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Parapsychological Association
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/24/20

The Parapsychological Association (PA) was formed in 1957 as a professional society for parapsychologists following an initiative by Joseph B. Rhine. Its purpose has been "to advance parapsychology as a science, to disseminate knowledge of the field, and to integrate the findings with those of other branches of science." The work of the association is reported in the Journal of Parapsychology and the Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research.[1]

The Parapsychological Association became affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1969, and it is still an affiliate as of 2019.[2][3][4][5][6][7]


The Association was created in Durham, North Carolina, on June 19, 1957. Its formation was proposed by Rhine, then Director of the Duke Parapsychology Laboratory at Duke University, at a Workshop in Parapsychology held there. Using the occasion afforded by this wide representation of the field, Rhine proposed that the group form itself into the nucleus of an international professional society in parapsychology.[citation needed]

Its first president was R. A. McConnell, then of the Biophysics Department, University of Pittsburgh, and the first vice-president was Gertrude R. Schmeidler of the Department of Psychology, City College of New York. Rhea White was named Secretary Treasurer. Four others were elected to the Council, bringing the total to seven: Margaret Anderson, Remi J. Cadoret, Karlis Osis, and W. G. Roll. One of the co-founding supporters of PA was anthropologist Margaret Mead.[8]


In 1969 the association became formally affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).[9][10] The work of the association is reported in the Journal of Parapsychology and the Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research.[1]

The current president of the PA is American clinical psychologist James C. Carpenter.[11]


The association has its critics, including physicist John Archibald Wheeler, who tried but failed to convince the AAAS to expel the organization in 1979.[12] During his presentation Wheeler incorrectly stated that J. B. Rhine had committed fraud as a student and retracted that statement in a letter to the Science journal.[13]

See also

• American Society for Psychical Research
• International Association for Near-Death Studies
• Society for Psychical Research
• List of parapsychology topics


1. "Psi Journals & Publications". Parapsychological Association. Archived from the original on 2002-12-11. Retrieved 2010-05-20. (primary source)
2. "Parapsychology and the Integrity of Science". The Washington Post. Fred Ryan. Retrieved 2019-10-14.
3. "List of AAAS Affiliates". AAAS. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 2019-10-14.
4. "About The Parapsychological Association". Parapsychological Association. Parapsychological Association. Retrieved 2019-10-14.
5. "Parapsychology". Annalisa Ventola. Annalisa Ventola. Retrieved 2019-10-14.
6. "What is Parapsychology?". Parapsychology and Magic. Russian Information Network.
7. "What on earth?". Halfway There.
8. Melton, J. G. (1996). Parapsychological Association. In Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. Thomson Gale. ISBN 978-0-8103-9487-2.
9. Etzel Cardeña (Online Jan 27, 2014). "A call for an open, informed study of all aspects of consciousness". Frontiers of Human Neuroscience ( 8:17). 8: 17. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00017. PMC 3902298. PMID 24478682. Check date values in: |date= (help)
10. "AAAS Affiliates". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
11. "Board of Directors - The Parapsychological Association".
12. Wheeler, John Archibald. "Drive the Pseudos out of the Workshop of Science". Archived from the original on 2008-07-24. Retrieved 2008-12-29.
13. Wheeler, J. A. (1979). "Parapsychology - A correction". Science. 205 (4402): 144.

External links

• Official website


History of the PA Presidency
Accessed: 6/27/20

1957-58 / Robert A. McConnell
1959 / Gertrude R. Schmeidler
1960 / J. Gaither Pratt
1961 / Karlis Osis
1962 / Margaret Anderson
1963 / Caroll B. Nash
1964 / William G. Roll
1965 / Ramakrishna Rao
1966 / Montague Ullman
1967 / E. Douglas Dean
1968 / Ian Stevenson
1969 / Hans Bender
1970 / Robert Van de Castle
1971 / Gertrude Schmeidler
1972 / John Beloff
1973 / Rex G. Stanford
1974 / Robert L. Morris
1975 / Charles Honorton
1976 / Martin Johnson
1977 / Charles T. Tart
1978 / Ramakrishna Rao
1979 / John Palmer
1980 / Ian Stevenson
1981 / Irvin Child
1982 / John Beloff
1983 / Stanley Krippner
1984 / Rhea A. White
1985 / Robert L. Morris
1986 / Debra H. Weiner
1987 / Richard S. Broughton
1988 / Dean I. Radin
1989 / Hoyt Edge
1990 / Ramakrishna Rao

Koneru Ramakrishna Rao (born 1932) is a philosopher, psychologist, parapsychologist, educationist, teacher, researcher and administrator. The Government of India awarded him the civilian honour of Padma Shri in 2011.


Rao was born on 4 October 1932, in the Delta region of Coastal Andhra, Madras Presidency, India. He did his college and graduate work at Andhra University, Waltair, India (B.A. hons., philosophy 1953; M.A. hons., psychology 1955; PhD, 1962). He was a lecturer in the Departments of Philosophy and Psychology at Andhra University from 1953–58 under the tutelage of professors Saileswar Sen and Satchidananda Murthy. He left in 1958 to come to the United States as a Fulbright scholar. His stay at the University of Chicago was extended a year with a Rockefeller Fellowship with Richard McKeon at the University of Chicago and received PhD and D.Litt. degrees. He returned to India in 1960 as chief librarian at Andhra University (1960–61), but then moved to North Carolina to work with J. B. Rhine at the Parapsychology Laboratory at Duke University, North Carolina and later headed his Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man as its executive director. He is currently serving as chancellor at GITAM University, Vishakaptnam, India.

He returned to Andhra University in the mid-1960s and in 1967 established the Department of Parapsychology, the only such university department of its kind in the world. In the meantime he had become a charter member of the Parapsychology Association and was elected as its secretary in 1963 and its president in 1965. (He was again elected president in 1978). In 1977 he became the director of the Institute for Parapsychology, but again in 1984 went back to Andhra to become the university's vice-chancellor. The following year he established the Institute for Yoga and Consciousness at Andhra and became its director. In 1987 he again became head of the Institute for Parapsychology, where he has remained to the present. Most recently, he has served as the Chairman of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research for the Indian Government. He visited and lectured at universities in USA, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Greece, Sweden, the Netherlands, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Pakistan, Thailand, Singapore and Sri Lanka.

In a 2002 festschrift, one of his former students described Rao as "a man of many interests... cross-cultural and cosmopolitan.... His writings are a blend of Eastern and Western traditions. They are an attempt to bring about, to use his own expression, the sangaman (confluence) of East-West streams of thought. Dr. K. Ramakrishna Rao is to Indian psychology what Dr. S. Radhakrishnan is to Indian philosophy".

Awards received by Rao include Padma Shri (Literature and Education category) from Indian Government in 2011, Doctor of Letters (Honoris Causa) degrees from Andhra and Kakatiya Universities, and a Doctor of Science (Honoris Causa) degree from Acharya Nagarjuna University.

Main publications

Books (sole author)

• Rao, Koneru Ramakrishna (2020). A Child of Destiny. ISBN 978-8124610305.[5] - an autobiography.[6]
• Rao, Koneru Ramakrishna (2017). Gandhi's Dharma. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199477548. OCLC 1019894276.
o Reviewed[7]
• K. Ramakrishna Rao. Foundations of Yoga Psychology. Singapore: Springer Nature, 2017. ISBN 9789811054099 doi:10.1007/978-981-10-5409-9
• K. Ramakrishna Rao. Consciousness studies: Cross-cultural perspectives. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2002. ISBN 0-7864-1382-4

CULTIVATING CONSCIOUSNESS; AN EAST-WEST JOURNEY by K. Ramakrishna Rao et al. Visakhapatnam, India: GITAM University Press, 2014. Pp. viii + 380. $40 (hardback). ISBN 13-978-81-246-0717-6.

... Ramakrishna Rao outlines the Yogic, Vedic and Buddhist viewpoints and then summarises the East-West correspondences and differences...

This book is a revised and expanded edition of the original which was published in 1992. The expanded part is the Eastern perspective written by Rao as Part II of the book, and which are revised versions of chapters from his book Consciousness Studies, which was published in 2002, and the final chapter is a revised version of a paper published in the Journal of Consciousness Studies. The chapters in Part I are from a conference on "Cultivating Consciousness," held in Durham, NC, in 1991, where the various articles were first presented. Thus we need to be aware that these papers were written more than 20 years ago and so the concepts and information are no longer quite so new! This, of course, is especially pertinent for the bibliography.

The introduction is by Ramakrishna Rao, in which he outlines the work by Louisa Rhine and emphasizes how any study of consciousness has to incorporate findings from parapsychology and spontaneous psychic experiences.

-- Cultivating Consciousness; an East-West Journey, by Roney-Dougal, Serena M.

• K. Ramakrishna Rao. The Basic Experiments in Parapsychology. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1984.
• K. Ramakrishna Rao. Mystic Awareness. Mysore, India, 1972.
• K. Ramakrishna Rao. Gandhi and Pragmatism. Calcutta & Oxford, N.p., 1968.
• K. Ramakrishna Rao. Experimental Parapsychology. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1966.
• K. Ramakrishna Rao. Psi Cognition. India: Tagore Publishing House, 1957.

Books (jointly authored or edited)

• Rao, K. Ramakrishna; Paranjpe, Anand C. (2016). Psychology in the Indian Tradition. New Delhi; Heidelberg: Springer. ISBN 8132224396.
• K. Ramakrishna Rao, Anand C. Paranjpe, & Ajit K. Dalal (Eds.). Handbook of Indian psychology. New Delhi, India: Cambridge University Press India/Foundation Books, 2008. ISBN 978-81-7596-602-4
• K. Ramakrishna Rao. J. B. Rhine: On the Frontiers of Science. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1982. ISBN 0-89950-053-6
• K. Ramakrishna Rao and K. S. Murty. Current Trends in Indian Thought. New Delhi, 1972.
• K. Ramakrishna Rao and P. Sailaja. Experimental Studies of the Differential Effect in Life Setting. N.p., 1972.

1991 / Steve E. Braude

Who is Stephen E. Braude?

Stephen E. Braude is Professor of Philosophy and Chairman of the Philosophy Department at the University of Maryland Baltimore County.

He studied Philosophy and English at Oberlin College and the University of London, and in 1971 he received his Ph.D. in Philosophy from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

After publishing a number of articles in the philosophy of language, temporal logic, and the philosophy of time, he turned his attention to several related problems in the philosophy of science and the philosophy of mind — in particular, questions concerning causality, scientific explanation generally, and psychological explanation specifically. One of his overriding concerns was to demonstrate the inadequacy of mechanistic theories in psychology and cognitive science.

Prof. Braude also examined the evidence of parapsychology to see whether it would provide new insights into these and other traditional philosophical issues.

After that, he shifted his focus to problems in philosophical psychopathology, writing extensively on the connections between dissociation and classic philosophical problems as well as central issues in parapsychology—for example, the unity of consciousness, multiple personality and moral responsibility, and the nature of mental mediumship.

Prof. Braude is past President of the Parapsychological Association and the recipient of several grants and fellowships, including Research Fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the BIAL Foundation in Portugal. He has published more than 50 philosophical essays in such journals as Noûs;The Philosophical Review; Philosophical Studies; Analysis; Inquiry; Philosophia; Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology; The Journal of Scientific Exploration; and The Journal of Trauma and Dissociation.

He has written three books: ESP and Psychokinesis: A Philosophical Examination (Temple University Press, 1979), The Limits of Influence: Psychokinesis and the Philosophy of Science (Routledge, 1986; revised edition, University Press of America, 1997), and First Person Plural: Multiple Personality and the Philosophy of Mind (Routledge, 1991; revised edition, Rowman & Littlefield, 1995).

Recently, Prof. Braude completed a new book on the evidence for life after death.

He is also a professional pianist and composer and a prize-winning stereo photographer.

Selected Publications:


ESP and Psychokinesis: A Philosophical Examination (Revised Edition). Brown Walker Press. ISBN: 1-58112-407-4. 2002

ESP and Psychokinesis: A Philosophical Examination. Philadelphia: Temple Uni­versity Press, 1979

The Limits of Influence: Psychokinesis and the Philosophy of Science. New York & London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986 (2nd ed., 1991).

The Limits of Influence: Psychokinesis and the Philosophy of Science. Revised Edition. Lanham, New York, London: University Press of America (1997).

First-Person Plural: Multiple Personality and the Philosophy of Mind. New York & London: Routledge, 1991.

First-Person Plural: Multiple Personality and the Philosophy of Mind. Revised Edition. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield (1995).

Immortal Remains: The Evidence for Life After Death (in preparation).


On the Meaning of "Paranormal." In Jan K. Ludwig (ed.) Philosophy and Parapsychology. New York: Prometheus Press, 1978: 227-44.

Telepathy. Noûs 12 (1978): 267-30l.

Objections to an Information-Theoretic Approach to Synchronicity. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 73 (1979): 179-193.

Reply to Dr. Gatlin. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 73 (1979): 325-330.

Reply to Drs. Rudolph and Stanford. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 74 (1980): 258-263.

The Observational Theories in Parapsychology: A Critique. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 73 (1979): 349-366.

Commentary on Hyman's "Pathological Science". Zetetic Scholar No. 6 (1980): 42-43. Reprinted in R. Hyman, The Elusive Quarry (Buffalo: Prometheus, 1989): 254-56.

Taxonomy and Theory in Psychokinesis. In B. Shapin & L. Coly (eds.), Concepts and Theories of Parapsychology. New York: Parapsychology Foundation, 1981: 37-54.

The Holographic Analysis of Near-Death Experiences: The Perpetuation of Some Deep Mistakes. Essence: Issues in the Study of Aging, Dying and Death 5 (1981): 53-63.

Precognitive Attrition and Theoretical Parsimony. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 76 (1982): 143-155.

Radical Provincialism in the Life Sciences: A Review of Rupert Sheldrake's A New Science of Life. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 77 (1983): 63-78.

Reply to M.H. Coleman. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 53 (1986): 244-246.

Psi and Our Picture of the World. Inquiry 30 (1987): 277-294.

When Science is Non-Scientific. Journal of Near Death Studies 6 (1987): 113-118.

Death by Observation: A Reply to Millar. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 82 (1988): 273-280.

How to Dismiss Evidence Without Really Trying. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (1987): 573-574.

Some Recent Books on Multiple Personality and Dissociation. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 82 (1988): 339-352.

Mediumship and Multiple Personality. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 55 (1988): 177-195.

Evaluating the Super-Psi Hypothesis. In G.K. Zollschan, J.F. Schumaker, and G.F. Walsh (eds), Exploring the Paranormal: Perspectives on Belief and Experience. Dorset: Prism, 1989: 25-38.

Survival or Super-Psi? Journal of Scientific Exploration 6 (1992): 127-144. Reprinted in Darshana International 32 (1992): 8-28.

Reply to Stevenson. Journal of Scientific Exploration 6 (1992): 151-155.

Getting Clear About Wholeness. In K.R. Rao (ed.) Cultivating Consciousness. New York: Praeger, 1993: 25-37.

Psi and the Nature of Abilities. Journal of Parapsychology 56 (1992): 205-228. Also in J. Morris (ed.) Research in Parapsychology 1991. Metuchen, N.J. & London: Scarecrow Press, 1994: 193-220.

The Fear of Psi Revisited, or It's the Thought that Counts. ASPR Newsletter 28, No. 1 (1993): 8-11.

Does Awareness Require a Location?: A Response to Woodhouse. New Ideas in Psychology 12 (1994): 17-21.

Dissociation and Survival: A Reappraisal of the Evidence. In L. Coly & J.D.S. McMahon (eds.), Parapsychology and Thanatology. New York: Parapsychology Foundation (1995): 208-228.

ESP Phenomena, Philosophical Implications Of. In D.M. Borchert (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Supplement. New York: Macmillan (1996): 146-147.

Postmortem Survival: The State of the Debate. In M. Stoeber and H. Meynell (eds), Critical Reflections on the Paranormal. Albany: SUNY Press (1996): 177-196.

Braude's Reply to Almeder's "Recent Responses to Survival Research". Journal of Scientific Exploration 10 (1996): 519-523.

Some Thoughts on Parapsychology and Religion. In C. Tart (ed), Body, Mind, Spirit. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads (1997): 118-127.

Reply to Dr. Cook's Review. Journal of Parapsychology 6 (1997): 49-52.

Peirce on the Paranormal. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 34 (1998): 199-220.

Terminological Reform in Parapsychology: A Giant Step Backwards. Journal of Scientific Exploration 12 (1998): 141-150.

Paranormal Phenomena. In E. Craig (ed), Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London & New York: Routledge (1998).

Dissociation and Latent Abilities: The Strange Case of Patience Worth. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation 1 (2000): 13-48.

The Problem of Super Psi. In F. Steinkamp (ed), Parapsychology, Philosophy, and the Mind: A Festschrift in Honor of John Beloff's 80th Birthday. Jefferson, NC & London: McFarland (forthcoming).

Out-of-Body Experiences and Survival of Death. International Journal of Parapsychology 12 (2001): 77-122.

1992 / John Palmer

Who is John Palmer?

John A. Palmer graduated from Duke University with a B.A. in psychology and received his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Texas at Austin. After spending two years on the psychology faculty at McGill University, he entered parapsychology on a full-time basis. In addition to heading the graduate program in parapsychology at John F. Kennedy University from 1977-1981, he has held research positions at the University of Virginia, University of California at Davis, and the University of Utrecht in The Netherlands. He has served twice as President of the Parapsychological Association. He is presently Director of Research at the Rhine Research Center in Durham, NC, where he also edits the Journal of Parapsychology and serves as Director of their Summer Study Program for students. Dr. Palmer has published numerous scientific articles and book chapters, and he is co-author of the book Foundations of Parapsychology: Exploring the Boundaries of Human Capability.

Director of Research, Rhine Research Center Durham, NC
President of the Parapsychological Association 1971, 1979, 1992.
Editor, Journal of Parapsychology

Selected Publications:
Palmer, J. (2000). Covert psi in computer solitaire. Journal of Parapsychology, 64, 195-211.

Palmer, J. (1998). Comments on the extraversion-ESP meta-analysis by Honorton, Ferrari, & Bem. Journal of Parapsychology, 62, 277-282.

Palmer, J. (1997). Hit-contingent response biases in Helmut Schmidt’s automated precognition experiments. Journal of Parapsychology, 61, 135-141.

Palmer, J. (1997). The challenge of experimenter psi. European Journal of Parapsychology , 13, 110-122.

Palmer, J. (1996). External psi influence on ESP task performance. Journal of Parapsychology, 60, 193-210.

Palmer, J. (1996). Evaluation of a conventional interpretation of Helmut Schmidt’s automated precognition experiments. Journal of Parapsychology, 60, 149-170.

Kennedy, J. E., Kanthamani, H., & Palmer, J. (1994). Psychic and spiritual experiences, health, and well-being. Journal of Parapsychology, 58, 353-383.

Palmer, J. (1994). Explorations with the Perceptual ESP Test. Journal of Parapsychology, 58, 115-147.

Palmer, J. (1993). Psi in the context of ultimate reality: A critical appreciation of Griffin's paper. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 87, 309-327.

Kanthamani, H., & Palmer, J. (1993). A ganzfeld experiment with "subliminal sending". Journal of Parapsychology, 57, 241-257.

Palmer, J. (1992). From survival to transcendence: Reflections on psi as anomalous. [Revised version of Presidential Address presented at the meeting of the Parapsychological Association, Las Vegas, NV, August, 1992] Journal of Parapsychology, 56, 229-254.

Palmer, J. (1992). Effect of a threatening stimulus on the Perceptual ESP Test: A partial replication. Journal of Parapsychology, 56, 189-204.

Palmer, J., & Johnson, M. (1991). Defensiveness and brain-hemisphere stimulation in a perceptually mediated ESP task. Journal of Parapsychology, 55, 329-348.

Palmer, J. (1990). Reply to Gilmore - Round two. Journal of Parapsychology, 54, 59-61.

Rao, K. R., & Palmer, J (1990). Researching data and searching for a theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 13, 387-389.

Palmer, J. (1989). A reply to Gilmore. Journal of Parapsychology, 53, 341-344.

Palmer, J. (1987). Dulling Occam's Razor: The role of coherence in assessing scientific knowledge claims. European Journal of Parapsychology, 7, 73-82.

Palmer, J., & Rao, K. R. (1987). Where lies the bias? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 618-627.

Palmer, J. (1987). Are the conventional explanations adequate? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 601-602.

Rao, K. R., & Palmer, J. (1987). The anomaly called psi: Recent research and criticism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 539-555.

Palmer, J. (1987). Have we established psi? Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 81, 111-123.

Palmer, J., & Kramer, W. (1987). Release of effort in RNG PK: An attempted replication and extension. Journal of Parapsychology, 51, 125-136.

Palmer, J. (1987). Controversy and the Journal of Parapsychology. Journal of Parapsychology, 51, 33-48.

Palmer, J. (1986). Progressive skepticism: A critical approach to the psi controversy. Journal of Parapsychology, 50, 29-42.

Palmer, J., & Kramer, W. (1986). Sensory identification of contaminated free-response ESP targets: Return of the greasy fingers. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 80, 265-278.

Palmer, J. (1986). Comments on the "Joint Communique". Journal of Parapsychology, 50, 377-382.

Palmer, J., & Weiner, D. H. (1985). Technical Note: A check for local singlet biases in the Rand tables. Journal of Parapsychology, 49, 367-370.

Palmer, J., & Kramer, W. (1984). Internal state and temporal factors in psychokinesis. Journal of Parapsychology, 48, 1-25.

Palmer, J. (1983). Sensory contamination of free-response ESP targets: The greasy fingers hypothesis. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 77, 101-113.

Palmer, J., & van der Velden, I. (1983). ESP and hypnotic imagination: A group free-response study. European Journal of Parapsychology, 4, 413-434.

Palmer, J. (1983). In defense of parapsychology: A reply to James E. Alcock. Zetetic Scholar, No. 11, 39-70, 91-103.

Tart, C. T., & Palmer, J. (1979). Some psi experiments with Matthew Manning. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 50, 224-228.

Palmer, J., Tart, C. T., & Redington, D. (1979). Delayed PK with Matthew Manning: Preliminary indications and failure to confirm. European Journal of Parapsychology, 4, 413-434.

Palmer, J., Khamashta, K., & Israelson, K. (1979). An ESP ganzfeld experiment with Transcendental Meditators. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 73, 333-348.

Tart, C. T., Palmer, J., & Redington, D. (1979). Effects of immediate feedback on ESP performance over short time periods. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 73, 291-301.

Palmer, J. (1979). A community mail survey of psychic experiences. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 73, 221-251.

Tart, C. T., Palmer, J., & Redington, D. (1979). Effects of immediate feedback on ESP performance: A second study. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 73, 152-165.

Palmer, J., Bogart, D. N., Jones, S. M., & Tart, C. T. (1977). Scoring patterns in an ESP ganzfeld experiment. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 71, 122-145.

Palmer, J., Tart, C. T., & Redington, D. (1976). A large-sample classroom ESP card-guessing experiment. European Journal of Parapsychology, 1(3), 40-56.

Whitson, T. W., Bogart, D. N., Palmer, J., & Tart, C. T. (1976). Preliminary experiments in group "remote viewing". Proceedings of the IEEE, 1550-1551.

Palmer, J. (1975). Three models of psi test performance. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 69, 333-339.

Stanford, R.G., & Palmer, J. (1975). Free-response ESP performance and occipital alpha rhythms. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 69, 235-243.

Palmer, J., & Lieberman, R. (1975). The influence of psychological set on ESP and out-of-body experiences. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 69, 235-243.

Palmer, J., & Vassar, C. (1974). ESP and out-of-body experiences: An exploratory study. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 68, 257-280.

Palmer, J. (1972). Scoring in ESP tests as a function of belief in ESP. Part II. Beyond the sheep-goat effect. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 66, 1-26.

Palmer, J. (1971). Scoring in ESP tests as a function of belief in ESP. Part I. The sheep-goat effect. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 65, 373-408.

Books and Monographs: Palmer, J. (in press). Dulling Occam’s Razor: Essays on the psi controversy. San Juan, PR: Puente Publications.

Palmer, J. A., Honorton, C., & Utts, J. (1989). Reply to the National Research Council study on parapsychology. Research Triangle Park, NC: The Parapsychological Association.

Edge, H. L., Morris, R. L., Palmer, J., & Rush, J. H. (1986). Foundations of parapsychology: Exploring the boundaries of human capability. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Palmer, J. A. (1985). An evaluative report on the current status of parapsychology. Contract DAJA 45-84-M-0405. U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Alexandria, VA.

Book Chapters:
Palmer, J. (1995). Toward a general theory of survival. In L. Coly & J. D. S. McMahon (Eds.), Parapsychology and thanatology: Proceedings of an international conference held in Boston, Massachusetts, November 6-7, 1993 (pp. 1-32). New York: Parapsychology Foundation.

Palmer, J. (1993). The PSI controversy. In K. R. Rao (Ed.), Charles Honorton and the impoverished state of skepticism: Essays on a parapsychological pioneer (pp. 177-189). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Palmer, J. (1993). Confronting the experimenter effect. In L. Coly & J. D. S. McMahon (Eds.), Psi research methodology: A re-examination: Proceedings of an international conference held in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, October 29-30, 1988 (pp. 44-64). New York: Parapsychology Foundation.

Palmer, J. (1986). Criticisms of parapsychology: Some common elements. In B. Shapin & L. Coly (Eds.), Current trends in psi research: Proceedings of an international conference held in New Orleans, Louisiana, August 13-14, 1984 (pp. 255-276). New York: Parapsychology Foundation.

Palmer, J. (1982). ESP research findings: 1976-1978. In S. Krippner (Ed.), Advances in parapsychological research 3 (pp. 41-82). New York: Plenum.

Palmer, J. (1982). Review of J. B. Rhine's ESP research. In K. R. Rao (Ed.), J. B.. Rhine: On the frontiers of science (pp. 37-52). Jefferson, NC: McFarland. Palmer, J. (1979). Extrasensory perception: Research findings. In S. Krippner (Ed.), Advances in parapsychological research 2: Extrasensory perception (pp. 59-243). New York: Plenum.

Palmer, J. (1978). Consciousness localized in space outside the body. In D. S. Rogo (Ed.), Mind beyond the body: The mystery of ESP projection (pp. 35-42). New York: Penguin Books. New York: Penguin Books.

Palmer, J. (1977). Attitudes and personality traits in experimental ESP research. In B. B. Wolman (Ed.), Handbook of parapsychology (pp. 175-201). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

1993 / Dean I. Radin

Who is Dean I. Radin?

Dean Radin earned a BSEE magna cum laude in Electrical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and an MS in Electrical Engineering and PhD in Psychology, both from the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. For ten years he was engaged in advanced telecommunications R&D, initially at AT&T Bell Laboratories and later at GTE Laboratories.

For fifteen years he has investigated psi phenomena through appointments at Princeton University, University of Edinburgh, University of Nevada, SRI International, Boundary Institute, and Interval Research Corporation. He is presently Laboratory Director at the Institute of Noetic Sciences in Petaluma, California.

Dr. Radin was elected President of the Parapsychological Association in 1988, 1993, 1998, and 2006. His research awards include the Parapsychological Association's 1996 Outstanding Achievement Award and the Rhine Research Center's Alexander Imich Award for advances in experimental parapsychology, also presented in 1996. He earned Special Merit Awards from GTE Laboratories in 1992 and from Bell Labs in 1984, and has received grants from the Richard Hodgson Memorial Fund Grant at Harvard University, the Bial Foundation (Portugal), the Parapsychology Foundation (New York), the Society for Psychical Research (London), the Swedish Society for Psychical Research (Stockholm), the Institute for Border Areas of Psychology (Germany), the Bigelow Foundation (Las Vegas), and the Samueli Institute for Information Biology (California).

Dr. Radin is author or co-author of over 200 scientific and popular publications, he has been interviewed by many newspapers and magazines including The New York Times and Psychology Today, he has appeared on dozens of television and radio programs worldwide, and is author of the multiple award-winning book, The Conscious Universe (1997, HarperCollins). His personal website is

Senior Scientist - Institute of Noetic Sciences
Author of Entangled Minds and The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena
President of the Parapsychological Association (1988, 1993, 1998, 2006)

Selected Publications:
Radin, D. I. (2000). What’s ahead? Journal of Parapsychology, 64, 353-364.

Radin, D. I. (2000). Is there a sixth sense? Psychology Today.

Radin, D. I. (1998). Moving mind, moving matter. Noetic Sciences Review, 46, 20-25.

Radin, D. I. & Rebman, J. M. (1998). Seeking psi in the casino. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 62 (850), 193-219.

Radin, D. I. (1997). El Laboratorio para la Investigacion de la Consciencia. Revista Argentina de Psicologia Paranormal. 8, 3 (31).

Radin, D. I. (1997). Unconscious perception of future emotions: An experiment in presentiment. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 11 (2), 163-180.

Bierman, D. J. & Radin, D. I. (1997). Anomalous anticipatory response on randomized future conditions. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84, 689-690.

Radin, D. I. (October , 1997). On science and psychic phenomena. The New Times, 13 (5), 1,6

Radin, D. I. (1997). El laboratorio para la investigación de la consciencia. Revista Argentina de Psicologia Paranormal, 8 (3-31), 209-216.

Radin, D. I. (1997). Review of The Lotto Effect. European Journal of Parapsychology, 13, 134-135.

Radin, D. I. (1996). Towards a complex systems model of psi performance. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 7, 35-70.

Dalton, K. S., Morris, R. L., Delanoy, D., Radin, D. I., & Wiseman, R. (1996). Security measures in an automated ganzfeld system. Journal of Parapsychology, 60, 129-147.

Rebman, J. M., Wezelman, R. Radin, D. I., Hapke, R. A. & Gaughan, K. (1996). Remote influence of the autonomic nervous system by focused intention. Subtle Energies, 6, 111-134.

Radin, D. I. & Rebman, J. M. (1996). Are phantasms fact or fantasy? A preliminary investigation of apparitions evoked in the laboratory. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 61 (843), 65-87.

Radin, D. I., Rebman, J. M. & Cross, M. P. (1996). Anomalous organization of random events by group consciousness. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 10 (1), 143-168.

Radin, D. I., Taylor, R. D. & Braud, W. (1995). Remote mental influence of human electrodermal activity: A pilot replication. European Journal of Parapsychology, 11, 19-34.

Radin, D. I. (1994). Hi-tech consciousness. Retreat Magazine, 5, 19-21.

Radin, D. I. (1994). On complexity and pragmatism. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 8 (4), 523-534.

Radin, D. I., McAlpine, S. & Cunningham, S. (1994). Geomagnetism and psi in the ganzfeld. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 59 (834), 352-363.

Radin, D. I. (1993). Environmental modulation and statistical equilibrium in mind-matter interaction. Subtle Energies, 4 (1), 1-30.

Radin, D. I. (1993). Neural network analyses of consciousness-related patterns in random sequences. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 7 (4), 355-374.

Radin, D. I. (1992). Beyond belief: Exploring interactions among mind, body and environment. Subtle Energies, 2 (3), 1 - 40.

Radin, D. I. (1990-1991). Statistically enhancing psi effects with sequential analysis: A replication and extension. European Journal of Parapsychology, 8, 98 - 111.

Radin, D. I. & Ferrari, D. C. (1991). Effects of consciousness on the fall of dice: A meta-analysis. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 5(3), 61-84.

Radin, D. I. (1990). Testing the plausibility of psi-mediated computer system failures. Journal of Parapsychology, 54, 1-19.

Radin, D. I. (July, 1990). Executive ESP. Leaders, 13, 123-124.

Radin, D. I. (April, 1990). On the scientific validity of astrology. Leaders, 13, 8.

Radin, D. I. (1990). On “pathological science.” Physics Today, 43, 3, 110.

Radin, D. I. (1990). Putting psi to work. Parapsychology Review, 21, 5-9.

Radin, D. I. (1989). Searching for “signatures” in anomalous human-machine interaction research: A neural network approach. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 3(2), 185-200.

Radin, D. I. & Nelson, R. D. (1989). Evidence for consciousness-related anomalies in random physical systems. Foundations of Physics, 19, 1499-1514.

Radin, D. I. & Utts, J. M. (1989). Experiments investigating the influence of intention on random and pseudorandom events. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 3(1), 65-79.

Radin, D. I. (February, 1989). Parapsychology bushwacked. Fate, 36-43.

Radin, D. I. (1988). Effects of a priori probability on psi perception: Does precognition predict actual or probable futures? Journal of Parapsychology, 52, 187 - 212.

Radin, D. I. & Nelson, R. D. (1988). Repeatable evidence for anomalous human-machine interactions. In M. L. Albertson, D. S. Ward, & K. P. Freeman (Eds.), Paranormal Research, Fort Collins, CO.: Rocky Mountain Research Institute, 306 - 317.

Nelson, R. D. & Radin, D. I. (1987). When immovable objections meet irresistible evidence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 600-601.

Radin, D. I. & Bosworth, J. L. (1987) On statistics for “psientists” and skeptics. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 81, 277-290

Radin, D. I. (1985). Pseudorandom number generators in psi research. Journal of Parapsychology, 49, 303-328.

Radin, D. I. & Bosworth, J. L. (1985) Response distributions in a computer-based perceptual task: Test of four models. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 79, 453-483.

Radin, D. I. (1982). Experimental attempts to influence pseudorandom number sequences. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 76, 359-374.

Radin, D. I. (in press). Seeking spirits in the laboratory. Chapter in Houran (Ed.), A Haunting Question of Perception: Scientific Perspectives on Hauntings and Poltergeists.

Radin, D. I. (in press). Time-reversed human experience: Experimental evidence and implications. Chapter in Leonard, G. (Ed.), Frontiers of mind-matter interaction, Shambala/Random House Publishers.

Radin, D. I. (in press). Where, when and who is the Self? Chapter in Raman (Ed.). Primacy of mind.

Radin, D. I. (2000). La conscience invisible: Le paranormal à l’épreuve de la science. Paris, France: Presses du chátelet.

Radin, D. I. (1999). The conscious universe. Seoul, Korea: Yangmoon Publishing

Radin, D. I. (1997). The conscious universe: The scientific truth of psychic phenomena. San Francisco: HarperEdge.

Weiner, D. H. & Radin, D. I. (1986). Research in parapsychology 1985, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

1994 / Deborah L. Delanoy

Who is Deborah Delanoy?

Past President of the Parapsychological Association (1994)

Co-editor of the European Journal of Parapsychology, 1990 - 1999

Selected Publications
Delanoy, D.L. and Solfvin, J.F. (1996). Exploring psychological variables of free-response ESP targets and their relationships to psi-scoring. In E. May (Ed.) Proceedings of the Parapsychological Association 39th Annual Convention, supplement, pp. 1-15. San Diego, CA: Parapsychological Association, Inc.

Delanoy, D.L. (1996). Consistency, significance and relevance of psi research. Forschende Komplementaermedizin, 3, 158-161.

Delanoy, D.L. (1996). Experimental evidence suggestive of anomalous consciousness interactions. In D.N. Ghista (Ed.) Biomedical and Life Physics, Proceedings of the Second Gauss Symposium, 2-8 August, 1993, pp. 397-410. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Vieweg.

Dalton, K.S., Morris, R.L., Delanoy, D.L., Radin, D.I., Taylor, R. and Wiseman, R. (1996). Security measures in an automated ganzfeld system. Journal of Parapsychology, 60, 129-148.

Delanoy, D.L. (1997). Important psi-conducive practices and issues: Impressions from six parapsychological laboratories. European Journal of Parapsychology, 13, 62-68.

Delanoy, D.L. and Morris, R.L. (1998-99). A DMILS training study utilising two shielded environments. European Journal of Parapsychology, 14, pp. 52-67.

Delanoy, D.L. (1999). The reporting of methodology in ESP experiments. In A Brief Manual For Work In Parapsychology, pp. 35-49, New York: Parapsychology Foundation, Inc.

Delanoy, D.L. Unity and divisions within the Parapsychological Association. In N. Zingrone and D. Bierman (Eds.) Research in Parapsychology 1994. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, Inc.

Delanoy, D.L., Morris, R.L. and Watt, C.A. (in press). A study of free-response ESP performance and mental training techniques. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research.

1995 / Carlos Alvarado

Who is Carlos Alvarado?

Chairman: Domestic & International Programs
Parapsychology Foundation, Inc.
228 East 71st Street
New York, NY 10021, USA
TEL: 1-212-628-1550
FAX: 1-212-628-1559

Carlos S. Alvarado, Ph.D., is a past president (1995) and President-Elect (2002-2003) of the Parapsychological Association. He has conducted research on the psychology and the features of out-of-body experiences (and other parapsychological phenomena) in Puerto Rico, Scotland and in the United States. Alvarado is also known for his reviews of the historical literature of the field. He is currently working at the Parapsychology Foundation, where he is the Chairman of Domestic and International Programs, the series editor of the Foundation's Parapsychological Monographs and the Associate Editor of the International Journal of Parapsychology.

Selected publications
(2002). Dissociation in Britain During the Late Nineteenth Century: The Society for Psychical Research, 1882-1900. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 3, 9-33. (PDF File)

(2001) Features of out-of-body experiences in relation to perceived closeness to death. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, 331-332.

(2000) Getting started in parapsychology: A brief overview of English-language materials. International Journal of Parapsychology, 11,199-211.

(2000) Out-of-body experiences. In E. Cardeña, S.J. Lynn, & S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of anomalous experiences (pp. 183-218). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

(1999). Apuntes para una introducción a la parapsicología [In Spanish: Notes for an introduction to parapsychology] New York: Parapsychology Foundation.

(1998-99) (First author, with N.L. Zingrone, & K.S. Dalton). Out-of-body experiences: Alterations of consciousness and the Five-Factor Model of personality. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 18, 297-317.

(1998-99). (Second author, with N.L. Zingrone & K. Dalton). Psi experiences and the "Big Five": Relating the NEO-PI-R to the experience claims of experimental subjects. European Journal of Parapsychology, 14, 31-51.

(1998). ESP and altered states of consciousness: An overview of conceptual and research trends. Journal of Parapsychology, 62, 27-63.

(1998). (First author, with N.L. Zingrone). Anomalías de interacción con el ambiente: El estudio de los fenómenos parapsicológicos [In Spanish: Anomalies of interaction with the environment: The study of parapsychological phenomena]. Revista Puertorriqueña de Psicología, 11, 99-147.

(1997) Mapping the characteristics of out-of-body experiences. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 91, 13-30.

(1996). Exploring the features of spontaneous psychic experiences. European Journal of Parapsychology, 12, 61-74.

(1992) The psychological approach to out-of-body experiences: A review of early and modern developments. Journal of Psychology, 126, 237-250.

1996 / Richard Broughton

Who is Richard Broughton?

Twice past president and long-time Board member of the Parapsychological Association

Selected Publications:

Books: Broughton, R. S. Parapsychology: The Controversial Science, New York: Ballantine, 1991. Translated editions published in Italy, France, The Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Israel.

Intuition Laboratories, Inc.
R. S.

Broughton, R. S. Taking Psi Ability Seriously. In L. Coly and J.D.S. McMahan (Eds.) Psi Research Methodology: A Re-examination (pp 21-43), New York: Parapsychology Foundation, 1993.

Broughton, R.S. The New Technology: A Man and his Tools (Commemoration of C. Honorton) Journal of Parapsychology, 57, 111-127.

Broughton, R. S. Parapsychology on the couch. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1987, 10, 575-576.

Broughton, R. S. Publication Policy and the Journal of Parapsychology. Journal of Parapsychology. 1987, 51, 21-32.

Broughton, R. S. Computer Methodology. In B. Shapin and L. Coly (Eds.) Parapsychology and the Experimental Method (pp. 24-36) New York: Parapsychology Foundation, 1982.

Broughton, R. S. The use of computers in psychical research (Chapter 19). In I. Grattan-Guinness (Ed.), Psychical Research: A guide to its history, principles and practices. Wellingborough, UK: Aquarian Press, 1982.

Broughton, R. S. Computer methodology: Total control with a human face. Parapsychology Review, 1982, 13, 1-6.

Broughton, R. S. An experiment with the Head of Jut. European Journal of Parapsychology, 1979, 2, 337-357.

Broughton, R. S. Repeatability and experimenter influence: Are subjects really necessary? Parapsychology Review, 1979, 10, 11-14.

Broughton, R. S. Possible brain laterality effects on ESP performance. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. 1976, 48, 384-399.

Broughton, R. S. Psi and the two halves of the brain. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. 1975, 47, 133-147.

Broughton, R. S. and Perlstrom, J. R. PK in a competitive computer game: A replication. Journal of Parapsychology, 1992, 56, 292-305.

Broughton, R. S. and Perlstrom, J. R. PK experiments with a competitive computer game. Journal of Parapsychology, 1986, 50, 193-211.

Burdick, D. S. and Broughton, R. S. Conditional displacement analyses. Journal of Parapsychology, 1987, 51, 117-123.

1997-1998 / Edwin C. May

Who is Edwin May?

Edwin C. May, Ph.D. is internationally known for his work in parapsychology. Having spent the first part of his research career in his chosen Ph.D.-degreed discipline, Low Energy, Experimental Nuclear Physics, he became interested in serious parapsychology in 1971. At that time, he was peripherally involved in a psychokinesis (i.e. putative mind over matter) experiment that was being conducted informally in the physics department at the University of California at Davis. Starting in August 1974, Dr. May spent nearly a year in India researching so-called psychic phenomena with Yogis and other Masters. In 1975, he returned to the States and worked for eight months with Charles Honorton at Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn, NY. It was there where he was introduced to formal research parapsychology. Beginning in 1976, Dr. May joined the on-going, U.S. Government-sponsored work at SRI International (formerly called Stanford Research Institute). In 1985, he inherited the program directorship of what was now called the Cognitive Sciences Program. Dr. May shifted that program to Science Applications International Corporation in 1991. Dr. May’s association with government-sponsored parapsychology research ended in 1995, when the program, now called STAR GATE, was closed.

Dr. May has managed complex, interdisciplinary research projects for the US federal government since 1985. He presided over 70% of the funding ($20M+) and 85% of the data collection for the government’s 22-year involvement in parapsychological research. His responsibilities included fund raising, personnel management, project administration and planning, and he was the guiding force for the technical research effort. Currently, Dr. May is the Executive Director of the Cognitive Sciences Laboratory, which now resides within the Laboratories for Fundamental Research.

He accumulated over 12 years experience in experimental nuclear physics research, which included the study of nuclear reaction mechanism and nuclear structure. Dr. May’s accelerator experience includes a variety of tandem Van de Graaff generators and cyclotrons operating under 50 million electron volts. Other specialize experience includes four years of ?-ray spectroscopy, one year of trace-element analysis (x-ray, and a-particle techniques), numerical analysis, Monte Carlo techniques, digital signal processing, and cardiac blood flow research. In addition, he has conducted physiology research through the careful investigation of the efficacy of biofeedback in a clinical setting.

Dr. May is fluent in a variety of 3-GL and 4-GL computer languages including C, FORTRAN, IDL, Visual Basic, various machine codes, and SQL.

Dr. May’s eclectic background has provided him with significant expertise in a variety of seemingly unrelated disciplines; thus, he is ideally suited and experienced to direct interdisciplinary research. His Dissertation was “Nuclear Reaction Studies via the (p,pn) Reaction on Light Nuclei and the (d,pn) Reaction on Medium to Heavy Nuclei.” B. L. Cohen, advisor. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (1968). He is the author or co-author of a total of 130 reports: 16 papers in experimental nuclear physics: 30 papers presented at technical conferences on anomalous cognition; 19 abstracts presented at professional conferences on physics; 79 technical or administrative reports to various clients; and 14 miscellaneous reports and proposals. The Parapsychological Association, an affiliate member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, granted him the Outstanding Achievement Award for his contribution for research excellence. He was President, The Parapsychological Association for 1997.

For more detailed information on Stargate, go to Cognitive Sciences Laboratory website.

Further Reading:

The American Institutes for Research Review of the Department of Defense's STAR GATE Program: A Commentary by Edwin May

May, E. C., Utts, J. M., Humphrey, B. S., Luke, W. L. W., Frivold, T. J., and Trask, V. V. (1990). Advances in Remote-Viewing Analysis. Journal of Parapsychology, 54, 193-228.

May, E. C. and Vilenskaya, L. (1992). Overview of Current Parapsychology Research in the Former Soviet Union. Subtle Energies, 3, No. 3, 45-67.

May, E. C., Spottiswoode, S. J. P., and James, C. L. (1994). Managing the Target-Pool Bandwidth: Possible Noise Reduction for Anomalous Cognition Experiments. Journal of Parapsychology, 58, 303-313.

May, E. C., Spottiswoode, S. J. P. and James, C. L. (1994). Shannon Entropy: A Possible Intrinsic Target Property. Journal of Parapsychology, 58, 384-401.

1998-1999 / Dean I. Radin
1999-2000 / Marilyn J. Schlitz

Who is Marilyn J. Schlitz?

Marilyn Schlitz is Director of Research at the Institute of Noetic Sciences and senior scientist at the Geraldine Brush Cancer Research Institute at the California Pacific Medical Center. Trained in Medical anthropology and psi research, Marilyn has published numerous articles on cross-cultural healing, consciousness studies, distant healing and the discourse of controversial science. She has conducted research at Stanford University, Science Applications International Corporation, the Institute for Parapsychology, and the Mind Science Foundation. Has taught at Trinity, Stanford and Harvard universities, and has lectured widely, including talks at the United Nations and the Smithsonian Institution. She serves on the Editorial Board of Alternative Therapies, is the leader of Esalen's Center for Theory and Research Working Group on Distant Healing Intentionality, and is on the Scientific Program Committee for the Consciousness Center at the University of Arizona, Tucson.

Selected Publications:
Braud, W. & Schlitz, M. (1983). Psychokinetic influence on electrodermal activity. Journal of Parapsychology, 47, 95-119.

Braud W, Schlitz M. 1988. Possible role of intuitive data sorting in electrodermal biological psychokinesis (bio-PK). Research in Parapsychology 1987. Metuchen, NJ: 5-9.

Braud, W. & Schlitz, M. (1989). A methodology for the objective study of transpersonal imagery. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 3, 43-63.

Braud, W. & Schlitz, M. (1989). Possible role of intuitive data sorting in electrodermal biological psychokinesis (bio-PK). Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 83: 289-302.

Braud, W., Schlitz, M. & Schmidt, H. (1990). Remote mental influence of animate and inanimate target systems: A method of comparison and preliminary findings. In L. Henkel & J. Palmer (Eds), Research in Parapsychology 1989. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. pp. 42-47.

Braud, W. G. & Schlitz, M. (1991) Consciousness interactions with remote biological systems: Anomalous intentionality effects. Subtle Energies, 2, pp. 1-46.

Hansen, G., Schlitz, M., and Tart, C.T. (1984). Summary of remote viewing experiments. In R. Targ, & K. Harary, The Mind Race. New York: Villard Books.

Schlitz, Marilyn. Toward A Noetic Model of Medicine. Noetic Sciences Review, Vol. 47, Winter 1998 No. 47, pages 45-52, (IONS).

Schlitz, M. & Gruber, E. (1980). Transcontinental remote viewing. Journal of Parapsychology, 44, 305-317.

Schlitz, M. & Braud W. (1997). Distant intentionality and healing: Assessing the evidence. Altern Ther Health Med. 3(6):62-73.

Schlitz, M. J. & Honorton, C. (1992). Ganzfeld psi performance within an artistically gifted population. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 86, 93-98.

Schlitz, M.& LaBerge, S. (1994). Autonomic detection of remote observation. Proceedings of Presented Papers, 37th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association, Durham, North Carolina, USA, pp. 352-361.

Schlitz, M. & Wiseman, R. (1997). Experimenter effects and the remote detection of staring. Journal of Parapsychology, 61, Sep.

Targ, E., Schlitz, M., & Irwin, H.J. (2000). Psi-related experiences. In E. Cardeña, S.J. Lynn, & S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of anomalous experience: Examining the scientific evidence (pp. 219-252). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Wiseman, R. & Schlitz, M. (1998) Experimenter effects and the Remote Detection of Staring, Journal Of Parapsychology, 61, 197-208.

2000-2001 / Nancy L. Zingrone

Who is Nancy Zingrone?

Parapsychology Foundation, 228 East 71st St., New York, NY 10021 [email]

Nancy L. Zingrone has a Bachelor in Arts with Honors in psychology (Mundelein College), a Masters of Science in Education (Northern Illinois University) with a teaching speciality in college-level psychology, and was a doctoral candidate in history (Duke University) with specialities in the histories of science, medicine, psychiatry, and American social history. She completed a doctorate in psychology (University of Edinburgh) in 2006 with a thesis entitled “From Text to Self: The History of Criticism and Response in the English-language Literature of Academic and Scientific Parapsychology.”

Zingrone was an Adjunct Faculty in Psychology at Northeastern Illinois University in Chicago, Illinois where she courses of elementary and nonparametric statistics and introductory and research parapsychology (1979-1982). She was a Research Fellow (1982-1985) and a Visiting Scholar (1986-1993) at the Institute for Parapsychology in Durham, North Carolina (now known as the Rhine Research Center), where she conducted experimental ESP research. She has been an organizer of, and lecturer at the Summer Study Program of the Institute of Parapsychology (1983-1993, 2000) where she lectured on elementary statistics, spontaneous case research, experimental methodology and women in parapsychology. She has served several terms on the Board of Directors of the Parapsychological Association since the early 1990s, during which times she was also the Editor of PA News. She was elected President of the Parapsychological Association for the 2000-2001 term. She is currently a candidate for President of the PA for the 2003-2004 term.

In recent times, Zingrone has managed the publication of psychology journals in Puerto Rico through her publishing house Puente Publications. Currently she is the Director of Publications of the Parapsychology Foundation, the Executive Editor of the International Journal of Parapsychology, and the Associate Editor of the series Advances in Parapsychological Research.

VIDEO TAPE: The Effect of Criticism: Skeptics, Parapsychologists and Experiencers. (Perspective Lectures Series). New York: Parapsychology Foundation.

Selected Publications

(in press). (Second author, with C. S. Alvarado). Exploring the factors related to the after-effects of out-of-body experiences. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research.

(2001). Controversy and the problems of pararapsychology. Journal of Parapsychology, 66, 3-30.

(1998-99). (Second author, with C. S. Alvarado & K. S. Dalton). Out-of-body experiences: Alterations of consciousness and the Five-Factor Model of personality. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 18, 297-317.

(1998-99). (First author, with C. S. Alvarado & K. Dalton). Psi experiences and the “Big Five”: Relating the NEO-PI-R to the experience claims of experimental subjects. European Journal of Parapsychology, 14, 31-51.

(1998) (Second author, with C. S. Alvarado). Anomalías de interacción con el ambiente: El estudio de los fenómenos parapsicológicos. Revista Puertorriqueña de Psicología, 11, 99-147.

(1997-1998) (Second author, with C. S. Alvarado). Factors related to the depth of near-death experiences: Testing the “embellishment over time” hypothesis. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 17, 339-344.

(1997) (Second author, with C. S. Alvarado). Experiencias disociativas y sueños: Relación con frecuencia de recuerdo de sueños, sueños lúcidos y sueños vívidos [In Spanish: Dissociative experiences and dreams: Relationship with the frequency of dream recall, lucid dreams and vivid dreams]. Ciencias de la Conducta, 12, 17-43.

(1997) (Second author, with C. S. Alvarado). Relación entre la experiencia fuera del cuerpo y la absorción: Estudios con participantes Puertorriqueños y Norteamericanos [In Spanish: Relationship between out-of-body experiences and absorption: Studies with Puerto Rican and American participants]. Revista Argentina de Psicología Paranormal, 8, 249-261.

(1994). Images of women as mediums: Power, pathology and passivity in the writings of Frederic Marvin and Cesare Lombroso. In L.Coly & R.A. White (Ed.), Women and Parapsychology (pp. 90-121). New York: Parapsychology Foundation.

(1989) (Second author, with D. H. Weiner). In the eye of the beholder: Further research on the Checker Effect. Journal of Parapsychology, 53, 203-231.

(1989) (Second author, with C. S. Alvarado) William McDougall, Lamarckism, and psychical research. American Psychologist, 44, 446-447.

(1988) Authorship and gender in American parapsychology journals. Journal of Parapsychology, 52, 321-343.

(1988) (Second author, with C. S. Alvarado). Los síntomas de la histeria: Observaciones clínicas durante el siglo 19. Archivo Latinoamericano de Historia de la Psicología y Ciencias Afines, 1, 11-21.

(1987) (Second author, with C. S. Alvarado). Historical aspects of parapsychological terminology. Journal of Parapsychology, 51, 49-74.

(1986) (Second author, with D. H. Weiner). The Checker Effect revisited. Journal of Parapsychology, 50, 155-161.

2001-2002 / Mario P. Varvoglis
2002-2003 / Carlos Alvarado
2003-2004 / Nancy L. Zingrone
2004-2005 / Caroline Watt
2005-2006 / Dean I. Radin
2006-2007 / Rex G. Stanford
2007-2008 / Roger D. Nelson
2008-2009 / Etzel Cardena

We would like to thank Erlendur Haraldsson for compiling this listing.
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Joseph Banks Rhine
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/24/20

Joseph Banks Rhine
Born September 29, 1895
Died February 20, 1980 (aged 84)
Occupation Botanist, parapsychologist

Joseph Banks Rhine (September 29, 1895 – February 20, 1980), usually known as J. B. Rhine, was an American botanist who founded parapsychology as a branch of psychology, founding the parapsychology lab at Duke University, the Journal of Parapsychology, the Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man, and the Parapsychological Association. Rhine wrote the books Extrasensory Perception and Parapsychology: Frontier Science of the Mind.

Early life and education

Joseph Banks Rhine was the second child of five children born to Samuel Ellis Rhine and Elizabeth Vaughan Rhine in Waterloo, Juniata County, Pennsylvania. Samuel Rhine had been educated in a Harrisburg business college, had taught school and later been a farmer and merchant. The family moved to Marshallville, Ohio, when Joseph was in his early teens.[1]

He was educated at Ohio Northern University and the College of Wooster, after which he enlisted in the Marine Corps, and was stationed in Santiago. Afterwards, he enrolled at the University of Chicago, where he received his master's degree in botany in 1923 and a Ph.D. in botany in 1925.[2] While there, he and his wife Louisa E. Rhine were impressed by a May 1922 lecture given by Arthur Conan Doyle exulting the scientific proof of communication with the dead.[3] Rhine later wrote, "This mere possibility was the most exhilarating thought I had had in years."[1][4][5]

He taught for a year at Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, in Yonkers, New York. Afterwards, he enrolled in the psychology department at Harvard University, to study for a year with Professor William McDougall. In 1927, he moved to Duke University in Durham, North Carolina to work under Professor McDougall. Rhine began the studies that helped develop parapsychology into a branch of science; he looked at parapsychology as a branch of "abnormal psychology."


Rhine lent an insight into the medium Mina Crandon's performances. Rhine was able to observe some of her trickery in the dark when she used luminous objects.[6] Rhine claimed to have observed Crandon in fraud in a séance in 1926. According to Rhine during the séance she was free from control and kicked a megaphone to give the impression it was levitating.[7]

Rhine's report that documented the fraud was refused by the American Society for Psychical Research, so he published it in the Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology. In response, defenders of Crandon attacked Rhine. Arthur Conan Doyle published an article in a Boston newspaper claiming "J. B. Rhine is an Ass."[7]

Rhine, who had caught Crandon free from control and kicking a megaphone during a séance, wondered why J. Malcolm Bird with three years of experience did not expose any of her tricks. Rhine suspected that Bird was a confederate of the medium.[7]

ESP research

Hubert Pearce with Joseph Banks Rhine.

Rhine tested many students as volunteer subjects in his research project. His first exceptional subject in this ESP research was Adam Linzmayer, an economics undergraduate at Duke. In 1931, Linzmayer scored very highly in preliminary Zener card tests that Rhine ran him through; initially, he scored 100% correct on two short (nine-card series) tests that Rhine gave him. Even in his first long test (a 300-card series), Linzmayer scored 39.6% correct scores, when chance would have been only 20%. He consecutively scored 36% each time on three 25-card series (chance being 20%). However, over time, Linzmayer's scores began to drop down much closer to (but still above) chance averages. Boredom, distraction, and competing obligations, on Linzmayer's part, were conjectured as possible factors bearing on the declining test results.[1] Linzmayer's epic run of naming 21 out of 25 took place in Rhine's car.[4]

The following year, Rhine tested another promising individual, Hubert Pearce, who managed to surpass Linzmayer's overall 1931 performance. (Pearce's average during the period he was tested in 1932 was 40%, whereas chance would have been 20%.[1]) However, Pearce was actually allowed to handle the cards most of the time. He shuffled and cut them.[4]

The most famous series of experiments from Rhine's laboratory is arguably the ESP tests involving Hubert Pearce and Joseph Gaither Pratt, a research assistant. Pearce was tested (using Zener cards) by Pratt, who shuffled and recorded the order of the cards in the parapsychology lab 100 yards from where Pearce was sitting in a campus library cubicle. The series comprised 37 25-trial runs, conducted between August 1933 and March 1934. From run to run, the number of matches between Pratt's cards and Pearce's guesses was highly variable, generally deviating significantly above-chance, but also falling dramatically below-chance. These scores were obtained irrespective of the distance between Pratt and Pearce, which was arranged as either 100 or 250 yards.[1]

In 1934, drawing upon several years of meticulous lab research and statistical analysis, Rhine published the first edition of a book titled Extra-Sensory Perception, which in various editions was widely read over the next decades.[1][8] In the later 1930s, Rhine investigated "psychokinesis" – again reducing the subject to simple terms so that it could be tested, with controls, in a laboratory setting. Rhine relied on testing whether a subject could influence the outcome of tossed dice – initially with hand-thrown dice, later with dice thrown from a cup, and finally with machine-thrown dice.[1]

In 1940 Rhine co-authored with Joseph Gaither Pratt and other associates at Duke Extra-Sensory Perception After Sixty Years,[8] a review of all experimental studies of clairvoyance and telepathy. It has been recognized as the first meta-analysis in the history of science.[9] During the war years, Rhine lost most of his male staff members to war work or the military. This caused something of an hiatus in the conduct of new research, but the opportunity was taken to publish the large backlog of experiments that had been conducted since the early 1930s on psychokinesis. After the war, he had occasion to study some dramatic cases outside the lab.[1]

Rhine's wife, Louisa E. Rhine, pursued work that complemented her husband's in the later 1940s, gathering information on spontaneous ESP reports (experiences people had, outside of a laboratory setting). Yet Rhine believed that a good groundwork should be laid in the lab, so that the scientific community might take parapsychology seriously. In the early 1960s, Rhine left Duke and founded the Institute for Parapsychology, which later became the Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man. In the 1970s, several high-scoring subjects – Sean Harribance, M.B. Dykshoorn, and Bill Delmore – were tested in the lab, shortly before Rhine's retirement.


Rhine, along with William McDougall, introduced the term "parapsychology" (translating a German term coined by Max Dessoir). It is sometimes said that Rhine almost single-handedly developed a methodology and concepts for parapsychology as a form of experimental psychology; however great his contributions, some earlier work along similar — analytical and statistical — lines had been undertaken sporadically in Europe, notably the experimental work of Oliver Lodge.[10]

Rhine founded the institutions necessary for parapsychology's continuing professionalization in the U.S. — including the establishment of the Journal of Parapsychology and the formation of the Parapsychological Association,[11] and also the Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man (FRNM), a precursor to what is today known as the Rhine Research Center. His parapsychology research organization was originally affiliated with Duke University, but is now separate.[citation needed]

He also had a huge influence on science fiction after John W. Campbell became obsessed with his theories about psionic powers and ideas about future human evolution.[12]


Rhine's results have never been duplicated by the scientific community.[13][14]

A number of psychological departments attempted to repeat Rhine's experiments, but failed. W. S. Cox (1936) from Princeton University with 132 subjects produced 25,064 trials in a playing card ESP experiment.[15] Cox concluded "There is no evidence of extrasensory perception either in the 'average man' or of the group investigated or in any particular individual of that group. The discrepancy between these results and those obtained by Rhine is due either to uncontrollable factors in experimental procedure or to the difference in the subjects."[15] Four other psychological departments failed to replicate Rhine's results.[16][17] The American psychologist James Charles Crumbaugh attempted to repeat Rhine's findings over a long period without success. Crumbaugh wrote:

At the time [1938] of performing the experiments involved I fully expected that they would yield easily all the final answers. I did not imagine that after 28 years I would still be in as much doubt as when I had begun. I repeated a number of the then current Duke techniques, but the results of 3,024 runs [one run consists of twenty-five guesses] of the ESP cards as much work as Rhine reported in his first book-were all negative. In 1940 I utilized further methods with high school students, again with negative results.[18]

It was revealed that Rhine's experiments into extrasensory perception (ESP) contained methodological flaws.[19] The psychologists Leonard Zusne and Warren Jones have written that "the keeping of records in Rhine’s experiments was inadequate. Sometimes, the subject would help with the checking of his or her calls against the order of cards. In some long-distance telepathy experiments, the order of the cards passed through the hands of the percipient before it got from Rhine to the agent."[20] The card-guessing method used in the Rhine experiments contained flaws that did not rule out the possibility of sensory leakage. Today, researchers discount the first decade of Rhine's work with Zener cards. Stimulus leakage or cheating could account for all his findings. Slight indentations on the backs of cards revealed the symbols embossed on card faces. Subjects could see and hear the experimenter, and note subtle but revealing facial expressions or changes in breathing. According to Terence Hines:

The methods the Rhines used to prevent subjects from gaining hints and clues as to the design on the cards were far from adequate. In many experiments, the cards were displayed face up, but hidden behind a small wooden shield. Several ways of obtaining information about the design on the card remain even in the presence of the shield. For instance, the subject may be able sometimes to see the design on the face-up card reflected in the agent’s glasses. Even if the agent isn’t wearing glasses it is possible to see the reflection in his cornea.[21]

In 1938, Harold Gulliksen wrote that Rhine did not describe his experimental methods clearly and used inappropriate mathematical procedures which overestimated the significance of his results.[22] Rhine published Extra-Sensory Perception After Sixty Years in 1940 with a number of colleagues, to address the objections raised. In the book, Rhine and his colleagues described three experiments—the Pearce-Pratt experiment, the Pratt-Woodruff experiment and the Ownbey-Zirkle series—which they believed demonstrated ESP. The psychologist C. E. M. Hansel wrote "it is now known that each experiment contained serious flaws that escaped notice in the examination made by the authors of Extra-Sensory Perception After Sixty Years".[23]

Rhine's experiments into psychokinesis (PK) were not replicated by other scientists.[24] John Sladek wrote:

His research used dice, with subjects 'willing' them to fall a certain way. Not only can dice be drilled, shaved, falsely numbered and manipulated, but even straight dice often show bias in the long run. Casinos for this reason retire dice often, but at Duke, subjects continued to try for the same effect on the same dice over long experimental runs. Not surprisingly, PK appeared at Duke and nowhere else.[25]

The science writer Martin Gardner wrote that Rhine repeatedly tried to replicate his work, but produced only failures that he never reported.[26] Gardner criticized Rhine for not disclosing the names of assistants he caught cheating:

His paper "Security Versus Deception in Parapsychology" published in his journal (vol. 38, 1974), runs to 23 pages... Rhine selects twelve sample cases of dishonest experimenters that came to his attention from 1940 to 1950, four of whom were caught 'red-handed'. Not a single name is mentioned. What papers did they publish, one wonders?

This has suggested to Gardner that Rhine practiced a "secrecy policy". Gardner claimed to have inside information that files in Rhine's laboratory contain material suggesting fraud on the part of Hubert Pearce.[27] Pearce was never able to obtain above-chance results when persons other than the experimenter were present during an experiment making it more likely that he was cheating in some way. Rhine's other subjects were only able to obtain non-chance levels when they were able to shuffle the cards, which has suggested they used tricks to arrange the order of the Zener cards before the experiments started.[28]

According to James Alcock, due to Rhine's errors, parapsychologists no longer utilize card-guessing studies.[29]

Rhine has been described as credulous as he believed the horse "Lady Wonder" was telepathic, but it was discovered the owner was using subtle signals to control the horse's behavior.[30]

Historian Ruth Brandon has written that Rhine's research was not balanced or objective, instead "motivated by the most extreme ideology" of vitalism.[31]


• Rhine, J. B. (1934). Extra-Sensory Perception. Boston, MA, US: Bruce Humphries.
• Rhine, J. B. (1937). New Frontiers of the Mind. New York, NY, US.
• Rhine, J. B., Pratt, J. G., Stuart, C. E., Smith, B. M., Greenwood, J. A. (1940). Extra-Sensory Perception After Sixty Years. New York, NY, US: Henry Holt.
• Rhine, J. B. (1947). The Reach of the Mind. New York, NY, US: William Sloane.
• Rhine, J. B. (1953). New World of the Mind. New York, NY, US: William Sloane.
• Rhine, J. B., & Pratt, J. G. (1957). Parapsychology: Frontier Science of the Mind. Springfield, IL, US Charles C. Thomas.
• Rhine, J. B., & Associates (Eds.). (1965). Parapsychology from Duke to FRNM. Durham, NC, US: Parapsychology Press.
• Rhine, J. B., & Brier, R. (Eds.). (1968). Parapsychology Today. New York, NY, US: Citadel.
• Rhine, J. B. (Ed.). (1971). Progress in Parapsychology. Durham, NC, US: Parapsychology Press.

See also

• Extrasensory perception
• Psychokinesis
• Zener card


1. Denis, Brian. (1982). The Enchanted Voyager. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice–Hall[ISBN missing]
2. Joseph Banks Rhine: 1895–1980 American Journal of Psychology, December 1981, Vol. 94, No. 4, pp. 649–653.
3. Time-Life Books (1987), Psychic Powers. Mysteries of the Unknown, Alexandria, VA.: Time-Life Books, p. 50, ISBN 978-0-8094-6309-1, OCLC 16091540, retrieved February 26, 2010
4. Christopher, Milbourne (1970). ESP, Seers & Psychics: What the Occult Really Is. Thomas Y. Crowell. ISBN 0-690-26815-7.
5. Joseph Rinn. (1950). Sixty Years of Psychical Research: Houdini and I Among the Spirits. Truth Seeker Company.
6. Thomas Tietze. (1973). Margery. Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0060682354
7. Massimo Polidoro. (2001). Final Séance: The Strange Friendship Between Houdini and Conan Doyle. Prometheus Books. pp. 134-234. ISBN 978-1591020868
8. W. Edward Craighead and Charles B. Nemeroff (2001). "Rhine, Joseph Banks" in The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science, John Wiley, p. 1411.
9. Bösch, H. (2004). Reanalyzing a meta-analysis on extra-sensory perception dating from 1940, the first comprehensive meta-analysis in the history of science. In S. Schmidt (Ed.), Proceedings of the 47th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association, University of Vienna, (pp. 1–13).
10. Mauskopf, S. H./McVaugh, M. R. (1980). The Elusive Science: Origins of Experimental Psychical Research. Baltimore, ML, US: Johns Hopkins University Press.
11. W. Edward Craighead and Charles B. Nemeroff (2001). "Rhine, Joseph Banks" in The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science, John Wiley, p. 1412.
12. Clarkesworld Magazine - Science Fiction & Fantasy : “Fans Are Slans”: A Study in Campbellian Influence
13. C. E. M. Hansel. (1980). ESP and Parapsychology: A Critical Re-evaluation. Prometheus Books. pp. 86-122. ISBN 978-0879751203
14. Terence Hines. (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. p. 122. ISBN 978-1573929790 "The procedural errors in the Rhine experiments have been extremely damaging to his claims to have demonstrated the existence of ESP. Equally damaging has been the fact that the results have not replicated when the experiments have been conducted in other laboratories."
15. Cox, W. S. (1936). An Experiment in ESP. Journal of Experimental Psychology 12: 437.
16. Joseph Jastrow. (1938). ESP, House of Cards. The American Scholar. Vol. 8, No. 1. pp. 13-22. "Rhine’s results fail to be confirmed. At Colgate University (40, 000 tests, 7 subjects), at Chicago (extensive series on 315 students), at Southern Methodist College (75, 000 tests), at Glasgow, Scotland (6, 650 tests), at London University (105, 000 tests), not a single individual was found who under rigidly conducted experiments could score above chance. At Stanford University it has been convincingly shown that the conditions favorable to the intrusion of subtle errors produce above-chance records which come down to chance when sources of error are eliminated."
17. Cited in C. E. M. Hansel The Search for a Demonstration of ESP. In Paul Kurtz. (1985). A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. pp. 105-127; ISBN 0-87975-300-5
§ Adam, E.T. (1938). A summary of some negative experiments. Journal of Parapsychology 2: 232-236.
§ Crumbaugh, J.C. (1938). An experimental study of extra-sensory perception. Masters thesis. Southern Methodist University.
§ Heinlein, C.P; Heinlein, J. H. (1938). Critique of the premises of statistical methodology of parapsychology. Journal of Parapsychology 5: 135-148.
§ Willoughby, R.R. (1938). Further card-guessing experiments. Journal of Psychology 18: 3-13.
18. Crumbaugh, J. (1966). A Scientific Critique of Parapsychology. International Journal of Neuropsychiatry 5: 521–29.
19. Charles M. Wynn, Arthur W. Wiggins. (2001). Quantum Leaps in the Wrong Direction: Where Real Science Ends...and Pseudoscience Begins. Joseph Henry Press. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-309-07309-7 "In 1940, Rhine coauthored a book, Extrasensory Perception After Sixty Years in which he suggested that something more than mere guess work was involved in his experiments. He was right! It is now known that the experiments conducted in his laboratory contained serious methodological flaws. Tests often took place with minimal or no screening between the subject and the person administering the test. Subjects could see the backs of cards that were later discovered to be so cheaply printed that a faint outline of the symbol could be seen. Furthermore, in face-to-face tests, subjects could see card faces reflected in the tester’s eyeglasses or cornea. They were even able to (consciously or unconsciously) pick up clues from the tester’s facial expression and voice inflection. In addition, an observant subject could identify the cards by certain irregularities like warped edges, spots on the backs, or design imperfections."
20. Leonard Zusne, Warren Jones. (1989). Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking. Psychology Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0805805086
21. Terence Hines. (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. pp. 119-120. ISBN 978-1573929790
22. Harold Gulliksen. (1938). Extra-Sensory Perception: What Is It?. American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 43, No. 4. pp. 623-634.
23. C. E. M. Hansel. The Search for a Demonstration of ESP. In Paul Kurtz. (1985). A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. pp. 97-127. ISBN 0-87975-300-5
24. Charles M. Wynn, Arthur W. Wiggins. (2001). Quantum Leaps in the Wrong Direction: Where Real Science Ends...and Pseudoscience Begins. Joseph Henry Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-309-07309-7 "The same Dr. Rhine who studied ESP also studied and felt he had evidence for PK. Attempts to replicate Rhine's findings under controlled conditions all failed. Successful tests of PK reported by him were the result of inadequate controls or falsification of data."
25. John Sladek. (1974). The New Apocrypha: A Guide to Strange Sciences and Occult Beliefs. Panther. pp. 172-174. ISBN 0-87281-712-1
26. Paul Kurtz. (2001). Skeptical Odysseys: Personal Accounts by the World's Leading Paranormal Inquirers. Chapter Confessions of a Skeptic by Martin Gardner. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-884-4
27. Kendrick Frazier. (1991). The Hundredth Monkey: And Other Paradigms of the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. p. 169. ISBN 978-0879756550
28. Lawrie Reznek. (2010). Delusions and the Madness of the Masses. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 54. ISBN 978-1442206052
29. James Alcock. (2011). Back from the Future: Parapsychology and the Bem Affair Archived 2011-12-31 at the Wayback Machine. Skeptical Inquirer. "Despite Rhine’s confidence that he had established the reality of extrasensory perception, he had not done so. Methodological problems with his experiments eventually came to light, and as a result parapsychologists no longer run card-guessing studies and rarely even refer to Rhine’s work."
30. Victor Stenger. (1990). Physics and Psychics: The Search for a World Beyond the Senses. Prometheus Books. p. 167. ISBN 978-0879755751
31. Ruth Brandon. (1983). The Spiritualists: The Passion for the Occult in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. pp. 94-95. ISBN 0-297-78249-5

Further reading

• Brian, Denis. (1982). The Enchanted Voyager. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice–Hall. (A full-length biography of Rhine).
• Evans, Bergen. (1954). The Spoor of Spooks: And Other Nonsense. Knopf.
• Gulliksen, Harold. (1938). Extra-Sensory Perception: What Is It?. American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 43, No. 4. pp. 623–634.
• Jastrow, Joseph. (1938). ESP, House of Cards. The American Scholar. Vol. 8, No. 1. pp. 13–22
• Gardner, Martin. (1988). The Obligation to Disclose Fraud. Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. XII No. 3.
• Gardner, Martin. (1986). Fads and Fallacies: In the Name of Science. New American Library (second edition). Chapter 25: ESP and PK.
• Mauskopf, S. H., & McVaugh, M. R. (1980). The Elusive Science: Origins of Experimental Psychical Research. Baltimore, ML, US: Johns Hopkins University Press.
• Moore, R. L. (1977). In Search of White Crows: Spiritualism, Parapsychology, and American Culture. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

External links

• Review of the Pearce–Pratt Distance Series of ESP tests
• Rhine Research Center and Institute for Parapsychology, originally part of Duke University, now an independent research center.
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William McDougall (psychologist)
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/24/20

William McDougall
Born: 22 June 1871, Chadderton, Lancashire, England, United Kingdom
Died: 28 November 1938 (aged 67), Durham, North Carolina, US
Nationality: British
Scientific career
Fields: Psychology
Doctoral advisor: W. H. R. Rivers
Influences: Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Carl Jung
Influenced: Thorstein Veblen,[1] Konrad Lorenz, Cyril Burt


William McDougall FRS[2] (/məkˈduːɡəl/; 22 June 1871 – 28 November 1938) was an early 20th century psychologist who spent the first part of his career in the United Kingdom and the latter part in the United States. He wrote a number of highly influential textbooks, and was particularly important in the development of the theory of instinct and of social psychology in the English-speaking world. He was an opponent of behaviourism and stands somewhat outside the mainstream of the development of Anglo-American psychological thought in the first half of the 20th century; but his work was very well-known and respected among lay people.


McDougall was educated at Owens College, Manchester and St John's College, Cambridge.[3] He also studied medicine and physiology in London and Göttingen. After teaching at University College London and Oxford, he was recruited to occupy the William James chair of psychology at Harvard University in 1920, where he served as a professor of psychology from 1920 to 1927. He then moved to Duke University, where he established the Parapsychology Laboratory under J. B. Rhine, and where he remained until his death. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society. Among his students were Cyril Burt, May Smith, William Brown and John Flügel.[4]

McDougall's interests and sympathies were broad. He was interested in eugenics, but departed from neo-Darwinian orthodoxy in maintaining the possibility of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, as suggested by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck; he carried out many experiments designed to demonstrate this process.[5] Opposing behaviourism, he argued that behaviour was generally goal-oriented and purposive, an approach he called hormic psychology (from Greek ὁρμή hormḗ "impulse").

However, in the theory of motivation, he defended the idea that individuals are motivated by a significant number of inherited instincts, whose action they may not consciously understand, so they might not always understand their own goals. His ideas on instinct strongly influenced Konrad Lorenz, though Lorenz did not always acknowledge this. McDougall underwent psychoanalysis with C. G. Jung, and was also prepared to study parapsychology.

Because of his interest in eugenics and his unorthodox stance on evolution, McDougall has been adopted as an iconic figure by proponents of a strong influence of inherited traits on behaviour, some of whom are regarded by most mainstream psychologists as scientific racists. He wrote:

"...; the few distinguished Negroes, so called, of America – such as Douglass, Booker Washington, Du Bois – have been, I believe, in all cases mulattoes or had some proportion of white blood. We may fairly ascribe the incapacity of the Negro race to form a nation to the lack of men endowed with the qualities of great leaders, even more than to the lower level of average capacity" (McDougall, William., The Group Mind, p.187, Arno Press, 1973; Copyright, 1920 by G.P. Putnam's Sons).

McDougall married at the age of 29 ("against my considered principles", he reports in his autobiographical essay, "for I held that a man whose chosen business in life was to develop to the utmost his intellectual powers should not marry before forty, if at all"). He had five children.

McDougall's book The Group Mind received "very hostile reviews" from psychologists but sold well to the public. The American Press was critical of McDougall as his lectures on national eugenics were seen as racist.[5]

Psychical research


McDougall was a strong advocate of the scientific method and academic professionalisation in psychical research. He was instrumental in establishing parapsychology as a university discipline in the US in the early 1930s.[6] In 1920, McDougall served as president of the Society for Psychical Research, and in the subsequent year of its US counterpart, the American Society for Psychical Research.[7]

McDougall was a member of the Scientific American committee that investigated the medium Mina Crandon.[5] He attended séances with the medium and was sceptical about her "ectoplasmic hand". He suspected that it was part of an animal, artificially manipulated to resemble a hand. McDougall's suspicion was confirmed by independent experts who had examined photographs of the hand.[5]

McDougall was critical of spiritualism, he believed that some of its proponents such as Arthur Conan Doyle misunderstood psychical research and "devote themselves to propaganda".[5] In 1926, McDougall concluded "I have taken part in a considerable number of investigations of alleged supernormal phenomena; but hitherto have failed to find convincing evidence in any case, but have found rather much evidence of fraud and trickery."[8]

McDougall, however, continued to encourage scientific research on psychic phenomena and in 1937 was a founding co-editor (with Joseph Banks Rhine) of the peer-reviewed Journal of Parapsychology, which continues to be published.



In 1911, McDougall authored Body and Mind: A History and Defence of Animism.

Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence. Potentially, animism perceives all things—animals, plants, rocks, rivers, weather systems, human handiwork and perhaps even words—as animated and alive. Animism is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the belief system of many indigenous peoples, especially in contrast to the relatively more recent development of organised religions.

-- Animism, by Wikipedia

In the work he rejected both materialism and Darwinism and supported a form of Lamarckism where mind guides evolution. McDougall defended a form of animism where all matter has a mental aspect; his views were very similar to panpsychism as he believed that there was an animating principle in matter and had claimed in his work that there were both psychological and biological evidence for this position.[9]

Panpsychism is the view that mentality is fundamental and ubiquitous in the natural world. The view has a long and venerable history in philosophical traditions of both East and West, and has recently enjoyed a revival in analytic philosophy. For its proponents panpsychism offers an attractive middle way between physicalism on the one hand and dualism on the other. The worry with dualism—the view that mind and matter are fundamentally different kinds of thing—is that it leaves us with a radically disunified picture of nature, and the deep difficulty of understanding how mind and brain interact. And whilst physicalism offers a simple and unified vision of the world, this is arguably at the cost of being unable to give a satisfactory account of the emergence of human and animal consciousness. Panpsychism, strange as it may sound on first hearing, promises a satisfying account of the human mind within a unified conception of nature....

The word “panpsychism” literally means that everything has a mind. However, in contemporary debates it is generally understood as the view that mentality is fundamental and ubiquitous in the natural world. Thus, in conjunction with the widely held assumption (which will be reconsidered below) that fundamental things exist only at the micro-level, panpsychism entails that at least some kinds of micro-level entities have mentality, and that instances of those kinds are found in all things throughout the material universe. So whilst the panpsychist holds that mentality is distributed throughout the natural world—in the sense that all material objects have parts with mental properties—she needn’t hold that literally everything has a mind, e.g., she needn’t hold that a rock has mental properties (just that the rock’s fundamental parts do).

We can distinguish various forms of panpsychism in terms of which aspect of mentality is taken to be fundamental and ubiquitous. Two important characteristics of human minds are thought and consciousness. In terms of these characteristics we can distinguish the following two possible forms of panpsychism:

• Panexperientialism—the view that conscious experience is fundamental and ubiquitous
• Pancognitivism—the view that thought is fundamental and ubiquitous.

According to the definition of consciousness that is dominant in contemporary analytic philosophy, something is conscious just in case there is something that it’s like to be it; that is to say, if it has some kind of experience, no matter how basic.[7] Humans have incredibly rich and complex experience, horses less so, mice less so again. Standardly the panexperientialist holds that this diminishing of the complexity of experience continues down through plants, and through to the basic constituents of reality, perhaps electrons and quarks. If the notion of “having experience” is flexible enough, then the view that an electron has experience—of some extremely basic kind—would seem to be coherent (of course we must distinguish the question of whether it is coherent from the question of whether it is plausible; the latter will depend on the strength of the arguments discussed below).

Thought, in contrast, is a much more sophisticated phenomenon, and many doubt that it is correct to ascribe it to non-human animals, never-mind fundamental particles. The traditional view in analytic philosophy is that thoughts are mental states that can be modelled as psychological attitudes towards specific propositions: believing that Budapest is the capital of Hungary, hoping that war is over, fearing that there will be another Global Financial Crisis. Panpsychism is often caricatured as the view that electrons have hopes and dreams, or that quarks suffer from existential angst. However, whilst there have been some defenders of pancognitivism in history, it is panexperientialist forms of panpsychism that are taken seriously in contemporary analytic philosophy. From now on I will equate panpsychism with panexperientialism.

-- Panpsychism, by Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

McDougall had defended the theory that mind and the brain are distinct but interact with each other though he was not a dualist or a monist as he believed his theory of animism would replace both the philosophical views of dualism and monism.[10][11] As a parapsychologist he also claimed telepathy had been scientifically proven, he used evidence from psychic research as well as from biology and psychology to defend his theory of animism.[12]

McDougall produced another work attacking materialism titled Materialism and Emergent Evolution (1929). In the book he had also criticised the theory of emergent evolution as he claimed it had ignored the evidence of Lamarckism and had ignored the evidence of mind guiding evolution. McDougall's last work on the subject titled The Riddle of Life (1938) criticised organicism as according to McDougall even though the theory of organicism had rejected materialism it had not gone far enough in advocating an active role for a nonphysical principle.[13]

Selected bibliography

By William McDougall:

• Physiological Psychology (1905)
• An Introduction to Social Psychology. Methuen & Co, p. x, 355 (London 1908). A second edition appeared in 1909.
This book has been reprinted several times. For example, in 1960, University Paperbacks, an imprint of Methuen & Co and Barnes & Noble, published a reprint of the 23rd edition.[14]
• Body and Mind: A History and a Defense of Animism (1913)
• The Group Mind: A Sketch of the Principles of Collective Psychology with Some Attempt to Apply Them to the Interpretation of National Life and Character (1920, reprinted 1973)
• Is America Safe for Democracy? Six Lectures Given at the Lowell Institute of Boston, Under the Title Anthropology and History, or the Influence of Constitution on the Destinies of Nations (1921)
• Outline of Psychology (1923)
• An Outline of Abnormal Psychology (1926)
• Character and the Conduct of Life (1927)
• Modern Materialism and Emergent Evolution (1929)
• Energies of Men (1932)
• The Riddle of Life (1938)

By Margaret Boden:

• Purposive Explanation in Psychology (1972)

See also

• Crowd psychology
• Group dynamics
• Social psychology
• Inheritance of acquired characteristics


1. Hodgson, Geoffrey M. 1998. "On the Evolution of Thorstein Veblen's Evolutionary Economics." Cambridge Journal of Economics. 22(4):415–431.
2. Greenwood, M.; Smith, M. (1940). "William McDougall. 1871-1938". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 3 (8): 39. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1940.0005.
3. "McDougall, William (MDGL890W)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
4. Wooldridge, Adrian (2006). Measuring the Mind: Education and Psychology in England C.1860-c.1990. Cambridge University Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 9780521026185. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
5. Berger, Arthur S. (1988). Portrait of William McDougall. In Lives and Letters in American Parapsychology: A Biographical History, 1850–1987. McFarland. pp. 118–124. ISBN 0-89950-345-4
6. Asprem, E. (2010), "A Nice Arrangement of Heterodoxies: William McDougall and the Professionalization of Psychical Research", Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 46 (2):123–143.
7. Krantz, D L; Hall, R; Allen, D (1969), "William McDougall and the problem of purpose.", Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences (published January 1969), 5 (1), pp. 25–38, doi:10.1002/1520-6696(196901)5:1<25::AID-JHBS2300050104>3.0.CO;2-S, PMID 11610086
8. Valentine, Elizabeth R. (2011). Spooks and Spoofs: Relations Between Psychical Research and Academic Psychology in Britain in the Inter-War Period. History of the Human Sciences 25: 67–90.
9. The New international encyclopaedia, Volume 7, Dodd, Mead and company, 1923, p. 282
10. David Ray Griffin Parapsychology, philosophy, and spirituality: a postmodern exploration 1997, p. 139
11. William McDougall Body and mind: a history and a defense of animism Methuen, 1911
12. Janet Oppenheim The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850–1914 1988, pp. 263–264
13. Peter J. Bowler Reconciling science and religion: the debate in early-twentieth-century Britain 2001, pp. 181–184
14. McDougall, William (1960), An Introduction to Social Psychology (23rd ed.), University Paperbacks. Imprint of Methuen & Co (London) and Barnes & Noble (New York)., pp. xxi–xxii (Note: Preface to 23rd edition commences p.xxi, with date of this preface [October 1936] on p.xxii.)

Further reading

• Rose, Anne C. (2009). Psychology and Selfhood in the Segregated South (University of North Carolina Press). ISBN 978-0-8078-3281-3. (18 December 2010).
• Spiro, Jonathan P. (2009), Defending the Master Race: Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant, Univ. of Vermont Press, ISBN 978-1-58465-715-6, lay summary (29 September 2010)
• Tucker, William H. (2007), The funding of Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund, University of Illinois Press, ISBN 978-0-252-07463-9, lay summary (4 September 2010)

External links

• Works written by or about William McDougall at Wikisource
• Works by William McDougall at Project Gutenberg
• Works by or about William McDougall at Internet Archive
• Autobiographical essay written in 1930.In Carl Murchison (ed.) A History of Psychology in Autobiography. Vol. 1. New York: Russell and Russell (1930): 191- 223. Retrieved 2008-05-26.
• Chris Brand (1997). William McDougall (1871–1938): heterodox and angry with psychologists by nature, nurture and circumstance. An essay presenting McDougall's intellectual concerns, positions and achievements. Retrieved 2008-05-26.
Site Admin
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Thu Jun 25, 2020 5:04 am

Mina Crandon
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/24/20

Mina Crandon
Born: 1888, Ontario, Canada
Died: November 1, 1941, Beacon Hill, Boston
Occupation: Spiritualist medium

Mina "Margery" Crandon (1888–November 1, 1941) was a well known psychical medium who claimed that she channeled her dead brother, Walter Stinson. Investigators who studied Crandon concluded that she had no genuine paranormal ability, and others detected in her outright deception.[1][2] She became well-known as her alleged paranormal skills were touted by Sherlock Holmes author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and were disproved by legendary magician Harry Houdini. Crandon was investigated by members of the American Society for Psychical Research and employees of the Scientific American.

Crandon was the wife of a wealthy Boston surgeon and socialite, Dr. Le Roi Goddard Crandon.
[3] Her life has been extensively documented in magic and psychical literature.


Born Mina Marguerite Stinson,[4] Crandon grew up on a farm in Princeton, Ontario, Canada, but moved to Boston as a young woman. While working as a secretary of a local church in Boston, she met and married Earl Rand, a grocer. They had one son.[5] She later met Dr. Crandon when she entered a Dorchester, Massachusetts, hospital for an unspecified operation,[6] possibly appendicitis.[7] Dr. Crandon was her surgeon. She and Dr. Crandon crossed paths again later that year when Dr. Crandon served as a lieutenant commander and head of surgical staff in a New England Naval hospital during the First World War and she served as a civilian volunteer ambulance driver who transported casualties to the hospital. Mina sued for divorce from Earl P. Rand in January 1918 and became Dr. Crandon's 3rd wife a few months later. She moved to Dr. Crandon's house at 10 Lime Street, with her son.[6] Dr. Crandon later adopted her son and changed his name to John Crandon.[7]

Scientific American

Crandon began experimenting with séances as a hobby, possibly to distract her older husband from a morbid obsession with mortality.[5] On June 23, 1924, her name was submitted as a candidate for a prize offered by Scientific American magazine to any medium who could demonstrate telekinetic ability under scientific controls. With a doctor as husband, Crandon was well prepared for the challenge, and her charm and lack of interest in personal monetary reward made her seem honest to the public eye. Her séance circles included members of the middle class as well as luminary members of the Boston upper class and Ivy League elite. Famous supporters such as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle gave her significant credibility.[7] She became so popular that her prayers were read by the U.S. Army [to soldiers].

Spiritualism had been on the wane for decades, but in the wake of World War I, as death touched tens of thousands of households on both sides of the Atlantic, the movement underwent a rebirth. Friends and relatives of fallen soldiers flocked to séances, desperate to receive some word or sign of ‘life beyond the veil.’

-- Mina Crandon & Harry Houdini: The Medium and The Magician, by HistoryNet

The Scientific American prize committee consisted of William McDougall, professor of psychology at Harvard; Harry Houdini, the famous professional magician and escape artist; Walter Franklin Prince, American psychical researcher; Dr. Daniel Frost Comstock, who introduced Technicolor to film; and Hereward Carrington, amateur magician, psychical researcher, author, and manager for the Italian medium Eusapia Palladino.[6]

From left to right. Walter Franklin Prince, Daniel Frost Comstock, Mina Crandon, O. D. Munn, Harry Houdini.

Mr. J. Malcolm Bird, an employee of Scientific American (not on the Prize Committee) notified Houdini of the possibility that "Margery" might win the prize. Houdini and other prize committee members attended two séances in Boston at Margery (and her husband's) home on July 23 and 24, 1924, and claimed to have observed Crandon's tricks. According to Houdini, Crandon had escaped control and stretched her foot to ring a bell in the séance room.[8] Houdini told the committee about the fraud and gave a practical demonstration; however, Bird in an article for Scientific American praised Margery's abilities and newspapers supported Bird's declarations.[8]

They visited again on August 23, 1924, for a few days. On the August visit, Houdini exposed the mechanics used during the séance, along with other people involved in creating the noises during the séance. Houdini asked her to wear an apparatus which prevented her from using her legs.[9] The apparatus was a large cabinet-box leaving only her head and hands sticking out. On August 25 with Dr. Comstock and Houdini in a séance Crandon was placed in the cabinet. A box with a bell was placed on a table in front of the cabinet. During the séance the bell made a noise but when the lights were turned on it was revealed the lid of the cabinet-box had been forced open. Houdini claimed Crandon had cheated and had rung the bell herself.[10]

There was much disagreement among the committee, and in the end, only Carrington voted in favor of Crandon.
However, committee Secretary Malcolm Bird leaked to the press that the committee was leaning toward a positive vote. Incensed, committee member Harry Houdini returned from abroad to submit his dissenting vote. His efforts to discredit Crandon became a part of his stage act, and he reproduced her effects for audiences as well as published a pamphlet that described how she achieved some of her more basic effects.[11][12]

On August 27, the investigator Dr. Comstock asked her to wear a similar device called, a "median control". The device consisted of a box into which Crandon and an investigator would put their feet. Connecting to the box was a board which was locked on top of the knees, preventing withdrawal of the feet. Crandon's hands were held by the investigator and the box with the bell was placed outside the control-box. Crandon agreed to be tested and, because of the strict control, no paranormal phenomena in the séance were observed. Margery did not win the prize money.[8]

Ruler incident

During a séance with the cabinet-box, Crandon requested that the sides be closed so she could move her hands freely inside the cabinet. A collapsible ruler was later found in the cabinet, Houdini suggested that Crandon had used the ruler with her neck to ring the bell. In response, Crandon accused Houdini and his assistant Jim Collins of placing the ruler inside the cabinet to discredit her.[10] Houdini and Collins were both questioned about the incident and denied placing the ruler in the cabinet.[10]

In 1959, author William Lindsay Gresham accused Collins of placing the ruler and quoted him as saying "I chucked it in the box meself. The Boss told me to do it. He wanted to fix her good".[13] However, doubts have been raised about this statement. Magic historian Milbourne Christopher dismissed the alleged statement as "sheer fiction". According to Christopher the source of the quotation was a rival magician to Houdini, Fred Keating, and is unreliable. In 2003, Massimo Polidoro noted that "the incident remains doubtful to this day."[14]


By 1925 due to the investigation of Crandon, the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR) had been taken over by a spiritualist faction. The ASPR championed Crandon and suppressed any reports unfavorable to her.[15] In response, Walter Franklin Prince who was the Society's research officer resigned to establish the Boston Society for Psychical Research. Prince was accused by supporters of Crandon of being biased against paranormal phenomena.[15]

Crandon's husband was known for displaying nude photographs of her in her mediumship sessions. Mina Crandon was described as a very beautiful lady whom men found "too attractive for her own good." It was suggested that the psychical investigator J. Malcolm Bird actively conspired with the Crandons in stage-managing the séances in an attempt to have a sexual relationship with Mina. Reports, however, suggest that Mina found Bird repulsive. Instead she had amorous feelings for the psychical researcher Hereward Carrington, with whom she had an affair. Carrington also borrowed money he was unable to repay from Crandon. Critics have written that it is easy to imagine these factors could have biased his judgement regarding her mediumship.[7]

Crandon in 1924.

Crandon performed many of her séances in the nude, and was reported to throw herself onto the laps of her male sitters. She was also described as an alcoholic.[16] During séances, Eric Dingwall told Crandon to take off her clothes and sit in the nude. Crandon would also sometimes sprinkle luminous powder on her breasts and because of such activities William McDougall and other psychical researchers criticized Dingwall for having improper relations with Crandon.[7]

Historian Ruth Brandon has noted that as Bird, Carrington and Dingwall were all personally involved with Crandon, they were biased and unreliable witnesses.[17] Magician Fred Keating who had observed Crandon at her house suggested Carrington pretended some of her phenomena baffled him in an attempt to get financial backing for his own psychical laboratory.[18]

A review by the father of modern parapsychology, Dr. Joseph Banks Rhine, lent further insight into Crandon's performances. Dr. Rhine was able to observe some of her trickery in the dark when she used luminous objects.[19] Rhine claimed to have observed Crandon committing fraud in a séance in 1926. According to Rhine, during the séance she was free from control and kicked a megaphone to give the impression it was levitating.[8]

Rhine's report documenting the fraud was refused by the ASPR, so he published it in the Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology. In response, defenders of Crandon attacked Rhine. Arthur Conan Doyle published an article in a Boston newspaper claiming "J. B. Rhine is an Ass."[8]

Crandon continued to conduct séances and the English teacher, Grant Code, became a frequent visitor to the Crandon home and was enthralled by Crandon's later performances. Ultimately, he too was able to duplicate them. Code's exchange of letters with psychic investigator Walter Franklin Prince regarding Margery is currently held in the archives of the ASPR.[19]

An elaborate investigation was held by a committee of Harvard scholars. Finally, the Harvard committee also pronounced Crandon as fraudulent. On 30 June 1925, one of the Harvard investigators saw Crandon draw three objects from her lap. One object was shaped like a glove or flat hand, one resembled a baby's hand, and the third was described but not identified.

The American Society for Psychical Research wanted further investigation. In 1926, a committee of three professors (Knight Dunlap, Henry C. McComas and Robert Williams Wood) was sent to Boston. Crandon had a luminous star attached to her forehead, identifying the location of her face in the dark. After a few minutes, a narrow dark rod appeared over a luminous checkerboard which had been placed on the table opposite Crandon. It moved from side to side and picked up an object. As it passed in front of Wood he lightly touched it with the tip of his finger and followed it back to a point very near Crandon's mouth. Wood thought it probable she was holding the rod by her teeth. He took hold of the tip and very quietly pinched it. It felt like a knitting needle covered with one or two layers of soft leather. Though the committee had been warned that touching the ectoplasm could result in the illness or death of the medium, neither Crandon nor the "ectoplasm" rod showed any reaction to Wood's actions. At the end of the sitting, Wood dictated his actions to the stenographer. Upon hearing this, Crandon gave a shriek and fainted. She was carried out of the room and the committee was asked to depart. Wood was never invited again.[20]

The committee that consisted of Dunlap, McComas and Wood considered the phenomena to be fraudulent. They concluded that the rod was an animal intestine that had been "stuffed with cotton and stiffened with wire".[21] In 1939, Crandon's husband died and Crandon, an alcoholic, went into a deep depression. At one of her last séances she attempted to jump off the roof of the house.[8]


Mina Crandon with her "spirit hand" which was discovered to be made from a piece of carved animal liver.

Crandon's "teleplasmic hand" that allegedly appeared in photographs was said to resemble animal tissue and trachea, cut and sewn together.[22] Allegations were made by some conjuring historians of Houdini and mediumship that her surgeon husband had altered her genitalia and this was where she concealed her teleplasmic hand. The "hand" did not move after its appearance on the table before her. It lay still as if it were dead and then supposedly vanished. She refused to wear tights, or to be internally searched, but no proof that Crandon had been surgically altered has ever been published. The "hand" appeared only when Crandon sat next to her husband, who held or controlled her right hand.[6][23]

There are photos of the alleged teleplasmic hand and its position.[6] It appeared to be coming from Crandon's groin.[24] Various members of the audience in the séances touched the hand and described it as dead. It was also suggested that Crandon's husband may have sneaked it into the séance room.[25] The "teleplasmic hand" was later exposed as a trick when biologists examined the hand and found it to be made of a piece of carved animal liver.[26]

Crandon used a trick in an attempt to fool psychical researchers that the "spirit" voices in her séances did not come from her own mouth. According to magician John Booth this was performed by Crandon filling her mouth with water before the séance had started and when the lights were turned off, swallowing the water. Before the end of the séance she would refill her mouth with water from a corked test tube.[27] Crandon's reputation was also damaged when a fingerprint left on wax ostensibly by her channeled spirit, her deceased brother, Walter, was discovered to belong to her dentist Frederick Caldwell by a member of the Boston Society for Psychical Research. Her dentist divulged that he had taught her how to make these prints.[6][19]

In 1934, Walter Franklin Prince described the Crandon case as "the most ingenious, persistent, and fantastic complex of fraud in the history of psychic research."[28] Crandon continued to perform until her early death in 1941, at about the age of 53.[19]

Italian skeptic investigator Massimo Polidoro has written an entire history of Crandon's mediumship and documented her tricks.[29]

Secret accomplice

In 1933, Walter Franklin Prince wrote an article for the Scientific American that claimed J. Malcolm Bird intended to publish a confession in the ASPR in 1930 admitting that an act of fraud had taken place to trick Houdini in 1924. According to Prince the report "has not been printed and very few of the believers in Europe or America know of its existence."[8] Part of Bird's (rejected) report to the ASPR read:

The occasion was one of Houdini's visits to Boston for the purpose of the sitting... She [Crandon] sought a private interview with me and tried to get me to agree, in the event the phenomena did not occur, that I would ring the bell-box myself, or produce something else that might pass as activity by Walter... It seems to me of paramount importance, in that it shows her, fully conscious and fully normal, in a situation where she thought she might have to choose between fraud and a blank séance; and she was willing to choose fraud.[8]

Houdini had suspected Bird as an accomplice for Crandon in the Scientific American investigation in 1924. Bird resigned from the investigation after Houdini announced on a radio program: "I publicly denounce here Malcolm Bird as being an accomplice of Margery!".[8]

Joseph Banks Rhine, who caught Crandon free from control and kicking a megaphone during a séance, wondered why Bird, with three years of experience, did not expose any of her tricks. Rhine suspected that Bird was a confederate of the medium.[8] The psychical researcher William Henry Salter speculated that Crandon's husband may have been an accomplice and that blackmail may have been involved, he also noted that Hereward Carrington admitted to having a several months long affair with Crandon and, although she found Malcolm Bird "disgusting looking", he also claimed to have had a romance with her.[8]

Ruth Brandon also suspected Crandon's husband and wrote that he was "colluding with his wife in her frauds."[23]


Crandon with alleged ectoplasm on her face

Crandon in box device with Harry Houdini

Example of Crandon's automatic writing

Crandon with fraudulent materialized hand

Thumb-print on dental wax from a Crandon séance

The fraudulent materialized hand that was found to be made from carved animal liver

Walter Stinson, brother of Crandon

Le Roi Goddard Crandon, husband of Crandon


1. Edmunds, Simeon. (1966). Spiritualism: A Critical Survey. Aquarian Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0850300130
2. Neher, Andrew.(2011). Paranormal and Transcendental Experience: A Psychological Examination. p. 216. ISBN 978-0486261676 "Margery Crandon was studied by at least half a dozen different set of investigators, all of whom reached the conclusion that there was no substantial evidence that any of her phenomena was paranormal and some of whom detected her in outright deception; once, she displayed some "spirit fingerprints" impressed on wax, which turned out to be those of her dentist."
3. "Psychic Exponent Passes Along". The Daily Mail. Hagerstown, Maryland. November 21, 1941. p. 12. Retrieved 2019-02-14.
4. Moreman, Christopher M. (2013-08-27). The Spiritualist Movement: Speaking with the Dead in America and around the World [3 volumes]: Speaking with the Dead in America and around the World. ABC-CLIO. pp. 130, 210. ISBN 9780313399480.
5. Silverman, Kenneth. (1996). Houdini!!!: The Career of Ehrich Weiss. Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 978-0060169787
6. Christopher, Milbourne. (1975). Mediums, Mystics, & the Occult. Thomas Y. Crowell Company. ISBN 978-0690004762
7. Kalush, William; Sloman, Larry. (2006). The Secret Life of Houdini: The Making of America's First Superhero. Atria Books. ISBN 978-0743272087
8. Polidoro, Massimo. (2001). Final Séance: The Strange Friendship Between Houdini and Conan Doyle. Prometheus Books. pp. 134-234. ISBN 978-1591020868
9. Christopher, Milbourne. (1969). Houdini: The Untold Story. Thomas Y. Crowell Company. pp. 187-199. ISBN 978-0891909811
10. Polidoro, Massimo. (2003). Secrets of the Psychics: Investigating Paranormal Claims. Prometheus Books pp. 136-140. ISBN 978-1591020868
11. Houdini's prototype Margery bell box resides in the magic collection of Ken Klosterman Sr.
12. Houdini, Harry. (1953). Houdini on Magic. Dover Publications. Contains a reprint of the Margery pamphlet.
13. Gresham, William Lindsay. (1959). Houdini: The Man Who Walked Through Walls. Holt. p. 254
14. Polidoro, Massimo. (2003). Secrets of the Psychics: Investigating Paranormal Claims. Prometheus Books. pp. 140-142. ISBN 978-1591020868 "The source of this story, though not given by Gresham, was Fred Keating, a magician who had been a guest of the Crandons in their house on Lime Street at the time Carrington was investigating the medium. Keating, however, was not unbiased. Several days before Gresham spoke to him, Keating had seen an unpublished manuscript in this author's collection in which Houdini, while praising Keating as a magician, had commented in unflattering terms on Keating's abilities as an investigator of psychic phenomena. In this writer's opinion, the story of Collins' admission is sheer fiction. (Christopher, 1969, p. 198). The incident remains doubtful to this day. It could have been revealing if at the time a laboratory could have examined the ruler found inside the box for fingerprints or other useful traces. Evidently the Scientific American committee was not that scientific after all."
o Christopher, Milbourne. (1969). Houdini: The Untold Story. Thomas Y. Crowell Company. p. 198. ISBN 978-0891909811
15. Chéroux, Clément. (2005). The Perfect Medium: Photography and the Occult. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300111361
16. Keene, M. Lamar. (1997). The Psychic Mafia. Prometheus Books. pp. 74-75. ISBN 978-1573921619
17. Brandon, Ruth. (1993). The Life and Many Deaths of Harry Houdini. Secker & Warburg. p. 265. ISBN 0-436-20060-0
18. Christopher, Milbourne. (1975). Mediums, Mystics & the Occult. Thomas Y. Crowell. p. 202
19. Tietze, Thomas. (1973). Margery. Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0060682354
20. Seabrook, William. (1941). Wood as a Debunker of Scientific Cranks and Frauds-and His War with the Mediums in Doctor Wood. Harcourt, Brace and Company.
21. Moreman, Christopher M. (2013). The Spiritualist Movement: Speaking with the Dead in America and Around the World. Volume 1: American Origins and Global Proliferation. Praeger. pp. 241-242. ISBN 978-0-313-39947-3
22. Stein, Gordon. (1996). The Encyclopedia of the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. p. 396. ISBN 978-1573920216
23. Brandon, Ruth. (1983). The Spiritualists: The Passion for the Occult in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 188. ISBN 0-297-78249-5
24. Keene, M. Lamar. (1997). The Psychic Mafia. Prometheus Books. p. 135. ISBN 978-1573921619
25. Russell, Francis. (1987). The Knave of Boston: & Other Ambiguous Massachusetts Characters. Quinlan Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0933341791
26. Righi, Brian. (2008). Ghosts, Apparitions and Poltergeists: An Exploration of the Supernatural through History. Llewellyn Publications. p. 52. ISBN 978-0738713632 "One medium of the 1920s, Mina Crandon, became famous for producing ectoplasm during her sittings. At the height of the séance, she was even able to produce a tiny ectoplasmic hand from her navel, which waved about in the darkness. Her career ended when Harvard biologists were able to examine the tiny hand and found it to be nothing more than a carved piece of animal liver."
27. Booth, John. (1986). Psychic Paradoxes. Prometheus Books. pp. 180-181. ISBN 978-0879753580
28. Hansel, C. E. M. (1989). The Search for Psychic Power: ESP and Parapsychology Revisited. Prometheus Books. p. 245. ISBN 978-0879755331
29. Polidoro, Massimo. (1998). Houdini v. the Blond Witch of Lime Street: A Historical Lesson in Skepticism. Skeptic 5: 90–97.

Further reading


• Simeon Edmunds. (1966). Spiritualism: A Critical Survey. Aquarian Press.
• Carolyn Gray. (2007). The Elmwood Visitation. Scirocco Drama.
• Harry Houdini. (1924). Houdini Exposes the Tricks Used by the Boston Medium "Margery". Adams Press.
• David Jaher (2015). The Witch of Lime Street: Seance, Seduction, and Houdini in the Spirit World. Crown Publishers
• William Kalush, Larry Sloman. (2006). The Secret Life of Houdini: The Making of America's First Super Hero. Atria Books.
• Henry C. McComas. (1937). Ghosts I Have Talked With. Williams and Wilkins Company.
• Massimo Polidoro. (2001). Final Séance: The Strange Friendship Between Houdini and Conan Doyle. Prometheus Books.
• Massimo Polidoro. (2003). Secrets of the Psychics: Investigating Paranormal Claims. Prometheus Books.
• Joseph Rinn. (1950). Sixty Years Of Psychical Research: Houdini And I Among The Spiritualists. Truth Seeker.
• Thomas Tietze. (1973). Margery. Harper & Row Publishers.
• Walter Franklin Prince. (1926). A Review of the Margery Case. American Journal of Psychology 37: 431–441.
• Walter Franklin Prince. (1933). The Case Against Margery. Scientific American. Vol. 148, issue 5, pp. 261-263.
• Joseph Banks Rhine, Louisa Rhine. (1927). One Evening's Observations on the Margery Mediumship. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology 21: 401-421.
• Mark Wyman Richardson, J. Malcolm Bird, E. E. Dudley, Josephine L. Richardson. The Thumbprint and Cross-Correspondence Experiments Made With the Medium Margery During 1927 and 1928. American Society for Psychical Research.

External links

• Houdini v. The Blond Witch of Lime Street: A Historical Lesson in Skepticism
• Mina Crandon & Harry Houdini: The Medium and The Magician
• Library of Congress Archives of newspaper articles regarding Houdini and Mina Crandon
• Interview with Anna Thurlow, great granddaughter of "Margery" - Wild About Harry (Houdini) blog
Site Admin
Posts: 29961
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Thu Jun 25, 2020 7:08 am

American Society for Psychical Research
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/25/20

American Society for Psychical Research
Abbreviation: ASPR
Formation: 1884
Legal status: Non-profit organization
Purpose: Parapsychology
Location: 5 West 73rd Street, New York City, 10023
Region served: North America
Membership: Psychical researchers
Main organ: Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research
Affiliations: Society for Psychical Research

The American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR) is the oldest psychical research organization in the United States dedicated to parapsychology. It maintains offices and a library, in New York City, which are open to both members and the general public. The society has an open membership, anyone with an interest in psychical research is invited to join. It maintains a website; and publishes the quarterly Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research.[1]


Officers for the SPR (1884–1885)

PROCEEDINGS OF THE American Society for Psychical Research
Vol. I. July, 1885. No. 1
Professor G. STANLEY HALL, Johns Hopkins University.
Professor GEORGE S. FULLERTON, University of Pennsylvania.
Dr. CHARLES S. MINOT, Harvard Medical School.
Professor EDWARD C. PICKERING, Harvard College Observatory
Dr. HENRY P. BOWDITCH, Harvard Medical School
Professor WILLIAM WATSON, Boston.
N.D.C. HODGES, 19 Brattle Street, Cambridge, Mass.

It was William Fletcher Barrett's visit to America that ultimately led to the formation of the American Society for Psychical Research in December, 1884.[2] Barrett was invited by several members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He persuaded intellectuals such as Edward Charles Pickering, Simon Newcomb, Alexander Graham Bell, Henry Pickering Bowditch and William James that the claims of psychical phenomena should be investigated scientifically.[2]

The first meetings of the society were held in the rooms of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[3] The founding members who were also the first Vice-Presidents were G. Stanley Hall,...

Granville Stanley Hall (February 1, 1846 – April 24, 1924[1]) was a pioneering American psychologist and educator. His interests focused on childhood development and evolutionary theory. Hall was the first president of the American Psychological Association and the first president of Clark University....

Inspired by Wilhelm Wundt's Principles of Physiological Psychology, Hall pursued doctoral studies at Harvard University where he met William James, an adjunct professor who had just taught the nation's first psychology class. In 1878, Hall earned the first psychology doctorate awarded in America. After Hall graduated with his doctorate, there were no academic jobs available in psychology, so he went to Europe to study at the University of Berlin, and spent a brief time in Wundt's Leipzig laboratory in 1879.

He began his career by teaching English and philosophy at Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio, and then teaching history of philosophy at Williams College in Massachusetts. Following successful lecture series at Harvard and Johns Hopkins University, Hall secured a position in the philosophy department at Johns Hopkins, teaching psychology and pedagogy. He remained at Johns Hopkins from 1882 to 1888 and, in 1883, began what is considered by some to be the first formal American psychology laboratory....

Hall was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1888...

He was also responsible for inviting Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung to visit and deliver a lecture series in 1909 at the Clark Conference. Hall promised Freud an honorary degree from Clark University in exchange. Hall and Freud shared the same beliefs on sex and adolescence. This was Freud's first and only visit to America and the biggest conference held at Clark University. It was also the most controversial conference, given that Freud's research was based on theories that Hall's colleagues criticized as non-scientific...

He seemed always to be founding new journals or scholarly associations to disseminate his ideas and those of scholars whose perspectives were consistent with his own. Among his creations were the widely respected American Journal of Psychology and the American Psychological Association....

In 1917, Hall published a book on religious psychology, Jesus the Christ in the Light of Psychology. The book was written in two volumes to define Jesus Christ in psychological terms. Hall thoroughly discussed all that is written about Christ, and the probable mental mechanisms of Christ and all of those who believed in him and wrote about him. He analyzes the myths, the magic, etc., built up about the name and life of Christ. He dissects the parables and discusses the miracles, the death and the resurrection of Jesus. He endeavors to reduce all possible expressions or trends which he finds in Jesus and his followers to their genetic origins...

Darwin's theory of evolution and Ernst Haeckel's recapitulation theory were large influences on Hall's career. These ideas prompted Hall to examine aspects of childhood development in order to learn about the inheritance of behavior. The subjective character of these studies made their validation impossible. He believed that as children develop, their mental capabilities resemble those of their ancestors and so they develop over a lifetime the same way that species develop over eons....

His work also delved into controversial portrayals of the differences between women and men, as well as the concept of racial eugenics.[5] While Hall was a proponent of racial eugenics, his views were less severe in terms of creating and keeping distinct separations between races. Hall believed in giving "lower races" a chance to accept and adapt to the "superior white civilization".[11] Hall even commended high ranking African Americans in society as being "exception to the Negro’s diminished evolutionary inheritance".[12] Hall viewed civilization in a similar fashion he viewed biological development. Humans must allow civilization to "run its natural evolution".[12] Hall saw those who did not accept the superior civilization as being primitive "savages". Hall viewed these civilizations in a similar fashion as he viewed children, stating that "their faults and their virtues are those of childhood and youth".[11] Hall believed that men and women should be separated into their own schools during puberty because it allowed them to be able to grow within their own gender. Women could be educated with motherhood in mind and the men could be educated in more hands-on projects, helping them to become leaders of their homes. Hall believed that schools with both sexes limited the way they could learn and softened the boys earlier than they should be...

Hall was also influenced by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and his theory of evolution. Hall found the idea of passing on memories from parent to offspring was a plausible mode of inheritance.[13]

Hall was one of the founding members and a vice President of the American Society for Psychical Research.[14] The early members of the society were skeptical of paranormal phenomena.[15] Hall took a psychological approach to psychical phenomena. By 1890 he had resigned from the society.[16] He became an outspoken critic of parapsychology.[17]...

Hall and his assistant Amy Tanner from Clark University were notable debunkers of spiritualism and carried out psychological and physiological tests on mediums...

Hall was deeply wedded to the German concept of Volk, an anti-individualist and authoritarian romanticism in which the individual is dissolved into a transcendental collective. Hall believed that humans are by nature non-reasoning and instinct driven, requiring a charismatic leader to manipulate their herd instincts for the well-being of society. He predicted that the American emphasis on individual human right and dignity would lead to a fall that he analogized to the sinking of Atlantis...

Hall argued that child development recapitulates his highly racialized conception of the history of human evolutionary development. He characterized pre-adolescent children as savages and therefore rationalized that reasoning was a waste of time with children. He believed that children must simply be led to fear God, love country, and develop a strong body. As the child burns out the vestiges of evil in his nature, he needs a good dose of authoritarian discipline, including corporal punishment.[7] He believed that adolescents are characterized by more altruistic natures than pre-adolescents and that high schools should indoctrinate students into selfless ideals of service, patriotism, body culture, military discipline, love of authority, awe of nature, and devotion to the state and the well being of others.[23] Hall consistently argued against intellectual attainment at all levels of public education. Open discussion and critical opinions were not to be tolerated. Students needed indoctrination to save them from the individualism that was so damaging to the progress of American culture...

Hall had no sympathy for the poor, the sick, or those with developmental differences or disabilities. A firm believer in selective breeding and forced sterilization, he believed that any respect or charity toward those he viewed as physically, emotionally, or intellectually weak or "defective" simply interfered with the movement of natural selection toward the development of a super-race....[11]

Thorndike said that Hall's magnum opus was "chock full of errors, masturbation, and Jesus. He is a mad man."..

Hall viewed masturbation as an immoral act and a blemish of the human race that interfered with moral and intellectual growth. Hall discussed masturbation in reference to men and did not discuss it in terms of women. It is not known whether he knew this act occurred in women or that Hall believed adolescent boys must go through what he described as "conversion". This conversion releases the boys from biological sins that were passed onto them by their ancestors. This passing on of sins through generations is guided by Lamarckian evolution. He claimed that conversion occurred as naturally as a "blossoming flower". Instead of masturbation, Hall viewed spontaneous emissions as a natural and acceptable alternative to forced ejaculation. Hall believed that he went through conversion during his freshman year at Williams College...

Among his many students who made significant future contributions in fields he stimulated were the philosopher John Dewey (when Hall was at Johns Hopkins) and the famous psychologists Lewis Terman, Henry Goddard, and Arnold Gesell (when Hall was at Clark)...

Hall expressed openly eugenic views in many of his writings. He was listed in numerous American eugenic organizations as its leader. The Eugenical News (1916–1922) celebrated the development of new American eugenic scholarly organization by highlighting that its roster included such as in the following announcement about "new active members of Eugenics Research Association... C. C. Brigham, Psychological Laboratory, Princeton, N. J., G. Stanley Hall, Clark University, C. E. Seashore, State University of Iowa, Lewis, M. Terman, Stanford University, Calif., John B. Watson, Johns Hopkins Hospital" (p. 53). Although Hall is credited with bringing notable psychoanalytic scholars to the U.S., including S. Freud and C. Jung, Hall expressed openly anti-psychoanalytic views in his writings that emphasized his eugenic commitments. For example, in the first issue of the Journal of Applied Psychology, of which Stanley G. Hall (1917) was an editor, his opening article proclaimed that the U.S. psychology had to "draw any lesson... from the present war, in which the great Nordic race which embraces the dominant elements of all the belligerent nations is committing suicide" (p. 9) The most significant of these lessons, according to Hall, was for American psychology to fight against the "revisionary conceptions of Freud...that it is... normal for man at times to plunge back and down the evolutionary ladder" (p. 12).

Hall included openly anti-Semitic statements in his writings such as in his book On the Aspects of German Culture in which he discussed the supposed destruction of Western civilization by "rapacious Jews." Consistent with typical anti-Semitic stereotypes promoted by eugenicists such as Charles Davenport Hall remarked that the psychoanalytic focus on "sex" in addition to this approach's "rapid growth... found outside the circle of specialists [academic experimental psychologists]" made psychoanalysis and "the number of out-and-out disciples" to be a form of a "cult" (p. 412). Moreover, Hall stated that the "Freudian theory of therapy... is mistaken" (p. 12), giving a warning example of how an individual's culturally unacceptable sexual desires and behaviors could be justified through psychoanalytic interpretations rather than "cured by the very modesty" based on cultural or religious norms (p. 13)...

Hall claimed that psychoanalytic treatment would "destroy" this religious "morality" during the process of analysis (p. 13). In his book Jesus, the Christ, In the Light of Psychology Hall openly praised eugenics and discussed that the presence of supposedly evolutionary unfit people (i.e., the poor, racial minorities, immigrants) served the purpose of teaching the evolutionary fit people (i.e., Nordic wealthy Whites) virtues of caring for the lower classes. Other openly eugenic writings by Hall include his 1903 article entitled "The White Man's Burden versus Indigenous Development of the Lower Races" in The Journal of Education. A majority of American eugenic organizations listed Hall as its leader (e.g., American Eugenic Society, American Eugenic Research Organization). His students included many notable eugenicists, including H. H. Goddard, Robert Yerkes, Lewis Terman, and many others.

-- G. Stanley Hall, by Wikipedia

George Stuart Fullerton,...

George Stuart Fullerton (August 18, 1859 – March 23, 1925) was an American philosopher and psychologist. Fullerton was born at Fatehgarh, India, the son of the Rev. Robert Stuart Fullerton. He came to this country as a youth.

He graduated in 1879 from the University of Pennsylvania and in 1884 from Yale Divinity School; and returned to Pennsylvania to be an instructor, adjunct professor, and dean of the department of philosophy, dean of the college, and vice provost of the university. In 1904 he was appointed professor of philosophy at Columbia University, and served as head of the department.

He was the host of the first annual meeting of the American Psychological Association in 1892 at the University of Pennsylvania, and the APA's fifth president, in 1896...

In 1914, while he was exchange professor at the University of Vienna, World War I broke out. He was Lecturing at Munich (Germany) when Interned. Fullerton was imprisoned as a civilian enemy national. He remained imprisoned for four years, until the end of the war, and conditions were so harsh that he returned to the U.S. with his health permanently damaged .. Nearly an invalid for the last decade of his life, Fullerton committed suicide at the age of 66.[1]

Fullerton's philosophy was realist. His writings include:

• The Conception of the Infinite (1887)
• A Plain Argument for God (1889)
• On Sameness and Identity (1890)
• On the Perception of Small Differences, with Cattell (1892)
• The Philosophy of Spinoza (1894)
• On Spinozistic Immortality (1899)
• A System of Metaphysics (1904)

• An Introduction to Philosophy (1906)An Introduction to Philosophy. Reprint. Publisher: Ruby Press & Co.First Edition: 2015 ISBN 978-9-3823-9537-9
• The World We Live in, or Philosophy and Life in the Light of Modern Thought (1912)
Germany of to-day, by George Stuart Fullerton, Ph. D. LL.D. Professor of Philosophy in Columbia University, New York. Honorary Professor in the University of Vienna. First American Exchange Professor in Austria. Publisher: The Bobbs-Merrill Company Indianapolis, 1915
• A Handbook of Ethical Theory (1922) A Handbook of Ethical Theory. Reprint. Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 1 edition (September 2, 2013) ISBN 978-1-4923-1845-3

-- George Stuart Fullerton, by Wikipedia

Edward Charles Pickering,...

Edward Charles Pickering ForMemRS HFRSE (July 19, 1846 – February 3, 1919) was an American astronomer and physicist and the older brother of William Henry Pickering. Along with Carl Vogel, Pickering discovered the first spectroscopic binary stars. He wrote Elements of Physical Manipulations (2 vol., 1873–76).

Soon after graduating from Harvard, Pickering taught physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Later, he served as director of Harvard College Observatory from 1877 to his death in 1919, where he made great leaps forward in the gathering of stellar spectra through the use of photography.

At Harvard, he recruited over 80 women to work for him, including Annie Jump Cannon, Henrietta Swan Leavitt, Antonia Maury, and Florence Cushman. These women, the Harvard Computers (also described as "Pickering's Harem" by the scientific community at the time), made several important discoveries at HCO. Leavitt's discovery of the period-luminosity relationship for Cepheids, published by Pickering, would prove the foundation for the modern understanding of cosmological distances. In 1876 he co-founded the Appalachian Mountain Club.

-- Edward Charles Pickering, by Wikipedia

Henry Pickering Bowditch ...

Henry Pickering Bowditch (April 4, 1840 – March 13, 1911) was an American soldier, physician, physiologist, and dean of the Harvard Medical School. Following his teacher Carl Ludwig, he promoted the training of medical practitioners in a context of physiological research. His teaching career at Harvard spanned 35 years...

According to Walter Bradford Cannon, when in Paris, Bowditch joined with fellow Bostonians John Collins Warren Jr., William James, and Charles Emerson for frog-hunting parties. Bowditch continued his European studies in Bonn with Wilhelm Kuhne and Max Schultze. Ultimately he proceeded to Leipzig where Carl Ludwig was conducting the program that Bowditch would emulate at Harvard...

Bowditch's career at Harvard was parallel to that of William James who instituted his program of experimental psychology in 1875. Bowditch and James represented the New Education espoused by Charles William Eliot, Harvard's President. In 1876 Bowditch was promoted to full professor.[2] In 1887 he co-founded and was the first president of the American Physiological Society. At Harvard he rose to the position of dean of the medical school, serving from 1883 to 1893...

His students included Walter Bradford Cannon, Charles Sedgwick Minot and G. Stanley Hall.

-- Henry Pickering Bowditch, by Wikipedia

and Charles Sedgwick Minot.[4] Other founding members were Alpheus Hyatt,...

Alpheus Hyatt (April 5, 1838 – January 15, 1902) was an American zoologist and palaeontologist...

He briefly attended the Maryland Military Academy and Yale University, and after graduating from Harvard University in 1862, he enlisted as a private in the Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry for the Civil War, emerging with the rank of captain.

After the war he worked for a time at the Essex Institute (now the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts . He and a colleague founded American Naturalist and Hyatt served as editor from 1867 to 1870. He became a professor of paleontology and zoology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1870, where he taught for eighteen years, and was professor of biology and zoology at Boston University from 1877 until his death in 1902. He also served as curator of the Boston Society of Natural History, where his longtime assistant was his former student Jennie Maria Arms Sheldon, and he established a laboratory at the Norwood-Hyatt House in 1879 for the study of Marine Biology in Annisquam, Massachusetts. The River Road building gave him access to the Annisquam River, a salt water estuary. This enterprise was moved to Woods Hole and became the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory in 1888.

Hyatt studied under Louis Agassiz and was a proponent of Neo-Lamarckism with Edward Drinker Cope. In 1875, he was elected a fellow of the National Academy of Sciences and in 1898 received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Brown University.

-- Alpheus Hyatt, by Wikipedia

N. D. C. Hodges,...

Nathaniel Dana Carlile Hodges (April 19, 1852 – November 25, 1927) was an American librarian. Hodges attended Harvard University, receiving his bachelor's degree in 1874 and his master's degree in 1879. He was appointed to be an assistant in Physics at Harvard University in 1879. Hodges went on to teach at Worcester Polytechnic Institute from 1882 to 1883 and served as editor of Science Magazine from 1885 to 1894.

He became the Library Director of the Cincinnati Public Library in 1900 and retired from that position in 1924. Hodges served as the president of the American Library Association from 1909 to 1910. Hodges was named a Notable Ohio Librarians in the Hall of Fame in 1980.

-- Nathaniel Dana Carlile Hodges, by Wikipedia

William James...

Influences: Louis Agassiz

William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States. James is considered to be a leading thinker of the late nineteenth century, one of the most influential philosophers of the United States, and the "Father of American psychology".

Along with Charles Sanders Peirce, James established the philosophical school known as pragmatism, and is also cited as one of the founders of functional psychology. A Review of General Psychology analysis, published in 2002, ranked James as the 14th most eminent psychologist of the 20th century. A survey published in American Psychologist in 1991 ranked James's reputation in second place, after Wilhelm Wundt, who is widely regarded as the founder of experimental psychology. James also developed the philosophical perspective known as radical empiricism. James's work has influenced philosophers and academics such as Émile Durkheim, W. E. B. Du Bois, Edmund Husserl, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Hilary Putnam, and Richard Rorty.

Born into a wealthy family, James was the son of the Swedenborgian theologian Henry James Sr. and the brother of both the prominent novelist Henry James and the diarist Alice James. James trained as a physician and taught anatomy at Harvard, but never practiced medicine. Instead he pursued his interests in psychology and then philosophy. James wrote widely on many topics, including epistemology, education, metaphysics, psychology, religion, and mysticism. Among his most influential books are The Principles of Psychology, a groundbreaking text in the field of psychology; Essays in Radical Empiricism, an important text in philosophy; and The Varieties of Religious Experience, an investigation of different forms of religious experience, including theories on mind-cure...

He took up medical studies at Harvard Medical School in 1864 (according to his brother Henry James, the author). He took a break in the spring of 1865 to join naturalist Louis Agassiz on a scientific expedition up the Amazon River, but aborted his trip after eight months, as he suffered bouts of severe seasickness and mild smallpox. His studies were interrupted once again due to illness in April 1867. He traveled to Germany in search of a cure and remained there until November 1868; at that time he was 26 years old. During this period, he began to publish; reviews of his works appeared in literary periodicals such as the North American Review....

In 1882 he joined the Theosophical Society...

James studied closely the schools of thought known as associationism and spiritualism. The view of an associationist is that each experience that one has leads to another, creating a chain of events. The association does not tie together two ideas, but rather physical objects.[66] This association occurs on an atomic level. Small physical changes occur in the brain which eventually form complex ideas or associations. Thoughts are formed as these complex ideas work together and lead to new experiences. Isaac Newton and David Hartley both were precursors to this school of thought, proposing such ideas as "physical vibrations in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves are the basis of all sensations, all ideas, and all motions…" James disagreed with associationism in that he believed it to be too simple. He referred to associationism as "psychology without a soul"[68] because there is nothing from within creating ideas; they just arise by associating objects with one another.

On the other hand, a spiritualist believes that mental events are attributed to the soul. Whereas in associationism, ideas and behaviors are separate, in spiritualism, they are connected. Spiritualism encompasses the term innatism, which suggests that ideas cause behavior. Ideas of past behavior influence the way a person will act in the future; these ideas are all tied together by the soul. Therefore, an inner soul causes one to have a thought, which leads them to perform a behavior, and memory of past behaviors determine how one will act in the future.

James had a strong opinion about these schools of thought. He was, by nature, a pragmatist and thus took the view that one should use whatever parts of theories make the most sense and can be proven. Therefore, he recommended breaking apart spiritualism and associationism and using the parts of them that make the most sense. James believed that each person has a soul, which exists in a spiritual universe, and leads a person to perform the behaviors they do in the physical world. James was influenced by Emanuel Swedenborg, who first introduced him to this idea. James stated that, although it does appear that humans use associations to move from one event to the next, this cannot be done without this soul tying everything together. For, after an association has been made, it is the person who decides which part of it to focus on, and therefore determines in which direction following associations will lead.[66] Associationism is too simple in that it does not account for decision-making of future behaviors, and memory of what worked well and what did not. Spiritualism, however, does not demonstrate actual physical representations for how associations occur. James combined the views of spiritualism and associationism to create his own way of thinking.

James was a founding member and vice president of the American Society for Psychical Research. The lending of his name made Leonora Piper a famous medium. In 1885, the year after the death of his young son, James had his first sitting with Piper at the suggestion of his mother-in-law. He was soon convinced that Piper knew things she could only have discovered by supernatural means. He expressed his belief in Piper by saying, "If you wish to upset the law that all crows are black, it is enough if you prove that one crow is white. My white crow is Mrs. Piper." However, James did not believe that Piper was in contact with spirits. After evaluating sixty-nine reports of Piper's mediumship he considered the hypothesis of telepathy as well as Piper obtaining information about her sitters by natural means such as her memory recalling information. According to James the "spirit-control" hypothesis of her mediumship was incoherent, irrelevant and in cases demonstrably false.

James held séances with Piper and was impressed by some of the details he was given; however, according to Massimo Polidoro a maid in the household of James was friendly with a maid in Piper's house and this may have been a source of information that Piper used for private details about James. Bibliographers Frederick Burkhardt and Fredson Bowers who compiled the works of James wrote "It is thus possible that Mrs. Piper's knowledge of the James family was acquired from the gossip of servants and that the whole mystery rests on the failure of the people upstairs to realize that servants [downstairs] also have ears."

James was convinced that the "future will corroborate" the existence of telepathy. Psychologists such as James McKeen Cattell and Edward B. Titchener took issue with James's support for psychical research and considered his statements unscientific. Cattell in a letter to James wrote that the "Society for Psychical Research is doing much to injure psychology".

-- William James, by Wikipedia

and Samuel Hubbard Scudder.[5]

Samuel Hubbard Scudder (April 13, 1837 – May 17, 1911) was an American entomologist and paleontologist. He was a leading figure in entomology during his lifetime and the founder of insect paleontology in America. In addition to fossil insects, he was an authority on butterflies (Lepidoptera) and grasshoppers (Orthoptera).

Scudder was born on April 13, 1837 in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Charles Scudder and Sarah Lathrop (Coit) Scudder. His father was a successful merchant and both parents had Puritan roots dating back to the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the 1620s. He was raised in a strict Calvinist Congregational household. One of his younger brothers, Horace Scudder became a noted author and editor of the Atlantic Monthly.

Scudder graduated from Williams in 1847 at the head of his class. He then entered the Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard to study under Louis Agassiz, the most influential scientist in America at the time. After studying with Agassiz for four years he received a B.S. degree in 1862 and then continued to work for Agassiz for another two years. Around this time Darwin's theory of evolution was strongly debated in American scientific circles. Agassiz remained a staunch opponent of evolution while Scudder, after initially siding with Agassiz view came gradually to accept Darwin's theory and build it into his entomological work...

Beginning in 1862, Scudder had a long association with the Boston Society of Natural History where he served in various roles including recording secretary, librarian, custodian, vice president (1874-1880), and president (1880-1887). He also worked as an assistant librarian at Harvard from 1879 to 1882 and held the office of librarian for the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. His interest in librarianship and bibliography led him to compile and publish in 1879 a catalog of scientific serials of all countries from 1633 to 1876. He also published Nomenclator Zoologicus (1882–1884), a seminal and comprehensive list of all generic names in zoology, including insects.

In other contributions Scudder was co-founder of the Cambridge Entomological Club and its journal Psyche (1874); General Secretary of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1875) (Vice-President (1894).); cofounder, editor and guide of the Appalachian Mountain Club (1878); first editor of Science magazine (1883–1885); and United States Geological Survey Paleontologist (1886–1892).

-- Samuel Hubbard Scudder, by Wikipedia

The mathematician Simon Newcomb was the first President.[6]

Other early members included the psychologists James Mark Baldwin, Joseph Jastrow, and Christine Ladd-Franklin.[7][8] Initial research findings were discouraging.[9] By 1890, members such as Baldwin, Hall, Jastrow and Ladd-Franklin had resigned from the society.[8] Hall and Jastrow became outspoken critics of parapsychology.[10] Morton Prince and James Jackson Putnam left the ASPR in 1892 to form the American Psychological Association.[11]

Richard Hodgson joined the ASPR in 1887 to serve as its secretary.[12] In 1889, Fullerton, James and Josiah Royce were Vice-Presidents and Samuel Pierpont Langley served as President.[4] In 1889, a financial crisis forced the ASPR to become a branch of the Society for Psychical Research, and Simon Newcomb and others left.[13] Following the death of Hodgson in 1905 it achieved independence once more.[14]

In 1906, James H. Hyslop took up the position as secretary of the recreated organization, with the work being done at his residence in New York City. He once wrote his son, "My work is missionary, not mercenary." The intended name for the new organization was, "The American Institute for Scientific Research" which Hyslop had organized into two sections for the investigation of two separate fields: "A" was to deal with psychopathology or abnormal psychology.[15] Its Section "B" was to be concerned with what Hyslop called "supernormal psychology" or parapsychology. Section "A" never got off the ground. But Section "B" became the new and reorganized ASPR. One of the Institute's aims was to organize and endow investigations into telepathy, clairvoyance, mediumship, and kinetic phenomena. This work was to be carried out by "B."[16] The society remained in New York, where it remains as of 2015. During this period the ASPR was heavily involved in the investigation of medium Leonora Piper about whom William James would famously declare in 1890: "To upset the conclusion that all crows are black, there is no need to seek demonstration that no crow is black; it is sufficient to produce one white crow; a single one is sufficient." Since his proclamation of Piper as his "one White Crow", the concept of the single "White Crow" has become a cliché in psychical re-search.[17]

After evaluating sixty-nine reports of Piper's mediumship William James considered the hypothesis of telepathy as well as Piper obtaining information about her sitters by natural means such as her memory recalling information. According to James the "spirit-control" hypothesis of her mediumship was "somewhat incoherent, ambiguous, irrelevant, and, in some cases, demonstrably false—at best only circumstantial."[18] However, G. Stanley Hall believed Piper's mediumship had an entirely naturalistic explanation and no telepathy was involved. Hall and Amy Tanner, who observed some of the trances, explained the phenomena in terms of the subconscious mind harboring various personalities that pretended to be spirits or controls. In their view, Piper had subconsciously absorbed information that she later regurgitated as messages from "spirits" in her trances.[19]

On June 20, 1906, the ASPR had 170 members and by the end of November 1907, it had 677.[16] Hereward Carrington became a member of the ASPR in 1907 and an assistant to James Hyslop until 1908, during which time he established his reputation as an ASPR investigator. However his connection with the ASPR ceased due to lack of funds.[16] Carrington was the author the book The Physical Phenomena of Spiritualism which exposed the tricks of fraudulent mediums.[20] According to Arthur Conan Doyle, Carrington was not popular with spiritualists.[21]

James Hyslop died in 1920, and immediately strife broke out between the membership as the Society divided into two factions, one broadly pro-Spiritualism, indeed often Spiritualists, and the other 'conservative' faction favoring telepathy and skeptical of 'discarnate spirits' as an explanation for the phenomena studied, or simply skeptical of the phenomena's existence.[22] In 1923 a prominent Spiritualist, Frederick Edwards, was appointed President, and the conservative faction led by Gardner Murphy and Walter Franklin Prince declared that the Society was becoming less academic.[23] In the same year the ASPR lost 108 members.[24] New members joined the society and William McDougall a past President and Prince both became alarmed at the number of "credulous spiritualists" that joined the ASPR.[25]

In 1925 Edwards was reappointed President, and his support of the mediumistic claims of 'Margery' (Mina Crandon) led to the 'conservative' faction leaving and forming the rival Boston Society for Psychical Research in May, 1925. From this point on the ASPR remained highly sympathetic to Spiritualism until 1941, when the Boston Society for Psychical Research was reintegrated into the ASPR.[22]

Splinter group

The Boston Society for Psychical Research (BSPR) was founded in April 1925 by former research officer Walter Franklin Prince of the ASPR. Other founding members were William McDougall, Lydia W. Allison and Elwood Worcester. They were alarmed by the ASPR support for the purported medium Margery (Mina Crandon) and suppressing any reports unfavourable to her.[22][26]

Joseph Banks Rhine claimed to have observed Crandon in fraud in a séance in 1926. According to Rhine during the séance she was free from control and kicked a megaphone to give the impression it was levitating.[27] Rhine's report that documented the fraud was refused by the ASPR, so he published in it in the Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. In response, defenders of Crandon attacked Rhine. Arthur Conan Doyle published an article in a Boston Newspaper claiming "J. B. Rhine is an Ass."[27]

There was a significant split in the history of American psychical research: the American Society for Psychical Research had become dominated by those sympathetic to Spiritualism; the Boston Society favored a naturalistic explanation (such as telepathy; yet telepathy within the laws of undiscovered physics) for purported mediumship and was critical of the purported mediumship of Mina Crandon in particular.[14] Under President Walter Franklin Prince it organised the investigation of Mina during the Scientific American Prize dispute, and Harry Houdini worked with the group. BSPR investigators were involved in the uncovering of the alleged fraud of Mina Crandon—including a number of revelations often credited to Harry Houdini, but actually discovered by other BSPR members. In 1923, Prince described the Crandon case as "the most ingenious, persistent, and fantastic complex of fraud in the history of psychic research."[28] The BSPR fell into obscurity following exposure of Mina Crandon, and was formally reincorporated into the American Society for Psychical Research in 1941.[29]

In 1934 the BSPR published Extrasensory Perception[30] by their member Joseph Banks Rhine, who introduced the term ESP to English, and the methodology of modern parapsychology, with its quantitative research and laboratory based approach, as distinct from the older psychical research.


Henry Pickering Bowditch

G. Stanley Hall

Alpheus Hyatt

William James

Charles Sedgwick Minot

Simon Newcomb

Edward Charles Pickering

Samuel Hubbard Scudder

See also

• International Association for Near-Death Studies
• Institut suisse des sciences noétiques
• Parapsychological Association
• Outline of parapsychology


1. American Society for Psychical Research website
2. Fichman, Martin. (2004). An Elusive Victorian: The Evolution of Alfred Russel Wallace. University of Chicago Press. p. 111. ISBN 0-226-24613-2
3. Ferrari, Michel. The Varieties of Religious Experience: Centenary Essays. Imprint Academic. pp. 19–20. ISBN 0-907845-26-6
4. James, William. (1986). Essays in Psychical Research. Harvard University Press. p. 381. ISBN 0-674-26708-7
5. "Miscellaneous Intelligence". American Journal of Science. 1885, p. 83. "The Committee appointed consists of nine gentleman, viz: G. Stanley Hall (Chairman), E. C. Pickering, William James, Alpheus Hyatt, Samuel H. Scudder, H. P. Bowditch, C. S. Minot, William Watson, N. D. C. Hodges (Secretary)."
6. Taylor, Eugene. (2009). The Mystery of Personality: A History of Psychodynamic Theories. Springer. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-387-98103-1
7. Clegg, Joshua W. Self-Observation in the Social Sciences. Transaction Publishers. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-4128-4949-4 "The American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR), which James helped found in 1884, was initially populated by a number of early psychologists. These included James's student G. Stanley Hall, as well as James Mark Baldwin, Joseph Jastrow, and Christine Ladd-Franklin."
8. Pickren, Wade; Rutherford, Alexandra. (2010). A History of Modern Psychology in Context. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-27609-9"Psychologists Hall, Baldwin, Joseph Jastrow, and Christine Ladd-Franklin... had dropped their affiliation by 1890."
9. Misiroglu, Gina. (2015). American Countercultures: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, Alternative Lifestyles, and Radical Ideas in U.S. History. Routledge. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-7656-8060-0 "The American Society took a more skeptical view of psychic phenomena than did its British counterpart, and, led by prominent men of science, was more open to mundane explanations. Still, initial research findings were disappointing, and the interest of many scientific members waned. Under the direction of nonscientists, the ASPR languished for many years."
10. Kurtz, Paul. (1985). A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. p. 551. ISBN 978-0-87975-300-9
11. Ward, Steven. (2002). Modernizing the Mind: Psychological Knowledge and the Remaking of Society.Praeger. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-0-275-97450-3
12. Rosemary Guiley. (1994). The Guinness Encyclopedia of Ghosts and Spirits. Guinness Publishing. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-85112-748-4
13. Deborah Blum. (2006). Ghost Hunters: William James and the Search for Scientific Proof of Life After Death. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-303895-5
14. Mauskopf, Seymour. (1982). Psychical Research in America. In Ivor Grattan-Guinness. Psychical Research: A Guide to Its History, Principles & Practices. Aquarian Press. ISBN 978-0-85030-316-2
15. Hyslop, James (1907). "Editorial". Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research: 1, 38.
16. Arthur Berger. (1988). Lives and Letters in American Parapsychology: A Biographical History, 1850–1987. McFarland & Company. pp. 51–55 ISBN 978-0-89950-345-5
17. Melton, J. Gordon (2001). Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology (5th ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group, Inc. p. 822.
18. Francesca Bordogna. (2008). William James at the Boundaries: Philosophy, Science, and the Geography of Knowledge. University Of Chicago Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-226-06652-3
19. Amy Tanner. (1910). Studies in Spiritism. New York: Appleton.
20. Hereward Carrington. (1907). The Physical Phenomena of Spiritualism. Herbert B. Turner & Co.
21. Massimo Polidoro. (2001). Final Séance: The Strange Friendship Between Houdini and Conan Doyle. Prometheus Books. p. 143. ISBN 978-1-57392-896-0
22. Clément Chéroux. (2005). The Perfect Medium: Photography and the Occult. Yale University Press. pp. 217-234ISBN 978-0-300-11136-1
23. Rosemary Guiley. (1994). The Guinness Encyclopedia of Ghosts and Spirits. Guinness Publishing. pp. 48–50. ISBN 978-0-85112-748-4
24. David Hess. (1993). Science In The New Age: The Paranormal, Its Defenders & Debunkers, (Science & Literature). University of Wisconsin Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-299-13824-0 "A sharp divide between Spiritualists and psychical researchers had already occurred in 1923, when pro-Spiritualist forces gained control of the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR), ousted President William McDougall, and demoted Hyslop's chosen successor, the psychologist Walter Franklin Prince, who resigned in 1925. The ASPR lost 108 members in 1923, and the controversy over the claimed physical effects of the medium named "Margery" sealed the division."
25. Robert Laurence Moore. (1977). In Search of White Crows: Spiritualism, Parapsychology, and American Culture. Oxford University Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-19-502259-9
26. Williams, William F. (2000). Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience: From Alien Abductions to Zone Therapy. Routledge. p. 40. ISBN 1-57958-207-9
27. Massimo Polidoro. (2001). Final Séance: The Strange Friendship Between Houdini and Conan Doyle. Prometheus Books. pp. 202–203. ISBN 978-1-57392-896-0
28. C. E. M. Hansel. (1989). The Search for Psychic Power: ESP and Parapsychology Revisited. Prometheus Books. p. 245. ISBN 978-0-87975-533-1
29. Thomas Tietze. (1973). Margery. Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-068235-4
30. Joseph Banks Rhine. (1934) Extra-Sensory Perception. Boston: Boston Society for Psychic Research.

Further reading

• Anonymous. (1885–1889). Formation of the Society. Proceedings of the American Society for Psychical Research. 1: 1–2.
• Georgess McHargue. (1972). Facts, Frauds, and Phantasms: A Survey of the Spiritualist Movement. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-05305-1
• Robert Laurence Moore. (1977). In Search of White Crows: Spiritualism, Parapsychology, and American Culture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-502259-9

External links

• ASPR home page
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Thu Jun 25, 2020 7:12 am

Charles Sedgwick Minot
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/25/20

Charles Sedgwick Minot
Born: December 23, 1852
Died: November 19, 1914
Occupation: Anatomist, writer

Charles Sedgwick Minot (December 23, 1852 – November 19, 1914) was an American anatomist and a founding member of the American Society for Psychical Research.[1]


Charles Sedgwick Minot was born December 23, 1852 in Roxbury, Massachusetts. His mother was Catharine "Kate" Maria Sedgwick (1820–1880) and father was William Minot II (1817–1894).[2] Through his mother, namesake of her aunt, novelist Catharine Sedgwick (1789–1867), he was twice connected to the New England Dwight family of academics.[3]

He graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1872, studied biology at Leipzig, Paris, and Würzburg. At Harvard Medical School he taught from 1880 till his death as the James Stillman Professor of comparative anatomy in 1905 and director of the anatomical laboratories in 1912.

He was president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1901, and of the Association of American Anatomists from 1904 to 1905, and was corresponding member of various foreign societies.

Honorary degrees were conferred on him by Yale University, the University of Toronto, St. Andrews, and Oxford. From 1912 to 1913 he served as Harvard exchange professor at Berlin and Jena.
He died on November 19, 1914 in Milton, Massachusetts.

His cousin once removed, George Richards Minot (1885–1950), named for his great-grandfather George Richards Minot (1758–1802),[4] shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1934.[5]

Minot was a founding member of the American Society for Psychical Research. He later resigned due to its unscientific outlook.[6][7] He was highly critical of Alfred Percy Sinnett's Esoteric Buddhism and the claims of Theosophy.[8]


In addition to many papers and monographs, his publications include:

• Human Embryology (1897), also in German
• A Laboratory Text-Book of Embryology (1903; second edition, 1910)
• The Problem of Age, Growth, and Death (1908)
• Die Methode der Wissenschaft (1913)
• Modern Problems of Biology (1913), also in French


1. Lewis, Frederick T. (1914). Charles Sedgwick Minot — Dec. 23, 1852 — Nov. 19, 1914. The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 171: 911-914.
2. "Sedgwick Family Papers 1717-1946 Guide to the Collection". Massachusetts Historical Society. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
3. Benjamin Woodbridge Dwight (1874). The history of the descendants of John Dwight, of Dedham, Mass. 2. J. F. Trow & son, printers and bookbinders. pp. 853–854.
4. "Hon, William Minot". Memoir read at a meetingof the Massachusetts Historical Society: 302–306. March 12, 1874.
5. Robert A. Kyle; Marc A. Shampo (November 2002). "George R. Minot—Nobel Prize for the treatment of pernicious anemia". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 77 (11): 1150. doi:10.4065/77.11.1150. ISSN 0025-6196. PMID 12440548.[permanent dead link]
6. "Charles Sedgwick Minot". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. "For a few years he was active in the American Society for Psychical Research, from which he withdrew when finally convinced of its unscientific outlook."
7. Derby, George; White, James Terry. (1929). The National Cyclopædia of American Biography. J. T. White Company. p. 112. "He was actively instrumental in founding the American Society for Psychical Research, and for several years was prominent in its work; but having become convinced of the fallacy of many theories advanced by the parent society in London, he withdrew from active participation."
8. Minot, Charles Sedgwick. (1895). The Psychical Comedy. North American Review 160 (459): 217-230.

Further reading

• Edward S. Morse. (1920). Biographical Memoir of Charles Sedgwick Minot, 1852-1914. National Academy of Sciences.

External links

• Charles Sedgwick Minot — Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences
• Charles Sedgwick Papers personal correspondence of the interrelated Sedgwick and Minot families, 1812-1908, Massachusetts Historical Society
• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead. Missing or empty |title= (help)
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Thu Jun 25, 2020 7:42 am

William F. Barrett
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/25/20

William F. Barrett
Born: 10 February 1844, Jamaica
Died: 26 May 1925 (aged 81)

Sir William Fletcher Barrett (10 February 1844 in Kingston, Jamaica – 26 May 1925) was an English physicist and parapsychologist.[1][2]


He was born in Jamaica where his father, William Garland Barrett, who was an amateur naturalist, Congregationalist minister and a member of the London Missionary Society, ran a station for saving African slaves.[3] There he lived with his mother, Martha Barrett, née Fletcher, and a brother and sister. The family returned to their native England in Royston, Hertfordshire in 1848 where another sister, the social reformer Rosa Mary Barrett was born. In 1855 they moved to Manchester and Barrett was then educated at Old Trafford Grammar School.[4]

Barrett then took chemistry and physics at the Royal College of Chemistry and then became the science master at the London International College (1867–9) before becoming assistant to John Tyndall at the Royal Institution (1863–1866).[4] He then taught at the Royal School of Naval Architecture.[4]

In 1873 he became Professor of Experimental Physics at the Royal College of Science for Ireland. From the early 1880s he lived with his mother, sister, and two live-in servants in a residence at Kingstown (now Dún Laoghaire). Barrett discovered Stalloy (see Permalloy), a silicon-iron alloy used in electrical engineering and also did a lot of work on sensitive flames and their uses in acoustic demonstrations.[4] During his studies of metals and their properties, Barrett worked with W. Brown and R. A. Hadfield. He also discovered the shortening of nickel through magnetisation in 1882.[4]

When Barrett developed cataracts in his later years, he also began to study biology with a series of experiments designed to locate and successfully analyze causative agents within the eyes. The result of these experiments was a machine called the entoptiscope.[4] He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June 1899[5] and was also a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and the Royal Dublin Society. He was knighted in 1912. He married Florence Willey in 1916.[4] He died at home, 31 Devonshire Place in London.[1]

Barrett's last book, Christian Science: An Examination of the Religion of Health was completed and published after his death in 1926 by his sister Rosa M. Barrett.

Psychical research


Barrett became interested in the paranormal in the 1860s after having an experience with mesmerism. Barrett believed that he had been witness to thought transference and by the 1870s he was investigating poltergeists.[4] In September 1876 Barrett published a paper outlining the result of these investigations and by 1881 he had published preliminary accounts of his additional experiments with thought transference in the journal Nature.[4] The publication caused controversy and in the wake of this Barrett decided to found a society of like-minded individuals to help further his research. Barrett held conference between 5–6 January 1882 in London. In February the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) was formed.[6]

Barrett was a Christian and spiritualist member of the SPR.
[6] Although he had founded the society, Barrett was only truly active for a year, and in 1884 founded the American Society for Psychical Research.[4] He became president of the society in 1904 and continued to submit articles to their journal.[4] From 1908–14 Barrett was active in the Dublin Section of the Society for Psychical Research, a group which attracted many important members including Sir John Pentland Mahaffy, T.W. Rolleston, Sir Archibald Geikie, and Lady Augusta Gregory.[7]

In the late 19th century the Creery Sisters (Mary, Alice, Maud, Kathleen, and Emily) were tested by Barrett and other members of the SPR who believed them to have genuine psychic ability, however, the sisters later confessed to fraud by describing their method of signal codes that they had utilized.[8] Barrett and the other members of the SPR such as Edmund Gurney and Frederic W. H. Myers had been easily duped.[9]

As a believer in telepathy, Barrett denounced the muscle reading of Stuart Cumberland and other magicians as "pseudo" thought readers.[10]

Barrett helped to publish Frederick Bligh Bond's book Gate of Remembrance (1918) which was based on alleged psychical excavations at Glastonbury Abbey. Barrett endorsed the claims of the book and testified to Bond's sincerity.[11] However, professional archaeologists and skeptics have found Bond's claims dubious.[12][13]

In 1919, Barrett wrote the introduction to medium Hester Dowden's book Voices from the Void.


Barrett held a special interest in divining rods and in 1897 and 1900 he published two articles on the subject in Proceedings of the SPR.[4] He co-authored the book The Divining-Rod (1926), with Theodore Besterman.[14]

Barrett rejected any physical theory for dowsing such as radiation.[14] He concluded that the ideomotor response was responsible for the movement of the rod but in some cases the dowser's unconscious could pick up information by clairvoyance.[15][16]


Barrett has drawn criticism from researchers and skeptics as being overly credulous for endorsing spiritualist mediums and not detecting trickery that occurred in the séance room. For example, author Ronald Pearsall wrote that Barrett was duped into believing spiritualism by mediumship trickery.[17]

Skeptic Edward Clodd criticized Barrett as being an incompetent researcher to detect fraud and claimed his spiritualist beliefs were based on magical thinking and primitive superstition.[18] Another skeptic Joseph McCabe wrote that Barrett "talks nonsense of which he ought to be ashamed" as he had poor understanding of conjuring tricks and failed to detect the fraud of the medium Kathleen Goligher.[19]

Psychical researcher Helen de G. Verrall gave Barrett's book Psychical Research a positive review describing it as a "clear, careful account of some of main achievements of psychical research by one who has himself taken part in these achievements and speaks to a large extent from personal knowledge and observation."[20] However, in the British Medical Journal the book was criticized for ignoring critical work on the subject and being "a negative assault on scientific method generally".[21]


• Practical Physics: An Introductory Handbook for the Physical Laboratory. (1892) London: Percival & Co.
• On the Threshold of a New World of Thought: An Examination of the Phenomena of Spiritualism. (1908) London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.
• Psychical Research. (1911) New York: Henry Holt & Co.
• Swedenborg: The Savant and the Seer. (1912) London: Watkins.
• On the Threshold of the Unseen: An Examination of the Phenomena of Spiritualism and of the Evidence for Survival After Death. (1917) London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. (Volltext)
• The Divining Rod: An Experimental and Psychological Investigation. [with Theodore Besterman] (1926) London: Methuen & Co.
• Christian Science: An Examination of the Religion of Health [with Rosa M. Barrett] (1926) New York: Henry Holt & Co.
• Deathbed Visions. (1926) London: Methuen & Co.


1. ... ndexp1.pdf
2. McCorristine, Shane. (2011). William Fletcher Barrett, Spiritualism and Psychical Research in Edwardian Dublin Estudios Irlandeses 6: 39-53.
3. Institution of Electrical Engineers. Sir William Fletcher Barrett (1844-1925), Professor of Experimental Physics at the Royal College of Science, Dublin. 1925 Proceedings. Vol. 63. 1925. Institution of Electrical Engineers: Obituaries.
4. Gauld, Alan. (2004). Barrett, Sir William Fletcher (1844–1925). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. accessed 2 Feb 2011.
5. "Library and Archive Catalog". Royal Society. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
6. Oppenheim, Janet. (1985). The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850-1914. Cambridge University Press. pp. 137-372. ISBN 0-521-26505-3
7. McCorristine, Shane. (2011). William Fletcher Barrett, Spiritualism, and Psychical Research in Edwardian Dublin. Estudios Irlandeses. Journal of Irish Studies 6: 39-53.
8. Hyman, Ray. (1989). The Elusive Quarry: A Scientific Appraisal of Psychical Research. Prometheus Books. pp. 99-106. ISBN 0-87975-504-0
9. Wiley, Barry H. (2012). The Thought Reader Craze: Victorian Science at the Enchanted Boundary. McFarland. pp. 82-94. ISBN 978-0786464708
10. Nicola Bown, Carolyn Burdett, Pamela Thurschwell. (2004). The Victorian Supernatural. Cambridge University Press. pp. 87-108. ISBN 0-521-81015-9
11. Asprem, Egil. (2014). The Problem of Disenchantment: Scientific Naturalism and Esoteric Discourse, 1900-1939. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 330. ISBN 978-9004251922
12. Nickell, Joe. (2007). Adventures in Paranormal Investigation. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 48-49. ISBN 978-0-8131-2467-4
13. Feder, Kenneth. Archaeology and the Paranormal. In Gordon Stein. (1996). The Encyclopedia of the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. pp. 32-43. ISBN 1-57392-021-5
14. Mill, Hugh Robert. (1927). Behind the Divining Rod. Nature 119: 310-311.
15. Gardner, Martin. (2012 reprint edition). Originally published in 1957. Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science. Dover Publications. pp. 102-103. ISBN 0-486-20394-8 "The first significant "scientific" study of the subject was made in 1891 by Sir William F. Barrett, professor of physics at the Royal College of Science, Ireland. The Dowsing Rod, by Barrett and Theodore Besterman, published in 1926, is one of the leading references on the subject. The book's thesis is that the turning of the rod is due to unconscious muscular action on the part of the dowser, who possesses a clairvoyant ability to sense the presence of water."
16. Stein, Gordon. (1996). The Encyclopedia of the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. p. 231. ISBN 1-57392-021-5 "Barrett, who believed in telepathy, acknowledged that the dowser's unconscious moving of the rod could be the result of autosuggestion stimulated by cues from the environment. He felt that in some cases, however, the diviner's unconscious was picking up information about the underground water through clairvoyance."
17. Pearsall, Ronald. (1972). The Table-Rappers. Book Club Associates. p. 219
18. Clodd, Edward. (1917). The Question: A Brief History and Examination of Modern Spiritualism. Grant Richards, London. pp. 265-301
19. McCabe, Joseph. (1920). Is Spiritualism Based On Fraud? The Evidence Given By Sir A. C. Doyle and Others Drastically Examined. London: Watts & Co. pp. 59-60
20. Verrall, Helen de G. (1913). Psychical Research by W. F. Barrett. International Journal of Ethics. Volume 23, No 2. pp. 239-240.
21. Anonymous (1912). A Study Of Psychical Research. British Medical Journal. Vol. 1, No. 2667. pp. 308-309.
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Thu Jun 25, 2020 7:51 am

Kathleen Goligher
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/25/20

Kathleen Goligher

William Jackson Crawford

Kathleen Goligher (born 1898) was an Irish spiritualist medium. Goligher was endorsed by engineer William Jackson Crawford who wrote three books about her mediumship but was exposed as a fraud by physicist Edmund Edward Fournier d'Albe in 1921.


Goligher was born in Belfast. She held séances in her own home with seven of her family members. The psychical researcher and engineer William Jackson Crawford (1881–1920) investigated the mediumship of Goligher and claimed she had levitated the table and produced ectoplasm.[1]

Crawford in his books developed the "Cantilever Theory of Levitation" due to his experiments with Goligher. According to his theory the table was levitated by "psychic rods" of ectoplasm which came out of the body of the medium to operate as an invisible cantilever. Crawford took flashlight photographs of the ectoplasm, and described the substance as "plasma". Crawford investigated Goligher's mediumship at her house for six years.[2] He committed suicide on 30 July 1920 for unknown reasons. Crawford's photographs of Goligher showed that the ectoplasm, frequently issued from her vagina.[3]

There were no scientific controls in the Crawford's séances with Goligher as she and her family members had their hands and legs free at all times.[4] After Crawford's death the physicist Edmund Edward Fournier d'Albe investigated the medium Goligher at twenty sittings and arrived at the opposite conclusion to Crawford. According to d'Albe no ectoplasm or levitation had occurred with Goligher and stated he had found evidence of fraud. On 22 July 1921 he observed Goligher holding the table with her foot.[5] He also discovered that the "ectoplasm" substance in the photographs of Crawford was muslin. During a séance d'Albe had observed white muslin between Goligher's feet.[6]

In a letter to Harry Houdini, d'Albe wrote "I must say I was greatly surprised at Crawford's blindness."[7] The conclusion from d'Albe was that the Goligher family were involved in the mediumship trickery and had duped Crawford. D'Albe published The Goligher Circle in 1922 which exposed the fraudulent mediumship of Goligher and because of the exposure she retired from mediumship in the same year.[8]

Critical evaluation

Goligher with muslin

Crawford's experiments were criticized by scientists for their inadequate controls and lack of precaution against fraud.[9][10]

Physician Morton Prince in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology noted that Crawford's psychic rod hypothesis "fails to account for much and cannot be reconciled with what is scientifically known as matter, or force, or electricity, or energy."[9]

A review in the Journal of Applied Psychology suggested that Crawford does "not seem to have been able to avoid self-deception, and his experiments are not convincing."[11]

Psychical researcher Hereward Carrington noted that the photographs taken by Crawford look "dubious in appearance" and that "with rare exceptions, no other investigators had an opportunity to check-up his results, since outsiders were rarely admitted to the sittings."[12]

The surgeon Charles Marsh Beadnell published a booklet in 1920 that debunked the experiments. He also offered a cash prize to any medium who could produce a single levitation under controlled conditions.[7]

Bryan Donkin, M.D., studied the Crawford experiments called attention to "the superabundant exposure of the massive credulity and total defect of logical power displayed by Dr. Crawford," who gives "the most pathetic picture of a willing victim of pernicious deception".[13]

Psychologist Joseph Jastrow criticized the Crawford experiments as unscientific and wrote that "the minute detail of apparatus and all the paraphernalia of an engineering experiment which fills the Crawford books must ever remain an amazing document in the story of the metapsychic. As proof of what prepossession can do to a trained mind the case is invaluable."[14]

Joseph McCabe suggested that Goligher had used her feet and toes to levitate the table and move objects in the séance room and compared her fraudulent mediumship to Eusapia Palladino who performed similar tricks.[15] Edward Clodd also dismissed the experiments as fraudulent and noted that Goligher refused invitation to be examined by a group of magicians and scientists.[16]

Researchers such as Ruth Brandon and Mary Roach have heavily criticized Crawford's investigation, describing him as credulous and having a sexual interest in Goligher, such as an obsession with her underwear.[8][17] Crawford held a deep fixation on underwear, for example psychical researcher Theodore Besterman noted that before his suicide he "spent all his money (consequently leaving nothing) on a stack of woollen underwear for his family, sufficient to last for several years."[8]

In 1988, Susan Blackmore claimed that she had communicated with Dingwall about the case. Blackmore stated that Crawford had confessed to Dingwall that all the Goligher phenomena was fraudulent. Blackmore quotes Crawford as saying "Ding, I have to tell you something. It was all faked, all of it."[18]

See also

• Eva Carrière
• Mina Crandon


1. Buckland, Raymond. (2005). The Spirit Book: The Encyclopedia of Clairvoyance, Channeling, and Spirit Communication. Visible Ink Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-1578592135
2. Crawford, William Jackson. The Reality of Psychic Phenomena. (1918), Experiments in Psychical Science. (1919) and The Psychic Structures of the Goligher Circle (1921).
3. Jones, Kelvin I. (1989). Conan Doyle and the Spirits: The Spiritualist Career of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Aquarian Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0850308372
4. Franklyn, Julian. (1935). A Survey of the Occult. Kessinger Publishing. p. 233. ISBN 978-0766130074
5. C. E. Bechhofer Roberts. (1932). The Truth About Spiritualism. Kessinger Publishing. p. 128. ISBN 978-1417981281
6. Edmund Edward Fournier d'Albe. (1922). The Goligher Circle. J. M. Watkins. p. 37
7. Houdini, Harry. (2011 edition, originally published 1924). A Magician Among the Spirits. Cambridge University Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-1108027489
8. Roach, Mary. (2010). Six Feet Over: Adventures in the Afterlife. Canongate Books Ltd. pp. 110-116. ISBN 978-1847670809
9. Prince, Morton. (1919). Review of Experiments in Psychical Science, by W. J. Crawford. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 14: 355-361.
10. Jastrow, Joseph. (1920). A Psychic Tragedy: The Case of Professor Crawford. The Weekly Review 3: 412-415.
11. Anonymous. (1920). Experiments in Psychical Science. Journal of Applied Psychology 4 (2-3): 280.
12. Carrington, Hereward. (2003). The Story of Psychic Science. Kessinger Publishing. p. 197-200. ISBN 978-1161351118
13. Jastrow, Joseph. (1935). Wish and Wisdom: Episodes in the Vagaries of Belief. D. Appleton-Century Company. p. 377
14. Murchison, Cark. (1927). The Case For And Against Psychical Belief. Clark University p. 307
15. McCabe, Joseph. (1920). Is Spiritualism Based on Fraud? The Evidence Given By Sir A. C. Doyle and Others Drastically Examined. London Watts & Co. pp. 58–61
16. Clodd, Edward. (1922). Occultism: Two Lectures Delivered in the Royal Institution on May 17 and 24, 1921. London: Watts & Co. pp. 28–34
17. Ruth Brandon. (1983). The Spiritualists: The Passion for the Occult in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. pp. 150-151. ISBN 0-297-78249-5
18. Blackmore, Susan. (1988). The Adventures of a Parapsychologist. Prometheus Books. p. 211. ISBN 1-57392-061-4

Further reading

• Charles Marsh Beadnell. (1920). The Reality or Unreality of Spiritualistic Phenomena: Being a Criticism of Dr. W.J. Crawford's Investigation into Levitations and Raps. Watts & Co.
• William Jackson Crawford. (1921). The Psychic Structures at the Goligher Circle. New York: E. P. Dutton & Company.
• Edmund Edward Fournier d'Albe. (1922). The Goligher Circle. J. M. Watkins.
• Joseph Jastrow. (1920). A Psychic Tragedy: The Case of Professor Crawford. The Weekly Review 3: 412-415.
• Martyn Jolly. (2006). Faces of the Living Dead: The Belief in Spirit Photography. Miegunyah Press. ISBN 978-0977282739
• Joseph McCabe. (1920). Is Spiritualism Based On Fraud? The Evidence Given By Sir A. C. Doyle and Others Drastically Examined. London Watts & Co.
• Eleanor Mildred Sidgwick. (1917). Review: The Reality of Psychic Phenomena: Raps, Levitation etc. By W. J. Crawford. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 18: 29-31.
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Thu Jun 25, 2020 8:11 am

London Missionary Society
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/25/20

Around 1900, the London Missionary Society produced a series of glass magic lantern slides depicting the missionary efforts of David Livingstone such as this one.

The London Missionary Society was a predominantly Congregationalist missionary society formed in England in 1795 at the instigation of Welsh Congregationalist minister Dr Edward Williams working with evangelical Anglicans and various nonconformists. It was largely Reformed in outlook, with Congregational missions in Oceania, Africa, and the Americas, although there were also Presbyterians (notable for their work in China), Methodists, Baptists and various other Protestants involved. It now forms part of the Council for World Mission (CWM).


In 1793, Edward Williams, then minister at Carr's Lane, Birmingham, wrote a letter to the churches of the Midlands, expressing the need for world evangelization and foreign missions.[1] It was effective and Williams began to play an active part in the plans for a missionary society. He left Birmingham in 1795, becoming pastor at Masbrough, Rotherham, and tutor of the newly formed Masbrough academy.[2] Also in 1793, the Anglican cleric John Eyre of Hackney founded the Evangelical Magazine. He had the support of the presbyterian John Love, and congregationalists Edward Parsons and John Townshend (1757–1826).[3]

Proposals for the Missionary Society began in 1794 after a Baptist minister, John Ryland, received word from William Carey, the pioneer British Baptist missionary who had recently moved to Calcutta, about the need to spread Christianity. Carey suggested that Ryland join forces with others along the non-denominational lines of the Anti-Slavery Society to design a society that could prevail against the difficulties that evangelicals often faced when spreading the Word. This aimed to overcome the difficulties that establishment of overseas missions had faced. It had frequently proved hard to raise the finance because evangelicals belonged to many denominations and churches; all too often their missions would only reach a small group of people and be hard to sustain. Edward Williams continued his involvement and, in July 1796, gave the charge to the first missionaries sent out by the Society.[1][4]

The society aimed to create a forum where evangelicals could work together, give overseas missions financial support and co-ordination. It also advocated against opponents who wanted unrestricted commercial and military relations with native peoples throughout the world.

After Ryland showed Carey's letter to Henry Overton Wills, an anti-slavery campaigner in Bristol, he quickly gained support. Scottish ministers in the London area, David Bogue and James Steven, as well as other evangelicals such as John Hey, joined forces to organize a new society. Bogue wrote an influential appeal in the Evangelical Magazine for September 1794:[5][6]

Ye were once Pagans, living in cruel and abominable idolatry. The servants of Jesus came from other lands, and preached His Gospel among you. Hence your knowledge of salvation. And ought ye not, as an equitable compensation for their kindness, to send messengers to the nations which are in like condition with yourselves of old, to entreat them that they turn from their dumb idol to the living God, and to wait for His Son from heaven? Verily their debtors ye are.

John Eyre responded by inviting a leading and influential evangelical, Rev. Thomas Haweis, to write a response to Bogue's appeal. The Cornishman sided firmly with Bogue, and immediately identified two donors, one of £500, and one of £100. From this start, a campaign developed to raise money for the proposed society, and its first meeting was organised at Baker's Coffee House on Change Alley in the City of London. Eighteen supporters showed up and helped agree to the aims of the proposed missionary society -– to spread the knowledge of Christ among heathen and other unenlightened nations. By Christmas over thirty men were committed to forming the society.

In the following year, 1795, Spa Fields Chapel was approached for permission to preach a sermon to the various ministers and others by now keenly associated with the plan to send missionaries abroad. This was organised for Tuesday 22 September 1795, the host chapel insisting that no collection for the proposed society must be made during the founding event which would be more solemn, and formally mark the origin of the Missionary Society. Hundreds of evangelicals attended, and the newly launched society quickly began receiving letters of financial support, and interest from prospective missionaries.

Early days

Joseph Hardcastle of Hatcham House, Deptford became the first Treasurer, and the Rev. John Eyre of Hackney (editor of the Evangelical Magazine ) became the first Secretary to the Missionary Society—the latter appointment providing it with an effective 'newspaper' to promote its cause. The Missionary Society's board quickly began interviewing prospective candidates. In 1800 the society placed missionaries with the Rev. David Bogue of Gosport for preparation for their ministries.[7]

The cession of the district of Matavai in the island of Tahiti to Captain James Wilson for the use of the missionaries.

A Captain James Wilson offered to sail the missionaries to their destination unpaid. The society was able to afford the small ship Duff, of 267 tons (bm). It could carry 18 crew members and 30 missionaries. Seven months after the crew left port from the Woolwich docks in late 1796 they arrived in Tahiti, where seventeen missionaries departed. The missionaries were then instructed to become friendly with the natives, build a mission house for sleeping and worship, and learn the native language. The missionaries faced unforeseen problems. The natives had firearms and were anxious to gain possessions from the crew. The Tahitians also had faced difficulties with diseases spread from the crews of ships that had previously docked there. The natives saw this as retribution from the gods, and they were very suspicious of the crew. Of the seventeen missionaries that arrived in Tahiti, eight soon left on the first British ship to arrive in Tahiti.

When Duff returned to Britain it was immediately sent back to Tahiti with thirty more missionaries. Unfortunately this journey was disastrous. A French privateer captured Duff, landed its prisoners in Montevideo, and sold her. The expense of the journey cost 'The Missionary Society' ten thousand pounds, which was initially devastating to the society. Gradually it recovered, however, and in 1807 was able to establish a mission in Guangzhou (Canton), China under Robert Morrison.

Another missionary who served in China was John Kenneth Mackenzie. A native of Yarmouth in England, he served in Hankow and Tientsin.

Starting in 1815, they hired Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir as a translator, to work on many texts including the gospels.[8]

After attending Homerton College, then in Hampstead, William Ellis (missionary) was ordained in 1815. Soon after his marriage to Mary Mercy Moor on 9 November 1815 they were posted to the South Sea Islands returning in 1824. He later become Chief Foreign Secretary.[9]

In September 1816 Robert Moffat (1795–1883) was commissioned in the Surrey Chapel, on the same day as John Williams. Moffat served in South Africa until 1870. Mary Moffat joined him and they married in 1819. The LMS only employed male missionaries and it preferred them to be married. The Moffats were to have several children who also became and/or married missionaries.[10]

In 1817 Edward Stallybrass was sent out to Russia to start a mission among the Buryat people of Siberia. The mission received the blessing of Alexander I of Russia, but was suppressed in 1840 under his successor Nicholas I. Alongside Stallybrass worked Cornelius Rahmn [Wikidata] of Sweden, William Swan and Robert Yuille of Scotland.

Later work and notable missionaries

London Missionary Society, Sāmoa (1949)

In 1818, the society was renamed The London Missionary Society.

In 1822, John Philip was appointed superintendent of the London Missionary Society stations in South Africa where he fought for the rights of the indigenous people.

1823 - John Williams discovered the island of Aitutaki, in Rarotonga. It is here that the missionary work was first established. In later years John Williams visited Rarotonga, taking with him two Tahitians he picked up from Tahiti. One of the Tahitians, named Papehia, was used as intermediaries to convince local chiefs to join the new gospel.

1830 – John Williams sighted the coast of Savai'i in Samoa and landed on August 24, 1830 at Sapapali'i village in search of Malietoa Vai‘inupo, a paramount chief of Samoa. John Williams was greeted by his brother Taimalelagi. Upon meeting Malietoa at a large gathering in Sapapali'i, the LMS mission was accepted and grew rapidly throughout the Samoan Islands. The eastern end of the Samoan archipelago, was the kingdom of Manu'a. The paramount chief, Tui-Manu'a embraced Christianity and Manu'a also became a LMS island kingdom.

1832 – John Williams landed at Leone Bay in what was later to become American Samoa. (Tala faasolopito o le Ekalesia Samoa) He was informed that men of their village have accepted the 'lotu' brought by an Ioane Viliamu in Savai'i; not knowing John Williams now stood before them. A monument stands before the large Siona Chapel – now CCCAS in Leone, American Samoa – in honor of John Williams.

In 1839 John Williams's missionary work whilst visiting the New Hebrides came to an abrupt end, when he was killed and eaten by cannibals on the island of Erromango whilst he was preaching to them. He was traveling at the time in the Missionary ship Camden commanded by Captain Robert Clark Morgan (1798-1864). A memorial stone was erected on the island of Rarotonga in 1839 and is still there today. His widow is buried with their son, Samuel Tamatoa Williams, at the old Cedar Circle in London's Abney Park Cemetery, the name of her husband and the record of his death described first on the stone. John Williams' remains were sought by a group from Samoa and his bones were brought back to Samoa, where throngs of the LMS mission attended a funeral service attended by Samoan royalty, high-ranking chiefs and the LMS missionaries. His remains were interred at the native LMS church in Apia. A monument stands in his memory across from the Congregational Christian Church of Apia chapel.

Rev. Alexander MacDonald and his wife Selina Dorcas (née Blomfield) arrived in Rarotonga in May 1836, then Samoa in April 1837 and settled at Safune on the central north coast of Savai'i island in [Samoa in August 1837. He left the LMS in 1850 when he accepted a position with the Congregational church in Auckland, New Zealand.[11]

1839–1879 – Reverend George Pratt served as a missionary in Samoa for many years, at the station at Matautu on Savai'i island.[12] Pratt was a linguist and authored the first grammar and dictionary on the Samoan language, first published in 1862 at the Samoa Mission Press.

In 1840 the medical missionary and explorer David Livingstone (1813-1873) departed for South Africa, arriving in 1841, and serving with the LMS until 1857. Moffat and Livingstone met circa 1841. In 1845 Livingstone married Robert and Mary Moffat's daughter Mary (1821-1862).

1844 – London Missionary Society established Malua Theological College at the village of Malua on Upolu to educate local men to become village clergy for the rapidly growing mission with over 250 villages and 25,000 membership.

1844 – London Missionary Society sent Samoan missionaries to surrounding islands; Rotuma, Niue, Tokelau, Ellice Islands, Papua, Vanuatu. Over 300 served in Papua alone.

The society soon sent missionaries all over the world, notably to India, China, Australia, Madagascar and Africa. Famous LMS missionaries included

• Robert Morrison (1782–1834) who went to China in 1807;
• John Smith (1790–1824) was a LMS missionary whose experiences in the West Indies, beginning in 1817, attracted the attention of the anti-slavery campaigner William Wilberforce. As a result of his actions in the Demerara rebellion of 1823, trial by court martial and subsequent death in 1824, whilst under imprisonment, Smith became known as the "Demerara Martyr";[13]
• John Abbs (1810–1888) who went to India in 1837. he spent twenty-two years in Travancore, Southern India.[14]
• James Legge (1815–1897), Sinologist;
• David Livingstone (1813–1873) who went to South Africa in 1840;
• Griffith John 楊格非 (1831-1912) from 1855 in Hubei [Hupeh], Hunan, [Szechwan], China;
• John Mackenzie (1835–99) who went to South Africa in 1858, argued for the rights of the Africans and against the racism of the Boers, and was instrumental in the creation of the Bechuanaland Protectorate (modern Botswana);
• Fred C. Roberts (1862-1894) went to Tientsin, China in 1887, taught at the first Western medical school in China and brought famine relief to rural villagers [15]
• Ernest Cromwell Peake (1899-1922) who brought 'western medicine' to Hengchow, China;
• Ernest Black Struthers (1886-1977) who travelled to Hong Kong in 1913;
• Eric Liddell, 1924 Olympic gold medalist in the 400 metres race, served as an LMS missionary to China.


The London Missionary Society merged with the Commonwealth Missionary Society (formerly the Colonial Missionary Society) in 1966 to form the Congregational Council for World Mission (CCWM). At the formation of the United Reformed Church in 1972 it underwent another name change, becoming the Council for World Mission (Congregational and Reformed). The CWM (Congregational and Reformed) was again restructured in 1977 to create a more internationalist and global body, the Council for World Mission.

The records of the London Missionary Society are held at the library of the School of Oriental and African Studies in London.

See also

• List of London Missionary Society missionaries in China
• Protestant missionary societies in China during the 19th Century
• School of Oriental and African Studies in London
• The Historical Background to Church Activities in Zambia
• List of ships named John Williams, seven LMS missionary ships
• SS Ellengowan, a missionary ship
• Missionary Day, French Polynesian holiday celebrating the arrival of the Duff in 1797


• Rev. C.W Abel, 'Savage Life in New Guine'
• Rev. George Pratt, 'A Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Language'
• Dr. M. Christhudhas, 'Christianity and Health & Educational Development in South Travancore : The Work of the London Missionary Society from 1890-1947'


1. Wadsworth KW, Yorkshire United Independent College -Two Hundred Years of Training for Christian Ministry by the Congregational Churches of Yorkshire Independent Press, London, 1954
2. The LMS and the academy at Masbrough both date from the year 1795.
3. Porter, Andrew (2004). "Founders of the London Missionary Society (act. 1795), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography". doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/42118. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
4. Morison, John Fathers and Founders of the London Missionary Society - a Jubilee Memorial pages 427-443 chapter titled Memoir of the Late Edward Williams London: Fisher 1844. This publication may be viewed online at ... 6/mode/2up
5. Laird, Michael. "Bogue, David". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2766. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
6. James Hay; Henry Belfrage (1831). A memoir of the Reverend Alexander Waugh: with selections from his ... correspondence, pulpit recollections, &c. ... Hamilton, Adams, & Co. p. 203.
7. Parker, Irene (1914). Dissenting academies in England: their rise and progress, and their place among the educational systems of the country. Cambridge University Press. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-521-74864-3.
8. Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. pp. 23. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
9. Jane Holloway (2019). Wisbech's Forgotten Hero. AuthorHouse.
10. "Moffat, Robert (1795–1883), missionary in Africa and linguist". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/18874. Retrieved 2020-03-25.
11. Lovett, Richard (1899). The history of the London Missionary Society, 1795-1895. London : Henry Frowde.
12. Marjorie Crocombe & Ron Crocombe (1968). Works of ta'unga: records of a Polynesian traveller in the south seas, 1833-1896. University of the South Pacific. p. 19. ISBN 982-02-0232-9.
13. "Wallbridge's 'The Demerara Martyr'"
14. Charles Sylvester: The Story of the L. M. S., 1795-1895, 1895, p. 298. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
15. Bryson, Mary (1895). Fred C. Roberts of Tientsin. London: H.R. Allenson.


• Ellis, William (1844), 'History of the London Missionary Society', London: John Snow Volume One
• Lovett, Richard (1899), 'History of the London Missionary Society 1795-1895', London: Henry Frowde Volume One, Volume Two
• Goodall, Norman (1954), 'History of the London Missionary Society 1895-1945', London: O.U.P.
• Hiney, Thomas (2000), 'On the Missionary Trail', New York: Atlantic Monthly Press
• Chamberlain, David (1924), 'Smith of Demerara', London: Simpkin, Marshall &co
• Northcott, Cecil (1945), 'Glorious Company; 150 Years Life and Work of the London Missionary Society 1795–1945', London:Livingstone Press
• The Evangelical Magazine and Missionary Chronicle
• Spa Fields Chapel Minutes, British History Online: Spa Fields Chapel Minutes: 1784-1811 | British History Online

External links

• The Council for World Mission (which incorporated the former LMS)
• Pilots website Youth organisation originally established to support the LMS
• Works by London Missionary Society at Project Gutenberg
• Works by or about London Missionary Society at Internet Archive
• Griqua Coinage
• The papers of the London Missionary Society, and the Council for World Mission are held at SOAS Archives
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American Association for the Advancement of Science
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/25/20

It was William Fletcher Barrett's visit to America that ultimately led to the formation of the American Society for Psychical Research in December, 1884. Barrett was invited by several members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

-- American Society for Psychical Research, by Wikipedia

American Association for the Advancement of Science
AAAS logo
Founded: September 20, 1848 (171 years ago)
Focus: Science education and outreach
Location: William T. Golden Center for Science and Engineering, Washington, DC
Members: more than 120,000
Formerly called: Association of American Geologists and Naturalists

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.[1] It is the world's largest general scientific society, with over 120,000 members,[2] and is the publisher of the well-known scientific journal Science.



The American Association for the Advancement of Science was created on September 20, 1848, at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was a reformation of the Association of American Geologists and Naturalists.[3] The society chose William Charles Redfield as their first president[4] because he had proposed the most comprehensive plans for the organization. According to the first constitution which was agreed to at the September 20 meeting, the goal of the society was to promote scientific dialogue in order to allow for greater scientific collaboration.[5] By doing so the association aimed to use resources to conduct science with increased efficiency and allow for scientific progress at a greater rate.[6] The association also sought to increase the resources available to the scientific community through active advocacy of science. There were only 78 members when the AAAS was formed.[7] As a member of the new scientific body, Matthew Fontaine Maury, USN was one of those who attended the first 1848 meeting.[8]

At a meeting held on Friday afternoon, September 22, 1848, Redfield presided, and Matthew Fontaine Maury gave a full scientific report on his Wind and Current Charts. Maury stated that hundreds of ship navigators were now sending abstract logs of their voyages to the United States Naval Observatory. He added, "Never before was such a corps of observers known."[7] But, he pointed out to his fellow scientists, his critical need was for more "simultaneous observations." "The work," Maury stated, "is not exclusively for the benefit of any nation or age." The minutes of the AAAS meeting reveal that because of the universality of this "view on the subject, it was suggested whether the states of Christendom might not be induced to cooperate with their Navies in the undertaking; at least so far as to cause abstracts of their log-books and sea journals to be furnished to Matthew F. Maury, USN, at the Naval Observatory at Washington."

William Barton Rogers, professor at the University of Virginia and later founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, offered a resolution: "Resolved that a Committee of five be appointed to address a memorial to the Secretary of the Navy, requesting his further aid in procuring for Matthew Maury the use of the observations of European and other foreign navigators, for the extension and perfecting of his charts of winds and currents." The resolution was adopted and, in addition to Rogers, the following members of the association were appointed to the committee: Professor Joseph Henry of Washington; Professor Benjamin Peirce of Cambridge, Massachusetts; Professor James H. Coffin of Easton, Pennsylvania, and Professor Stephen Alexander of Princeton, New Jersey.[9] This was scientific cooperation, and Maury went back to Washington with great hopes for the future.

In 1850, the first female members were accepted, they were: astronomer Maria Mitchell, entomologist Margaretta Morris, and science educator Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps.

Growth and Civil War dormancy

By 1860, membership increased to over 2,000. The AAAS became dormant during the American Civil War; their August 1861 meeting in Nashville, Tennessee, was postponed indefinitely after the outbreak of the first major engagement of the war at Bull Run. The AAAS did not become a permanent casualty of the war.

In 1866, Frederick Barnard presided over the first meeting of the resurrected AAAS at a meeting in New York City. Following the revival of the AAAS, the group had considerable growth. The AAAS permitted all people, regardless of scientific credentials, to join. The AAAS did, however, institute a policy of granting the title of "Fellow of the AAAS" to well-respected scientists within the organization. The years of peace brought the development and expansion of other scientific-oriented groups. The AAAS's focus on the unification of many fields of science under a single organization was in contrast to the many new science organizations founded to promote a single discipline. For example, the American Chemical Society, founded in 1876, promotes chemistry.

In 1863, the US Congress established the National Academy of Sciences, another multidisciplinary sciences organization. It elects members based on recommendations from colleagues and the value of published works.


Alan I. Leshner, AAAS CEO from 2001 until 2015, published many op-ed articles discussing how many people integrate science and religion in their lives. He has opposed the insertion of non-scientific content, such as creationism or intelligent design, into the scientific curriculum of schools.[10][11][12][13]

In December 2006, the AAAS adopted an official statement on climate change, in which they stated, "The scientific evidence is clear: global climate change caused by human activities is occurring now, and it is a growing threat to society....The pace of change and the evidence of harm have increased markedly over the last five years. The time to control greenhouse gas emissions is now."[14]

In February 2007, the AAAS used satellite images to document human rights abuses in Burma.[15] The next year, AAAS launched the Center for Science Diplomacy to advance both science and the broader relationships among partner countries, by promoting science diplomacy and international scientific cooperation.[16]

In 2012, AAAS published op-eds,[17] held events on Capitol Hill and released analyses of the U.S. federal research-and-development budget, to warn that a budget sequestration would have severe consequences for scientific progress.[18][19]


AAAS covers various areas [20] of sciences and engineering. It has twelve sections, each with a committee and its chair. These committees are also entrusted with the annual evaluation and selection of Fellows (see: Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science). The sections are:

• Astronomy
• Engineering
• Anthropology
• Education
• Medical Sciences
• Biological Sciences
• Industrial Science and Technology
• Geology and Geography
• History and Philosophy of Science
• Agriculture, Food & Renewable Resources
• Linguistics and Language Sciences
• General Interest in Science and Engineering


AAAS officers and senior officials in 1947. Left to right, standing: Sinnott, Baitsell, Payne, Lark-Horovitz, Miles, Stakman, sitting: Carlson, Mather, Moulton, Shapley.

The most recent Constitution of the AAAS, enacted on January 1, 1973, establishes that the governance of the AAAS is accomplished through four entities: a President, a group of administrative officers, a Council, and a Board of Directors.


Main article: President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Individuals elected to the presidency of the AAAS hold a three-year term in a unique way. The first year is spent as President-elect, the second as President and the third as Chairperson of the Board of Directors. In accordance with the convention followed by the AAAS, presidents are referenced by the year in which they left office.

Geraldine Richmond is the President of AAAS for 2015–16; Phillip Sharp is the Board Chair; and Barbara A. Schaal is the President-Elect.[21] Each took office on the last day of the 2015 AAAS Annual Meeting in February 2015.[22][23] On the last day of the 2016 AAAS Annual Meeting, February 15, 2016,[24] Richmond will become the Chair, Schaal will become the President, and a new President-Elect will take office.

Past presidents of AAAS have included some of the most important scientific figures of their time. Among them: explorer and geologist John Wesley Powell (1888); astronomer and physicist Edward Charles Pickering (1912); anthropologist Margaret Mead (1975); and biologist Stephen Jay Gould (2000).

Notable Presidents of the AAAS, 1848–2005

• 1849: Joseph Henry
• 1871: Asa Gray
• 1877: Simon Newcomb
• 1880: Joseph Lovering
• 1882: J. William Dawson
• 1886: Edward S. Morse
• 1887: Samuel P. Langley
• 1888: John Wesley Powell
• 1927: Arthur Amos Noyes
• 1929: Robert A. Millikan
• 1931: Franz Boas
• 1934: Edward L. Thorndike
• 1942: Arthur H. Compton
• 1947: Harlow Shapley
• 1951: Kirtley F. Mather
• 1972: Glenn T. Seaborg
• 1975: Margaret Mead
• 1992: Leon M. Lederman
• 2000: Stephen Jay Gould

Administrative officers

There are three classifications of high-level administrative officials that execute the basic, daily functions of the AAAS. These are the executive officer, the treasurer and then each of the AAAS's section secretaries. The current CEO of AAAS and executive publisher of Science magazine is Rush D. Holt.[25]

Sections of the AAAS

The AAAS has 24 "sections" with each section being responsible for a particular concern of the AAAS. There are sections for agriculture, anthropology, astronomy, atmospheric science, biological science, chemistry, dentistry, education, engineering, general interest in science and engineering, geology and geography, the history and philosophy of science, technology, computer science, linguistics, mathematics, medical science, neuroscience, pharmaceutical science, physics, psychology, science and human rights, social and political science, the social impact of science and engineering, and statistics.[26]


AAAS affiliates include 262 societies and academies of science, serving more than 10 million members, from the Acoustical Society of America to the Wildlife Society, as well as non-mainstream groups like the Parapsychological Association.[27]

The Council

The Council is composed of the members of the Board of Directors, the retiring section chairmen, elected delegates and affiliated foreign council members. Among the elected delegates there are always at least two members from the National Academy of Sciences and one from each region of the country. The President of the AAAS serves as the Chairperson of the Council. Members serve the Council for a term of three years.

The council meets annually to discuss matters of importance to the AAAS. They have the power to review all activities of the Association, elect new fellows, adopt resolutions, propose amendments to the Association's constitution and bylaws, create new scientific sections, and organize and aid local chapters of the AAAS. The Council recently has new additions to it from different sections which include many youngsters as well. John Kerry of Chicago is the youngest American in the council and Akhil Ennamsetty of India is the youngest foreign council member.

Board of directors

The board of directors is composed of a chairperson, the president, and the president-elect along with eight elected directors, the executive officer of the association and up to two additional directors appointed by elected officers. Members serve a four-year term except for directors appointed by elected officers, who serve three-year terms.

The current chairman is Gerald Fink, Margaret and Herman Sokol Professor at Whitehead Institute, MIT. Fink will serve in the post until the end of the 2016 AAAS Annual Meeting,[28] 15 February 2016.[29] (The chairperson is always the immediate past-president of AAAS.)

The board of directors has a variety of powers and responsibilities. It is charged with the administration of all association funds, publication of a budget, appointment of administrators, proposition of amendments, and determining the time and place of meetings of the national association. The board may also speak publicly on behalf of the association. The board must also regularly correspond with the council to discuss their actions.

AAAS Fellows

Further information: Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
The AAAS council elects every year, its members who are distinguished scientifically,[30] to the grade of fellow (FAAAS). Election to AAAS is an honor bestowed by their peers and elected fellows are presented with a certificate and rosette pin. To limit the effects and tolerance of sexual harassment in the sciences, starting 15 October 2018, a Fellow's status can be revoked "in cases of proven scientific misconduct, serious breaches of professional ethics, or when the Fellow in the view of the AAAS otherwise no longer merits the status of Fellow."[31]


Formal meetings of the AAAS are numbered consecutively, starting with the first meeting in 1848. Meetings were not held 1861–1865 during the American Civil War, and also 1942–1943 during World War II. Since 1946, one meeting has occurred annually, now customarily in February.

Awards and fellowships

Each year, the AAAS gives out a number of honorary awards, most of which focus on science communication, journalism, and outreach – sometimes in partnership with other organizations. The awards recognize "scientists, journalists, and public servants for significant contributions to science and to the public’s understanding of science.”[32] The awards are presented each year at the association's annual meeting.

The AAAS also offers a number of fellowship programs.[33]

Currently active awards include

• Award for Science and Diplomacy
• Early Career Award for Public Engagement with Science
• The Eppendorf & Science Prize for Neurobiology
• Kavli Science Journalism Awards – Children's Science News
• Kavli Science Journalism Awards – Magazine
• Kavli Science Journalism Awards – Newspapers (< 100,000 daily circulation)
• Kavli Science Journalism Awards – Newspapers (> 100,000 daily circulation)
• Kavli Science Journalism Awards – Online
• Kavli Science Journalism Awards – Radio
• Kavli Science Journalism Awards – Television
• Leadership in Science Education Prize for High School Teachers
• Mentor Award
• Mentor Award for Lifetime Achievement
• Newcomb Cleveland Prize
• Philip Hauge Abelson Prize
• Public Engagement with Science Award
• Scientific Freedom and Responsibility Award
• John McGovern Lecture
• William D. Carey Lecture
• Golden Goose Award


The society's flagship publication is Science, a weekly interdisciplinary scientific journal. Other peer-reviewed journals published by the AAAS are Science Signaling, Science Translational Medicine, Science Immunology, Science Robotics and the interdisciplinary Science Advances.[34][35] They also publish the non-peer-reviewed Science & Diplomacy.


In 1996,[36] AAAS launched the EurekAlert! website, an editorially independent, non-profit news release distribution service[37] covering all areas of science, medicine and technology.[38][39][40] Eurekalert! provides news in English, Spanish, French, German, Portuguese, Japanese.[41][39] In 2007, EurekAlert! Chinese was launched.[42]

Working staff journalists and freelancers who meet eligibility guidelines can access the latest studies before publication and obtain embargoed information in compliance with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission's Regulation Fair Disclosure policy.[43][44] By early 2018, more than 14,000 reporters from more than 90 countries have registered for free access to embargoed materials. More than 5,000 active public information officers from 2,300 universities, academic journals, government agencies, and medical centers are credentialed to provide new releases to reporters and the public through the system.[36][42][37]

In 1998, European science organizations countered Eurekalert! with a press release distribution service AlphaGalileo.[39]

Eurekalert! has fallen under criticism for lack of press release standards[45] and for generating churnalism.[46][47][48][49]

See also

• AAAS Award for Scientific Freedom and Responsibility
• British Association for the Advancement of Science
• EuroScience, the European equivalent of the AAAS
• National Postdoctoral Association
• National Science Foundation
• Renaissance, sculpture outside the AAAS headquarters.
• SAGE KE, Science of Aging Knowledge Environment, provided by AAAS
• Science's STKE, Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment, provided by AAAS
• United States National Academy of Sciences


1. "About AAAS". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
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