Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

This is a broad, catch-all category of works that fit best here and not elsewhere. If you haven't found it someplace else, you might want to look here.

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Thu Jun 25, 2020 11:30 pm

Peabody Essex Museum
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/25/20

Early museums both represented and obscured the Massachusetts colony's links to Europe, Africa, and Asia; early institutions such as the East India Marine Society (founded in Salem in 1799) preserved goods and specimens collected by prominent members of the early settler mariner colony, while museums established later in the nineteenth or twentieth centuries, such as the Peabody Essex or the Museum of Fine Arts (founded 1870) mark the place of Boston within imperial global connections and interdependencies.31 Museums, like colonial archives, are not static repositories or records. James Clifford, borrowing of Mary Louise Pratt's concept, suggests that museums are "contact zones," or spaces of encounter, exchange, and conflict. In the museum, an asymmetrical relationship between the collector and the collected, the viewer and the viewed is at work; objects are taken out of time and history, placed in glass cases, and staged to be viewed within a tableau of new meanings.32 Museums naturalize the authority of the sponsoring culture through normative standards of classification, selection, and display, and they solicit the public as viewers of the objects collected. In this sense, museums are a material pedagogy that positions not only subject and object, but also defines the past and present, the living and the dead. They are, as Svetlana Alpers famously put it, "a way of seeing." Ivan Karp observed that within the conditions of increasing pluralism of multicultural and global perspectives, contemporary museum display practices now seek teh perspectives of living communities with stakes or knowledge in their exhibits, yet curatorial decisions may often continue to reflect institutional judgments defining what the nation or culture is or ought to be, as well as who may claim citizenship or belonging in that nation.33 It is in this way that historian Jean O'Brien observes that local historical museums of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, or Connecticut often represent the English settlers as both "first and last," both preceding native people, and surviving their demise. Even when new forms of museum practice, display, and consultation aim for respectful inclusion and seek to give voice to contemporary indigenous peoples, they can often reiterate the common myth that Native Americans have vanished, and render them historically past, rather than representing the complex history through which policies created incremental dispossession and forcible assimilation.

The membership of the East India Maritime Society, forerunner of the Peabody Essex Museum that stands in Salem today, was originally composed of shipmasters and mariners who had traveled around both the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn (The East-India Marine Society 3). The Society's first printed catalogue in 1821 emphasized that its collection "of natural and artificial curiosities" would serve as the patrimony for successive American generations; a motto of the Society that often served as a toast at Society Dinners was: "A Cabinet. That every mariner may possess the history of the world." The "curiosities" collected by the settler-mariners included archeological objects, natural specimens, and art objects, conflating native peoples and cultures with natural minerals and plants, and blurring the provenance of objects from India, China, Tahiti, Hawaii or Turkey, with those of Native American tribes or indigenous Hawaiian peoples. The 1821 Catalogue of Articles records ships' voyages, such as "No. 27. Ship Fame, Jeremiah Briggs master, from Salem to Cochin China, Manilla and back, 1803-1804" or "No. 43. Ship Derby, Thomas West master, from Boston to Naples, Canton, and back, 1805- 1806" (The East-India Marine Society 25, 27). It also lists a bewildering variety of collected objects, including weapons, shoes, cloths, clothing, ornamental jewelry, tools, etc. as well as mineral specimens, stones, birds, snakes, fish, shells, coins, insects (from China, Egypt, South America, as well as North America, etc.). Like the British East India Company, the Salem East India Maritime Society was part of an early phase of globalization as mercantilism shifted from company monopolies to liberal free trade, from long-term contracted agreements to lucrative new markets, from territorial conquest to liberal governance, and from slavery to abolition. In the late nineteenth century, the East India Marine Society combined with the Peabody Academy of Science, and then in the late twentieth century, it joined the Essex Institute to become the Peabody Essex Museum, bringing together the collections associated with marine voyages, natural history, and ethnology. In museum historian Walter Whitehill's words, the Peabody Essex "thus still fulfilled both the purpose of the East India Marine Society to collect 'natural and artificial curiosities' and the object of George Peabody's trust to promote science and useful knowledge" (131). Today, the Peabody Essex features a distinguished collection of Native American art, China export trade goods, and Australasian and Pacific Islander souvenirs, staged to give visitors a sense of an earlier social Zeitgeist, to replicate what the early museum may have looked like.34 Wood carved figureheads from ships' prows adorn the walls lined with cabinets that assemble items of disparate and distant origins: an Incan figure, a Tahitian mask, a Lakotan pipe bowl, and a Calcutta likeness of Jagannatha share a shelf with an early American voting box. Furthermore, the museum has steadily acquired Asian decorative arts, and now possesses the largest collection of Chinese export goods in the United States.

Like the British East India Company, the Salem East-India Maritime Society was part of an early phase of globalization as mercantilism shifted away from monopolies of Companies to liberal free trade, from long-term contracted agreements to lucrative new markets, new trade routes, from colonialism to liberal governance, from slavery to abolition. The museum had a clear relationship to the emerging nation; its motto "First in the United States" for "descendants, in some distant day" represents its mission of collecting and constituting a nationalist legacy to be passed on from American settler-mariner fathers to citizen-sons. The symbolic capital of traditional and new elites was acquired through newly invented divisions of "highbrow" and "lowbrow" cultures and objects, through inventing tradition and "heritage" for the "public" and becoming a state pedagogy and a resource for tourism. As a changing, situated cultural institution, the museum tells the "self-fashioned providential story," in Jean O'Brien's words (xii), of the emergence of a national state and its specific engagements with local commerce, as well as its ultimate transformations in relation to globalization. Even when the museum is commemorative, historical, or educational, it is never wholly separate from these commercial forces.

-- Harbors, Flows, and Migrations: The USA in/and the World, edited by Anna De Biasio, Gianna Fusco, Serena Fusco and Donatella Izzo


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Peabody Essex Museum
The main entrance to the museum
Peabody Essex Museum is located in MassachusettsPeabody Essex Museum
Established: 1799
Location: 161 Essex Street, Salem, MA 01970
Type: Art museum
Accreditation: AAM, NARM
Director: Brian Kennedy
Public transit access: Newburyport/​Rockport Line; Salem Station Handicapped/disabled access
Website pem.org

The Peabody Essex Museum (PEM) in Salem, Massachusetts, US, is a successor to the East India Marine Society, established in 1799.[1] It combines the collections of the former Peabody Museum of Salem (which acquired the Society's collection) and the Essex Institute.[2][3] PEM is the oldest continuously operating museum in the United States [4] and holds one of the major collections of Asian art in the United States. Its total holdings include about 1.3 million pieces, as well as twenty-two historic buildings.[5]

The Peabody Essex ranks among the top 20 art museums in the United States by measures including gallery space and endowment. Once the Advancement Campaign is complete and the newly expanded museum opens in 2019, PEM will rank in the top 10 North American art museums in terms of gallery square footage, operating budget and endowment. The PEM holds more than 840,000 works of historical and cultural art covering maritime, American, Asian, Oceanic and African art, Asian export art and two large libraries with over 400,000 books and manuscripts.[6]

History

In 1992, the Peabody Museum of Salem merged with the Essex Institute to form the Peabody Essex Museum.[5] Included in the merger was the legacy of the East India Marine Society, established in 1799 by a group of Salem-based captains and supercargoes. Members of the Society were required by the society's charter to collect "natural and artificial curiosities" from beyond the Cape of Good Hope or Cape Horn. They were also required to personally circumnavigate the globe, and share navigational discoveries with other Society members, thereby increasing their chances of returning from their voyages safely. Due to the institution's age, the items they donated to the collections are significant for their rare combination of age and provenance. The East India Marine Society built East India Marine Hall, a National Historic Landmark now embedded in the museum's facilities, in the 1820s to house its collection. This collection was acquired by the Peabody Academy of Science (later renamed the Peabody Museum of Salem) in 1867, along with the building, which continued to serve as a museum space through these mergers and acquisitions.

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George Peabody, benefactor

2000s–2010s

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The East India Marine Hall is one of the oldest parts of the museum, built in 1825. The space is used for special events, and for temporary art installations

In 2003, the museum completed a massive $100 million renovation and expansion resulting in the Peabody Essex Museum opening a new wing designed by Moshe Safdie, more than doubling the gallery space to 250,000 square feet (23,000 m²); this allowed the display of many items from its extensive holdings, which had previously been unknown to the public due to lack of exhibition space. At this time, the museum also opened to the public the Yin Yu Tang House, an early 19th-century Chinese house from Anhui Province that had been disassembled in its original village and reconstructed in Salem.[5]

In 2011, the Peabody Essex Museum announced it had raised $550 million, with plans to raise an additional $100 million by 2016.[7] The Boston Globe reported this was the largest capital campaign in the museum's history, vaulting the Peabody Essex into the top tier of major art museums.[8] The PEM trustee co-chairs Sam Byrne and Sean Healey with board president Robert Shapiro led the campaign.[9]$200 to $250 million will fund the museum’s 175,000-square-foot (16,300 m2) expansion bringing the total square footage to 425,000 square feet (39,500 m2).[10]

In May 2012, the PEM confirmed that its expansion will not be finished until 2019, due to the unexpected death of museum architect Rick Mather in April 2012 and the search for his replacement. The firm of Ennead Architects was chosen after successfully completing the first phase of the building project, which included master planning and the renovation of the museum's Dodge wing, scheduled to open in November 2013. [11][12]

On September 28, 2019 the museum opened a new 40,000-square-foot wing, designed by Ennead Architects of New York, adjacent to East India Marine Hall. This addition included 15,000 square feet of Class A galleries as well as a 5,000-square-foot-garden designed by Nelson Byrd Woltz Landscape Architects. [13][14]

Leadership

The museum was led by Dan Monroe, the Rose-Marie and Eijk van Otterloo Director and CEO from 1993 until his retirement in 2019.[15][16] He was succeeded on July 15, 2019 by Brian Kennedy, who previously directed the Toledo Museum of Art.[17][18] Kennedy has served as assistant director of the National Gallery of Ireland, director of the National Gallery of Australia, and director of the Hood Museum of Art at Dartmouth College. Kennedy has an abiding interest in perception and visual literacy and is deeply committed to arts education. [19]

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Peabody Museum of Salem origins

Collections

African Art


The Peabody Essex Museum's collection of African art includes approximately 3,600 objects as of 2014. [20] The acquisition of these works began in the early 19th century, as members of the East India Marine Society collected objects from West and sub-Saharan Africa. These objects include ceremonial masks, pottery, woven baskets, and a significant collection of Ethiopian art—particularly Christian icons and metalwork, many of which are based in the traditions of Byzantine art.[21] In 1812, Salem became the headquarters of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, which went on to establish missions throughout the continent. These missions facilitated trade, particularly with the Zulu in South Africa, and contributed significantly to the growth of the collection.[22]

American Art

PEM's extensive collection of American art includes over 1,000 portraits,[23] among them works by John Singer Sargent, Fitz Henry Lane, and James Bard. Furniture, folk art, and needlework are also prominent features of the collection. The museum's New England heritage has brought it an especially large array of decorative arts from the Northeastern United States. Many of these objects were initially collected by the Essex Institute, which was dedicated to preserving the cultural and physical history of Essex County.[24]

Chinese Art

The museum's collection of Chinese art, which includes over 6,000 objects[25], features contemporary and ancient works as well as works by minority nationalities within China.[26] Ceramics, textiles, and calligraphy form the bulk of the collection, which began in the 18th century with exports acquired by New England traders. Even before the founding of the East India Marine Society, missionaries such as Reverend William Bentley were collecting sculptures, fans, and other pieces that would form the foundation of the museum's collection.[27] The largest piece at the museum is the Yin Yu Tang House, a late 18th century home from the Anhui province of China. This house, constructed during the Qing Dynasty, was acquired by Nancy Berliner, at the time PEM's curator of Chinese art and culture, before being taken apart and reassembled in Salem.[28]

Indian Art

The Peabody Essex Museum's collection of Indian art includes over 5,000 objects.[29] It also possesses numerous works of Tibetan and Nepalese origins, along with perhaps the most important collection of contemporary Indian art outside of India.[30] PEM's Herwitz Gallery, opened in 2003 and named to honor art collectors Chester and Davida Herwitz, is the first American museum gallery dedicated to modern Indian art.[31] PEM's collection spans a wide array of eras and mediums, forming a detailed record of India's artistic transformations during colonial rule and its aftermath. As PEM's ex-curator of South Asia and Korean Art Susan S. Bean observed, "the global development of industrial production brought machine-woven textiles, printed images, and photography into competition with handlooms, sculpture, and painting," all of which are art forms well represented throughout PEM's collection.[32]

Japanese Art

Featuring approximately 18,300 objects,[33] PEM's collection of Japanese art began with the museum's inception in 1799. Its collections of work from the Edo Period and Meiji Period are particularly robust, featuring armor, sculpture, painted scrolls, furniture, and more.[34] Much of the collection has its origins in the travels of Edward S. Morse, the third director of the museum, who acquired many pieces over the course of three trips to Japan. Morse also helped raise interest in Japanese art in Massachusetts and New England: as Midori Oka states, Morse was "instrumental in influencing the area intellectuals and connoisseurs to turn their interests to Japanese art."[35]

Korean Art

The Peabody Essex Museum has approximately 1,800 pieces of Korean art in its collection, including ceramics, textiles, and painted screens. The collection began in 1883, as the result of a collaboration between museum director Edward Sylvester Morse and Korean scholar Yu Kil-chun, who was a member of the first official Korean delegation to the United States.[36] Much of the collection consists of art of the Joseon Dynasty, which occupied the transitional period between the traditional Korean empire and modernity.[37] Many of the pieces in the collection, particularly those from the Joseon period, display the centrality of art in the habits, rituals, and ceremonies of everyday Korean life. As former PEM curator Susan S. Bean observes, art objects were "essential to the conduct of social life because they conveyed values, fulfilled wishes, provided access to deities and ancestors, taught lessons and conferred prestige."[38]

Maritime Art

By the end of the 18th century, coinciding with the museum's 1799 founding, Salem was one of the nation's most prosperous seaports, and extensive trading of furs, spices, dyes, and other goods brought much wealth to the region.[39] This long legacy of trade contributed greatly to the foundation and growth of PEM's maritime art collection, which is among the finest of its kind in the country.[40] The collection includes over 50,000 objects, including paintings, model ships, scrimshaw, and more. Many diverse styles and periods of maritime art are on display in the collection, from navigational tools such as sextants to modern marine art, which addresses "nostalgic themes" and represents "the seafaring life of previous times."[41] One significant feature of the currently installed collection is a recreation of a room in Cleopatra's Barge, an opulent yacht which was built by Salem's Crowninshield family and eventually became the royal yacht of King Kamehameha II.

Native American Art

PEM's collection of Native American art includes over 20,000 objects,[42] spanning a wide variety of tribal affiliations and time periods. The collection includes masks, textiles, jewelry, clothing, sculpture, and more, along with many pieces by contemporary Native American artists such as Frank Day and Kay WalkingStick.[43] The origins of PEM's collection can be traced to even before the museum's 1799 founding: the maritime fur trade, as well as the trading of iron to local tribes, made the exchange of art objects a frequent occurrence. As Richard Conn writes, "in some cases, objects of considerable importance were given by their native owners as gifts to their European trading partners. The intent here was probably to enhance the trading relationship and to insure that the Yankee or British ship would return next year with more iron."[44]

Oceanic Art

Featuring objects from over 36 different groups of islands in Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia, the Peabody Essex Museum's collection of Oceanic art contains over 15,000 objects in total.[45] These objects, consisting of sculptures, weapons, clothing, and more, include pieces made from traditional Oceanic materials such as porpoise teeth, abalone, and human hair. Also worth noting is the museum's particularly substantial collection of Hawaiian art, which includes over 5,000 objects.[46] While Salem had little direct trade with Hawaii during the 18th and 19th centuries, regional trade and donations from prominent sea captains led to the acquisition of many significant pieces, including some associated with Kamehameha I and James Cook.[47]

Photography

PEM's collection of photography is its largest single collection by number of objects, featuring over 850,000 images.[48] The collection began in 1840, just one year after the invention of photography. It includes work by pioneering photographers such as William Henry Fox Talbot and Antoine Claudet. It also features a collection of rare Civil War photographs by Matthew Brady, one of the first American photographers. The collection has a vast variety of subjects and styles, from records of native life in the Philippines to photographs by Walker Evans which document the Great Depression.[49]

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The spacious central atrium has movable solar shades – (July 2013)

The museum presently owns collections of maritime art, including works by marine artist James Bard.[50] The museum also has collections of rare books, manuscripts and ephemera (in the Phillips Library); photography (a collection comprising more than a half million rare and vintage images). On December 8, 2017, much to the dismay of Salem residents, Dan L. Monroe, PEM’s Rose-Marie and Eijk van Otterloo Director and CEO, issued a press release announcing that the 42,000 linear feet of historical documents will be permanently relocated to Rowley, Massachusetts and Plummer Hall and Daland House, the two historic buildings which had housed the Phillips Library, will be utilized as office and meeting space.[51]

Architecture in the collection

The museum owns 24 historic structures and gardens, some of which are concentrated in the old Essex Institute grounds which now form the Essex Institute Historic District. 5 of these buildings are National Historic Landmarks and 8 others are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Some are shown in the gallery below. The full set of buildings are: Daniel Bray House, Gilbert Chadwick House, Cotting-Smith Assembly House, Crowninshield-Bentley House, John Tucker Daland House, Derby-Beebe Summer House, East India Marine Hall (integrated into the main museum), Gardner-Pingree House and Gardner-Pingree Carriage House, Lyle-Tapley Shoe Shop, Dodge Wing of the Peabody Essex Museum, Asian Export Art Wing of the Peabody Essex Museum, Peirce-Nichols House, Samuel Pickman House, Plummer Hall, Quaker Meeting House, L. H. Rogers Building, Ropes Mansion, Andrew Safford House, Summer School Building, Vilate Young (Kinsman) House, and John Ward House.[5] Some of these properties are open to guided tours.

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John Tucker Daland House

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Plummer Hall (formerly Salem Athenaeum)

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Derby-Beebe Summer House

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Ropes Mansion

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Peirce-Nichols House

American art

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Nathaniel Hawthorne by Charles Osgood

Among the American artists represented in the museum's collection:

• Clifford Warren Ashley[52]
• James Bard[52]
• Frank Weston Benson[53]
• John Prentiss Benson
• James E. Buttersworth[52]
• John Singleton Copley[53]
• Michele Felice Cornè[52]
• George Washington Felt (1776–1847)[53]
• Alvan Fisher[53]
• Fitz Hugh Lane[52]
• Charles Osgood[53]
• Frederic Remington[53]
• George Ropes, Jr. (1788–1819)[53]
• Robert Salmon[52]
• John Singer Sargent[53]
• William Pierce Stubbs
• Charles Wilkes[52]

See also

• Huangshan District
• Essex Institute Historic District

References

1. PEM website. "Museum history." Retrieved 2011-02-16
2. The manual of museum exhibitions by Gail Dexter Lord (Rowman Altamira, 2002) https://books.google.com/books?id=dTKb1 ... navlinks_s
3. [1] Archived February 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
4. https://www.bostonmagazine.com/arts-ent ... admission/
5. Peabody Essex Museum collections (Peabody Essex Museum, 1999)
6. https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424 ... 3690093908
7. Peabody Essex announces $650 million campaign, WickedLocal.com, November 14, 2011
8. Peabody Essex vaults into top tier by raising $550 million Archived 2012-07-09 at the Wayback Machine, Boston Globe, November 6, 2011.
9. PEM announces $650 million advancement Archived 2013-01-26 at the Wayback Machine, Peabody Essex Museum press release, November 7, 2011.
10. https://www.boston.com/yourtown/news/sa ... pares.html
11. McGreevy, Nora (July 12, 2019). "Peabody Essex Museum expansion to open in September". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2019-08-08.
12. http://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/news ... 23.article
13. Lorch, Danna (July 1, 2019). "The Peabody Essex Museum Prepares to Unveil a Thoughtfully Designed 40,000-square-foot Expansion". Architectural Digest. Retrieved 2019-09-28.
14. https://www.architecturaldigest.com/sto ... -expansion
15. Whyte, Murray (March 7, 2019). "Peabody Essex Museum names its new director". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2019-08-08.
16. Dobrzynski, Judith H. (Jan 28, 2013). "A New Way Forward". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
17. "PEM names Brian Kennedy as Director and CEO". Peabody Essex Museum. Retrieved 2019-08-08.
18. Shea, Andrea (March 7, 2019). "Brian Kennedy Named The Peabody Essex Museum's New Director And CEO". WBUR. Retrieved 2019-08-08.
19. Whyte, Murray (March 7, 2019). "Peabody Essex Museum names its new director". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2019-08-08.
20. "Current Status of Collection Documentation," Peabody Essex Museum Curatorial Department, March 25, 2014
21. https://www.pem.org/index.php?p=explore-art/african-art Retrieved 2015-07-13
22. Grimes, John R. (1984). "The Tribal Style: Selections from the African Collection at the Peabody Museum of Salem."
23. https://www.pem.org/index.php?p=explore ... erican-art Retrieved 2015-07-13
24. Whitehall, Walter M. (1949). "The East India Marine Society and the Peabody Museum of Salem: A Sesquicentennial History."
25. "Current Status of Collection Documentation," Peabody Essex Museum Curatorial Department, March 25, 2014
26. https://www.pem.org/index.php?p=explore-art/chinese-art Retrieved 2015-07-13
27. Johnston, Patricia (2012). "Global Knowledge in the Early Republic: The East India Marine Society's 'Curiosities' Museum."
28. Rozhon, Tracy. "Moving House, With 2,000 Chinese Parts." The New York Times, February 6, 2001.
29. "Current Status of Collection Documentation," Peabody Essex Museum Curatorial Department, March 25, 2014
30. https://www.pem.org/index.php?p=explore-art/indian-art Retrieved 2015-07-20
31. SACHI: the Society for Art & Cultural Heritage of India. http://sachi.org/event%20PDFs/SACHI_June_050113.pdf Retrieved 2015-07-20.
32. Bean, Susan S. (2006). Arts of Asia Vol. 36, No.3
33. "Current Status of Collection Documentation," Peabody Essex Museum Curatorial Department, March 25, 2014
34. https://www.pem.org/index.php?p=explore ... panese-art Retrieved 2015-07-20.
35. Oka, Midori (2006). Arts of Asia Vol. 36, No.3
36. The Peabody Essex Museum, "A Teacher's Sourcebook for Korean Art & Culture." https://www.pem.org/index.php?p=aux/pdf ... ea-tsb.pdf
37. https://www.pem.org/index.php?p=explore-art/korean-art Retrieved 2015-07-13
38. Bean, Susan S. (2006). Arts of Asia Vol. 36, No.3
39. "Salem's International Trade". National Park Service, Department of the Interior. https://www.nps.gov/sama/learn/historyculture/trade.htm Retrieved 2015-07-20.
40. https://www.pem.org/index.php?p=explore ... nd-history Retrieved 2015-07-20.
41. Finamore, Daniel (2002). "The Peabody Essex Museum and the Sea." Antiques and Fine Arts Magazine. Retrieved 2015-07-20.
42. "Current Status of Collection Documentation," Peabody Essex Museum Curatorial Department, March 25, 2014
43. https://www.pem.org/index.php?p=explore ... erican-art Retrieved 2015-07-20.
44. The Peabody Essex Museum (1997). Gifts of the Spirit: Works by Nineteenth-Century & Contemporary Native American Artists.
45. "Current Status of Collection Documentation," Peabody Essex Museum Curatorial Department, March 25, 2014
46. http://www.pem.org/sites/archives/asian2.htm. Retrieved 2015-07-20.
47. Peabody Museum of Salem (1920). The Hawaiian Portion of the Polynesian Collections in the Peabody Museum of Salem.
48. "Current Status of Collection Documentation," Peabody Essex Museum Curatorial Department, March 25, 2014
49. https://www.pem.org/index.php?p=explore-art/photography Retrieved 2015-07-20.
50. Mariner's Museum and Peluso, Anthony J., Jr., The Bard Brothers – Painting America under Steam and Sail, Abrams, New York 1997 ISBN 0-8109-1240-6
51. "Statement Regarding PEM Phillips Library". Peabody Essex Museum. Retrieved 2017-12-09.
52. Peabody Essex Museum. Maritime Art and History. Retrieved 2011-12-07
53. Peabody Essex Museum. American Art. Retrieved 2011-12-07

Further reading

• Christina Hellmich Scarangello (1996). "Pacific Collection in the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Massachusetts". Pacific Arts (13/14). JSTOR 23409781.
• Re-enactment and the Museum Case: Reading the Oceanic and Native American Displays in the Peabody Essex Museum. Anna Boswell. Journal of New Zealand Literature, No. 27 (2009). JSTOR 25663046.
• Traute M. Marshall (2009). "Peabody Essex Museum". Art Museums Plus: Cultural Excursions in New England. University Press of New England. ISBN 978-1-58465-621-0.

External links

• Official website
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Jun 26, 2020 12:22 am

The East India Traders of Old Salem
by Maddy's Ramblings
November 1, 2015

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And the first Indian in Salem....

Most people have concentrated on the connections India had with Britain in the centuries and decades leading eventually to Indian Independence. However, for a brief period of time, there existed a robust amount of trade between the American state of Massachusetts and India. Bombay, Calcutta and Madras were the destinations of choice to some of the early merchant sailors of the cities of Salem and Boston. While they traded in traditional items such as textiles, spices and so on, these ships even went on to carry exotic items like ice from the Walden pond across the wide oceans, a topic I had written about earlier. The time period between 1780 and 1850 was a time when the sea routes to India were shared by the Americans. And that was also the time when the first Indians visited America.

The British East India Company started trading with Indian merchants at the start of the 17th century and were in joint control of the sea coasts of India, though sharing some power with the Portuguese and the Dutch. Soon the members became incredibly wealthy, and were able to form a complete monopoly by the 18th century. Even though the French were rivals to some degree. Indian goods were in high demand in the Post-Industrial revolution Europe, and the standards of living improved Britain, and the EIC [East India Company] went on to become more imperialist and monopolist in their approach resulting in the enforcement of the tea act in America which led to rebellions, the Boston tea party, and eventually the 1776 American declaration of Independence. But things continued as before in subservient India where the British government taking over from the EIC made merry and continued with the enriching of the imperial coffers and themselves.

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Trade Routes Developed by Salem Ships Prior to the Year 1800

America, which had just become independent, were also eyeing this lucrative business resulting from Indian contacts. The state of Massachusetts was foremost in matters of maritime adventures, and was home to wealthy merchants. In fact Salem, which was in 1726 just 100 years old in age as a European settlement, deriving its name from the Hebrew word Shalom or peace, went on to top the exploits at sea. Until 1763, the maritime industry of Salem did well on account of its good fishing exploits, and during the revolution the sailors became privateers hell-bent on capturing British ships. Salem soon became numero uno in this business, with about 50 armed ships, and after the revolution these took to the open oceans looking for trade. One of the big ship-owning merchants was Richard Derby.

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EH Derby

Towards the end of the revolution, he handed over the management of the family business to his second son, Elias Hasket Derby, who was destined to become the foremost American merchant of his time. By 1776, three of the peace-loving Derby ships were destroyed by the British, and so he decided to arm his fleet (25 owned and 25 partnership-owned ships, 158 ships in total at Salem). He also possessed larger 300 ton ships, and two of them were the well-armed Grand Turk and Astrea. Ships like the Grand Turk and Astrea, though only of some 300 tons burden, were too large for coastwise and west Indies trade.

Salem had a population of roughly 5,000 during this period, and as we saw, its mariners early established quite a daring reputation. It is said that they followed the advice of the old salt: "Always go straight forward, and if you meet the devil, cut him in two, and go between the pieces."

This aggressive American merchant, Elias Hasket Derby, promoted discovery of new avenues, sailing routes, and markets. At Derby Wharf, he built up one of the leading mercantile establishments in the United States, and through the development of his extensive trade to Europe, the East Indies. and China, did a great deal to promote the growth and prosperity of the country. We see that by 1790, Salem had become the sixth largest city in the country, and a world-famous seaport, and that Derby's ship Grand Turk had sailed to the Chinese exporting port of Canton.

On the second voyage of the Grand Turk to the Isle of France (Mauritius), which began in December 1787, Mr. Derby sent along his eldest son, Elias Hasket Derby, Jr., a young man 21 years of age, to serve as his agent. This move proved to be a wise one, for during the 3 years he spent in the East the young man formed profitable relationships with the leading merchants at Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta, and had a hand in breaking the monopoly of the British East India Company.

Image
EH Derby, Jr.

As American vessels did business at Mauritius, the Dutch and Portuguese collaborated with these new traders, and the British had no choice but to admit American vessels to the ports of India on the basis of the most-favored foreigners. This decree went into effect about the time Elias Hasket Jr. arrived at the Isle of France. Derby vessels were allowed access to Madras, Bombay, or Calcutta for cotton and other India goods. On the arrival of a ship from the East at Derby Wharf, a small part of her cargo would be sold in Salem, and much would find their way to Boston, New York, or Philadelphia, and even back to Europe if the price there was better starting in 1788. Hasket continued to trade in India throughout the late 1780s, eventually returning home in 1790. The Derby ships were to frequent Indian shores with marked regularity after the initial establishment of the relationship. "Boston was the Spain, Salem the Portugal, in the race for Oriental opulence," writes historian Samuel Eliot Morison and Salem's hugely profitable trade with the Orient transformed this hardscrabble New England seaport into a global powerhouse, and by the early 1800s, the wealthiest city per capita in the United States. Derby's business thrived, and he is considered to be America's first millionaire.

But interestingly, while Derby Jr. from Salem was trading with Madras, a chap from Madras was destined to American shores, and appears in the annals of history as one of the, if not the first, Indian to formally visit and live in America for a while. The year is 1790.

It all started with Derby's acquisition of the 140 ton copper-bottomed brig Sultana, and a visit to Bombay on the ship, together with sister ship Peggy, during the fall of 1788. That was the very first time an American ship touched Indian shores (An earlier ship United States visited French Pondicherry in 1784). They visited various ports on the west coast of Malabar in addition to Bombay. The cotton that was shipped back to Salem in 1789 on the sister ship Peggy found few buyers, and the rough cotton proved unpopular. They wanted coffee in America! So the cotton was sent to Liverpool.

Image
An EastIndaman

Derby went on the Sultana to Madras, caught dysentery, and to add to the discomfiture found that there were no buyers for his American wine in Madras. He spent awhile in an 'out of town' plantation recuperating. Meanwhile on the west coast, the Maratha piracy was picking up, and the seas were a little dangerous for the Americans. But remember that these American ships were privateer ships too once and knew how to handle such threats!

This was when the ships Henry, Lighthouse and Atlantic joined the team scouting or trade in India. They visited various ports in Malabar and the Coromandel, Ceylon included, and were the first to fly American colors at Calcutta in 1789. Eventually Sultana was sold off in 1789 in Madras, and Henry was to proceed back to Salem. Henry was loaded with cotton, of which a large amount was disposed of in Mauritius. The space was loaded with Bourbon Coffee. The Lighthorse went on to become the first American ship to touch Canton.

Henry was captained by Benjamin Crowninshield (Derby's cousin). Captn John Gibaut, a well-educated man, who was related to him through his mother, accompanied him. Benjamin happened to be Derby's school buddy, and both he and Crowninshield were to make big names in the India trade. Derby and friends were finally returning to Salem, flush with profits from India, three years after Derby Jr had set out to the east. John Gibaut we see was a Harvard graduate and mariner from Salem, the son of Edward Gibaut and Sarah Crowninshield.

But there was one exotic item that had come on the ship Henry which the Americans were to observe and record for the first time. Henry incidentally sailed from Calcutta to the West Indies. Gibaut and the Indian man thence proceeded to Salem on another Derby vessel.

The Indian man, as he was known since then, was a person presumably from the Indian Coromandel coast, a Tamilian perhaps. Regrettably his name was never recorded by anybody, and even though he spent a few months at Salem, it is quite an anomaly that we cannot find his real name anywhere, or his antecedents. Was he Gibaut's servant, a lascar, a dubash (translator), a bania or chetty trader, or was he Gibaut's friend? It is very difficult to make a conclusion. Some accounts mention him as Gibaut's servant, and that he joined the voyages in March 1790.

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Ft. St. George Madras 1754

It was perhaps not the first time a person of Indian origin visited the American shores. Many British merchantmen ships had lascars from Bombay, Cochin, or Malabar on their ships. So surely others preceded the Indian man of 1790. It is clear that there were others brought into America by British as slaves. In fact, they date back to 1719, and are quite a few in number, though details are sketchy. But this happens to be the first on record. Now let us see what more we can find out about 'the Indian man' of Salem.

What he did for the next few months is not clear, but it is believed that the Indian man spent the winter in Salem, and left with Gibaut on the ship Astrea, back to India in May 1791.

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Rev. Bentley

William Bentley records in his diary -- Had the pleasure of seeing for the first time a native of the Indies from Madras. He is of very dark complexion, long black hair, soft countenance, tall & well-proportioned. He is said to be darker than Indians in general of his own cast, being much darker than any native Indians of America. I had no opportunity to judge of his abilities, but his countenance was not expressive. He came to Salem with Capt. J. Gibaut, and has been in Europe.

In 1799, Salem's globe-traveling sea captains and traders established the city's East India Marine Society, whose bylaws charged members to bring home "natural and artificial curiosities." We see a number of them at the Peabody, Salem and other museums of Massachusetts. As is explained -- The city seal of Salem, Massachusetts, features neither a black-clad Puritan elder nor an American eagle but, instead, a robe-and-slippered Sumatran dignitary standing next to a row of palm trees. Below him, the city motto: Divitis Indiae usque ad ultimum sinum ("To the farthest port of the rich East"); indeed, that Salem owed its brief but dazzling period of commercial glory.

The Astrea, with Gibaut as master, faced a lot of misfortune, and in 1793 the Sultan of Pegu detained it for his own use and held Gibaut a hostage. But as it appears [b]Gibaut spent time collecting curiosities in Burma for Rev Bentley's museum.
The Astrea was misused by the Sultan and had to be condemned in Calcutta. He sailed back on the Henry but was waylaid by the British this time at the Cape of Good Hope. Three years later Gibaut was back in Salem after these hair-raising adventures.

Gibaut was an expert mathematician, and the first American Navigator, who introduced the practice of Lunar observations into the USA. He was briefly involved earlier in the survey of Salem, but eventually went back to sea, and his work was completed by the eminent Dr Bowdich. He fell ill, and returned to Salem in 1801 when his friend Crowninshield recommended Thomas Jefferson to make him a collector of Boston port, which did not work, out but he went on to become collector of Gloucester. He retained the position until his death in 1805.

The Derby family continued on course with the India trade. But things were not rosy for too long. As the American shipping prosperity increased, resentment at Britain increased, and the British started what they called impression. By 1811, the British Royal Navy had impressed (which was the Royal Navy's practice of removing seamen from American merchant vessels) at least 6,000 mariners who claimed to be citizens of the United Stares. In addition to impressments, Americans were dismayed by British agitation of the native population on the western frontier. Congress declared war on June 18, 1812.

As the Salem vessels and their sailors were being kidnapped by the British at high seas, and the trade embargo was brought about by President Jefferson, the Salem merchants had a choice of either braving it out or sitting still (as they said -- swallow the anchor) at home. But as the days of glory vanished, what they chose to do is a story for another day.

References

Essex Institute Historical collections (Vol 98)- Elias Hasket Derby - Richard H McKey
The Diary of William Bentley - William Bentley
The United States and India 1776-1996 - MV Kamath
Salem's Part in the Naval War with France - James Duncan Phillips
"That Every Mariner May Possess the History of the World": A cabinet for the East India Marine Society of Salem - James M Lindgren
Merchant Venturers of old Salem - Robert Peabody
The maritime history of Massachusetts - Samuel Eliot Morison
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Jun 26, 2020 4:04 am

Edward S. Morse
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/25/20

Image
Edward Sylvester Morse
Portrait of Morse published in the Popular Science Monthly
Born: June 18, 1838, Portland, Maine, United States
Died: December 20, 1925 (aged 87), Salem, Massachusetts, United States
Nationality: American
Occupation: professor, zoologist, orientalist

Edward Sylvester Morse (June 18, 1838 – December 20, 1925) was an American zoologist and orientalist.

Early life

Morse was born in Portland, Maine as the son of a Congregationalist deacon who held strict Calvinist beliefs. His mother, who did not share her husband's religious beliefs, encouraged her son's interest in the sciences. An unruly student, Morse was expelled from every school he attended in his youth — the Portland village school, the academy at Conway, New Hampshire, in 1851, and Bridgton Academy in 1854 (for carving on desks). He also attended Gould Academy in Bethel, Maine. At Gould Academy, Morse came under the influence of Dr. Nathaniel True who encouraged Morse to pursue his interest in the study of nature.

He preferred to explore the Atlantic coast in search of shells and snails, or go to the field to study the fauna and flora. However, despite his lack of formal education, the collections formed during adolescence soon earned him the visit of eminent scientists from Boston, Washington and even the United Kingdom. He was noted for his work with land snails, and before the age of twelve when he had discovered two new species: Helix Milium and H. astericus.[1]

As a young man, he worked as a mechanical draftsman at the Portland Locomotive Company and a wood engraver attached to a Boston company. Morse was recommended by Philip Pearsall Carpenter to Louis Agassiz (1807–1873) at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University for his intellectual qualities and talent at drawing, and served as his assistant in charge of conservation, documentation and drawing collections of mollusks and brachiopods until 1861.

During the American Civil War, Morse attempted to enlist in the 25th Maine Infantry, but was turned down due to a chronic tonsil infection. On June 18, 1863, Morse married Ellen (“Nellie”) Elizabeth Owen in Portland. The couple had two children, Edith Owen Morse and John Gould Morse (named after Morse's lifelong friend Major John Mead Gould).

Career

Morse rapidly became successful in the field of zoology, specializing in malacology or the study of mollusks. In March 1863, along with three other students of Agassiz, Morse co-founded the scientific journal The American Naturalist, and he became one of its editors. The journal included a large number of his drawings. In 1864, he published his first work devoted to mollusks under the title Observations On The Terrestrial Pulmonifera of Maine, Including a Catalogue of All the Species of Terrestrial Mollusca and Fluvial Known to Inhabit the State. In 1870 he published The Brachiopods, a Division of the Annelida wherein he reclassified brachiopods as worms rather than mollusks. The work attracted the attention of Charles Darwin. From 1871 to 1874, Morse was appointed to the chair of comparative anatomy and zoology at Bowdoin College. In 1874, he became a lecturer at Harvard University. In 1876, Morse was named a fellow of the National Academy of Science.

Japan

In June 1877 Morse first visited Japan in search of coastal brachiopods. His visit turned into a three-year stay when he was offered a post as the first professor of Zoology at the Tokyo Imperial University. He went on to recommend several fellow Americans as o-yatoi gaikokujin (foreign advisors) to support the modernization of Japan in the Meiji Era. To collect specimens, he established a marine biological laboratory at Enoshima in Kanagawa Prefecture.

While looking out of a window on a train between Yokohama and Tokyo, Morse discovered the Ōmori shell mound, the excavation of which opened the study in archaeology and anthropology in Japan and shed much light on the material culture of prehistoric Japan. He returned to Japan in 1881 to present a report of his findings to Tokyo Imperial University.

While in Japan, he authored a book Japanese Homes and Their Surroundings illustrated with his own line drawings. He also made a collection of over 5,000 pieces of Japanese pottery. He devised the term "cord-marked" for the sherds of Stone Age pottery, decorated by impressing cords into the wet clay. The Japanese translation, "Jōmon," now gives its name to the whole Jōmon period as well as Jōmon pottery.

Morse had much interest in Japanese ceramics.[2] He returned on a third visit to Japan in 1882, during which he collected clay samples as well as finished ceramics. He brought back to Boston a collection amassed by government minister and amateur art collector Ōkuma Shigenobu, who donated it to Morse in recognition of his services to Japan. These now form part of the "Morse Collection" of Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, whose catalog was written by Ernest Fenollosa. His collection of daily artifacts of the Japanese people is kept at the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts.
The remainder of the collection was inherited by his granddaughter, Catharine Robb Whyte via her mother Edith Morse Robb and is housed at the Whyte Museum of the Canadian Rockies, Banff, Alberta, Canada.

Massachusetts

Image
1930 photograph of Edward S. Morse

After leaving Japan, Morse traveled to Southeast Asia and Europe. In 1884 (at age 46), he was elected a vice president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and became president of that association in 1886, 1887, 1888, 1889. During this period, he returned to Europe, and Japan in quest of pottery.

Morse became Keeper of Pottery at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in 1890. He was also a director of the Peabody Academy of Science (now part of and succeeded by the Peabody Essex Museum) in Salem[3] from 1880 to 1914. In 1898, he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun (3rd class) by the Japanese government. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1898.[4] He became chairman of the Boston Museum in 1914, and chairman of the Peabody Museum in 1915. He was awarded the Order of the Sacred Treasures (2nd class) by the Japanese government in 1922.[5]

Morse was a friend of astronomer Percival Lowell, who inspired interest in the planet Mars. Morse would occasionally journey to the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, during optimal viewing times to observe the planet. In 1906, Morse published Mars and Its Mystery in defense of Lowell’s controversial speculations regarding the possibility of life on Mars.

He donated over 10,000 books from his personal collection to the Tokyo Imperial University. On learning that the library of the Tokyo Imperial University was reduced to ashes by the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, in his will he ordered that his entire remaining collection of books be donated to Tokyo Imperial University.

Morse died at his home in Salem, Massachusetts in 1925 of cerebral hemorrhage and was buried at the Harmony Grove Cemetery.

Morse’s Law

In 1872, Morse noticed than mammals and reptiles with reduced fingers lose them beginning from the sides: thumb the first and little finger the second.[6] Later researchers revealed that this is a general pattern in tetrapods (except Theropoda and Urodela): digits are reduced in the order I → V → II → III → IV, the reverse order of their appearance in embryogenesis. This trend is known as Morse’s Law.[7]

Published works

• 2018. From Morse to Whyte: A Dynastic Bequest of Japanese Treasures. Catalogue published by the Whyte Museum of the Canadian Rockies, Banff, AB. Canada
• 1875. First Book of Zoölogy New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1, 3, and 5 Bond Street.
• 1886. First Book of Zoölogy Second Edition, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1, 3, and 5 Bond Street
• 1886. Japanese Homes and Their Surroundings. New York: Harper. OCLC 3050569; reprint of 1885 edition; (Full View)
• 1888. Japanese Homes and Their Surroundings. Boston: Ticknor. OCLC 20970574
• 1901. Catalogue of the Morse collection of Japanese pottery. Cambridge, Printed at the Riverside Press.
• 1902. Glimpses of China and Chinese Homes. Boston: Little, Brown. OCLC 1116550; (Full View)
• 1917. Japan Day by Day, 1877, 1878-79, 1882-83. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. OCLC 412843
o 1917. Japan Day by Day, Vol. I.; (Full View)
o 1917. Japan Day by Day, Vol. II.; (Full View)

See also

• American Association of Museums
• Japanese Homes and Their Surroundings
• Takamine Hideo
• Hiram M. Hiller, Jr.

References

1. Japanese History Online
2. Maine Historical Society
3. Grimes, John R., "Curiosity, Cabinets, and Knowledge" Archived 2016-06-24 at the Wayback Machine, pem.org, p. 4. Retrieved 2016-09-20.
4. American Antiquarian Society Members Directory
5. The Courier Volume 26, No. 2 (2002)
6. Morse E. S. (1872). "On the Tarsus and Carpus of Birds". Annals of The Lyceum of Natural History of New York. 10: 141–158. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1874.tb00030.x. ...when the number of fingers or toes is reduced in Mammalia and Reptilia, they are always taken away from the sides of the member, the thumb first disappearing and then the little finger.
7. Young R. L., Bever G. S., Wang Z., Wagner G. P. (2011). "Identity of the avian wing digits: Problems resolved and unsolved". Developmental Dynamics. 240 (5): 1042–1053. doi:10.1002/dvdy.22595. PMID 21412936.
• Benfey, Christopher (2003). The Great Wave: Gilded Age Misfits, Japanese Eccentrics, and the Opening of Old Japan, New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-50327-6; OCLC 50511058
• Gould, John M. "A Brief Biography of Edward Sylvester Morse (1838-1925)." at the Wayback Machine (archived October 27, 2009) (Full View)
• Murphy, Declan. "Edward S. Morse 1838-1925," Japanese History Online. Yamasa Institute (Hittori Foundation). (Full View)
• Rosenstone, Robert A. (1988). Mirror in the Shrine: American Encounters with Meiji Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-57641-4; OCLC 17108604
• Wayman, Dorothy Godfrey. (1942) Edward Sylvester Morse: A Biography. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. OCLC 757515

External links

• Museum of Fine Arts, Boston: "Japanese Ceramics from the Collection of Edward Sylvester Morse."
• Japanese History Online
• Edward S. Morse — Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences
• Works by Edward Sylvester Morse at Project Gutenberg
• Works by or about Edward S. Morse at Internet Archive
• Whyte Museum
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Jun 26, 2020 4:53 am

Scientific Lazzaroni
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/25/20

The Order of St. Lazarus & Jesse Helms:

Jesse Helms is also linked with the Knights of the Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem, which was founded in Britain by Robert Gayre (publisher of the racialist Mankind Quarterly before Roger Pearson). The Order of St. Lazarus was also established in the U.S. by Lord Malcolm Douglas of the Cliveden Set:

"In the 1960s, a Briton named Robert Gayre had succeeded in founding a branch of the Order [of St. Lazarus] in Great Britain, accepting many non-Catholics as members. (The same Robert Gayre was involved...when an International Commission on Orders of Chivalry was created, with the main purpose of providing legitimacy to the Order of Saint Lazarus.) The duke of Nemours decided to open the order to them, but this led to another split, and Nemours was himself deposed and replaced by the duc de Brissac who, in 1980, abandoned the denomination of 'Order' and gave the association new statutes, calling it simply 'Hospitallers of Saint Lazarus'" 59.

"[Lady Malcolm] Douglas Hamilton is related to a British family that supported Hitler's war aims. When she and her husband came to the U.S., he helped establish a branch of the Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem, an obscure racist-led network based in Scotland and tied to Jesse Helms." 60.


Scholars examining the relationship between right-wing politics and racial research have drawn on a 1979 work by social psychologist Michael Billig, Psychology, Racism, and Fascism, which argues that the origins of racist and neo-Nazi movements of the 1950s to 1970s are to be found in British social science. Robert Gayre's Mankind Quarterly is based in Edinburgh, Scotland, the location of the Order of St. Lazarus:

"Since it was established in 1960, The Mankind Quarterly has had the same overall editor -- Professor R. Gayre, M.A., D.Phil., Pol.D.Sc., D.Sc., a physical anthropologist trained at Edinburgh University. He was formerly Professor of Anthropology at the University of Saugor in India, but now is resident at Edinburgh, where The Mankind Quarterly is published ...Gayre's contacts with British fascists came to light when five members of the Racial Preservation Society were prosecuted in 1968 at Lewes under the Race Relations Act for publishing racialist material. At the time of the offence the Racial Preservation Society was an independent body, but by the time of the trial it had officially merged into the National Front." 61.


It was not by coincidence that the cloning of Dolly the sheep occurred at the Roslyn Institute in Roslyn, Scotland located 7 miles south of Edinburgh. Situated directly between Roslyn Institute and Edinburgh is Roslyn Chapel, the famous shrine of the Knights Templar that is geometrically designed as a copy of the ruins of Herod's Temple. Near Roslyn Chapel is the home of the St Clair or Sinclair family 62., which have historically been revered as prominent Freemasons of Britain and a sacred family of the Merovingian bloodline. The esoteric interpretation of Dolly compares the white sheep to Christ, whose divine and immortal state the racial eugenicists hope to duplicate through biotechnology. According to news reports, the cloning of the first human embryo occurred in 1999 on June 24, which is the Masonic feast of St. John the Baptist, patron saint of Freemasonry. 63.

-- The Council for National Policy, by Barbara Aho


The Scientific Lazzaroni is a self-mocking name adopted by Alexander Dallas Bache and his group of scientists[1] who flourished before and up to the American Civil War. ("Lazzaroni" was slang for the homeless idlers of Naples who live by chance work or begging - so called from the Hospital of St Lazarus, which served as their refuge.) These scientists then gained greater support and laid the foundation for the National Academy of Sciences. However, the National Academy did not solve the problems facing a nation plunged in Civil War – as the Lazzaroni had hoped, nor did it centralize American scientific efforts.

These Lazzaroni were mostly professional physical scientists, interested in geophysical problems, who admitted a few kindred souls from other fields to their ranks. Their interests and range of influence extended to all of the sciences and included much of the research performed in universities and the government. They were consciously promoting the development of a professional scientific community in America.

The Lazzaroni in the United States actually existed in the 1850s and a little before, though the name was not always the same as the group changed and grew.

The Lazzaroni wanted to mimic the autocratic academic structures of European universities.[2] The members of the Lazzaroni wanted only university-educated scientists, at one point, so as to create a "pure science" for America. Therefore, the scientists who did not match the code and "oath" of the initial members would be forced, if possible, out of their vocation and not allowed to advance unless they met the qualifications of the Lazzaroni, who often kept scientists out of any professional scientific position. They used their influence together, a group of top scientists against any one individual.

The following is a partial list of Lazzaroni and their opponents.

The (American) Lazzaroni

• Alexander Dallas Bache (1806–1867)

He came from a prominent family as he was the nephew of Vice-President George M. Dallas and naval hero Alexander J. Dallas. He was the grandson of Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Dallas and was the great-grandson of Benjamin Franklin.

After graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1825, as first in his class, he was an assistant professor of engineering there for some time. As a second lieutenant in the United States Army Corps of Engineers, he was engaged in the construction of Fort Adams in Newport, Rhode Island. Bache resigned from the Army on June 1, 1829.

Bache was a professor of natural philosophy and chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania from 1828 to 1841 and again from 1842 to 1843. He spent 1836–1838 in Europe on behalf of the trustees of what became Girard College; he was named president of the college after his return. Abroad, he examined European education systems, and on his return he published a valuable report...

In 1843, on the death of Professor Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler, Bache was appointed superintendent of the United States Coast Survey. He convinced the United States Congress of the value of this work and, by means of the liberal aid it granted, he completed the mapping of the whole coast by a skillful division of labor and the erection of numerous observing stations. In addition, magnetic and meteorological data were collected. Bache served as head of the Coast Survey for 24 years (until his death).

-- Alexander Dallas Bache, by Wikipedia


• Benjamin Peirce (1809–1880)

After graduating from Harvard University in 1829, he taught mathematics for two years at the Round Hill School in Northampton, and in 1831 was appointed professor of mathematics at Harvard. He added astronomy to his portfolio in 1842, and remained as Harvard professor until his death. In addition, he was instrumental in the development of Harvard's science curriculum, served as the college librarian, and was director of the U.S. Coast Survey from 1867 to 1874. He was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society of London in 1852.

Benjamin Peirce is often regarded as the earliest American scientist whose research was recognized as world class. He was an apologist for slavery, opining that it should be condoned if it was used to allow an elite to pursue scientific enquiry...

He was devoutly religious, though he seldom published his theological thoughts. Peirce credited God as shaping nature in ways that account for the efficacy of pure mathematics in describing empirical phenomena. Peirce viewed "mathematics as study of God's work by God's creatures", according to an encyclopedia.

Image
With Louis Agassiz

-- Benjamin Peirce, by Wikipedia


Louis Agassiz (1807–1873)
• Joseph Henry (1797–1878)

Henry excelled at his studies (so much so, he would often help his teachers teach science) and in 1826 was appointed Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at The Albany Academy[7] by Principal T. Romeyn Beck. Some of his most important research was conducted in this new position. His curiosity about terrestrial magnetism led him to experiment with magnetism in general. He was the first to coil insulated wire tightly around an iron core in order to make a more powerful electromagnet, improving on William Sturgeon's electromagnet which used loosely coiled uninsulated wire. Using this technique, he built the strongest electromagnet at the time, for Yale. He also showed that, when making an electromagnet using just two electrodes attached to a battery, it is best to wind several coils of wire in parallel, but when using a set-up with multiple batteries, there should be only one single long coil. The latter made the telegraph feasible. Because of his early experiments in electromagnetism some historians credit Henry with discoveries pre-dating Faraday and Hertz; however, Henry is not credited due to not publishing his work.

Using his newly developed electromagnetic principle, in 1831, Henry created one of the first machines to use electromagnetism for motion. This was the earliest ancestor of modern DC motor. It did not make use of rotating motion, but was merely an electromagnet perched on a pole, rocking back and forth. The rocking motion was caused by one of the two leads on both ends of the magnet rocker touching one of the two battery cells, causing a polarity change, and rocking the opposite direction until the other two leads hit the other battery.

This apparatus allowed Henry to recognize the property of self inductance. British scientist Michael Faraday also recognized this property around the same time. Since Faraday published his results first, he became the officially recognized discoverer of the phenomenon.

From 1832 to 1846, Henry served as the first Chair of Natural History at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University). While in Princeton, he taught a wide range of courses including natural history, chemistry, and architecture, and ran a laboratory on campus. Decades later, Henry wrote that he made "several thousand original investigations on electricity, magnetism, and electro-magnetism" while on the Princeton faculty. Henry relied heavily on an African American research assistant, Sam Parker, in his laboratory and experiments. Parker was a free black man hired by the Princeton trustees to assist Henry. In an 1841 letter to mathematician Elias Loomis, Henry wrote:

"The Trustees have however furnished me with an article which I now find indispensible namely with a coloured servant whom I have taught to manage my batteries and who now relieves me from all the dirty work of the laboratory."

In his letters, Henry described Parker providing materials for experiments, fixing technical issues with Henry's equipment, and at times being used as a test subject in electrical experiments in which Henry and his students would shock Parker in classroom demonstrations. In 1842, when Parker fell ill, Henry's experiments stopped completely until he recovered.


Henry was appointed the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in 1846, and served in this capacity until 1878. In 1848, while Secretary, Henry worked in conjunction with Professor Stephen Alexander to determine the relative temperatures for different parts of the solar disk. They used a thermopile to determine that sunspots were cooler than the surrounding regions. This work was shown to the astronomer Angelo Secchi who extended it, but with some question as to whether Henry was given proper credit for his earlier work.

In late 1861 and early 1862, during the American Civil War, Henry oversaw a series of lectures by prominent abolitionists at the Smithsonian Institution. Speakers included white clergymen, politicians, and activists such as Wendell Phillips, Horace Greeley, Henry Ward Beecher, and Ralph Waldo Emerson. Famous orator and former fugitive slave Frederick Douglass was scheduled as the final speaker; Henry, however, refused to allow him to attend, stating: "I would not let the lecture of the coloured man be given in the rooms of the Smithsonian."...

Henry was a member of the United States Lighthouse Board from 1852 until his death.

The United States Lighthouse Board was the second agency of the US Federal Government, under the Department of Treasury, responsible for the construction and maintenance of all lighthouses and navigation aids in the United States, between 1852 and 1910.... In 1910, the Lighthouse Board was disestablished in favor of a more civilian Lighthouse Service, under the Department of Commerce; later the Lighthouse Service was merged into the United States Coast Guard in 1939.

-- United States Lighthouse Board, by Wikipedia


He was appointed chairman in 1871 and served in that position the remainder of his life. He was the only civilian to serve as chairman. The United States Coast Guard honored Henry for his work on lighthouses and fog signal acoustics by naming a cutter after him. The Joseph Henry, usually referred to as the Joe Henry, was launched in 1880 and was active until 1904.[22]

-- Joseph Henry, by Wikipedia


• Oliver Wolcott Gibbs (1822–1908)

Oliver Wolcott Gibbs (February 21, 1822 – December 9, 1908) was an American chemist. He is known for performing the first electrogravimetric analyses, namely the reductions of copper and nickel ions to their respective metals...

His father, Colonel George Gibbs, was an ardent mineralogist; the mineral gibbsite was named after him, and his collection was finally bought by Yale College. Oliver was the younger brother of George Gibbs and older brother to Alfred Gibbs, who became a Union Army Brigadier General during the American Civil War...

Entering Columbia College (now Columbia University) in 1837, Wolcott (he dropped the name "Oliver" at an early date) graduated in 1841. Having assisted Robert Hare at University of Pennsylvania for several months,...

In 1853, Hare conducted experiments with mediums. A year later Hare had converted to Spiritualism and wrote several books that made him very famous in the United States as a Spiritualist. He published a book entitled Experimental Investigation of the Spirit Manifestations (1855). His work was criticized by scientists but was welcomed with enthusiasm by Spiritualists.

One of his experiments utilized a board and spring balance, the other involved the movement of a table at which a medium sat caused a pointer to indicate letters on a wheel. According to the psychical researcher Frank Podmore it would have been easy for the medium to move the table with their knees or other parts of the body but "Hare does not seem to have realized the possibility of fraud of this kind." Podmore also wrote that "the machinery, indeed, was not ill-devised, but its use did not dispense with the necessity for close and continuous observation of the human agent; and there is no evidence that Hare recognized this necessity, or took any steps to guard against trickery."...

Historian Timothy Kneeland has argued that Hare's interest in Spiritualism was consistent with political and social beliefs that he held throughout his career. His book Experimental Investigation of the Spirit Manifestations (1855) promoted the restoration of social order based on principles of republicanism.

-- Robert Hare (chemist), by Wikpedia

he next entered the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, qualifying as a doctor of medicine in 1845.

Leaving the United States (US), Gibbs studied in Germany, considered a center of science, with Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg, Heinrich Rose, and Justus von Liebig, and in Paris with Auguste Laurent, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, and Henri Victor Regnault.

He returned to the US in 1848 and that year became professor of chemistry at the Free Academy, now the City College of New York. Gibbs was a candidate for Professor of Physical Science at Columbia in 1854, but his application was rejected because he was a Unitarian.[5]

Gibbs became the Rumford professor at Harvard University in 1863, a post he held until his retirement in 1887 as professor emeritus...

Gibbs was also the founder of The Union League Club in New York City. In 1862 he proposed to fellow Sanitary Commission Executive Committee member Frederick Law Olmsted that a patriotic club be formed in New York City and in January 1863 formally proposed the same to leading men in New York City, resulting in the formation of The Union League Club in February 1863.

The club dates its founding from February 6, 1863, during the Civil War. Tensions were running high in New York City at the time, because much of the city's governing class, as well as its large Irish immigrant population, bitterly opposed the war and were eager to reach some kind of accommodation with the Confederate States of America. Thus, pro-Union men chose to form their own club, with the twin goals of cultivating "a profound national devotion" and to "strengthen a love and respect for the Union."

The Union League (also known as Loyal Leagues) was actually a political movement before it became a social organization. Its members raised money both to support the United States Sanitary Commission, the forerunner of the American Red Cross, which cared for the Union wounded following battles, and the Union cause generally.

The New York League was founded by four prominent professionals and intellectuals: Henry Whitney Bellows, Frederick Law Olmsted, George Templeton Strong, and Oliver Wolcott Gibbs. The men, all members of the United States Sanitary Commission, desired to strengthen the nation state and the national identity. They first aimed to recruit a coalition of moneyed professionals like themselves. Strong believed that the club would only thrive with a respectable catalogue of moneyed men. Olmsted especially desired to recruit the new generation of young, wealthy men, so that the club might teach them the obligations and duties of the upper class.

The founders aimed to win the political governing elite over to support of the Union and abolition. They also believed that a centralized government was essential to their prosperity. The national government enforced contracts, tariffs, and an expanding infrastructure, all in the best interest of the professionals in the merchant, financial, and manufacturing classes, which in turn, benefited the population at large. These professionals also Developed an economic interest in the federal government, because as the war progressed, Union League ideas had their effect and New York City's elite bore a disproportional amount of the nation's debt. As they bought more and more war bonds, the holders had an increasing economic interest in the success of the Union, in addition to the convictions that led them to buy the bonds in the first place.

The club held its first official meeting on March 20, 1863. At this first meeting, Robert B. Minturn, head of the nation's second largest shipping firm, was elected president. Some of the elected vice presidents included William H. Aspinwall, Moses Taylor, and Alexander T. Stewart.[3]

It did not take long for the club's enemies to make their displeasure felt with the new organization. On July 13, 1863, just five months after the club's foundation and only days after receiving word of the twin Union victories at Gettysburg and at Vicksburg, the New York Draft Riots exploded right in the club's backyard. The Union League Club was high on the vandals' list of targets (right after the Colored Orphan Asylum), but some brave members kept them at bay by maintaining an armed vigil in the locked and barricaded clubhouse on East 17th Street, just off Union Square Park.

A few months later, the members decided to make an unmistakable gesture that they had not been intimidated. The club decided to recruit, train and equip a Colored infantry regiment for Union service. The 20th U.S. Colored Infantry was formed on Riker's Island in February 1864. The next month, it marched from the Union League Club, down Canal Street and over to the Hudson River piers to embark for duty in Louisiana. In spite of numerous threats, the members of the Union League Club marched with the men of the 20th, and saw them off. During World War I, the club sponsored the 369th Infantry, the famed Harlem Hellfighters, which was commanded by William Hayward, a club member.

During Reconstruction, Union Leagues were formed all across the South. They mobilized freedmen to register to vote. They discussed political issues, promoted civic projects, and mobilized workers opposed to segregationist white employers. Most branches were segregated but there were a few that were racially integrated. The leaders of the all-black units were mostly urban Blacks from the North, who had never been slaves. Foner (p 283) says "virtually every Black voter in the South had enrolled." Black League members were special targets of the Ku Klux Klan's violence and intimidation, so the Leagues organized informal armed defense units.

After the end of Reconstruction, the Union League Club of New York devoted itself to civic projects and clean government. It and its members helped to found the Metropolitan Museum of Art,[4] and assisted in building the Statue of Liberty and Grant's Tomb.

-- Union League Club, by Wikipedia

-- Oliver Wolcott Gibbs, by Wikipedia


• Charles Henry Davis (1807–1877)

Charles Henry Davis (January 16, 1807 – February 18, 1877) was a rear admiral in the United States Navy. Working for the Coast Survey, Davis researched tides and currents, and located an uncharted shoal that had caused wrecks off the New York coast...

In 1841 he received and honorary Bachelor of Arts degree from Harvard and in 1868 he received an honorary L.L.D. from the same institution.

In 1843 he became a member of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati in succession to his grandfather Colonel Constant Freeman (1757 - 1824).

The Society of the Cincinnati is a hereditary society with branches in the United States and France, founded in 1783, to preserve the ideals and fellowship of officers of the Continental Army who served in the Revolutionary War. Now in its third century, the Society promotes the public interest in the Revolution through its library and museum collections, publications, and other activities. It is the oldest hereditary society in America. Although restricted to lineal male descendants, there is a partnership society called Daughters of the Cincinnati which permits all female descendants of Continental officers.

The Society is named after Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, who left his farm to accept a term as Roman Consul and served as Magister Populi (with temporary powers similar to that of a modern-era dictator). He assumed lawful dictatorial control of Rome to meet a war emergency. When the battle was won, he returned power to the Senate and went back to plowing his fields. The Society's motto reflects that ethic of selfless service: Omnia reliquit servare rempublicam ("He relinquished everything to save the Republic"). The Society has had three goals: "To preserve the rights so dearly won; to promote the continuing union of the states; and to assist members in need, their widows, and their orphans."...

Membership was generally limited to officers who had served at least three years in the Continental Army or Navy; it included officers of the French Army and Navy above certain ranks. Officers in the Continental Line who died during the War were also entitled to be recorded as members, and membership would devolve to their eldest male heir. Members of the considerably larger fighting forces comprising the Colonial Militias and Minutemen were not entitled to join the Society. Within 12 months of the founding, a constituent Society had been organized in each of the 13 states and in France. Of about 5,500 men originally eligible for membership, 2,150 had joined within a year. King Louis XVI ordained the French Society of the Cincinnati, which was organized on July 4, 1784 (Independence Day). Up to that time, the King of France had not allowed his officers to wear any foreign decorations, but he made an exception in favor of the badge of the Cincinnati.

Later in the 18th century, the Society's rules adopted a system of primogeniture wherein membership was passed down to the eldest son after the death of the original member. Present-day hereditary members generally must be descended from an officer who served in the Continental Army or Navy for at least three years, from an officer who died or was killed in service, or from an officer serving at the close of the Revolution. Each officer may be represented by only one descendant at any given time, following the rules of primogeniture. (The rules of eligibility and admission are controlled by each of the 14 Constituent Societies to which members are admitted. They differ slightly in each society, and some allow more than one descendant of an eligible officer.) The requirement for primogeniture made the society controversial in its early years, as the new states quickly did away with laws supporting primogeniture as remnants of the English feudal system.

George Washington was elected the first President General of the Society. He served from December 1783 until his death in 1799. The second President General was Alexander Hamilton. Upon Hamilton's death the third President General of the Society was Charles Cotesworth Pinckney.

The society's members have included notable military and political leaders, including 23 of the 39 signers of the United States Constitution...

When news of the foundation of the society spread, judge Aedanus Burke published several pamphlets under the pseudonym Cassius where he criticized the society as an attempt at reestablishing a hereditary nobility in the new republic. The pamphlets, entitled An Address to the Freemen of South Carolina (January 1783) and Considerations on the Society or Order of Cincinnati (October 1783) sparked a general debate that included prominent names, including Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. The criticism voiced concern about the apparent creation of an hereditary elite; membership eligibility is inherited through primogeniture, and generally excluded enlisted men and militia officers, unless they were placed under "State Line" or "Continental Line" forces for a substantial time period, and their descendants.

Benjamin Franklin was among the Society's earliest critics. He was concerned about the creation of a quasi-noble order, and of the Society's use of the eagle in its emblem, as evoking the traditions of heraldry and the English aristocracy. In a letter to his daughter Sarah Bache written on January 26, 1784, Franklin commented on the ramifications of the Cincinnati:


I only wonder that, when the united Wisdom of our Nation had, in the Articles of Confederation, manifested their Dislike of establishing Ranks of Nobility, by Authority either of the Congress or of any particular State, a Number of private persons should think proper to distinguish themselves and their Posterity, from their fellow Citizens, and form an Order of hereditary Knights, in direct Opposition to the solemnly declared Sense of their Country.

The influence of the Cincinnati members, former officers, was another concern. When delegates to the Constitutional Convention were debating the method of choosing a president, James Madison (the secretary of the Convention) reported the following speech of Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts:

A popular election in this case is radically vicious. The ignorance of the people would put it in the power of some one set of men dispersed through the Union & acting in Concert to delude them into any appointment. He observed that such a Society of men existed in the Order of the Cincinnati. They are respectable, United, and influential. They will in fact elect the chief Magistrate in every instance, if the election be referred to the people. [Gerry's] respect for the characters composing this Society could not blind him to the danger & impropriety of throwing such a power into their hands.


The debate spread to France on account of the eligibility of French veterans from the Revolutionary War. In 1785 Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau was approached by Franklin, who was at the time stationed in Paris and suggested to him to write something about the society directed at the French public.[15] Mirabeau was provided with Burke's pamphlets and Franklin's letter to his daughter, and from this, with the help of Nicolas Chamfort, created his own enlarged version entitled Considérations sur l'Ordre de Cincinnatus which was published in London November that year, an English translation carried out by Samuel Romilly followed, of which an American edition was published in 1786.[16]

Following this public debate and criticism, George Washington, who had been unaware of the particulars of the charter when he agreed to become president of the society, began to have doubts about the benefit of the society. He had in fact considered abolishing the society on its very first general meeting May 4, 1784.[17] However, in the meantime Major L'Enfant had arrived bringing his designs of the diplomas and medals, as well as news of the success of the society in France, which made an abolishment of the society impossible. Washington instead at the meeting launched an ultimatum, that if the clauses about heredity were not abandoned, he would resign from his post as president of the society. This was accepted, and furthermore informal agreement was made not to wear the eagles in public, so as not to resemble European chivalrous orders. A new charter, the so-called Institution, was printed, which omitted among others the disputed clauses about heredity. This was sent to the local chapters for approval, and it was approved in all of them except for the chapters in New York, New Hampshire and Delaware. However, when the public furor about the society had died down, the new Institution was rescinded, and the original reintroduced, including the clauses about heredity. The French chapter, who had obtained official permission to form from the king Louis XVI of France, also abolished heredity, but never reintroduced it, and thus the last members were approved February 3, 1792, shortly before the French monarchy was disbanded.

The members of the Cincinnati were among those developing many of America's first and largest cities to the west of the Appalachians, most notably Cincinnati, Ohio and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

The first governor of the Northwest Territory, Arthur St. Clair, was a member of the Society. He renamed a small settlement "Cincinnati" to honor the Society and to encourage settlement by Society members. Among them were Captain Jacob Piatt, who settled across the river from Cincinnati in northern Kentucky on land granted to him for his service during the War. Captain David Ziegler was the first Mayor of Cincinnati.

Lt. Ebenezer Denny (1761–1822), an original Pennsylvanian Cincinnatus, was elected the first mayor of the incorporated city of Pittsburgh in 1816. Pittsburgh developed from Fort Pitt, which had been commanded since 1777–1783 by four men who were founding members of the Society.

Richard Varick was a Mayor of New York City.

-- Society of the Cincinnati, by Wikipedia

From 1846 to 1849, he worked in the United States Coast Survey on board the Nantucket, where he discovered a previously unknown shoal that had caused shipwrecks off the coast of New York. During his service to the Survey, he was also responsible for researching tides and currents and acted as an inspector on a number of naval shipyards. From 1849 to 1855 he was the first superintendent of American Nautical Almanac Office and produced the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac...

After the war he joined the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (MOLLUS). He was a member of the New York Commandery and received insignia number 1022.

From 1865 to 1867, he was the Superintendent of the United States Naval Observatory. In 1867, he was given command of the South Atlantic Squadron and was given the Guerriere as his flagship. In 1869, he returned home and served both on the Lighthouse Board as well as in the Naval Observatory...

He married Harriette Blake Mills, the daughter of U.S. Senator Elijah Hunt Mills. One of their children, Anna Cabot Mills Davis, married U.S. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge.

His son, Commander Charles H. Davis, Jr., served as Chief Intelligence Officer of the Office of Naval Intelligence from September 1889 to August 1892.

-- Charles Henry Davis, by Wikipedia


• Benjamin Apthorp Gould (1824–1896)

Benjamin Apthorp Gould (September 27, 1824 – November 26, 1896) was a pioneering American astronomer. He is noted for creating the Astronomical Journal, discovering the Gould Belt, and for founding of the Argentine National Observatory and the Argentine National Weather Service...

After going on to Harvard College and graduating in 1844, he studied mathematics and astronomy under C. F. Gauss at Göttingen, Germany, during which time he published approximately 20 papers on the observation and motion of comets and asteroids. Following completion of his Ph.D. (he was the first American to receive this degree in astronomy) he toured European observatories asking for advice on what could be done to further astronomy as a professional science in the U.S.A. The main advice he received was to start a professional journal modeled after what was then the world's leading astronomical publication, the Astronomische Nachrichten.

Gould returned to America in 1848 and from 1852 to 1867 was in charge of the longitude department of the United States Coast Survey.
He developed and organized the service, was one of the first to determine longitudes by telegraphic means, and employed the Atlantic cable in 1866 to establish accurate longitude-relations between Europe and America.

After his return to Cambridge, Massachusetts, Gould started the Astronomical Journal in 1849, which he published until 1861. He resumed publication in 1885 and it is still published today. From 1855 to 1859 he acted as director of the Dudley Observatory at Albany, New York, and in 1859 published a discussion of the places and proper motions of circumpolar stars to be used as standards by the United States Coast Survey. In 1861 he undertook the enormous task of preparing for publication the records of astronomical observations made at the U.S. Naval Observatory since 1850...

In 1864 he was admitted to the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati to represent his grandfather Captain Benjamin Gould. In the 1890s he became an early member of the Massachusetts Society of the Sons of the American Revolution.

Appointed in 1862 actuary to the United States Sanitary Commission, he issued in 1869 an important volume of Military and Anthropological Statistics. In 1864 he fitted up a private observatory at Cambridge, Massachusetts, and undertook in 1868, on behalf of the Argentine republic, to organize a national observatory at Córdoba. In 1871 he became the first director of the Argentine National Observatory (today, Observatorio Astronómico de Córdoba of the National University of Córdoba). While there, he and four assistants extensively mapped the southern hemisphere skies using newly developed photometric methods. On June 1, 1884, he made the last definite sighting of the Great Comet of 1882. The need of astronomers for good weather prediction spurred Gould to collaborate with Argentine colleagues to develop the Argentine National Weather Service, the first in South America...

Gould was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1892.

-- Benjamin Apthorp Gould, by Wikipedia


• John Fries Frazer (1812–1872)

John Fries Frazer (8 July 1812 – 12 October 1872) was a University of Pennsylvania graduate and first assistant geologist to the Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. He became a professor of Natural philosophy and Chemistry and in later years he became Vice Provost of the University of Pennsylvania.

Frazer was born in Philadelphia on 8 July 1812, son of the successful lawyer Robert Frazer and grandson of Lieutenant Colonel Persifor Frazer, who had fought in the American Revolution...

Frazer was admitted to the University of Pennsylvania in 1828, where he became interested in science. While at the university, and for some time after graduating, he assisted in the laboratory of professor Alexander Dallas Bache, where he studied magnetic variance and the Aurora Borealis. He then studied law, and briefly practiced as a lawyer from 1833, before turning to the study of medicine. He became a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences in September 1835 and of the Franklin Institute in November 1835. He assisted in the geological survey of Pennsylvania in 1836, under professor Henry Darwin Rogers. Frazer was a professor at the Philadelphia high school from 1836 to 1844, when he was chosen as Professor of Chemistry and Physics at the University of Philadelphia to replace professor Bache, a position he held until his death. For a period, he studied in the laboratory that James Curtis Booth, the eminent chemist, established in 1836.

Frazer gave lectures on the physical and chemical sciences at the Franklin Institute, and was editor of the institute's journal from 1850 to 1866. He received an honorary Ph.D. in 1854 from the University of Lewisburg, and in 1857 was awarded an LL.D. from Harvard University. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1842, became secretary in 1845 and Vice-President from 1855 until his resignation in 1858. He was re-elected to the society in 1867. In 1863, he was one of the original members of the National Academy of Sciences when that body was established.

-- John Fries Frazer, by Wikipedia


• James Dwight Dana (1813–1895)

James Dwight Dana FRS FRSE (February 12, 1813 – April 14, 1895) was an American geologist, mineralogist, volcanologist, and zoologist. He made pioneering studies of mountain-building, volcanic activity, and the origin and structure of continents and oceans around the world.

Dana was born February 12, 1813, in Utica, New York. His father was merchant James Dana (1780–1860) and his mother was Harriet Dwight (1792–1870). Through his mother he was related to the Dwight New England family of missionaries and educators including uncle Harrison Gray Otis Dwight and first cousin Henry Otis Dwight. He showed an early interest in science, which had been fostered by Fay Edgerton, a teacher in the Utica high school, and in 1830 he entered Yale College in order to study under Benjamin Silliman the elder.

Graduating in 1833, for the next two years he was teacher of mathematics to midshipmen in the Navy, and sailed to the Mediterranean while engaged in his duties. In 1836 and 1837 he was assistant to Professor Silliman in the chemical laboratory at Yale, and then, for four years, acted as mineralogist and geologist of the United States Exploring Expedition, commanded by Captain Charles Wilkes, in the Pacific Ocean. His labors in preparing the reports of his explorations occupied parts of thirteen years after his return to America in 1842. His notebooks from the four years of travel contained fifty sketches, maps, and diagrams, including views of both Mount Shasta and Castle Crags. Dana's sketch of Mount Shasta was engraved in 1849 for publication in the American Journal of Science and Arts (which Silliman had founded in 1818), along with a lengthy article based on Dana's 1841 geological notes. In the article he described in scientific terms the rocks, minerals, and geology of the Shasta region. As far as is known, his sketch of Mount Shasta became the second view of the mountain ever published.

In 1844 he again became a resident of New Haven, and married Professor Silliman's daughter, Henrietta Frances Silliman. In 1850, he was appointed as Silliman's successor, as Silliman Professor of Natural History and Geology in Yale College, a position which he held until 1892. In 1846 he became joint editor, and during the later years of his life was chief editor, of the American Journal of Science and Arts, to which he was a constant contributor, principally of articles on geology and mineralogy...

Dana was responsible for developing much of the early knowledge on Hawaiian volcanism. In 1880 and 1881 he led the first geological study of the volcanics of Hawaii island. Dana theorized that the volcanic chain consisted of two volcanic strands, dubbed the "Loa" and "Kea" trends. The Kea trend included Kīlauea, Mauna Kea, Kohala, Haleakala, and West Maui. The Loa trend includes Lōʻihi, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Kahoʻolawe, Lānaʻi, and West Molokaʻi.

Following another expedition by fellow geologist C. E. Dutton in 1884, Dana returned to the island once again and in 1890 he published a manuscript on the island that was the most detailed of its day, and would be the definitive source upon the island's volcanics for decades.

-- James Dwight Dana, by Wikipedia


• Cornelius Conway Felton (1807–1862)

Cornelius Conway Felton (November 6, 1807 – February 26, 1862) was an American educator. He was regent of the Smithsonian Institution, as well as professor of Greek literature and president of Harvard University...

He graduated from Harvard University in 1827, having taught school in the winter vacations of his sophomore and junior years. During his undergraduate years, he was also a member of the Hasty Pudding. After teaching in the Livingstone High School of Geneseo, New York, for two years, he became tutor at Harvard in 1829, university professor of Greek in 1832, and Eliot professor of Greek literature in 1834. In 1860 he succeeded James Walker as president of Harvard, which position he held until his death, at Chester, Pennsylvania.

He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1854.

Felton edited many classical texts. His annotations on Wolf's text of the Iliad (1833) are especially valuable. Greece, Ancient and Modern (2 vols., 1867), forty-nine lectures before the Lowell Institute, is scholarly, able and suggestive of the author's personality...

Felton was the brother of Samuel Morse Felton, Sr....

Samuel Morse Felton Sr. (1809–1889) was a civil engineer and railroad executive. He was the Superintendent and engineer of the Fitchburg Railroad 1843-1851 and president of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad from 1851–1865, during the pivotal American Civil War era (1861-1865). Felton left the P.W.& B.R.R. to become President of the Pennsylvania Steel Company. While at Pennsylvania Steel, Felton also served on the boards of directors of several railroads, including his former Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, the Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company, the Northern Pacific Railway, and the Ogdensburg and Lake Champlain Railroad. In 1869 he was appointed by 18th President Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885, served 1869-1877), as a Commissioner to inspect the trans-continental and Pacific Railroads.

Felton was the brother of Harvard College / Harvard University president Cornelius Conway Felton in Cambridge, Massachusetts and attorney John B. Felton and the father of Samuel Morse Felton Jr. (1853-1930), who was also involved like his distinguished father with engineering and railroading with several different lines and supervised railroad operations in France on the Western Front in World War I (1914/1917-1918).

-- Samuel Morse Felton Sr., by Wikipedia


the half-brother of John B. Felton ...

He graduated from Harvard in 1847 and briefly served as a Greek tutor before pursuing the law. He studied the Napoleonic code in Paris for one year and became fluent in French and Spanish. In 1854, Felton moved to San Francisco to open a law practice with Harvard classmate, E.J. Pringle. The firm, which was later joined by A. C. Whitcomb, became known for successfully litigating land claims and their clients included Kelsey Hazen, José Yves Limantour, and James Lick. Future Congressman Binger Hermann apprenticed under Felton before moving to Oregon. Felton was a legal advisor to Levi Parsons of the San Francisco Dock and Wharf Company during Parsons' attempt to have the "Bulkhead Bill" passed.

Felton campaigned unsuccessfully for a seat in the U.S. Senate in 1867 and 1874. He was Mayor of Oakland from 1869-1870 and a Presidential Elector for California during the 1868, 1872, and 1876 Presidential Elections.

Felton was the first President of the Board of Trustees of Toland Medical College (Now University of California, San Francisco) and was tasked with obtaining the school's charter, which he failed to do. He was a regent of the University of California from its inception in 1868 until his death. Felton also served as the President of the San Francisco and Oakland Railroad.

-- John B. Felton, by Wikipedia


and the uncle of Samuel Morse Felton, Jr.

Samuel Morse Felton Jr. (February 3, 1853 – March 11, 1930) was an American railroad executive. He was an 1873 graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he was a member of the Chi Phi Fraternity...

He had quite a career as an engineer, superintendent and general manager of several railroads before rising into the presidency of both the Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific Railway and Alabama Great Southern Railroad in 1890. He also led the Alton Railroad (1899–1907), the Mexican Central Railroad (1907), the Tennessee Central Railway and the Chicago Great Western Railway (1909–1925), before his own ailing health forced his retirement.

During World War I (1914/1917-1918), Felton was appointed Director General of Military Railways with a military rank of Brigadier General and in that capacity had charge of the organization and dispatch to France of all American railway forces and supplies for the Western Front. He continued in that position during the World War years.

-- Samuel Morse Felton Jr., by Wikipedia


He died of "disease of the heart" while en route to a Smithsonian meeting in Washington.

-- Cornelius Conway Felton, by Wikipedia


Friends of the Lazzaroni

• James Hall (paleontologist) (1811–1898)
• Senator Henry Wilson (1812–1875)
• Jefferson Davis (1808–1889) — close friend of Bache (since West Point) and Joseph Henry (of the Smithsonian). Bache did not like Maury working near the area which Bache regarded as his own, the Coast Survey. However, due to persistent shipwrecks along the coast, Maury was ordered to create charts. After his charts were widely available, the losses were greatly reduced. Bache became jealous and was determined to get revenge. Davis was a Regent of the Smithsonian for several years (1847, 1851; 1853-57 as Secretary of War); the Institution clashed with the Naval Observatory over using its endowment funds for professional scientific advancements. In 1857 Davis re-entered the Senate; his great abilities were admired both by Bache and by Smithsonian Secretary Henry. These three powerful men, Henry, Davis and Bache were pitted against Maury – including during the Civil War. Davis became CSA President and Maury was under his command.

The Opposition

• Asa Gray (1810–1888)
• William Barton Rogers (1804–1882)
• Charles William Eliot (1834–1926)
• Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806–1873)

The Neutrals

• Joseph Leidy (1823–1891)
• John William Draper (1811–1882)
• Spencer Fullerton Baird (1823–1887)

Sources

• Nathan Reingold, Science in Nineteenth-Century America (1964)
• Frances Leigh Williams Mathew Fontaine Maury; Scientist of the Sea (1963) by Rutgers, The State University Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number: 63-10564
• The Lazzaroni: science and scientists in mid-nineteenth-century America. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Miller, Lillian B.
• Axel Jansen, Alexander Dallas Bache: Building the American Nation through Science and Education in the Nineteenth Century (2011).
• [1] The Nuttall Encyclopædia (various entries)

Notes

1. …a tiny leadership body of American scientists, jovially called the Lazzaroni – Italian for beggars. Bache was the "chief" of this science and intelligence grouping. American Prometheus – The American System
2. Dupree, A. Hunter (1988). Asa Gray, American Botanist, Friend of Darwin. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. ix–xv. ISBN 978-0-801-83741-8.
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

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Robert Gayre
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/25/20

George Robert Gayre of Gayre and Nigg (6 August 1907[1] – 10 February 1996) was a Scottish anthropologist who founded Mankind Quarterly, a peer-reviewed academic journal which has been described as a "cornerstone of the scientific racism establishment".[2] An expert on heraldry, he also founded The Armorial, and produced many books on this subject.[3]

Education and military service

Gayre was born as George Robert Gair on 6 August 1907 in Dublin to Robert William Gair (1875-1957), a confectioner, and Clara Hull or Hart, and in bogus pedigrees recorded in Ireland in 1950 and published between 1952 and 2003,[4] he claimed that his father was the son of William Gillies Gair (1842-1906), a portrait painter born at Greenock in Scotland, but was actually the illegitimate son of the painter's sister Jessie Gair (died 1897) who, two years after the child's birth became the second wife of William Sutherland, of Glasgow, plasterer.[5] He earned an MA from University of Edinburgh, then studied at Exeter College, Oxford.

Gayre served with the British Expeditionary Force in France in 1939, as a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Royal Artillery[6] afterwards becoming Educational Adviser to the Allied Military Government of Italy, based in Palermo, where he fought for the exclusion of left-wing text-books and communist influence from the Italian education system. He was thereafter Director of Education to the Allied Control Commission for Italy, based in Naples; and Chief of Education and Religious Affairs, German Planning Unit, Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force.[7] After the war he spent a considerable amount of time in India where he was instrumental in the establishment of the Italo-Indian Institute.[8]

Heraldry

Both Gayre and Sir Thomas Innes of Learney were authors of books on heraldry. As Chief of Clan Gayre, Gayre appended "of Gayre and Nigg" becoming Grand Almoner, and Hereditary Commander of Lochore, of the Order of Saint Lazarus (statuted 1910).[9]

His 1959 book Heraldic Standards and Other Ensigns: Their development and history is considered an important work on the subject, and he contributed on the topic to Encyclopædia Britannica.

Mankind Quarterly and publications on race

Gayre was one of the founders and an editor of Mankind Quarterly from 1960 to 1978, and was honorary editor-in-chief thereafter.[10]

The magazine has been called a "cornerstone of the scientific racism establishment" and a "white supremacist journal",[2] "scientific racism's keepers of the flame",[11] a journal with a "racist orientation" and an "infamous racist journal",[12] and "journal of 'scientific racism'".[13]

In 1968 he testified on behalf of members of the Racial Preservation Society who were charged under the Race Relations Act for publishing racialist material. They prevailed in their defence. In his evidence to the court Gayre described blacks as being "feckless" and he maintained that scientific evidence showed that blacks "prefer their leisure to the dynamism which the white and yellow races show."[14]

Titles, styles and controversies

Previous generations of Gayre's ancestors (in the female line) all used the spelling "Gair" as far back as the 17th century.[15] Gayre's university degree in the mid-1920s was likewise issued with the "Gair" spelling, but he began spelling it "Gayre" at least as early as 1943. In 1957, after the death of his father, he changed his surname to "Gayre of Gayre and Nigg", a title that had never before been used.[16]

Gayre claimed to be the Chief of "Clan Gayre" and "Clan Gayre and Nigg". In 1947, he wrote a book titled Gayre's Booke: Being a History of the Family of Gayre [17] in which, without mentioning his illegitimate descent, he presented an ancestry that supposedly established his claim to be the chieftain of the Clan of Gayre; however no clan or sept by that name is mentioned in any record prior to Gayre's use of it in the second quarter of the 20th century.[18] World Orders of Knighthood and Merit by Guy Stair Sainty (published by Burke's Peerage) refers to Gayre as "...the late Robert Gayre (first Chief of the newly formed Clan Gayre)...".[19] The Glasgow Herald Newspaper, on 14 June 1975, wrote "Robert Gayre, of Gayre and Nigg, is singular among genealogists, dynasts and the like, if only for the reason that, alone among them, he has been able to create a Scottish clan from scratch, providing it with traditions, rituals, precedences and privileges..."[18]

In 1967 Gayre established a Commandery of the Order of St Lazarus. In 1971 he bought St Vincent's Church. It became its collegiate church, the seat of the Commandery of Lochore. It was the first church to have been acquired by the Order of St Lazarus since the reformation. Gayre also claimed to be "Baron of Lochoreshire".[20] This was not a title that Gayre inherited or was bestowed but rather one that he assumed after he purchased the seat of the feudal Barony of Lochore. Nor was the feudal Barony ever previously described as "Lochoreshire"; it was always the "Barony of Lochore", which was located within an area that was known in medieval times as Lochoreshire. Other titles and honours that he said he had include being Chamberlain to the Prince of Lippe (a prominent member of the Order of Saint Lazarus), Knight of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George of Naples, Knight Commander of the Cross of Merit (Military Division) of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Knight Commander of the House Order of Lippe, Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem and Knight Grand Officer of the Order of the Crown of Italy.[21][dead link]

In the early 1960s, Gayre was appointed "Commissioner-General of the English Tongue" of the Order of Saint Lazarus (statuted 1910), one of the many neo-chivalrous self-styled orders that arose in the early-20th century.[20]

In 1964, Gayre formed the International Commission on Orders of Chivalry (ICOC), an ostensibly academic but non-authoritative panel whose purpose was to review and approve of or reject claimed Orders of Chivalry.[22] The Commission originally included many holders of legitimate titles and honours, but when it became evident that Gayre intended to bolster the legitimacy of the Order of St. Lazarus through the Commission's published Register, some of the original members resigned in protest. The privately run and privately funded ICOC continued to act as a vehicle for promoting the cause of establishing the Order of St. Lazarus' legitimacy until Gayre's death in 1996.[23] In this, he was assisted by his friend, protege, fellow member of the Order of St. Lazarus, and Vice-President of the ICOC, Terence MacCarthy[24] whose pedigree has been shown to be similarly bogus.[25]

Nazi ties

In 1944 Gayre wrote Teuton and Slav on the Polish frontier:a diagnosis of the racial basis of the Germano-Polish borderlands, with suggestions for the settlement of German and Slav claims using photos by the Nazi Hans F. K. Günther and refers several times to "Professor Hans F.K. Günther's authoritative work on German racial science". Like Günther, he was a leading member of the post-war Neo-Nazi Northern League and according to Joseph L. Graves and others had close ties to other neo-Nazi organisations. Graves and William H. Tucker state that Gayre considered himself a Strasserist, an ideology "which emphasized the 'socialism' in National Socialism, rejecting both communism and capitalism as Jewish-dominated systems that had to be overthrown in favour of an approach based on white racial solidarity." He denied any links between Nazism and Mankind Quarterly while lamenting the identification by most of the word "Nazi" with "Hitlerian Nazi".[26]

Publications on ancient Zimbabwe

Gayre wrote some articles[27][28] and a book[29] proposing a Semitic origin for Great Zimbabwe, maintaining that the Lemba are descended through their male line from the creators of the original Zimbabwean civilisation, and citing evidence including burial and circumcision practices.[29] He suggested that the Shona artefacts which were found at Great Zimbabwe and in numerous other stone ruins nearby, were placed there only after they conquered the country and drove out or absorbed the previous inhabitants; he added that the ones who remained would probably have passed some of their skills and knowledge to the invaders.

According to Gayre, the agricultural terracing and irrigation channels in the Nyanga District of northeast of Zimbabwe was a product of the same ancient civilisation – as too were the hundreds of ancient gold mines in the country.[29]

Most archaeologists disagree with Gayre's interpretation and conclusions: they maintain that Great Zimbabwe was constructed by ancestors of the Shona,[30][31][32][33][34][35] as were the terraces, furrows and settlements of ancient Nyanga.[36][37] – although his positions have been supported in a 2012 article in Mankind Quarterly.[38]

Selected bibliography

• Teuton and Slav on the Polish Frontier: A diagnosis of the racial basis of the Germano-Polish borderlands, with suggestions for the settlement of German and Slav claims. Eyre and Spottiswoode (1944) ASIN: B0007J1KXK
• Italy in Transition: Extracts from the private journal of G.R. Gayre. Faber and Faber Ltd (1946) ASIN: B0006DB91U
• Gayre's Booke: Being a History of the Family of Gayre. Phillimore (1948) ASIN: B00069X8L8
• Wassail! In Mazers of Mead: An Account of Mead, Metheglin, Sack and Other Ancient Liquors, and of the mazer cups out of which they were drunk, with some ... upon the drinking customs of our forebears. Phillimore (1948) ASIN: B0007IYD4O
• Heraldic Standards and Other Ensigns: Their development and history. Oliver and Boyd (1959) ASIN: B0007IV3L0
• The Nature of Arms: An Exposition of the Meaning and Significance of Heraldry with Special... 1961, Oliver and Boyd
• The Nature of Arms: An Exposition of the Meaning and Significance of Heraldry with Special... 1961, Oliver and Boyd
• Heraldic cadency: The development of differencing of coats of arms for kinsmen and other purposes. Foreword by the Duke of Salandra and Serracapriola. Faber and Faber (1961) ASIN: B0007IUYCE
• The House of Gayre and an account of Minard castle. The Armorial (1960) ASIN: B0007KCG46
• The Bantu homelands of the northern Transvaal Duquesne University Press (1962) ASIN: B0007ETDFW
• More Ethnological elements of Africa. Armorial (1972) ASIN: B0007AILLS
• The knightly twilight, Lochore Enterprises Valletta 1973

References

1. St. Martin's Press Staff (2001). Who Was Who 1996–2000 Volume X: A Companion to WHO'S WHO – Containing the Biographies of Those Who Died During the Period 1996–2000. Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-312-29366-6. Some sources give 1905 as birth year.
2. Joe L. Kincheloe, et. al, Measured Lies: The Bell Curve Examined, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997, pg. 39
3. Billig, Michael. Gayre, George Robert (1907–1996). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. first published September 2004, 680 words
4. "Supplement to Burke's Landed Gentry" (1952), "Burke's Landed Gentry of Great Britain: the Kingdom in Scotland" (2001) and, in an abbreviated form, in "Burke's Peerage" (2003).
5. "George Gair (or Sutherland) alias Robert Gayre of Gayre and Nigg", by Anthony Camp, in "Genealogists' Magazine", vol. 32, no. 8 (December 2017) 324-328.
6. "Mankind Quarterly: The editors". Archived from the original on 18 February 2002. Retrieved 18 July 2006.
7. Gayre of Gayre & Nigg, Robert, A Case for Monarchy, Edinburgh, 1962: vii – ix
8. Gayre of Gayre & Nigg, Robert, A Case for Monarchy, Edinburgh, 1962: x
9. Gayre of Gayre & Nigg, Robert, with Dunn, John, The Armorial Who is Who, 5th edition, Edinburgh, 1978:135
10. Gayre, Robert, summary and photo of him on: Race and Nazi Racism and the Latter's Impact on Anthropology. Archived 10 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine The Mankind Quarterly, Vol. XVIII, No. 4, (April–June 1978), pp. 293–303.
11. William H. Tucker, The funding of scientific racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund, University of Illinois Press, 2002, pg. 2
12. Ibrahim G. Aoudé, The ethnic studies story: politics and social movements in Hawaiʻi, University of Hawaii Press, 1999 , pg. 111
13. Kenneth Leech, Race, Church Publishing, Inc., 2005, pg. 14
14. Billig, Michael (1979). "Mankind Quarterly: The editors". Archived from the original on 18 February 2002. Retrieved 18 July 2006. in "Psychology, Racism & Fascism: A Searchlight Pamphlet.". Archived from the original on 26 August 2000. Retrieved 18 July 2006. Birmingham: A.F. & R. Publications.
15. "Person Page". Archived from the original on 13 February 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
16. "Gayre of Gayre and Nigg, Robert, 1907-1996". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 3 January 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
17. Gayres Book. Oliver & Boyd. OCLC 229108326.
18. "The Glasgow Herald - Google News Archive Search". Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
19. World Orders of Knighthood and Merit by Guy Stair Sainty, pg. 1866, Burke's Peerage London 2006 (ISBN 0971196672)
20. "The Hospitaller Order of Saint Laazarus" Archived 12 May 2014 at the Wayback Machineby Charles Savona Ventura, Association for the Study of Maltese Medical History, 2005
21. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 March 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2006.
22. "The International Commission forOrders of Chivalry(I.C.O.C.)".Archived 8 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine | Prof. James J. Algrant
23. pp. 298–300,"The Sword and the Green Cross: The Saga of the Knights of Saint Lazarus from the Crusades to the 21st Century" by Max J. Ellul, Authorhouse, 2011, ISBN 1-4567-1421-X
24. "The International Commission on Orders of Chivalry". Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
25. "Irish Historical Mysteries: The MacCarthy Mór Hoax". Eircom.
26. Jackson Jr., John P. (2005). Science for Segregation: Race, Law, and the Case against Brown v. Board of Education. NYU Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-8147-4271-6.
27. Gayre, R. (1967). "The Lembas and Vendas of Vendaland". The Mankind Quarterly. Edinburgh. VIII: 3–15.
28. Gayre, R. (1970). "Some further notes on the Lembas". The Mankind Quarterly. XI: 58–60.
29. R. Gayre (1972). The origin of the Zimbabwean Civilization. Zimbabwe: Galaxie Press. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
30. Garlake, Peter (1978). "Pastoralism and Zimbabwe". The Journal of African History. 19 (4): 479–493. doi:10.1017/S0021853700016431.
31. Loubser, Jannie H. N. (1989). "Archaeology and early Venda history". Goodwin Series. 6: 54–61. doi:10.2307/3858132. JSTOR 3858132.
32. Evers, T.M.; Thomas Huffman and Simiyu Wandibba (1988). "On why pots are decorated the way they are". Current Anthropology. 29 (5): 739–741. doi:10.1086/203694. JSTOR 2743612.
33. Beach, D. N. (1994). A Zimbabwean past: Shona dynastic histories and oral traditions.
34. Ndoro, W., and Pwiti, G. (1997). Marketing the past: The Shona The Shona village at Great Zimbabwe. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites 2(3): 3–8.
35. Huffman, Thomas N. (2009). "Mapungubwe and Great Zimbabwe: The origin and spread of social complexity in southern Africa". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 28: 37–54. doi:10.1016/j.jaa.2008.10.004.
36. Garlake, P.S. (1965). A guide to the antiquities of Inyanga. Historical Monuments Commission of Rhodesia. ASIN B0007JZPWM.
37. Summers, R. (1958). Inyanga: prehistoric settlements in southern Rhodesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
38. McNaughton DL (2012). "A Possible Semitic Origin for Ancient Zimbabwe". Mankind Quarterly. Washington DC. 52 (nos. 3–4): 323–335. Archived from the original on 15 September 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
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Mankind Quarterly
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/25/20

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Mankind Quarterly
Discipline: Anthropology
Language: English
Edited by: Edward Dutton
Publication details
History: 1960–present
Publisher: Ulster Institute for Social Research
Frequency: Quarterly

Mankind Quarterly is a peer-reviewed academic journal that has been described as a "cornerstone of the scientific racism establishment", a "white supremacist journal",[1] an "infamous racist journal", and "scientific racism's keepers of the flame".[2][3][4] It covers physical and cultural anthropology, including human evolution, intelligence, ethnography, linguistics, mythology, and archaeology. It is published by the Ulster Institute for Social Research, which is presided over by Richard Lynn.[5]

Richard Lynn (born 20 February 1930)[1] is a controversial English psychologist and author. He is a former professor emeritus of psychology at Ulster University, having had the title withdrawn by the university in 2018, and assistant editor of the journal Mankind Quarterly, which has been described as a "white supremacist journal". Lynn studies intelligence and is known for his belief in sex and racial differences in intelligence. Lynn was educated at King's College, Cambridge, in England. He has worked as lecturer in psychology at the University of Exeter and as professor of psychology at the Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin, and at the University of Ulster at Coleraine.

Many scientists have criticised Lynn's work on racial and national differences in intelligence for lacking scientific rigour, misrepresenting data, and for promoting a racialist political agenda. A number of scholars and intellectuals have said that Lynn is associated with a network of academics and organisations that promote scientific racism. In the late 1970s, Lynn wrote that he found that East Asians have a higher average intelligence quotient (IQ) than Europeans and Europeans have a higher average IQ than sub-Saharan Africans. In 1990, he proposed that the Flynn effect – the gradual increase in IQ scores observed around the world since the 1930s – could possibly be explained by improved nutrition. In two books co-written with Tatu Vanhanen, Lynn and Vanhanen argued that differences in developmental indexes among various nations are partially caused by the average IQ of their citizens. Earl Hunt and Werner Wittmann (2008) questioned the validity of their research methods and the highly inconsistent quality of the available data points that Lynn and Vanhanen used in their analysis. Lynn has also argued that the high fertility rate among individuals of low IQ constitutes a major threat to Western civilisation, as he believes people with low IQ scores will eventually outnumber high-IQ individuals. He has argued in favour of political measures to prevent this, including anti-immigration and eugenics policies, provoking heavy criticism internationally. Lynn's work was among the main sources cited in the book The Bell Curve, and he was one of 52 scientists who signed an opinion piece in the Wall Street Journal entitled "Mainstream Science on Intelligence", which endorsed a number of the views presented in the book.

Lynn sits on the editorial boards of the journals Personality and Individual Differences and Mankind Quarterly. Critics have called Mankind Quarterly a "cornerstone of the scientific racism establishment" and a "white supremacist journal". He is also on the board of the Pioneer Fund, which funds Mankind Quarterly and has also been described as racist in nature. Two of his recent books are on dysgenics and eugenics.


-- Richard Lynn, by Wikipedia


History

The journal was established in 1960 with funding from segregationists, who designed it to serve as a mouthpiece for their views. The costs of initially launching the journal were paid by the Pioneer Fund's Wickliffe Draper.[6]

Pioneer Fund is an American non-profit foundation established in 1937 "to advance the scientific study of heredity and human differences". The organization has been described as racist and white supremacist in nature, and as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center.

From 2002 until his death in October 2012, the Pioneer Fund was headed by psychology professor J. Philippe Rushton. Rushton was succeeded by Richard Lynn.[5][6]

Two of the most notable studies funded by Pioneer Fund are the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart and the Texas Adoption Project, which studied the similarities and differences of identical twins and other children adopted into non-biological families.

Research backed by the fund on race and intelligence has generated controversy and criticism, such as the 1994 book The Bell Curve, which drew heavily from Pioneer-funded research. The fund also has ties to eugenics, and has both current and former links to white supremacist groups such as American Renaissance and Mankind Quarterly.

-- Pioneer Fund, by Wikipedia


Wickliffe Draper (August 9, 1891 – 1972) was an American political activist and philanthropist. He was an ardent eugenicist and lifelong advocate of strict racial segregation. In 1937, he founded the Pioneer Fund, a registered charitable organisation established to provide scholarships for descendants of original white American settlers and to support research into heredity and eugenics; he later became its principal benefactor.

-- Wickliffe Draper, by Wikipedia


The founders were Robert Gayre, Henry Garrett, Roger Pearson,...

Roger Pearson (born 21 August 1927 in London) is a British anthropologist, soldier, businessman, eugenics advocate, political organiser for the extreme right, and publisher of political and academic journals. He has been on the faculty of the Queens College, Charlotte, the University of Southern Mississippi, and Montana Tech, and is now retired. It has been noted that Pearson has been surprisingly successful in combining a career in academia with political activities on the far right. He served in the British Army after World War II, and was a businessman in South Asia. In the late 1950s he founded the Northern League.

The Northern League was a neo-Nazi organisation founded by Roger Pearson. It was active in the United Kingdom and in northern continental Europe in the latter half of the 20th century.

Roger Pearson formed the Northern League in collaboration with Peter Huxley-Blythe, who was active in a variety of neo-Nazi groups with connections in Germany and North America. The League published the periodical The Northlander.

The stated purpose was to save the "Nordic race" from "annihilation of our kind" and to "fight for survival against forces which would mongrelize our race and civilization". The Northern League merged newsletters with Britons Publishing Company, an anti-Semitic publisher and a major distributor of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.

Leading members of the Northern League included the Nazi racial eugenicist Hans F. K. Günther, who continued his work in the post-war period under a pseudonym. Other active members included the founder of Mankind Quarterly, Robert Gayre, and its editors Robert E. Kuttner and Donald A. Swan; the American segregationist Earnest Sevier Cox, the ex–Waffen SS officer and post-war neo-Nazi leader Arthur Ehrhardt, and a number of post-war British fascists, though even among fascists, the Northern League was considered extremist. Among its co-founders and activists were Alastair Harper, the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) parliamentary candidate in Dunfermline West in 2001.

Northern League literature was written in the style of scientific racism (e.g., the work of Pearson's collaborator Raymond B. Cattell) and its Statement of Aims reflects 19th century conceptions of Rasse and Volk. Andrew S. Winston of the University of Guelph writes in an analysis of this group:

"According to the 'Aims', Northern Europeans are the 'purest survival of the great Indo-European family of nations, sometimes described as the Caucasian race and at other times as the Aryan race'. Almost all the 'classic civilisations of the past were the product of these Indo-European peoples'. Intermarriage with conquered peoples was said to produce the decay of these civilizations, particularly through interbreeding with slaves. 'The rising tide of Color"' threatens to overwhelm European society, and would result in the 'biological annihilation of the subspecies', according to the Northern League."

-- Northern League (United Kingdom), by Wikipedia


In the 1960s he established himself in the United States for a while working together with Willis Carto publishing white supremacist and anti-Semitic literature.

Pearson's anthropological work is based in the eugenic belief that "favorable" genes can be identified and segregated from "unfavorable" ones. He advocates a belief in biological racialism, and claims that human races can be ranked. Pearson argues that the future of the human species depends on political and scientific steps to replace the "genetic formulae" and populations that he considers to be inferior with ones he considers to be superior.

Pearson also published two popular textbooks in anthropology, but his anthropological views on race have been widely rejected as unsupported by contemporary anthropology. In 1976 he found the Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, which has been identified as one of two international journals which regularly publishes articles pertaining to race and intelligence with the goal of supporting the idea that white people are inherently superior (the other such journal being Mankind Quarterly). In 1978 he took over the editorship of Mankind Quarterly founded by Robert Gayre and Henry Garrett, widely considered a scientific racist journal. Most of Pearson's publishing ventures have been managed through the Institute for the Study of Man, and the Pioneer Fund, with which Pearson is closely associated, having received $568,000 in the period from 1981-1991.

Pearson's opposition to egalitarianism extends to Marxism and socialism. In the 1980s, he was a political organizer for the American far-right; he established the Council for American Affairs and was the American representative in the World Anti-Communist League. As World Chairman of the WACL he worked with the U.S. government during the cold war, and he collaborated with many anti-communist groups in the organisation, including the Unification Church and former German Nazis.


On his website, Pearson disputes specific accusations of race-hate, of anti-semitism, of arguing in favor of genocide, involuntary eugenics, forced repatriation of legal immigrants, subjugation or exploitation by one group of another, extreme or fascist politics—including National Socialism or any totalitarian system—as well as denying accusations of impropriety.

-- Roger Pearson (anthropologist), by Wikipedia


Corrado Gini, Luigi Gedda (Honorary Advisory Board),[7] Otmar von Verschuer and Reginald Ruggles Gates. Another early editor was Herbert Charles Sanborn,[8] formerly the chair of the department of Philosophy and Psychology at Vanderbilt University from 1921 to 1942. It was originally published in Edinburgh, Scotland, by the International Association for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics, an organization founded by Draper to promote eugenics and scientific racism.[6][/b]

Its foundation may in part have been a response to the declaration by UNESCO, which dismissed the validity of race as a biological concept, and to attempts to end racial segregation in the American South.[9][10]

In 1961, physical anthropologist Juan Comas published a series of scathing critiques of the journal arguing that the journal was reproducing discredited racial ideologies, such as Nordicism and anti-Semitism, under the guise of science.[11][12] In 1963, after the journal's first issue, contributors U. R. Ehrenfels, T. N. Madan, and Juan Comas said that the journal's editorial practice was biased and misleading.[13] In response, the journal published a series of rebuttals and attacks on Comas.[14] Comas argued in Current Anthropology that the journal's publication of A. James Gregor's review of Comas' book Racial Myths was politically motivated. Comas claimed the journal misrepresented the field of physical anthropology by adhering to outdated racial ideologies, for example by claiming that Jews were considered a "biological race" by the racial biologists of the time. Other anthropologists complained that paragraphs that did not agree with the racial ideology of the editorial board were deleted from published articles without the authors' agreement.[13][15][16][17]

Few academic anthropologists would publish in the journal or serve on its board; when Gates died, Carleton S. Coon, an anthropologist sympathetic to the hereditarian and racialistic view of the journal, was asked to replace him, but he rejected the offer stating that "I fear that for a professional anthropologist to accept membership on your board would be the kiss of death". The journal continued to be published supported by grant money.[16] Publisher Roger Pearson received over a million dollars in grants from the Pioneer Fund in the 1980s and 1990s.[18][19][20]

During the "Bell Curve wars" of the 1990s, the journal received attention when opponents of The Bell Curve publicised the fact that some of the works cited by Bell Curve authors Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray had first been published in Mankind Quarterly.[18] In The New York Review of Books, Charles Lane referred to The Bell Curve's "tainted sources", that seventeen researchers cited in the book's bibliography had contributed articles to, and ten of these seventeen had also been editors of, Mankind Quarterly, "a notorious journal of 'racial history' founded, and funded, by men who believe in the genetic superiority of the white race."[21]

The journal has been published by the Ulster Institute for Social Research since January 2015, when publication duties were transferred from Pearson's Council for Social and Economic Studies (which had published the journal since 1979).[22]

Editors

The editor-in-chief is Richard Lynn.[22] Previous editors include Roger Pearson, Gerhard Meisenberg and Edward Dutton.

Hereditarianism and politics

Many of those involved with the journal are connected to academic hereditarianism. The journal has been criticised as being political and strongly right-leaning,[23] supporting eugenics,[24] racist or fascist.[25][26]

Abstracting and indexing

• ATLA Religion Database[27]
• International Bibliography of the Social Sciences[28]
• Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts[28]
• Modern Language Association Database[28]
• Scopus[29]

See also

• Intelligence (journal)
• Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies
• Neue Anthropologie
• The Occidental Quarterly
• OpenPsych
• Journal of Historical Review

References

1. Gresson, Aaron; Kincheloe, Joe L.; Steinberg, Shirley R. (eds.). Measured Lies: The Bell Curve Examined (1st St. Martin's Griffin ed.). St. Martin's Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-312-17228-2.
2. Ibrahim G. Aoudé, The ethnic studies story: politics and social movements in Hawaiʻi, University of Hawaii Press, 1999, pg. 111
3. Kenneth Leech, Race, Church Publishing, Inc., 2005, pg. 14
4. William H. Tucker, The funding of scientific racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund, University of Illinois Press, 2002, pg. 2
5. "Home Page". Ulster Institute for Social Research. Archived from the original on 11 June 2019. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
6. Schaffer, G. (2 September 2008). Racial Science and British Society, 1930-62. Springer. pp. 142–3. ISBN 9780230582446.
7. Cassata F (2008). "Against UNESCO: Gedda, Gini and American scientific racism". Med Secoli. 20(3): 907–35. PMID 19848223.
8. "History and Philosophy". Mankind Quarterly. Retrieved 22 September 2015 – via Internet Archive.
9. Schaffer, Gavin (2007). ""'Scientific' Racism Again?": Reginald Gates, the "Mankind Quarterly" and the Question of "Race" in Science after the Second World War". Journal of American Studies. 41 (2): 253–278. JSTOR 27557994. The Mankind Quarterly was designed as an objective foil to the folly of UNESCO and "post-racial" science.
10. Jackson, John P. (2005). Science for Segregation: Race, Law, and the Case against Brown v. Board of Education. NYU Press. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-8147-4271-6. Lay summary (30 August 2010). While the IAAEE scientists were deep into the fight to preserve racial segregation in the American South, they were also involved in a battle on a different front. They had launched their own journal, Mankind Quarterly, which purported to be dedicated to an open discussion of the scientific study of racial issues.
11. Comas Juan (1961). ""Scientific" Racism Again?". Current Anthropology. 2 (4): 303–340. doi:10.1086/200208.
12. Comas Juan (1962). "More on "Scientific" Racism". Current Anthropology. 3 (3): 284–302. doi:10.1086/200293.
13. Ehrenfels, U. R.; Madan, T. N.; Comas, J. (1962). "Mankind Quarterly Under Heavy Criticism: 3 Comments on Editorial Practices". Current Anthropology. 3 (2): 154–158. doi:10.1086/200265. JSTOR 2739528.
14. Gates, R. R. & Gregor, A. J. (1963). "Mankind Quarterly: Gates and Gregor Reply to Critics". Current Anthropology. 4 (1): 119–121. doi:10.1086/200345. JSTOR 2739826.
15. John P. Jackson. 2005. Science for Segregation: Race, Law, and the Case Against Brown V. Board of Education. NYU Press 151–154
16. Paul A. Erickson, Liam Donat Murphy. 2013. Readings for A History of Anthropological Theory. University of Toronto Press, p. 534
17. Harrison G. Ainsworth (1961). "The Mankind Quarterly". Man. 61: 163–164. doi:10.2307/2796948. JSTOR 2796948.
18. Tucker, William H. (2007). The funding of scientific racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07463-9. Lay summary (4 September 2010).
19. Mehler, Barry (7 July 1998). Race Science and the Pioneer Fund Originally published as "The Funding of the Science" in Searchlight, No. 277.
20. Genoves, Santiago (8 December 1961). "Racism and "The Mankind Quarterly"". Science. 134 (3493): 1928–1932. doi:10.1126/science.134.3493.1928. ISSN 1095-9203. PMID 17831127.
21. Weyher, Harry F.; Lane, Charles (2 February 1995). "'The Bell Curve' and Its Sources". The New York Review of Books.
22. Editorial Panel, Mankind Quarterly, retrieved 1 March 2020
23. e.g., Arvidsson, Stefan (2006), Aryan Idols: Indo-European Mythology as Ideology and Science, translated by Sonia Wichmann, Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
24. Mehler, Barry (December 1989). "Foundation for fascism: The new eugenics movement in the United States". Patterns of Prejudice. 23 (4): 17–25. doi:10.1080/0031322X.1989.9970026.
25. Schaffer, Gavin (2008). Racial science and British society, 1930–62. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
26. Gelb, Steven A. (1997). "Heart of Darkness: The Discreet Charm of the Hereditarian Psychologist". The Review of Education/Pedagogy/Cultural Studies. 19 (1): 129–139. doi:10.1080/1071441970190110.
27. "Title and Product Update Lists". ATLA Religion Database. American Theological Library Association. Retr"Mankind Quarterly". MIAR: Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals. University of Barcelona. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
29. "Source details: Mankind Quarterly". Scopus preview. Elsevier. Retrieved 4 January 2019.

Further reading

• Anderson, Scott; Anderson, Jon Lee (1986). Inside the League. Dodd, Mead. ISBN 978-0-396-08517-1.
• Tucker, William H. (1996). The Science and Politics of Racial Research. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-06560-6. Lay summary (7 November 2010).
• Tucker, William H. (2009). The Cattell Controversy: Race, Science, and Ideology. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-03400-8. Lay summary (30 August 2010).

External links

• Official website
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Jun 26, 2020 5:45 am

Order of Saint Lazarus
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/25/20

The Order of St. Lazarus & Jesse Helms:

Jesse Helms is also linked with the Knights of the Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem, which was founded in Britain by Robert Gayre (publisher of the racialist Mankind Quarterly before Roger Pearson). The Order of St. Lazarus was also established in the U.S. by Lord Malcolm Douglas of the Cliveden Set:

"In the 1960s, a Briton named Robert Gayre had succeeded in founding a branch of the Order [of St. Lazarus] in Great Britain, accepting many non-Catholics as members. (The same Robert Gayre was involved...when an International Commission on Orders of Chivalry was created, with the main purpose of providing legitimacy to the Order of Saint Lazarus.) The duke of Nemours decided to open the order to them, but this led to another split, and Nemours was himself deposed and replaced by the duc de Brissac who, in 1980, abandoned the denomination of 'Order' and gave the association new statutes, calling it simply 'Hospitallers of Saint Lazarus'" 59.

"[Lady Malcolm] Douglas Hamilton is related to a British family that supported Hitler's war aims. When she and her husband came to the U.S., he helped establish a branch of the Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem, an obscure racist-led network based in Scotland and tied to Jesse Helms." 60.


Scholars examining the relationship between right-wing politics and racial research have drawn on a 1979 work by social psychologist Michael Billig, Psychology, Racism, and Fascism, which argues that the origins of racist and neo-Nazi movements of the 1950s to 1970s are to be found in British social science. Robert Gayre's Mankind Quarterly is based in Edinburgh, Scotland, the location of the Order of St. Lazarus:

"Since it was established in 1960, The Mankind Quarterly has had the same overall editor -- Professor R. Gayre, M.A., D.Phil., Pol.D.Sc., D.Sc., a physical anthropologist trained at Edinburgh University. He was formerly Professor of Anthropology at the University of Saugor in India, but now is resident at Edinburgh, where The Mankind Quarterly is published ...Gayre's contacts with British fascists came to light when five members of the Racial Preservation Society were prosecuted in 1968 at Lewes under the Race Relations Act for publishing racialist material. At the time of the offence the Racial Preservation Society was an independent body, but by the time of the trial it had officially merged into the National Front." 61.


It was not by coincidence that the cloning of Dolly the sheep occurred at the Roslyn Institute in Roslyn, Scotland located 7 miles south of Edinburgh. Situated directly between Roslyn Institute and Edinburgh is Roslyn Chapel, the famous shrine of the Knights Templar that is geometrically designed as a copy of the ruins of Herod's Temple. Near Roslyn Chapel is the home of the St Clair or Sinclair family 62., which have historically been revered as prominent Freemasons of Britain and a sacred family of the Merovingian bloodline. The esoteric interpretation of Dolly compares the white sheep to Christ, whose divine and immortal state the racial eugenicists hope to duplicate through biotechnology. According to news reports, the cloning of the first human embryo occurred in 1999 on June 24, which is the Masonic feast of St. John the Baptist, patron saint of Freemasonry. 63.

-- The Council for National Policy, by Barbara Aho


Students of Anthroposophy are well aware that Rudolf Steiner taught that Lazarus and John were the same individual and that he has incarnated continually throughout history. One of the most significant of his incarnations occurred when John incarnated as Christian Rosenkreutz in the 14th century.

-- Uncovering the Secret of “THE M”: The Adept Behind the Western Tradition, by Richard Cloud


Before Christ provided an example though his own resurrection, he had already awakened many others -- such as Lazarus. Roll away the "Sodomite stone," that is the command of the Savior, by which he helps Lazarus "rise." In the "Awakening of Drusianas and Calimachus" of Roswitha von Gandersheim a serpentine monster escapes from the burial chamber. John banishes the serpent. Among the Egyptians the ape was the god of the dead. Driving out the Devil is therefore literally and actually to be understood as the driving out of sex-apes. Thus Jesus chases seven sex-demons away from Mary Magdalene (Lk. VIII.2). The apostles did similar things on their missions. Because they took away the greatest sensual pleasures from men and women the bitter feelings of the Sodomite Greeks, Romans and occidental peoples, and the persecutions which came as a result of these feelings, can be understood. If the Sodomite grave was a trap for many, the burial of Jesus was glorious. (Is. IX. 10). Jesus did not remain among the mob of Sodomite monsters, he overpowered the Sodomite grave-stones, the Sodomite guards, he hurled the Sodomite linens away. It is noteworthy that after his resurrection Magdalene could consider Jesus to be Kepoyros = Priapus. This event again proves that Christ also had the external appearance of an archanthropos. Tertullian (de resurr. carnis VI) also says that the heavenly man in Gen. I.26 is man made according to the model of Christ. "Rise, Lord ... you have smashed the teeth of the resha'im" (Ps. III.8). Obviously monsters with their fangs are meant here...

The time has come! The old Sodomite brood in the Middle East and all around the Mediterranean is degenerate and wretched, the one-time Paradisiacal fields are completely exploited and plundered like a wheat-field in which a thievish hoard of apes has taken up residence. Our bodies are infected with a mange which despite every kind of soap remains udumu-ized, pagutu-ized and baziat-ized. Never has human life been as miserable as it is today -- despite all its technical advancements. Devilish human beasts oppress us from above, slaughtering millions of people in unconscionably murderous wars conducted for the enrichment of their personal money-bags. Savage human beasts undermine the pillars of culture from below. Mankind is putrid like Lazarus and already exudes the stink of Sodomite death. What do you want with Hell in the Beyond?! Isn't the one we are living in now, and in which we are now burning, terrible enough? A time has once more come when Creation anxiously awaits the arrival of a God-man (Rom. VIII.10).

-- Theozoology, or the Science of the Sodomite Apelings and the Divine Electron, by Dr. Jorg Lanz von Liebenfels




Image
Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem
Successor Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Italian branch, since 1572)
Formation: Circa 1098/1119
Extinction: 1572/1830
Type: Military order
Purpose: Nursing
Membership: Catholic
Official language: Latin
Patron Saint: Saint Lazarus
Parent organization: Catholic Church
Affiliations: House of Savoy (1572); House of Bourbon (1609–1824/1830)
Website saintlazarus.org

The Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem, also known as the Leper Brothers of Jerusalem or simply as Lazarists, was a Catholic military order founded by crusaders around 1119 at a leper hospital in Jerusalem, Kingdom of Jerusalem, whose care became its original purpose, named after their patron saint, Lazarus.[1][2][3]

Luke 16:19–31, New International Version:

"There was a rich man who was dressed in purple and fine linen and lived in luxury every day. At his gate was laid a beggar named Lazarus, covered with sores and longing to eat what fell from the rich man’s table. Even the dogs came and licked his sores.

"The time came when the beggar died and the angels carried him to Abraham's side. The rich man also died and was buried. In Hades, where he was in torment, he looked up and saw Abraham far away, with Lazarus by his side. So he called to him, 'Father Abraham, have pity on me and send Lazarus to dip the tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue, because I am in agony in this fire.'

"But Abraham replied, 'Son, remember that in your lifetime you received your good things, while Lazarus received bad things, but now he is comforted here and you are in agony. 26And besides all this, between us and you a great chasm has been set in place, so that those who want to go from here to you cannot, nor can anyone cross over from there to us.'

"He answered, 'Then I beg you, father, send Lazarus to my family, 28for I have five brothers. Let him warn them, so that they will not also come to this place of torment.'

Abraham replied, 'They have Moses and the Prophets; let them listen to them.'

"'No, father Abraham,' he said, 'but if someone from the dead goes to them, they will repent.'

"He said to him, 'If they do not listen to Moses and the Prophets, they will not be convinced even if someone rises from the dead.'"

-- Rich man and Lazarus, by Wikipedia


It was recognised by King Fulk of Jerusalem in 1142 and canonically recognised as a hospitaller and military order of chivalry under the rule of Saint Augustine in the Papal bull Cum a Nobis Petitur of Pope Alexander IV in 1255. Although they were centered on their charism of caring for those afflicted with leprosy, the knights of the Order of Saint Lazarus notably fought in the Battle of La Forbie in 1244 and in the Defense of Acre in 1291.[4] The titular seat was successively situated at Jerusalem, Saint-Jean-d'Acre and - after the fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem - split in two main branches in Italy and in Château Royal de Boigny-sur-Bionne in France.[5]

In 1489, Pope Innocent VIII attempted to merge the order and its land holdings with the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. This was resisted by the larger part of the jurisdictions of the Order of Saint Lazarus including those in France, Southern Italy, Hungary, Switzerland, and England. The Order of Malta only managed to appropriate the Lazarus holdings in Germany.

In 1572, the Order of Saint Lazarus in Italy was merged with the Order of Saint Maurice under the Royal House of Savoy to form the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, which still exists until today, widely recognised as a dynastic successor of the Italian branch.[6] This merger however excluded the holding in the southern part of Italy, then forming part of the Spanish realm. These were transformed into ecclesiastical benefices. The Duke of Savoy only managed to gain control of those benefices sited in the duchy of Savoy.

In 1608, King Henry IV of France, with the approval of the Holy See, linked the French section administratively to the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel to form the Royal Military and Hospitaller Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem united. This branch became closely linked to the Royal Crown during the 18th century with the serving grand masters then being members of the Royal family. It suffered the consequences of the French Revolution, and went into exile along with its grand master Louis-Stanislas-Xavier, Comte (count) de Provence, king-in-exile Louis XVIII. It formally lost its Royal protection in 1830 and then ceased to remain listed as of royal protection in the French Royal Almanac.[7][8][9]

The word lazarette, in some languages being synonymous with leprosarum, is believed to also be derived from the hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus, these edifices being adopted into quarantine stations in the fifteenth century when leprosy was no longer the scourge it had been in earlier centuries.[10]

History

Crusades


The military order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem originated in a leper hospital founded in the twelfth century by crusaders of the Latin Kingdom. There had been earlier leper hospitals in the East, of which the Knights of St. Lazarus claimed to be the continuation, in order to have the appearance of remote antiquity and to pass as the oldest of all orders. According to Charles Moeller, "this pretension is apocryphal";[11] but documentary evidence does confirm that the edifice was a functioning concern in 1073.[12]

The Order of St. Lazarus was purely an order of hospitallers in the beginning, and adopted the hospital Rule of St. Augustine in use in the West. The Order assumed a military role in the 12th century.[4] The Lazarists wore a green cross upon their mantle.[13][14]

Hospitals dependent on the Jerusalem leprosarium were eventually established in other towns in the Holy Land, notably in Acre, and in various countries in Europe particularly in Southern Italy (Capua), Hungary, Switzerland, France (Boigny), and England (Burton Lazars).[15] Louis VII of France, on his return from the Second Crusade, gave it the Château of Broigny, near Orléans in 1154. This example was followed by Henry II of England, and by Emperor Frederick II.[11]

In 1154, King Louis VII of France gave the Order of Saint Lazarus a property at Boigny near Orléans which was to become the headquarters of the order outside of the Holy Land. Later, after the fall of Acre in 1291 the Knights of St. Lazarus left the Holy Land and moved first to Cyprus, then Sicily and finally back to Boigny, which had been raised to a barony in 1288.

The Order remained primarily a hospitaller order but did take part in a number of battles. After the fall of Jerusalem in July 1244 and the subsequent Battle of La Forbie the following October, the Order of St. Lazarus, although still called "of Jerusalem", transferred to Acre, where it had been ceded territory by the Templars in 1240. The Ordinis Fratrum & Militum Hospitalis Leprosorum S. Lazari Hierosolymitani under Augustinian Rule was confirmed by Papal Bull Cum a Nobis Petitur of Pope Alexander IV in April 1255. In 1262 Pope Urban IV assured it the same immunities as were granted to the monastic orders.

Late medieval period

The order quickly abandoned their military activities after the fall of Acre in 1291.[15] As a result of this catastrophe the leper hospital of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem disappeared; however, its commanderies in Europe, together with their revenues, continued to exist. In 1308 King Philip IV of France gave the order his temporal protection.[citation needed]

In 1490, Pope Innocent VIII attempted to amalgamate the order and transfer its possessions to the Knights of St. John. Although this was confirmed in 1505 by Pope Julius II, the Order of Saint Lazarus resisted this move and the order of St. John never came into possession of this property except in Germany. In France, the Bull of suppression was ignored and French Grand Masters appointed.[citation needed] The order of Saint John claimed the possession of the French holdings but their claim was legally rejected in 1547 by the Parliament of Paris.

In 1565 Pope Pius IV annulled the Bulls of his predecessors and restored all possessions to the order so that he might give the grand magistry to a favorite, Giovanni de Castiglione. But the latter did not succeed in securing the devolution of the commanderies in France. By the end of the 16th century, the order had retained a significant presence only in France and in Italy.

Continuations after 1572

Royal House of Savoy


Image
Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy (1528–1580), founder and first Grand Master of the amalgamated Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, recognised in 1572 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Main article: Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus

With the death of the papal favorite, Castiglione, in 1572, the grand magistry of the order was rendered vacant and Pope Gregory XIII united the Italian branch with the Order of Saint Maurice to set up the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus. This order was then linked in perpetuity with the Crown of Savoy and thenceforth the title of its Grand Master was hereditary in that house.

By the time of Pope Clement VIII the order had two houses, one at Turin, was to contribute to combats on land, while the other, at Nice, had to provide galleys to fight the Turks at sea. But when thus reduced to the states of the Duke of Savoy, the order merely vegetated until the French Revolution, which suppressed it. In 1816 the King of Sardinia, Victor Emmanuel I, re-established the titles of Knight and Commander of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus, as simple decorations, accessible without conditions of birth to both civilians and military men.[11]

This became a national order of chivalry on the unification of Italy in 1861, but has been suppressed by law since the foundation of the Republic in 1946. Since 1951 the order has not been recognized officially by the Italian state. However, the House of Savoy in exile continued to bestow the order. Today, it is granted to persons eminent in the public service, science, art, letters, trade, and charitable works.

Royal House of France

Image
Louis XVIII (1755–1824) with the Order of Saint Lazarus grand cross

Main article: Royal Military and Hospitaller Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem united

Image
Peter Ludwig von der Pahlen (1745–1826) with the Order of Saint Lazarus knight cross

Image
Russian General Alexander Suvorov (1730-1800) with the Order of Saint Lazarus knight cross

In 1604, Henry IV of France re-declared the French branch of the order a protectorate of the French Crown. King Henry IV founded in 1608, with the approbation of Pope Paul V, the Order of Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel. He then, in turn, united to this new order the possessions of St. Lazarus in France, and such is the origin of the title Ordres Royaux, Militaires & Hospitaliers de Saint Lazare de Jérusalem & de Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel réunis ("Royal, Military, and Hospitaller Orders of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and St. Lazarus of Jerusalem united"). This amalgamation eventually received formal canonical acceptance on 5 June 1668 by a bull issued by Cardinal Legate de Vendôme under Papal authority of Clement IX.

Unlike the situation with the Savoyian Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus where a complete merger took place creating one order, the French branch was not completely merged with the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, and the orders were managed as two separate entities, with individuals being admitted to one order but not necessarily to both.[16]

During the French Revolution, a decree of 30 July 1791 suppressed all royal and knightly orders in France. Another decree the following year confiscated all the Order's properties. The Holy See, which had originally created the Order, on the other hand did not suppress the order;[citation needed] while Louis, Count of Provence, then Grand Master of the order, who later became Louis XVIII, continued to function in exile and continued admitting various dignitaries to the order.[17]

Scholars differ in their views regarding the extent to which the Order remained active during and after the French Revolution. There is however no doubt of its continuing existence during this time. In different museums, there are preserved a number of paintings of Russian and Baltic nobles, admitted to the order after 1791. In this list are general John Lamb, Prince Suvorov, count Pahlen, count Sievers etc. Some of the new knights are listed in Almanach Royal from 1814 to 1830. King Louis XVIII, the order's protector, and the duc de Châtre, the order's lieutenant-general, both died in 1824. In 1830, a royal decree caused the order to lose its royal protection in France.

See also

• Christianity portal
• War portal
• Grand Masters of the Order of Saint Lazarus

Successors

• Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
• Royal Military and Hospitaller Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem united

In popular culture

• The Order of Saint Lazarus is depicted in season two of the television series Knightfall.
• A fictionalized version of the Order is depicted in the television series A Discovery of Witches.

References

1. Savona-Ventura, Charles (October 2008). "The Order of St Lazarus in the Kingdom of Jerusalem". Journal of the Monastic Military Orders. 1: 55–64.
2. Bellesheim, Alphons (1887). History of the Catholic Church of Scotland: From the Introduction of Christianity to the Present Day. Blackwood. Lazarists. David likewise established at Harehope the military order of St Lazarus of Jerusalem, which had another house at Linlithgow.
3. Wise, Terence (2012). Knights of Christ. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781780966427. The new Order had its own church and convent by 1142, and by 1147 was known as the Leper Brothers of Jerusalem. By 1155 the Order had houses in Tiberias and Ascalon, and later in Acre and possibly Caesarea and Beirut. By the mid-12th century the Order had also developed a force of military brethren, but they were never very numerous, and the Order remained principally preoccupied with the hospitaller role. A few non-leper brethren were included in the Order as knights, and leprous knights almost certainly took up arms when necessary. There were also lay brethren-sergeants, recruited from commoners suffering from leprosy.
4. Wise, Terence (2012). Knights of Christ. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781780966427.
5. "Constitution of The Order". The Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem. 2015. Archived from the original on 29 June 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
6. The Living Age, Volume 121. Littell and Gay Publishers. 1874. This ideas was not realized; but in 1572 the Lazarists were joined to the Order of St. Maurice of Savoy, and the two together constitute the present Italian Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazare.
7. Moeller, Charles. "The Military Orders." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 10. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 22 Jun. 2015
8. "The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia: Cyclopedia of names". Century Company. 1 January 1906 – via Google Books.
9. "Almanach Royal pour l'anné 1770-1830".
10. Takeda, Junko Thérese (2011). Between Crown and Commerce - Marseille and the Early Modern Mediterranean. Maryland, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 118.
11. Moeller, Charles. "Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 22 Jun. 2015
12. Savona-Ventura, Charles (October 2018). "A Hospitalis infirmorium Sancti Lazari de Jerusalem before the First Crusade". Acta Historiae Sancti Lazari Ordinis. 2: 13–26.
13. Porter, Whitworth (1871). Malta and Its Knights. Pardon and Son. p. 14.
14. Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Volume CXV. The Leonard Scott Publishing Company. 1874. p. 494. There were four of each : the Hospitallers, the Templars, the Teutonic Knights, and the Lazarists in Palestine ; and the brotherhoods of Calatrava, Santiago, Alcantara, and Avis in the Peninsula. All these fraternities were established in order to help the weak and fight the Saracen; yet, nothwithstanding this general similarity of object, each of them had a special character of its own which distinguished it from the others.
15. Marcombe, D. (2003). Leper Knights: The Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem in England, 1150-1544. Woodridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 1-84383-067-1.
16. Grouvel, Robert. L'Ordre de Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel et l'École Royale Militaire (1779-1787). Carney de La Sabretache, 1967, p.352-356.
17. Sainty, Guy Stair, ed. (2006) World Orders of Knighthood and Merit, p. 1862

Bibliography

• Bander van Duren, Peter (1995). Orders of Knighthood and of Merit-The Pontifical, Religious and Secularised Catholic-founded Orders and their relationship to the Apostolic See. XLV-XLVII. Buckinghamshire.
• Burgtorf, Jochen (2006). Alan V. Murray (ed.). "Siege of Acre, 1291". The Crusades: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. I. OCLC 70122512.
• Coutant de Saisseval, Guy (nd). Les Chevaliers de Saint Lazare de 1789 à 1930. Drukkerij Weimar by the Hague.
• Environ (1295), Constitution, règlements et nécrologie de Seedorf (Suisse).
• Marcombe, David (2003). Leper Knights. Boydell Press. ISBN 1-84383-067-1.
• Morris of Balgonie Ygr., Stuart H. (1986). The Insignia and Decorations of the Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem. Perthshire.
• Sainty (ed.), Guy Stair (2006). World Orders of Knighthood and Merit.
• Savona-Ventura, Charles (2014). The History of the Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem. New York: Nova Publishers.

Further reading

• Belloy, Pierre de (1622) [1604]. De l'origine et institution des divers ordres de chevalerie tant ecclésiastiques que prophanes (2nd edition Toulouse ed.). Paris.
• Elphinstone, Francis (November 1962). The Opponents of St Lazarus which appeared. The Armorial. III. Edinburgh.
• de Sibert, Gautier (1772). History of The Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem. Paris.
• Military History Online - Order of St.Lazarus in the Latin East
• Seward, Desmond (1995). The Monks of War: The Military Religious Orders. London: Penguin Group.
• Bander van Buren, Peter (1995). "The Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem from the book: Orders of Knighthood and Merit: The Pontifical, Religious and Secularised Catholic-founded Orders and their relationship to the Apostolic See". Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe. Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2007-05-18.

External links

• Wikisource: "Order of St Lazarus of Jerusalem". Catholic Encyclopaedia (1913)
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Jun 26, 2020 6:11 am

Racial Preservation Society
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/25/20

The Racial Preservation Society was a far-right pressure group opposed to immigration and in favour of white nationalism, national preservation and protection in the United Kingdom in the 1960s.

Background

Although parties such as the Union Movement, the British National Party [BNP] and the National Socialist Movement organised at the time, much of the opposition to immigration in Britain during the early 1960s was locally based, centering on groups such as the Southall Residents Association and the Birmingham Immigration Control Association, groups that sought to influence local policy makers within the Conservative and Labour parties.[1] Attempts were made to co-ordinate the work of like-minded groups across Britain, although many of these initiatives, such as Tom Finney's English Rights Association or Tom Jones' Argus British Rights Association did not have the organisational basis required to forge any meaningful unity.[1] It was against this backdrop that the RPS first emerged.

Formation

The first arm of the RPS was founded in Brighton in 1965 by Robin Beauclaire and Jimmy Doyle.[2] With this group covering the South, a second group was established, covering the Midlands and utilising the existing structure of the Argus British Rights Association.[1] Ray Bamford, the chaplain to the BNP's youth movement and a well-known writer on racial issues for far-right magazines in both Britain and Germany, was chosen to link the two groups as vice-chairman of each. A veteran of the Scottish Conservative Party and a member of a variety of right-wing clubs and societies, Bamford was prized for his organisational capabilities and his list of contacts.[3]

Acting as a co-ordinating body for local groups, whilst allowing its affiliates some degree of independence, the RPS, backed by Bamford's wealth, produced copious amounts of anti-immigration newsletters, ranging from the RPS News to regional titles such as the Sussex News and Midlands News.[4] A number of its leading members, including Doyle, Ted Budden and Alan Hancock, shared a background as members of the British Union of Fascists before the Second World War.[5]

Activities

The movement functioned as a propaganda group without branching into politics (although individual members were free to join political parties) and provided extensive lists of conspiratorial books and pamphlets for sale.[6] Of these the most extreme was Colin Jordan's Fraudulent Conspiracy, a work dealing with supposed conspiracy to control the world between international finance and Judaism.[7] As well as publishing a number of books and pamphlets, the RPS also produced a regular newspaper, The Southern News, generally filled with horror stories about immigrants. The group accepted all types of members if they agreed on restricting immigration: thus, members of the Conservative Party were amongst early RPS activists before the group's true aims were clear.[2] The RPS itself was never a political party and never attempted to organise as one.[8]

Merger attempts

A growing force, the RPS was approached by John Tyndall in early 1966, with a request that it should merge with his Greater Britain Movement and the BNP. The request was immediately rejected by the RPS, as the group had no desire to surrender its separate existence.[9] Despite this, leading member Dr David Brown did agree to work with the BNP under the new name of the National Democratic Party later that year.[9] This plan broke down quickly, however, as Bean, who had been convinced of the need for unity, was uncomfortable at the thought of banning the GBM altogether whilst he also rejected Brown's insistence on being sole leader.[9] Meanwhile, the elements of the RPS under Jimmy Doyle also withdrew from merger discussions, as Doyle had a personality clash with leading BNP men Bean and Philip Maxwell.[10]

By this time, Beauclaire had become associated with the BNP, and when this group opened negotiations with the League of Empire Loyalists in late 1966, Beauclaire made it clear that he would bring a substantial group of RPS members into any new initiative.[11] Beauclair and his followers made up a significant proportion of the 2,500 members that the new group, to be known as the National Front, claimed when it was brought into existence on 7 February 1967.[12] By this time the RPS brought both international contacts and a number of rich backers to the NF, as well as its extensive experience of publishing.[13] However, despite effectively throwing its lot in with the NF, the RPS continued its independent existence.[14]

Later years

The group was prosecuted under the Race Relations Act in 1968 at Lewes Crown Court when five members were brought up on charges of incitement to racial hatred for distributing the Society's Southern News. The case, which had initially been brought in 1967, saw the creation of a Free Speech Defence Committee which sought to raise funds for the "five British patriots" accused.[15] However, they managed to argue that the articles attacking "race mixing" were intended only to educate politicians on the dangers of immigration and the case was dismissed.[16] The articles for which the case was brought had been purposefully written in non-inflammatory prose, making prosecution difficult to ensure.[17] Amongst those to testify on behalf of the defendants was Robert Gayre, the founder of the Mankind Quarterly.[18] The case was a blow to the recently passed Race Relations Act 1968, under the terms of which the RPS were the first group to be charged, as it exposed the loopholes in the legislation.[19] The following issue of the Southern News celebrated the win by adding the tagline "The Paper the Government Tried to Suppress" to its masthead.[20]

By the 1970s, the RPS was controlled by members of the Northern League, who used it to publish the journal Race and Nation, with Budden, Denis Pirie and Alan and Anthony Hancock involved in this initiative.[2] During the struggle between John Tyndall and John Kingsley Read for the leadership of the NF, and the subsequent emergence of the National Party, the RPS returned to some prominence, as Tyndall heavily featured the racial theories that the RPS was publishing in his magazine Spearhead, reasoning that the populists leading the NP had a reputation for being "soft" on the race issue amongst NF activists.[21]

References

1.      Martin Walker, The National Front, Glasgow: Fontana, 1977, p.59
2.      Peter Barberis, John McHugh, Mike Tyldesley, Encyclopedia of British and Irish Political Organizations: Parties, Groups and Movements of the 20th Century, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2000, pp. 192-193
3.       Walker, The National Front, pp. 59-60
4.       Walker, The National Front, p. 60
5.       R. Hill & A. Bell, The Other Face of Terror - Inside Europe’s Neo-Nazi Network, London: Collins, 1988, p. 29
6.       Hill & Bell, The Other Face of Terror, p. 30
7.       Hill & Bell, The Other Face of Terror, pp. 31-32
8.       Michael Billig, A Social Psychological View of the National Front, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978, p. 114
9.     Walker, The National Front, p. 63
10.      John Bean, Many Shades of Black - Inside Britain's Far Right, London: New Millennium, 1999, pp. 186-188
11.      Walker, The National Front, p. 64
12.      Walker, The National Front, p. 67
13.      Hill & Bell, The Other Face of Terror, p. 83
14.      S. Taylor, The National Front in English Politics, London: Macmillan, 1982, p. 18
15.      Donald Thomas, A Long Time Burning, Taylor & Francis, 1969, p. 311
16.      Susan Easton, The Problem of Pornography: Regulation and the Right to Free Speech, Routledge, 1994, p. 165
17.      Katharine Gelber, Speaking back: the free speech versus hate speech debate, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2002, pp. 104–105
18.      Ibrahim G. Aoudé, The ethnic studies story: politics and social movements in Hawaiʻi, University of Hawaii Press, 1999, pp. 109–110
19.      Hill & Bell, The Other Face of Terror, p. 116
20.      Richard L. Abel, Speaking Respect, Respecting Speech, University of Chicago Press, 1999, p. 200
21.      Walker, The National Front, pp. 191–192
 
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Roger Pearson (anthropologist)
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Roger Pearson (born 21 August 1927 in London) is a British anthropologist, soldier, businessman, eugenics advocate, political organiser for the extreme right, and publisher of political and academic journals. He has been on the faculty of the Queens College, Charlotte, the University of Southern Mississippi, and Montana Tech, and is now retired. It has been noted that Pearson has been surprisingly successful in combining a career in academia with political activities on the far right.[1] He served in the British Army after World War II, and was a businessman in South Asia. In the late 1950s he founded the Northern League.

The Northern League was a neo-Nazi organisation founded by Roger Pearson. It was active in the United Kingdom and in northern continental Europe in the latter half of the 20th century.

Roger Pearson formed the Northern League in collaboration with Peter Huxley-Blythe, who was active in a variety of neo-Nazi groups with connections in Germany and North America. The League published the periodical The Northlander.

The stated purpose was to save the "Nordic race" from "annihilation of our kind" and to "fight for survival against forces which would mongrelize our race and civilization". The Northern League merged newsletters with Britons Publishing Company, an anti-Semitic publisher and a major distributor of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.

Leading members of the Northern League included the Nazi racial eugenicist Hans F. K. Günther, who continued his work in the post-war period under a pseudonym. Other active members included the founder of Mankind Quarterly, Robert Gayre, and its editors Robert E. Kuttner and Donald A. Swan; the American segregationist Earnest Sevier Cox, the ex–Waffen SS officer and post-war neo-Nazi leader Arthur Ehrhardt, and a number of post-war British fascists, though even among fascists, the Northern League was considered extremist. Among its co-founders and activists were Alastair Harper, the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) parliamentary candidate in Dunfermline West in 2001.

Northern League literature was written in the style of scientific racism (e.g., the work of Pearson's collaborator Raymond B. Cattell) and its Statement of Aims reflects 19th century conceptions of Rasse and Volk. Andrew S. Winston of the University of Guelph writes in an analysis of this group:

"According to the 'Aims', Northern Europeans are the 'purest survival of the great Indo-European family of nations, sometimes described as the Caucasian race and at other times as the Aryan race'. Almost all the 'classic civilisations of the past were the product of these Indo-European peoples'. Intermarriage with conquered peoples was said to produce the decay of these civilizations, particularly through interbreeding with slaves. 'The rising tide of Color"' threatens to overwhelm European society, and would result in the 'biological annihilation of the subspecies', according to the Northern League."

-- Northern League (United Kingdom), by Wikipedia


In the 1960s he established himself in the United States for a while working together with Willis Carto publishing white supremacist and anti-Semitic literature.[2]

Willis Allison Carto (July 17, 1926 – October 26, 2015) was an American far right political activist. He described himself as Jeffersonian and populist, but was primarily known for his promotion of antisemitic conspiracy theories and Holocaust denial.

Carto was known as a political racial theorist through the Liberty Lobby and successor organizations which he helped create. Carto ran a group supporting segregationist George Wallace's 1968 presidential campaign which formed the basis for the National Youth Alliance which promoted Francis Parker Yockey's political philosophy. Carto helped found the Populist Party, which served as an electoral vehicle for white supremacist group and Ku Klux Klan members, such as David Duke in the 1988 presidential election and Christian Identity supporter Bo Gritz in 1992. Carto ran the American Free Press newspaper which publishes anti-semitic and racist books and features columns by Joe Sobran, James Traficant, Paul Craig Roberts, and others. The organization promotes 9/11 conspiracy theories. Carto's many other projects included the Institute for Historical Review, which promotes Holocaust denial.

-- Willis Carto, by Wikipedia


Pearson's anthropological work is based in the eugenic belief that "favorable" genes can be identified and segregated from "unfavorable" ones. He advocates a belief in biological racialism, and claims that human races can be ranked.[3][4] Pearson argues that the future of the human species depends on political and scientific steps to replace the "genetic formulae" and populations that he considers to be inferior with ones he considers to be superior.[5][6][7][8]

Pearson also published two popular textbooks in anthropology, but his anthropological views on race have been widely rejected as unsupported by contemporary anthropology. In 1976 he found the Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, which has been identified as one of two international journals which regularly publishes articles pertaining to race and intelligence with the goal of supporting the idea that white people are inherently superior (the other such journal being Mankind Quarterly).[9] In 1978 he took over the editorship of Mankind Quarterly founded by Robert Gayre and Henry Garrett, widely considered a scientific racist journal. Most of Pearson's publishing ventures have been managed through the Institute for the Study of Man, and the Pioneer Fund, with which Pearson is closely associated, having received $568,000 in the period from 1981-1991.[10][11][12]

Pearson's opposition to egalitarianism extends to Marxism and socialism. In the 1980s, he was a political organizer for the American far-right; he established the Council for American Affairs and was the American representative in the World Anti-Communist League. As World Chairman of the WACL he worked with the U.S. government during the cold war, and he collaborated with many anti-communist groups in the organisation, including the Unification Church and former German Nazis.[13][14]


On his website, Pearson disputes specific accusations of race-hate, of anti-semitism, of arguing in favor of genocide, involuntary eugenics, forced repatriation of legal immigrants, subjugation or exploitation by one group of another, extreme or fascist politics—including National Socialism or any totalitarian system—as well as denying accusations of impropriety.[15]

Early life

Roger Pearson was born on 21 August 1927 in London.[16][17] He grew up in England during World War II and his only sibling, a Battle of Britain fighter pilot (238 Squadron), four of his cousins (three pilots/aircrew) and two school friends died in that war. Later, Pearson would frequently describe World War II as a senseless "fratricidal war", in which the mutual destruction of Germanic peoples contributed to the gradual downfall of the Nordic race.[18]

Pearson joined the British Army's Queen's Royal Regiment in April 1945 in England, and was commissioned in 1946 from the British Indian Army's Officers Training School Kakul, North-West Frontier Province (today the Pakistan Military Academy). He served with the British Indian Army in Meerut, (1946) before the Partition of India, with the British Indian Division in the Occupation of Japan, and with the British Army in Singapore (1948), before returning to university in England. Pearson later directed various British-controlled companies in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).

From the University of London, he gained a master's degree in economics and sociology and a PhD in anthropology.[19]

Early political engagement

In 1958 he founded the Northern League for North European Friendship, an organisation promoting Pan-Germanism, Anti-semitism and Neo-Nazi racial ideology.[20][21][22] The Northern League published the journals "The Northlander" and "Northern World" which described its purpose as "to make Whites aware of their forgotten racial heritage, and cut through the Judaic fog of lies about our origin and the accomplishments of our race and our Western culture."[23] In 1959 in the Northlander, Pearson described the aim of the organization as preventing the "annihilation of our kind" and to lead Nordics in Europe and the Americas in the "fight for survival against forces which would mongrelize our race and civilization"[24] He also wrote of the need for "a totalitarian state, with conscious purpose and central control . . . to embark upon a thorough-going policy of genetic change for its population. . . . [T]here is surely little doubt that it could soon outstrip rival nations."[25] Under the pen name Edward Langford,[16] Pearson also wrote a series on "Authors of Human Science" with portraits of prominent racialists such as Arthur de Gobineau, Houston Stewart Chamberlain,[26] Arthur Keith,[27] Madison Grant[28] and Lothrop Stoddard.[29]

Pearson also corresponded with American segregationist Earnest Sevier Cox, a dedicated member of the League, who had lobbied for a federal funding to "Repatriate" African-Americans to Africa since the 1920s. Pearson assured him that "I am entirely with you on your efforts to obtain Federal aid to American Negroes who wish to return to Africa."[25]

From the beginning the League was criticized because of its open emphasis on the dysgenic and fratricidal nature of intra-European warfare, and its tendency to attract prominent ex-Nazis such as scholar Hans F. K. Günther, who received awards under the National Socialist regime for his work on race, and Heinrich Himmler's former assistant Franz Altheim, both of whom were members of the league in its early years. Other members of the league were British Neo-Nazi Colin Jordan, and John Tyndall.[30] Pearson resigned from the League in 1961, after which it became more politically oriented.[20]

It was Cox who suggested to Pearson that they should hold a meeting at Detmold, West Germany, near what was then believed to be the site where the Germanic tribes defeated the Romans in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. The first meeting of the League was indeed held there in 1959, with Cox and Hans F. K. Günther as keynote speakers, although Günther's participation, him being a prominent former Nazi, had to be kept low profile.[25] The event was described by locals as "National Socialism revived".[31]

On his website, Pearson states that the Northern League never advocated National Socialism or political totalitarianism, and that membership was open to anyone who wished to receive the league's publications.[15]

Anthropological views

Pearson's anthropological views drew on the theories of British anthropologist Sir Arthur Keith, who had argued that human races were distinct evolutionary units destined to compete for resources. Pearson's early writings directly cited Keith as a major influence even while recognizing that "many will see [Keith’s observations] as a defence of Hitlerite philosophy."[32] Pearson summarizes Keith's racial and evolutionary philosophy in the following manner: "If a nation with a more advanced, more specialised, or in any way superior set of genes mingles with, instead of exterminating, an inferior tribe, then it commits racial suicide, and destroys the work of thousands of years of biological isolation and natural selection."[33]

In his work, Pearson describes racial types as subspecies, which he defines as "a distinctive group of individuals which are on their way to becoming separate species, but which have not been isolated long enough, or had time to become sufficiently diversified to lose the power to inter-breed". He argues that mixing between subspecies is detrimental as one subspecies will always be better suited for life than the other, and will therefore tend to avoid miscegenation.[24][34][35][36][37]

In 1995 and 1996 Pearson published a trilogy of articles in Mankind Quarterly regarding the "Concept of heredity in Western thought", a defense of hereditarianism and a denouncement of the "onslaught of egalitarianism". Pearson here repeated his defense for the view of racial groups as subspecies and he repeated his dedication to eugenicist ideas, although with the caveat that negative eugenics ought to take place as a voluntary act of altruistic sacrifice for one's species.[38] The same views were repeated in the 1996 book Heredity and Humanity: Race, Eugenics and Modern Science.[39]

Business in South Asia

Pearson served as president of the Pakistan Tea Association, Chittagong, in 1963.[40] He also served on the managing committee of the Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce and Industry.[41] Pearson sold his business interests in East Pakistan in 1965 and moved to the United States. It was during his time in South Asia that he became interested in Aryanism, and the linguistic, cultural, and genetic connections between Northern Europe and the Indo-Aryan populations of the Subcontinent.[42]

Academic career in the US

Recently arrived in the United States, Pearson contributed to some of publications of anti-semite Willis Carto such as Western Destiny and to Noontide Press.[43] From 1966 to 1967 as "Stephan Langton", Pearson published The New Patriot, a magazine devoted to "a responsible but penetrating inquiry into every aspect of the Jewish Question."[44] As Lanton he published articles such as "Zionists and the Plot Against South Africa," "Early Jews and the Rise of Jewish Money Power" and "Swindlers of the Crematoria."[45] His books of this era, all published in 1966 in London by Clair Press, including Eugenics and Race, Blood groups and Race, Race & Civilisation and Early Civilizations of the Nordic Peoples were later distributed in the United States by The Thunderbolt Inc.,[46] an organ of the National States' Rights Party. Pearson's co-founder of The New Patriot was Senator Jack Tenney, who for sixteen years was Chairman of the California Senate Committee on Un-American Activities and who wrote frequently for that journal.[citation needed] Pearson joined the Eugenics Society in 1963 and became a fellow in 1977.

In 1978 he took over the editorship of the journal Mankind Quarterly, which had originally been founded in 1960 by Robert Gayre, Henry Garrett, Corrado Gini, Ottmar von Verschuer and Reginald Ruggles Gates.[47][48]

In 1973 Pearson also founded the academic Journal of Indo-European Studies.

In 1966 he toured the southern US and Caribbean, and in 1967 he visited South Africa, Rhodesia and Mozambique, before joining the faculty of the University of Southern Mississippi (USM) in 1968 as an Assistant Professor of Sociology. In 1970, he was appointed Associate Professor and head of Sociology and Anthropology at Queens College, Charlotte (now Queens University of Charlotte) but resigned to return to USM the next year as Professor and Chairman of a new Department of Anthropology, offering both bachelor's and master's degrees.[15]

In 1971 he was appointed chair of the department of Anthropology Comparative Religious Studies at the USM.[49] According to William Tucker's description, he fired most of the non-tenured faculty, hiring instead scholars such as Robert E. Kuttner and Donald A. Swan, both with similar political backgrounds to Pearson. The dean at USM later stated that Pearson had "used his post as an academic façade to bring in equal-minded fanatics."[50] Pearson himself states that this is untrue and that "It is true that two faculty members from the formerly separate Religion department, which had recently been merged with Pearson’s department to create a larger, combined department of Anthropology, Philosophy and Religion, were terminated, but this act was ordered by the Administration and not by the department Chair, Pearson."[15]

In 1974 Pearson was appointed Professor and Dean of Academic Affairs and Director of Research at Montana Tech.[51] During his tenure as dean, the school received $60,000 from the Pioneer Fund to support Pearson's academic research and publishing activities.[51] When a journalist called the various universities at which Pearson had held positions, Montana Tech officials stated they were unaware that Pearson was the person who had edited Western Destiny, a periodical laden with many pro-South Africa, anti-Communist and anti-racial mixing articles, who had penned both articles and pamphlets for Willis Carto's Noontide Press.[51] These race-oriented titles included: "Eugenics and Race" and "Early Civilizations of the Nordic Peoples."[51]

Pearson's work in publishing the work of "scholars who are supportive of a free enterprise economy, and a firm and consistent foreign policy and a strong national defense" was commended by President Ronald Reagan for his "substantial contribution to promoting and upholding those ideals and principles that we value at home and abroad."[20][52]

World Anti-Communist League

In 1975, Pearson left academia and moved to Washington, D.C., to become president of the Council on American Affairs, President of the American chapter of the World Anti-Communist League, Editor of the Journal on American Affairs (later renamed The Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies), and eventually President of University Professors for Academic Order (UPAO), an organisation advocating academic integrity, social order and that the university should not be "an instrument of social change" and working to depoliticize campus environments. He was also a Trustee of the Benjamin Franklin University.

He also served on editorial board of the several institutions, including the Heritage Foundation, the Foreign Policy Research Institute, and the American Security Council, and that a number of conservative politicians wrote articles for Pearson's Journal on American Affairs and related Monographs, including Senators Jake Garn (R-UT), Carl T. Curtis (R-NE), Jesse Helms (R-NC), and Representatives Jack Kemp (R-NY), and Philip Crane (R-UT).[43]

Pearson was elected World Chairman of the World Anti-Communist League in 1978. According to William H. Tucker he "used this opportunity to fill the WACL with European Nazis – ex-officials of the Third Reich and Nazi collaborators from other countries during the war as well as new adherents to the cause—in what one journalist called 'one of the greatest fascist blocs in postwar Europe'."[53]

Pearson presided over the League's 11th Annual Conference held in Washington that year. The initial session of the five-day session, which was addressed by two U.S. Senators and opened by the United States Marine Corps Band and Joint Armed Services Honor Guard, was attended by several hundred members from around the world. After the meeting had been condemned in Pravda, The Washington Post published an even more critical attack on both WACL and Pearson's extreme right wing politics.[54][55]

Pearson resigned from the WACL in the wake of accusations that he "encouraged the membership of European and Latin American groups with Nazi or neo-Nazi ties".[56] In a Wall Street Journal article subsequent chairman John Singlaub was quoted calling Pearson an "embarrassment" who is "not at all welcome in any activity"[56] The same article claimed that Pearson's Presidential commendation had been achieved only through the mediation of an associate of Pearson's who worked in the Defense Department. The White House did not retract the letter, but made a public statement in which the Presidential secretary affirmed the Presidents' repudiation of any sort of racial discrimination. Pearson was requested to stop using the letter from Reagan in public promotion of his activities.[56] One member of the WACL, conservative politician Geoffrey Stewart-Smith described the organization during its period under Pearson as "largely a collection of Nazis, Fascists, anti-Semites, sellers of forgeries, vicious racialists, and corrupt self-seekers."[57]

After the Washington Post article, Pearson was asked to resign from the editorial board of the neo-Conservative Heritage Foundation's journal Policy Review, which he had helped to found, but his connection with other organisations continued, and in 1986 CovertAction Quarterly uncovered his association with James Jesus Angleton, former chief of CIA Counter-Intelligence, General Daniel O. Graham, former Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency, General Robert C. Richardson, and other American Security Council members.[58]

Association with the Pioneer Fund

In 1981, Pearson received the library of Donald A. Swan through a grant from the Pioneer Fund.[59] Between 1973 and 1999 the Fund spent $1.2 million on Pearson's activities, most of which was used for the Institute for the Study of Man[60] which Pearson directed and which under Pearson acquired the peer-reviewed journal Mankind Quarterly in 1979. Pearson took over as publisher and is said to have editorial influence, although his name has never appeared on the masthead. Pearson has used diverse pseudonyms to contribute to the journal, including "J. W. Jamieson" and "Alan McGregor", sometimes even using one pseudonym to review and praise the work of another.[61] This publication was later taken over by The Council for Social and Economic Studies.

Pearson is also director of the Council for Social and Economics Studies, which owns the Scott-Townsend Publishers imprint (which has published most of his recent books), and General Editor of the Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies.

Publications

• Eastern Interlude. Thacker Spink, Calcutta; Luzac and Co., London, 1953.
• Eugenics and Race. Clair Press, London, 1958; 2nd ed. 1966, Clair Press, London and Noontide Press, Los Angeles OCLC 9737954
• Blood groups and race. (1st edition unknown) 2nd ed. 1966, Clair Press, London, and Noontide Press, Los Angeles OCLC 6099970
• Race & civilisation. (1st edition unknown) 2nd ed. 1966, Clair Press, London, and Noontide Press, Los Angeles OCLC 4387181
• Early Civilizations of the Nordic Peoples. Northern World, London, 1958. Noontide Press, Los Angeles, 1965 OCLC 9972221
• Introduction to Anthropology: an ecological/evolutionary approach. Holt Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1974.
• Sino-Soviet Intervention in Africa. Council on American Affairs, 1977.
• Korea in the World Today. Council on American Affairs, Washington, D.C., 1978.
• Ecology and Evolution. Mankind Quarterly Monograph, Washington, D.C., 1981.
• Essays in Medical Anthropology, Scott-Townsend Publishers, Washington, D.C., 1981.
• Anthropological Glossary. Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, Fl. 1985.
• Evolution, Creative Intelligence, and Intergroup Competition. Cliveden Press, 1986
• William Shockley: Shockley on Eugenics and Race: The Application of Science to the Solution of Human Problems. Preface by Arthur Jensen. Scott-Townsend Publishers, Washington, D.C., 1992. OCLC 26400159
• Race, Intelligence and Bias in Academe. Introduction by Hans Eysenck.[46] Scott-Townsend Publishers, Washington, D.C., 1991 OCLC 25308868 (2nd. Ed. 1994).
• Heredity and Humanity: Race, Eugenics and Modern Science, 1996. Scott-Townsend Publishers, Washington, D.C., 1991 (2nd edition 1998).

References

1. "Pearson has succeeded in combining such right-wing politics with a conventional academic career." – Kühl, Stefan (2001). The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. Oxford University Press, p. 4.
2. Winston, A. S. (1996). The context of correctness: A comment on Rushton. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 5(2), 231-250.
3. "Evolution cannot occur unless 'favorable' genes are segregated out from amongst 'unfavorable" genetic formulae' [...] any population that adopts a perverted or dysgenic form of altruism – one which encourages a breeding community to breed disproportionately those of its members who are genetically handicapped rather than from those who are genetically favored, or which aids rival breeding populations to expand while restricting its own birthrate – is unlikely to survive into the definite future." – Pearson, Roger (1995b). "The Concept of Heredity in Western Thought: Part Three, the Revival of Interest in Genetics," The Mankind Quarterly, 36, pp. 96, 98."
4. Pearson, Roger (1966). Eugenics and Race. London: Clair Press, p. 33.
5. Kohn, M. (1995). The race gallery: The return of racial science. London: Jonathan Cape. pp. 52-54
6. Tucker, W. H. (2002). Closer Look at the Pioneer Fund: Response to Rushton, A. Alb. L. Rev., 66, 1145.
7. Tucker, W. H. (2003). The Leading Academic Racists of the Twentieth Century. Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 90-95.
8. Shared Eugenic Visions: Raymond B. Cattell and Roger Pearson. Andrew S. Winston, University of Guelph "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 August 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
9. Stavenhagen, Rodolfo (14 December 2012). Pioneer on Indigenous Rights. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 90. ISBN 9783642341502.
10. "ROGER PEARSON" ISAR
11. Rosenthal, S. J. (1995). The Pioneer Fund Financier of Fascist Research. American Behavioral Scientist, 39(1), 44-61.
12. Winston, A. S. (1998). Science in the service of the far right: Henry E. Garrett, the IAAEE, and the Liberty Lobby. Journal of Social Issues, 54(1), 179-210.
13. Kuhl, S. (1994). The Nazi connection: eugenics, American racism, and German national socialism. Oxford University Press.
14. Jackson, J. P. (2006). Argumentum ad hominem in the science of race. Argumentation and Advocacy, 43(1), 14.
15. Pearson, Roger. "Derogations, Conspiracy Theories and General Inaccuracies". Retrieved 27 November 2014.
16. "ISAR - In the Circuit Court". http://www.ferris-pages.org. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
17. http://www.professor-roger-pearson.com/
18. Tucker 2002:160
19. Paul W. Valentine (28 May 1978). "The Fascist Specter Behind The World Anti-Red League". The Washington Post.
20. Russ Bellant (1991). Old Nazis, the new right, and the Republican Party (3rd ed.). Boston: South End Press. OCLC 716423118.
21. Steven J. Rosenthal (September 1995). "The Pioneer Fund: Financier of Fascist Research". American Behavioral Scientist. 39 (1): 44–61. doi:10.1177/0002764295039001006.
22. http://www.psychology.uoguelph.ca/facul ... shton.html
23. Lincoln, Bruce (1999). Theorizing Myth: Narrative, Ideology, and Scholarship. University of Chicago Press, p. 122.
24. A. S. Winston. (1996). The context of correctness: A comment on Rushton. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 5, 231—250. "Pearson was clear about the problem of contact between races: ". . . evolutionary progress can only take place properly amongst small non-cross-breeding groups. Always, a cross between two types meant the annihilation of the better type, for although the lower sub-species would be improved by such a cross, the more advanced would be retarded, and would then have a weaker chance in the harsh and entirely amoral competition for survival." (1959a, pp. 9-10)[1]
25. Jackson, John P. (2005). Science for Segregation: Race, Law, and the Case against Brown v. Board of Education. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-4271-6. pp.43–144
26. Langford, Edward, 1958. Northlander vol 1 no 3
27. Langford, Edward, 1958. Northlander vol 1 no 5
28. Langford, Edward, 1958. Northlander vol 1 no 6
29. Langford, Edward, 1958. Northlander vol 1 no 7
30. Tucker 2002:161-3
31. Anderson, Scott, & Anderson, Jon Lee (1986). Inside the League: the Shocking Exposé of how Terrorists, Nazis, and Latin American Death Squads have infiltrated the world Anti-Communist League. New York: Dodd, Mead, p. 94.
32. Pearson, Roger. 1957. "Sir Arthur Keith and Evolution." Northern World 2, no. 1 (1957): 4– 7. cited in Jackson, J. P. (2005). Science for segregation: Race, law, and the case against Brown v. Board of Education. New York: New York University Press. p 46
33. Pearson, Roger. 1966 [1959]. Eugenics and Race. p. 26
34. Pearson, R. 1966 [1959]. Blood groups and race. London: Clair Press.
35. Pearson, R. (1959). Eugenics and race London: Clair Press.
36. Pearson "Eugenics and Race" "There is no way of eliminating undesirable genetic qualities except by annihilating the 'line,' that is by preventing the individual who carries the unfortunate genes from reproducing at all. If one does not wish to go so far as that then one must at least prevent cross-breeding between 'healthy and unhealthy stock, for once the entire stock is contaminated there is no solution other than the annihilation of the entire species." p. 27
37. Pearson, 1966 [1959] "Eugenics and Race" pp. 40-41 "To think and practice eugenic and racial morals ourself is our duty, but this is not enough in the troubled state of the world today. It is necessary for each and every one of us to work to bring these ideas home to our fellow beings. We must talk and write about eugenics and race; we must help to make the ideas "fashionable" as quickly as we can. Let there be no confusion, also, between the two concepts for basically they are one and the same. A race is a group of individuals who possess a similar genetic heritage, and who when crossed are capable of breeding true. A race is consequently pure or impure according to its ability to breed true, and to produce its own kind. Biological accidents do occur, and these may result in the defects which eugenics seeks to remove from the mainstream (not necessarily by inhumane means), but differences in emotive, intellectual and physical constitution, where not acquired, are largely racial, the product of the importation of a different pattern of genes. ... We can only prevent the destruction of this edifice if we take it upon ourselves to overcome our• inherent shyness of such topics, to forget that we might possibly say something that might offend our neighbours, and start talking about race, racial hygiene and human eugenics. Only thus can we ensure that our children and-their children-will be able to find fitting partners for marriage. Only thus can we ensure the survival of our own kind and our own species and also lay the foundations for a noble future. Human stock-breeding is surely not a bad thing when exercised voluntarily and intelligently, and when its aim is to preserve an aristocracy of mankind."
38. Pearson, R. (1995). The concept of heredity in Western thought. III: The revival of interest in genetics. Mankind quarterly, 36(1), 73-103. "Once science can determine which individuals and populations have disproportionately high gene frequencies for advantageous traits, and which are handicapped by deleterious genetic qualities, societies which are prompted by a higher altruism dedicated to the wellbeing of future generations, rather to the sole gratification of the selfish needs of those who are currently living, will be able to effectively select eugenic over dysgenic reproduction. If true altruism prevails, the result will be eugenic decisions, made voluntarily and without coercion." "Any species that adopts patterns of behavior that run counter to the forces that govern the universe is doomed to suffer a painful, harshly enforced and totally involuntary eugenic process of evolutionary reselection and readaptation - or an even more severe penalty, extinction."
39. Timson, John. 1998. Review: Heredity and Humanity: Race, Eugenics and Modern Science. [2]Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine
40. "Pakistan Tea Association chairman's Speech." Eastern Examiner, Dacca, 30 April 1963.
41. Pakistan Tea Association Annual Report
42. Zeskind, Leonard (2009). Blood and Politics: The History of the White Nationalist Movement from the Margins to the Mainstream. Macmillan, p. 12.
43. Michael, George (2008). Willis Carto and the American Far Right. University Press of Florida.
44. Heidi Beirich (2008), "Of Race and Rockets", Intelligence Report, Southern Poverty Law Center (130)
45. http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/i ... oneer-fund
46. Bruce Lincoln (2000). Theorizing Myth: Narrative, Ideology, and Scholarship. University of Chicago Press. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-226-48202-6.
47. Schaffer, Gavin "‘Scientific’ Racism Again?":1 Reginald Gates, the Mankind Quarterly and the Question of "Race" in Science after the Second World War Journal of American Studies (2007), 41: 253-278 Cambridge University Press
48. Jackson, John P. (2005). Science for Segregation: Race, Law, and the Case against Brown v. Board of Education. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-4271-6. Lay summary (30 August 2010).
49. Macklin, Graham (2012). "Transatlantic Connections and Conspiracies: A.K. Chesterton and The New Unhappy Lords". Journal of Contemporary History. 47 (2): 270–290. doi:10.1177/0022009411431723. ISSN 0022-0094.
50. Tucker 2002:166-67
51. Lichtenstein, Grace (11 December 1977). "Fund Backs Controversial Study of 'Racial Betterment'". New York Times.
52. Zeskind (2009), p. 12-13.
53. Tucker, William H. (Reissue 1996). The Science and Politics of Racial Research. University of Illinois Press. p. 257. ISBN 978-0252065606. Check date values in: |year= (help)
54. Paul W. Valentine, "The Fascist Specter Behind The World Anti-Red League". The Washington Post. 28 May 1978
55. Tim Kelsey; Trevor Rowe (4 March 1990). "Academics were funded by racist American trust". The Independent.
56. Rich Jaroslovsky (28 September 1984). Politics '84 -- Controversial Publisher: Racial Purist Uses Reagan Plug. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. 1. Retrieved 6 November 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 27121258).[3]
57. McManus, Doyle (16 September 1985). "Rightist Crusade Finds Its Way Into Spotlight: Led by Retired Gen. Singlaub, Anti-Communist League Is Funnel for Private Funds to Contras" (fee required). Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 8 October 2008.
58. "The Checkered Careers of James Angleton and Roger Pearson", Covert Action, No. 25 (Winter 1986)
59. Miller, Adam (Winter 1994–1995). "The Pioneer Fund: Bankrolling the Professors of Hate". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (6): 58–61, 60–61. JSTOR 2962466. OCLC 486658694.
60. Tucker, William H. (2002). The Funding of Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. University of Illinois Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0252027628.
61. Tucker, William H. (2007). The Funding of Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07463-9. Lay summary (4 September 2010).
• Russ Bellant, The Coors Connection (South End Press, 1989), p. 2; John Saloma, Ominous Politics (NY: Hill & Wang, 1984), p. 8.
• Bellant, Russ (1991). Old Nazis, the New Right, and the Republican Party. Boston: South End Press.
• Harris, Geoffrey (1994). The Dark Side of Europe: The Extreme Right Today. Edinburgh University Press.

External links

• Pearson's personal website with additional biographic information and photos
• Works by Roger Pearson, at Unz.org
• Mankind Quarterly
• Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies
• Shared Eugenic Visions: Raymond B. Cattell and Roger Pearson
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Phillip V. Tobias
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/26/20

In addition to Asia and the intelligence community, another disturbing connection between these early monster hunts manifested in the way of a possible shared ideology. One other scientist Coon corresponded with over the Yeti was Italian statistician and demographer Corrado Gini (1884-1965). A prominent fascist theorist in the 1920s and 1930s, and close to Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, Gini shared an interest in anomalous primates with Coon and his cohorts.72 An arch eugenicist Gini believed that nations, like individual people, went through periods of birth, youth, growth, old age then decline, and that strong nations need not apologize for their forceful expansion.73 He also thought, like [Carleton] Coon, that the Snowman might shed light on human evolution and sociological structure. In the late 1930s Gini founded a society that studied genetics and eugenics -- its journal was Genius, where in later years Ivan Sanderson and George Agogino published articles. In 2004 Russian anomalous primate researcher Dmitri Bayonov said that in 1962 Gini founded the Comite International pour l'Etudes Humanoides Velus. [International Committee for Hairy Humanoid Studies] Members of this committee included William Charles Osman-Hill, Bernard Heuvelmans, John Napier, and Phillip V. Tobias as well as John Green and Rene Dahinden.74 While Coon certainly had politically incorrect ideas about race, the others had no overt fascist sympathies. They may simply have welcomed any help from the international community that supported their work -- they embraced scientists from the Soviet bloc as well.

-- Chapter 9: A Yeti-Hunting 007, from "True Stories of Real-Life Monsters" [Excerpt], by Nick Redfern


Pearson also published two popular textbooks in anthropology, but his anthropological views on race have been widely rejected as unsupported by contemporary anthropology. In 1976 he found the Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, which has been identified as one of two international journals which regularly publishes articles pertaining to race and intelligence with the goal of supporting the idea that white people are inherently superior (the other such journal being Mankind Quarterly). In 1978 he took over the editorship of Mankind Quarterly founded by Robert Gayre and Henry Garrett, widely considered a scientific racist journal. Most of Pearson's publishing ventures have been managed through the Institute for the Study of Man, and the Pioneer Fund, with which Pearson is closely associated, having received $568,000 in the period from 1981-1991.

-- Roger Pearson (anthropologist), by Wikipedia


Institute for The Study of Man In Africa (ISMA)

Description: The Institute for the Study of Man in Africa (ISMA) was formally established in 1956 by Professor Phillip V. Tobias to perpetuate and foster the pioneering work on Man in Africa initiated by Professor Raymond Dart whose achievements in research on Man in Africa were monumental. From its inception the Institute attracted worldwide interest and academic support. Its appeal arose from its commitment to society in general and the fuller understanding of the conditions of Man in Africa, in health or disease.

Website: Institute for the Study of Man in Africa

Contact details

Physical address
: Room 2B17, University of the Witwatersrand Medical School, York Rd., Parktown, Johannesburg, Gauteng

Telephone: (011)6472203

-- Institute for The Study of Man in Africa (ISMA), by Association Finder


Phillip V. Tobias is Professor and Head of the Department of Anatomy at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, and President of the Institute for the Study of Man in Africa. He has been engaged in researches on the Kalahari Bushmen and other peoples of Subsaharan Africa since 1951, and the study of fossil man has engaged his attention in recent years. He has published many works on the past and present inhabitants of Africa and is the author of Chromosomes, Sex-Cells, and Evolution; Man’s Anatomy (with M. Arnold); and Olduvai Gorge, 1951-1961. He is editing a large work that will be entitled Studies on the Biology of the Bushmen.

-- Bushman Hunter-Gatherers: A Study in Human Ecology, by Phillip V. Tobias, 1964. Reprinted from D.H.S. Davis (Ed.), Ecological Studies in Southern Africa (Mongraphiae Biologicae, Vol. XIV) (The Hauge: W. Junk, 1964).


-- R.A. [Raymond A.] Dart, “Associations With and Impressions of Sir Grafton Elliot Smith,” Mankind 8 (1972), 171-75.

-- The Enigma of Raymond Dart, by Robin Denicourt


Image

Dart, Taung, and the "missing link": An essay on the life and work of Emeritus Professor Raymond Dart, based on a tribute to Professor Dart on His 90th Birthday, Delivered at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, on 22 June 1983
Institute for the Study of Man in Africa. Paperback – January 1, 1984
by Phillip V Tobias (Author)


Image
Phillip Vallentine Tobias
Born: 14 October 1925, Durban, Natal, South Africa
Died: 7 June 2012 (aged 86), Johannesburg, South Africa
Nationality: South African
Alma mater: University of Witwatersrand
Known for: Paleoanthropological and evolutionary work
Awards: Fellow of the Royal Society
Scientific career
Fields: Anthropology
Thesis: Chromosomes, Sex Cells, and Evolution in the Gerbil (1953)
Influenced: Patricia Vinnicombe

Phillip Vallentine Tobias FRS (14 October 1925 – 7 June 2012)[1] was a South African palaeoanthropologist and Professor Emeritus at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. He was best known for his work at South Africa's hominid fossil sites.[2] He was also an activist for the eradication of apartheid and gave numerous anti-apartheid speeches at protest rallies and also to academic audiences.[3]

Academic life

Born in Durban, Natal on 14 October 1925, the only son and second child of Joseph Newman Tobias and his wife, Fanny (née Rosendorff), Phillip received his first schooling in Bloemfontein at St Andrew's School and in Durban at the Durban High School. In 1945, he started his career as demonstrator in histology and instructor in physiology at the University of Witwatersrand. He received his Bachelor of Science (Hons) in Histology and Physiology in 1946–1947. In 1948 he was elected the first President of the National Union of South African Students. He graduated in Medicine, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery in 1950. He was appointed as a lecturer in anatomy in 1951. In 1953, he received his Doctor of Philosophy for a thesis entitled Chromosomes, Sex-Cells, and Evolution in the Gerbil.

In 1955, Tobias started his post-graduate research at the University of Cambridge, England, where he filled the position of Nuffield Dominion Senior Traveling Fellow in physical anthropology. The following year, at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor and the University of Chicago, he was the Rockefeller Traveling Fellow in anthropology, human genetics, and dental anatomy and growth. In 1959, he became Professor and Head of the Department of Anatomy and Human Biology, succeeding his mentor and eminent scholar, Professor Raymond Dart. In 1967, he was awarded a Doctor of Science in palaeoanthropology for his work on hominid evolution. During this period he attended the University of the Witwatersrand. He was Dean of Medicine from 1980 to 1982. He was appointed Honorary Professor of Palaeoanthropology at the Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research in 1977 and Honorary Professor in Zoology in 1981.[citation needed] Also in 1981, Tobias became a founding member of the World Cultural Council.[4]

Tobias excavated at the Sterkfontein caves and worked at almost all other major sites in Southern Africa after 1945. He also opened some 25 archaeological sites in Botswana during the French Panhard-Capricorn Expedition while conducting a biological survey of the Tonga People of Zimbabwe. He was one of the anthropologists instrumental in unmasking the Piltdown fraud.[5]

Research

His research has been mainly in the fields of paleoanthropology and the human biology of Africa's various populations. He has studied the Kalahari San, the Tonga people of Zambia and Zimbabwe, and numerous peoples of Southern Africa. Tobias is best known for his research on hominid fossils and human evolution, having studied and described hominid fossils from Indonesia, Israel, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Zambia. His best known work was on the hominids of East Africa, particularly those of the Olduvai Gorge. Collaborating with Louis Leakey, Tobias identified, described and named the new species Homo habilis. Cambridge University Press published two volumes on the fossils of Homo habilis from the Olduvai Gorge. He is closely linked with the archaeological excavation at the Sterkfontein site, a research programme he initiated in 1966. The Sterkfontein caves, which were already well known by his predecessor, Professor Raymond Dart, were used as a vehicle for introducing the second year anatomy students to anthropology and have seen the most sustained excavation of a single site in the world. This site has yielded the largest single sample of Australopithecus africanus as well as the first known example of Homo habilis from Southern Africa. It is now a World Heritage Site.[6]

He published in 1970 an article in which he questioned the link between brain-size, race and intelligence.[7]

Achievements and awards

Image
Bust of Tobias at the Sterkfontein caves

Tobias is one of South Africa's most honoured and decorated scientists, and a world leading expert on human prehistoric ancestors; he has been nominated three times for a Nobel Prize, received a dozen honorary doctorates and been awarded South Africa's Order for Meritorious Service. Tobias published over 600 journal articles and authored or co-authored 33 books and edited or co-edited eight others. He has received honorary degrees from seventeen universities and other academic institutions in South Africa, the United States of America, Canada and Europe. He has been elected as a fellow, associate or honorary member of over 28 learned societies. These include being elected a foreign associate of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) and a Fellow of the Royal Society of London (1996).[8]

Among the medals, awards and prizes he has received are the Balzan Prize for Physical Anthropology (1987) and the Charles R. Darwin Lifetime Achievement Award of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (1997). The Royal Society of South Africa is very sparing with its honours, and Tobias is one of only two South African Honorary Fellows of the Society and one of very few recipients of its senior medal, the John Herschel Medal.[9]

He held the positions of Professor Emeritus of Anatomy and Human Biology at the University of the Witwatersrand, Honorary Professor of Palaeo-anthropology, Honorary Professorial Research Associate and Director of the Sterkfontein Research Unit, and Andrew Dickson White Professor-at-Large of Cornell University, Ithaca, New York USA. He has been a visiting professor at the University of Pennsylvania, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Cambridge University and other institutions.[10]

Books

• Humanity from Naissance to Coming Millennia – This book covers important recent advances in human biology and human evolutionary studies. The contributions cover a wide range of topics, from Human Biology, Human Evolution (Emerging Homo, Evolving Homo, Early Modern Humans), Dating, Taxonomy and Systematics, to Diet and Brain Evolution.
• Into the Past – In this autobiographical work Tobias recounts the first 40 years of his life through anecdotes, experiences and philosophies.
• Images of Humanity: Selected Writings of Phillip V. Tobias Hardcover – December 31, 1991; ISBN 978-1874800231 - This is a valuable collection of the writings of an acclaimed academic who made important contributions to the sciences and humanities. Always wary of intense specialization, Tobias over the years fostered an interest in the human, social, anthropological and historical sciences. His early studies were in medicine, his PhD was awarded for his thesis.

Notes

1. White, T. D. (2012). "Phillip V. Tobias (1925-2012)". Science. 337 (6093): 423. Bibcode:2012Sci...337..423W. doi:10.1126/science.1225988. PMID 22837516.
2. Wood, Bernard (2012). "Phillip Vallentine Tobias (1925–2012)". Nature. 487 (7405): 571–572. Bibcode:2012Natur.487...40W. doi:10.1038/487040a. PMC 3666235. PMID 23594211.
3. Denise Grady (11 June 2012). "Phillip V. Tobias, Paleoanthropologist Who Analyzed Apelike Fossils, Is Dead at 86". The New York Times.
4. "About Us". World Cultural Council. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
5. Tobias, Phillip V.; Bowler, Peter J.; et al. (1992). "Piltdown: An Appraisal of the Case against Sir Arthur Keith [and Comments and Reply]". Current Anthropology. 33 (3): 243–293. doi:10.1086/204069. ISSN 0011-3204.
6. "Phillip Tobias". Retrieved 9 June 2012.
7. Tobias, P. V. (1970). "Brain-size, grey matter and race —fact or fiction?". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 32 (1): 3–25. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330320103. PMID 5415587.
8. "DServe Archive Persons Show". royalsociety.org. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
9. Royal Society of South Africa Medal Winners
10. University of Witwatersrand Obituary Archived 25 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine
11. "Scientist Phillip Tobias dies". News24. 7 June 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
12. "Eminent South African anthropologist Tobias dies". Retrieved 8 June 2012.

References

• Tribute to Phillip Valentine Tobias by the Royal Society Of South Africa on the Occasion of his 80th Birthday at the Wayback Machine (archived 2006-09-24)
• Minnesota State University at the Wayback Machine (archived 2007-06-09)
• Goodrum, Matthew R. (2013). "Obituary: Phillip Vallentine Tobias (1925-2012)". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 150 (2): 167–169. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22182. ISSN 0002-9483. PMID 23180609.

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Phillip V. Tobias and the 'Bushman Hunter-Gatherers' (1964)
by Jane Carruthers
Royal Society of South Africa
Accessed: 6/26/20

The first book to be published explicitly entitled Ecological Studies in Southern Africa appeared in 1964, edited by D.H.S. Davis of the Medical Ecology Centre in the Department of Health in Johannesburg. Today, a work called ‘Ecological studies’ would suggest content around ecology, ecological systems, trophic levels, resilience and other principles relating to the natural world. However, an earlier meaning and usage of the word had more to with environmental relationships – the place of animals and plants within particular habitats and their interrelationships, adjustments and accommodation thereto. ‘Ecological studies’ is never defined in Davis’s book, which ranges extremely widely. The work comprises 18 chapters – stretching through the Pleistocene environment and palaeoecology, human origins and fossil studies, vegetation and plant succession, invasive plants, freshwater and estuarine studies, ornithology, genetic studies of flies, gerbil fleas, climatic change, bilharzia, the history of game preservation and veld burning. In all, it is a fascinating miscellany with contributions of uneven focus and quality.

This short article analyses just one of these chapters in order to reflect on the changing discipline of San (Bushman) studies over the past 50 years. It also considers an aspect of the career of Professor Phillip V. Tobias (1925-2012), one of South Africa’s most renowned scientists and a former President of the Royal Society of South Africa.

In 1964, then aged 39, Tobias was already Professor of Anatomy at the University of the Witwatersrand. His chapter in Davis was entitled ‘Bushman hunter-gatherers: A study in human ecology’ (Tobias 1964: 67-86). The content was largely based on Tobias’s experiences more than a decade earlier as a member of the 1952 French-sponsored Panhard-Capricorn Expedition led by explorer and geographer Francois Balsan. As Tobias explained in his 2005 memoir, Professor Raymond Dart, then head of the Department of Anatomy at Wits, encouraged Tobias’s participation in what was to be his first long (11 weeks, 6 800 km) expedition. Despite his frequent attacks of asthma, Tobias found the experience of travelling along the Tropic of Capricorn from Namibia to Mozambique through the Kalahari exhilarating, and he credits it with his lasting enchantment of Africa (Tobias 2005: 63-69).

Image
Bushman sucking water through a straw and filling an ostrich egg shell

Tobias’s secondment to Balsan’s expedition was specifically in order to study and measure (anthropometry) the Bushmen (Tobias 1964: 86). San studies today focus largely on their spiritual life, their rock art and belief systems. In this regard, the many publications of Professor David Lewis-Williams FRSSAf , originating in the re-discovery and reinterpretation of the material collected in Cape Town by Wilhelm Bleek and his family in the late 1800s, have deepened our understanding immeasurably. The people that Tobias called ‘Bushmen’ in his chapter in Davis are more frequently today referred to as the ‘San’ so as to avoid the derogatory term that ‘Bushman’ was considered to be, but in fact, ‘San’ may also be pejorative and many San prefer to be called ‘Bushmen’ instead. (In this essay, the terms are used interchangeably.)

In the Davis volume there are two chapters on the San, one is by Tobias and the other by Robert Story, then employed in the Division of Botany in the Department of Agriculture in Pretoria and later at the C.S.I.R.O. in Canberra (Story 1964: 87-99). Story describes the ‘Plant lore of the Bushmen’. Story was extremely knowledgeable about San use of plant material, but not – as Tobias came to be – of their anatomy, their biology and their physical and cultural adaptation to desert life.

Reading ‘Bushmen hunter-gatherers’ today one cannot but be struck by the racial tone of Tobias’s chapter – the indignity of physical anthropology, of measuring people, of considering issues such as morphology, height (dwarfing), the amount of body-fat, genital and infantile features and the like. In his memoir, Tobias acknowledged how his scientific thinking changed over the years and how, at the time of the Balsan expedition (and thus the chapter in Davis), he was ‘under the influence of Raymond Dart’s typological approach to the analysis of the “racial affinities” of African peoples’. While this approach forms the basis of the chapter in Davis, Tobias said that he soon shook off Dart’s influence because ‘it went hand in hand with stereotyping and forms the basis of what the Germans used to call Rassenkunde. Surely such thinking was to be eschewed in an age when we were learning so much more about how the hereditary material worked ….’ (Tobias 2005: 68).

The arrangement of the chapters in the Davis volume is suggestive of the state of scientific thinking at that time and the place of ‘prehistoric people’ in it – as part of the natural rather than the truly human world. The book begins with a chapter on the Pleistocene environment and it is followed by pollen analysis and palaeoecological studies of that era Chapter 3 is concerned with ‘The Pleistocene mammals of southern Africa’. Humanity enters ‘ecological studies’ with Raymond Dart’s exposition on the South African ‘man-apes’ and the chapters by Tobias and Story on the Bushmen follow. There are no other chapters on humans.

Following the theoretical thinking of Marston Bates (1953), Tobias argued that biology and culture were difficult to separate. After describing Bushmen morphology, Tobias pondered the numbers of the surviving San, a task made difficult because of their nomadism and inaccessibility. Definition itself was problematic: What is a Bushman? Are they to be categorised according to their hunting and gathering economy? Their characteristic ‘click languages’? Their physical appearance? Following Schapera, and for the purposes of his discussion, Tobias decided upon language and a mutual recognition of each other. Far from being a ‘vanishing race’ in the region (as many thought), he estimated a population total of 55 531, of whom only 20 lived within the Republic of South Africa. Early European settler massacres of San in South Africa were responsible for their almost complete extermination together with a particularly virulent smallpox epidemic of 1951. By far the majority of San (more than 50 000) were citizens of South West Africa (now Namibia) and the Bechuanaland Protectorate (now Botswana).

Image
The huntsman’s eyes survey a parched horizon. Note how his skin has characteristically lost its elasticity

In accordance with the now abundant confirmation from studies by Lewis-Williams and others, Tobias discussed the earlier widespread distribution of Bushmen in southern Africa, but also included speculation that their being forced into arid environments favoured those with physical attributes and strengths that enabled them to survive under harsh circumstances. Genetic adaptation is a long-term process and thus, according to Tobias, probably did not play a large part in the ability of Bushmen to live in the desert, but their ease of acclimatization did. Better physically able than other communities to withstand extreme heat and cold, Bushmen – as explained by Tobias – were also culturally more flexible. The construction of windbreaks and sleeping quarters partially scooped out as protection from wind, the use of fire, an ethic of sharing, all played their part in survival. Perhaps even more important, however, was the organisation of the community into a variable number, small when food was scarce, large when food was available. Population growth might have been curtailed by infanticide or by abandoning the aged or infirm thus allowing a viable clan or band to persist. The relevance of a gender division and reliance on ‘veldkos’ and water storage were also explained by Tobias as survival techniques. Most significantly, however, he concluded that despite these enduring characteristics of a precolonial lifestyle, the San are modern humans and they are neither static or unchanging – as many apartheid politicians deemed, or wished, them to be. As all humans do, they maximise opportunities that they either make or with which they are presented. Southern African researchers in the 1950s and 1960s were thus, according to Tobias, privileged to be ‘provided with a unique opportunity of studying the dynamics of the transition from the Palaeolithic existence to pastoral life, such as was taking place in the river basins of the eastern Mediterranean thousands of years ago’ (Tobias 1964: 85).

Suggested reading:

Balsan, F. and Marion P., L’Expédition Panhard-Capricorne. Translated by Pamela Search. An account of an expedition across Africa from the Atlantic Coast to the Indian Ocean. (London, 1954).
Hollmann, J.C. ed., Customs and Beliefs of the /Xam Bushmen. (Johannesburg, n.d.)
Lewis-Williams, J.D., The Rock Art of Southern Africa. (Cambridge, 1983).
Deacon, J. and Dowson, T. eds, Voices from the Past: /Xam Bushmen and the Bleek and Lloyd Collection. (Johannesburg, 1996).
Story, R. ‘Plant lore of the Bushmen’, in Davis, D.H.S., ed., Ecological Studies in Southern Africa (The Hague, 1964), pp. 87-99.
Skotnes, P., ed., Miscast: Negotiating the Presence of the Bushmen (Cape Town, 1996).
Tobias, Phillip, Into the Past: A Memoir. (Johannesburg, 2005).
Tobias, P.V., ‘Bushman hunter-gatherers: A study in human ecology’, in Davis, D.H.S., ed., Ecological Studies in Southern Africa (The Hague, 1964), pp. 67-86.

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Study signals enduring racism in science
by Christa Kuljian
University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
14 May 2019

Each university and journal must reflect on its assumptions in biology, medicine, natural sciences, anthropology and the social sciences.

In 1937, the zoology department at Stellenbosch University enlisted 133 men for a study. At the time, the field of physical anthropology was focused on documenting “racial types” and this study helped to scientifically construct and confirm the category “coloured” to distinguish these men from “white Afrikaners”.

Handri Walters wrote her PhD thesis on race, science and politics at Stellenbosch in 2018. She unearthed the data sheets from the 1937 study, which measured skin colour, eye colour, hair texture and more than 80 other measurements of the head and body to determine racial type.

In March 2019, researchers from the department of sports science at Stellenbosch published an article titled Age- and Education-Related Effects on Cognitive Functioning in Coloured South African Women. It concluded: “Coloured women in South Africa have increased risk for low cognitive functioning as they present with low education levels and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours.”

Eighty-two years after the 1937 study, Stellenbosch is still uncritically using the term “coloured” as a frame for research. The use of this colonial and apartheid category in a scientific study resulted in an outcry from academics and social media users alike.


“For scientists and research, it is really difficult,” said Elmarie Terblanche, one of the authors of the Stellenbosch article. Speaking in an interview on Cape Talk radio, Terblanche said: “We have to look at different racial groups, we have to specify. All population groups have different problems and we have to characterise that.”

A statement was put out by the Cape Flats Women’s Movement in response: “We are the demographic of your study. Life on the Cape Flats is brutal and the challenges we face are endless. We don’t think you can even begin to imagine what kind of mental ability this takes. How do you think our children look at us now that a famous university has declared their mothers to be idiots?”

A team of scholars decided to use their voices to speak out against bad science. The team — including Barbara Boswell and Shanel Johannes from the University of Cape Town, Zimitri Erasmus from Wits, Kopano Ratele from Unisa and Shaheed Mahomed of South African History Online — drafted a letter to the editors who published the article.

“We ask that you retract it [the article] because of its racist ideological underpinnings, flawed methodology and its reproduction of harmful stereotypes of ‘Coloured’ women.” The letter became part of a campaign that gained more than 10,000 signatures.


Many South African scholars have documented the history of racism and sexism in science in this country. Saul Dubow in his 1995 book, Scientific Racism in Modern South Africa, Yvette Abrahams in her articles including The great long national insult (1997), and Ciraj Rassool and Martin Legassick in their book Skeletons in the Cupboard (published in 2000 and updated in 2015) are among the important voices that have contributed to the understanding of this history.

The juxtaposition of the two Stellenbosch studies reminded me of my own shock when I began research for my book Darwin’s Hunch: Science, Race and the Search for Human Origins, published in 2016. Racism and sexism in science have deep roots and go back centuries.

In the mid-1700s, Carolus Linnaeus, a Swedish botanist, developed the modern system for classifying all living things and published Systema Naturae. He categorised humans as Homo sapiens. Yet, Linnaeus classified the Khoisan and “Hottentot” people of southern Africa in a separate category: Homo monstrosus that included “monstrous or abnormal” people. With this one act of naming and classifying, he sent a dehumanising, painful ripple-effect across the centuries.

Fourthly, the abandonment of the aged and infirm may have some survival value, if a band is on a forced march under conditions of hunger and scarcity. An old person unable to keep pace may be placed in a screen of bushes, provided with firewood and food and water, if available, and deliberately abandoned. If food is found soon, the old one may be rescued; if not, death follows and the hyaenas complete the next phase in the cycle of nature. Such a practice is known, too, among the Hottentots...

At a time of somewhat facile attribution of physical traits to geographical and ecological determinism, it is but a short step from the recognition that the stunted, steatopygous Bushman lives in the desert, to the claim that his peculiarities are the specialized or degenerate products of desert conditions.

The hypothesis that these curious morphological features are desert-determined has bedeviled the literature for decades and largely distracted attention from other aspects of the Bushman's ecology. Thus Hooton suggested that the steatopygia and its accompanying marked lumbar lordosis are an evolved means of overcoming drought. Marett proclaimed the Bushman as "the one form of man specialized for desert conditions" and, among many other reasons, held that steatopygia represented a peculiar capacity to economise water. He also tried to relate the Bushman's small stature to a postulated low activity of the anterior lobe of the pituitary, which, in turn, he related to the need to check diuresis. The yellow skin and epicanthic fold of the Bushman, Marett regarded not as a sign of Mongoloid admixture, but "as a primary character evolved in the desert cradle-land of this race," and the "peppercorn hair" as "an adaptation to withstand heat." Coon cited the Bushman as a human illustration of "Rensch's desert-fat rule," namely that fat in hot desert-dwellers "is deposited in lumps, where it will not interfere with body-heat loss or locomotion." Broom regarded the Bushmen as the degenerate descendants of an earlier prehistoric African race, though he did not directly attribute their degeneration to desert conditions.

-- Bushman Hunter-Gatherers: A Study in Human Ecology, by Phillip V. Tobias


From the eighteenth century onwards, the term hottentot was also a term of abuse without a specific ethnic sense, comparable to barbarian or cannibal. In its ethnic sense, it had developed connotations of savagery and primitivism soon already in the seventeenth century: colonial depictions of the Hottentots (Khoikhoi) in the seventeenth to eighteenth century were characterized by savagery, often suggestive of cannibalism or the consumption of raw flesh, physiological features such as steatopygia and elongated labia perceived as primitive or "simian"; and a perception of the click sounds in the Khoikhoi languages as "bestial". Thus it is possible to speak from the seventeenth century onwards of a European, colonial image of "the Hottentot" which bore little relation to any realities of the Khoisan in Africa, and which fed into the usage of hottentot as a generalised term of abuse. Correspondingly, the word is "sometimes used as ugly slang for a black person".

-- Hottentot (racial term), by Wikipedia


In the early 1900s, it was not unusual for scientists in Europe, the United Kingdom and the United States to believe humans could be categorised as distinct racial types and each type could be classified by its physical characteristics. Many scientists embraced the ideas of a racial hierarchy and white supremacy.

Raymond Dart, the head of the department of anatomy at Wits, was inspired by universities in the US and the UK to establish a human skeleton collection in an effort to clarify racial types. Dart also led the first expedition of researchers from Wits to the Kalahari Desert in 1936 because he was interested in the “Bushman anatomy”.

Thanks to a footnote in an important chapter of Deep histories: Gender and Colonialism in South Africa (2000) by Rassool and Patricia Hayes, I learnt of a young woman from the Kalahari named /Keri-/Keri. Dart, according to Rassool and Hayes, took interest in her “in life and death” because he thought she represented a “pure bushman”. So, he took her body measurements and face mask while she was alive, and her body cast and skeleton after she died.

In the same year as the Wits expedition to the Kalahari,/Keri-/Keri was brought by Dart to Johannesburg for further research. She was put on display at the Empire Exhibition celebrating Johannesburg’s 50th anniversary. My research into the Dart archives revealed that a doctor in 1939 alerted Dart that /Keri/Keri had pneumonia and was at Outdshoorn Hospital. Anticipating her death, Dart immediately made arrangements for her body to be transported to Johannesburg.

Several days later, /Keri-/Keri died. In many ways, /Keri-/Keri’s story is reminiscent of Sarah Baartman’s, who had been examined by the French anatomist George Cuvier more than a century earlier. Dart saw /Keri-/Keri’s body and her skeleton as a specimen to be studied. For close to 60 years, her body cast remained on display at Wits and her skeleton remained on a shelf in the Raymond Dart collection of human skeletons.


In the wake of World War II and the Holocaust, Unesco drafted a statement on race in 1950, which began: “Scientists have reached general agreement in recognising that mankind is one; that all men belong to the same species Homo sapiens.”

In the same year, the apartheid government implemented the Population Registration Act of 1950, which defined a “coloured person” as someone “who is not a white person or a native”.

Scientists in South Africa continued to work with the concept of “race typology” well into the 1960s. Phillip Tobias, the successor to Dart as head of the department of anatomy at Wits, continued to embrace the existence of racial types, which largely coincided with apartheid’s racial classifications. Tobias built the face mask and skeleton collections at Wits into the 1980s.

Wits University Professor Phillip Tobias measuring an unnamed person during an expedition to the Kalahari in the early 1950s.


In March 2019, just weeks before the Stellenbosch study was published, the American Association of Physical Anthropology put out a new statement on race.

“Racial categories do not provide an accurate picture of human biological variation”, it said, adding “the Western concept of race must be understood as a classification system that emerged from, and in support of, European colonialism, oppression, and discrimination”, and “no group of people is, or ever has been, biologically homogeneous or ‘pure’.”


In the wake of the campaign to retract the journal article, the Psychological Society of South Africa put out an open critique of the study: “The authors have unjustifiably and exploitatively used the apartheid-inspired understanding of race.”

Initially, the university’s deputy vice-chancellor for research, Professor Eugene Cloete, said the findings of the study were those of the authors alone, but in a later statement, he “apologised unconditionally for the pain and anguish which resulted from this article”. The statement made no mention of the faulty scientific assumptions and methodology. Subsequently, the university announced it would conduct a “thorough investigation into all aspects of this study”.

On May 2, the editors and publisher of Ageing, Neuropsychology and Cognition, the UK journal that published the Stellenbosch study, retracted the article, noting: “While this article was peer-reviewed and accepted according to the Journal’s policy, it has subsequently been determined that serious flaws exist in the methodology and reporting of the original study.”

However, the retraction did not critique the framing of the study specifically for its focus on “coloured women,” nor did it acknowledge the perpetuation of racist stereotypes.


The campaign team pointed out this was not only an issue for the four white women researchers. The problem goes much deeper; it is systemic. There is a new generation of academics that did not see the problem.

Everyone who spoke out against the study sounded an important alarm. The lesson is not only for Stellenbosch, but for every academic and research institution in South Africa and around the world to promote sound science.

Each university and journal must reflect on its assumptions in biology, medicine, natural sciences, anthropology and the social sciences. This episode points to the need for greater diversity in these fields, as well as on ethics committees, among peer reviewers and on editorial boards.

Christa Kuljian holds a BA in the history of science from Harvard University. She is the author of Darwin’s Hunch: Science, Race and the Search for Human Origins (Jacana, 2016), a research associate at the Wits Institute for Social and Economic Research and is working on a new book about the history of sexism in science. This article was first published in the Mail&Guardian. Read the original article.
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