We are familiar with this trope in our business: Mozart, Van Gogh, Tarantino, Eminem," she added.

Disney was plagued by allegations of anti-Semitism during his life and after his death. Sure enough, ethnic stereotypes common to films of the 1930s were included in several of his early cartoons.

For example, Three Little Pigs featured the Big Bad Wolf sneaking up to the door dressed as a Jewish peddler.

Image


And The Opry House, during which Mickey Mouse dresses up and dances like a Hasidic Jew.

Other rumours centred around his acceptance of female German filmmaker (and notorious Nazi propagandist) Leni Riefenstahl to Hollywood to promote her film Olympia in 1938. He was criticised for not cancelling her invitation even after news of Kristallnacht broke.

Further still, Jewish animator Art Babbitt, who maintained a "difficult relationship" with Disney throughout his career, claimed to have seen Disney and his lawyer, Gunther Lessing, attending meetings of pro-Nazi organisation the German American Bund in the late 1930s.


However, Disney biographer Neal Gabler, who was the first writer to gain unrestricted access to the Disney archives in 2006, concluded based on the evidence available that he was not an anti-Semite. At least, not in the conventional sense.

In summary, he said: "He got the reputation because, in the 1940s, he got himself allied with a group called the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, which was an anti-Communist and antisemitic organization.

"And though Walt himself, in my estimation, was not antisemitic, nevertheless, he willingly allied himself with people who were antisemitic, and that reputation stuck. He was never really able to expunge it throughout his life."

According to The Walt Disney Family Museum, the company also gave money to several Jewish charities, including the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, Yeshiva College and The American League for a Free Palestine.

Meanwhile, in other awards news, the BAFTAs nominations were revealed this week. Streep's August: Osage County co-star Julia Roberts found herself up for an award while Emma Thompson is up for Best Actress for her role as PL Travers in Saving Mr Banks. Find out who else received nods in the gallery below.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 28755
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Tue Sep 24, 2019 4:27 am

Not so supercalifragilisticexpialidocious
by Robert Liftig, EdD
Jewish Ledger
December 31, 2013

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


“Saving Mr. Banks” – the newly released film about the making of “Mary Poppins” – paints a warm and fuzzy portrait of the late animation giant Walt Disney. But what the film, starring Tom Hanks and Emma Thompson (a darling of the Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions – BDS – movement, by the way), doesn’t touch on is the lovable “Uncle Walt’s” not so lovable attitude towards the Jewish people. Robert Liftig sets the record straight.

“I once made the mistake of asking Walt a question … and he replied by saying, ‘Let me check that with my Jew.’” Peter Bart (Editor, Variety)


Walt Disney looked just like my Uncle Max, so I never missed his show at 7 p.m. on Sunday evenings. I especially enjoyed the end, when former German rocket scientist Wernher von Braun would make a kindly appearance and take apart a model rocket and put it together again, and then explain how something like this could take “us” to the moon someday. Wernher was the “Friendly Dutch Uncle” I never had: twinkled of eye, deft of hand, and filled with fantastic ideas about “our” fabulous future in the final frontier. Disney, who personally introduced each of his shows, often used my Dutch Uncle to close them. They must be pals, I thought. Maybe Disney was Jewish too.

One Sunday evening my Dad ambled through the living room just as Uncle Wernher was chattering in his heavy Reichish accent: “That guy was a damn Nazi,” Dad said. “His rockets bombed England. He would have bombed us too, if he had the chance. Now he’s on American TV and you’re watching him! Unbelievable! Who’s this Disney guy, really?”

Dad was a World War II veteran, and knew these things before other people knew them.

It wasn’t until Walt Disney died in 1966, that rumors of his antisemitism began to circulate, and they are debated even today all over the Internet. Though it has never been claimed by anyone that Disney was a Nazi, even his acolytes stop short of portraying him as just another pre-War, Midwestern White Bread kid who might – wouldn’t anyone? – feel awkward attending a friend’s bar mitzvah.

Here are some fairly hard facts about the man who invented the “Magic Kingdom.”

In 1938 Disney welcomed German filmmaker and Nazi propagandist Leni Riefenstahl to Hollywood to promote her film “Olympia.” Even after news of Kristallnacht broke, Disney did not cancel his invitation, and met with her.

In the 1940s, Disney joined the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, an anti-Communist and antisemitic organization.

Even the Walt Disney Family Museum acknowledges that Disney had “difficult relationships” with Jews, and that ethnic stereotypes can be seen in his early films, including: “Three Little Pigs” (in which the Big Bad Wolf comes to the door dressed as a Jewish peddler) and “The Opry House” (in which Mickey Mouse is dressed and dances like a Chasidic Jew.)

Image
The Big Bad Wolf shown dressed as a Jewish peddler In the original short, “Three Little Pigs.”

Many of Disney’s attempts at Jewish stereotyping had to be edited out by more objective minds. (Stephen Propatier says, “In the original short ‘Three Little Pigs’, the Big Bad Wolf is dressed as a Jewish peddler attempting to fool the little pigs. It was excised from the film after its release drew criticism, and was re-animated, so that the Wolf would be a Fuller Brush Man. Albeit one with a Yiddish accent, plus the nose, glasses and beard disguise also remained.”)

Disney associated with pro-Nazi Fritz Kuhn, a leader of the German American Bund prior to World War II, who became a naturalized United States citizen in 1934, but had his citizenship revoked in 1943 and, two years later, was deported, and there are sourced claims that Disney attended German American Bund meetings.

Disney was said to be prone to making antisemitic remarks.

Disney is considered to be among those non-Jewish pioneers of the movie industry – including Edison – who believed that Jews were making big profits from what essentially were their inventions (both Edison and Disney felt they had been undercut by the Jewish movie producer and distributor Carl Laemmel). Disney was considered part of the cult that believed: “The Jews Are Taking Over Hollywood.”

When the U.S. Army contacted Disney early in World War II and asked him to join the wartime propaganda effort, Disney accepted, but said he had been forced to by “that Jew” [Secretary of the Treasury Henry] Morgenthau who wanted Disney to use Mickey Mouse to deliver films that supported the war effort.


How two women were tricked by Jewish lawyers

Image

"Well, Colleague Morgenthau, we did a good piece of business today." "Splendid, Colleague Silberstein. We took the lovely money from the two Goy women and can put it in our own pockets."

This story tells how a Jewish lawyer, by making the same promises to two German women, complainant and defendant, takes fees from both. In the court judgment is given: Both women are guilty. Both must pay.

After the court proceedings the two Jewish lawyers who have so arranged the case congratulate one another on the good business they have done:

Now we have jewed the two Gojas of their money, we can put it in our sack!

The two German women recognise they have been cheated, make peace with one another, and take the experience as a warning never to quarrel again and:

Never to go again to Jewish lawyers.

We will remember all our lives this saying:

The Jewish lawyer
Has no feeling for justice.
He only goes to court
Because of the prospect of money.

Whether brave and good people
Wear themselves out and bleed,
Leaves the Jew completely cold.
Never go to a Jewish lawyer!


-- The Poisonous Mushroom: A children's book, by Ernst Hiemer


Then there is the Disney outreach to Wernher von Braun – at a most important juncture in the ex-Nazi’s resurrection as “All American Hero.” Von Braun, a former SS-Sturmbannführer (Major), was the guy my Dad said created the V-2 rocket – which he did; and which did – Dad was right again – bomb England.

Having surrendered to the U.S. Army at the end of World War II, von Braun was “sanitized” by our grateful government (grateful that the Russians didn’t get him first), then was settled near Fr. Bliss near El Paso, Texas where he lived with his German cousin-wife, began work on American missile systems, and, in 1955, became a U.S. citizen and a consultant to Walt Disney and the Disney Studios as technical director for films about space exploration. Shortly thereafter, my former Dutch Uncle was named the first director of NASA.

In 2014, Walt Disney will be lionized on the silver screen in “Saving Mr. Banks,” a film starring Tom Hanks, and there’s nothing I can do about it. But when you head out the door to your local moving picture emporium, you may want to take along a copy of this article, and post it on the wall beside the ticket booth.

Antisemite Rating: 8 (out of a possible 15)

Dr. Robert A. Liftig is an adjunct professor of ethics at Fairfield University and a freelance writer. He lives in Westport.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 28755
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Tue Sep 24, 2019 4:55 am

Fritz Julius Kuhn
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/23/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
Fritz Julius Kuhn
Kuhn in 1938
Born Fritz Julius Kuhn
May 15, 1896
Munich, German Empire
Died December 14, 1951 (aged 55)
Munich, West Germany
Known for German American Bund
Spouse(s) Elsa
Children Walter, Waltraut
Parent(s)
Georg Kuhn
Julia Justyna Beuth

Image
Image
Madison Square Garden rally 1939

Image
Kuhn appearing on the street after leaving a courthouse in Webster, Massachusetts in 1939

Image
Kuhn speaking at a "Bund"-camp-rally

Fritz Julius Kuhn (May 15, 1896 – December 14, 1951) was the leader of the German American Bund before World War II. He became a naturalized United States citizen in 1934, but his citizenship was cancelled in 1943, and he was deported in 1945. He was an American supporter of the German Nazi government led by Adolf Hitler that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.[1]

Life and career

Kuhn was born in Munich, then the German Empire, on May 15, 1896, the son of Georg Kuhn and Julia Justyna Beuth. During World War I, Kuhn earned an Iron Cross as a German infantry lieutenant.[2] After the war, he graduated from the Technical University of Munich with a master's degree in chemical engineering. In the 1920s, Kuhn moved to Mexico. In 1928, he moved to the United States and, in 1934, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.[3] He worked at a Ford factory in Detroit before assuming control of the Bund in Buffalo, New York, in 1936.[4]

A Congressional committee headed by Samuel Dickstein concluded that the Friends of New Germany supported a branch of German dictator Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party in the United States,[5] and the Friends of New Germany disbanded. However, in March 1936, the German American Bund was established in Buffalo as a follow-up organization.[6] The Bund elected the German-born American citizen Kuhn as its leader.[7]

Kuhn, while describing the Bund as "sympathetic to the Hitler government", denied that the organization received money or took orders from the government of Germany. Kuhn also denied that the Bund had any agenda of introducing fascism to the United States.[8][9]

Kuhn enlisted thousands of Americans by using what would be criticized as antisemitic, anticommunist, and pro-German propaganda. One of his first tasks was to plan a trip to Germany with 50 of his American followers. The purpose was to be in the presence of Hitler and to personally witness National-Socialism in practice.

At this time, Germany was preparing to host the 1936 Olympics. Kuhn anticipated a warm welcome from Adolf Hitler, but the encounter was a disappointment. This did not stop Kuhn from elaborating more propaganda to his followers once he returned to the United States about how Hitler acknowledged him as the "American Führer".[10]

As his profile grew, so did the tension against him. Not only Jewish-Americans, but also German-Americans who did not want to be associated with Nazis, protested against the Bund. These protests were occasionally violent, making the Bund front page news in the United States. In response to the outrage of Jewish war veterans, Congress in 1938 passed the Foreign Agents Registration Act requiring foreign agents to register with the State Department.[10] The negative attention to the American Nazis was not to Hitler's liking because he wanted the Nazi Party in the United States to be strong, but stealthy. Hitler needed to keep the U.S. neutral throughout the coming war and sought to avoid provoking Americans, whereas Kuhn was eager to stir media attention. On March 1, 1938, the Nazi government decreed that no German national (Reichsdeutsche) could be a member of the Bund and that no Nazi emblems were to be used by the organization.[6]

Undaunted, on February 20, 1939, Kuhn held the largest and most publicized rally in the Bund's history at Madison Square Garden in New York City.[11] Some 20,000 people attended and heard Kuhn mock President Franklin D. Roosevelt as "Frank D. Rosenfeld", calling his New Deal the "Jew Deal" and denouncing what he called Bolshevik-Jewish American leadership. Kuhn also stated:"The Bund is fighting shoulder to shoulder with patriotic Americans to protect America from a race that is not the American race, that is not even a white race ... The Jews are enemies of the United States." Most shocking was the outbreak of violence between Bund storm troopers and thousands of angry protesters in the streets. During Kuhn's speech, a Jewish protester, Isadore Greenbaum, rushed the stage and had to be rescued by police after he was beaten and stripped by storm troopers.[12][13][14]

Later in 1939, seeking to cripple the Bund, New York City Mayor Fiorello La Guardia ordered the city to investigate the Bund's taxes. It found that Kuhn had embezzled over $14,000 from the organization, spending part of the money on a mistress. District Attorney Thomas E. Dewey issued an indictment and won a conviction against Kuhn. On December 5, 1939, Kuhn was sentenced to two and a half to five years in prison for tax evasion and embezzlement.[15] Despite his criminal conviction for embezzlement, followers of the Bund continued to hold Kuhn in high regard, in line with the Nazi Führerprinzip, which gives the leader absolute power.

While in Sing Sing[4] prison, Kuhn's citizenship was canceled on June 1, 1943, on grounds of it having been obtained fraudulently as shown by his ongoing activity as a foreign agent of, and person with loyalty including oaths of military service towards, Germany and the Nazi Party.[3] Upon his release after spending 43 months in prison, Kuhn was re-arrested on June 21, 1943, as an enemy agent and interned by the federal government at a camp in Crystal City, Texas. After the war, Kuhn was sent to Ellis Island and deported to Germany on September 15, 1945.[3] Upon his arrival in Germany, he wanted to return to the United States,[16] but was imprisoned, then released shortly before his death.[17] While in prison, Kuhn reportedly sent a message to Jewish columnist Walter Winchell, who had helped lead media counterattacks against the Bund back in New York City. It read: "Tell Herr Vinchell, I will lift to piss on his grafe [sic]."[18]

He died on December 14, 1951, in Munich, Germany. The New York Times obituary said that he died "a poor and obscure chemist, unheralded and unsung".[1]

Appearance in media

In the alternative historical dystopian television series The Man in the High Castle, a high school on Long Island is named after Kuhn.

References

1. "Fritz Kuhn Death in 1951 Revealed. Lawyer Says Former Leader of German-American Bund Succumbed in Munich". The New York Times. Associated Press. February 2, 1953. Retrieved 2008-07-20. Fritz Kuhn, once the arrogant, noisy leader of the pro-Hitler German-American Bund, died here more than a year ago – a poor and obscure chemist, unheralded and unsung.
2. Riess, Curt. Total Espionage: Germany's Information and Disinformation Apparatus 1932-40, 2017.
3. "Fritz Kuhn, Former Bund Chief, Ordered Back to Germany". The Evening Independent. September 7, 1945.
4. O'Haire, Hugh (May 8, 1977). "When the Bund Strutted in Yaphankl". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
5. U.S. Congress, House Special Committee on Un-American Activities (1938). Investigation of un-American propaganda activities in the United States. United States Congress. p. 1090. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
6. Jim Bredemus. "American Bund – The Failure of American Nazism: The German-American Bund's Attempt to Create an American 'Fifth Column'". TRACES. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
7. Cyprian Blamires; Paul Jackson (2006). World fascism: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 270. ISBN 0-8223-0772-3.
8. Says Hitler Group is 200,000 strong. Kuhn Denies Trying to Set Up Fascism in U.S. Associated Press in Reading Eagle, March 12, 1937
9. Kuhn Bares Bund Record Destruction. "Kuhn steadfastly denied that the German government had any connection with his organization." Associated Press in Reading Eagle, August 16, 1939
10. Nazi America: A Secret History (2000), History Channel (92 min)
11. Ratzis Fritz Kuhn and the Bund, 1939 by Jay Maeder Sunday, May 31st 1998[permanent dead link]
12. "Fight Nazis in Big N.Y. Rally" (February 21, 1939). Chicago Tribune Archive. Chicago Tribune News Service. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
13. Philpot, Robert (February 22, 2019). "Eighty years ago this week: the night the Nazis played Madison Square Garden". The Jewish Chronicle. London. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
14. Philip Bump, When Nazis rallied in Manhattan, one working-class Jewish man from Brooklyn took them on, 20 February 2017, The Washington Post
15. Adams, Thomas (2005). Germany and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History: A MultiDisciplinary Encyclopedia. G – N, volume 2. ABC-CLIO. p. 631. ISBN 1-85109-628-0. Retrieved January 11,2011.
16. Shaffer, Ryan (Spring 2010). "Long Island Nazis: A Local Synthesis of Transnational Politics". 21(2). Journal of Long Island History. Archived from the original on 2010-06-21. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
17. IMDb Biography
18. Bernstein, Arnie (May 28, 2017). "Walter Winchell, Nazi Fighter". The New York Times Book Review: 6. Retrieved 27 May 2017.

External links

• Talking History Archive - Recording of Fritz Kuhn's speech at the German-American Bund Rally, New York City, Feb. 20, 1939, at the University of Albany
• Fritz Julius Kuhn - Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
• "American Bund: The Failure of American Nazism; The German-American Bund’s Attempt to Create an American 'Fifth Column'" Article by Jim Bredemus on Traces.org
• Fritz Julius Kuhn on IMDb
• Newspaper clippings about Fritz Julius Kuhn in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 28755
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Tue Sep 24, 2019 5:25 am

“Swastika Nation”: Fritz Kuhn and the German-American Bund (Book Review)
by Alex Constantine
October 23, 2013

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


The rise and fall of a small but threatening Nazi movement

Everyone is familiar with Adolf Hitler and the rise and fall of Nazi Germany. Few remember that in the mid- to late-1930s the United States experienced a Nazi crusade of its own, one led by Fritz Julius Kuhn (1896-1951), a radical anti-Semite who dreamed of a fascist America led by a Nazi president. Kuhn never realized his dream, but he did develop a national Nazi movement—complete with propaganda wing, youth group, and its own version of the Schutzstaffel (SS)—that inspired a concerted effort (among politicians, law enforcement and media alike) to destroy him and his organization.

But on February 20, 1939—the day Kuhn’s German-American Bund (Der Amerikadeutsche Volksbund) held a Nuremberg-style rally at New York’s Madison Square Garden—Kuhn and his rabid followers seemed a very real threat to order. Tens of thousands of protestors surrounded the Garden while Bundesführer Kuhn addressed 17,000 enthusiastic supporters—men and women who demonstrated their support by extending their right arms straight out, palms down, in that instantly-recognizable salute, all the while shouting “Free America! Free America! Free America!”

We believe in, and like, the American way of life: the liberty and freedom which generations before us have fought to create and preserve; the freedom to speak, to think, to live, to worship, to work, and to govern ourselves as individuals, as free men; the right to succeed or fail as free men, according to the measure of our ability and our strength.

-- Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, by Wikipedia


Yet that night would mark the peak of the Bund’s reach and influence, as the New York-based group was effectively marginalized later that year when Kuhn was convicted of larceny and forgery and sent to prison at Sing Sing, the state’s infamous maximum-security prison.

In the new book “Swastika Nation” (St. Martin’s Press), author Arnie Bernstein deftly chronicles the rise and fall of the German-American Bund, which emerged from the remnants of a group known as the Friends of New Germany. “Kuhn did a remarkable job of marshaling the movement,” says Bernstein. If Kuhn was running a corporation instead of a Nazi movement he would have been [considered] an astute businessman.”

The Bund maintained a diversified income stream derived from annual dues and various ancillary fees, as well as the mandatory purchase of uniforms, armbands, pins and badges. Uniforms for both the rank-and-file and the group’s Ordnungsdienst (“well-dressed bodyguards who undertook their duties with brutal seriousness,” according to Bernstein) had to be purchased from Bund-approved tailors. In fact, the Bund strongly encouraged its membership to spend their hard-earned dollars at Aryan-owned businesses that were a part of the Deutscher Konsum Verband (D.K.V.), or German Business League.


Image
Fritz Kuhn

Meanwhile, the organization’s publishing arm (the AV Publishing Company, the name derived from the initials of the Bund’s German name, Amerikadeutscher Volksbund), pushed out books and propaganda materials, and also published a weekly newspaper, The German Wakeup Call and Observer (Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter). Members were obligated to subscribe to the newspaper, and to buy a copy of Hitler’s autobiography/manifesto “Mein Kampf,” among other propaganda materials.

There were various subsidiary organizatoons directly affiliated, or otherwise connected, with the German-American Bund. Among them were --

German-American Business League (Deutscher Konsum Verband): The German-American Business League was a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was head of both organizations. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.) The committee has a complete membership list of the German-American Business League for New York and New Jersey.

A.V. Development Corporation: The A.V. Development Corporation was also a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was president of the A.V. Development Corporation. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.)

A.V. Publishing Corporation: The A.V. Publishing Corporation was a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was president of the corporation. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.) The A.V. Publishing Corporation published the bund's New York newspaper, the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter.

Prospective Citizens' League: The Prospective Citizens' League was an auxiliary of the German-American Bund. (See p. 3755 of the committee's hearings.) The ostensible purpose of the Prospective Citizens' League was to provide a method whereby those who had not yet taken out their final citizenship papers could nevertheless be actively associated with the German-American Bund.

German-American Settlement League: The German-American Settlement League was the holding corporation for the German-American Bund's camp at Yaphank, Long Island. This camp was known as Camp Siegfried. Fritz Kuhn was one of the directors of the German-American Settlement League. (See. p. 3758 of the committee's hearings.)

German-American Bund Auxiliary: The German-American Bund Auxiliary was the holding corporation for the bund's camp in New Jersey, Camp Nordland. )See p. 3759 and p. 8265 of the committee's hearings.) August Klapprott, eastern leader of the bund, was president of the German-American Bund Auxiliary.

-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part VII: Report on the Axis Front Movement in the United States [Excerpt from pp. 59-85]


But what really drew the ire of the American public were the Bund’s camps and retreats—Camp Siegfried in Yaphank, New York, and Camp Nordland in Andover Township, New Jersey, for example—where thousands of Bund members gathered en masse to picnic and swim. Think summer camp with a Nazi twist.

The retreats were a key component of the Bund’s youth initiative, which was loosely modeled after Germany’s Hitler Youth and female counterpart, the League of German Girls. As in Germany, youth group retreats were sexually charged gatherings. “They encouraged the boys and girls to sleep with each other to produce good Aryan children for the day that they would take over,” notes Bernstein.

How quickly a German-American boy can become a part of the Hitler youth program was explained to a witness who appeared before the committee, by a woman bund member. She said, according to this witness, her youthful cousin scorned the camp idea at first, but after one visit came home singing Nazi songs and remarked that the German scouts were "real kameraden." After another visit, he became a member. Today, at 19, he is a fuehrer and has learned to speak German....

So closely related is the youth movement of the German-American Bund to that of the Hitler youth in Germany that they even sing the songs of the Hitler youth and reprint them in their song books…

Uniforms worn by the members of the youth groups, their camps and program of activities were similar in every respect to those of the Hitler youth movement, and that the Nazi salute was the accepted gesture of greeting.


-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities


Predictably, neighbors didn’t take kindly to the idea of Bund members goose-stepping the streets of Yaphank or Andover Township in Nazi-styled uniforms, and the pushback against the camps attracted media coverage coast-to-coast. Syndicated newspaper columnist Walter Winchell painted Kuhn and his followers in a particularly unflattering light, the former taking delight in referring to the Bund leader as Phffftz Kuhn, Fritz Kuhnfucious, or simply Fat Fritz Kuhn. In fact, Winchell became Kuhn’s chief antagonist, so much so that The German Wakeup Call and Observer declared Winchell “Kuhn’s worst enemy.” Worse yet, Kuhn promised to “blacken Walter Winchell’s eyes” (promise kept, courtesy of two thugs) and to piss on his grave (promise not kept).

Hitler and the rest of Germany’s Nazi leadership didn’t think much of Kuhn, either. In the summer of 1936, the Bundesführer and his lieutenants visited Germany and, via a mutual connection, managed to gain an audience with the Führer. “It was basically one of those grip-and-grin photo ops. Hitler shook Kuhn’s hand and said, ‘Go over there and continue the fight,’” recalls Bernstein, a statement that Kuhn viewed as an official endorsement. “Of course, Hitler meant nothing by it,” continues the author. In fact, Hitler was embarrassed by Kuhn, and Nazi officials wanted nothing to do with the German-American Bund, viewing the “stupid and noisy” group as damaging to the Third Reich’s image in America.

The German-American Bund followed closely the pattern of treason made familiar by the Nazis in such organizations as those of Norway's Quisling, Czechoslovakia's Henlein, Belgium's Degrelle, and Jugoslavia's Pavelic. Operating under the flimsy pretext of cultural objectives and general German-American welfare, the bund was always and everywhere a Nazi agency working for disruption, espionage, sabotage, and treason. The bund's pious pretenses were so shallow that it is impossible to believe that any considerable proportion of its membership was ever truly deceived concerning its objectives....

the committee found the following things:

1. That the bund was characterized by the same ruthless efficiency of the military set-up which characterized Hitler's machine in Germany.

2. That bund members were subjected to "absolute loyalty" and "blind obedience" to the bund's fuehrer.

3. That the bund demanded that its members be "fanatical fighters" for national socialism.

4. That the bund anticipated the necessity of violence in carrying out its program.

5. That the bund was characterized by extreme religious bigotry.

6. That the bund aimed at the establishment of a new kind of government in the United States, one which should incorporate the principle of Nazi religious bigotry.

7. That the bund kept a systematic record of its enemies.

8. That the bund specified that its meetings should be closed with the following declaration: "To a free, Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a threefold rousing 'Free America! Free America! Free America!'"

9. That the bund was an absolutely secret organization.

10. That the bund looked upon all Americans of German descent as owing loyalty to the Reich.

11. And that the bund was ideologically and organizationally tied to Nazi Germany....

Fritz Julius Kuhn was born in Munich, Germany, on May 15, 1896. According to his own testimony, he received his education in Munich, completing a university course there.

In the First World War Kuhn was a machine gunner in the infantry of the German Army. He states that he served 4-1/2 years with the German forces, and by the end of the war had attained the rank of lieutenant.

Kuhn's brother, Max, was appointed a member of the German Supreme Court by Hitler — sufficient evidence that the Kuhn family stands in well with the Nazi Fuehrer....

Mr. Fritz Kuhn became a member of the Nazi Party in 1921 and was active under the then Munich police commissioner, one of the first leading Nazi officials, Dr. Poehner....

When on November 9, 1923, in front of the Feldherrenhalle in Munich, Bavarian police shot at the Nazis marching under the leadership of Hitler and Ludendorff, Kuhn was among the marching Nazis....

After his entry into the United States, Kuhn proceeded directly to Detroit, where he obtained employment in the Henry Ford Hospital and later as a chemical engineer in the Ford Motor Co. Kuhn's employment in these Ford institutions lasted about 8 years....

In the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official bund newspaper, the visit of Kuhn and a delegation of German-American Bund storm troopers to Germany was described with obvious pride in both words and pictures. The accounts of this visit, which took place in 1936, are found in the Deutscher Weckruf and Beobachter for August 6, August 27, and September 10, 1936. When these bund storm troopers paraded in Berlin before Hitler himself, the Nazi Feuhrer stood on the balcony of the Chancellory. As Hitler stood there viewing this parade, Fritz Kuhn went to the balcony and, according to the words of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter itself, "Bund Leader Fritz Kuhn reported to him."... It cannot be denied that Hitler in this manner gave the highest official recognition of the fact that the German-American Bund was a Nazi agency and that Bundesfuehrer Fritz Kuhn was a subordinate of Hitler himself. According to the report which was published in the bund's own newspaper, Hitler replied to Kuhn, "Now you go back and continue your struggle."

-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part VII: Report on the Axis Front Movement in the United States [Excerpt from pp. 59-85], Special Committee on Un-American Activities


Meanwhile, back in the U.S., powerful forces began amassing against the Bund. In August 1937 United States Attorney General Homer Cummings launched an FBI probe of Bund camps, and five months later issued his findings in a fourteen-volume report, Nazi Camps in the United States.

But the campaign to bring down Kuhn went into high gear shortly after the Madison Square Garden rally, when New York mayor Fiorello LaGuardia and prosecutor Thomas Dewey seized the Bund’s financial records, hoping to put Kuhn away on tax evasion charges. The plan worked: Kuhn was charged with grand larceny and forgery for embezzling from the Bund’s bank accounts. After being found guilty he was sent to prison, first to Sing Sing, then to Clinton Correctional Facility in Dannemora, New York, where he was incarcerated until being paroled on June 18, 1943. He spent the remainder of the war in the federal internment camp system for wartime enemy aliens, and was subsequently deported to Germany, where he spent the next several years in and out of prison.

Though the Bund attempted to soldier on under the leadership of Bund Führer Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze, “the movement flopped around like a fish on a deck for a couple more years,” quips Bernstein. “Then Pearl Harbor happened and that was that.”



But what might have been lost to history as an ugly curiosity has proven to be a Pandora’s box, as the Internet age has given Ford’s anti-Semitic literature a powerful new life. Today, a century after Ford purchased the Dearborn Independent and 72 years after his death, his legacy of hate is stronger than ever -- it flourishes on the websites and forums of white nationalists, racists and others who hate Jews.

Today, “The International Jew” by Henry Ford plays a significant role in fomenting resentment as the United States grapples with rising numbers of hate crimes and anti-Semitic incidents, ascendant white nationalism and a gunman armed with an AR-15-style assault rifle who massacred 11 people at a Pittsburgh synagogue in October. When he surrendered, the gunman told police he “wanted all Jews to die.”

An essay posted by the Anti-Defamation League on its website says that by resurrecting decades-old texts such as “The International Jew,” today's anti-Semites demonstrate the longevity of their beliefs, legitimizing them to both dedicated followers and potential recruits.

Because of Ford’s fame, “The International Jew” has been a “particularly powerful tool for haters trying to validate their hostile beliefs,” the essay adds.

Two examples of Ford’s influence online today: On Stormfront, a white nationalist online forum, a contributor has taken the screen name Dr. Ford and uses a photo of Henry Ford as a profile image. On the same forum, a participant whose screen name is AllisonRM wrote last year:


“I'm currently reading The International Jew: Essays from the Dearborn Independent (Ford)… Read these great books!...We, the white race, need to encourage ourselves and our children.”


Heidi Beirich, an expert on extremism in the United States at the Alabama-based Southern Poverty Law Center, said extremist websites contain thousands of references to Ford and “The International Jew.”

“In the world of the racist right, Henry Ford is almost a living, breathing human being, “ Beirich said in an interview. She added that extremist leaders use Ford “as an inspiration” and “validator” to impress people while enlisting them to join the movement.


-- 100 Years Later, Dearborn Confronts The Hate Of Hometown Hero Henry Ford, by Bill McGraw


McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence. The term refers to U.S. senator Joseph McCarthy (R-Wisconsin) and has its origins in the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare, lasting from the late 1940s through the 1950s. It was characterized by heightened political repression and a campaign spreading fear of communist influence on American institutions and of espionage by Soviet agents.

-- McCarthyism, by Wikipedia


The Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals (MPAPAI, also MPA) was an American organization of high-profile, politically conservative members of the Hollywood film industry. It was formed in 1944 for the stated purpose of defending the film industry, and the country as a whole, against what its founders claimed was communist and fascist infiltration.

-- Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, by Wikipedia


The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states (the Eastern Bloc), and the United States with its allies (the Western Bloc) after World War II.

-- Cold War, by Wikipedia


Operation Paperclip was a secret program of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) largely carried out by Special Agents of Army CIC, in which more than 1,600 German scientists, engineers, and technicians, such as Wernher von Braun and his V-2 rocket team, were taken from Germany to America for U.S. government employment, primarily between 1945 and 1959. Many were former members, and some were former leaders, of the Nazi Party.

-- Operation Paperclip, by Wikipedia


Orville Liscum Hubbard (April 2, 1903 – December 16, 1982) was the mayor of Dearborn, Michigan for 36 years, from 1942 to 1978. Sometimes referred to as the "Dictator of Dearborn", Hubbard was the most outspoken segregationist north of the Mason-Dixon line. During his administration, non-whites were aggressively discouraged from residing in Dearborn, and Hubbard's longstanding campaign to "Keep Dearborn Clean" was widely understood to mean "Keep Dearborn White."

-- Orville L. Hubbard, by Wikipedia


As for Kuhn, his death attracted little notice; the news didn’t reach the United States until two years later. “Hitler’s U.S. Bund Chief Fritz Kuhn Died Friendless in Germany,” announced Winchell in his February 6, 1953, column for the Daily Mirror. Kuhn had fallen so far, so fast that the columnist had little to say about the disgraced Bundesführer. Winchell’s final words about Kuhn and his dream of a Nazi America were: “(End of shrug).”

Quotes from "Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives

The three documents which are presented in this report speak for themselves…..

They attest the ruthless efficiency of the military set-up which characterizes Hitler's machine in Germany….

The discipline to which members of the German-American Bund are subject is clearly reflected in the endless rules and regulations which extend to the minute details of the Bund members' lives. The documents speak of "absolute loyalty" and "blind obedience."…

The German-American Bund organization clearly anticipates violence by its assertion that "the OD man gives assurance that our movement will, at the sacrifice of life if necessary, remain the inexorable opponents of Jewish Marxism….

According to Document #3, "anyone who is not filled with this unshakable faith and courage and cannot march along as a fanatical fighter does not belong in the OD; to have embraced the National Socialist view of things means definitively breaking off all ties with liberal halfway measures" (p. 1611). This is a clear espousal of the totalitarian, as opposed to the democratic, way of life….

The following quotations indicate something of the religious bigotry of the Germany-American Bund: "All OD men and OD Leaders in particular are required to procure a certificate of Aryan blood" (p. 1610). "We are looking for men who enter our organization not in order to procure personal advantages or to be allowed to play soldier pleasantly, but who intend with their whole power to eradicate the red Jewish pestilence in America"…

the defensive and offensive movement of the national consciousness of American Germanism dedicated philosophically (Weltanschaulich), national-socialistically, and politically to the service of an actually independent, aryan-governed United States of North America"…

Document #1 reveals the keeping of systematic records on "enemies" of the German-American Bund….Hitler explained to Rauschning his system of keeping just such a card file on "friends" and "enemies."….

Document #1 specifies the manner in which a meeting of the Bund shall be closed, as follows: "To a free. Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a three-fold rousing 'Free America! Free America! Free America!"….

These Nazi activities in the United States are traceable to and linked with Government-controlled agencies in Nazi Germany…

the official newspaper of the German-American Bund has had advance information on what was about to transpire in Germany and gave every evidence of intimate knowledge of events to come….

all of the Nazi activities here are on lines identical with those used abroad….

the German-American Bund can muster within its own ranks a uniformed force of 5,000 storm troops and it was testified that in time of necessity this force could be augmented with "strong-arm" detachments of allied groups, such as Italian Black Shirts, Silver Shirts, Ukrainians, White Russians, and similar organizations…

this storm-troop division of the Bund is patterned after the Hitler storm troops and its members are the political soldiers of a Hitler-inspired movement in the United States….

from the manpower of this force the Bund, working hand in hand with the German Government, can draft men for a sabotage, machine and spy net….

members of that organization in all parts of the United States have privately admitted that they are not American citizens but are German citizens and in many cases have boasted that they never intend to become American citizens….

elections were conducted along the lines of recent European plebiscites where everything is under such control that no one dares vote against the machine…

crews of German warships have been entertained by the storm troops of the Bund. German World War veterans are active in storm-troop ranks and help train and drill the men….

Members of the Nazi groups have been found to be working in some of the great aviation manufacturing companies of the United States. They were found working in the United States Navy shipyards where they had succeeded in securing positions which placed them in direct possession of secret plans for the construction of United States Navy battleships of the latest type. They have even been assigned to trial runs on the latest type of these ships…

the Foreign Institute of the Nazi Government at Stuttgart was one of the instrumentalities used in assisting the German-American Bund in spreading propaganda in this country…

German consulates in the United States have been the clearing houses for much of the Nazi activity here…

the groups operated in this country are directed by organizations in Germany which get their support and direction from the German Government itself….

In fact, the Foreign Institute at Stuttgart is being conducted by one Fritz Gissibl, a former leader of the Nazi group in this country and whose brother even now is a member and leader of the Nazi group in Chicago….

every effort is being expended by the bund's high command to instill in these boys and girls, most of whom have never even been outside the United States, the doctrines of racial and religious hatreds preached under the pagan German kultur …

a worship of Hitlerism is inculcated in these youthful unsuspecting minds….

Health, Hitler, Heils, and Hatred are the "4-H's" used by United States Nazis…

They must learn to speak fluent German and to understand the Nazi ideology. They listen to lectures on the Hitler philosophy and the policies of the Third Reich….

the camps are completely Nazi Germany….

The scouts eat, sleep, talk, and dream nazi-ism with the same fervor of the regimented youth of Germany. They are taught to avoid outside "contaminating influences."…

Youngsters are thrust into the Jungvolk organization when only 5 and 6 years old. They wear uniforms of brown and blue shorts or skirts, white blouses with Hitler-brown scarfs. Older boys wear brown shirts with Sam Browne belts, military trousers and boots, and are armed with long hunting knives and spears.

Youths graduate into the "Ordnungs Dienst," the storm-troop organization of the bund, and are trained mentally and physically to lead the troops when the often predicted "trouble" comes. Scouts are told they must be prepared to withstand the onrush of the coming "red" revolution….

At Siegfried and at other eastern bund camps, separate tent encampments for boys and girls are set back in the woods, away from the main building and cottages where their parents drink beer and dance…. Visitors — even parents of the scouts — are not permitted in the youth camps proper. Scouts on duty in the camps must come to the entrances to visit with their parents….

Commands and conversations among the scouts are entirely in German…

Heels click together and the right arm goes out in a Hitler salute when a scout, boy or girl, is addressed by a youth leader or any storm trooper in uniform….

the signs over Nazi youth camps: "You were born to die for Germany."…

Nazi propaganda was slyly worked into the public schools of that city in recent months under the guise of summer German-language classes; that ostensibly, the plan was to simply teach the German language and sing German folk songs, but before very long it became apparent this was not at all the real purposes of the classes. Instead, instructions drifted into Nazi doctrines….

After every Saturday class, trucks picked up some 50 of the children and carried them 55 miles to a Nazi camp near Stanton, Mo. This camp site is operated by the Deutsch-Amerikanische Berufgemeinschaft and is under the direction of Eberhard von Blankenhagen, former Consul Secretary of the German Embassy in Washington….

So closely related is the youth movement of the German-American Bund to that of the Hitler youth in Germany that they even sing the songs of the Hitler youth and reprint them in their song books…

One of the most alarming ways of Nazi propaganda along this line has swept through the ranks of exchange students to universities….

Take, for instance, the case of the Committee on American Youth Camp in Germany. This committee arranges trips and stays for American youths in Germany….

Dr. Colin Ross is a Nazi propagandist who spends his time between Germany and the United States. He has been one of the outstanding speakers for the German-American Bund and has been a writer for the Weckruf, official organ of the bund….

children six years old were shown with the swastika, regulation German Army steel helmets and spears…

Denials to the contrary notwithstanding, this committee was greatly impressed with the evidence presented showing that there is a relationship existing between the German Government and the German-American Bund through the activities of Nazi consuls in this country.

Fritz Kuhn, leader of the German-American Bund, informed this committee's investigator at a time when the latter was disguised as a storm trooper that not only did he have power over the Ambassador and consular set-up in the United States but that he also had a special secret arrangement directly with Adolf Hitler, of Germany.

Ramifications of this "arrangement," Kuhn declared, also included a secret relationship between the German-American Bund and Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present German Ambassador to the United States, and German consuls throughout the country. (See vol, 2, p. 1149.)

In his executive office on the second floor of the bund national headquarters at 178 East Eighty-fifth Street, New York City, on the night of August 16, 1937, this committee's investigator testified that he spoke with Kuhn concerning a trip he had made to the Pacific coast and told him of the difficulties the Los Angeles Post had had with the German consul there….

You see, I have a certain special arrangement with Hitler and Germany that whenever any of our groups have trouble with the consulates in their districts that they are to report it to me in full detail. I then take it up with the Ambassador. Germany is not to be troubled with it unless I get no satisfaction from the Ambassador.

That is exactly why there is a new Ambassador to the United States, and that is exactly why many consuls have been and still are being removed. All the new consuls are National Socialists and are under special instructions to give us the fullest cooperation in every way.


It should be pointed out that Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present Ambassador, was sent to the United States, May 14, 1938, to replace Dr. Hans Luther, whose policy, bund leaders said, did not coincide with those of the bund and the Nazi Party in Germany. There have been numerous consulate changes during the last 2 years, and bund leaders a year ago predicted that more would follow….

Consul von Killinger was also reported as stating that the activities against certain religious groups in this country, as practiced by the German American Bund, are "for the good of America."

The committee had before it evidence (vol. 2, p. 1151) that certain American citizens residing in California had made trips to Germany for the purpose of being schooled in the art of Nazi propaganda and enlightenment. In one instance the father of one of these men (vol. 2, p. 1151) told this committee's investigator that his son's expenses to Germany had been paid through a secret arrangement between the German-American Bund and the Nazi Government….

American Citizens have received Nazi propaganda by mail in packages carrying the imprint of the Nazi consulate at St. Louis…

Propaganda direct from the German Ministry of Propaganda and Enlightenment is distributed by bund officials and evidence was introduced showing definitely that printed propaganda material was shipped from Germany to United States citizens directly. These packages contained, according to the testimony, considerable Nazi propaganda which was printed in Germany for distribution in the United States, considerable Fascist propaganda which was printed in Great Britain for distribution here, and much material of antiracial and antireligious character which was printed here, shipped to German Government agencies, and then reshipped to the United States for distribution in this country….

The packages coming here from abroad contained printed material from the pen of Ernst Goerner, of Milwaukee, Wis.; pamphlets from the Knights of the White Camellia, an organization founded by George E. Deatherage, of Charleston, W. Va.; leaflets from the Russian National Union; and issues from the Christian Free Press, printed in Glendale, Calif….

many Germans living in the United States go abroad and take an oath of fealty to the Fuehrer of Germany…

Repeatedly we have been told that there is no connection between the German-American Bund and the Nazi Government or its political subdivisions, repeatedly we have been told that no allegiance to Adolf Hitler is required, and yet here we have an officially inspired newspaper published in Germany telling us that an oath of fealty was taken….

A target range was set up at Camp Siegfried, Yaphank, Long Island, and on one occasion Herman Schwarzmann, head of the Astoria, Long Island, group, announced that the men were to be "trained to shoot and to take care of guns"…

Bund fuehrers informed storm troops that the various German World War veterans in their ranks would train the younger men in the use of arms….

Within the past year one section of the Gestapo, service section No. 2, under the direction of Colonel Nicolai, has added three new departments, Nos. 23, 24, and 25, all three specifically devoted to espionage in the United States.

Department 23 specializes in economic espionage — the obtaining of American manufacturing and industrial secrets.

Department 24 specializes in military intelligence.

Department 25 specializes in Nazi propaganda….

the German-American Bund receives its inspiration, program, and direction from the Nazi Government of Germany through the various propaganda organizations which have been set up by that Government and which function under the control and supervision of the Nazi Ministry of Propaganda and Enlightenment….

In 1936 Fritz Kulin accompanied a large delegation of bund members to Germany ostensibly for the purpose of visiting the Olympic games. The group paraded in uniform of the Orderly Division (storm troops), and the parade was reviewed by Adolf Hitler. Following the parade, Fritz Kuhn and other officials of the German-American Bund were received by the German Fuehrer…

It was established through the testimony of Fritz Kuhn that the bund had worked sympathetically with other organizations throughout the United States and cooperates with them. Kuhn testified that some of these groups are the Christian Front, the Christian Mobilizers, the Christian Crusaders, the Social Justice Society, the Silver Shirt Legion of America, the Knights of the White Camellia and various Italian Fascist, White Russian, and Ukranian organizations. Kuhn testified that some of the leaders of these groups had addressed meetings sponsored by the bund and that representatives of the bund in turn frequently appeared as speakers at meetings and gatherings sponsored by the above-named groups. It was also established that the bund cooperated with some of these organizations and their leaders by exchanging literature and publications with them and by publishing material emanating from them in the official organ of the bund. Numerous articles have appeared in the bund newspaper expressing the bund's approval of the activities of the organizations already mentioned….

the following are standard reading in bund camps: Hitler's Mein Kampf, Pelley's booklets and publication, Liberation, the books of Julius Streicher (German propagandist), and the Rev. Charles E. Coughlin's publication, Social Justice….

uniforms worn by the members of the youth groups, their camps and program of activities were similar in every respect to those of the Hitler youth movement, and that the Nazi salute was the accepted gesture of greeting….

a group of 15 boys and 15 girls from various parts of the United States who were selected by the bund to be sent to Germany for special training….

there is a political agent on all German ships and that these political agents maintain contact with the Nazi representatives in foreign countries. They are intermediaries for transmission of instructions to the bund leaders in the United States and they receive reports from these leaders concerning the bund's activities, according to the witnesses….

German agents engaged in espionage activities, contacted bund leaders in the United States and sought and received their cooperation. This witness also testified that he had heard discussions among bund leaders with reference to the manner in which the bund, through its members in various industrial plants, could effectively carry out a program of sabotage in case such action became necessary….

members of the bund had assisted German agents whose arrests were sought by officials in the United States in avoiding apprehension and had helped get them out of the United States with the cooperation of German ships….

Nazi propaganda agencies, through officials of the German Government in the United States, have attempted to propagandize educational institutions in this country. It was testified that a German consul general had offered, on behalf of the German Government to subsidize German departments in American universities provided the professors were "acceptable'' to the Nazis….

in August 1938 a so-called anti-Communist convention was held at the bund headquarters in Los Angeles…

the following persons participated in this convention:

Kenneth Alexander, Southern California leader of the Silver Shirts; J. H. Peyton, of the American Rangers; Chas. B. Hudson, of Omaha, Nebr., organizer and leader of America Awake, who accompanied General Moseley when he appeared before the committee; Mrs. Leslie Fry, alias Paquita Louise De Shishmareff, mysterious international figure who has since fled the country, then leader of the Militant Christian Patriots; representatives of Italian Fascist and White Russian organizations; and a number of others of similar point of view….

Bund literature mingled with that of William Dudley Pelley, Robert Edmondson, Mrs. Fry, and George Deatherage on the tables of this convention.

It is clear to the committee that this convention was in no real sense an anti-Communist convention but rather another of a series of attempts to unite some of the various forces of intolerance, racial hatred, Naziism and Fascism in order to achieve greater influence in the United States….

Allen went to Atlanta, Ga., to attempt to "buy the Ku Klux Klan" for Mrs. Fry for the sum of $75,000. He testified that he talked to Hiram W. Evans, head of the Klan, but that Evans "was not interested in the idea."…

-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 28755
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Tue Sep 24, 2019 7:39 am

Part 1 of 2

Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part VII: Report on the Axis Front Movement in the United States [Excerpt from pp. 59-85]
Special Committee on Un-American Activities
House of Representatives
Seventy-Eighth Congress
H. Res. 282

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


GERMAN-AMERICAN BUND
(Amerikadeutscher Volksbund)


The German-American Bund followed closely the pattern of treason made familiar by the Nazis in such organizations as those of Norway's Quisling, Czechoslovakia's Henlein, Belgium's Degrelle, and Jugoslavia's Pavelic. Operating under the flimsy pretext of cultural objectives and general German-American welfare, the bund was always and everywhere a Nazi agency working for disruption, espionage, sabotage, and treason. The bund's pious pretenses were so shallow that it is impossible to believe that any considerable proportion of its membership was ever truly deceived concerning its objectives.

THE COMMITTEE'S INVESTIGATION

On August 12, 1938, this committee held its first public hearings. In an all-day session, the committee heard four witnesses who testified concerning the German-American Bund and its counterpart for German nationals, the German Bund.

The most important of the committee's first witnesses was Peter Gissibl, who had been active in the pro-Nazi organizations which preceded the formation of the German-American Bund and had later, for a period of more than a year, been the local leader of the bund in Chicago.

It was definitely established through the testimony of Gissibl that Fritz Kuhn had ordered the destruction of bund correspondence and membership lists in order to prevent their coming into the hands of this committee.
At the very outset of its investigations, therefore, the committee was faced with the defiance and recalcitrance of the bund leaders. Nevertheless, the very act of destroying its records strongly confirmed the widely held suspicion of the subversive character and aims of the German-American Bund

During the latter half of 1938, the committee employed as an investigator a man who had become a member of the bund in order to obtain evidence of the bund's character from the inside.

The committee heard 23 witnesses on the bund in public sessions. These included some of the outstanding leaders of the bund itself.

The following is a tabulation of the witnesses who appeared before the committee in public sessions and gave testimony on the German-American Bund, together with the dates of their appearance and the pages of the committee's hearings on which their testimony may be found:

Image
Witness
John C. Metcalfe.
Peter Gissibl
Frank Davin
James J. Metcalfe
John M. Sweeney
Roy P. Monohan
John C. Metcalfe
Arnold Gingrich
John C. Metcalfe
Bernhard Hoffman
LeRoy Schulz
John C. Metcalfe
Theodore Graebner
John C. Metcalfe
Fritz Kuhn
Helen Vooros
John C. Metcalfe
Henry D. Allen
Robert B. Barker
Gerhart H. Seger
Neil Howard Ness
Fritz Kuhn
Richard T. Forbes
Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze
August Klapprott
Arthur H. Bell
A. M. Young
Otto Hohner
Herman A. Ries
Richard W. Werner


In addition to the foregoing witnesses who were heard in public sessions of the committee, 56 other witnesses were heard on the bund in executive sessions of the committee.

For several months the committee employed special investigators who were acquainted with the German language. These investigators spent their entire time in examining the publications of the German-American Bund, particularly the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, which was the bund's official organ.

THE COMMITTEE'S REPORTS ON THE BUND

In its first report to the House of Representatives in January 1939, this committee dealt at length with the German-American Bund. (See pp. 91-113 of that report.) The same was done in subsequent annual reports to the House.

In January 1941, the committee issued a special report of 178 pages dealing exclusively with the bund. This report is known as Appendix — Part IV. This report was introduced by the prosecution in the recent trial of bund leaders in New York, a trial which resulted in the conviction of all the defendants. In this report, based largely upon documents obtained from the personal effects of Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze, the committee found the following things:

1. That the bund was characterized by the same ruthless efficiency of the military set-up which characterized Hitler's machine in Germany.

2. That bund members were subjected to "absolute loyalty" and "blind obedience" to the bund's fuehrer.

3. That the bund demanded that its members be "fanatical fighters" for national socialism.

4. That the bund anticipated the necessity of violence in carrying out its program.

5. That the bund was characterized by extreme religious bigotry.  

6. That the bund aimed at the establishment of a new kind of government in the United States, one which should incorporate the principle of Nazi religious bigotry.

7. That the bund kept a systematic record of its enemies.

8. That the bund specified that its meetings should be closed with the following declaration: "To a free, Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a threefold rousing 'Free America! Free America! Free America!'"

9. That the bund was an absolutely secret organization.

10. That the bund looked upon all Americans of German descent as owing loyalty to the Reich.

11. And that the bund was ideologically and organizationally tied to Nazi Germany.


OUTLINE OF THE BUND's HISTORY

Tracing the organizational background of the German-American Bund briefly, we find the following stages:

(1) The first definitely Nazi group organized on American soil was formed in Chicago in October 1924. The group was known as Teutonia and its founder was Fritz Gissibl. Gissibl, who was an alien, at the time, later became a member of the National Socialist German Labor Party (the full English title of the Nazi Party in Germany). He was born in Nuremberg, Germany, and came to the United States in December 1923. A period of only 10 months elapsed between time of his arrival in this country and the time of his forming Teutonia. He made no secret of his allegiance to Adolf Hitler. Gissibl was a printer by trade and was employed on the Chicago Daily News until his Nazi activities were publicly exposed.
According to Gissibl's sworn statements, Teutonia never had more than 50 members in Chicago. In 1931, a branch of Teutonia was formed in Detroit. The Detroit branch was still smaller, having an approximate membership of 12. The leader of the Detroit branch of Teutonia was one Walter Hentschel. Hubert Schnuch succeeded Fritz Gissibl as leader of the Chicago branch of Teutonia. According to Gissibl, Teutonia was disbanded in 1932. Approximtely 1 year later, most of the members of Teutonia joined the Friends of New Germany. Peter Gissibl, Fritz's brother, and Hubert Schnuch both testified that Teutonia was the forerunner of the Friends of New Germany.

(2) Between the time of the dissolution of Teutonia and the time of the formation of the Friends of New Germany, approximately 1 year elapsed. During that interim of 1 year, locals of the National Socialist German Labor Party were organized in Chicago and Detroit. A local of the Nazi Party had previously been organized in New York City. In April 1933, on orders from Rudolf Hess, deputy leader of the Nazi Party in Germany, these American locals of the National Socialist German Labor Party were disbanded.

(3) In July 1933, the Friends of New Germany was formed in Chicago. According to Fritz Gissibl, "the left-overs of the former Nazi Party and their friends" sent delegates to Chicago for the purpose of setting up the Friends of New Germany.
The Chicago convention elected Heinz Spanknoebel as leader and Fritz Gissibl as deputy leader of the new organization. New York City was chosen as the seat of the organization's national headquarters. Spanknoebel, a photoengraver by trade, claimed that he was a clergyman at the time he entered the United States. At the public hearings of the McCormack committee (Special Committee on Un-American Activities) on June 6, 1934, a letter from Heinz Spanknoebel to Walter Kappe was introduced in evidence. This letter read, in part, as follows:

First of all, confidentially, for technical reasons my commission must continue as leader of the defense and enlightenment in the U. S. A., for which also the necessary funds have been appropriated. * * * Our office here leans closely on the consul general, and at present, I am occupied with negotiations and with furnishing the office. * * * Have full authorizations from the Supreme Party Office as well as from the Ministry for Propaganda.


This letter was dated July 6, 1933.

(4) On December 1, 1935, Fritz Kuhn became the head or fuehrer of the Friends of New Germany. In March 1936, in Buffalo, the Friends of New Germany became the German-American Bund and Fritz Kuhn was made its leader. Kuhn remained as leader until December 1939, when he was convicted of the misuse of the funds of the organization. Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze thereupon succeeded Kuhn as the bund's fuehrer.

FRITZ KUHN

Fritz Julius Kuhn was born in Munich, Germany, on May 15, 1896. According to his own testimony, he received his education in Munich, completing a university course there.

In the First World War Kuhn was a machine gunner in the infantry of the German Army. He states that he served 4-1/2 years with the German forces, and by the end of the war had attained the rank of lieutenant.

Kuhn's brother, Max, was appointed a member of the German Supreme Court by Hitler — sufficient evidence that the Kuhn family stands in well with the Nazi Fuehrer.

When Kuhn was a witness before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, he stated that he had never at any time been a member of the National Socialist Party in Germany. However, his testimony on this point was in conflict with a statement which appeared in the official publication of the Friends of New Germany, the Nazi organization which preceded the German-American Bund. In this publication, a picture of Kuhn was carried in the issue of December 30, 1935. Kuhn, who had just become the recognized national leader of the Nazi element among Germans in this country, was introduced to his Nazi followers with the following statement:

Mr. Fritz Kuhn became a member of the Nazi Party in 1921 and was active under the then Munich police commissioner, one of the first leading Nazi officials, Dr. Poehner.


Kuhn further testified before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities that he had had no part in the Munich beer hall putsch of November 9, 1923. This, too, was in direct conflict with the statement which appeared under his picture in the Friends of New Germany paper of December 30, 1935, which declared:

When on November 9, 1923, in front of the Feldherrenhalle in Munich, Bavarian police shot at the Nazis marching under the leadership of Hitler and Ludendorff, Kuhn was among the marching Nazis.


Whether Kuhn committed perjury on the foregoing questions when he was a witness before the committee, or whether the Nazi newspaper deliberately falsified his record and background, the committee is not in a position to state. One thing is certain, however, and that is that the Friends of New Germany desired very much to present itself as a bona fide Nazi organization by correctly or falsely, as the case may be, introducing its fuehrer as one of the original and devoted followers of Adolf Hitler.

Kuhn entered the United States at Laredo, Tex., on or about May 18, 1927. Prior to that date, he claims to have had a residence of about 3 years in Mexico.

After his entry into the United States, Kuhn proceeded directly to Detroit, where he obtained employment in the Henry Ford Hospital and later as a chemical engineer in the Ford Motor Co. Kuhn's employment in these Ford institutions lasted about 8 years.

In addition to scheming to overthrow the Soviet Union in league with National Socialists, Aufbau played a pivotal role in coordinating Hitler's preparations for a putsch against the Weimar Republic. Aufbau helped the National Socialist Party to build a substantial war chest for its intended coup by contributing funds from Aufbau members or allies such as Kirill as well as by channeling funds from Henry Ford, the wealthy American industrialist and politician....

Some White emigre Aufbau members possessed valuable American connections. Colonel Boris Brazol resided in New York, where he played a leading role in the Russkoe natsionalnoe obschestvo (Russian National Society). This organization supported Grand Prince Kirill Romanov's candidacy for Tsar. As we shall see, Aufbau increasingly backed Kirill for Tsar. Brazol also worked on the staff of the American industrialist and politician Henry Ford's anti-Semitic newspaper, The Dearborn Independent. In particular, Brazol provided information on the "Jewish question." Scheubner-Richter praised Brazol as "one of the leading personalities in the Russian emigre circles of America."...

The primary American connection to the German far right was most likely the anti-Semitic industrialist and politician Henry Ford.

-- The Russian Roots of Nazism: White Emigres and the Making of National Socialism, 1917-1945, by Michael Kellogg


Kuhn was naturalized in Detroit on December 3, 1934.

Prior to his naturalization, Fritz Kuhn became a member of the Friends of New Germany, the Nazi organization which was the predecessor of the German-American Bund. Kuhn was, in fact, the local unit leader of the Friends of New Germany in Detroit. It is, therefore, apparent that, wholly apart from other evidence, Kuhn's loyalty was to Nazi Germany at the very time that he took out his final citizenship papers in the United States. Almost 3 years later, Kuhn made it unequivocally clear that his American citizenship had not interfered with his loyalty to Nazi Germany. In his bund newspaper, Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, for April 22, 1937, Kuhn wrote as follows:

We may have various citizenship papers in our drawers, but we are all Germans and part of the great German nation of a hundred million people.


The German-American Bund was formally launched at a national convention held in Buffalo, N. Y., in March 1936. Kuhn testified before the Special Committee on Un-American activities that he personally called this convention together. He was made bundesfuehrer (bund leader) of the new organization. Subsequently, Kuhn became head of three subsidiary or affiliated organizations. They were the German-American Business League, the A. V. Publishing Corporation, and the A. V. Development Corporation. (The initials A. V. Stand for the German title of the bund which is Amerika-deutscher Volksbund).

In the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official bund newspaper, the visit of Kuhn and a delegation of German-American Bund storm troopers to Germany was described with obvious pride in both words and pictures. The accounts of this visit, which took place in 1936, are found in the Deutscher Weckruf and Beobachter for August 6, August 27, and September 10, 1936. When these bund storm troopers paraded in Berlin before Hitler himself, the Nazi Feuhrer stood on the balcony of the Chancellory. As Hitler stood there viewing this parade, Fritz Kuhn went to the balcony and, according to the words of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter itself, "Bund Leader Fritz Kuhn reported to him." The German text of this episode is as follows: "Auf dem Balkon der Reichskanzlei stehend, nahm Reichskanzler Hitler den Vorbeimarsch ab, Bundesfuehrer Fritz Kuhn erstattet ihm Meldung." It cannot be denied that Hitler in this manner gave the highest official recognition of the fact that the German-American Bund was a Nazi agency and that Bundesfuehrer Fritz Kuhn was a subordinate of Hitler himself. According to the report which was published in the bund's own newspaper, Hitler replied to Kuhn, "Now you go back and continue your struggle."

Fritz Kuhn permitted himself to be described as "the American Henlein" in the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter of August 31, 1939. The treasonable role of Henlein in Czechoslovakia is, of course, a matter of public record. Kuln's career as leader of the German-American Bund and the record of the bund itself fit perfectly the pattern made familiar by Quisling in Norway, Degrelle in Belgium, and Henlein in Czechoslovakia.

From March 1936, until he was sent to prison, Kuhn occupied the position of bundesfuehrer in the German-American Bund. In the organization, his word was law. In November 1939, Kuhn was convicted of misuse of the funds of the German-American Bund and was committed to prison shortly thereafter.

Fritz Kuhn was a witness before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on August 16 and 17, and October 19, 1939. The transcript of his testimony may be found on pages 3705-3889 and 6043-6124 of the committee's published hearings.

GERHARD WILHELM KUNZE

Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze was born in Camden, N. J., on January 10, 1906.

According to his testimony before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Kunze's formal education extended through high school. He also received electrical and mechanical training in various night schools.

By occupation, Kunze was a chauffeur-mechanic and electrician up until his full-time employment with the German-American Bund.

Kunze states that he joined the Friends of New Germany in September 1933 and that he was a member of the convention which founded the German-American Bund at Buffalo, N. Y., in March 1936. From the formation of the Bund until August 1937 Kunze was employed by the German-American Bund in Philadelphia. From November 1937 until April 1939 he worked with the German-American Bund in New York on a volunteer basis. From April 1939 until the entry of the United States into the war in December 1941 Kunze was employed on a salary basis by the German-American Bund.

Kunze's position with the bund prior to the imprisonment of Fritz Kuhn was that of national public relations director. After Kuhn was convicted and sent to prison, Kunze became acting national bundesfuehrer of the German-American Bund. His term of acting bundesfuehrer extended from December 5, 1939, to September 1, 1940. On the latter date, Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze became national bundesfuehrer of the German-American Bund and continued in that capacity until the entry of the United Slates into the war in December 1941.

After the United States entered the war, Kunze fled to Mexico with the alleged intention of making an escape to Germany. In July 1942 he was apprehended by the Mexican authorities, taken to the border, where he was picked up by United States authorities and flown to New York. Kunze has been convicted on several counts including espionage.


Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze was a witness before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on October 1, 1940. The transcript of his testimony may be found on pages 8251-8283 in the committee's published hearings.

PETER GISSIBL

Peter Gissibl was born in Germany on October 2, 1900. He landed in the United States on May 10, 1923, and became a naturalized citizen of this country on April 29, 1929.

In February 1925 Gissibl joined the Teutonia Society, one of the Nazi predecessors of the German-American Bund. Gissibl was also a member and an official in the Friends of New Germany (organized in May 1933 and dissolved at the time of the formation of the German-American Bund in March 1936).

Peter Gissibl was president of the German-American Business League (Deutscher Konsum Verband), an auxiliary of the German-American Bund. He was also president of the Teutonia Publishing Co., and president of the Concordia Male Chorus.


From May 1, 1937, until May 18, 1938, Peter Gissibl was local unit leader of the German-American Bund in Chicago, a position which he states that he resigned on the latter date because of disagreements with Fritz Kuhn.

Peter Gissibl's brother, Fritz, was the founder of the Teutonia Society and later the national president of the Friends of New Germany.

Peter Gissibl was a witness before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on the first day of the committee's taking testimony at public hearings, which was on August 12, 1938. The transcript of his testimony may be found on pages 47-72 and 84-86 of the committee's published hearings.

AUGUST KLAPPROTT

August Klapprott was born in Germany on September 4, 1906. He came to the United States in 1927 and was naturalized in 1934.

For 10 years after his arrival in the United States, Klapprott worked as a bricklayer. From May 1937 until January 1940 he operated a restaurant in Nordland, N. J. In January 1940 he became a full-time salaried employee of the German American Bund.

Klapprott states that he was a member of the Friends of New Germany for a period of 2 years prior to the formation of the bund. He joined the German-American Bund at the time of its formation in March 1936.

Klapprott's position in the bund was that of eastern department leader.
In the whole of the United States, the German-American Bund has three departments, the eastern, the middle western, and the western. Klapprott's territory extended from Maine to Florida and included the inland States of Vermont and West Virginia.

August Klapprott is now under indictment for conspiracy to interfere with the operation of the Selective Service Act.

Klapprott was a witness before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on October 2, 1940. The transcript of his testimony may be found on pages 8285-8307 of the committee's published hearings.

MEETING PLACES OF THE BUND

Among the meeting places of the German-American Bund, located by the committee, were the following:

California:
Los Angeles, Deutsches Haus, 634 West Fifteenth Street.
Oakland, Hermannsohn's Park, Dublin Canyon.
San Gabriel, Grape Vine Cafe.

Connecticut:
Norwalk, South Norwalk Quartette Club, 11 River Street.
Southbury, Camp General von Steuben.
Stamford, Liedertafel Halle, 45 Greyrock Place.

Illinois:
Chicago, Germania Klubhaus, 108 Germania Place.

Maryland:
Baltimore, Deutsches Haus.

Pennsylvania:
Philadelphia, Philadelphia Turnhalle, Broad Street and Columbia Avenue.

New Jersey:
East Rutherford, Old Heidelberg Restaurant, Paterson Avenue.
Fairfield, "Deutsches Eck," Route No. 6.
Hackensack, Uhland Halle, 333 Main Street.
Irvington, Emanuels Church, Ney Avenue.
Newark, Apollo Hall.
North Bergen, Schuetzenpark-Saal, Hackensack Plankroad and Hudson Boulevard.
Passaic, Turn Hall, 240 Hope Avenue.
Riverdale, Edelweiss Restaurant, Riverdale Road.
Springfeld, Immergruen Park.
Union City, German American Bund Home, 754 Palisade Avenue.

New York:
Astoria, Broadway Tavern, 30-09 Broadway.
Astoria, Long Island Turnhalle, 44-01 Broadway.
Astoria, Steubenhaus.
Bardonia, Siegmund Restaurant.
Bronx, Ebling's Casino, One Hundred and Fifty-sixth Street and St. Ann's Avenue.
Brooklyn, O. D. Home, St. Nicholas Avenue.
Brooklyn, Prospect Hall, 261 Prospect Avenue.
Brooklyn, Woodward Inn, 675 Woodward Avenue.
Buffalo, Tanglewood Park.
College Point, Long Island, Columbia Hall, Eighteenth Avenue and One Hundred and Twenty-first Street.
Four Corners, Cardinal Lunch, Route No. 59.
Franklin Square, Long Island, Plattdeutscher Volksfest Park.
Grant City, Staten Island, Privacky's Grant City Park at Midland Avenue near Hylan Avenue.
Harrison, Scholz' Farm, 35 Harrison Avenue.
Hempstead, Long Island, Polish Hall.
Hewlett, Long Island, Castle Inn, 1218 Broadway.
Jamaica, Long Island, Jamaica Saengerbund Halle, 168-15 Ninety-first Avenue.
Kitchawan, Cuno Country Club.
Lindenhurst, Long Island, Washington Hall, North Wellwood Avenue.
New Hyde Park, Long Island, Brauhof.
New Rochelle, Alps Rest, 240 Huguenot Street.
New Rochelle, Welmot Inn, Welmot Road Corner.
New Rochelle, Grabs Hall, 18 Mechanic Street.
New York City, L, Armbruster, Inc., 1409 Third Avenue.
New York City, Jaeger's Turnhall, Eighty-fifth Street and Lexington Avenue.
New York City, Yorkville Casino, 210 East Eighty-sixth Street.
Ridgewood, Long Island, New Ridgewood Hall, 1880 Menahan Street.
Rockland County, North Mountain Casino.
Schenectady, Wenzel's Park, end of Campbell Avenue.
Stapleton, Staten Island, Atlantic Kotisserie, 191 Canal Street.
Stapleton, Staten Island, Stapleton Lyceum, 730 Van Duzer Street.  
Staten Island, Alma Guenther Restaurant.
Suffern, Fesel's Pavillion.
Trov, Germania Hall.
White Plains, 101 Main Street,
White Plains, Fritz Restaurant, East Post Road.
Woodside, Long Island, Steuben House.
Yonkers, Polish Community Center.

Washington:
Seattle, Deutsches Haus.

Wisconsin:
Grafton, Camp Hindenburg.
Milwaukee, Republican Hotel, Third Street and Kilbourne Avenue.


LEADERS OF THE BUND

While it was impossible for the committee to obtain a complete list of the bund's membership because Kuhn had ordered the destruction of all membership lists, the committee has been able to identify many, if not all, of the leaders of the German American Bund. The following is a list of bund leaders from coast to coast who were publicly active in the organization's affairs:

Ach, Karl, group leader of the bund in local New York.
Adrian, Else, leader of the girls' section of the bund in local New York, and selected by the bund for training in Stuttgart, Germany.
Andling, Paul, leader of the bund in Schenectady, N. Y.
Bachman, Karl, leader of the bund in local Albany, N. Y.
Bauer, William P., leader of the bund in San Diego, Calif.
Biedl, Franz, bund treasurer in local New York.
Biele, N., head of the bund storm troopers in Philadelphia, and head of bund Camp Deutschhorst at Sellersville, Pa.
Boening, William, leader of the bund storm troopers in Astoria, Long Island, N. Y., and alternate leader of the storm troopers for the eastern district of the bund.
Bojes, Frank, leader of the bund, local Stapleton, Staten Island.
Borchers, Walter, leader of the bund, local South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Brauns, Georg, leader of the bund, local Hudson County, N. J.
Budelmann, John, local leader of the bund, Bergen County, N. J.
Claasen, Bernard, leader of the bund in Hammond, Ind.
Cyler, Leo, leader of the bund in Lindenhurst, Long Island.
Detleff, John, acting district leader of the bund in Hempstead, Long Island.
Diebel, Hans, member of the bund in Los Angeles, and head of the Aryan Book Shop in Los Angeles.
Dinkelacker, Mrs. Erna, head or the youth camps of the bund.
Dinkelacker, Theodor, youth leader of the bund.
Dittrich, Diego, leader of the bund orchestra in Seattle, Wash.
Duell, Elizabeth, member of the bund and leader of the girls' group of the bund in Newark, N. J.
Eigenberger, Frederick, leader of the bund in Sheboygan, Wis.
Faigle, Gotthief, leader of the bund in Yonkers, N. Y.
Faller, Mrs. Anna, leader of the bund girls' group in Kenosha, Wis.
Flick, Karl, leader of the storm troopers of the bund for the Brooklyn district.
Foch, Matthias, district leader of the bund in Santa Barbara, Calif.
Folger, Duncan, head of the bund in New Rochelle, N. Y.
Frischkorn, Paul, leader of the bund in Detroit, Mich.
Fritz, William Jacob, leader of the bund in Toledo, Ohio.
Froboese, George, head of the midwestern district of the bund.
Fuchs, Anton, head of the bund in Pittsburgh, Pa.
Funk, Rudolf, leader of the youth section of the bund in Astoria, Long Island, N. Y.
Gaenger, Peter, head of the propaganda section of the bund in Pittsburgh, Pa.
Gissibl, Fritz, founder of the Teutonia and national president of the Friends of New Germany, both of which organizations were predecessors of the German-American Bund.
Gissibl, Peter, head of the bund in Chicago, Ill., and president of the Deutscher Konsum Verband, a subsidiary of the German American Bund.
Gloeckler, Hedwig, district leader of the bund in Hudson County, N. J.
Goeppel, Allen, leader of the bund in Pittsburgh, Pa.
Goetz, Susie, chief of the bund's news service.
Greis, H., district leader of the bund in New Haven, Conn.
Haas, Hugo, leader of the bund in Brooklyn and active in the bund's youth section; went to Germany to work in the League of Germans Living Abroad.
Haertel, Mrs. Elli, leader of the German Language School of the bund in Staten Island, N. Y.
Hagebusch, Ereka, youth leader of the girls' section of the bund at Camp Nordland, N. J., and leader of the bund's youth section in Astoria, Long Island, N. Y.
Hartman, Alexander H., leader of the bund in Philadelphia, Pa.
Hauck, H., leader of the bund in Jamaica, Long Island, N. Y.
Hayser, Elizabeth, leader of the bund in Milwaukee, Wis.
Heimsoth, Henri, leader of the bund in Kenosha, Wis.
Hein, Gottlieb, district leader of the bund in Oakland, Calif;
Heise, Anna, leader of the women's section of the bund in Brooklyn, N. Y.
Heise, Kurt, district leader of the bund in Long Island, N. Y.
Heller, William, leader of the bund in Poughkeepsie, N. Y.
Hesse, Karl, district leader of the bund in Spokane, Wash.
Hoeflich, Hermann J., leader of the bund in Rockland County, N. Y.
Hutten, H., district leader of the bund in Staten Island, N. Y.
Kappe, Walter, recently resigned from the German Army in which he is a lieu- tenant in order to become the head of a sabotage ring for the United States, and formerly a member of the bund in New York where he was the editor of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official organ of the German- American Bund.
Kessler, Martin, district leader of the bund in Cleveland, Ohio.
Klapprott, August, leader of the bund in New Jersey.
Klapprott, Mrs. August, leader of the girl's group of the bund in New Jersey.
Koch, Tilly, leader of the youth movement of the bund in South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Koehler, Konrad, business manager of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official organ of the bund.
Kohler, Matthias, local leader of the bund in Newark, N. J.
Kuehn, E. F., leader of the bund in Petaluma, Calif.
Kuhn, Fritz, national leader (fuehrer) of the German American Bund and all of its subsidiaries.
Kullman, Paul, local leader of the bund in Wyomissing, Pa.
Kump, Fred, head of the bund in Glendale, Long Island, N. Y.
Kunze, Mrs. A., leader of the women's section of the bund in New Milford, Bergen County, N. J.
Kunze, G. Wilhelm, successor to Fritz Kuhn as national leader (fuehrer) of the bund and its subsidiaries.
Lage, Henry, head of the bund in San Francisco, Calif.
Lattemann, W., head of the bund in Schenectady, N. Y.
Lechner, H., district leader of the bund in Seattle, Wash.
Leibiger, Gustav, district leader of the storm troopers of the bund in Westchester County, N. Y., and Connecticut.
Liebler, Fred, local leader of the bund in Jamaica, Long Island, N. Y.
Liedertafel, P. Kohl, local leader of the bund in St. Louis, Mo.
Luedtke, Willy, national officer of the bund.
I.utz, John, local leader of the bund in San Diego and San Francisco, Calif.
Markmann, Rudolf, district leader of the bund for the eastern part of the United States.
Martin, Rudolph, district leader of the bund for the eastern part of the United States.
Martin, Theo, local leader of the bund in Philadelphia, Pa.
Mettin, Richard, part owner of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official organ of the bund.
Meyer, Bans, leader of the storm troopers of the bund in New York.
Meyer, Lieselotte, head of the girl's section of the blind in Lindehhurst, Long Island, N. Y.
Muehlke, Frank, treasurer of the bund in San Diego, Calif.
Mueller, Albert, leader of the bund in St. Louis, Mo.
Mueller, Ernst, head of the bund in Camp Siegfried, Yaphank, Long Island, N. Y.
Munk, George, head of the bund in Stamford. Conn.
Nadler, Elly, leader of the girl's group of the bund in White Plains, N. Y.
Nuebeck, Hans, district leader of the bund in Buffalo, N. Y.
Nicolay, Carl, propaganda leader of the bund.
Nicolay, Franz, leader of the youth section of the bund in South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Orgel, Helen, head of the women's section of the bund in Los Angeles, Calif.
Othmer, Waldemar, leader of the bund in Trenton, N. J.
Pollmann, Mrs. M., head of the women's section of the bund in Hudson County, N. J.
Purwien, H., local leader of the bund in South Bend, Ind.
Rehfeldt, Anna, national leader of the women's group of the bund.
Reese, Edward, leader of the bund in Spokane, Wash.
Reisberger, George, treasurer of the bund in the Bronx, N. Y.
Rheinberg, Ulrich, dramatic director of the bund.
Rieper, Jacob, head of the bund in White Plains, X. Y.
Risse, Arno, district leader of the bund in Los Angeles, Calif.
Rompe, Hans, local leader of the bund in Lindenhurst, Long Island, N. Y.
Ruhnke, William, leader of the bund in Dayton, Ohio.
Sahling, Werner, head of the boys' section of the bund in New York.
Schaphorst, Henry, local leader of the bund in Fort Wayne, Ind.
Schattat, Fred, local leader of the bund in Gary, Ind.
Scheurer, Hans, local leader of the bund in Portland. Oreg.
Schnoes, E., treasurer of the bund in the Bronx, N. Y.
Schrader, Frederic F., editor of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official organ of the bund.
Schreiber, John H., local leader of the bund in Detroit, Mich., and Toledo, Ohio.
Schrick, Michael, head of the storm troopers of the bund in New York.
Schuster, Josef, district leader of the bund in New York.
Schwarzmann, H., district leader of the storm troopers of the bund for the eastern part of the United States.
Schwinn, Hermann, district leader of the bund in Los Angeles, Calif.
Seegers, Henry, leader of the bund in West Reading, Pa.
Seidel, Erich, organizer of the bund in Glendale, Long Island, N. Y.
Stoll, Paul, local leader of the bund in Seattle, Wash.
Sturn, Erna, leader of the women's group of the bund in Astoria, Long Island, N. Y.
Toener, Rudolf, district leader of the bund in Los Angeles, Calif.
Ullrich, Reinhart, head of the bund in Pittsburgh, Pa.
Vandenberg, Frederick, youth leader of the bund in Camp Siegfried, Yaphank, Long Island, N. Y.
Van den Bergh, Bertha, head of the women's section of the bund in South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Vanderbergh, Frank, local leader of the bund in Brooklyn, N. Y.
Voch, Matthias, leader of the bund in Santa Barbara, Calif.
Von Holt, Henry, local leader of the bund in the Bronx, N. Y.
Von Nasse, Eberhard, founder of the youth section of the bund.
Wagner, Carl, leader of the bund in Passaic County, N. J.
Wagner, Henry, acting head of the bund in Brooklyn, N. Y.
Wax, M., local leader of the bund in Cleveland, Ohio, and Cincinnati, Ohio.
Wegener, Otto, head of the National News Service of the bund.
Weider, Ernest, youth leader of the bund in South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Weiler, Karl, district leader of the bund in Nassau County, N. Y.
Weis, August, treasurer of the bund's Camp Siegfried.
Wheeler-Hill, James, district leader of the bund in New York.
Wieda, A., treasurer of the bund in South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Willmovski, Albert, leader of the bund in South Bend, Ind.
Willumeit, Otto, head of the bund in Chicago, Ill. Winterscheidt, Clara, leader of the women's section of the bund in New York.
Wolter, A. H., secretary of the bund in Pittsburgh, Pa.
Wuest, Karl, group leader of the storm troopers of the bund in New York.
Zimmer, Albert, leader of the bund in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Zimmerman, Hans, head of propaganda section of the bund in New York.


There were various subsidiary organizations directly affiliated, or otherwise connected, with the German-American Bund. Among them were —

GERMAN-AMERICAN BUSINESS LEAGUE
(Deutscher Konsum Verband)


The German-American Business League was a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was head of both organizations. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.)
 
The committee has a complete membership list of the German-American Business League for New York and New Jersey.

A. V. DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION

The A. V. Development Corporation was also a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was president of the A. V. Development Corporation. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.)

A. V. PUBLISHING CORPORATION

The A. V. Publishing Corporation was a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was president of the corporation. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.)

The A. V. Publishing Corporation published the bund's New York newspaper, the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter.

PROSPECTIVE CITIZENS' LEAGUE

The Prospective Citizens' League was an auxiliary of the German-American Bund. (See p. 3755 of the committee's hearings.)

The ostensible purpose of the Prospective Citizens' League was to provide a method whereby those who had not yet taken out their final citizenship papers could nevertheless be actively associated with the German-American Bund.

GERMAN-AMERICAN SETTLEMENT LEAGUE

The German-American Settlement League was the holding corporation for the German-American Bund's camp at Yaphank, Long Island. This camp was known as Camp Siegfried.

Fritz Kuhn was one of the directors of the German-American Settlement League. (See p. 3758 of the committee's hearings.)

GERMAN-AMERICAN BUND AUXILIARY

The German-American Bund Auxiliary was the holding corporation for the bund's camp in New Jersey, Camp Nordland. (See p. 3759 and p. 8265 of the committee's hearings.)  

August Klapprott, eastern leader of the bund, was president of the German-American Bund Auxiliary.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 28755
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Tue Sep 24, 2019 7:39 am

Part 2 of 2

FRIENDS OF NEW GERMANY

The Friends of New Germany (Bund der Freunde des Neuen Deutschland) was the immediate forerunner of the German-American Bund.

The Special Committee on Un-American Activities which was headed by the Honorable John McCormack made a complete investigation and exposure of the Friends of New Germany from its beginning down to 1934. This committee took up the investigation where the McCormack left off.

In March 1936 the Friends of New Germany became the German-American Bund. The change from the one to the other was effected at a convention held in Buffalo, N. Y.

NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN LABOR PARTY

In 1932 and 1933, locals of the National Socialist German Labor Party were organized in a number of American cities — New York, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Cincinnati.

In April 1933, Rudolf Hess, Deputy Fuehrer of the Nazi Party in Germany, ordered the dissolution of these Nazi locals in the United States.

Many of those who had been prominent in the formation of these Nazi locals in the United States met in Chicago in the summer of 1933 and formed the Friends of New Germany which in turn became the German-American Bund.

After Rudolf Hess dissolved the Nazi locals in America in 1933, it was believed by many that the Nazi Party, as such had disappeared from American soil. This belief was held for a number of years until 1940 when this committee uncovered documentary evidence of the existence of a well-organized and secret Nazi Party in the United States.

In November 1940 the committee published extensive evidence of the existence of this secret Nazi Party in America. (That evidence may be found on pp. 1034-1044 and 1262-1287 of appendix, pt. II, which is entitled "A Preliminary Digest and Report on the Un-American Activities of Various Nazi Organizations * * *'', etc.)

The committee discovered that F. Draeger who was consul in New York also bore the title of district leader (Kreisleiter) of the Foreign Organization of the National Socialist German Labor Party (Nazi).

GERMAN BUND

The distinction between the German Bund and the German-American Bund must be kept clearly in mind. The former was an organization of German nationals working exclusively in Chicago and vicinity. Inasmuch as the German Bund was composed exclusively of German nationals, there is no question about the organization's undivided loyalty to Hitler.

THE COMMITTEE'S INVESTIGATION

On the very first day of its public hearings in August 1938, this committee heard a witness who had been a member of the German Bund. On October 20, 1939, the same witness appeared once more before the committee to testify concerning the nature and activities of the German Bund. Also on October 20, 1939, the committee took the testimony of Fritz Heberling who had been the leader of the German Bund.

FRITZ HEBERLING

Fritz Heberling, leader of the German Bund, was born in Strasbourg (then a part of Germany), on May 29, 1903. He took up residence in the United States in 1930. At the time of his appearance before this committee, he was employed as a clerk in the German consulate in Chicago.

HISTORY OF THE GERMAN BUND

According to both of the witnesses who testified before the committee on the affairs of the German Bund, the organization was composed originally of those German nationals who withdrew of the Friends New Germany on orders from Rudolph Hess sometime in 1935. The membership of the German Bund appears to have been in the neighborhood of 300, made up chiefly of skilled workmen of German nationality who were residing in Chicago and vicinity.

The German Bund was dissolved in 1937 by order of the German consul in Chicago. According to Heberling, the consul deemed it inadvisable for the organization to continue in view of unfavorable publicity which it had received as a result of its appearance in public in the uniforms of storm troopers.

Immediately after the dissolution of the German Bund, however, a new organization composed of the same individuals was set up. This new organization was known as the German Citizens' League. Heberling translated the name of the new organization as the Alliance of German Nationals. Heberling was fuehrer or leader of the new organization as well as of the old German Bund.


PURPOSES OF THE GERMAN BUND

According to testimony received by the committee, the German Bund numbered among its purposes the planting of informers within other German and German-American organizations in Chicago and vicinity. In this manner the organization was able to report activities and trends among German nationals and Americans of German descent generally to the Nazis in Germany.

The German Bund also held joint affairs and meetings with other German organizations, including the German-American Bund.


GERMAN CITIZENS' LEAGUE

The German Citizens' League became the successor of the German Bund when the latter organization was dissolved in 1937.

On October 20, 1939, this committee heard the testimony of Fritz Heberling who was at that time the fuehrer or leader of the German Citizens' League.

Other officers of the German Citizens' League were Hugo Bamberg, treasurer, and Hendley Schickenger, secretary.

Inasmuch as the German Citizens' League was composed exclusively of German nationals, there is no question concerning the organization's absolute loyalty to nazi-ism.

KYFFHAUSERBUND

Since 1938 this committee has had under investigation an organization known as the Kyffhauserbund (League of German War Veterans). The Kyffhauserbund was organized under that name in August 1937, and incorporated in the State of Pennsylvania with headquarters in Philadelphia. It had posts in the following cities:

New York, N. Y.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Berlin, N. J.
Manhattan, N. Y.
Boston, Mass.
Scharnhorst, Chicago, Ill.
Erie, Pa.
Detroit, Mich.
Rochester, N. Y.
Houston, Tex.
Hartford, Conn.


NATIONAL OFFICERS OF THE KYFFHAUSERBUND

Karl Schumacher, national commander.
Emil Bruackner, national vice-commander.
Walter Kaeusler, national adjutant.
Karl Schultes, national treasurer.


THE COMMITTEE'S INVESTIGATION

In 1940 committee investigators made a thorough investigation into the activities of this organization in the State of Texas. All officers of the Kyffhauserbund in the State were subpenaed before the committee and gave testimony in executive session. The committee also subpenaed the records of the organization for that State and from an examination of the records and review of the testimony of the organization's various officers, it is apparent that the Kyffhauser bund was another example of a legitimate organization being prostituted by the Nazi cause of Hitler.

HISTORY OF THE KYFFHAUSERBUND

Prior to the formation of the Kyffhauserbund in 1937, there were in operation in the United States several German organizations made up of German World War veterans. Most notable of these were the Stahlhelm (steel helmet) and the Kriegerbund, both of which had their headquarters in Germany. The Stahlhelm was founded November 13, 1918, by Franz Seldte, a factory owner in Magdeburg, Germany, who remained the head of the Stahlhelm until its absorption by the Nazi Party in the early summer of 1933. The purpose of the Stahlhelm was both social and political. Its political activities aimed at fighting against the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Branches of the Stahlhelm were set up in this country and were later merged into the Kyffhauserbund. Following the formation of the latter organization in 1937, the committee has evidence that units of the Kriegerbund have also affiliated with the Kyffhauserbund.

It is now quite clear that what Nazi Germany did was to consolidate all German veterans' organizations into the Kyffhauserbund, and thus made use of it as an arm of the Nazi espionage and propaganda machine in North America.


AIMS OF THE ORGANIZATION

The committee has in its possession an original membership book of the Kyffhauserbund, dated February 1, 1939. The title of page 4 of this book, which is printed in German, will furnish an insight into the true nature of the organization. It reads as follows:

Recommendation of Organization Leader as to Members ability of being trusted with confidential work.


The aims and purposes of the Kyffhauserbund in North America are set forth on page 10 of the membership book as follows:

Aims and Purposes of the Kyffhauserbund in North America

Promote fellowship. Induce our members to become Good American-Citizens, and hold in honor our German name.

Promote and practice German Language and Culture. Work for a better understanding and good will between our homeland and the United States.

Promote Good fellowship, and work for the social welfare of our members and their families.

Promote rifle and pistol practice.


KYFFHAUSERBUND IN TEXAS

In an effort to determine whether or not the members of this organization were pro-Nazi and working in the interest of Hitler, the committee ordered a detailed investigation of the Houston, Tex., post and all of its members. This investigation showed that the fuehrer of the Houston post was one Herman Koetter of 537 Hofman Street, Houston, Tex., a German citizen who had resided in this country 17 years without becoming a citizen, and when questioned under oath by the committee's chairman he stated that he had never made up his mind as to whether or not he wanted to become an American citizen. The committee learned that Koetter had met and conferred with the captain and crew of a number of German ships when they docked in the port of Houston. Koetter is now interned in an alien concentration camp in Texas.

Another member of the Houston post of the Kyffhauserbund was Hans Ackermann, of Taylor, Tex., publisher of the pro-Nazi German language newspaper, the Texas Herold, which was exposed by this committee in 1940. A subcommittee of this committee spent 3 weeks in Austin, Tex., studying the records and files of Hans Ackermann and his newspaper, the Texas Herold. Also a number of witnesses, including Hans Ackermann and his wife, Frieda, were called to testify concerning their activities. This hearing and investigation by the subcommittee revealed that Hans Ackermann and his wife, Frieda, were given a free trip to Germany in 1939 at the expense of the Nazi government. They admitted under oath that they had met and conferred with Rudolph Hess at the Brown House in Munich and that during their stay in Germany they had sent back pro-Nazi articles and editorials concerning their visit which were printed in the Texas Herold. While they were in Germany, war broke out and it was necessary for them to go to Italy and return to the United States on the Italian steamship Rex. An examination of the issue of the Texas Herold clearly showed that it was simply a propaganda sheet for Nazi Germany, being used in an effort to influence the German population which is concentrated in and about Taylor, Tex. The personal files of Hans Ackermann contained numerous letters and communications from Wendler, former German Consul General in New Orleans, and his successor, the notorious Baron Von Spiegel. Both Wendler and Von Spiegel had made trips from New Orleans to Taylor, Tex., some 700 miles to confer with Ackermann from time to time. From the evidence before the subcommittee is was clear that Ackermann was pro-Nazi and working in the interest of Hitler's Germany.
On September 28, 1942, Hans Ackermann went on trial in Austin, Tex., before Federal Judge W. A. Keeling, where the Federal Government seeks to revoke his United States citizenship. The Government charges Ackermann with remaining loyal to Germany and with "doing all in his power to aid the German Reich in its causes."

While there were only 25 members of the Kyffhauserbund in Texas, the books and records of the organization show that it was a very active group constantly engaged in collecting money for German winter relief and other campaigns in behalf of Germany. It was brought out in the testimony of Herman Nester, secretary and treasurer of the Houston Post of the Kyffhauserbund, tha t on a number of occasions the Kyffhauserbund entertained the captain and crew of German boats which docked at Houston, Tex., and at these affairs a Nazi swastika was displayed and the meeting was opened by singing the Horst Wessel. Nester further admitted that on some occasions literature was given them by the captain of the boat. The committee also learned that several times Wendler, Consul General at New Orleans, had come to Houston, some 500 miles distance, to meet with the Kyffhauserbund. In order to determine the true nature of the organization, there is quoted here the testimony of Herman Nester, secretary and treasurer of the bund, which appears on pages 1102-1104 of the committee's hearings in executive session:

Mr. Stripling. At any meetings of the Kyffhauserbund, social or otherwise was the swastika ever displayed?

Mr. Nester. Yes.

Mr. Stripling. Is it always displayed?

Mr. Nester. No, sir.

Mr. Stripling. When was it displayed?

Mr. Nester. It was displayed twice.

Mr. Stripling. Whenever German ships came in?

Mr. Nester. Yes.

Mr. Stripling. At any other times?

Mr. Nester., There may have been other times. I believe it was when this Nazi movement came about in Germany; it may have been displayed a few times, but later on we didn't do it any more.

Mr. Stripling. Have you ever sung the Horst Wessel?

Mr. Nester. Yes; we have.

Mr. Stripling. You sing it at every meeting?

Mr. Nester. No. We sang it possibly when some of the boys from the boat was here.

Mr. Stripling. You said you received from the German ships Literature and pamphlets?

Mr. Nester. Yes.

*******

Mr. Stripling. How about Dr. Wendler?

Mr. Nester. Dr. Wendler, I know him personally, and I think he was once or twice at one of our meetings.

*******

The Chairman. Didn't you feel from your long contact with the organization that it was very much pro-Nazi; that is, the national organization; didn't it have that appearance to you?

Mr. Nester. I believe they was to a certain extent. I wouldn't say exactly pro-Nazi; they are for the new Germany more or less.

The Chairman. When you say pro-new Germany, you mean pro-Nazi Germany?

Mr. Nester. About the same; yes.

* * * * * * *

Mr. Stripling. Do you know Hans Ackermann?

Mr. Nester. Yes; I do.

Mr. Stripling. Did you ever read his paper, the Texas Herold?

Mr. Nester. I do.

Mr. Stripling. You subscribe to it?

Mr. Nester. Yes.

Mr. Stripling. Do you think his paper is pro-Hitler?

Mr. Nester. I think it is. I think he is trying to bring out the other side, the German side of the picture.

The Chairman. Do you see the possibility of an organization such as yours being used for espionage purposes, even though many of its members would have no such intention or no such purpose. In other words, to make myself clear, there will be an organization that is modeled very much along the lines of a legal and legitimate organization, and assuming that a great many of the members were only actuated by a perfectly legal and legitimate design to belong to it can you not see the danger that an agent of the foreign government could utilize that organization, or attend meetings of the organization for the purpose of gathering important information to transmit to his government?

Mr. Nester. I would think there could be such a possibility, without a majority of the members knowing it.


From the foregoing testimony, it can be seen that this organization was in such close contact with the agents of Hitler that it could very easily have been one of the espionage units of the German Government. Listed below are the 10 most active members of the Houston post of the Kyffhauserbund:

Herman Koetter, 537 Hofman Street.
John Ritzen, 207 Henley.
Herman Nester, 14 Hyde Park.
Henry Becker, 1903 South Shepherd.
George Von Der Goltz, Route 7, Box 747.
Ernst Haardt, Post Office Box 1164.
Fr. P. Friedrich, T. 5, Box 538.
Richard Knorr, Needville, Texas.
Hans Ackermann, Box 191, Taylor, Texas.
Helmuth Von Bose, Box 245, Rosenberg, Texas.


The most recent campaign of the Kyffhauserbund was the collection of money to be sent to Germany for the ostensible purpose of providing relief for German soldiers. In order to do this it was necessary that they register with the State Department, which they did on November 27, 1939. This committee's investigators made a check of all of their financial transactions and it was determined that they collected $140,567.43, of which amount they have distributed $103,024.06 for relief to German soldiers in Germany and interned German prisoners of war in the British Empire. The majority of these funds, however, were sent to Germany. Beside the $140,567.43 collected they also collected $26,004.23 in kind, which was distributed in a similar manner. On February 1, 1942, the State Department canceled their registration and they have not been officially permitted to continue in furnishing Nazi Germany with money. At the present time there is an unexpended balance of $17,000 in their account.

As an indication of the sympathetic response given this undertaking of the Kyffhauserbund, the committee found, when it subpenaed the records of the Chicago "Fuehrer" of the Kyffhauserbund, one Nicholas Mueller, that he had in his possession a list of 2,834 individuals residing in Chicago, who had contributed money to the Kyffhauserbund's campaign in behalf of German soldiers. The list of these people is on file with the committee.

GERMAN-AMERICAN NATIONAL ALLIANCE

The committee, in conducting its investigation of the German-American National Alliance (Einheitsfront — translation: United Front), took testimony in executive session from the following officers of the organization: William H. Silge, head of the organization committee; Homer H. Maertz, one of the original directors of the Alliance and its first secretary; Otto Albert Willumeit, leader of the German-American Bund in Chicago; and Ernst A. Ten Eicken, also one of the original directors of the organization.

On November 18, 1940, the committee subpenaed all of the files and records of the German-American National Alliance from their headquarters in Chicago. These records were all in German and included the membership files, the list of delegates, minutes, financial records, and correspondence of the organization. They have all been translated and from an examination of these records and a review of the testimony of the officials of the organization the following facts have been determined:

The first regular meeting of the German-American National Alliance, Inc., also known as the Einheitsfront was held at 1301 Cornelia Avenue, Chicago, 111., on October 30, 1938. The following persons were elected as directors of the organization:

Homer H. Maertz.
Ernst A. Ten Eicken.
George Joesten.
Paul Warnholtz.
Otto Schwarck.


The directors then proceeded to adopt the bylaws [and constitution which appear in this section as exhibit 1. Following this action, the officers named below were elected:

President: Ernst A. Ten Eicken.
Vice president: Otto Schwarck.
Treasurer: George Joesten.
Secretary: Homer H. Maertz.


The main strength of the organization was in and about Chicago, reaching into Indiana and Wisconsin. In 1940, there were 524 delegates to the alliance representing 17 States. A tabulation of the number of delegates from each State is included in this section as exhibit 2. The membership of the alliance was about 18,000.

The official publication of the organization was the "News Letter," with a circulation of approximately 52,000.

The principal source of its income was from contributions, membership fees, and the sale of radio advertisements.

On October 23, 1939, the leaders of the German-American National Alliance set up an association known as the "National Federation of American Citizens of German Descent," and Ten Eicken, one of the directors of the alliance, reported to the delegates of the alliance that there "were now several thousand more than 2,000,000 persons behind us." Paul Warnholtz, one of the directors of the alliance, was president of the National Federation of American Citizens of German Descent.

The "Objectives and Aims" of the alliance are set forth in its constitution as follows:

1. To promote respect for the Constitution and to defend it, the laws, and the general welfare of the United States of America:

2. To oppose the formation by the United States of America of entangling alliances with foreign nations.

3. To assure to United States citizens of Germanic blood the enjoyment of the rights and liberties guaranteed to citizens by the Constitution.


In determining the true aims and purposes of the German-American National Alliance, the committee feels that at the outset of this report it is pertinent to consider the background and views of one of the original directors and first secretary of the alliance, Homer H. Maerz (Maertz).

This committee has had Homer Maerz before it as a witness on two occasions. He was first heard in executive session in Chicago, Ill., on October 2, 1939. He was later heard in Washington, D. C., on January 19, 1942, also in executive session. It might be stated at this point that Maerz and his activities during the intervening time between his first and last appearance were under surveillance by the committee.

From Maerz's own testimony, it can be stated that he is pro-Nazi, and anti-Semitic and has engaged in various forms of un-Americanism. His full name is Herman Homer Gustus Maerz, and his address as last given was 1160 North Dearborn, Chicago, Ill. On December 29, 1939, he was sentenced to serve a term of one to ten years in the Illinois State Penitentiary for malicious mischief growing out of his anti-Semitic activities.

Homer Maerz was the founder and head of the Dearborn Crusaders, a letterhead organization which engaged in anti-Semitic activity. Maerz has been responsible for the distribution of hundreds of thousands of stickers, leaflets, and booklets defaming the Jewish people.

In his book, I Knew Hitler, published here in 1938, the Nazi agent Kurt K.W. Luedecke tells of his first trip to America in 1924 for the purpose of obtaining funds from Henry Ford. He insists that he was sent on direct orders from Hitler. Luedecke got along well with Ford's editor. He writes:

"During my visit to America I found time for several talks with the editor of the Dearborn Independent. That publication has now embarked on an anti-Jewish campaign, with William J. Cameron writing most of its articles. ... Cameron, a capable journalist who successfully phrases Henry Ford's inarticulate racial uneasiness, was receptive when I went to see him. He appeared eager for outside assistance."


-- Facts and Fascism, by George Seldes, assisted by Helen Seldes


According to his own testimony, he has been in contact with and cooperated with most of the active fascists in the United States, such as William Dudley Pelley and George Deatherage. Maerz is quite frank about his rabid hatred for the Jews and he is equally frank concerning his pro-Nazi sympathies and admiration for Hitler and Mussolini. He also admitted that he approved of the German-American Bund, that he had spoken at their meetings, and attended them regularly. He also admitted frequent visits to the German and Italian consulates in Chicago.

To substantiate the above statements, the committee quotes below excerpts from the testimony of Homer Maerz, taken in Chicago, Ill., on October 2, 1939:

(Executive Hearings, vol. 4, p. 1660)

The Chairman. Are you sympathetic with nazi-ism?

Mr. Maerz. Well, in what respect?

The Chairman. I mean, do you admire Hitler and his achievements?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; I think he is doing a fine job in Germany.

The Chairman. You approve of his attitude toward the German people?

Mr. Maerz. Yes, sir.

The Chairman. What is it that you are seeking to do in the United States?

Mr. Maerz. What I am interested in in the United States is to place Christians at the head of our Government, our business, our education, our churches, our general economic structure.

The Chairman. Put them in complete control?

Mr. Maerz. Yes, sir.

(Executive Hearings, vol. 4, p. 1661)

The Chairman. Do you attend bund meetings?

Mr. Maerz. Yes. sir; I have been there.

The Chairman. Many times?

Mr. Maerz. Yes.

The Chairman. Do you speak at bund meetings?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; I have.

The Chairman. Do you approve of the bund?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; I approve of the bund, although I will admit that they made several mistakes.

(Executive Hearings, vol. 4, pp. 1663-1664)

The Chairman. Do you ever talk to the German consulate here? Do you know any of the German consulate?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; I do.

The Chairman. A pretty good friend of theirs?

Mr. Maerz. I know them well; yes.

The Chairman. You meet with them and you all talk about this subject?

Mr. Maerz. No, sir.

The Chairman. You never talked to them about your movement?

Mr. Maerz. In what respect?

The Chairman. What do you talk about when you meet with them?

Mr. Maerz. Well, various and sundry subjects. Usually I have had occasion to go up there.

The Chairman. You talk about Jews, don't you?

Mr. Maerz. I don't like the Jews; that is true.

The Chairman. I say, you and the counsel talk about the Jews, don't you?

Mr. Maerz. I wouldn't say.

The Chairman. How is that?

Mr. Maerz. I wouldn't say that.

The Chairman. What is it you talk about. Don't you talk about your movement, the crusade movement?

Mr. Maerz. Well, more or less. I talk about the lack of understanding that exists in this country today.

The Chairman. Toward Germany?

Mr. Maerz. That's right, toward Germany.

(Executive Hearings, vol. 4, pp. 1664-1665)

Mr. Maerz. Well, I like to read books, magazines, newspapers.

The Chairman. What is the name of the consul that you talk to?

Mr. Maerz. The consul general in Chicago is Dr. Vaer.

The Chairman. And you have talked to him, haven't you?

Mr. Maerz. Yes, sir.

The Chairman. How many times have you talked to him?

Mr. Maerz. I haven't seen him for quite some time.

The Chairman. When was the last time you saw him?

Mr. Maerz. Oh, it must be — Oh, gosh, it must be 2 or 3 months ago that I seen him the last time.

The Chairman. Did you ever talk to the Italian consulate?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; I have.

The Chairman. You talked to them about the same thing?

Mr. Maerz. No; I talked to them about the vicious propaganda that appeared in such publications as Ken. That is quite some time ago, however.

The Chairman. So that there is a sympathetic feeling between the consul, the Italian consul, the German consul and the bund and your groups, a sympathetic feeling between them all?

Mr. Maerz. Well, it all depends on what way one terms that.

The Chairman. You sympathize with Italy and Germany don't you?

Mr. Maerz. Yes. I think they are doing fine jobs.

(Executive hearings, vol. 4, pp. 1669-1670)

The Chairman. What about Deatherage; are you very friendly with Deatherage?

Mr. Maerz. Deatherage is doing a fine job.

The Chairman. Pelley is doing a fine job?

Mr. Maerz. Excellent.

The Chairman. Coughlin is doing a fine job?

Mr. Maerz. Yes.

The Chairman. Hitler is doing a fine job?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; in Germany.

The Chairman. Mussolini is doing a fine job?

Mr. Maerz. In Italy; yes.


Since Maerz was one of the founders of the German-American National Alliance, it is inconceivable that a man with his past record and views could found an organization which purported to "promote respect for the Constitution and to defend it, the laws, and the general welfare of the United States of America," as set forth in the objects of the alliance's constitution and which Maerz was instrumental in drawing up. It should be stated as this point, however, that on February 11, 1939, Maerz was removed as a director and secretary of the German-American National Alliance by action of the directors on the grounds that too many inquiries had been made concerning Maerz's background and past history.

From an examination of the confidential minutes of the alliance, it is apparent that the primary objective of the organization was to prevent America's participation in the war, which of course was exactly the line that Nazi Germany was attempting to put across in the United States of America during the period of 1939-41. The secondary objective was to promote and preserve what the organization referred to as "Germanism," and to combat anti-German propaganda in this country. It will be shown further in the report that the alliance enthusiastically supported the work of various antiwar and isolationist groups, such as the America First and Keep America Out of War Committee.


The purpose of the alliance was to unite the entire German-American segment of our population into a political bloc and pressure group which would exert itself politically in domestic politics to the best interest of Nazi Germany. It was composed entirely of people of German descent who naturally would entertain some sympathy one way or another with their German homeland. The fact that the alliance was not very successful in its endeavor is largely due to the consistent barrage of publicity and exposure which was leveled against it by this committee and the press in Chicago.

In detailing the efforts of the alliance in its neutrality and antiwar campaign, the minutes of the board of directors meetings will be referred to extensively. As an illustration of the manner in which the alliance was serving Germany, the committee includes as exhibit 3 a, letter from the president of the alliance to Senator Logan of Kentucky under date of March 6, 1939, and quotes also from a letter of Paul A. Warnholtz of September 1939:

Permit us to state that we are aiming to pledge all of our members and members of all organizations which are or may become affiliated with us, to assist in preventing by lawful means any person from ever again holding a public office, who votes for the enactment of Legislation or termination of existing laws, as a result whereof the sale of arms, munitions and implements of war would be permitted in the matter of the present European conflict.


To emphasize the close adherence of the alliance to this antiwar and neutrality line which was at that time most favorable to Germany, the committee quotes from the minutes of the board of directors meeting held on August 29, 1939:

Mr. Ten Eicken reported that we will have Captain Grace as speaker but that another letter must still be written. The subject is "Keep U. S. A. out of War."


The complete minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 4.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of September 5, 1939, the following is quoted:

Twenty-five dollars was authorized to purchase auto stickers, "Keep U. S. A. Out of War."


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 5.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of October 30, 1939, the following is quoted:

Mr. Warnholtz stated that we must still take a final step in the question of the embargo. He proposed that we send a telegram to every Congressman, which however would cost more than $200. There was a long debate over the text; it was considered to be very sharp, but Mr. Warnholtz gave the assurance that even though it was sharp no one could find fault with it. The motion to send the telegram was made and accepted. The telegram was immediately dispatched and cost $231.23.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 6.

From the minutes of the delegates' meeting of November 29, 1939, held in Lincoln Turnerhalle, the following is quoted:

The next task is "to keep America out of war", and that we take our part in the coming election.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 7.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of July 3, 1940, the following is quoted:

Mr. Schwarck pointed out that it was important that we widely advertise the anti-war meeting which will be held at Soldier's Field on August 4. It is essential that the meeting be broadcast. Reference thereto should also be made in the News Letter.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 8.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of July 23, 1940, the following is quoted:

Mr. Johnk was commissioned to broadcast the great anti-war meeting at Soldier's Field on August 4.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 9.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of September 4, 1940, the following is quoted:

We are only against war and we are fighting to keep this country out of it.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 10.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of September 25, 1940, the following is quoted:

The America First Society plans to hold a mass meeting and we should remain in close contact with it. Mr. Schwarck stated that he always attended these meetings.

A long debate ensued concerning the relative merits of Roosevelt and Willkie. It is very difficult for Germans to vote for either, but perhaps one is obliged to decide that we must oppose a third term and that Willkie is perhaps the lesser evil.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 11.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of September 30, 1940, the following is quoted:

The presidential election will be the most difficult, but we have adopted a resolution committing ourselves to vote against any candidate who advises lifting the embargo.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 12.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of November 7, 1940, the following is quoted:

Mr. Schwarck pointed out that it is absolutely necessary to assist the American First Committee, since this Committee does not appear to be able to get under way properly.

The present aim of our Organization "to keep America out of war" is very important and then we will work to strengthen ourselves for the next election.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 13.

While the constitution of the German-American National Alliance does not list the promotion of Germanism as one of its objectives, it is apparent from a study of the organization's records that it was in fact one of the main purposes and functions of the Alliance. To substantiate this point, the committee refers to the minutes of the board of directors meeting of August 14, 1939, in which the following is recorded:

The battle against anti-German films must be intensified since these films are directed against Germanism in the United States.

Various organizations have joined the Alliance.

A letter from Montgomery Ward was read in which it was stated that they have not boycotted German goods but on the contrary are constantly importing goods from Germany.


It can be seen from the foregoing reference to the letter from Montgomery Ward that the alliance had concerned itself with the boycott of goods from Germany which could hardly be considered an American activity —

* * * promoting the general welfare of the United States of America —


as stated in the objectives of the constitution of the alliance. The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 14.

The committee also refers to the minutes of the delegates' meeting on October 23, 1939, at the Lincoln Turnerhalle, where the following is found:

A delegate then submitted a report concerning the Germans of the Volga who were not yet convinced that it was necessary to associate themselves with Germanism. Dr. Silge agreed to establish contact with these organizations.

There was a long discussion on how difficult it was for many members to pay the $1.00 membership dues, but in most cases it is not a question of funds but one of recognition of one's Obligation to Germanism.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit No. 15.

The committee also refers to the minutes of the board of directors' meeting on May 7, 1940, where the following is recorded:

More German should be spoken at the meetings.


The entire minutes of the meeting are included in this section as exhibit 16.

The committee attaches importance to the remarks of Paul Warnholtz, one of the directors of the alliance, as recorded in the minutes of the meeting of directors with individual sections held at the German Club, August 26, 1940, in which the following is recorded:

Mr. Warnholtz stated that he did not favor an investigation by the Dies Committee, that the whole thing is a newspaper campaign which we can only oppose with great difficulty. There are many telephone calls against which we are powerless and all we can do is hang on. The newspapers themselves do not consider us un-American. They only write continually that we are pro-Nazi, which is a somewhat vaguer term. This is not even a reflection upon us since quite naturally our sympathies are with the old country. We are now trying to arrange connections with the Bund.


While the committee has no evidence of open cooperation between the German-American Bund and the alliance, the foregoing statement of Warnholtz is significant in view of the fact that two of the original brains behind the idea and organization of the alliance were Otto Willumeit, Chicago "fuehrer" of the bund, and Homer Maerz, a supporter of the bund.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 28755
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Tue Sep 24, 2019 8:54 am

100 Years Later, Dearborn Confronts The Hate Of Hometown Hero Henry Ford
by Bill McGraw
January 24, 2019, 11:45 PM

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.




Deadline Detroit publishes “Henry Ford and ‘The International Jew’” with permission from The Dearborn Historian, a city-funded quarterly magazine of the Dearborn Historical Commission. The story appears in the Historian’s current issue, which marks the 100th anniversary of Dearborn native Henry Ford buying the weekly Dearborn Independent, which he used to attack Jews.

The Historian story is Dearborn’s first detailed examination of Ford’s anti-Jewish crusade, whose content lives on today in the online world of anti-Semites and other hate groups as anti-Semitic incidents are on the rise. While Ford’s dark side has been off-limits in Dearborn
, the city has taken steps in recent years to come to terms with its other symbol of hate, Orville Hubbard, the segregationist mayor from 1942-78.

The story’s author and editor of The Historian is veteran Detroit journalist Bill McGraw, a Dearborn resident who co-founded Deadline Detroit with Allan Lengel. The Historian has no online presence; the story has been edited for posting on a website.


Chapter 1: Mass-Producing Hate

Henry Ford was peaking as a global celebrity at the conclusion of World War I, having introduced the $5 workday, assembly line and Model T -- revolutionary changes that transformed the way people lived. Reporters staked out the gates of his Fair Lane mansion. Ford loved the limelight and he constantly made news, even running for the U.S. Senate in Michigan as a Democrat in 1918. He narrowly lost.

Image
Cover design: Lauren Davies

In the midst of his fame, Ford became a media mogul of sorts, forming the Dearborn Publishing Company and purchasing the sleepy Dearborn Independent weekly newspaper, which was dying of red ink. He published the paper under his name for the first time 100 years ago, in January 1919.

Under Ford, the Independent became notorious for its unprecedented attacks on Jews. But Ford’s anti-Semitism traveled far beyond the Dearborn borders. Showing the marketing expertise that had catapulted Ford Motor into one of the world’s most famous brands, Henry Ford’s lieutenants vastly widened the reach of his attacks by packaging the paper’s anti-Semitic content into four books. Experts say “The International Jew,” distributed across Europe and North America during the rise of fascism in the 1920s and ‘30s, influenced some of the future rulers of Nazi Germany.

In 1931, two years before he became the German chancellor, Adolf Hitler gave an interview to a Detroit News reporter in his Munich office, which featured a large portrait of Ford over the desk of the future führer. The reporter asked about the photo.

“I regard Henry Ford as my inspiration,” Hitler told the News.

Ford’s anti-Jewish campaign provoked protests and a boycott of Ford Motor automobiles in the 1920s. Ford offered an apology -- received by the public with great skepticism -- and closed the paper in 1927. It was too late, though, as copies of “The International Jew” spread widely before and after World War II, influencing generations of anti-Semites. The glowing imprimatur of Henry Ford lent credibility to the preposterous charges against Jews the books contained.

But what might have been lost to history as an ugly curiosity has proven to be a Pandora’s box, as the Internet age has given Ford’s anti-Semitic literature a powerful new life. Today, a century after Ford purchased the Dearborn Independent and 72 years after his death, his legacy of hate is stronger than ever -- it flourishes on the websites and forums of white nationalists, racists and others who hate Jews.

Today, “The International Jew” by Henry Ford plays a significant role in fomenting resentment as the United States grapples with rising numbers of hate crimes and anti-Semitic incidents, ascendant white nationalism and a gunman armed with an AR-15-style assault rifle who massacred 11 people at a Pittsburgh synagogue in October. When he surrendered, the gunman told police he “wanted all Jews to die.”

An essay posted by the Anti-Defamation League on its website says that by resurrecting decades-old texts such as “The International Jew,” today's anti-Semites demonstrate the longevity of their beliefs, legitimizing them to both dedicated followers and potential recruits.

Because of Ford’s fame, “The International Jew” has been a “particularly powerful tool for haters trying to validate their hostile beliefs,” the essay adds.

Two examples of Ford’s influence online today: On Stormfront, a white nationalist online forum, a contributor has taken the screen name Dr. Ford and uses a photo of Henry Ford as a profile image. On the same forum, a participant whose screen name is AllisonRM wrote last year:


“I'm currently reading The International Jew: Essays from the Dearborn Independent (Ford)… Read these great books!...We, the white race, need to encourage ourselves and our children.”


Heidi Beirich, an expert on extremism in the United States at the Alabama-based Southern Poverty Law Center, said extremist websites contain thousands of references to Ford and “The International Jew.”

“In the world of the racist right, Henry Ford is almost a living, breathing human being, “ Beirich said in an interview. She added that extremist leaders use Ford “as an inspiration” and “validator” to impress people while enlisting them to join the movement.


It’s not just extremist websites that are peddling Ford’s books. Shoppers can buy “The International Jew” by Henry Ford on the websites of Amazon, Barnes & Noble and Walmart.

“This is a wonderful book that should be required reading for all Americans,” wrote Tara, in a five-star Amazon review. “Sadly, many people like to label Henry Ford as an anti-Semite, when nothing could be further from the truth.”

This is a wonderful book that should be required reading for all Americans. Sadly, many people like to label Henry Ford as an anti-Semite, when nothing could be further from the truth. Ford was a deeply moral man, to whom honesty, work, and sobriety were sacred concepts. He was a gentle man who shared a love of all living things, a man who was so gentle that he postponed a hay harvest because ground birds were brooding in the field. Ford was a man of peace, saying that he would give his entire fortune if he could shorten World War I by a single day. The workers in his factories loved and revered him.

Henry Ford devoted years of his life and a substantial part of his fortune to awakening the American people to the enemies of our nation. Ford had become convinced that there was an organized, dangerous, largely secret, and incredibly powerful menace to the United States, almost completely Jewish at its highest levels, and he was determined to do something about it. He earnestly believed that if this menace was exposed to the light of day, that moral and responsible Jews would cast out this cancerous group from their midst. He was honestly surprised by the abuse he received from most of his Jewish friends and business associates after his educational work had begun.

Henry Ford believed that if the press would not tell the truth on what he termed the Jewish Question, then it was his duty to his God and his country to do it himself. He purchased what was at the time a small weekly newspaper in his hometown in Michigan, The Dearborn Independent, and turned it into his national voice, with nationwide distribution. His espousal of traditional values combined with a practical populism struck a chord with many Americans, for soon the humble weekly had turned into an influential giant, with a circulation at one point of nearly half a million. Ford lost money on the paper, selling it for five cents per copy or one dollar a year. When Jewish censorship kept it off the newsstands in some cities, Ford made it available through the local Ford agencies. He neither solicited nor accepted advertising because he would not have the paper subject to Jewish or any other outside influence. The masthead meant exactly what it said – Independent.

Ford gathered around him some of the most talented writers and researchers in the business, virtually cleaning out the editorial staff of the Detroit News. He hired the best private investigators. He employed the services of patriotic Congressmen and diplomats. He dispatched his agents to foreign countries in order to dig up the facts.

1920 marked the beginning of the publication, in serial form, of Henry Ford’s research series in the Dearborn Independent. Each week, the paper carried a major story exposing an aspect of Jewish power and influence. One of the men Ford had hired away from the Detroit News, who would eventually become the head of the Dearborn Independent, was the brilliant editor and columnist William J. Cameron. At first, Cameron protested bitterly at the subject matter of the articles on the Jewish Question and almost bolted with a few other staffers who didn’t want to touch this “forbidden” subject. But as the evidence began piling up, he became convinced that Ford was absolutely right. He was the author of most of the Independent’s articles in this series, and stayed with Ford for the next 20 years. These articles would eventually be collected in book form under the title The International Jew. The articles were a sensation and the book became a nationwide success, in fact one of the greatest best-sellers of all time.

While Ford’s educational series on Jewish power was running, the Independent had a circulation of between a quarter million and a half million copies per week. When the articles were reprinted in book form, eventually to fill four volumes, it was not unusual for each press run, of which there were many for each volume, to total over 200,000 copies. It is estimated that more than 10 million copies of the book were sold in the United States alone. The International Jew was translated into sixteen languages, including Arabic, and was distributed by the millions in Europe, South America, and the Middle East. Each of the 4 volumes was a full-sized book of about 250 pages, and was sold for a mere 25 cents. Ford lost nearly $5 million on this venture, and that does not count the losses to his business to several Jewish boycotts and lawsuits.

In this book, which is backed up by irrefutable evidence, Ford exposes Jewish financial and commercial control, usurpation of political power, monopoly of necessities, and autocratic direction of the very news that the American people read.

The motive of his work was simply to make the facts known to the people. The motive of prejudice or any form of antagonism doesn’t have a leg to stand on, especially when the irrefutable evidence, which is presented in the book, speaks for itself.

This book is a magnificent piece of work, a priceless distillation of many thousands of man-hours of expensive research and compilation, a magnifying glass applied to the hidden sources of immorality, vice, degeneracy, and subversion. The International Jew was available in libraries and bookstores all across America. As already pointed out, it was one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. Henry Ford felt that his book was so important that at one point a copy was presented to all purchasers of new Ford automobiles. Yet today this book is almost impossible to find. You will not be able to buy it in your local bookstore, nor check it out at your local library. If it were not for a few courageous Americans keeping it in print and available to you, you would not be able to find it at all.

The truth is that here in a so-called “democratic, pluralist” America this book had been nakedly suppressed. Is it because this book is a hate-filled anti-Jewish polemic? No, not at all. The book’s tone is not at all anti-Jewish, and again and again it appeals to the reason and moral sense of its Jewish readers to put a stop to the abuses of their leaders. It is scrupulously fair, even-handed, and factual. It is because of its extensive documentation and the unassailable facts which it presents that it has been suppressed. For The International Jew is a threat – it’s a threat to those men of money and power who would put a sack over our heads and force us unknowingly and unwillingly into the “New World Order” they have been preparing for us for decades. This book is a threat to those who would take away our weapons of self-defense, and who would take away our freedom and the future of our children.

Henry Ford did not have to do what he did. He was the living incarnation of success. He was by far the richest industrialist of his day. He was loved and admired by millions. Among the common people, he was ranked with the greatest men of all time. Political power could have been his had he wanted it. But he did go forward with his investigation and explication of the Jewish Question at the cost of a large portion of his wealth, at the cost of much of the time and energy of an aging older man, and at the cost of the alienation of many friends, associates, and even family members. He well knew that he was potentially putting his life in peril by opposing those powerful moneyed interests. Henry Ford did this because he felt a higher duty, a duty that transcended all of those considerations. Henry Ford acted in obedience to a duty which we of our generation must rediscover if our children are to have a future. Wherever we find it, and whatever disguise it wears – we must oppose evil.

-- A Book for All Americans, by Tara (Delran, NJ)


As a Roman Catholic, I did not agree with everything that was written in this book, but I must say that I find it refreshing to see that there are still a handful of Christians in the world who truly understand what it means to die to the world in order to live for God. I absolutely admire the Botkin family and would do anything to have them for my next door neighbors.

God gives children to parents, not primarily that they may assist the family, but that they may be brought up in the fear of God and be directed in the way of eternal salvation. This book is a confirmation to me of my lifelong belief that my role as a parent is not to prepare my children for careers in the world,(as the world and most people in the Church suppose) but to prepare them for Heaven. Parents who have expended all of their time, energy, and finances in an effort to launch their children into successful careers, while completely neglecting their chief role, which is to bring their children up in the fear of God and to direct them in the way of eternal salvation have failed miserably and have completely lost sight of the reason why God entrusted children to them in the first place.

God has entrusted parents with a deposit, and not just any deposit; He has entrusted parents with the eternal souls of their sons and daughters. Whether parents want to reflect on this sobering reality or not, the truth is that when they stand before the judgment seat of Christ, the souls of their children will be required of them by God. In that day, parents will not answer to God for the type of career they prepared their children for; they will answer to Him for the religious instruction which they personally gave to their children day in and day out, as well as the manner in which they raised them to fear and serve the Lord.

The sad reality is that most parents will be eternally damned along with their children because of their gross negligence in this regard. Most parents are not bringing their children up in the fear of God, and they certainly are not directing them in the way of eternal salvation. Children have not been given to parents as a present, which they may dispose of as they please, but as a trust, for which if lost through their negligence, they must render an account to God.

Here in the United States, we have a very twisted, distorted, warped, and erroneous view of what Christianity and a life of penance are supposed to look like. We have "Church - America Style," not Christianity, as Christ has decreed. We have men and women who want discipleship on their terms, not on those set forth by the Master. We know nothing - absolutely nothing - of what it means to deny oneself, take up one's cross, live a life of penance, and to detach ourselves completely from the disordered values and priorities of this world. Instead of taking our cue from Eternal and unchanging Word of God, we take it from the culture and from the people of this world who live in open rebellion against God.

Many of the people who harshly criticized the authors of this book did so, not because the authors were in ignorance, but because they themselves were ignorant of what God requires of parents when it comes to the raising of their children. Mr. and Mrs. Botkin have it right, and they have done what is right in the sight of God. It could very well be that in seeing the proper way in which Mr. and Mrs. Botkin have raised their children, some of the harsh critics were pricked in their own consciences regarding areas in which they may have been negligent.

St. Augustine once said, "People usually hate the truth for the sake of whatever it is that they love more than the truth."

If more women would take their responsibilities as wives and mothers seriously, our world would not be in the deplorable shape that it is in. I blame the condition of this country on married women who work outside the home more than on any other group of people. Ladies, your vocation is your family. The Botkin daughters understand this, and they have remained true to it. It seems to me that many of the harsh critics may have abandoned and neglected their true vocation, and they are angry at females like the Botkin girls, who love God too much to do the same.

This is a wonderful book, which I highly recommend to all who are not afraid to walk alone with God in a world that is enslaved, not only to sin, but to conformity as well.

-- A Wonderful Book (So Much More, by Anna Sofia Botkin), by Tara (Delran, NJ)


And then there are the ads. After I explored the availability of Ford’s anti-Semitic books on Amazon in connection with this story, ads for “The International Jew” by Henry Ford began popping up on my Facebook page. They appeared next to ads for what I was actually shopping for -- a winter coat.

Chapter 2: Transforming a Country Weekly

Starting with the issue of May 22, 1920, Ford began using the Independent to attack Jews. Every week for nearly two years, the paper published articles that assailed Jews for being sneaky and treacherous and conspiring to control the global financial system, a common Jewish stereotype. Ford also accused Jews of scheming to dominate such American industries as Hollywood, farming and liquor distribution.

Image
Hot Off the Press: Starting with the issue of May 22, 1920, Ford's Independent began attacking Jews.

“There is no other racial or national type which puts forth this kind of person,” the Independent said in June 1920. “It is not merely that there are a few Jews among international financial controllers -- it is that these world controllers are exclusively Jews.”

While anti-Semitism goes back centuries, Ford’s salvos were likely the most sustained printed attacks on Jews the world had ever seen. With his wealth and resources, Ford remains the most formidable anti-Semite in American history.

In 2019, many educated Americans have a vague understanding that Ford had anti-Semitic sentiments. Few people are aware of the details, though, of how Ford spent millions on his paper and the “International Jew” series of books.

The books spread like a virus, translated into 12 languages and distributed on three continents in the years after World War I. The books appeared as fascist forces were organizing, especially in Germany, one of the countries targeted by Ford’s agents.

In its first couple of years, Ford sold more than 2 million copies of “The International Jew.” His underlings deliberately declined to copyright the content, so other anti-Semites were free to publish the books. That is one reason Ford’s paper and books are widely available today, in printed form and online. With no copyright, it’s nearly impossible to stop their proliferation.

Chapter 3: Henry Ford, Publisher

After paying $1,000 for the Independent (about $18,000 in today’s dollars), Ford named his closest aide, Ernest Liebold, the newspaper’s general manager. Liebold was a hardcore anti-Semite.

“He hated everything Jewish, and he saw the publication as a vehicle for promoting his agenda,” Steven Watts wrote in “The People’s Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century.”

Ford and Liebold then assembled a crack editorial team by raiding the Detroit News.

For top editor, Ford hired News’ executive Edwin Pipp, a liberal Catholic who had been a muckraking Detroit reporter known as a soft touch because he wrote stories about people down on their luck. William Cameron, a Canadian immigrant who was a star reporter and editorial columnist for the News, came aboard as the lead writer.

Experts have long debated the roles of these three in the production of the Independent, but a general consensus has emerged that Ford, not a skilled writer, talked over ideas with Liebold, who ordered Pipp and Cameron to transform them into stories. Some historians believe Cameron “undertook his assignment disgustedly,” as David Lewis wrote in “The Public Life of Henry Ford,” adding that Cameron ”was either unable or did not try to dissuade Ford from launching the attack.” However disgusted he might have been, Cameron remained a Ford aide into the 1940s.

In serving as the link between Ford and the rest of the world, Leibold was strategic and menacing. With Ford’s money, Liebold organized a network of spies, many with government intelligence backgrounds, to snoop around outposts of Jewish life in America, paying special attention to community leaders. The agents funneled the information to Liebold in Dearborn as grist for the Independent’s anti-Jewish campaign.

Henry Ford ordered that the Independent not be used to publicize him or the company, though the paper’s nickname was “The Ford International Weekly” and Ford forced his dealers to conduct subscription campaigns. Some dealerships threw a copy of the Independent into newly sold Model Ts. Circulation eventually reached 900,000, making it one of the biggest periodicals in the country.

The Independent carried a weekly column by Ford -- verbosely ghost-written by Cameron -– that filled “Mr. Ford’s Page.” Ford commented on many everyday subjects, but virtually never used his column for the most blatant anti-Semitic content. The Independent’s attacks on Jews ran separately, often starting on page one, almost always without a byline.

Under Ford, the Independent was tabloid in form, cost five cents and ran 16 pages. Its motto: “Chronicler of the Neglected Truth.”

At the beginning, the Independent was unremarkable, filled with long-winded feature articles on national and international subjects such as farming in Europe, the Smithsonian Institute or a cure for leprosy. Most critics found the paper soporific, a Saturday Evening Post without the pizazz.

It was only months, though, before the Independent took a sinister tack. Ford’s pet peeves -– distant capitalists, aliens who refuse to assimilate, Bolsheviks (all code words for Jews) -- began creeping into the Independent’s pages, according to Neil Baldwin’s 2001 book, “Henry Ford and the Jews: The Mass Production of Hate.”

“His own page took on a strident tone as Ford lashed out against unnamed, hidden influences that continued to trouble him,” Baldwin wrote.

Circulation lagged in the early going and Ford lost the equivalent of $3.5 million in today’s dollars in the first year. Staffers knew changes had to be made. “Find an evil to attack,” Joseph J. O’Neil, a veteran New York newspaperman, urged Liebold in a memo. “LET’S FIND SOME SENSATIONALISM,” he typed with emphasis.

Beginning with the issue of May 22, 1920, Ford found his target. That issue of the Dearborn Independent kicked off a 91-week campaign of insults, criticism and lies directed at Jews from Dexter and Davison to Krakow, Poland.

“The International Jew: The World’s Problem,” read the inaugural page-one headline.

“There is apparently in the world today a central financial force which is playing a vast and closely organized game with the world for its table and universal control for its stakes,” the article said.

In subsequent weeks, the Independent hammered Jews for scheming to take over Broadway theater, baseball, American agriculture and countless other domains. Ford’s paper also popularized an early 20th-Century forgery from Russia, “The Protocols of the Elders of Zion,” which similarly purports to show Jews are bent on world domination.

Chapter 4: Jews and Others Fight Back

The Independent -- put out by Henry Ford, Dearborn-born and bred, legendary Tin Lizzie wizard, American folk hero and one of the world’s richest men -- shocked Jewish Americans and many other citizens of diverse backgrounds. It wasn’t long before they began to counterattack. The Independent was controversial from coast to coast in its day.

Pipp, whose Catholic conscience would not allow him to run an anti-Semitic journal, quit and began publishing his own paper, Pipp’s Weekly, that was often critical of Ford. Cameron took Pipp’s place. Ford’s wife, Clara, and Edsel, his only child, put off by the anti-Jewish articles, reportedly distanced themselves from the Independent.

The Ford family and company executives in Dearborn repeatedly congratulated the management of Ford Werke on the fine work they were doing under the Nazis. In October of 1940 Edsel Ford wrote to Heinrich Albert to say how pleased he was that the company’s plants in occupied lands were continuing to operate. “It is fortunate that Mr. Schmidt is in such authority as to be able to bring out these arrangements,” said Edsel, who died of cancer during the war. The same letter indicates that Ford was quite prepared to do business with the Nazis if Hitler won the war. Though it was difficult to foresee what would happen after the fighting ended, Edsel told Albert, “a general rearrangement of the ownership of our continental businesses may be required. You will no doubt keep as close to this subject as possible and we will have the benefit of your thoughts and suggestions at the proper time.”....

The Treasury Department found that Ford headquarters in Dearborn was in regular contact with its properties in Vichy France. In one letter, penned shortly after France’s surrender, Dollfus assured Dearborn that “we will benefit from the main fact of being a member of the Ford family which entitles us to better treatment from our German colleagues who have shown clearly their wish to protect the Ford interest as much as they can.” A Ford executive in Michigan wrote back, “We are pleased to learn from your letter…that our organization is going along, and the victors are so tolerant in their treatment. It looks as though we still might have a business that we can carry on in spite of all the difficulties.”

The Ford family encouraged Dollfus to work closely with the German authorities. On this score, Dollfus needed little prodding. “In order to safeguard our interests -- and I am here talking in a very broad way -- I have been to Berlin and have seen General von Schell himself,” he wrote in a typed note to Edsel in August of 1940. “My interview with him has been by all means satisfactory, and the attitude you have taken together with your father of strict neutrality has been an invaluable asset for the protection of your companies in Europe.” (In a handwritten note in the margin, Dollfus bragged that he was “the first Frenchman to go to Berlin.”) The following month Dollfus complained about a shortage of dollars in occupied France. This was a problem, however, that might be merely temporary. “As you know,” he wrote Dearborn at the time, “our [monetary] standard has been replaced by another standard which -- in my opinion -- is a draft on the future, not only in France and Europe but, maybe, in the world.” In another letter to Edsel, this one written in late November of 1940, Dollfus said he wanted to “outline the importance attached by high officials to respect the desires and maintain the good will of ‘Ford’ -- and by ‘Ford’ I mean your father, yourself and the Ford Motor Company, Dearborn.”

All this was to the immense satisfaction of the Ford family. In October of 1940, Edsel wrote to Dollfus to say he was “delighted to hear you are making progress…. Fully realize great handicap you are working under.” Three months later he wrote again to say that Ford headquarters was “very proud of the record that you and your associates have made in building the company up to its first great position under such circumstances.”

Dearborn maintained its communication with Ford of France well after the United States entered the war. In late January of 1942, Dollfus informed Dearborn that Ford’s operations had the highest production level of all French manufacturers and, as summed up by the Treasury report, that he was “still relying on the French government to preserve the interests of American stockholders.”

During the following months, Dollfus wrote to Edsel several times to report on damages suffered by the French plant during bombing runs by the Royal Air Force. In his reply, Edsel expressed relief that American newspapers that ran pictures of a burning Ford factory did not identify it as a company property. On July 17, 1942, Edsel wrote again to say that he had shown Dollfus’s most recent letter to his father and to Dearborn executive Sorenson. “They both join me in sending best wishes for you and your staff, and the hope that you will continue to carry on the good work that you are doing,” he said.


-- [Henry] Ford and the Führer, by Ken Silverstein


As the Independent launched its anti-Semitic campaign and sent the paper, unsolicited, to libraries and school across the nation, protests broke out. Some cities attempted to ban the paper, but such moves raised First Amendment issues. Jews organized Ford Motor boycotts. Former President William Howard Taft, a future U.S. Supreme Court chief justice, slammed Ford in a speech. Later, he joined outgoing President Woodrow Wilson and dozens of other VIPs in signing a petition that denounced the Independent.

“God help Henry Ford. God forgive him,” said well known New York Rabbi Stephen Wise, who called Ford the “most contemptible little liar that ever lived.”

Image
Henry Ford with his ghostwriter, William Cameron.

Louis Marshall, a New York lawyer and towering figure in the American Jewish community, played a key role in combatting Ford and the Independent. His first move was to send Ford a telegram, saying the articles “constitute a libel upon an entire people.”

The Independent was unimpressed. “Your rhetoric is that of a Bolshevik orator,” it fired back, linking Jews and Bolshevism, a common anti-Semitic trope.


In Detroit, Rabbi Leo Franklin, the head of Temple Beth El and an outspoken foe of discrimination, found himself caught between Ford and Marshall. Franklin was a Ford friend and former neighbor who had received yearly Model T’s as a gift. Marshall, in Manhattan, urged a more militant approach toward Ford in Detroit that Franklin was slow to adopt. Franklin eventually returned his 1920 Model T and told the Detroit News that Ford “has fanned the flames of anti-Semitism throughout the world.”

Chapter 5: An Independent Target Sues and Ford Shuts the Paper

After nearly two years, Ford suddenly halted the attacks in December 1922. Just as unexpectedly, he resumed them in 1924 when he went after Aaron Sapiro, a young Jewish activist from California who had become a leader in the farm co-op movement.

Sapiro fought back. He filed a $1 million libel suit against Ford, igniting weeks of sensational coverage in the national press. The case came to trial in 1927, though juror misconduct led to a mistrial.

Ford, freed from being forced to testify under oath, a position from which he had embarrassed himself in the past, issued an apology to Sapiro. Ford also took back all of his attacks on Jews
and withdrew “The International Jew,” though that proved to be much easier promised than done. He settled out of court with Sapiro.

In his apology, Ford called himself “deeply mortified” by the attacks, but blamed underlings, denying he knew about the articles in advance. He relieved Liebold and Cameron from their posts at the Independent, but kept them on the company payroll for years. Few close observers -- or average Americans -- believed Ford was so removed that he hadn’t been aware of prominent articles in his own newspaper that had sparked an international outcry.

In an editorial headlined “Forgiveness without Fawning,” the Detroit Jewish Chronicle echoed many other papers in casting doubt on Ford’s claim that he had been unaware of the paper’s content.

“That Mr. Ford does not accept personal responsibility for the anti-Semitic articles is also obvious,” the editorial said. “His action in this respect is what is commonly known as ‘passing the buck.’”

Ford closed the Independent in December 1927. But the damage had been done.

“Ford’s well-publicized decision was disingenuous,” wrote Victoria Saker Woeste in “Henry Ford’s War on Jews,” because he knew that even after closing the paper, his hate literature already lived on in hundreds of thousands of copies of “The International Jew."


Chapter 6: Why?

Why did Henry Ford -- the entrepreneur Fortune magazine in 1999 named “Businessman of the 20th Century” -- spend so much time and money attacking Jews?

Searching for clues, because Ford never discussed his anti-Semitism in depth, historians often have focused on his childhood amid the farms of what is now the streets of east Dearborn. While only a long walk from Detroit in the 1860s and ‘70s, Ford grew up isolated from Jews and most other minorities, and 19th-Century rural America was a place where ancient Jewish stereotypes were widespread.

Image
The International Jew, Volumes I and II

Experts also point to Ford’s close friend, Thomas Edison, an anti-Semite who approved of the Independent’s campaign, and Ford’s close relationship with Ernest Liebold, whose anti-Semitic views were well known. Historian Douglas Brinkley wrote that Ford’s “increasingly vicious anti-Semitism appears to have grown out of his antipathy toward powerful bankers.”

Ford’s criticism of Jews and hatred of Wall Street were “the foibles of the Michigan farm boy who had been liberally exposed to Populist notions,” wrote historian Richard Hofstadter.

“Ford disliked Jews who he believed exercised disproportionate control over the institutions that were vital to the rural-mercantile economy he wanted to build,” wrote Victoria Saker Woeste.

Chapter 7: Ford Family and Company Win Praise for Reparations

The response to Henry Ford’s anti-Semitism by the Ford family and Ford Motor Co. has received considerable praise from Jewish organizations and other observers.

“The Ford family and Ford Motor Company embarked upon correctives even before the Old Man passed away, Neil Baldwin wrote in “Henry Ford and the Jews: The Mass Production of Hate.”

On its website, the Anti-Defamation League says:

In the decades following Ford's death in 1947, the Ford family and the Ford Motor Company have engaged in numerous projects and endeavors in the public interest, including many that have been supportive of Jewish concerns.


In 1997, for example, the Ford Motor Company sponsored the first screening of Steven Spielberg's "Schindler's List," commercial-free, on national television. Ford Motor is credited with extending economic credit to the young state of Israel and supporting Jewish charities at home and abroad.

Today, two generations of the Ford family are well represented on the board of one of the country’s most elaborate historical complexes, The Henry Ford, in Dearborn, formerly called Greenfield Village, which Henry Ford founded. The chairman of the board is S. Evan Weiner, of the Edward C. Levy Co. in Detroit, who is Jewish.

In November, Weiner welcomed a largely Jewish crowd of several hundred people in the museum during a one-day collaboration with the Jewish Historical Society of Michigan: “The Henry Ford…Through a Jewish Lens.” The program examined Ford’s bigotry and, through pop-up exhibits, celebrated Jews as American innovators.

Steven Watts, a historian at the University of Missouri and author of “The People’s Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century,” spoke about Ford’s exalted place in American culture, but added: “It’s hard to find a more blatant anti-Semite in American history.”

Larry Gunsberg, an officer at the Jewish historical society, told the Jewish News that he found the event “an excellent way for the community to embrace the generational change in the Ford family.”

On the “My Jewish Detroit” website, historical society President Risha B. Ring said, “This monumental conversation is long overdue.”

Chapter 8: Ford and the Führer

Henry Ford’s hate campaign took a disturbing turn in the 1920s and ‘30s, when it intersected with Adolf Hitler’s path to power. The collision produced what the 21st Century calls synergy.

Image
Ford's books inspired Adolph Hitler, scholars say.

Copies of “The International Jew” began re-appearing in the 1930s in the U.S., South America and Europe, especially in Germany, where the Nazi Party was poised to take power. Books wound up on a table in the office of Hitler’s National Socialist German Workers’ Party in Munich.

“Hitler’s ravings and public speeches against Jews frequently were based on Ford’s anti-Semitic literature,” Ford expert David Lewis wrote.

One leading Nazi, Baldur von Shirach, the Reichsjugendführer (Hitler Youth leader) in the 1930s, became an anti-Semite after he read “The International Jew” in German, von Shirach testified at the Nuremburg war-crime trials. Found guilty of crimes against humanity for helping to send thousands of Viennese Jews to their deaths, von Shirach served 20 years in Spandau prison.

“If Henry Ford said that Jews were to blame, why, naturally we believed him,” von Shirach is quoted as saying in Baldwin’s “Henry Ford and the Jews.”

Von Shirach added: “You have no idea what a great influence this book had on the thinking of German youth.”

Numerous historians have noted that Ford is the only American mentioned in Hitler’s “Mein Kampf” memoir. After asserting that Jews were increasingly exerting control over American labor, Hitler wrote, “one great man, Ford, to their exasperation, still holds out independently.”

Experts on Hitler have noted Ford’s literature influenced Hitler’s writing in “Mein Kampf.” Reading “The International Jew,” which became a hit in Germany after being published in German in 1922, helped push Hitler further into “conspiratorial anti-Semitism,” Thomas Weber wrote in “Becoming Hitler: The Making of a Nazi.”

“Henry Ford is important for having provided to Hitler confirmation, coming from the very heart of America, of an idea that had been brewing in his mind,” Weber wrote. The idea was that Jews’ control of global finance was behind the world’s problems.

“Henry Ford thus turned into an anti-Semitic icon for Hitler.”

In summer 1938, with the German Wehrmacht having marched into Austria, and despite years of deflecting charges he was an anti-Semite, Ford accepted a 75th birthday present from Hitler. It was the Grand Cross of the Supreme Order of the German Eagle, the highest award the regime bestowed on foreigners.

The golden Maltese cross, surrounded by four small swastikas, was presented to Ford in Ford Motor’s Dearborn offices by Fritz Haller, the German vice consul in Detroit.

News reports about the birthday present from Hitler triggered a bitter backlash across the nation. Ford apologized, again. And again, people laughed when they read his words.

“Acceptance of a medal from the German people does not, as some people seem to think, involve any sympathy on my part with Nazism,” Ford said.

“Those who have known me for many years realize that anything that breeds hate is repulsive to me.”


We can’t know what was in Ford’s heart when he said those words. Perhaps he was genuinely remorseful. Perhaps he accepted the medal to avoid embarrassing an international diplomat, or for business reasons.

In addition to scheming to overthrow the Soviet Union in league with National Socialists, Aufbau played a pivotal role in coordinating Hitler's preparations for a putsch against the Weimar Republic. Aufbau helped the National Socialist Party to build a substantial war chest for its intended coup by contributing funds from Aufbau members or allies such as Kirill as well as by channeling funds from Henry Ford, the wealthy American industrialist and politician....

Some White emigre Aufbau members possessed valuable American connections. Colonel Boris Brazol resided in New York, where he played a leading role in the Russkoe natsionalnoe obschestvo (Russian National Society). This organization supported Grand Prince Kirill Romanov's candidacy for Tsar. As we shall see, Aufbau increasingly backed Kirill for Tsar. Brazol also worked on the staff of the American industrialist and politician Henry Ford's anti-Semitic newspaper, The Dearborn Independent. In particular, Brazol provided information on the "Jewish question." Scheubner-Richter praised Brazol as "one of the leading personalities in the Russian emigre circles of America." Brazol also spent much time in Munich, though he was not officially registered there. He collaborated with Scheubner-Richter and furthered Aufbau's cause by writing anti-Semitic literature. ...

The primary American connection to the German far right was most likely the anti-Semitic industrialist and politician Henry Ford.


-- The Russian Roots of Nazism: White Emigres and the Making of National Socialism, 1917-1945, by Michael Kellogg


That Ford and a number of other American firms -- including General Motors and Chase Manhattan -- worked with the Nazis has been previously disclosed. So, too, has Henry Ford’s role as a leader of the America First Committee, which sought to keep the United States out of World War II. However, the new materials, most of which were found at the National Archives, are far more damning than earlier revelations. They show, among other things, that up until Pearl Harbor, Dearborn made huge revenues by producing war matériel for the Reich and that the man it selected to run its German subsidiary was an enthusiastic backer of Hitler. German Ford served as an “arsenal of Nazism” with the consent of headquarters in Dearborn, says a US Army report prepared in 1945.

Moreover, Ford’s cooperation with the Nazis continued until at least August 1942 -- eight months after the United States entered the war -- through its properties in Vichy France. Indeed, a secret wartime report prepared by the US Treasury Department concluded that the Ford family sought to further its business interests by encouraging Ford of France executives to work with German officials overseeing the occupation. “There would seem to be at least a tacit acceptance by [Henry Ford’s son] Mr. Edsel Ford of the reliance…on the known neutrality of the Ford family as a basis of receipt of favors from the German Reich,” it says....

Ford Motor set up shop in Germany in 1925, when it opened an office in Berlin. Six years later, it built a large plant in Cologne, which became its headquarters in the country. Ford of Germany prospered during the Nazi years, especially with the economic boom brought on by World War II. Sales increased by more than half between 1938 and 1943, and, according to a US government report found at the National Archives, the value of the German subsidiary more than doubled during the course of the war.

Ford eagerly collaborated with the Nazis, which greatly enhanced its business prospects and at the same time helped Hitler prepare for war (and after the 1939 invasion of Poland, conduct it). In the mid-thirties, Dearborn helped boost German Ford’s profits by placing orders with the Cologne plant for direct delivery to Ford plants in Latin America and Japan. In 1936, as a means of preserving the Reich’s foreign reserves, the Nazi government blocked the German subsidiary from buying needed raw materials. Ford headquarters in Dearborn responded -- just as the Nazis hoped it would -- by shipping rubber and other materials to Cologne in exchange for German-made parts. The Nazi government took a 25 percent cut out of the imported raw materials and gave them to other manufacturers, an arrangement approved by Dearborn.

According to the US Army report of 1945, prepared by Henry Schneider, German Ford began producing vehicles of a strictly military nature for the Reich even before the war began. The company also established a war plant ready for mobilization day in a “‘safe’ zone” near Berlin, a step taken, according to Schneider, “with the…approval of Dearborn.” Following Hitler’s 1939 invasion of Poland, which set off World War II, German Ford became one of the largest suppliers of vehicles to the Wehrmacht (the German Army). Papers found at the National Archives show that the company was selling to the SS and the police as well. By 1941 Ford of Germany had stopped manufacturing passenger vehicles and was devoting its entire production capacity to military trucks. That May the leader of the Nazi Party in Cologne sent a letter to the plant thanking its leaders for helping “assure us victory in the present [war] struggle” and for demonstrating the willingness to “cooperate in the establishment of an exemplary social state.”

Ford vehicles were crucial to the revolutionary Nazi military strategy of blitzkrieg. Of the 350,000 trucks used by the motorized German Army as of 1942, roughly one-third were Ford-made. The Schneider report states that when American troops reached the European theater, “Ford trucks prominently present in the supply lines of the Wehrmacht were understandably an unpleasant sight to men in our Army.” Indeed, the Cologne plant proved to be so important to the Reich’s war effort that the Allies bombed it on several occasions. A secret 1944 US Air Force “Target Information Sheet” on the factory said that for the previous five years it had been “geared for war production on a high level.”

While Ford Motor enthusiastically worked for the Reich, the company initially resisted calls from President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill to increase war production for the Allies. The Nazi government was grateful for that stance, as acknowledged in a letter from Heinrich Albert to Charles Sorenson, a top executive in Dearborn. Albert had been a lawyer for German Ford since at least 1927, a director since 1930 and, according to the Treasury report, part of a German espionage ring operating in the United States during World War I. “The ‘Dementi’ of Mr. Henry Ford concerning war orders for Great Britain has greatly helped us,” Albert wrote in July of 1940, shortly after the fall of France, when England appeared to be on the verge of collapse before the Führer’s troops....

“there could be no doubt about the complete incorporation, as regards personnel, organization and production system, of Ford Werke into the German national economy, in particular, into the German armaments industry.”...

As 1941 progressed, the board of Ford Werke fretted that the United States would enter the war in support of Britain and the government would confiscate the Cologne plant. To prevent such an outcome, the Cologne management wrote to the Reich Commission that year to say that it “question[ed] whether Ford must be treated as enemy property” even in the event of a US declaration of war on Germany. “Ford has become a purely German company and has taken over all obligations so successfully that the American majority shareholder, independent of the favorable political views of Henry Ford, in some periods actually contributed to the development of German industry,” Cologne argued on June 18, 1941, only six months before the bombing of Pearl Harbor....

The Nazis never nationalized Ford’s German property...

By 1943 half of Ford Werke’s work force comprised foreign captives, including French, Russians, Ukrainians and Belgians. In August of 1944 a squad of SS men brought fifteen prisoners from the Buchenwald concentration camp to Ford Werke. The German researcher Karola Fings, co-author of Working for the Enemy, a book on Nazi slave- and forced-labor programs, to be published this spring, says Ford’s worker-inmates toiled for twelve hours a day with a fifteen-minute break. They were given 200 grams of bread and coffee for breakfast, no lunch and a dinner of spinach and three potatoes or soup made of turnip leaves.

An account by Robert Schmidt, the man appointed to run Ford Werke in 1939, states that the company used forced laborers even before the Nazis put the plant in trusteeship....Schmidt said that the Gestapo began to play an important role at Ford Werke after the first foreign workers arrived. With the assistance of W.M. Buchwald, a Ford employee since the mid-thirties, the Gestapo carefully monitored plant activities. “Whenever there was the slightest indication of anti-Nazi feeling, be it amongst foreigners or Germans, the Gestapo tramped down as hard as possible,” Schmidt told the Army.

Meanwhile, Ford Werke offered enthusiastic political support for Hitler as well. The fraternal ties between Ford and the Nazis is perhaps best symbolized by the company’s birthday gift to the Führer of 35,000 Reichsmarks in April of 1939. Ford Werke’s in-house publication couldn’t have been more fanatically pro-Nazi if Josef Goebbels had edited it.

-- [Henry] Ford and the Führer, by Ken Silverstein


Or perhaps anti-Semitism infected him to the bone, and his apology was as cynical as it seems to us. What we do know is that this chapter of his life, which lasted less than a decade, reverberates a century later in a crude hatred that seems impossible to eradicate. It’s an ugly side of the patriarch of one of America’s greatest families and founder of one of its best-known companies.

And the ugliness won’t go away. In November, a reader left this Amazon review of “The International Jew”:

“It's just amazing how enlightened Henry Ford became while living in a world of jew contrived deception ramping up in the USA. The European converted (fake) zionist jew has conquered amerika. Judaism = communism.”
[/quote]

The reader gave “The International Jew” five stars.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 28755
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Wed Sep 25, 2019 7:54 am

Part 1 of 8

Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund
by Special Committee on Un-American Activities
House of Representatives
Seventy-Seventh Congress
First Session
on
H. Res. 282

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


INVESTIGATION OF UN-AMERICAN PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN THE UNITED STATES
SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS
FIRST SESSION
ON
H. Res. 282
TO INVESTIGATE (1) THE EXTENT, CHARACTER, AND OBJECTS OF UN-AMERICAN PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN THE UNITED STATES, (2) THE DIFFUSION WITHIN THE UNITED STATES OF SUBVERSIVE AND UN-AMERICAN PROPAGANDA THAT IS INSTIGATED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES OR OF A DOMESTIC ORIGIN AND ATTACKS THE PRINCIPLE OF THE FORM OF GOVERNMENT AS GUARANTEED BY OUR CONSTITUTION, AND (3) ALL OTHER QUESTIONS IN RELATION THERETO THAT WOULD AID CONGRESS IN ANY NECESSARY REMEDIAL LEGISLATION

APPENDIX— PART IV
 
GERMAN-AMERICAN BUND

Printed for the use of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities

MAR 27 1944

SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES
WASHINGTON, D. C.
MARTIN DIES, Texas, Chairman
JOE STARNES, Alabama
NOAH M. MASON, Illinois
JERRY VOORHIS, California
J. PARNELL THOMAS, New Jersey
JOSEPH E. CASEY, Massachusetts
HARRY P. BEAM, Illinois
Robert E. Stripling, Secretary and Chief Investigator
J. B. Matthews, Director of Research

THREE DOCUMENTS OF THE GERMAN-AMERICAN BUND

I. Source or the Documents


The three documents, whose originals form a part of the exhibits submitted herewith, were obtained by duly constituted authorities from the personal effects of G. Wilhelm Kunze, Bundesfuhrer of the German-American Bund. The committee has satisfied itself concerning the authenticity of the documents.

G. Wilhelm Kunze was named Bundesfuhrer of the German-American Bund after Fritz Kuhn, the former Bundesfuhrer, was committed to prison in the State of New York.

II. The Three Documents

The three documents which are presented in this report speak for themselves. The following observations concerning them are, however, in order at this point:

(1) They attest the ruthless efficiency of the military set-up which characterizes Hitler's machine in Germany.

(2) The discipline to which members of the German-American Bund are subject is clearly reflected in the endless rules and regulations which extend to the minute details of the Bund members' lives. The documents speak of "absolute loyalty" and "blind obedience." Document #3 says of the OD Platoon Leader: "He will never complain of his superiors before his comrades, but will display the absolute loyalty and correct behavior which he expects from his men. The blind obedience that will be absolutely necessary in serious situations can be provided only if the Platoon represents a true association of comrades which feels respect for and confidence in its leader" (p. 1608).

(3) The German-American Bund organization clearly anticipates violence by its assertion that "the OD man gives assurance that our movement will, at the sacrifice of life if necessary, remain the inexorable opponents of Jewish Marxism * * *" (p. 1611).

(4) The German-American Bund extols the "fanaticism" which has characterized Hitler and his movement in Germany. According to Document #3, "anyone who is not filled with this unshakable faith and courage and cannot march along as a fanatical fighter does not belong in the OD; to have embraced the National Socialist view of things means definitively breaking off all ties with liberal halfway measures" (p. 1611). This is a clear espousal of the totalitarian, as opposed to the democratic, way of life.

(5) The following quotations indicate something of the religious bigotry of the Germany-American Bund: "All OD men and OD Leaders in particular are required to procure a certificate of Aryan blood" (p. 1610). "We are looking for men who enter our organization not in order to procure personal advantages or to be allowed to play soldier pleasantly, but who intend with their whole power to eradicate the red Jewish pestilence in America" (p. 1611).


We refuse to permit the effort of Communist, Fascist, and other totalitarian-minded groups to pervert this powerful medium into an instrument for the dissemination of un-American ideas and beliefs. We pledge ourselves to fight, with every means at our organized command, any effort of any group or individual, to divert the loyalty of the screen from the free America that give it birth.

-- Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, by Wikipedia


(6) The German-American Bund aims at the establishment of a new kind of government in the United States, one which incorporates the principle of Nazi religious bigotry. According to Document #2, "the duty of the Bund Fuhrer is to maintain and develop the AV by every adjustment to the temporary requirements of the times as the defensive and offensive movement of the national consciousness of American Germanism dedicated philosophically (Weltanschaulich), national-socialistically, and politically to the service of an actually independent, aryan-governed United States of North America" (p. 1552).

(7) Document #1 reveals the keeping of systematic records on "enemies" of the German-American Bund. "Record cards containing personal information about friends, enemies, merchants, politicians, association officers, and similar whom we should know are to be made out in duplicate exactly as are those for members, patrons, and Youth Command members, and submitted monthly;
one card is to be retained by the Unit or Branch Directorate; the other is to be sent to the National Executive Committee" (p. 1491). "Yellow cards bearing the letter 'F' are intended for enemies. Where they are German a 'D' is to be inserted at the top. They are not to be used for Jews. Light blue cards bearing the letter 'J' are for Jews" (p. 1492). Hitler explained to Rauschning his system of keeping just such a card file on "friends" and "enemies."

(8) Document #1 specifies the manner in which a meeting of the Bund shall be closed, as follows: "To a free, Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a three-fold rousing 'Free America! Free America! Free America!" (p. 1495).


(9) The documents reveal the principle of secrecy practised in the Bund, as follows: "All names and addresses of Bund members and officers must be kept confidential and must not be divulged to anyone " (p. 1490). "Names and descriptions of those available for work in the block, the block leader commits to memory, but he is bound upon his honor not to betray any member's name or description to the public" (p. 1560). "Patrons may be admitted also under 'cover' names and 'cover' addresses (fictitious)" (p. 1581).

(10) These documents betray an assumption regarding the status of Americans of German descent which the committee finds wholly false. Document #2 declares: "We owe to ourselves, our ancestors, and our descendants, the right to be a free people, and not the despised spit-upon menials of inferior despots (dictators) who deserve still to be cursed by our children" (p. 1582). While the committee has failed to find any shred of evidence that Americans of German descent are subjected to the kind of discrimination implied in this statement, it is of the opinion that the very spirit of the German-American Bund is calculated to breed the discrimination against which it pretends to fight.

(11) Many passages in these documents betray the existence of a close political and ideological tie between the German-American Bund and Hitler's movement in Germany. For example, Document #1 specifies: "Closing song at 'Horst-Wessel' memorials and other memorials in honor of the fallen of the Hitler-Movement: All four stanzas of the 'Horst-Wessel' song (salute during last stanza)" (p. 1500). Provision is made for the celebration of the birthday of Adolf Hitler (p. 1499). "When a representative of the Reich speaks at a celebration, the German national anthem is to be played immediately after his address" (p. 1496). Speaking of the regulations contained in Document #2, it is stated that "they are the result of the serious study not only of the experiences of our Bund and its predecessors, but also of the experiences of the old home under the leadership (Fuhrung) of the greatest German of all times" (p. 1583). This is a frank acknowledgement of the source of much of the German-American Bund's set-up in Hitler's movement in Germany.


III. Investigation of the Bund

From the very beginning of its existence, the Special Committee on Un-American Activities has made the German-American Bund one of the subjects of its investigation. The first witness heard by the committee in the summer of 1938 testified at length on the nature and activities of this organization. Since that time, more than a score of witnesses have added to the evidence which the committee has assembled with a view to determining the character and activities of the Bund.

On the basis of the voluminous testimony which the committee has heard, the conclusion has been reached that the German-American Bund is an un-American organization engaged in promulgating the ideology and attempting to further the interests of nazi-ism in the United States. That conclusion is reinforced by the original documents which form a part of the exhibits in this report.

In order that a complete picture of the German-American Bund may be presented at this time, the previous findings of the committee are included in this report.

In its report to the House of Representatives at the beginning of 1939, the committee made the following resume of evidence which had been placed before it:

In its investigation of Nazi and Fascist activities in the United States, this committee, recognizing the splendid work done by the McCormack Committee, which made its report to Congress on February 15, 1935, has started where that group left off.

The so-called McCormack Committee investigated and traced the Nazi movement in the United States from the days when Kurt Georg Wilhelm Luedecke became their first real representative here on through the various steps taken until we come to the creation of the the German-American Bund.

The German-American Bund had as its predecessors the "Teutonia Society" and "The Friends of the New Germany."

This committee had divided its Nazi and Fascist investigation into a number of subtitles which we classify as follows: Storm troops, correspondence and records, youth movement, consular aid, funds and propaganda, guns, rifle ranges, etc., Nazi-Fascist merger, German Bund, Italian Black Shirts, Un-American organizations.

It was definitely shown that the Nazi activities in the United States have their counterpart in everything that has been and is being done by similar movements of Nazi minorities in Mexico, South America, and Europe.

These Nazi activities in the United States are traceable to and linked with Government-controlled agencies in Nazi Germany, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that unless checked immediately an American-Nazi force may cause great unrest and serious repercussions in the United States.

At this point it should be made distinctly clear that the Nazi ranks in the United States are not really German-Americans but rather American-Germans. In other words, they consider themselves the identical type of minority as the Polish-German minority in Poland, the Austrian-German minority which recently brought about the annexation of Austria, or the Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia (vol. 2, p. 1108).

As an indication of the thoroughness with which this Nazi minority has been operating in this country through its connections with Germany, evidence was introduced showing that the official newspaper of the German-American Bund has had advance information on what was about to transpire in Germany and gave every evidence of intimate knowledge of events to come.

This committee heard testimony showing that the use of storm troops, the youth movement, the training and drilling, the consular aid — in fact all of the Nazi activities here are on lines identical with those used abroad.

There are approximately 80 Bund posts in the United States. There are no positive or definite figures of the membership although it can be stated that there are approximately 25,000 active members in the German-American Bund. The fact has also been established that some 100,000 persons are willing to be seen at the public manifestations of the Bund.*

STORM TROOPS

From this membership, the German-American Bund can muster within its own ranks a uniformed force of 5,000 storm troops and it was testified that in time of necessity this force could be augmented with "strong-arm" detachments of allied groups, such as Italian Black Shirts, Silver Shirts, Ukrainians, White Russians, and similar organizations (vol. 2, p. 1110).

Repeatedly it has been asserted that the storm-troop division of the Bund is nothing more than a force of ushers for public meetings. The fact is that this storm-troop division of the Bund is patterned after the Hitler storm troops and its members are the political soldiers of a Hitler-inspired movement in the United States. A witness testified that from the manpower of this force the Bund, working hand in hand with the German Government, can draft men for a sabotage, machine and spy net.

Despite assertions by the heads of the German-American Bund that there are no German citizens in the storm-troop ranks, evidence presented before this committee clearly shows that members of that organization in all parts of the United States have privately admitted that they are not American citizens but are German citizens and in many cases have boasted that they never intend to become American citizens.

* Subsequent investigations revealed that there were 100,000 members and supporters of the Bund.


This committee has failed to find any reason for the existence of such storm-troop groups, but there is no Federal statute to prevent their formation and activities.

A witness testified that Herman Schwarzmann, leader of the Astoria, Long Island, post, read a book of German Army instructions to his storm troops, explaining it as follows:

I am reading this to you not so much because I want you to know what my duties are, but because some day all of you may be fuehrers of your own groups. You can reach these heights if you work hard and come to thoroughly understand the problems before us. Every storm trooper should look forward to the day when he may become a fuehrer himself. He must know how to handle people, he must understand people, he must be able to lead and teach them.

I tell you that exactly what happened some years ago is happening now in this country. In Germany the people finally rose up in resentment. This will happen here. It is inevitable. When that day comes, and it is probably not far off, we must be prepared to fight for the right kind of government. We must win the masses to our side. There will be bloodshed and fighting. We shall have to do our part.


No one knows where we shall have to go — New Jersey, New York, or some other part of the country, or what we may be called upon to do. When that time comes every man must be thoroughly trained to assume his responsibility. The important duties, of course, will fall upon the shoulders of our membership. (Implying the storm-troop membership.)

You may think I am just dreaming or talking in the clouds. But I tell you I know what I'm talking about. This trouble will come probably sooner than you think. It has to come, judging from the trends of the Nation.

When we understand how Germans handled their situation in Germany we shall know how to handle the difficulty which will arise in America. In all likelihood the day of trouble will come — Der Tag — with a financial crisis in Washington. Then will be the time to wipe out our enemies.

Remember we are still Germans, for blood is stronger than paper, even though we are also American citizens. And as American citizens we have the same rights as any other citizen. But our rights have not been observed. The storm troops are not even permitted to march on the streets. The controlled press will not print our side of the story. Some day that will be changed, for some day we shall demand our rights.


It was testified before the committee that although the Nazis in this country claim to follow democratic ideas in electing their officers in reality the elections were conducted along the lines of recent European plebiscites where everything is under such control that no one dares vote against the machine (vol. 2, p. 1113).

Another indication of the close connection between the German-American Bund and the Fatherland is to be found in the evidence showing that crews of German warships have been entertained by the storm troops of the Bund. German World War veterans are active in storm-troop ranks and help train and drill the men.

Many Bund storm troopers are constantly urged to make and have made trips to Germany, returning with great quantities of Nazi propaganda material (vol. 2, p. 1114).

Members of the Nazi groups have been found to be working in some of the great aviation manufacturing companies of the United States. They were found working in the United States Navy shipyards where they had succeeded in securing positions which placed them in direct possession of secret plans for the construction of United States Navy battleships of the latest type. They have even been assigned to trial runs on the latest type of these ships (vol. 2, p. 1115).

This committee also learned that as the result of its recent national convention in New York — the one held in September 1938 — the German-American Bund is planning to create a strictly American division in conjunction with the bund. First steps in this direction have already been taken by the high command of the German-American Bund. If this plan is carried out, a merger of a number of minor subversive forces in this country may be expected under the swastika leadership of Fritz Kuhn and the German-American Bund.

CORRESPONDENCE AND RECORDS

The investigation of this committee into Nazi activities was seriously hampered and handicapped because as soon as the resolution creating the committee had been adopted by the Congress, officials of the German-American Bund issued an order to their posts throughout the country to destroy all their records.

Dr. Otto Willumeit, 4344 North Sheridan Road, Chicago, Ill., in a sworn statement made on July 15, 1938, said:

I became an American citizen in 1932 at Hammond, Ind. Shortly after taking over the leadership of the local chapter, I received a letter from Fritz Kuhn, of New York. I carried this letter with me for about a month and recently tore it up as I did not believe it was important. This letter, although I do not remember the exact wording, advised me that in view of the coming congressional investigation of the bund, Mr. Kuhn deemed it advisable for me to destroy all correspondence between the local bund and Germany. He further pointed out that no matter how harmless it may be, the letters could be interpreted in a different light (vol. 1, p. 42).


Another affidavit, part of the proof that Fritz Kuhn, head of the German-American Bund, had ordered records of that organization destroyed, was made by George Froboese, who resides at 3227 North Second Street, Milwaukee, Wis., and who is the leader of the middle west district of the bund. He stated:

I have been asked by Mr. Kuhn to destroy such private letters as may be interpreted as being inconsistent with the proper behavior of an American citizen (vol. 2, p. 1144).


However, the investigator for the committee was able to secure possession of 25 letters which constituted correspondence between the Chicago Bund post and Nazi Germany (vol. 1, pp. 29 through 40).

In this correspondence it was definitely shown that the Foreign Institute of the Nazi Government at Stuttgart was one of the instrumentalities used in assisting the German-American Bund in spreading propaganda in this country.
One of the letters (vol. 1, p. 31) proves conclusively a Nazi Government plan to take American children on vacations to Germany and the letter states that "properly handled, this can be of the utmost importance for the development of foreign connections."

And another quotation from the same letter —

Friendships cannot be made early enough. Youth is especially susceptible at this period. The impressions of a youth in a foreign country influence hundreds of his comrades on his return.


Other correspondence definitely indicates that German consulates in the United States have been the clearing houses for much of the Nazi activity here (vol. 1, p. 38).

Throughout this entire correspondence there is definite evidence and proof that the groups operated in this country are directed by organizations in Germany which get their support and direction from the German Government itself. Despite this connection, none of these groups in this country have registered with the Secretary of State in accordance with the foreign propaganda law which became effective September 8, 1938.

In fact, the Foreign Institute at Stuttgart is being conducted by one Fritz Gissibl, a former leader of the Nazi group in this country and whose brother even now is a member and leader of the Nazi group in Chicago.

Photographs placed in evidence before the committee, properly identified, show a number of German consuls in this country taking an active part in the affairs of the German-American Bund and particularly in the Nazi festivities arranged at a number of camps throughout the United States (vol. 2, p. 1122).

YOUTH MOVEMENT

Some German-American children are being Hitlerized by the leaders of the German-American Bund, despite the fact that under the American law every child born in this country is an American citizen.

The evidence thus far heard indicates that every effort is being expended by the bund's high command to instill in these boys and girls, most of whom have never even been outside the United States, the doctrines of racial and religious hatreds preached under the pagan German kultur (vol. 2, p. 1123).

American ideals and principles of democracy are boldly shoved into the background and a worship of Hitlerism is inculcated in these youthful unsuspecting minds. Although the committee's investigator frequently visited Nazi camps in various parts of the country, he testified that never once was there an occasion where he saw these nazified children led to a Christian religious service in a youth camp.

Health, Hitler, Heils, and Hatred are the "4-H's" used by United States Nazis to prevent Americanization of children whose parents are members of the German-American Bund.

In the coming years all the unity and all the efforts will be required in order to put a stop to the former crippling by the Americanization of their young —


declares the bund yearbook, reprinted from the German magazine Deutsche Arbeit, in referring to children of Germany who have emigrated to America.

Hence —


the yearbook states, after pointing out that Germany's youth movement at home must confine itself to German children still in the Fatherland —

the youth groups of the German-American Bund are a real achievement for Germany.


In forwarding this program, childish voices ring out in a crescendo of "Heil Hitlers" in German-American camps throughout the Nation.

These American boys and girls sing hymns to Der Fuehrer and to the Fatherland they never have seen.  

"Our youth are the lifeline of our movement," leaders repeatedly insist. "We may be gone soon and the youth must carry on our fight. * * *."

Under the guise of health, some German-American children are being trained and marched away from the democratic traditions of America.

They must learn to speak fluent German and to understand the Nazi ideology. They listen to lectures on the Hitler philosophy and the policies of the Third Reich.

In its youth movement, as in the parent organization, the bund professes a defense of the United States Constitution and "true Americanism." But the camps are completely Nazi Germany. The United States is forgotten except for an occasional display of American flags. The swastika of Germany is the important flag to the boy and girl scouts. "Old Glory" is of secondary importance (vol. 2, p. 1124).

The scouts eat, sleep, talk, and dream nazi-ism with the same fervor of the regimented youth of Germany. They are taught to avoid outside "contaminating influences." American history, according to testimony before the committee, is revised in public addresses for them to show that this country has been saved from destruction only through the influence of German-Americans.

Just as in Germany, the youth movement is divided into three sections — the Jungenschaft (boys); the Maedchenschaft (girls), and the Jungvolk (smaller children too young to join other groups).

Youngsters are thrust into the Jungvolk organization when only 5 and 6 years old. They wear uniforms of brown and blue shorts or skirts, white blouses with Hitler-brown scarfs. Older boys wear brown shirts with Sam Browne belts, military trousers and boots, and are armed with long hunting knives and spears.

Youths graduate into the "Ordnungs Dienst," the storm-troop organization of the bund, and are trained mentally and physically to lead the troops when the often predicted "trouble" comes. Scouts are told they must be prepared to withstand the onrush of the coming "red" revolution.


From their elders, scouts learn to be suspicious of strangers. They will not discuss the bund unless they know the listener is sympathetic. The investigator for the committee testified that he entered Turner Hall at Eighty-fifth Street and Lexington Avenue in the Yorkville German section of New York City, where the bund holds many of its meetings, and asked a young scout fuehrer where the bund headquarters were situated.

"Bund?" the youth asked in pretended ignorance. "I don't know anything about the bund."

Investigation by this investigator disclosed that beyond the door he was guarding a group of boys and girls [who] were attending one of the "Bundes-Redner-Schule." A propaganda film showing the delights of new Germany was part of the day's instruction.

Landesjugendfuehrer (national youth leader) is Theodore Dinkelacker, 9238 Lamont Avenue, Elmhurst, Long Island. Under 30, Dinkelacker devotes all of his time to drilling and teaching potential national socialists. He leads them in parades behind the storm troops at summer festivals and in the city drill halls of the bund during the winter.

Our youth love the fight—


Dinkelacker explained to a witness.

They are mostly sons and daughters of old fighters and thus they will not permit the fighting spirit of the bund to die out.

National socialism is a world-wide philosophy of strength. We teach our youth along these lines so that they may take the right road in life. We instill in them pride of German nationality and race. We insist on order and discipline to build character and a broad athletic program to build the body.


Youth builds are proud of being the future of "the only fighting organization in German-America" Dinkelacker says according to testimony before the committee, and "will always look down with contempt upon those who avoid the battle, who gather in little groups and clubs in order, when they reach manhood, to change into rabbit-breeding societies or bowling clubs" (vol. 2, p. 1125).

All boys and girls —


he continued, according to this same testimony —

have the obligation to keep themselves strong and healthy for their German race; healthy in order to transmit as a link in an unending chain the heritage of our ancestors to the coming generation; strong in order to ward off every attack against the German race; politically and economically.


The bund youth group "does not only have the purpose to breed a new generation, as certain malicious tongues assert," Dinkelacker explained, according to the testimony of a witness before the committee.

We wish to train the young to become useful members of the German racial community. We wish to train our youth groups to such an extent that by observation we may be able to pick out talented boys and girls, support them in their education, and thus create the possibility that the most capable be placed at the head, for the benefit not only of the German element but of the entire Nation.


Camp Hindenburg, near Grafton, Wis., 18 miles north of Milwaukee, is the "summer home" of Chicago and Milwaukee scouts. The camp is in its third year. There was also testimony that two signs, one in blue and one in red, point the way to the camp down a gravel road from U. S. Highway 141. The signs are lettered merely "A. V." The camp itself is set in the valley surrounded by wooded hills with the Milwaukee River providing swimming facilities on the west side of the tract. There is a parking lot for autos through which one must pass before entering the camp proper. The camp and lot are separated by a wire fence with a single pole carrying a sign "Private property."

Unlike the eastern camps, there are no elaborate permanent buildings at Camp Hindenburg. The Kaffee Kucha (coffee kitchen) and beer stand are housed in small wooden structures. Tents are set in a circle. In the center is a tall flagpole from which are flown the American flag and the Jungenschaft flag — a white streak of lightning or half swastika on a black background. Regulation German swastika flags are displayed on special occasions.

About 80 boys from Chicago and Milwaukee gave up the tents on August 1, after a 2- week stay at the camp, and about 100 girls moved in. The boys and girls marched behind a military band of German World War veterans to the flagpole for a ceremony, during which the boys' flag was replaced by that of the girls' organization.

Uniforms worn by the Chicago and Milwaukee boys include a wide brown belt with a silver buckle bearing a swastika and the legend "Blut and Ehre" (blood and honor). One boy displaced a hunting knife which had a similar inscription on the blade.

Chicago boys and girls when not in camp meet once a week or oftener at the Bundesheim (bund home) at 3853 North Western Avenue and at the south side headquarters at 605 West Sixtieth Street. They also attend the Theodore Koerner Schule, operated at the north side home.

The American Nazi youth movement is much stronger in the East and Middle West than in the Far West.

According to one witness, the west coast bund members enthusiastically welcomed Erich Barischoff, member of the Brooklyn, N. ., Jungenschaft, who appeared at Deutsches Hans, Los Angeles headquarters, August 1, after a 24-day hike across the country. Erich was en route to the Dutch East Indies and thence to Germany to visit relatives. According to testimony before the committee he had nothing but scorn for the American Boy Scouts (vol. 2, p. 1126).

They're sissies —


he exclaimed.

They don't know what hardships are like. They take little walks while we travel hundreds of miles. There is no comparison between the American Boy Scouts and the Jungenschaft. The Americans are babies alongside of us.


The Philadelphia youth encampment is part of the bund layout of the Deutschorst Country Club, near Croydon, Pa. Forty boys and 25 girls live in tents and in an old mansion, which had been used at one time as a speakeasy and later as a home for wayward girls before the bund leased it 4 years ago, according to testimony before the committee. The owner offered to sell the property to the bund for $12,000 4 years ago but boosted his price to $18,000 last summer just before the lease expired.

A Philadelphia storm trooper in a conversation with his fuehrer, G. W. Kunze, on July 25, revealed "how we fooled those newspapermen." A reporter and photographer of the Philadelphia Record spent several hours at the camp that day.

They didn't see a thing and got only a lot of pictures that don't mean anything —


the trooper explained.  

The funniest thing happened when they went to the youth camp. All they saw was the boys and their tents with a little American flag on the staff. They didn't get to see our flag.


The trooper indicated the swastika had been removed purposely for the day in anticipation of newspaper photographers.

Efdende camp, 9 miles north of Pontiac, Mich., serves the Detroit post. It does not compare in size or in buildings and improvements with the eastern camps. Entrance is down a side road off United States Highway 10 at the Springfield Gladiola Farms. A small sign reads "Summer Camp A. V." Detroit members are cautious about displaying swastikas or other Hitler emblems at their camp.

A small frame building houses a kitchen and bar near the lake shore while headquarters for the Jungenschaft is beyond an athletic field. About 20 girls and 30 boys are accommodated in separate units of a one-story building.  



The most elaborate of the bund's camps are Siegfried, near Yaphank, Long Island, and Nordland, near Andover, N. J. It was at a youth celebration at Camp Siegfried on July 11, that National Leader Fritz Kuhn, according to testimony, said:

The youth of our great bund are the hope, the life line of our organization. Through them we must live into the future. It is, therefore, necessary that we must stand united behind them, educate them and raise them to manhood and womanhood with our ideals embedded in their hearts. We must fight together for their freedom.

We must work to win over the youth of all German-Americans and some day when our labor has reaped its reward we shall hear fine and strong German-American youths come marching from the east and west, from the south and north— marching onward to build a greater nation.


When "Achtung!" (Attention) rings out over the loudspeaker system in the eastern camps, scouts as well as storm troopers hurry to attention. If it is Sunday morning at Camp Siegfried, boys and girls form into separate ranks and prepare to greet storm troopers and other bund members arriving from New York on a special train.

Some of the scouts march behind the German swastika and the American flag to the railroad station 2 miles away through Yaphank. They line up at attention beside the track and, as the train pulls in, their arms are outstretched in a Hitler salute to the arriving guests.

With a band blaring a stirring German march, the scouts and guests — 500 or more strong — march back through the village to the camp where another contingent of scouts is at attention "heiling" the arriving storm troops.

At Siegfried and at other eastern bund camps, separate tent encampments for boys and girls are set back in the woods, away from the main building and cottages where their parents drink beer and dance. Sentries stand guard at entrances to the rows of tents. Visitors — even parents of the scouts — are not permitted in the youth camps proper. Scouts on duty in the camps must come to the entrances to visit with their parents. If not on duty, they are permitted to roam through the entire camp layout at will.

A German steel helmet and a long lance are part of the equipment of the guard at the entrance to the boys' camp at Siegfried. The lance and helmet are passed along to each boy as he takes up sentry duty. Commands and conversations among the scouts are entirely in German, but they politely answer questions in English (vol. 2, p. 1127).

Discipline is rigid. Some scouts are assigned to duty at soft-drink stands in camp on Sunday. Others carry water to perspiring troopers.

German-Americans can send their children to the camp for from $3.50 to $5 a week. If their parents have the money, the children remain in camp all summer and enjoy a theoretical 3-month trip to Germany.

Camps are supported partly from contributions. Otto Arndt, one of the most active of the New York area storm troops, according to testimony, said his contributions to the Jungenschaft amounted to $25,000 during a year.

A collection was taken up for the Jungenschaft at the end of a night boat trip up the Hudson which outwardly had no connection with the bund, but which was sponsored by the Steneck travel bureau.

The youth camp at Siegfried is a half mile around a lake from the main camp building. A two-story stucco building, adaptable for winter use, serves as headquarters. Tents are pitched on wooden foundations back in the woods. At Camp Nordland, set in the wooded hills of Sussex County, N. J., the tents are in one end of the 100-acre tract.

Heels click together and the right arm goes out in a Hitler salute when a scout, boy or girl, is addressed by a youth leader or any storm trooper in uniform.

Singing forms an important part of the camp training. Both boys and girls are divided into older and younger groups and learn numerous songs in praise of Hitler and the new Germany. The boys also have a fife, bugle, and drum corps, members of which are equipped with red and white epaulets.

As part of their training for "true Americanism," scouts sing "Heute Hoert Uns Deutschland — Morgen Die Ganze Welt!" (Today Germany hears us, tomorrow the whole world) and "We are the friends of the New Germany" (vol. 2, p. 1128).

They join enthusiastically in singing "Deutschland Ueber Alles" and the "Horst Wessel," the Hitler national anthem, but have a difficult time remembering "The Star-Spangled Banner."

Girl scouts are trained in the folk dances of Germany and perform at the various bund functions.

For some of the smaller girls, camp life brings the ordeal of living away from their parents for the first time.

How quickly a German-American boy can become a part of the Hitler youth program was explained to a witness who appeared before the committee, by a woman bund member. She said, according to this witness, her youthful cousin scorned the camp idea at first, but after one visit came home singing Nazi songs and remarked that the German scouts were "real kameraden." After another visit, he became a member. Today, at 19, he is a fuehrer and has learned to speak German.

"His older brother", she said, "who is in the United States Navy, makes fun of the boy's scout uniform and his Hitler salute. But we tell him not to mind, the older brother will learn the truth before long and realize he too must join the new Germany."

The bund also maintains camps near Buffalo, Schenectady, Cleveland, Los Angeles, San Diego, Oakland, Calif., Spokane, Seattle, Portland, Oreg., and at St. Louis.

All bund leaders — from Fuehrer Fritz Kuhn down to minor leaders in local posts — recognize the importance of the youth movement, but none more than Carl (Papa) Nicolay, South Brooklyn leader and national speaker since the inception of the organization.

Nicolay, who is nearing 60, is the most enthusiastic and most verbose of the bund speakers.

Nicolay wrote of the wonders of Germany under Hitler:

The gradual education away from shallow internationalism and the often but not too obvious meaninglessness of its decadent liberalism and democracy * * * to sound and rational nationalism, which in its very desire for the strength of its own country and people, will not only tolerate but look to similar national strength in others, but make for real peace, therefore, instead of war.


He wrote of the joy of Hitler youth but did not mention the signs over Nazi youth camps: "You were born to die for Germany."

In Germany, all young people are forced by the state youth laws to become members of the Hitler Youth or the League of German Girls and undergo national socialist schooling. American children of bund members "love the fight" in the words of the national leader, Theodor Dinkelacker, and don't need a law to force them into the regimented organization.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 28755
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

PreviousNext

Return to Articles & Essays

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 3 guests