Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Wed Sep 09, 2020 3:36 am

Société Asiatique
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/8/20

As for the diffusion of such work as Lane's, there were not only the various societies of useful knowledge but also, in an age when the original Orientalist program of aiding commerce and trade with the Orient had become exhausted, the specialized learned societies whose products were works displaying the potential (if not actual) values of disinterested scholarship. Thus, a program of the Societe asiatique states:

To compose or to print grammars, dictionaries, and other elementary books recognized as useful or indispensable for the study of those languages taught by appointed professors [of Oriental languages]; by subscriptions or by other means to contribute to the publication of the same kind of work undertaken in France or abroad; to acquire manuscripts, or to copy either completely or in part those that are to be found in Europe, to translate or to make extracts from them, to multiply their number by reproducing them either by engraving or by lithography; to make it possible for the authors of useful works on geography, history, the arts, and the sciences to acquire the means for the public to enjoy the fruits of their nocturnal labors; to draw the attention of the public, by means of a periodic collection devoted to Asiatic literature, to the scientific, literary, or poetic productions of the Orient and those of the same sort that regularly are produced in Europe, to those facts about the Orient that could be relevant to Europe, to those discoveries and works of all kinds of which the Oriental peoples could become the subject: these are the objectives proposed for and by the Societe asiatique.


Orientalism organized itself systematically as the acquisition of Oriental material and its regulated dissemination as a form of specialized knowledge. One copied and printed works of grammar, one acquired original texts, one multiplied their number and diffused them widely, even dispensed knowledge in periodic form. It was into and for this system that Lane wrote his work, and sacrificed his ego. The mode in which his work persisted in the archives of Orientalism was provided for also. There was to be a "museum," Sacy said,

a vast depot of objects of all kinds, of drawings, of original books, maps, accounts of voyages, all offered to those who wish to give themselves to the study of [the Orient]; in such a way that each of these students would be able to feel himself transported as if by enchantment into the midst of, say, a Mongolian tribe or of the Chinese race, whichever he might have made the object of his studies.... It is possible to say ...that after the publication of elementary books on ...the Oriental languages, nothing is more important than to lay the cornerstone of this museum, which I consider a living commentary upon and interpretation [truchement] of the dictionaries.75


Truchement derives nicely from the Arabic turjaman, meaning "interpreter," "intermediary," or "spokesman." On the one hand, Orientalism acquired the Orient as literally and as widely as possible; on the other, it domesticated this knowledge to the West, filtering it through regulatory codes, classifications, specimen cases, periodical reviews, dictionaries, grammars, commentaries, editions, translations, all of which together formed a simulacrum of the Orient and reproduced it materially in the West, for the West. The Orient, in short, would be converted from the personal, sometimes garbled testimony of intrepid voyagers and residents into impersonal definition by a whole array of scientific workers. It would be converted from the consecutive experience of individual research into a sort of imaginary museum without walls, where everything gathered from the huge distances and varieties of Oriental culture became categorically Oriental. It would be reconverted, restructured from the bundle of fragments brought back piecemeal by explorers, expeditions, commissions, armies, and merchants into lexicographical, bibliographical, departmentalized, and textualized Orientalist sense. By the middle of the nineteenth century the Orient had become, as Disraeli said, a career, one in which one could remake and restore not only the Orient but also oneself.

-- Orientalism, by Edward W. Said


The Société Asiatique (Asiatic Society) is a French learned society dedicated to the study of Asia. It was founded in 1822 with the mission of developing and diffusing knowledge of Asia. Its boundaries of geographic interest are broad, ranging from the Maghreb to the Far East. The society publishes the Journal asiatique. At present the society has about 700 members in France and abroad; its library contains over 90,000 volumes.

History

The establishment of the society was confirmed by royal ordinance on April 15, 1829. Antoine-Isaac Silvestre de Sacy was the first president.

Notable people

See also: Category:Members of the Société Asiatique

• Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat
• Jacques Bacot
• Jean Berlie
• Eugène Burnouf
• Jean-François Champollion
• Henri Cordier
• Jean-Baptiste Benoît Eyriès
• Julius Klaproth
• Louis Finot
• Jean Leclant
• Sylvain Lévi
• Abdallah Marrash
• Gaston Maspero
• Paul Pelliot
• Joseph Toussaint Reinaud
• Ernest Renan
• Antoine-Jean Saint-Martin
• Antoine-Isaac Silvestre de Sacy
• İbrahim Şinasi
• Charles Virolleaud

List of the presidents of the Société

• 1822–1829: Antoine-Isaac Silvestre de Sacy
• 1829–1832: Jean-Pierre Abel Rémusat
• 1832–1834: Antoine-Isaac Silvestre de Sacy
• 1834–1847: Amédée Jaubert
• 1847–1867: Joseph Toussaint Reinaud
• 1867–1876: Julius von Mohl
• 1876–1878: Joseph Héliodore Garcin de Tassy
• 1878–1884: Adolphe Régnier
• 1884–1892: Ernest Renan
• 1892–1908: Barbier de Meynard
• 1908–1928: Émile Senart
• 1928–1935: Sylvain Lévi
• 1935–1945: Paul Pelliot
• 1946–1951: Jacques Bacot
• 1952–1964: Charles Virolleaud
• 1964–1969: George Coedès
• 1969–1974: René Labat
• 1974–1986: Claude Cahen
• 1987–1996: André Caquot
• 1996–2002: Daniel Gimaret
• 2002–present: Jean-Pierre Mahé
External links[edit]
• L'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres
• Journal Asiatique
• Journal asiatique from 1822 to 1936
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Wed Sep 09, 2020 6:11 am

Lorenz Franz Kielhorn
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/8/20

Image

Lorenz Franz Kielhorn (31 May 1840, Osnabrück - 19 March 1908, Göttingen) was a German Indologist.

He studied under Theodor Benfey at the University of Göttingen, where he became member of Burschenschaft (fraternity) Hannovera,[1], and under Adolf Friedrich Stenzler at Breslau and with Albrecht Weber in Berlin.[2]

A Burschenschaft is one of the traditional Studentenverbindungen (student fraternities) of Germany, Austria and Chile. Burschenschaften were founded in the 19th century as associations of university students inspired by liberal and nationalistic ideas. They were significantly involved in the March Revolution and the unification of Germany. After the formation of the German Empire in 1871, they faced a crisis, as their main political objective had been realized. So-called Reformburschenschaften were established, but these were dissolved by the National Socialist regime in 1935/6.

-- Burschenschaft, by Wikipedia


In 1862-65 he worked in Oxford, where he assisted Monier Williams in the production of a Sanskrit dictionary.[3] While here, he also consulted with Friedrich Max Müller, when the latter was working on his first edition of Rigveda.[4] From 1866 to 1881 he was a professor of Sanskrit at Deccan College in Pune, and after 1882, a professor at the University of Göttingen.[2]

Kielhorn's results from the handling of rich material that he himself partially collected and partially got sent, is mainly explained in Indian antiquary...

The Indian Antiquary, A journal of oriental research in archaeology, history, literature, language, philosophy, religion, folklore, &c, &c, (subtitle varies) was a journal of original research relating to India, published between 1872 and 1933. It was founded by the archaeologist James Burgess to enable the sharing of knowledge between scholars based in Europe and in India and was notable for the high quality of its epigraphic illustrations which enabled scholars to make accurate translations of texts that in many cases remain the definitive versions to this day. It was also pioneering in its recording of Indian folklore. It was succeeded by The New Indian Antiquary (1938-47) and the Indian Antiquary (1964-71).

-- The Indian Antiquary, by Wikipedia


and Epigraphia Indica.[5]


Epigraphia Indica was the official publication of Archaeological Survey of India from 1882 to 1977. The first volume was edited by James Burgess in the year 1882. Between 1892 and 1920 it was published as a quarterly supplement to The Indian Antiquary.

One part is brought out in each quarter year and eight parts make one volume of this periodical; so that one volume is released once in two years. About 43 volumes of this journal have been published so far. They have been edited by the officers who headed the Epigraphy Branch of ASI [Archaeological Survey of India].

-- Epigraphia Indica, by Wikipedia


After the death of Georg Bühler (1837-1898), he edited the "Grundriss der indoarischen Philologie". Together with Bühler, Kielhorn had initiated the series Bombay Sanskrit Series.[6]

Kielhorn was appointed an honorary Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) for his services in Pune. He received the honorary degree Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) from the University of Glasgow in June 1901,[7] and the honorary degree Doctor of Letters (D.Litt.) from the University of Oxford in June 1902.[8]

Works

• Çāntanava’s Phitsūtra (with translation in Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, IV, 1866)
• Nāgojibhatta’s Paribhāşenduçekhara (translated in Bombay Sanskrit series 1868)
• Sanskrit grammar (1870, translated into German by Wilhelm Solf in 1888).[9]
• Kātyāyana and Patanjali (1876)
• The Vyākarana-mahābhāşya of Patanjali (3 volumes in Bombay Sanskrit series, 1880–85)
• Report on the search of Sanskrit manuscripts (1881)
• A grammar of the Sanskrit language (1888).

References

1. de:Burschenschaft Hannovera Göttingen
2. Otto Böhtlingk an Rudolf Roth by Otto von Böhtlingk, Rudolf von Roth, Heidrun Brückner, Gabriele Zeller, Agnes Stache-Weiske
3. Journal of Education (1908)
4. The life and letters of the right Honourable Friedrich Max Müller, Volume 1 by Friedrich Max Müller
5. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal by Asiatic Society of Bengal
6. Handbuch der historischen Buchbestände. Niedersachsen A-G. by Bernhard Fabian, Felicitas Marwinski Friedhilde Krause Eberhard Dünninger, Paul Raabe
7. "Glasgow University jubilee". The Times (36481). London. 14 June 1901. p. 10.
8. "University intelligence". The Times (36789). London. 9 June 1902. p. 12.
9. Brockhaus' konversations-lexikon, Volume 14 Google Books

******************************

The history of the subjects of Indology and Tibetology at the University of Göttingen
by Georg-August-Universitat Gottingen
Accessed: 9/8/20

Benfey's occupation with indigenous Indian grammar was continued by Franz Kielhorn (1840-1908), who was appointed to Göttingen as his successor in 1881. Kielhorn, a student of Stenzler, had moved from England, where he worked with Monier-Williams and Max Müller, to Deccan College in Poona. There he was active from 1866 to 1881 as a professor of Sanskrit. On behalf of the Indian government he worked out a Sanskrit grammar based entirely on Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. Kielhorn had been trained in the difficult and complex indigenous Indian grammar by Indian paits after he had already acquired the basics in Europe. And it was in this area that he developed all his philological mastery.

To this day, his text editions (Mahābhāṣya, Paribhāṣenduśekhara), translations (Paribhāṣenduśekhara) and investigations, written in a strict, almost laconic style, are unsurpassed. In cooperation with Georg Bühler, a student of Benfey in Göttingen, he initiated a new era in Sanskrit philology, based on the most precise language skills, averse to all speculation and characterized by the cooperation of historically and philologically trained Westerners and Indian ones deeply rooted in the learned tradition of their holy language Science. When Kielhorn was appointed to Göttingen in 1881, epigraphy was a second area of ​​work alongside research into Indian grammar. And on it, too, he achieved outstanding results and laid lasting foundations for all future research:

Kielhorn's epigraphic work was completed by his student Heinrich Lüders (1869-1943), who received his doctorate in 1894 with a thesis on Indian phonetics, completed his habilitation in 1899 with his study "About the Grantharecension des Mahabharata" and from then until 1903 as a private lecturer in Göttingen taught, continued in a similarly competent manner. With Bernhard Geiger, who habilitated in Göttingen in 1909 with a thesis on Patañjalis Mahābhāṣya, he also trained a student in the field of Indian grammar.
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Wed Sep 09, 2020 6:19 am

The Indian Antiquary
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/8/20

Image
Cover page of a 1931 edition of The Indian Antiquary

The Indian Antiquary, A journal of oriental research in archaeology, history, literature, language, philosophy, religion, folklore, &c, &c, (subtitle varies) was a journal of original research relating to India, published between 1872 and 1933. It was founded by the archaeologist James Burgess to enable the sharing of knowledge between scholars based in Europe and in India and was notable for the high quality of its epigraphic illustrations which enabled scholars to make accurate translations of texts that in many cases remain the definitive versions to this day. It was also pioneering in its recording of Indian folklore. It was succeeded by The New Indian Antiquary (1938-47) and the Indian Antiquary (1964-71).

James Burgess CIE FRSE FRGS MRAS LLD (14 August 1832[1] – 3 October 1916), was the founder of The Indian Antiquary in 1872[2] and an important archaeologist of India in the 19th century.

Burgess was born on 14 August 1832 in Kirkmahoe, Dumfriesshire. He was educated at Dumfries and then the University of Glasgow and the University of Edinburgh.

He did educational work in Calcutta, 1856 and Bombay, 1861, and was Secretary of the Bombay Geographical Society 1868-73. He was Head of the Archaeological Survey, Western India, 1873, and of South India, 1881. From 1886-89 he was Director General, Archaeological Survey of India.

In 1881 the University of Edinburgh awarded him an honorary Doctor of Letters (LLD).[4]

He retired to Edinburgh around 1892.

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1894. He won its Keith Medal for 1897-99, and served as their Vice President 1908 to 1914.

He died on 3 October 1916, at 22 Seton Place in Edinburgh.

-- James Burgess (archaeologist), by Wikipedia


History

The Indian Antiquary was founded in 1872 by the archaeologist James Burgess CIE as a journal of original research relating to India. It was designed to enable the sharing of knowledge between scholars based in Europe and in India.[1][2]

The journal was a private venture,[3] although no contributor or editor was ever paid for their work and the editors often had to support the publication out of their own pockets.[3] Burgess was the first editor and he continued in that role until the end of 1884 when failing eyesight forced him to hand over to John Faithfull Fleet and Richard Carnac Temple.[3]

The late nineteenth century was marked by a great increase in the number of local historical societies in India and a similar increase in the number of Indians who could speak and write English, to the extent that by the 1920s the entire journal could have been filled with work by Indian contributors.[4] Volumes for 1925 to 1932 were published under the authority of the Council of the Royal Anthropological Institute (1933, not).

The Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (RAI) is a long-established anthropological organisation, with a global membership. Its remit includes all the component fields of anthropology, such as biological anthropology, evolutionary anthropology, social anthropology, cultural anthropology, visual anthropology and medical anthropology, as well as sub-specialisms within these, and interests shared with neighbouring disciplines such as human genetics, archaeology and linguistics. It seeks to combine a tradition of scholarship with services to anthropologists, including students.

The RAI promotes the public understanding of anthropology, as well as the contribution anthropology can make to public affairs and social issues. It includes within its constituency not only academic anthropologists, but also those with a general interest in the subject, and those trained in anthropology who work in other fields.

The Institute's fellows are lineal successors to the founding fellows of the Ethnological Society of London, who in February 1843 formed a breakaway group of the Aborigines' Protection Society, which had been founded in 1837. The new society was to be 'a centre and depository for the collection and systematisation of all observations made on human races'.

Between 1863 and 1870 there were two organisations, the Ethnological Society and the Anthropological Society. The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (1871) was the result of a merger between these two rival bodies. Permission to add the word 'Royal' was granted in 1907.

-- Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, by Wikipedia


The Ethnological Society of London (ESL) was a learned society founded in 1843 as an offshoot of the Aborigines' Protection Society (APS). The meaning of ethnology as a discipline was not then fixed: approaches and attitudes to it changed over its lifetime, with the rise of a more scientific approach to human diversity. Over three decades the ESL had a chequered existence, with periods of low activity and a major schism contributing to a patchy continuity of its meetings and publications. It provided a forum for discussion of what would now be classed as pioneering scientific anthropology from the changing perspectives of the period, though also with wider geographical, archaeological and linguistic interests.

In 1871 the ESL became part of what now is the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, merging back with the breakaway rival group the Anthropological Society of London...

The approach to ethnology current at the time of the Society's founding relied on climate and social factors to explain human diversity; the debate was still framed by Noah's Flood, and the corresponding monogenism of human origins. Prichard was a major figure in looking at human variability from a diachronic angle, and argued for ethnology as such a study, aimed at resolving the question of human origins...

The Aborigines' Protection Society (APS) was set up as a result of parliamentary committee activity, and was largely the initiative of Thomas Fowell Buxton. It produced reports, but in the wake of the Niger expedition of 1841 some of its supporters believed a case made on science was being sidelined in the activities of the APS.

The Niger expedition of 1841 was mounted by British missionary and activist groups in 1841-1842, using three British iron steam vessels to travel to Lokoja, at the confluence of the Niger River and Benue River, in what is now Nigeria. The British government backed the effort to make treaties with the native peoples, introduce Christianity and promote increased trade. The crews of the boats suffered a high mortality from disease.

The expedition was put into motion by an Exeter Hall meeting of 1 June 1840. It was chaired by Prince Albert. The organisers were the Society for the Extinction of the Slave Trade and for the Civilization of Africa, set up in 1839 by Thomas Fowell Buxton. Buxton was promoting a grandiose "New Africa" policy, based on a series of treaties to be made in West Africa, the introduction of Christianity, and increased commerce, as set out in his book the previous year.

-- Niger expedition of 1841, by Wikipedia


The APS was founded by Quakers in order to promote a specific social and political agenda. The Ethnological Society, though primarily a scientific organization, retained some of its predecessor's liberal outlook and activist bent...

John Briggs became a Fellow of the ESL in 1845, and Brian Houghton Hodgson, also representing the ethnology of India, was at some point made an Honorary Fellow. William Augustus Miles was a member and published a paper on the aboriginal Australian culture.

After Prichard's death in 1848, the intellectual leader in the Society became Robert Gordon Latham. Links to the Aborigines' Protection Society were retained through the common membership of Hodgkin and Henry Christy, though the break was not completely amicable. The Ethnological Society in its early years lacked good contacts with officialdom, certainly compared to the RGS and its good working relationship with the Colonial Office. Governor George Grey was helpful to the Society, but he was an exception: it took until the end of the decade for the Society to begin to appreciate its marginal position with respect to the flow of information from the British colonies. Grey was an active member of the ESL while abroad as a colonial administrator, and his network included William Ellis, another member...

Thomas Richard Heywood Thomson delivered a paper in 1854 to the Society on interfertility, casting doubt on comments of Paweł Edmund Strzelecki about female infertility among Aboriginal Australians after they had given birth to a child with a white father. The communication was well received, but as a contribution to the ongoing debate on race, was far from settling the significant underlying issue.

James Hunt joined the ESL in 1854, and became a divisive figure because of his attacks on humanitarian attitudes of missionaries and abolitionists. He served as secretary from 1859 to 1862. He found an ally in John Crawfurd, who had retired from service as colonial diplomat and administrator for the East India Company. Crawfurd came to ethnology through its section in the BAAS. His published views on race were discordant with the Quaker and APS tradition in the ESL. Hunt and Crawfurd in 1858 tried to dislodge the President Sir James Clark at an ESL meeting, unsuccessfully, while Hodgkin was out of the country.

The 1860s saw a revived interest in ethnology, triggered by recent work, such as that involving flint implements and the antiquity of man. The Ethnological Society became a more of meeting-place for archaeologists, as its interests kept pace with new work; and during this decade the Society became a very different institution. The society's original members had mainly been military officers, civil servants, and members of the clergy, but by the early 1860s younger scientists had supplanted them. The background was of continuing encounters worldwide with many peoples; John Thomson the photographer who was recording them became a member in 1866. Thomas Henry Huxley, Augustus Lane Fox, Edward Tylor, Henry Christy, John Lubbock, and Augustus Wollaston Franks all figured prominently in the society's affairs after 1860.

In the years after the publication of the Origin of Species in 1859, the "Ethnologicals" generally supported Charles Darwin against his critics, and rejected the more extreme forms of scientific racism. The movement towards Darwinism was not one way, however, as evidenced by the Honorary Fellowship given to Robert Knox in 1860.

Robert Knox FRSE FRCSE MWS (4 September 1791 – 20 December 1862) was a Scottish anatomist, zoologist, ethologist and physician. He was a lecturer on anatomy in Edinburgh, where he introduced the theory of transcendental anatomy.

He is, however, now mainly remembered for his involvement in the Burke and Hare murders. An incautious approach to obtaining cadavers for dissection after the passage of the Anatomy Act and disagreements with professional colleagues ruined his career. A move to London did not improve matters.

His later pessimistic view of humanity contrasted sharply with his youthful attachment to the ideas of Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Knox also devoted the latter part of his life to theorising on evolution and ethnology, as well as being one of the pioneers of scientific racism in Britain. His work on the latter further harmed his legacy and overshadowed his contributions to evolutionary theory...

Knox returned to Edinburgh by Christmas 1822. On 1 December 1823 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh...

Before the Anatomy Act of 1832 widened the supply, the main legal supply of corpses for anatomical purposes in the UK were those condemned to death and dissection by the courts. This led to a chronic shortage of legitimate subjects for dissection, and this shortage became more serious as the need to train medical students grew, and the number of executions fell. In his school Knox ran up against the problem from the start, since—after 1815—the Royal Colleges had increased the anatomical work in the medical curriculum. If he taught according to what was known as 'French method' the ratio would have had to approach one corpse per pupil.

As a consequence, body-snatching became so prevalent that it was not unusual for relatives and friends of someone who had just died to watch over the body until burial, and then to keep watch over the grave after burial, to stop it being violated.

In November 1827, William Hare began a new career when an indebted lodger died on him by chance. He was paid £7.10s (seven pounds & ten shillings) for delivering the body to Knox's dissecting rooms at Surgeons' Square. Now Hare and his accomplice, William Burke, set about murdering the city’s poor on a regular basis. After 16 more transactions, each netting £8-10, in what later became known as the West Port Murders, on 2 November 1828 Burke and Hare were caught, and the whole city convulsed with horror, fed by ballads, broadsides, and newspapers, at the reported deeds of the pair. Hare turned King's evidence, and Burke was hanged, dissected and his remains displayed.

Knox was not prosecuted, which outraged many in Edinburgh. His house was attacked by a mob of 'the lowest rabble of the Old Town,' and windows were broken. A committee of the Royal Society of Edinburgh exonerated him on the grounds that he had not dealt personally with Burke and Hare, but there was no forgetting his part in the case, and many remained wary of him.

Almost immediately after the Burke and Hare case, the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh began to harry him, and by June 1831 they had procured his resignation as the Curator of the museum he had proposed and founded. In the same year he was obliged to resign his army commission to avoid further service in the Cape. This removed his last source of guaranteed income, but fortunately his classes were more popular than ever, with a record 504 students. His school moved to the grander premises of Old Surgeons' Hall in 1833 but his class declined after Edinburgh University made its own practical anatomy class compulsory in the mid-1830s. Knox continued to purchase cadavers for his dissection class from such shadowy figures as the 'Black Bull Man,' but the 1832 Anatomy Act made bodies more available to all anatomists, he quarrelled with HM Inspector of Anatomy over the supply of bodies, and his competitive edge was lost. In 1837 Knox applied for the chair in pathology at Edinburgh University but his candidature was blocked by eleven existing professors, who preferred to abolish the post rather than appoint him. In 1842 he was unable to make payments to the Edinburgh funeratory system, from which bodies were supplied to private schools, and he relocated to Glasgow where, still short of subjects for dissection, he closed his school in 1844. In 1847 the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh found him guilty of falsifying a student's certificate of attendance (a not uncommon practice in private schools) and refused to accept any further certificates from him, effectively banning him from teaching in Scotland. In the same year he was expelled from the Royal Society of Edinburgh and had his election retrospectively cancelled...

[U]ntil 1856 he worked on medical journalism, gave public lectures, and wrote several books, including his most ambitious work, The Races of Men in which he argued that each race was suited to its environment and "perfect in its own way."...

In his best-selling work, The Races of Men (1850), a "Zoological history" of mankind, Knox exaggerated supposed racial differences in support of his project, asserting that, anatomically and behaviourally, "race, or hereditary descent, is everything". He offered crude characterisations of each racial group: for example the Saxon (in which race he included himself) "invents nothing", "has no musical ear", lacks "genius", and is so "low and boorish" that "he does not know what you mean by fine art". No race was without its redeeming features, however; Knox described Saxons as "[t]houghtful, plodding, industrious beyond all other races, [and] a lover of labour for labour's sake". Such supposed racial characteristics meant that each race was naturally fitted for a particular environment and could not endure outside of it. While Knox maintained that all races were capable of some form civilized life, he maintained that a vast gulf stood between the limited attainments available to the 'negroid' and to most 'mongoloid' races on one hand and the much greater past achievements and future potential of white men on the other. The Black, Knox remarked, 'is no more a white man than an ass is a horse or a zebra'. Ultimately however, all races were "[d]estined ... to run, like all other animals, a certain limited course of existence", it mattering "little how their extinction is brought about". In 1862 Knox took the opportunity of a second edition of The Races of Men to defend the "much maligned races" of the Cape against accusations of cannibalism, and to rebuke the Dutch for treating them like "wild beasts".

From the perspective of a Lowland Scot Protestant, Knox's racist works espoused extreme racial hostility to Celts in general (including the Highland Scots and Welsh people, but particularly the Irish people). He considered the "Caledonian Celt" as touching "the end of his career: they are reduced to about one hundred and fifty thousand" and that the "Welsh Celts are not troublesome, but might easily become so." For Knox, "the Irish Celt is the most to be dreaded" and openy advocated their ethnic cleansing around the time that the Great Famine was happening, stating in The Races of Men: A Fragment (1850): "The source of all evil lies in the race, the Celtic race of Ireland. There is no getting over historical facts. Look at Wales, look at Caledonia; it is ever the same. [...] The race must be forced from the soil; by fair means, if possible; still they must leave. The Orange club of Ireland is a Saxon confederation for the clearing the land of all Papists and Jacobites; this means Celts. If left to themselves, they would clear them out, as Cromwell proposed, by the sword; it would not require six weeks to accomplish the work. But the Encumbered Estates Relief Bill will do it better."

-- Robert Knox, by Wikipedia


The Anthropological Society of London (ASL) was founded in 1863 as an institutional home for those who disagreed with the Ethnological Society's politics (in terms of party loyalties, Stocking makes the political complexion of the ESL 75% Liberal to 25% Conservative, with the proportions reversed in the ASL).[44] On the topic of race, the Ethnological Society retained views descending from Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, who had a five-race theory but was a monogenist, and from Prichard.

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (11 May 1752 – 22 January 1840) was a German physician, naturalist, physiologist, and anthropologist. He was one of the first to explore the study of the human being as an aspect of natural history. His teachings in comparative anatomy were applied to his classification of human races, of which he claimed there were five, Caucasian, Mongolian, Malayan, Ethiopian, and American. He was a member of the Göttingen School of History.

Blumenbach's peers considered him one of the great theorists of his day, and he was a mentor or influence on many of the next generation of German biologists, including Alexander von Humboldt...

Blumenbach's work included his description of sixty human crania (skulls) published originally in fascicules as Decas craniorum (Göttingen, 1790–1828). This was a founding work for other scientists in the field of craniometry. He divided the human species into five races in 1779, later founded on crania research (description of human skulls)...

Further anatomical study led him to the conclusion that 'individual Africans differ as much, or even more, from other Africans as from Europeans'.

Blumenbach argued that physical characteristics like skin color, cranial profile, etc., depended on geography, diet, and mannerism.

Like other monogenists such as Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, Blumenbach held to the "degenerative hypothesis" of racial origins. Blumenbach claimed that Adam and Eve were Caucasian inhabitants of Asia (see Asia hypothesis), and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors such as the sun and poor diet. Thus, he claimed, Negroid pigmentation arose because of the result of the heat of the tropical sun, while the cold wind caused the tawny colour of the Eskimos, and the Chinese were fair-skinned compared to the other Asian stocks because they kept mostly in towns protected from environmental factors. He believed that the degeneration could be reversed in a proper environmental control and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race...

He did not consider his "degenerative hypothesis" as racist and sharply criticized Christoph Meiners, an early practitioner of scientific racialism, as well as Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring, who concluded from autopsies that Africans were an inferior race. Blumenbach wrote three other essays stating non-white peoples were capable of excelling in arts and sciences in reaction against racialists of his time...


His ideas were adopted by other researchers who used them to encourage scientific racism....

Scientific racism, sometimes termed biological racism, is the pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority. Historically, scientific racism received credence throughout the scientific community, but it is no longer considered scientific. Dividing humankind into biologically distinct groups is sometimes called racialism or race realism by its proponents. Modern scientific consensus rejects this view as being irreconcilable with modern genetic research.

Scientific racism employs anthropology (notably physical anthropology), anthropometry, craniometry, and other disciplines or pseudo-disciplines, in proposing anthropological typologies supporting the classification of human populations into physically discrete human races, some of which might be asserted to be superior or inferior to others. Scientific racism was common during the period from the 1600s to the end of World War II. Since the second half of the 20th century, scientific racism has been criticized as obsolete and discredited, yet has persistently been used to support or validate racist world-views, based upon belief in the existence and significance of racial categories and a hierarchy of superior and inferior races.

After the end of World War II, scientific racism in theory and action was formally denounced, especially in UNESCO's early antiracist statement "The Race Question" (1950): "The biological fact of race and the myth of 'race' should be distinguished. For all practical social purposes 'race' is not so much a biological phenomenon as a social myth. The myth of 'race' has created an enormous amount of human and social damage. In recent years, it has taken a heavy toll in human lives, and caused untold suffering." Since that time, developments in human evolutionary genetics and physical anthropology have led to a new consensus among anthropologists that human race is a sociopolitical phenomenon rather than a biological one.

The term scientific racism is generally used pejoratively when applied to more modern theories, such as those in The Bell Curve (1994). Critics argue that such works postulate racist conclusions, such as a genetic connection between race and intelligence, that are unsupported by available evidence. Publications such as the Mankind Quarterly, founded explicitly as a "race-conscious" journal, are generally regarded as platforms of scientific racism because they publish fringe interpretations of human evolution, intelligence, ethnography, language, mythology, archaeology, and race.

-- Scientific racism, by Wikipedia


Blumenbach held that all living organisms "from man down to maggots, and from the cedar to common mould or mucor," possess an inherent "effort or tendency which, while life continues, is active and operative; in the first instance to attain the definite form of the species, then to preserve it entire, and, when it is infringed upon, so far as this is possible, to restore it." This power of vitality is "not referable to any qualities merely physical, chemical, or mechanical."

-- Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, by Wikipedia


The post-Darwin concept of human speciation was unacceptable to those forming the Anthropological Society.

-- Ethnological Society of London, by Wikipedia


[5] The first incarnation of the Antiquary ceased publication in 1933 with volume 62, number 783 (Dec. 1933),[5] two years after Richard Temple's death in 1931.[6] Several early volumes of the journal were reprinted by Swati Publications in Delhi, 1984.[7]

The New Indian Antiquary was published between 1938[8] and 1947, and the Indian Antiquary (described as the "third series") between 1964 and 1971.[9] (Volumes 14 to 62 of the original Antiquary were described as the "second series".)[10]

Content

The journal had an archaeological and historical focus, and in the late nineteenth century that naturally meant that epigraphy (the study of inscriptions as writing rather than as literature) would be one of the principal subjects covered in its pages.[11] Indeed, the Antiquary was the premier source of European scholarship on Indian epigraphy until the twentieth century and the official Indian government journal of epigraphy, the Epigraphia Indica, was published as a quarterly supplement to the Antiquary between 1892 and 1920.[3]

The Antiquary was printed at Mazgaon, Bombay, by the Bombay Education Society...

'Good morning, Padre,' the Englishman said cheerily. 'I know you by reputation well enough. Meant to have come over and called before this. I'm Creighton.'

'Of the Ethnological Survey?' said Father Victor. The Englishman nodded. 'Faith, I'm glad to meet ye then; an' I owe you some thanks for bringing back the boy.'


-- Kim, by Rudyard Kipling


and later the British India Press, but illustrations were produced in London by the firm of Griggs who were known for the accuracy of their work.[12] A high standard of reproduction was essential so that scholars could work on the epigraphic material without needing to see the originals.[12] Illustrations in the Antiquary were used by scholars such as Bhandarkar, Bhagvanlal Indraji, Georg Bühler, John Faithfull Fleet, Eggeling and B. Lewis Rice to decipher important inscriptions,[13] and in many cases their translations remain the definitive versions to this day.[11]

Over one thousand plates were included in The Indian Antiquary and the Epigraphia Indica over the first fifty years of publication, but having the illustrations produced abroad was not without its disadvantages. On one occasion during World War I, enemy action meant that expensive plates had to be sent from London three times before they reached Bombay safely.[12]

Another area where the Antiquary led was in recording folklore and folktales. Its publication of Punjab folktales was the first attempt to classify the events on which folk tales were based[4] and the pioneering work on north Indian folklore of William Crooke and Pandit Ram Gharib Chaube was printed in its pages.[14]

References

1. Prospectus in The Indian Antiquary, Part 1, 5 January 1872, p. 1.
2. "The Indian Antiquary" in The Antiquaries Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, April 1922, p. 148.
3. Temple, Richard Carnac. (1922) Fifty years of The Indian Antiquary. Mazgaon, Bombay: B. Miller, British India Press, pp. 3-4.
4. Temple, p. 7.
5. Jump up to:a b Indian antiquary. Suncat. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
6. Enthoven, R. E. "Temple, Sir Richard Carnac, second baronet (1850–1931), army officer and oriental scholar". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Revised by Jones, M. G. M. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 10 January 2017. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
7. The Indian Antiquary. Open Library. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
8. New Indian Antiquary. South Asia Archive, 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
9. Indian Antiquary, British Library catalogue search, 29 May 2014.
10. Indian Antiquary, British Library catalogue search, 10 January 2017.
11. Salomon, Richard (1998) (10 December 1998). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan Languages: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan Languages. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-19-535666-3.
12. Temple, p. 6.
13. History, Archaeological Survey of India, 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
14. "Introduction" by Sadhana Naithani in William Crooke; Pandit Ram Gharib Chaube (2002). Folktales from Northern India. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-57607-698-9.

External links

• The Indian Antiquary at archive.org
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Postby admin » Wed Sep 09, 2020 9:48 am

200 years of the Bombay Education Society
by Neil White
April 22, 2015



The Bombay Education Society (BES) celebrates the 200th anniversary of its Foundation in 1815 in Mumbai by the Venerable Archdeacon George Barnes, chaplain of the East India Company at the time. Today, it is the oldest society in the city that is dedicated to this vital cause and runs two schools, Barnes School & Junior College, Devlali, and Christ Church School, Byculla, Mumbai.

A hundred years after East India Company Chaplain Rev. Richard Cobbe founded a small free school in Mumbai (not far from the present Cathedral of St. Thomas, Fort) to house, feed, cloth and educate twelve poor boys, Archdeacon Barnes realised that the charity school could not meet the education needs of hundreds of children and so he appealed for funds. Consequently, The Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor within the Government of Bombay – now known as the Bombay Education Society (BES) – was formed in 1815 with Sir Evan Nepean, then Governor of Bombay, as its first President, to ensure a value based education and good upbringing for underprivileged children.

The first small school was taken over and student numbers grew until it became apparent that new grounds and school buildings were essential. A large, airy site at Byculla was allocated by the government and new school buildings were opened in 1925. Girls students were also provided for. One of the copper plates commemorating the opening is now on the wall of Evans Hall, Barnes School & Junior College, Devlali. The other remains with Christ Church School, Byculla, Mumbai, which along with the parish church there, stands on part of the land originally given to the BES. Much of the land was later sold to help build Barnes School.

The BES schools were primarily boarding schools for Anglo-Indian boys and girls, mainly belonging to the Anglican Church. However, day-scholars from all castes and creeds were also admitted. In the early 20th century, BES amalgamated with the Indo-British Institution, which had been founded in 1837 by Rev. George Candy.

By then, Byculla had become crowded and unhealthy and so, Sir Reginald Spence and Mr. Haig-Brown initiated plans to move the boarding part of the schools away from Bombay to the cooler and healthier Deccan Plateau. A site of more than 250 acres was purchased at Devlali and on November 17, 1923, Sir George Lloyd laid the foundation stone of Evans Hall. Less than two years later, on January 29, 1925, a special train brought the first boarders to Devlali and Barnes School was declared open by Sir Leslie Wilson, Governor of Bombay and patron of the Bombay Education Society.

The memory of Founders and Benefactors is preserved in the names of the buildings – Barnes, Candy, Spence, Haig-Brown and Lloyd. Other names are also remembered. Greaves House is named after Sir John Greaves, a prominent Bombay businessman of the firm Greaves Cotton [diesel, petrol, kerosene, gasoline engines, diesel pump sets, gensets, farm equipment, and construction equipment] who was Director of the Bombay Education Society and Chairman of its Managing Committee. Royal House commemorates Harry Royal, an old boy of the school who became an officer of the Bombay Chamber of Commerce and Honorary Treasurer of the BES for many years. The greatest of them all was the Rev. Thomas Evans. After being Headmaster at the old School at Byculla, he became the first Headmaster of Barnes. Without him, the school would probably not have survived its early years which is why his portrait hangs in Evans Hall, named in his memory when he retired in 1934.

In 1948, the BES faced and overcame a serious threat. The Indian Government decided to phase out the grant-in-aid to Barnes School and Christ Church School, without which the two schools would have to close. William Russell, the Chairman of BES at the time, agreed with the solution proposed by the previous Chairman, Sir John Greaves, which was to sell Barnes School to fund Christ Church School. When the Railway Board of the Central Government offered to buy Barnes School for £ 150,000, he recommended that the Society accept the offer. It was Frank Anthony, the Anglo-Indian nominated member of the Constituent Assembly who advised him to reject the offer as it would spell the doom of Anglo-Indian education in India and the Government of Maharashtra headed by Moraji Desai wanted to abolish English as a medium of instruction, except for those whose mother tongue was English. Aided by an eminent lawyer, Frank Anthony filed a case against the Government of Maharashtra and the crisis was eventually averted. Without the timely intervention of Frank Anthony, Barnes School would not be standing today.

Whilst BES has always stressed on academic excellence and the development of all-round skills through sports and extra curricular activities, it has emphasised a value based education for all students and ensures that they go through a specially created comprehensive course. That is because it is ever mindful of its responsibility to shape the citizens of tomorrow and secure the future of the nation.

Both BES schools, Barnes School & Junior College and Christ Church School, have a long and proud record of distinguished educational service as well as a reputation for imparting a sound moral, intellectual and physical education. They also have a rich heritage of promoting sports, believing that sports is critical to a child’s overall development and nurtures a competitive spirit.

Barnes School was recognised as the No.1 Day-cum-Boarding School in Maharashta and No.15 in India in the 2014 Education World Indian School Rankings. Christ Church School is one of the premier CICSE and Cambridge school in the country. It was voted among the top 10 schools in Mumbai in the Hindustan Times & Digital Magazine survey.
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Ethnological Society of London
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/9/20

The Ethnological Society of London (ESL) was a learned society founded in 1843 as an offshoot of the Aborigines' Protection Society (APS). The meaning of ethnology as a discipline was not then fixed: approaches and attitudes to it changed over its lifetime, with the rise of a more scientific approach to human diversity. Over three decades the ESL had a chequered existence, with periods of low activity and a major schism contributing to a patchy continuity of its meetings and publications. It provided a forum for discussion of what would now be classed as pioneering scientific anthropology from the changing perspectives of the period, though also with wider geographical, archaeological and linguistic interests.

In 1871 the ESL became part of what now is the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, merging back with the breakaway rival group the Anthropological Society of London.

Background

At the time of the Society's foundation, "ethnology" was a neologism. The Société Ethnologique de Paris was founded in 1839,[1] and the Ethnological Society of New York was founded in 1842.[2] An earlier Anthropological Society of London existed from 1837 to 1842; Luke Burke who was a member published an Ethnological Journal in 1848.[3]

The Paris society was set up by William Frederic Edwards, with a definite research programme in mind.[4] Edwards had been lecturing for a decade on the deficiency of considering the races as purely linguistic groups.[5] The Oxford English Dictionary records the term "ethnology" used in English by James Cowles Prichard in 1842, in his Natural History of Man, for the "history of nations". The approach to ethnology current at the time of the Society's founding relied on climate and social factors to explain human diversity; the debate was still framed by Noah's Flood, and the corresponding monogenism of human origins.[6] Prichard was a major figure in looking at human variability from a diachronic angle, and argued for ethnology as such a study, aimed at resolving the question of human origins.[7]

The early days of ethnology saw it in the position of a fringe science.[8] Prichard commented in 1848 that the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) still classed ethnology as a subdivision of natural history, as applied to man.[9] It stayed in Section D for a period, but in 1851 it was classed in a new Section E for Geology and Geography, after lobbying by supporters including Roderick Murchison.[10] The overlap of interests between the ESL and the Royal Geographical Society (RGS) was reflected by common membership.[11]

Around 1860 the discovery of human antiquity and the publication of the Origin of Species caused a fundamental change of perspective, with the older historical approach looking hopeless given the emergence of prehistory, but the biological issue gaining in interest.[12]

Tensions in the Aborigines' Protection Society

Further information: Aborigines' Protection Society

The Aborigines' Protection Society (APS) was set up as a result of parliamentary committee activity, and was largely the initiative of Thomas Fowell Buxton. It produced reports, but in the wake of the Niger expedition of 1841 some of its supporters believed a case made on science was being sidelined in the activities of the APS.[13]

The Niger expedition of 1841 was mounted by British missionary and activist groups in 1841-1842, using three British iron steam vessels to travel to Lokoja, at the confluence of the Niger River and Benue River, in what is now Nigeria. The British government backed the effort to make treaties with the native peoples, introduce Christianity and promote increased trade. The crews of the boats suffered a high mortality from disease.

The expedition was put into motion by an Exeter Hall meeting of 1 June 1840. It was chaired by Prince Albert. The organisers were the Society for the Extinction of the Slave Trade and for the Civilization of Africa, set up in 1839 by Thomas Fowell Buxton. Buxton was promoting a grandiose "New Africa" policy, based on a series of treaties to be made in West Africa, the introduction of Christianity, and increased commerce, as set out in his book the previous year.

-- Niger expedition of 1841, by Wikipedia


The APS was founded by Quakers in order to promote a specific social and political agenda. The Ethnological Society, though primarily a scientific organization, retained some of its predecessor's liberal outlook and activist bent.

Foundation

An ethnological questionnaire was produced by the BAAS in 1841, arising from a committee led by Thomas Hodgkin of the APS, and drawing on prior work in Paris by W. F. Edwards.[14] A prospectus for the Ethnological Society was issued in July 1842 by Richard King; King had been a student under Hodgkin at Guy's Hospital.[15] The Society first met in February 1843 at Hodgkin's house;[16] or on 31 January, when Ernst Dieffenbach read a paper On the Study of Ethnology.[17]

Among the other founders were James Cowles Prichard,[18] John Beddoe[19] and John Brown.[20] Apart from Hodgkin, King and Dieffenbach, the other significant common member with the APS was William Aldam, another Quaker.[21] The Society had Corresponding Members, who counted as Fellows;[22] they later included Hermann Welcker.[23] In the early days the Society had rooms at 27 Sackville Street, which were rented through King to the Westminster Medical Society.[24]

1840s

John Briggs became a Fellow of the ESL in 1845, and Brian Houghton Hodgson, also representing the ethnology of India, was at some point made an Honorary Fellow.[25] William Augustus Miles was a member and published a paper on the aboriginal Australian culture.[26]

After Prichard's death in 1848, the intellectual leader in the Society became Robert Gordon Latham. Links to the Aborigines' Protection Society were retained through the common membership of Hodgkin and Henry Christy, though the break was not completely amicable.[27] The Ethnological Society in its early years lacked good contacts with officialdom, certainly compared to the RGS and its good working relationship with the Colonial Office. Governor George Grey was helpful to the Society, but he was an exception: it took until the end of the decade for the Society to begin to appreciate its marginal position with respect to the flow of information from the British colonies.[28] Grey was an active member of the ESL while abroad as a colonial administrator, and his network included William Ellis, another member.[29]

1850s

In 1850 the Society was based at 17 Savile Row.[30] It saw a period of decline in the middle of the decade.[27] Among active members on the Council was William Devonshire Saull, who died in 1855.[31] George Bellas Greenough was a vice-president.[32] Richard Cull's 1852 report mentioned Singapore connections, in particular James Richardson Logan.[33]

Thomas Richard Heywood Thomson delivered a paper in 1854 to the Society on interfertility, casting doubt on comments of Paweł Edmund Strzelecki about female infertility among Aboriginal Australians after they had given birth to a child with a white father. The communication was well received, but as a contribution to the ongoing debate on race, was far from settling the significant underlying issue.[34]

James Hunt joined the ESL in 1854, and became a divisive figure because of his attacks on humanitarian attitudes of missionaries and abolitionists. He served as secretary from 1859 to 1862.[35] He found an ally in John Crawfurd, who had retired from service as colonial diplomat and administrator for the East India Company. Crawfurd came to ethnology through its section in the BAAS. His published views on race were discordant with the Quaker and APS tradition in the ESL.[36] Hunt and Crawfurd in 1858 tried to dislodge the President Sir James Clark at an ESL meeting, unsuccessfully, while Hodgkin was out of the country.[37]

1860s

The 1860s saw a revived interest in ethnology, triggered by recent work, such as that involving flint implements and the antiquity of man. The Ethnological Society became a more of meeting-place for archaeologists, as its interests kept pace with new work;[38] and during this decade the Society became a very different institution.[39] The society's original members had mainly been military officers, civil servants, and members of the clergy, but by the early 1860s younger scientists had supplanted them. The background was of continuing encounters worldwide with many peoples; John Thomson the photographer who was recording them became a member in 1866.[40] Thomas Henry Huxley, Augustus Lane Fox, Edward Tylor, Henry Christy, John Lubbock, and Augustus Wollaston Franks all figured prominently in the society's affairs after 1860.

The ESL's meetings and journal served as a forum for sharing new ideas, and as a clearing-house for ethnological data. In 1868 the Society set up a Classification Committee to try to get on top of the issues caused by haphazard reporting, and lack of systematic fieldwork.[41] This initiative was a proposal of Lane Fox.[42]

Split and merger

In the years after the publication of the Origin of Species in 1859, the "Ethnologicals" generally supported Charles Darwin against his critics, and rejected the more extreme forms of scientific racism. The movement towards Darwinism was not one way, however, as evidenced by the Honorary Fellowship given to Robert Knox in 1860.[43]

Robert Knox FRSE FRCSE MWS (4 September 1791 – 20 December 1862) was a Scottish anatomist, zoologist, ethologist and physician. He was a lecturer on anatomy in Edinburgh, where he introduced the theory of transcendental anatomy.

He is, however, now mainly remembered for his involvement in the Burke and Hare murders. An incautious approach to obtaining cadavers for dissection after the passage of the Anatomy Act and disagreements with professional colleagues ruined his career. A move to London did not improve matters.

His later pessimistic view of humanity contrasted sharply with his youthful attachment to the ideas of Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Knox also devoted the latter part of his life to theorising on evolution and ethnology, as well as being one of the pioneers of scientific racism in Britain. His work on the latter further harmed his legacy and overshadowed his contributions to evolutionary theory...

Knox returned to Edinburgh by Christmas 1822. On 1 December 1823 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh...

Before the Anatomy Act of 1832 widened the supply, the main legal supply of corpses for anatomical purposes in the UK were those condemned to death and dissection by the courts. This led to a chronic shortage of legitimate subjects for dissection, and this shortage became more serious as the need to train medical students grew, and the number of executions fell. In his school Knox ran up against the problem from the start, since—after 1815—the Royal Colleges had increased the anatomical work in the medical curriculum. If he taught according to what was known as 'French method' the ratio would have had to approach one corpse per pupil.

As a consequence, body-snatching became so prevalent that it was not unusual for relatives and friends of someone who had just died to watch over the body until burial, and then to keep watch over the grave after burial, to stop it being violated.

In November 1827, William Hare began a new career when an indebted lodger died on him by chance. He was paid £7.10s (seven pounds & ten shillings) for delivering the body to Knox's dissecting rooms at Surgeons' Square. Now Hare and his accomplice, William Burke, set about murdering the city’s poor on a regular basis. After 16 more transactions, each netting £8-10, in what later became known as the West Port Murders, on 2 November 1828 Burke and Hare were caught, and the whole city convulsed with horror, fed by ballads, broadsides, and newspapers, at the reported deeds of the pair. Hare turned King's evidence, and Burke was hanged, dissected and his remains displayed.

Knox was not prosecuted, which outraged many in Edinburgh. His house was attacked by a mob of 'the lowest rabble of the Old Town,' and windows were broken. A committee of the Royal Society of Edinburgh exonerated him on the grounds that he had not dealt personally with Burke and Hare, but there was no forgetting his part in the case, and many remained wary of him.

Almost immediately after the Burke and Hare case, the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh began to harry him, and by June 1831 they had procured his resignation as the Curator of the museum he had proposed and founded. In the same year he was obliged to resign his army commission to avoid further service in the Cape. This removed his last source of guaranteed income, but fortunately his classes were more popular than ever, with a record 504 students. His school moved to the grander premises of Old Surgeons' Hall in 1833 but his class declined after Edinburgh University made its own practical anatomy class compulsory in the mid-1830s. Knox continued to purchase cadavers for his dissection class from such shadowy figures as the 'Black Bull Man,' but the 1832 Anatomy Act made bodies more available to all anatomists, he quarrelled with HM Inspector of Anatomy over the supply of bodies, and his competitive edge was lost. In 1837 Knox applied for the chair in pathology at Edinburgh University but his candidature was blocked by eleven existing professors, who preferred to abolish the post rather than appoint him. In 1842 he was unable to make payments to the Edinburgh funeratory system, from which bodies were supplied to private schools, and he relocated to Glasgow where, still short of subjects for dissection, he closed his school in 1844. In 1847 the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh found him guilty of falsifying a student's certificate of attendance (a not uncommon practice in private schools) and refused to accept any further certificates from him, effectively banning him from teaching in Scotland. In the same year he was expelled from the Royal Society of Edinburgh and had his election retrospectively cancelled...

[U]ntil 1856 he worked on medical journalism, gave public lectures, and wrote several books, including his most ambitious work, The Races of Men in which he argued that each race was suited to its environment and "perfect in its own way."...

In his best-selling work, The Races of Men (1850), a "Zoological history" of mankind, Knox exaggerated supposed racial differences in support of his project, asserting that, anatomically and behaviourally, "race, or hereditary descent, is everything". He offered crude characterisations of each racial group: for example the Saxon (in which race he included himself) "invents nothing", "has no musical ear", lacks "genius", and is so "low and boorish" that "he does not know what you mean by fine art". No race was without its redeeming features, however; Knox described Saxons as "[t]houghtful, plodding, industrious beyond all other races, [and] a lover of labour for labour's sake". Such supposed racial characteristics meant that each race was naturally fitted for a particular environment and could not endure outside of it. While Knox maintained that all races were capable of some form civilized life, he maintained that a vast gulf stood between the limited attainments available to the 'negroid' and to most 'mongoloid' races on one hand and the much greater past achievements and future potential of white men on the other. The Black, Knox remarked, 'is no more a white man than an ass is a horse or a zebra'. Ultimately however, all races were "[d]estined ... to run, like all other animals, a certain limited course of existence", it mattering "little how their extinction is brought about". In 1862 Knox took the opportunity of a second edition of The Races of Men to defend the "much maligned races" of the Cape against accusations of cannibalism, and to rebuke the Dutch for treating them like "wild beasts".

From the perspective of a Lowland Scot Protestant, Knox's racist works espoused extreme racial hostility to Celts in general (including the Highland Scots and Welsh people, but particularly the Irish people). He considered the "Caledonian Celt" as touching "the end of his career: they are reduced to about one hundred and fifty thousand" and that the "Welsh Celts are not troublesome, but might easily become so." For Knox, "the Irish Celt is the most to be dreaded" and openy advocated their ethnic cleansing around the time that the Great Famine was happening, stating in The Races of Men: A Fragment (1850): "The source of all evil lies in the race, the Celtic race of Ireland. There is no getting over historical facts. Look at Wales, look at Caledonia; it is ever the same. [...] The race must be forced from the soil; by fair means, if possible; still they must leave. The Orange club of Ireland is a Saxon confederation for the clearing the land of all Papists and Jacobites; this means Celts. If left to themselves, they would clear them out, as Cromwell proposed, by the sword; it would not require six weeks to accomplish the work. But the Encumbered Estates Relief Bill will do it better."

-- Robert Knox, by Wikipedia


The Anthropological Society of London (ASL) was founded in 1863 as an institutional home for those who disagreed with the Ethnological Society's politics (in terms of party loyalties, Stocking makes the political complexion of the ESL 75% Liberal to 25% Conservative, with the proportions reversed in the ASL).[44] On the topic of race, the Ethnological Society retained views descending from Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, who had a five-race theory but was a monogenist, and from Prichard. The post-Darwin concept of human speciation was unacceptable to those forming the Anthropological Society.[45]

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (11 May 1752 – 22 January 1840) was a German physician, naturalist, physiologist, and anthropologist. He was one of the first to explore the study of the human being as an aspect of natural history. His teachings in comparative anatomy were applied to his classification of human races, of which he claimed there were five, Caucasian, Mongolian, Malayan, Ethiopian, and American. He was a member of the Göttingen School of History.

Blumenbach's peers considered him one of the great theorists of his day, and he was a mentor or influence on many of the next generation of German biologists, including Alexander von Humboldt...

Blumenbach's work included his description of sixty human crania (skulls) published originally in fascicules as Decas craniorum (Göttingen, 1790–1828). This was a founding work for other scientists in the field of craniometry. He divided the human species into five races in 1779, later founded on crania research (description of human skulls)...

Further anatomical study led him to the conclusion that 'individual Africans differ as much, or even more, from other Africans as from Europeans'.

Blumenbach argued that physical characteristics like skin color, cranial profile, etc., depended on geography, diet, and mannerism.

Like other monogenists such as Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, Blumenbach held to the "degenerative hypothesis" of racial origins. Blumenbach claimed that Adam and Eve were Caucasian inhabitants of Asia (see Asia hypothesis), and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors such as the sun and poor diet. Thus, he claimed, Negroid pigmentation arose because of the result of the heat of the tropical sun, while the cold wind caused the tawny colour of the Eskimos, and the Chinese were fair-skinned compared to the other Asian stocks because they kept mostly in towns protected from environmental factors. He believed that the degeneration could be reversed in a proper environmental control and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race...

He did not consider his "degenerative hypothesis" as racist and sharply criticized Christoph Meiners, an early practitioner of scientific racialism, as well as Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring, who concluded from autopsies that Africans were an inferior race. Blumenbach wrote three other essays stating non-white peoples were capable of excelling in arts and sciences in reaction against racialists of his time...


His ideas were adopted by other researchers who used them to encourage scientific racism....

Scientific racism, sometimes termed biological racism, is the pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority. Historically, scientific racism received credence throughout the scientific community, but it is no longer considered scientific. Dividing humankind into biologically distinct groups is sometimes called racialism or race realism by its proponents. Modern scientific consensus rejects this view as being irreconcilable with modern genetic research.

Scientific racism employs anthropology (notably physical anthropology), anthropometry, craniometry, and other disciplines or pseudo-disciplines, in proposing anthropological typologies supporting the classification of human populations into physically discrete human races, some of which might be asserted to be superior or inferior to others. Scientific racism was common during the period from the 1600s to the end of World War II. Since the second half of the 20th century, scientific racism has been criticized as obsolete and discredited, yet has persistently been used to support or validate racist world-views, based upon belief in the existence and significance of racial categories and a hierarchy of superior and inferior races.

After the end of World War II, scientific racism in theory and action was formally denounced, especially in UNESCO's early antiracist statement "The Race Question" (1950): "The biological fact of race and the myth of 'race' should be distinguished. For all practical social purposes 'race' is not so much a biological phenomenon as a social myth. The myth of 'race' has created an enormous amount of human and social damage. In recent years, it has taken a heavy toll in human lives, and caused untold suffering." Since that time, developments in human evolutionary genetics and physical anthropology have led to a new consensus among anthropologists that human race is a sociopolitical phenomenon rather than a biological one.

The term scientific racism is generally used pejoratively when applied to more modern theories, such as those in The Bell Curve (1994). Critics argue that such works postulate racist conclusions, such as a genetic connection between race and intelligence, that are unsupported by available evidence. Publications such as the Mankind Quarterly, founded explicitly as a "race-conscious" journal, are generally regarded as platforms of scientific racism because they publish fringe interpretations of human evolution, intelligence, ethnography, language, mythology, archaeology, and race.

-- Scientific racism, by Wikipedia


Blumenbach held that all living organisms "from man down to maggots, and from the cedar to common mould or mucor," possess an inherent "effort or tendency which, while life continues, is active and operative; in the first instance to attain the definite form of the species, then to preserve it entire, and, when it is infringed upon, so far as this is possible, to restore it." This power of vitality is "not referable to any qualities merely physical, chemical, or mechanical."

-- Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, by Wikipedia


Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species. The biologist Orator F. Cook coined the term in 1906 for cladogenesis, the splitting of lineages, as opposed to anagenesis, phyletic evolution within lineages. Charles Darwin was the first to describe the role of natural selection in speciation in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species.[4] He also identified sexual selection as a likely mechanism, but found it problematic.

There are four geographic modes of speciation in nature, based on the extent to which speciating populations are isolated from one another: allopatric, peripatric, parapatric, and sympatric. Speciation may also be induced artificially, through animal husbandry, agriculture, or laboratory experiments. Whether genetic drift is a minor or major contributor to speciation is the subject matter of much ongoing discussion.

Rapid sympatric speciation can take place through polyploidy, such as by doubling of chromosome number; the result is progeny which are immediately reproductively isolated from the parent population. New species can also be created through hybridisation followed, if the hybrid is favoured by natural selection, by reproductive isolation.

-- Speciation, by Wikipedia


The two societies co-existed warily for several years. The X Club, with members in common, supported the Ethnological Society's side of the debate.[46]

The X Club was a dining club of nine men who supported the theories of natural selection and academic liberalism in late 19th-century England. Thomas Henry Huxley was the initiator; he called the first meeting for 3 November 1864. The club met in London once a month—except in July, August and September—from November 1864 until March 1893, and its members are believed to have wielded much influence over scientific thought. The members of the club were George Busk, Edward Frankland, Thomas Archer Hirst, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Thomas Henry Huxley, John Lubbock, Herbert Spencer, William Spottiswoode, and John Tyndall, united by a "devotion to science, pure and free, untrammelled by religious dogmas.

The nine men who would compose the X Club already knew each other well. By the 1860s, friendships had turned the group into a social network, and the men often dined and went on holidays together. After Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species was published in 1859, the men began working together to aid the cause for naturalism and natural history. They backed the liberal Anglican movement that emerged in the early 1860s, and both privately and publicly supported the leaders of the movement.

According to its members, the club was originally started to keep friends from drifting apart, and to partake in scientific discussion free from theological influence. A key aim was to reform the Royal Society, with a view to making the practice of science professional. In the 1870s and 1880s, the members of the group became prominent in the scientific community and some accused the club of having too much power in shaping the scientific landscape of London. The club was terminated in 1893, after depletion by death, and as old age made regular meetings of the surviving members impossible....

The X Club came together during a period of turbulent conflict in both science and religion in Victorian England. The publication in 1859 of Charles Darwin's book On the Origin of Species through Natural Selection brought a storm of argument, with the scientific establishment of wealthy amateurs and clerical naturalists as well as the Church of England attacking this new development. Since the start of the 19th century they had seen evolutionism as an assault on the divinely ordained aristocratic social order. On the other side, Darwin's ideas on evolution were welcomed by liberal theologians and by a new generation of salaried professional scientists; the men who would later come to form the X Club supported Darwin, and saw his work as a great stride in the struggle for freedom from clerical interference in science. The members of the X social network played a significant part in nominating Darwin for the Copley Medal in 1864.

In 1860, Essays and Reviews, a collection of essays on Christianity written by a group of liberal Anglicans, was published. The collection represented a summation of a nearly century-long challenge to the history and prehistory of the Bible by higher critics as well as geologists and biologists. In short, the writers of Essays and Reviews sought to analyse the Bible like any other work of literature. At the time, Essays created more of a stir than Darwin's book. The members of the X network backed the collection, and Lubbock even sought to form an alliance between liberal Anglicans and scientists. Two liberal Anglican theologians were convicted of heresy, and when the government overturned the judgement on appeal, Samuel Wilberforce, the High Church and the evangelicals organised petitions and a mass backlash against evolution. At the Anglican convocation, the evangelicals presented a declaration reaffirming their faith in the harmony of God's word and his works and tried to make this a compulsory "Fortieth Article" of faith. They took their campaign to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, aiming to overthrow Huxley's "dangerous clique" of Darwin's allies.

In 1862, Bishop John William Colenso of Natal published The Pentateuch and Book of Joshua Critically Examined, an analysis of the first five books of the Old Testament. In his analysis Colenso used mathematics and concepts of population dynamics, including examinations of food supply and transportation, to show that the first five books of the Bible were faulty and unreliable. Outrage broke out within the Church of England, and the X network not only gave their support to Colenso, but at times even dined with him to discuss his ideas.

Later, in 1863, a new rift began to emerge within the scientific community over race theory. Debate was stirred up when the Anthropological Society of London, which rejected Darwinian theory, claimed that slavery was defensible based on the theory of evolution proposed by Darwin. The members of what would become the X Club sided with the Ethnological Society of London, which denounced slavery and embraced academic liberalism. The men of the X Club, especially Lubbock, Huxley, and Busk, felt that dissension and the "jealousies of theological sects" within learned societies were damaging, and they attempted to limit the contributions the Anthropological Society made to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, a society of which they were all members.

Thus, by 1864, the members of the X Club were joined in a fight, both public and private, to unite the London scientific community with the objective of furthering the ideas of academic liberalism.

-- X Club, by Wikipedia


Both societies took an interest in sexual morality as a topic, but the attitude of social evolutionism was very largely restricted to the Ethnological Society, where John Ferguson McLennan was a member, with the exception of Charles Staniland Wake who made little impact at the time.[47][48] Huxley made efforts to merge the societies in 1866, but was blocked by Crawfurd; the attempt was renewed in 1868 after Crawfurd's death.[49] The Ethnological Society and Anthropological Society merged in 1871 into the Anthropological Institute. A small group of past supporters of Hunt broke away in 1873, forming a London Anthropological Society that lasted two years.[50]

Publications

Initially the Ethnological Society did not aim to publish its own learned journal. Instead it adopted a suggestion of Robert Jameson, who edited the Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, to have its transactions published there.[51] The early flow of published papers was in fact sparse.[52] Volume 46 from 1848 contained papers by George Ruxton and James Henry Skene contributed via the Ethnological Society.[53]

The Journal of the Ethnological Society of London was published in the years 1848 to 1856, a period in which four volumes appeared, and the Society's scientific activities were less marginal.[52] It was edited by Thomas Wright.[51] It then was published once more, under the title Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, from 1861 to 1869; it was renamed and published, from 1869 to 1870, again as Journal of the Ethnological Society of London,[54] and was edited by George Busk.[55]

Presidents

• 1843 Charles Malcolm[56]
• 1848 James Cowles Prichard
• 1850 Charles Malcolm.[30]
• 1853–4 Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 1st Baronet[57][58][59]
• 1855–6 John Conolly[57][60]
• Sir James Clark
• 1861–? John Crawfurd
• 1863–5 John Lubbock[61]
• 1865-8 John Crawfurd[62]
• 1868-9 Thomas Huxley[63]
• Before merger: George Busk[64]

References

• Efram Sera-Shriar, The Making of British Anthropology, 1813–1871, London: Pickering and Chatto, 2013, pp. 53–79.
• Brent Henze, Scientific Definition in Rhetorical Formations: Race as "Permanent Variety" in James Cowles Prichard's Ethnology, Rhetoric Review Vol. 23, No. 4 (2004), pp. 311–331. Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. JSTOR 20176631
• Ronald Rainger, Philanthropy and Science in the 1830s: The British and Foreign Aborigines' Protection Society, Man, New Series, Vol. 15, No. 4 (Dec., 1980), pp. 702–717. Published by: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. JSTOR 2801541
• Damon Ieremia Salesa (2011), Racial Crossings: Race, intermarriage, and the Victorian British Empire; Google Books.
• George W. Stocking, Jr. (1987), Victorian Anthropology

Notes

1. Waterloo Chronology of Scholarly Societies, 1830s
2. Michael Keevak, Becoming Yellow: A Short History of Racial Thinking (2011), p. 162 note 32; Google Books.
3. Richard Handler, Excluded Ancestors, Inventible Traditions: essays toward a more inclusive history of anthropology (2000), pp. 24–25 with note 7; Google Books.
4. Henrika Kuklick, New History of Anthropology (2009), p. 98; Google Books.
5. Stocking, p. 27.
6. Nicholas Jardine, James A. Secord, Emma C. Spary, Cultures of Natural History (1996), p. 339; Google Books.
7. Sadiah Qureshi, Peoples on Parade: Exhibitions, Empire, and Anthropology in Nineteenth-Century Britain (2011), p. 327 note 60; Google Books.
8. Salesa, p. 145; Google Books.
9. J. C. Prichard, On the Relations of Ethnology to Other Branches of Knowledge, Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (1848–1856) , Vol. 1, (1848), pp. 301–329. Published by: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. doi:10.2307/3014091. JSTOR 3014091.
10. Paul Sillitoe, The Role Of Section H at the British Association for the Advancement of Science in the History Of Anthropology Archived 2012-10-19 at the Wayback Machine, Durham Anthropology Journal.
11. Notably Richard Francis Burton, John Crawfurd, Francis Galton, Frederick Hindmarsh, Thomas Hodgkin, William Spottiswoode, and Alfred Russel Wallace. David N. Livingstone, The Geographical Tradition: episodes in the history of a contested enterprise (1993), p. 163; Google Books.
12. Stocking, p. 76.
13. Stocking, pp. 241–5.
14. Philip D. Curtin (1973). Image of Africa: British Ideas and Action, 1780–1850. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-299-83026-7. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
15. Stocking, p. 244.
16. ESL archives.
17. Robert Grant, New Zealand ‘Naturally’: Ernst Dieffenbach, Environmental Determinism and the Mid Nineteenth-Century British Colonization of New Zealand, New Zealand Journal of History, 37, 1 (2003) at p. 25; PDF.
18. RAI page: Prichard centenary.
19. Richardson, Angelique. "Beddoe, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/30666. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
20. Baigent, Elizabeth. "Brown, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/3629. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
21. Rainger, p. 711.
22. RAI page: Local Correspondents.
23. Hermann Welcker and J. B. D., On the Skull of Dante, Anthropological Review , Vol. 5, No. 16 (Jan., 1867), pp. 56–71. Published by: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. doi:10.2307/3024871. JSTOR 3024871.
24. D. Zuck, The Westminster Medical Society 1809–1850, The History of Anaesthesia Society Proceedings vol. 42 (2010), pp. 9–25; ISSN 1360-6891; PDF, at p. 16.
25. Jan van Bremen, Akitoshi Shimizu, Anthropology and Colonialism in Asia and Oceania (1999), p. 87 note 33; Google Books.
26. Henze, p. 327.
27. George W. Stocking, Jr., What's in a Name: The Origins of the Royal Anthropological Institute (1837–71), at pp. 372–3, Man, New Series volume 6 issue 3, (Sep. 1971), 369–390; PDF.
28. Salesa, p. 146; Google Books.
29. Salesa, p. 155; Google Books.
30. Regulations of the Ethnological Society of London (1850); JSTOR 3014129.
31. Desmond, Adrian. "Saull, William Devonshire". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/24683. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
32. RAI page: Archive Contents 44 Archived 2012-04-20 at the Wayback Machine.
33. Journal of the Ethnological Society of London vol. III (1854), p. 171;archive.org.
34. Salesa, pp. 134–5; Google Books.
35. Brock, W. H. "Hunt, James". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14194. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
36. Terry Jay Ellingson, The Myth of the Noble Savage (2001), p. 265; Google Books.
37. Ellingson, p. 275; Google Books.
38. Stocking, pp. 246–7.
39. Andrew L. Christenson, Tracing Archaeology's Past: the historiography of archaeology (1989), p. 155; Google Books.
40. Reed Institute, biography of Thomson.
41. Mark Bowden, Pitt Rivers: the life and archaeological work of Lieutenant-General Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt Rivers, DCL, FRS, FSA (1991), p. 45; Google Books.
42. Rethinking Pitt-Rivers: A year in the life: 1869.
43. Adrian J. Desmond, The Politics of Evolution: morphology, medicine, and reform in radical London (1992), p. 425; Google Books.
44. Stocking, p. 251.
45. Bronwen Douglas, Chris Ballard, Foreign Bodies: Oceania and the science of race 1750–1940 (2008), p. 206; Google Books.
46. Ruth Barton, X Club (act. 1864–1892), ODNB theme.
47. Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman (editors), Race and other Misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu in his ninetieth year (1996), p. 350; Google Books.
48. Lester Richard Hiatt, Arguments about Aborigines: Australia and the evolution of social anthropology (1996), p. 40; Google Books.
49. Stocking, p. 255.
50. Douglas A. Lorimer, Colour, Class and the Victorians (1978), pp. 158–9.
51. RAI page: Ethnological Society of London. Publications.
52. Stocking, p. 245.
53. Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal (1848 – 1849 (Oct. – Apr.)) Volume 46; archive.org and later page.
54. https://www.lib.uchicago.edu/e/su/anthro/antelect.html
55. Foote, Yolanda. "Busk, George". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4168. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
56. Richard Cull, Obituary Notice of the Late Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Malcolm, President of the Ethnological Society, Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (1848–1856) , Vol. 3, (1854), pp. 112–114. Published by: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. JSTOR 3014137.
57. Obituary of Conolly in the Transactions of 1867; archive.org.
58. http://web.prm.ox.ac.uk/rpr/images/stor ... nology.pdf[permanent dead link]
59. Presidential Address 1853.
60. R. J. Cooter, Phrenology and British Alienists, c. 1825–1845: Part I: Converts to a Doctrine p. 16 note 62; PDF.
61. Steven Mithen, After the Ice: a global human history, 20,000–5000 BC (2006), p. 514; Google Books.
62. Transactions, list of officers; archive.org.
63. Adrian Desmond, Huxley: The Devil's Disciple (1994), p. 371.
64. BMA obituary, p. 346; PDF.

External links

• WorldCat page
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Wed Sep 09, 2020 10:33 am

Anthropological Society of London
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/9/20

Debate was stirred up when the Anthropological Society of London, which rejected Darwinian theory, claimed that slavery was defensible based on the theory of evolution proposed by Darwin. The members of what would become the X Club sided with the Ethnological Society of London, which denounced slavery and embraced academic liberalism. The men of the X Club, especially Lubbock, Huxley, and Busk, felt that dissension and the "jealousies of theological sects" within learned societies were damaging, and they attempted to limit the contributions the Anthropological Society made to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, a society of which they were all members.

-- X Club, by Wikipedia


The Anthropological Society of London was founded in 1863 by Richard Francis Burton and Dr. James Hunt. It broke away from the existing Ethnological Society of London, founded in 1843, and defined itself in opposition to the older society. The Anthropological Society, Hunt proclaimed, would concern itself with the collection of facts and the identification of natural laws that explained the diversity of humankind. It would also cast its intellectual nets more broadly, dealing with the physical as well as the cultural aspects of humans.

Polygenism versus monogenism

The real differences between the two societies ran much deeper. The members of the Ethnological Society were, on the whole, inclined to believe that humans were shaped by their environment; when Charles Darwin published his theory of evolution by natural selection, they supported it. They also believed in monogenism and tended to be politically liberal, especially on matters related to race.

Hunt and his closest followers tended to be supporters of polygenism and sceptical of Darwin (though they made him an honorary fellow).[1] They found the Ethnological Society's politics distasteful, and (for example) supported the Confederacy in the American Civil War. The issue that most sharply divided the two groups was the "Negro question." In his opening speech to the society he enunciated a strong racist view:


Whatever may be the conclusion to which our scientific inquiries may lead us, we should always remember, that by whatever means the Negro, for instance, acquired his present physical, mental and moral character, whether he has risen from an ape or descended from a perfect man, we still know that the Races of Europe have now much in their mental and moral nature which the races of Africa have not got.[2]


However he was careful to distance himself from the slave trade:

A serious charge has been made against the American School of Anthropology, when it is affirmed that their interest in keeping up slavery induced the scientific men of that country to advocate a distinct origin for the African race...I would therefore express a hope that the objects of this Society will never be prostituted to such an object as the support of the slave trade, with all its abuses.[3]


He did this by redefining slavery such [that] it did not occur in America:

Our Bristol and Liverpool merchants, perhaps, helped to benefit the race when they transplanted some of them to America; and our mistaken legislature has done the Negro race much injury by their absurd and unwarrantable attempts to prevent Africa from exporting her worthless or surplus population...I cannot shut my eyes to the fact that slavery as understood by the ancients does not exist out of Africa and that the highest type of the Negro race is at present to be found in the Confederate States of America.[4]


According to noted Darwin biographers Adrian Desmond and James Moore, however, founder James Hunt was a paid agent of the Confederate States of America, as was his friend Henry Hotze and two other council members. Their purpose in founding the society was "to swing London opinion during the [American Civil] war." Hunt and Hotze put pro-slavery pseudoscience into the Anthropological Society library, "bought journalists, printed and distributed thousands of pamphlets,... ran a propaganda weekly in Fleet Street, The Index..." and in general promoted the pro-slavery dogma that black people were a separate species and inherently capable of no higher development than that of enslavement.[5]

Merger

In 1864, Hunt attempted to persuade the British Association to rename Section E (Geography and Ethnology) to include Anthropology and in 1865 his attempt create a new Anthropology sub-section devoted to the study of man was strongly resisted by others. However with the support of T. H. Huxley it was created under Biology section D in 1866, and in 1869, Section E dropped the "Ethnology" part of its title.[6]

At the same time, Hunt's position was weakened by an allegation made by one of the members, Hyde Clarke, about the finances of the organisation. Although he managed to satisfy the other members and expel Clarke, the stress seriously affected his health.

A merger of the two organisations was already under way before Hunt died early at a young age in 1869, and in 1871 they formed the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland.

Other organisations

In 1863, Richard Burton and others founded a breakaway London Anthropological Society which for several years published a journal "Anthropologia". Burton said "My motive was to supply travellers with an organ that would rescue their observations from the outer darkness of manuscripts and print their curious information on social and sexual matters out of place in the popular book".[7]

There was also an Anthropological Society of London founded in 1836 by John Isaac Hawkins which had more to do with phrenology.[8]

Publications

• Memoirs read before the Anthropological Society of London Vol 1:1863-4, 2:1865-6, 3:1867-9
• Journal of the Anthropological Society of London Vol 7:1868
• Anthropological Review. Vol 1, 2:1864, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8:1870
• Journal of Anthropology. No. I-III:1870-1.
• 'The Popular Magazine of Anthropology. Vol 1
• Anthropologia. Vol. 1. London: Baillière, Tindall and Cox. [1873-1875]

References

1. Memoirs of the Anthropological Society of London, 2
2. James Hunt, President (February 24, 1863), Introductory address on the study of Anthropology, The Anthropological Review, 1, p. 3
3. Hunt 1863, p. 4
4. James Hunt, President (1865), On the Negro's place in Nature, The Anthropological Review, 3, pp. 53–4
5. Darwin's Sacred Cause: How a hatred of slavery shaped Darwin's views on human evolution, A Desmond and J Moore, 2009 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston/NYC; quotes from p. 332-3
6. Sillitoe, Paul, "The Role Of Section H At The British Association For The Advancement Of Science In The History Of Anthropology", Durham Anthropology Journal, 13 (2), ISSN 1742-2930, archived from the original on 2012-10-19, retrieved 2011-06-05
7. Thomas Wright, The Life of Richard Burton, p. 65
8. Jorian, P., "The first anthropological society", Man, New, 1: 142, JSTOR 2801983

Further reading

Efram Sera-Shriar, ‘Observing Human Difference: James Hunt, Thomas Huxley, and Competing Disciplinary Strategies in the 1860s’, Annals of Science, 70 (2013), 461-491
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Wed Sep 09, 2020 10:50 am

Richard Francis Burton [Mirza Abdullah the Bushri] [Hâjî Abdû El-Yezdî] [Frank Baker]
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/9/20

Image
Sir Richard Francis Burton, KCMG FRGS
Burton in 1864
Born: 19 March 1821, Torquay, Devon, England
Died: 20 October 1890 (aged 69), Trieste, Austria-Hungary
Burial place: St Mary Magdalen Roman Catholic Church, Mortlake, London, England
Nationality: British
Other names: Mirza Abdullah the Bushri; Hâjî Abdû El-Yezdî; Frank Baker
Alma mater: Trinity College, Oxford
Occupation: Soldier, diplomat, explorer, translator, arabist, author
Notable work: Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al Madinah and Meccah; The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night; The Kasidah
Spouse(s): Isabel Arundell ​(m. 1861)
Military career
Nickname(s): Ruffian Dick
Allegiance: British Empire
Service/branch: Bombay Army
Years of service: 1842–1861
Rank: Captain
Battles/wars: Crimea War
Awards: Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George; Crimea Medal

Sir Richard Francis Burton KCMG FRGS (/ˈbɜːrtən/; 19 March 1821 – 20 October 1890) was a British explorer, geographer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, cartographer, ethnologist, spy,[1] linguist, poet, fencer, and diplomat. He was famed for his travels and explorations in Asia, Africa and the Americas, as well as his extraordinary knowledge of languages and cultures. According to one count, he spoke 29 European, Asian and African languages.[2]

Burton's best-known achievements include: a well-documented journey to Mecca in disguise, at a time when Europeans were forbidden access on pain of death; an unexpurgated translation of One Thousand and One Nights (commonly called The Arabian Nights in English after early translations of Antoine Galland's French version); the publication of the Kama Sutra in English; a translation of The Perfumed Garden, the Arab Kama Sutra; and a journey with John Hanning Speke as the first Europeans to visit the Great Lakes of Africa in search of the source of the Nile.

His works and letters extensively criticised colonial policies of the British Empire, even to the detriment of his career. Although he aborted his university studies, he became a prolific and erudite author and wrote numerous books and scholarly articles about subjects including human behaviour, travel, falconry, fencing, sexual practices, and ethnography. A characteristic feature of his books is the copious footnotes and appendices containing remarkable observations and information. William Henry Wilkins wrote: "So far as I can gather from all I have learned, the chief value of Burton’s version of The Scented Garden lay not so much in his translation of the text, though that of course was admirably done, as in the copious notes and explanations which he had gathered together for the purpose of annotating the book. He had made this subject a study of years. For the notes of the book alone he had been collecting material for thirty years, though his actual translation of it only took him eighteen months."[3]

Burton was a captain in the army of the East India Company, serving in India, and later briefly in the Crimean War. Following this, he was engaged by the Royal Geographical Society to explore the east coast of Africa, where he led an expedition guided by locals and was the first European known to have seen Lake Tanganyika. In later life, he served as British consul in Fernando Pó (now Bioko, Equatorial Guinea), Santos in Brazil, Damascus (Ottoman Syria), and finally in Trieste. He was a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and was awarded a knighthood in 1886.[4]

Biography

Early life and education (1821–1841)


Burton was born in Torquay, Devon, at 21:30 on 19 March 1821; in his autobiography, he incorrectly claimed to have been born in the family home at Barham House in Elstree in Hertfordshire.[5][6] He was baptized on 2 September 1821 at Elstree Church in Borehamwood, Hertfordshire.[7] His father, Lt.-Colonel Joseph Netterville Burton, of the 36th Regiment, was an Irish-born British army officer of Anglo-Irish extraction who through his mother's family—the Campbells of Tuam—was a first cousin of Lt.-Colonel Henry Peard Driscoll and Mrs Richard Graves. Richard's mother, Martha Baker, was the daughter and co-heiress of a wealthy English squire, Richard Baker (1762–1824), of Barham House, Hertfordshire, for whom he was named. Burton had two siblings, Maria Katherine Elizabeth Burton (who married Lt.-General Sir Henry William Stisted) and Edward Joseph Netterville Burton, born in 1823 and 1824, respectively.[8]

Burton's family travelled extensively during his childhood and employed various tutors to educate him. In 1825, they moved to Tours in France. In 1829, Burton began a formal education at a preparatory school in Richmond Green in Richmond, Surrey, run by Reverend Charles Delafosse.[9] Over the next few years, his family travelled between England, France, and Italy. Burton showed a talent to learn languages and quickly learned French, Italian, Neapolitan and Latin, as well as several dialects. During his youth, he allegedly had an affair with a Roma girl and learned the rudiments of the Romani language. The peregrinations of his youth may have encouraged Burton to regard himself as an outsider for much of his life. As he put it, "Do what thy manhood bids thee do, from none but self expect applause".[10]

Burton matriculated at Trinity College, Oxford, on 19 November 1840. Before getting a room at the college, he lived for a short time in the house of William Alexander Greenhill, then doctor at the Radcliffe Infirmary. Here, he met John Henry Newman, whose churchwarden was Greenhill. Despite his intelligence and ability, Burton was antagonised by his teachers and peers. During his first term, he is said to have challenged another student to a duel after the latter mocked Burton's moustache. Burton continued to gratify his love of languages by studying Arabic; he also spent his time learning falconry and fencing. In April 1842, he attended a steeplechase in deliberate violation of college rules and subsequently dared to tell the college authorities that students should be allowed to attend such events. Hoping to be merely "rusticated"—that is, suspended with the possibility of reinstatement, the punishment received by some less provocative students who had also visited the steeplechase—he was instead permanently expelled from Trinity College.[11]

According to Ed Rice, speaking on Burton's university days, "He stirred the bile of the dons by speaking real - that is, Roman-Latin instead of the artificial type peculiar to England, and he spoke Greek Romaically, with the accent of Athens, as he had learned it from a greek merchant at Marseilles, as well as the classical forms. Such a linguistic feat was a tribute to Burton's remarkable ear and memory, for he was only a teenager when he was in Italy and southern France.[12]

Army career (1842–1853)

Image
Burton in Persian disguise as "Mirza Abdullah the Bushri" (c. 1849–50)

In his own words, "fit for nothing but to be shot at for six pence a day",[13] Burton enlisted in the army of the East India Company at the behest of his ex-college classmates who were already members. He hoped to fight in the first Afghan war, but the conflict was over before he arrived in India. He was posted to the 18th Bombay Native Infantry based in Gujarat and under the command of General Charles James Napier.[14] While in India, he became a proficient speaker of Hindustani, Gujarati, Punjabi, Sindhi, Saraiki and Marathi as well as Persian and Arabic. His studies of Hindu culture had progressed to such an extent that "my Hindu teacher officially allowed me to wear the janeo (Brahmanical Thread)".[15] Him Chand, his gotra teacher, a Nagar Brahmin, could have been an apostate.[16] Burton's interest (and active participation) in the cultures and religions of India was considered peculiar by some of his fellow soldiers, who accused him of "going native" and called him "the White Nigger".[17] Burton did have many peculiar habits that set him apart from other soldiers. While in the army, he kept a large menagerie of tame monkeys in the hopes of learning their language, accumulating sixty "words".[18][12]:56–65 He also earned the name "Ruffian Dick"[12]:218 for his "demonic ferocity as a fighter and because he had fought in single combat more enemies than perhaps any other man of his time".[19]

According to Ed Rice, "Burton now regarded the seven years in India as time wasted." Yet, "He had already passed the official examinations in six languages and was studying two more and was eminently qualified." His religious experiences were varied, including attending Catholic services, becoming a Nāgar Brāhmins, adopting Sikhism, conversion to Islam, and undergoing chillá for Qadiri Sufism. Regarding Burton's Muslim beliefs, Ed Rice states, "Thus, he was circumcised, and made a Muslim, and lived like a Muslim and prayed and practiced like one." Furthermore, Burton, "...was entitled to call himself a hāfiz, one who can recite the Qur'ān from memory."[12]:58,67–68,104–108,150–155,161,164

First explorations and journey to Mecca (1851–53)

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"The Pilgrim", illustration from Burton's Personal Narrative (Burton disguised as "Haji Abdullah", 1853)

Burton's pilgrimage to Medina and Mecca in 1853, was his realization of "the plans and hopes of many and many a year...to study thoroughly the inner life of the Moslem." Traveling through Alexandria in April, then Cairo in May, where he stayed in June during Ramadan, Burton first donned the guise of a Persian mirza, then a Sunnī "Shaykh, doctor, magician and dervish. Accompanied by an Indian boy slave called Nūr, Burton further equipped himself with a case for carrying the Qur'ān, but instead had three compartments for his watch and compass, money, and penknife, pencils, and numbered pieces of paper for taking notes. His diary he kept in a break pocket, unseen. Burton traveled onwards with a group of nomads to Suez, sailed to Yambu, and joined a caravan to Medina, where he arrived on 27 July, earning the title Zair. Departing Medina with the Damascus caravan on 31 August, Burton entered Mecca on 11 September. There, he participated in the Tawaf, traveled to Mount Arafat, and participated in the Stoning of the Devil, all the while taking notes on the Kaaba, its Black Stone, and the Zamzam Well. Departing Mecca, he journeyed to Jeddah, back to Cairo, returning to duty in Bombay. In India, Burton wrote his Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Meccah. Of his journey, Burton wrote, "at Mecca there is nothing theatrical, nothing that suggests the opera, but all is simple and impressive...tending, I believe, after its fashion, to good."[12]:179–225

Motivated by his love of adventure, Burton got the approval of the Royal Geographical Society for an exploration of the area, and he gained permission from the board of directors of the East India Company to take leave from the army. His seven years in India gave Burton a familiarity with the customs and behaviour of Muslims and prepared him to attempt a Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca and, in this case, Medina). It was this journey, undertaken in 1853, which first made Burton famous. He had planned it whilst travelling disguised among the Muslims of Sindh, and had laboriously prepared for the adventure by study and practice (including undergoing the Muslim tradition of circumcision to further lower the risk of being discovered).[20]

Although Burton was certainly not the first non-Muslim European to make the Hajj (Ludovico di Varthema did this in 1503 and Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in 1815),[21] his pilgrimage is the most famous and the best documented of the time. He adopted various disguises including that of a Pashtun to account for any oddities in speech, but he still had to demonstrate an understanding of intricate Islamic traditions, and a familiarity with the minutiae of Eastern manners and etiquette. Burton's trek to Mecca was dangerous, and his caravan was attacked by bandits (a common experience at the time). As he put it, though "... neither Koran or Sultan enjoin the death of Jew or Christian intruding within the columns that note the sanctuary limits, nothing could save a European detected by the populace, or one who after pilgrimage declared himself an unbeliever".[22] The pilgrimage entitled him to the title of Hajji and to wear the green head wrap. Burton's own account of his journey is given in A Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah and Meccah.[23][12]:179–225

Burton sat for the examination as an Arab linguist. The examiner was Robert Lambert Playfair, who disliked Burton. As Professor George Percy Badger knew Arabic well, Playfair asked Badger to oversee the exam. Having been told that Burton could be vindictive, and wishing to avoid any animosity should Burton fail, Badger declined. Playfair conducted the tests; despite Burton's success living as an Arab, Playfair had recommended to the committee that Burton be failed. Badger later told Burton that "After looking [Burton's test] over, I [had] sent them back to [Playfair] with a note eulogising your attainments and ... remarking on the absurdity of the Bombay Committee being made to judge your proficiency inasmuch as I did not believe that any of them possessed a tithe of the knowledge of Arabic you did."[24]

Early explorations (1854–55)

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Isabel Burton

In May 1854, Burton traveled to Aden in preparation for his Somaliland Expedition, supported by the Royal Geographical Society. Other members included G.E. Herne, William Stroyan, and John Hanning Speke. Burton undertook the expedition to Harar, Speke investigated the Wady Nogal, while Herne and Stroyan stayed on at Berbera. According to Burton, "A tradition exists that with the entrance of the first [white] Christian Harar will fall." With Burton's entry, the "Guardian Spell" was broken.[12]:219–220,227–264

This Somaliland Expedition lasted from 29 October 1854 to 9 February 1855, with much of the time spent in the port of Zeila, where Burton was a guest of the town's Governor al-Haji Sharmakay bin Ali Salih. Burton, "assuming the disguise of an Arab merchant" called Haji Mirza Abdullah, awaited word that the road to Harar was safe. On 29 December, Burton met with Gerard Adan in the village of Sagharrah, when Burton openly proclaimed himself an English officer with a letter for the Amīr of Harar. On 3 January 1855, Burton made it to Harar, and was graciously met by the Amir. Burton stayed in the city for ten days, officially a guest of the Amir but in reality his prisoner. The journey back was plagued by lack of supplies, and Burton wrote that he would have died of thirst had he not seen desert birds and realized they would be near water. Burton made it back to Berbera on 31 January 1855.[25][12]:238–256

Following this adventure, Burton prepared to set out in search of the source of the Nile, accompanied by Lieutenant Speke, Lieutenant G. E. Herne and Lieutenant William Stroyan and a number of Africans employed as bearers. However, while the expedition was camped near Berbera, his party was attacked by a group of Somali waranle ("warriors") belonging to Isaaq clan. The officers estimated the number of attackers at 200. In the ensuing fight, Stroyan was killed and Speke was captured and wounded in eleven places before he managed to escape. Burton was impaled with a javelin, the point entering one cheek and exiting the other. This wound left a notable scar that can be easily seen on portraits and photographs. He was forced to make his escape with the weapon still transfixing his head. It was no surprise then that he found the Somalis to be a "fierce and turbulent race".[26] However, the failure of this expedition was viewed harshly by the authorities, and a two-year investigation was set up to determine to what extent Burton was culpable for this disaster. While he was largely cleared of any blame, this did not help his career. He describes the harrowing attack in First Footsteps in East Africa (1856).[27][12]:257–264

After recovering from his wounds in London, Burton traveled to Constantinople during the Crimean War, seeking a commission. He received one from General W.F. Beatson, as the Chief of Staff for "Beatson's Horse", popularly called the Bashi-bazouks, and based in Gallipoli. Burton returned after an incident which disgraced Beatson, and implicated Burton as the instigator of a "mutiny", damaging his reputation.[12]:265–271

Exploring the African Great Lakes (1856–1860)

In 1856, the Royal Geographical Society funded another expedition for Burton and Speke, "and exploration of the then utterly unknown Lake regions of Central Africa." They would travel from Zanzibar to Ujiji along a caravan route established in 1825 by an Arab slave and ivory merchant. The Great Journey commenced on 5 June 1857 with their departure from Zanzibar, their caravan consisting of Baluchi mercenaries led by Ramji, 36 porters, eventually a total of 132 persons, all led by the caravan leader Said bin Salim. From the beginning, Burton and Speke were hindered by disease, malaria, fevers, and other maladies, at times both having to be carried in a hammock. Pack animals died, and natives deserted, taking supplies with them. Yet, on 7 November 1857, they made it to Kazeh, and departed for Ujij on 14 Dec. Speke wanted to head north, sure they would find the source of the Nile at what he later named Victoria Nyanza, but Burton persisted in heading west.[12]:273–297

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Monument commemorating Burton and Speke's arrival in Ujiji

The expedition arrived at Lake Tanganyika on 13 February 1858. Burton was awestruck by the sight of the magnificent lake, but Speke, who had been temporarily blinded, was unable to see the body of water. By this point much of their surveying equipment was lost, ruined, or stolen, and they were unable to complete surveys of the area as well as they wished. Burton was again taken ill on the return journey; Speke continued exploring without him, making a journey to the north and eventually locating the great Lake Victoria, or Victoria Nyanza, on 3 August. Lacking supplies and proper instruments, Speke was unable to survey the area properly but was privately convinced that it was the long-sought source of the Nile. Burton's description of the journey is given in Lake Regions of Equatorial Africa (1860). Speke gave his own account in The Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile (1863).[28][12]:298–312,491–492,500

Burton and Speke made it back to Zanzibar on 4 March 1859, and left on 22 March for Aden. Speke immediately boarded HMS Furious for London, where he gave lectures, and was awarded a second expedition by the Society. Burton arrived London on 21 May, discovering "My companion now stood forth in his new colours, and angry rival." Speke additionally published What Led to the Discovery of the Source of the Nile (1863), while Burton's Zanzibar; City, Island, and Coast was eventually published in 1872.[12]:307,311–315,491–492,500

Burton then departed on a trip to the United States in April 1860, eventually making it to Salt Lake City on 25 August. There he studied Mormonism and met Brigham Young. Burton departed San Francisco on 15 November, for the voyage back to England, where he published The City of the Saints and Across the Rocky Mountains to California.[12]:332–339,492

Burton and Speke

"Burton and Speke" redirects here. For the novel by William Harrison, see Burton and Speke (novel).

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Burton was the first European to see Lake Tanganyika

A prolonged public quarrel followed, damaging the reputations of both Burton and Speke. Some biographers have suggested that friends of Speke (particularly Laurence Oliphant) had initially stirred up trouble between the two.[29] Burton's sympathizers contend that Speke resented Burton's leadership role. Tim Jeal, who has accessed Speke's personal papers, suggests that it was more likely the other way around, Burton being jealous and resentful of Speke's determination and success. "As the years went by, [Burton] would neglect no opportunity to deride and undermine Speke's geographical theories and achievements".[30]

Speke had earlier proven his mettle by trekking through the mountains of Tibet, but Burton regarded him as inferior as he did not speak any Arabic or African languages. Despite his fascination with non-European cultures, some have portrayed Burton as an unabashed imperialist convinced of the historical and intellectual superiority of the white race, citing his involvement in the Anthropological Society, an organization that established a doctrine of scientific racism.[31][32] Speke appears to have been kinder and less intrusive to the Africans they encountered, and reportedly fell in love with an African woman on a future expedition.[33]

The two men travelled home separately. Speke returned to London first and presented a lecture at the Royal Geographical Society, claiming Lake Victoria as the source of the Nile. According to Burton, Speke broke an agreement they had made to give their first public speech together. Apart from Burton's word, there is no proof that such an agreement existed, and most modern researchers doubt that it did. Tim Jeal, evaluating the written evidence, says the odds are "heavily against Speke having made a pledge to his former leader".[34]

Speke undertook a second expedition, along with Captain James Grant and Sidi Mubarak Bombay, to prove that Lake Victoria was the true source of the Nile. Speke, in light of the issues he was having with Burton, had Grant sign a statement saying, among other things, "I renounce all my rights to publishing ... my own account [of the expedition] until approved of by Captain Speke or [the Royal Geographical Society]".[35]

On 16 September 1864, Burton and Speke were scheduled to debate the source of the Nile at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. On the day before the debate, Burton and Speke sat near each other in the lecture hall. According to Burton's wife, Speke stood up, said "I can't stand this any longer," and abruptly left the hall. That afternoon Speke went hunting on the nearby estate of a relative. He was discovered lying near a stone wall, felled by a fatal gunshot wound from his hunting shotgun. Burton learned of Speke's death the following day while waiting for their debate to begin. A jury ruled Speke's death an accident. An obituary surmised that Speke, while climbing over the wall, had carelessly pulled the gun after himself with the muzzle pointing at his chest and shot himself. Alexander Maitland, Speke's only biographer, concurs.[36]

Diplomatic service and scholarship (1861–1890)

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Burton in 1876

On 22 January 1861, Burton and Isabel married in a quiet Catholic ceremony although he did not adopt the Catholic faith at this time. Shortly after this, the couple were forced to spend some time apart when he formally entered the Diplomatic Service as consul on the island of Fernando Po, now Bioko in Equatorial Guinea. This was not a prestigious appointment; because the climate was considered extremely unhealthy for Europeans, Isabel could not accompany him. Burton spent much of this time exploring the coast of West Africa, documenting his findings in Abeokuta and The Cameroons Mountains: An Exploration (1863), and A Mission to Gelele, King of Dahome (1864). He described some of his experiences, including a trip up the Congo River to the Yellala Falls and beyond, in his 1876 book Two trips to gorilla land and the cataracts of the Congo.[37][12]:349–381,492–493

The couple were reunited in 1865 when Burton was transferred to Santos in Brazil. Once there, Burton travelled through Brazil's central highlands, canoeing down the São Francisco River from its source to the falls of Paulo Afonso.[38] He documented his experiences in The Highlands of Brazil (1869).[12]:

In 1868 and 1869 he made two visits to the war zone of the Paraguayan War, which he described in his Letters from the Battlefields of Paraguay (1870).[39]

In 1868 he was appointed as the British consul in Damascus, an ideal post for someone with Burton's knowledge of the region and customs.[40] According to Ed Rice, "England wanted to know what was going on in the Levant," another chapter in The Great Game. Yet, the Turkish governor Mohammed Rashid 'Ali Pasha, feared anti-Turkish activities, and was opposed to Burton's assignment.[12]:395–399,402,409

In Damascus, Burton made friends with Abdelkader al-Jazairi, while Isabel befriended Jane Digby, calling her "my most intimate friend." Burton also met with Charles Francis Tyrwhitt-Drake and Edward Henry Palmer, collaborating with Drake in writing Unexplored Syria (1872).[12]:402–410,492

However, the area was in some turmoil at the time with considerable tensions between the Christian, Jewish and Muslim populations. Burton did his best to keep the peace and resolve the situation, but this sometimes led him into trouble. On one occasion, he claims to have escaped an attack by hundreds of armed horsemen and camel riders sent by Mohammed Rashid Pasha, the Governor of Syria. He wrote, "I have never been so flattered in my life than to think it would take three hundred men to kill me."[41] Burton eventually suffered the enmity of the Greek Christian and Jewish communities. Then, his involvement with the Sházlis, a group of Muslims Burton called "Secret Christians longing for baptism," which Isabel called "his ruin." He was recalled in August 1871, prompting him to telegram Isabel "I am recalled. Pay, pack, and follow at convenience."[12]:412–415

Burton was reassigned in 1872 to the sleepy port city of Trieste in Austria-Hungary.[42][dead link] A "broken man", Burton was never particularly content with this post, but it required little work, was far less dangerous than Damascus (as well as less exciting), and allowed him the freedom to write and travel.[43]

In 1863 Burton co-founded the Anthropological Society of London with Dr. James Hunt. In Burton's own words, the main aim of the society (through the publication of the periodical Anthropologia) was "to supply travellers with an organ that would rescue their observations from the outer darkness of manuscript and print their curious information on social and sexual matters". On 13 February 1886, Burton was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG) by Queen Victoria.[44]

He wrote a number of travel books in this period that were not particularly well received. His best-known contributions to literature were those considered risqué or even pornographic at the time, which were published under the auspices of the Kama Shastra society. These books include The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana (1883) (popularly known as the Kama Sutra), The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (1885) (popularly known as The Arabian Nights), The Perfumed Garden of the Shaykh Nefzawi (1886) and The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and a Night (seventeen volumes 1886–98).

Published in this period but composed on his return journey from Mecca, The Kasidah[10] has been cited as evidence of Burton's status as a Bektashi Sufi. Deliberately presented by Burton as a translation, the poem and his notes and commentary on it contain layers of Sufic meaning that seem to have been designed to project Sufi teaching in the West.[45] "Do what thy manhood bids thee do/ from none but self expect applause;/ He noblest lives and noblest dies/ who makes and keeps his self-made laws" is The Kasidah's most-quoted passage. As well as references to many themes from Classical Western myths, the poem contains many laments that are accented with fleeting imagery such as repeated comparisons to "the tinkling of the Camel bell" that becomes inaudible as the animal vanishes in the darkness of the desert.[46]

Other works of note include a collection of Hindu tales, Vikram and the Vampire (1870); and his uncompleted history of swordsmanship, The Book of the Sword (1884). He also translated The Lusiads, the Portuguese national epic by Luís de Camões, in 1880 and, the next year, wrote a sympathetic biography of the poet and adventurer. The book The Jew, the Gipsy and el Islam was published posthumously in 1898 and was controversial for its criticism of Jews and for its assertion of the existence of Jewish human sacrifices. (Burton's investigations into this had provoked hostility from the Jewish population in Damascus (see the Damascus affair). The manuscript of the book included an appendix discussing the topic in more detail, but by the decision of his widow, it was not included in the book when published).[citation needed]

Death

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Richard Burton's Tomb at Mortlake, south west London, June 2011.

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Close up of inscription on the tomb.

Burton died in Trieste early on the morning of 20 October 1890 of a heart attack. His wife Isabel persuaded a priest to perform the last rites, although Burton was not a Catholic and this action later caused a rift between Isabel and some of Burton's friends. It has been suggested that the death occurred very late on 19 October and that Burton was already dead by the time the last rites were administered. On his religious views, Burton called himself an atheist, stating he was raised in the Church of England which he said was "officially (his) church".[47]

Isabel never recovered from the loss. After his death she burned many of her husband's papers, including journals and a planned new translation of The Perfumed Garden to be called The Scented Garden, for which she had been offered six thousand guineas and which she regarded as his "magnum opus". She believed she was acting to protect her husband's reputation, and that she had been instructed to burn the manuscript of The Scented Garden by his spirit, but her actions have been widely condemned.[48]

Isabel wrote a biography in praise of her husband.[49]

The couple are buried in a remarkable tomb in the shape of a Bedouin tent, designed by Isabel,[50] in the cemetery of St Mary Magdalen Roman Catholic Church Mortlake in southwest London. The coffins of Sir Richard and Lady Burton can be seen through a window at the rear of the tent, which can be accessed via a short fixed ladder. Next to the lady chapel in the church there is a memorial stained-glass window to Burton, also erected by Isabel; it depicts Burton as a medieval knight.[51] Burton's personal effects and a collection of paintings, photographs and objects relating to him are in the Burton Collection at Orleans House Gallery, Twickenham.[52]

Kama Shastra Society

Burton had long had an interest in sexuality and some erotic literature. However, the Obscene Publications Act of 1857 had resulted in many jail sentences for publishers, with prosecutions being brought by the Society for the Suppression of Vice. Burton referred to the society and those who shared its views as Mrs Grundy. A way around this was the private circulation of books amongst the members of a society. For this reason Burton, together with Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot, created the Kama Shastra Society to print and circulate books that would be illegal to publish in public.[53]

One of the most celebrated of all his books is his translation of The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (commonly called The Arabian Nights in English after early translations of Antoine Galland's French version) in ten volumes (1885), with seven further volumes being added later. The volumes were printed by the Kama Shastra Society in a subscribers-only edition of one thousand with a guarantee that there would never be a larger printing of the books in this form. The stories collected were often sexual in content and were considered pornography at the time of publication. In particular, the Terminal Essay in volume 10 of the Nights contained a 14,000-word essay entitled "Pederasty" (Volume 10, section IV, D), at the time a synonym for homosexuality (as it still is, in modern French). This was and remained for many years the longest and most explicit discussion of homosexuality in any language. Burton speculated that male homosexuality was prevalent in an area of the southern latitudes named by him the "Sotadic zone".[54]

Perhaps Burton's best-known book is his translation of The Kama Sutra. It is untrue that he was the translator since the original manuscript was in ancient Sanskrit, which he could not read. However, he collaborated with Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot on the work and provided translations from other manuscripts of later translations. The Kama Shastra Society first printed the book in 1883 and numerous editions of the Burton translation are in print to this day.[53]

His English translation from a French edition of the Arabic erotic guide The Perfumed Garden was printed as The Perfumed Garden of the Cheikh Nefzaoui: A Manual of Arabian Erotology (1886). After Burton's death, Isabel burnt many of his papers, including a manuscript of a subsequent translation, The Scented Garden, containing the final chapter of the work, on pederasty. Burton all along intended for this translation to be published after his death, to provide an income for his widow.[55]

Burton's languages

By the end of his life, Burton had mastered at least 26 languages – or 40, if distinct dialects are counted.[56]

1. English
2. French
3. Occitan (Gascon/Béarnese dialect)
4. Italian
a. Neapolitan Italian
5. Romani
6. Latin
7. Greek
8. Saraiki
9. Hindustani
a. Urdu
b. Sindhi
10. Marathi
11. Arabic
12. Persian (Farsi)
13. Pushtu
14. Sanskrit
15. Portuguese
16. Spanish
17. German
18. Icelandic
19. Swahili
20. Amharic
21. Fan
22. Egba
23. Asante
24. Hebrew
25. Aramaic
26. Many other West African & Indian dialects

Scandals

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Burton in later life

Burton's writings are unusually open and frank about his interest in sex and sexuality. His travel writing is often full of details about the sexual lives of the inhabitants of areas he travelled through. Burton's interest in sexuality led him to make measurements of the lengths of the penises of male inhabitants of various regions, which he includes in his travel books. He also describes sexual techniques common in the regions he visited, often hinting that he had participated, hence breaking both sexual and racial taboos of his day. Many people at the time considered the Kama Shastra Society and the books it published scandalous.[57]

Biographers disagree on whether or not Burton ever experienced homosexual sex (he never directly acknowledges it in his writing). Allegations began in his army days when Charles James Napier requested that Burton go undercover to investigate a male brothel reputed to be frequented by British soldiers. It has been suggested that Burton's detailed report on the workings of the brothel led some to believe he had been a customer.[58] There is no documentary evidence that such a report was written or submitted, nor that Napier ordered such research by Burton, and it has been argued that this is one of Burton's embellishments.[59]

A story that haunted Burton up to his death (recounted in some of his obituaries) was that he came close to being discovered one night when he lifted his robe to urinate rather than squatting as an Arab would. It was said that he was seen by an Arab and, in order to avoid exposure, killed him. Burton denied this, pointing out that killing the boy would almost certainly have led to his being discovered as an impostor. Burton became so tired of denying this accusation that he took to baiting his accusers, although he was said to enjoy the notoriety and even once laughingly claimed to have done it.[60][61] A doctor once asked him: "How do you feel when you have killed a man?", Burton retorted: "Quite jolly, what about you?". When asked by a priest about the same incident Burton is said to have replied: "Sir, I'm proud to say I have committed every sin in the Decalogue."[62] Stanley Lane-Poole, a Burton detractor, reported that Burton "confessed rather shamefacedly that he had never killed anybody at any time."[61]

These allegations coupled with Burton's often irascible nature were said to have harmed his career and may explain why he was not promoted further, either in army life or in the diplomatic service. As an obituary described: "...he was ill fitted to run in official harness, and he had a Byronic love of shocking people, of telling tales against himself that had no foundation in fact."[63] Ouida reported: "Men at the FO [Foreign Office] ... used to hint dark horrors about Burton, and certainly justly or unjustly he was disliked, feared and suspected ... not for what he had done, but for what he was believed capable of doing."[64]

Sotadic Zone

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Burton's Sotadic Zone encompassed only small areas of Europe and North Africa, larger areas of Asia, and all of North and South America.

The existence of a Sotadic Zone was a hypothesis of Burton. He asserted that there exists a geographic zone in which pederasty (romantic-sexual intimacy between a boy and a man) is prevalent and celebrated among the indigenous inhabitants.[65] The name derives from Sotades, a 3rd-century BC Greek poet who was the chief representative of a group of writers of obscene, and sometimes pederastic, satirical poetry; these homoerotic verses are preserved in the Greek Anthology, a collection of poems spanning the Classical and Byzantine periods of Greek literature.

Burton first advanced his Sotadic Zone concept in the "Terminal Essay"[66] contained in Volume 10 of his translation of The Arabian Nights, which he called The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, in 1886.[67]

Extent

According to Burton's description,

1. the Sotadic Zone is bounded westward by the northern shores of the Mediterranean (N. Lat. 43 °) and by the southern (N. Lat. 30°). Thus the depth would be 780 to 800 miles including meridional France, the Iberian peninsula, Italy and Greece, with the coast-regions of Africa from Morocco to Egypt;
2. Running eastward the Sotadic Zone narrows, embracing Asia Minor, Mesopotamia and Chaldaea, Afghanistan, Sindh, the Punjab and Kashmir.
3. In Indo-China the belt begins to broaden, enfolding China, Japan and Turkistan.
4. It then embraces the South Sea Islands and the New World where, at the time of its discovery, Sotadic love was, with some exceptions, an established racial institution.
5. "Within the Sotadic Zone the Vice is popular and endemic, held at the worst to be a mere peccadillo, whilst the races to the North and South of the limits here defined practise it only sporadically amid the opprobrium of their fellows who, as a rule, are physically incapable of performing the operation and look upon it with the liveliest disgust."

In popular culture

Fiction


• In the short story "The Aleph" (1945) by Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges, a manuscript by Burton is discovered in a library. The manuscript contains a description of a mirror in which the whole universe is reflected.
• The Riverworld series of science fiction novels (1971–83) by Philip José Farmer has a fictional and resurrected Burton as a primary character.
• William Harrison's Burton and Speke is a 1984 novel about the two friends/rivals.[68]
• The World Is Made of Glass: A Novel by Morris West[69] tells the story of Magda Liliane Kardoss von Gamsfeld in consultation with Carl Gustav Jung; Burton is mentioned on pp. 254–7 and again on p. 392.
• Der Weltensammler[70] by Iliya Troyanov is a fictional reconstruction of three periods of Burton's life, focusing on his time in India, his pilgrimage to Medina and Mecca, and his explorations with Speke.
• Burton is the main character in the "Burton and Swinburne" steampunk series by Mark Hodder (2010–2015): The Strange Affair of Spring-Heeled Jack; The Curious Case of the Clockwork Man; Expedition to the Mountains of the Moon; The Secret of Abdu El Yezdi; The Return of the Discontinued Man; and The Rise of the Automated Aristocrats. These novels depict an alternate world where Queen Victoria was killed early in her reign due to the inadvertent actions of a time-traveler acting as Spring-Heeled Jack, with a complex constitutional revision making Albert King in her place.
• Though not one of the primary characters in the series, Burton plays an important historical role in the Area 51 series of books by Bob Mayer (written under the pen name Robert Doherty).
• Burton and his partner Speke are recurrently mentioned in one of Jules Verne's Voyages Extraordinaires, the 1863 novel Five Weeks in a Balloon, as the voyages of Kennedy and Ferguson are attempting to link their expeditions with those of Heinrich Barth in west Africa.
• In the novel The Bookman's Promise (2004) by John Dunning, the protagonist buys a signed copy of a rare Burton book, and from there Burton and his work are major elements of the story. A section of the novel also fictionalizes a portion of Burton's life in the form of recollections of one of the characters.

Drama

• In the BBC production of The Search for the Nile series (1972), Burton is portrayed by actor Kenneth Haigh.
• The film Mountains of the Moon (1990) (starring Patrick Bergin as Burton) relates the story of the Burton-Speke exploration and subsequent controversy over the source of the Nile. The script was based on Harrison's novel.
• In the Canadian film Zero Patience (1993), Burton is portrayed by John Robinson as having had "an unfortunate encounter" with the Fountain of Youth and is living in present-day Toronto. Upon discovering the ghost of the famous Patient Zero, Burton attempts to exhibit the finding at his Hall of Contagion at the Museum of Natural History.

Chronology

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Timeline of Richard Francis Burton's life (1821–1890)

Works and correspondence

Main article: Richard Francis Burton bibliography

Burton published over 40 books and countless articles, monographs and letters. A great number of his journal and magazine pieces have never been catalogued. Over 200 of these have been collected in PDF facsimile format at burtoniana.org.[71]

An extensive selection of Burton's correspondence can be found in the four-volume Book of Burtoniana edited by Gavan Tredoux (burtoniana.org, 2016), which is freely downloadable in HTML, PDF, Kindle/MOBI and ePub formats.[72]

Brief selections from a variety of Burton's writings are available in Frank McLynn's Of No Country: An Anthology of Richard Burton (1990; New York: Charles Scribner's Sons).

See also

• Selim Aga
• Mausoleum of Sir Richard and Lady Burton
• List of polyglots

References

1. Lovell, p. xvii.
2. Young, S. (2006). "India". Richard Francis Burton: Explorer, Scholar, Spy. New York: Marshall Cavendish. pp. 16–26. ISBN 9780761422228.
3. Burton, I.; Wilkins, W. H. (1897). The Romance of Isabel Lady Burton. The Story of Her Life. New York: Dodd Mead & Company. Archived from the original on 29 January 2018. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
4. "Historic Figures: Sir Richard Burton". BBC. Retrieved 7 April 2017
5. Lovell, p. 1.
6. Wright (1906), vol. 1, p. 37 Archived 8 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
7. Page, William (1908). A History of the County of Hertford. Constable. vol. 2, pp. 349–351. ISBN 978-0-7129-0475-9.
8. Wright (1906), vol. 1, p. 38 Archived 8 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
9. Wright (1906), vol. 1, p. 52 Archived 8 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
10. Burton, R. F. (1911). "Chapter VIII". The Kasîdah of Hâjî Abdû El-Yezdî (Eight ed.). Portland: Thomas B. Mosher. pp. 44–51.
11. Wright (1906), vol. 1, p. 81 Archived 8 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
12. Rice, Ed (1990). Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton: the secret agent who made the pilgrimage to Mecca, discovered the Kama Sutra, and brought the Arabian nights to the West. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 22. ISBN 978-0684191379.
13. Falconry in the Valley of the Indus, Richard F. Burton (John Van Voorst 1852) page 93.
14. Ghose, Indira (January 2006). "Imperial Player: Richard Burton in Sindh". In Youngs, Tim (ed.). Travel Writing in the Nineteenth Century. Anthem Press. pp. 71–86. doi:10.7135/upo9781843317692.005. ISBN 9781843317692. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
15. Burton (1893), Vol. 1, p. 123.
16. Rice, Edward. Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton (1991). p. 83.
17. In 1852, a letter from Burton was published in The Zoist: "Remarks upon a form of Sub-mesmerism, popularly called Electro-Biology, now practised in Scinde and other Eastern Countries", The Zoist: A Journal of Cerebral Physiology & Mesmerism, and Their Applications to Human Welfare, Vol.10, No.38, (July 1852), pp.177–181.
18. Lovell, p. 58.
19. Wright (1906), vol. 1, pp. 119–120 Archived 8 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
20. Seigel, Jerrold (1 December 2015). Between Cultures: Europe and Its Others in Five Exemplary Lives. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 9780812247619 – via Google Books.
21. Leigh Rayment. "Ludovico di Varthema". Discoverers Web. Discoverers Web. Archived from the original on 17 June 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
22. Selected Papers on Anthropology, Travel, and Exploration by Richard Burton, edited by Norman M. Penzer (London, A. M. Philpot 1924) p. 30.
23. Burton, R. F. (1855). A Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah and Meccah. London: Tylston and Edwards.
24. Lovell, pp. 156–157.
25. Burton, R., Speke, J. H., Barker, W. C. (1856). First footsteps in East Africa or, An Exploration of Harar. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans.
26. In last of a series of dispatches from Mogadishu, Daniel Howden reports on the artists fighting to keep a tradition alive, The Independent, dated Thursday, 2 December 2010.
27. Burton, Richard (1856). First Footsteps in East Africa (1st ed.). Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. pp. 449–458.
28. Speke, John Hanning. "The Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile". http://www.wollamshram.ca. Retrieved 19 July2020.
29. Carnochan, pp. 77–78 cites Isabel Burton and Alexander Maitland
30. Jeal, p. 121.
31. Jeal, p. 322.
32. Kennedy, p. 135.
33. Jeal, pp. 129, 156–166.
34. Jeal, p. 111.
35. Lovell, p. 341.
36. Kennedy, p. 123.
37. Richard Francis Burton, Two Trips to Gorilla Land and the Cataracts of the Congo, 2 vols. (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Low & Searle, 1876).
38. Wright (1906), vol. 1, p. 200 Archived 8 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
39. Letters from the Battlefields of Paraguay, the Preface.
40. "No. 23447". The London Gazette. 4 December 1868. p. 6460.
41. Burton (1893), Vol. 1, p. 517.
42. "No. 23889". The London Gazette. 20 September 1872. p. 4075.
43. Wright, Thomas (1 January 1906). The Life of Sir Richard Burton. Library of Alexandria. ISBN 9781465550132 – via Google Books.
44. "No. 25559". The London Gazette. 16 February 1886. p. 743.
45. The Sufis by Idries Shah (1964) p. 249ff
46. The Kasidah of Haji Abdu El-Yezdi. 1880.
47. Wright (1906) "Some three months before Sir Richard's death," writes Mr. P. P. Cautley, the Vice-Consul at Trieste, to me, "I was seated at Sir Richard's tea table with our clergy man, and the talk turning on religion, Sir Richard declared, 'I am an atheist, but I was brought up in the Church of England, and that is officially my church.'"
48. Wright (1906), vol. 2, pp. 252–254 Archived 29 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
49. Burton (1893)
50. Cherry, B.; Pevsner, N. (1983). The Buildings of England – London 2: South. London: Penguin Books. p. 513. ISBN 978-0140710472.
51. Boyes, Valerie & Wintersinger, Natascha (2014). Encountering the Uncharted and Back – Three Explorers: Ball, Vancouver and Burton. Museum of Richmond. pp. 9–10.
52. De Novellis, Mark. "More about Richmond upon Thames Borough Art Collection". Art UK. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
53. Ben Grant, "Translating/'The' “Kama Sutra”", Third World Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 3, Connecting Cultures (2005), 509–516
54. Pagan Press (1982–2012). "Sir Richard Francis Burton Explorer of the Sotadic Zone". Pagan Press. Pagan Press. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
55. The Romance of Lady Isabel Burton (chapter 38) Archived 10 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine by Isabel Burton (1897) (URL accessed 12 June 2006)
56. McLynn, Frank (1990), Of No Country: An Anthology of the Works of Sir Richard Burton, Scribner's, pp. 5–6.
57. Kennedy, D. (2009). The highly civilized man: Richard Burton and the Victorian world. Cambridge, Massachusetts; London, England: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674025523. OCLC 647823711.
58. Burton, Sir Richard (1991) Kama Sutra, Park Street Press, ISBN 0-89281-441-1, p. 14.
59. Godsall, pp. 47–48.
60. Lovell, pp. 185–186.
61. Rice, Edward (2001) [1990]. Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton: A Biography. Da Capo Press. pp. 136–137. ISBN 978-0306810282.
62. Brodie, Fawn M. (1967). The Devil Drives: A Life of Sir Richard Burton, W.W. Norton & Company Inc.: New York 1967, p. 3.
63. Obituary in Athenaeum No. 3287, 25 October 1890, p. 547.
64. Richard Burton by Ouida, article appearing in the Fortnightly Review June (1906) quoted by Lovell
65. Waitt, Gordon; Kevin Markwell (2008). "The Lure of the "Sotadic Zone"'". Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide. 15 (2).
66. (§1., D)
67. The Book of the Thousand Nights and A Night. s.l.: Burton Society (Private printing). 1886.
68. William Harrison, Burton and Speke (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1984), ISBN 978-0-312-10873-1.
69. (Coronet Books, 1984), ISBN 0-340-34710-4.
70. 2006, translated as The Collector of Worlds [2008].
71. "Shorter Works by Richard Francis Burton".
72. "The Book of Burtoniana, in Four Volumes, edited by Gavan Tredoux".

Sources

Books and articles


• Cust, R.N. (1895). "Sir Richard Burton". Linguistic and oriental essays: written from the year 1861 to 1895. London: Trübner & Co. pp. 80–82.
• Brodie, Fawn M. (1967). The Devil Drives: A Life of Sir Richard Burton. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-907871-23-1.
• Burton, Isabel (1893). The Life of Captain Sir Richard F. Burton KCMG, FRGS. Vols. 1 and 2. London: Chapman and Hall.
• Carnochan, W.B. (2006). The Sad Story of Burton, Speke, and the Nile; or, Was John Hanning Speke a Cad: Looking at the Evidence. Stanford: Stanford University Press. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-8047-5325-8.
• Kennedy, Dane (2005). The Highly Civilized Man: Richard Burton and the Victorian World. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01862-4.
• Edwardes, Allen (1963). Death Rides a Camel. New York: The Julian Press.
• Farwell, Byron (1963). Burton: A Biography of Sir Richard Francis Burton. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-012068-4.
• Godsall, Jon R (2008). The Tangled Web – A life of Sir Richard Burton. London: Matador Books. ISBN 978-1906510-428.
• Hitchman, Francis (1887), Richard F. Burton, K.C.M.G.: His Early, Private and Public Life with an Account of his Travels and Explorations, Two volumes; London: Sampson and Low.
• Jeal, Tim (2011). Explorers of the Nile: The Triumph and Tragedy of a Great Victorian Adventure. London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0-300-14935-7.
• Lovell, Mary S. (1998). A Rage to Live: A Biography of Richard & Isabel Burton. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-04672-4.
• McDow, Thomas F. 'Trafficking in Persianness: Richard Burton between mimicry and similitude in the Indian Ocean and Persianate worlds'. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 30.3 (2010): 491–511. ISSN 1089-201X
• McLynn, Frank (1991). From the Sierras to the Pampas: Richard Burton's Travels in the Americas, 1860–69. London: Century. ISBN 978-0-7126-3789-3.
• McLynn, Frank (1993). Burton: Snow on the Desert. London: John Murray Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7195-4818-5.
• Newman, James L. (2009), Paths without Glory: Richard Francis Burton in Africa, Potomac Books, Dulles, Virginia; ISBN 978-1-59797-287-1.
• Moorehead, Alan (1960). The White Nile. New York: Harper & Row. p. 448. ISBN 978-0-06-095639-4.
• Ondaatje, Christopher (1998). Journey to the Source of the Nile. Toronto: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-200019-2.
• Ondaatje, Christopher (1996). Sindh Revisited: A Journey in the Footsteps of Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton. Toronto: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-1-59048-221-6.
• Rice, Edward (1990). Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton: The Secret Agent Who Made the Pilgrimage to Makkah, Discovered the Kama Sutra, and Brought the Arabian Nights to the West. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
• Seigel, Jerrold (2016). Between Cultures: Europe and Its Others in Five Exemplary Lives. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-4761-9.
• Sparrow-Niang, Jane (2014). Bath and the Nile Explorers: In commemoration of the 150th anniversary of Burton and Speke's encounter in Bath, September 1864, and their 'Nile Duel' which never happened. Bath: Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Institution. ISBN 978-0-9544941-6-2
• Wisnicki, Adrian S. (2008). "Cartographical Quandaries: The Limits of Knowledge Production in Burton's and Speke's Search for the Source of the Nile". History in Africa. 35: 455–79. doi:10.1353/hia.0.0001.
• Wisnicki, Adrian S. (2009). "Charting the Frontier: Indigenous Geography, Arab-Nyamwezi Caravans, and the East African Expedition of 1856–59". Victorian Studies 51.1 (Aut.): 103–37.
• Wright, Thomas (1906). The Life of Sir Richard Burton. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 978-1-4264-1455-8. Archived from the original on 22 February 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2008.

Film documentaries

• Search for the Nile, 1971 BBC mini-series featuring Kenneth Haigh as Burton
• In The Victorian Sex Explorer, Rupert Everett documents Burton's travels. Part of the Channel Four (UK) 'Victorian Passions' season. First Broadcast on 9 June 2008.

External links

• Complete Works of Richard Burton at burtoniana.org. Includes over 200 of Burton's journal and magazine pieces.
• Works by Sir Richard Francis Burton at Project Gutenberg
• Works by or about Richard Francis Burton at Internet Archive
• Works by Richard Francis Burton at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
• "Archival material relating to Richard Francis Burton". UK National Archives. – index to world holdings of Burton archival materials
• The Penetration of Arabia by David George Hogarth (1904) – discusses Burton in the second section, "The Successors"
• Capt Sir Richard Burton Museum (sirrichardburtonmuseum.co.uk), "located in a private residence in central St Ives, Cornwall UK"
• Sir Richard Francis Burton at Library of Congress Authorities, with 172 catalogue records
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X Club
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/9/20

Image
Thomas Henry Huxley, the initiator of the X Club, c. 1880.

The X Club was a dining club of nine men who supported the theories of natural selection and academic liberalism in late 19th-century England. Thomas Henry Huxley was the initiator; he called the first meeting for 3 November 1864.[1] The club met in London once a month—except in July, August and September—from November 1864 until March 1893, and its members are believed to have wielded much influence over scientific thought. The members of the club were George Busk, Edward Frankland, Thomas Archer Hirst, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Thomas Henry Huxley, John Lubbock, Herbert Spencer, William Spottiswoode, and John Tyndall, united by a "devotion to science, pure and free, untrammelled by religious dogmas."[2]

The nine men who would compose the X Club already knew each other well. By the 1860s, friendships had turned the group into a social network, and the men often dined and went on holidays together. After Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species was published in 1859, the men began working together to aid the cause for naturalism and natural history. They backed the liberal Anglican movement that emerged in the early 1860s, and both privately and publicly supported the leaders of the movement.

According to its members, the club was originally started to keep friends from drifting apart, and to partake in scientific discussion free from theological influence. A key aim was to reform the Royal Society, with a view to making the practice of science professional. In the 1870s and 1880s, the members of the group became prominent in the scientific community and some accused the club of having too much power in shaping the scientific landscape of London. The club was terminated in 1893, after depletion by death, and as old age made regular meetings of the surviving members impossible.

Background

Social connections


Image
English botanist and explorer Joseph Dalton Hooker

When the first dinner meeting commenced on 3 November 1864 at St. George's Hotel on Albemarle Street in central London, the eight members of what was to be known as the X Club—William Spottiswoode was added at the second meeting in December 1864—already had extensive social ties with one another. In the mid-1850s, the men who would come to make up the X Club formed two distinct sets of friends. John Tyndall, Edward Frankland and Thomas Hirst, men who became friends in the late 1840s, were artisans who became physical scientists. Thomas Huxley, Joseph Dalton Hooker, and George Busk, friends since the early 1850s, had worked as surgeons and had become professional naturalists. Beginning in the mid-1850s, the network began to form around Huxley and Hooker, and these six men began helping one another, both as friends and professionals. In 1863, for example, Tyndall aided Frankland in getting a position at the Royal Institution. Spottiswoode, Herbert Spencer, and John Lubbock joined the circle of friends during the debates over evolution and naturalism in the early 1860s.[3]

The original members of the club had much in common. They shared a middle-class background and similar theological beliefs. All of the men were middle-aged, except Lubbock, who was 30, and Busk, who was 57, and all of the men, except Lubbock, lived in London.[4] More importantly, the men of the club all shared an interest in natural history, naturalism, and a more general pursuit of intellectual thought free from religious influence, commonly referred to as academic liberalism.[5]

Scientific climate

Image
English chemist Edward Frankland

The X Club came together during a period of turbulent conflict in both science and religion in Victorian England. The publication in 1859 of Charles Darwin's book On the Origin of Species through Natural Selection brought a storm of argument, with the scientific establishment of wealthy amateurs and clerical naturalists as well as the Church of England attacking this new development. Since the start of the 19th century they had seen evolutionism as an assault on the divinely ordained aristocratic social order. On the other side, Darwin's ideas on evolution were welcomed by liberal theologians and by a new generation of salaried professional scientists; the men who would later come to form the X Club supported Darwin, and saw his work as a great stride in the struggle for freedom from clerical interference in science. The members of the X social network played a significant part in nominating Darwin for the Copley Medal in 1864.[6][7]

In 1860, Essays and Reviews, a collection of essays on Christianity written by a group of liberal Anglicans, was published. The collection represented a summation of a nearly century-long challenge to the history and prehistory of the Bible by higher critics as well as geologists and biologists.[8] In short, the writers of Essays and Reviews sought to analyse the Bible like any other work of literature. At the time, Essays created more of a stir than Darwin's book. The members of the X network backed the collection, and Lubbock even sought to form an alliance between liberal Anglicans and scientists. Two liberal Anglican theologians were convicted of heresy, and when the government overturned the judgement on appeal, Samuel Wilberforce, the High Church and the evangelicals organised petitions and a mass backlash against evolution. At the Anglican convocation, the evangelicals presented a declaration reaffirming their faith in the harmony of God's word and his works and tried to make this a compulsory "Fortieth Article" of faith. They took their campaign to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, aiming to overthrow Huxley's "dangerous clique" of Darwin's allies.[9]

In 1862, Bishop John William Colenso of Natal published The Pentateuch and Book of Joshua Critically Examined, an analysis of the first five books of the Old Testament. In his analysis Colenso used mathematics and concepts of population dynamics, including examinations of food supply and transportation, to show that the first five books of the Bible were faulty and unreliable. Outrage broke out within the Church of England, and the X network not only gave their support to Colenso, but at times even dined with him to discuss his ideas.[10]

Image
Irish physicist John Tyndall, c. 1885

Later, in 1863, a new rift began to emerge within the scientific community over race theory. Debate was stirred up when the Anthropological Society of London, which rejected Darwinian theory, claimed that slavery was defensible based on the theory of evolution proposed by Darwin. The members of what would become the X Club sided with the Ethnological Society of London, which denounced slavery and embraced academic liberalism. The men of the X Club, especially Lubbock, Huxley, and Busk, felt that dissension and the "jealousies of theological sects" within learned societies were damaging, and they attempted to limit the contributions the Anthropological Society made to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, a society of which they were all members.[11]

Thus, by 1864, the members of the X Club were joined in a fight, both public and private, to unite the London scientific community with the objective of furthering the ideas of academic liberalism.[12]

Dining clubs

Dining clubs, common in late-Victorian England, were characterised by informal gatherings where men with similar interests could share new ideas and information among friends. Many formal societies and institutions that existed in England during the 19th century started as informal dining clubs. The problem with most formal societies at the time, especially to those men that would come together to form the X Club, was the manner in which meetings were conducted; most were too large and unsuitable for the discussion of private scientific matters. In addition, due to the outbreak of debates over evolution and religion within the scientific societies of London during the 1860s, the pursuit of discussion with likeminded men was often difficult.[13]

Several scientific clubs, such as the Philosophical Club and the Red Lion Club, were formed in the late 19th century, but these organisations lacked the scientific professionalism that serious scientists, including those members of the X Club such as Hooker and Huxley, sought. Other more serious clubs, such as the 'B-Club', were not sufficiently intimate for the men who would comprise the X Club.[14]

Formation

In 1864, Huxley wrote to Hooker and explained that he feared he and his group of friends, the other men of the social network, would drift apart and lose contact. He proposed the creation of a club that would serve to maintain social ties among the members of the network, and Hooker readily agreed. Huxley always insisted that sociability was the only purpose of the club, but others in the club, most notably Hirst, claimed that the founding members had other intentions. In his description of the first meeting, Hirst wrote that what brought the men together was actually a "devotion to science, pure and free, untrammelled by religious dogmas," and he predicted that situations would arise when their concerted efforts would be of great use.[15][16]

On the night of the first meeting, Huxley jokingly proposed that the club be named "Blastodermic Club", in reference to blastoderm, a layer of cells in the ovum of birds that acts as the center of development for the entire bird. Some historians, such as Ruth Barton, feel that Huxley wanted the newly formed club to act as a guide to the development of science. The name "Thorough Club", which referred to the movements that existed at the time for the "freedom to express unorthodox opinion", was also rejected as a possible name.[17] As Spencer would later explain, "X Club" was chosen in May 1865 because "it committed [the group] to nothing."[18] The name itself, according to Hirst, was proposed by Mrs. Busk.[19]

It was also decided on the first night that each ensuing meeting would take place on the first Thursday of each month, except during the holiday months of July, August, and September.[20] During the existence of the club, dinners took place at St. George’s Hotel on Albemarle Street, Almond’s Hotel on Clifford Street, and finally at the Athenaeum Club after 1886. Meetings always started at six in the evening so that dinner would be over in time for the Royal Society meetings at 8:00 or 8:30 pm in the Burlington House.[15][21]

Image
English mathematician Thomas Archer Hirst

Eight men attended the first meeting, and in addition Spottiswoode came to the next meeting in December 1864, making the membership of nine. William Benjamin Carpenter, an English physiologist, and William Fergusson, the Queen's surgeon, were also invited to join the club, but they declined.[16] After some discussion, it was decided, according to Spencer, that no more members would be added because no other men outside their network were friendly or intelligent enough to be part of the X Club.[19] In contrast, Huxley would later write that no others were admitted to the group because it was agreed that the name of any new member would have to contain "all the consonants absent from the names of the old ones."[22] As the members of the club had no Slavonic friends, the matter was supposedly dropped.

According to Spencer, the only rule the club had was to have no rules. When a resolution was proposed in November 1885 to keep formal notes of the meetings, the motion was defeated because it violated the rule. Nevertheless, the club kept both a secretary and a treasurer, and both positions were held in turn by each member of the club. These offices were in charge of account collecting and sending notices of upcoming meetings. Members, including Hirst, Huxley, Hooker, and Tyndall, also took informal notes of the meetings.[19]

Influence

Image
Herbert Spencer, an English philosopher and political theorist

Between the time of its inception in 1864 and its termination in 1893, the X club and its members gained much prominence within the scientific community, carrying much influence over scientific thought, similar to the Scientific Lazzaroni in the United States and the Society of Arcueil in France.[23] Between 1870 and 1878, Hooker, Spottiswoode, and Huxley held office in the Royal Society simultaneously, and between 1873 and 1885, they consecutively held the presidency of the Royal Society. Spottiswoode was treasurer of the Society between 1870 and 1878 and Huxley was elected Senior Secretary in 1872. Frankland and Hirst were also of importance to the Society, as the previous held the position of Foreign Secretary between 1895 and 1899, and the latter served on the Council three times between 1864 and 1882.[22][24]

Outside the Royal Society, the men of the X Club continued to gain influential positions. Five members of the Club held the presidency of the British Association for the Advancement of Science between 1868 and 1881. Hirst was elected president of the London Mathematical Society between 1872 and 1874 while Busk served as Examiner and eventually President of the Royal College of Surgeons. Frankland also served as President of the Chemical Society between 1871 and 1873.[22][24]

During this time, the members of the X-Club began to gain renown and win awards within the scientific community in London. Among the nine, three received the Copley Medal, five received the Royal Medal, two received Darwin Medals, one received the Rumford Medal, one received the Lyell Medal, and one received the Wollaston Medal. Eighteen honorary degrees were handed out among the nine members, as well as one Prussian 'Pour le Mérite' and one Order of Merit. Two of the members were knighted, one served as Privy Councillor, one as Justice of the Peace, three as Corresponding Members, and one was a Foreign Associate of the French Academy of Sciences.[24]

As the members of the club continued to gain prominence within the scientific community, the private club became well known. Many people at the time viewed the club as a scientific caucus, and some, such as Richard Owen, accused the group of having too much influence in shaping the scientific landscape of late-Victorian England.[25] Huxley recounted that he once overheard a conversation about the club between two men of the Athenaeum Club, and when one asked what the X-Club did, the other explained "Well they govern scientific affairs, and really, on the whole, they don't do it badly."[26][27] Informal notes of early meetings seem to confirm some of the concerns. Discussion often surrounded the nomination of members to offices of major societies, as well as the negotiation of pension and medal claims. In 1876, the club even voted to collectively support Lubbock’s candidacy for the Parliament of the United Kingdom.[28]

Huxley, however, always stated that the simple purpose of the club was to bring friends together who may have drifted apart otherwise. According to Huxley, the fact that all the members of the club gained distinction within science was merely coincidental.[29]

Decline

Image
English mathematician and physicist William Spottiswoode

By 1880, the members of the X Club had prominent positions within the scientific community, and the club was highly regarded, but it was beginning to fall apart. In 1883, Spottiswoode died of typhoid and at the same time, according to Spencer, only two of the remaining eight members of the X club were in good health. Attendance at meetings began to dwindle and by 1885, Frankland and Lubbock urged for the election of new members. There was a difference of opinion on the matter and it was eventually dropped. In 1889, a rift emerged in the group when Huxley and Spencer had an argument over land nationalisation policies and refused to talk with one another.[30]

The members of the club were growing old and during the late 1880s and early 1890s, a few of the members moved out of London. When attendance began to severely dwindle, talks of ending the club emerged. The last meeting was held unceremoniously in March 1893, and only Frankland and Hooker attended.[31]

See also

• Victorian era
• Naturalism (philosophy)
• Liberalism
• Natural history
• Liberal Christianity
• Natural Selection

References

• Barton, Ruth (September 1998), ""Huxley, Lubbock, and Half a Dozen Others": Professionals and Gentlemen in the Formation of the X Club, 1851–1864", Isis, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 89 (3): 410–444, doi:10.1086/384072, JSTOR 237141, OCLC 83940246
• Barton, Ruth (March 1990), "'An Influential Set of Chaps': The X-Club and Royal Society Politics 1864–85", The British Journal for the History of Science, Cambridge: Cambridge University, 23 (1): 53–81, doi:10.1017/S0007087400044459, JSTOR 4026802.
• Desmond, Adrian; Moore, James (1994), Darwin: The Life of a Tormented Evolutionist, London: W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 978-0-393-31150-1, OCLC 30748962.
• Desmond, James D. (2001), "Redefining the X Axis: "Professionals," "Amateurs" and the Making of Mid-Victorian Biology – A Progress Report", Journal of the History of Biology, Springer Netherlands, 34 (1): 3–50, doi:10.1023/A:1010346828270, OCLC 207888686, PMID 14513845.
• Hall, Marie Boas (March 1984), "The Royal Society in Thomas Henry Huxley's Time", Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, London: Royal Society, 38 (2): 153–158, doi:10.1098/rsnr.1984.0010, JSTOR 531815, OCLC 115985513, PMID 11615965.
• Jensen, J. Vernon (June 1970), "The X Club: Fraternity of Victorian Scientists", The British Journal for the History of Science, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 5 (1): 63–72, doi:10.1017/S0007087400010621, JSTOR 4025353, OCLC 104253815, PMID 11609564.
• MacLeod, Roy M. (April 1970), "The X-Club a Social Network of Science in Late-Victorian England", Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, London: Royal Society, 24 (2): 305–322, doi:10.1098/rsnr.1970.0022, JSTOR 531297, OCLC 104254595, PMID 11609784.
• Teller, James D. (February 1943), "Huxley's "Evil" Influence", Scientific Monthly, Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 56 (2): 173–178, Bibcode:1943SciMo..56..173T, JSTOR 17790.

Notes

1. Desmond A. 1994. Huxley: the Devil's disciple. Joseph, London. p327 et seq.
2. "Darwin Correspondence Project – Letter 4807 – Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., (7–8 Apr 1865)". Retrieved 1 December2008.
3. Barton 1998, p. 417.
4. MacLeod 1970, pp. 308–309, 311.
5. Barton 1998, p. 433.
6. Barton 1998, pp. 411, 434.
7. Desmond & Moore 1994, p. 526.
8. Glenn Everett, Essays and Reviews, http://www.victorianweb.org – Retrieved 1 December 2006.
9. Barton 1998, pp. 411, 433, 437, 447
10. Barton 1998, pp. 411, 434–435.
11. Barton 1998, p. 439.
12. Barton 1998, pp. 437–438.
13. MacLeod 1970, pp. 305–306.
14. Barton 1998, p. 412.
15. MacLeod 1970, p. 307.
16. Barton 1998, p. 411.
17. Barton 1998, p. 443.
18. Barton 1998, pp. 443–444.
19. MacLeod 1970, p. 309.
20. Jensen 1970, p. 63.
21. Jensen 1970, p. 65.
22. Teller 1943, p. 177.
23. Jensen 1970, p. 64.
24. MacLeod 1970, p. 310.
25. Hall 1894, p. 156.
26. MacLeod 1970, p. 312.
27. Browne, E. Janet (2002), Charles Darwin: The Power of Place, 2, London: Jonathan Cape, p. 249, ISBN 978-0-7126-6837-8, OCLC 186329110
28. MacLeod 1970, p. 311.
29. Barton 1998, p. 413.
30. MacLeod 1970, pp. 313–315.
31. MacLeod 1970, pp. 315–317.

Further reading

• Gondermann, Thomas (2007), Evolution und Rasse. Theoretischer und institutioneller Wandel in der viktorianischen Anthropologie, Bielefeld: transkript.
• Patton, Mark (2007), Science, Politics and Business in the Work of Sir John Lubbock: A Man of Universal Mind, London: Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7546-5321-9, OCLC 72868508.

External links

• Encyclopædia Britannica: X Club
• Encyclopædia Britannica: X Club – Further Reading
• Timeline of Darwin after Origin of Species
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Wed Sep 09, 2020 11:08 am

James Hunt (speech therapist)
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/9/20



According to noted Darwin biographers Adrian Desmond and James Moore, however, founder James Hunt was a paid agent of the Confederate States of America, as was his friend Henry Hotze and two other council members. Their purpose in founding the society was "to swing London opinion during the [American Civil] war." Hunt and Hotze put pro-slavery pseudoscience into the Anthropological Society library, "bought journalists, printed and distributed thousands of pamphlets,... ran a propaganda weekly in Fleet Street, The Index..." and in general promoted the pro-slavery dogma that black people were a separate species and inherently capable of no higher development than that of enslavement.

-- Anthropological Society of London, by Wikipedia


James Hunt (1833 – 29 August 1869) was a speech therapist in London, England who had among his clients Charles Kingsley, Leo Tennyson (son of the poet laureate Alfred Tennyson) and Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) author of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.

Lewis Carroll was a children’s author, mathematician, and clergyman. He had a stammer that was said to have affected his job. The 1861 census shows that Charles Lutwidge Dodgson was staying at Ore House in 1861 and being treated by Dr Hunt a psellismolligist. Since his book was published in 1865 it is quite possible that some of it was written during his stay.[original research?]

His other main interest was in anthropology and in 1863 he established the Anthropological Society of London, which after his death merged with the more established Ethnological Society of London to become the Royal Anthropological Institute.

Career

James Hunt was born in Swanage, Dorset, the son of the speech therapist Thomas Hunt (1802–1851) and his wife Mary. He was trained by his father in the art of curing stuttering by means of breath exercises, muscle control and building the patient's confidence. He bought a doctorate from the University of Giessen in Germany and set up a practice in 1856 in Regent Street, London.[1] He dedicated his first Manual on the subject to Charles Kingsley who spent three weeks with him in 1859. He moved to Hastings where ran residential courses during the summer season with his sister Elizabeth's husband, Rev. Henry F. Rivers.

Anthropology

In 1854 he joined the Ethnological Society of London because of his interest in racial differences and from 1859 to 1862 was the honorary secretary. However many members of this society disliked his attacks on humanitarian and missionary societies and the anti-slavery movement. [2] So in 1863 with the help of the explorer Richard Burton he set up the Anthropological Society of London, becoming its first president. His paper The Negro's place in nature was greeted with boos and hisses when given at the British Association meeting in 1863 because of its defence of slavery in the Confederate States of America and belief in the plurality of the human species.[3]

He established the Anthropological Review as the organ of the society and by 1867 the membership of the Society had reached 500. However, by 1867 allegations by one of the members Hyde Clarke of financial irregularities in his running of the society caused his temporary resignation as president, though he returned in 1868 when Clarke was expelled. This took a toll on his health and in 1869 he died of an inflammation of the brain. The society shortly afterwards started discussions to merge with the Ethnological Society.

He left a widow, Henrietta, and five children and left his books to his nephew W.H.R. Rivers who refused them, though, through unconnected means, he later became an anthropologist himself.

Publications

• Manual of the Philosophy of Voice and Speech, 1859
• Stammering and Stuttering, their nature and treatment, London: Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts, 1861.
• "The Negro's Place in Nature" (1863), Memoirs read before the Anthropological Society of London, 1865.

Further reading

Efram Sera-Shriar, ‘Observing Human Difference: James Hunt, Thomas Huxley, and Competing Disciplinary Strategies in the 1860s’, Annals of Science, 70 (2013), 461-491

References

1. Brock, W. H. "Hunt, James". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14194. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
2. George W. Stocking, Jr., Victorian Anthropology, New York, The Free Press, 1991 (1987), p. 247.
3. James Hunt, President (1865), On the Negro's place in Nature, The Anthropological Review, 3, pp. 53–4
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Wed Sep 09, 2020 11:15 am

Henry Hotze
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/9/20

According to noted Darwin biographers Adrian Desmond and James Moore, however, founder James Hunt was a paid agent of the Confederate States of America, as was his friend Henry Hotze and two other council members. Their purpose in founding the society was "to swing London opinion during the [American Civil] war." Hunt and Hotze put pro-slavery pseudoscience into the Anthropological Society library, "bought journalists, printed and distributed thousands of pamphlets,... ran a propaganda weekly in Fleet Street, The Index..." and in general promoted the pro-slavery dogma that black people were a separate species and inherently capable of no higher development than that of enslavement.

-- Anthropological Society of London, by Wikipedia


Image
Henry Hotze
Born: September 2, 1833, Zug, Switzerland
Died: April 19, 1887 (aged 53), Zug, Switzerland
Nationality: Swiss-American
Known for: Unofficial Diplomatic Agent of the Confederate States of America
Spouse(s): Ruby Senac
Parents: Rudolf Hotze (father); Sophie Essinger (mother)

Henry Hotze (September 2, 1833 – April 19, 1887) was a Swiss American propagandist for the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. He acted as a Confederate agent in Great Britain, attempting to build support for the Southern cause there. Hotze attempted to use liberal arguments of self-determination in favor of national independence, echoing the failed European revolutions of 1848. He also promised that the Confederacy would be a low-tariff nation in contrast to the high-tariff United States, and he emphasized the consequences of cotton shortages for the industrial workers in Britain, as caused by the Union blockade of Southern ports.[1]

Early life and career

He was the son of Rudolph Hotze, a captain in the French Royal Service, and Sophie Esslinger. He was educated in a Jesuit setting and emigrated to the United States in his youth. He became a naturalized citizen in 1855, and lived in Mobile, Alabama, where he made important connections through his social skills and intelligence. He had strong racial opinions. In 1856 Hotze was hired by Josiah C. Nott to translate Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races entitled The Moral and Intellectual Diversity of Races.

In 1858, he went to the southern commercial convention as a delegate for Mobile. He was a secretary for the U.S. legation in Brussels in 1858 and 1859, and when he returned, worked as an associate editor of the Mobile Register, owned by John Forsyth.

He joined the Mobile Cadets when the Civil War began. On May 30, 1861, he became a clerk in Richmond to the adjutant general. Secretary of War L. P. Walker ordered Hotze to go to London to assist in providing funds for Confederate agents in Europe, and help with the acquisition of munitions and supplies for the conflict. He went through the North and Canada before his departure, and collected some intelligence on the Union's mobilization efforts.

Agent in Europe

Image
The Index Newspaper

He arrived in London on October 5 and came to the determination that the Confederacy needed a strong diplomatic and propaganda effort in Europe. He returned to Richmond and made his argument to the Confederate leadership. On November 14, he was created an agent with the core task of influencing British public opinion toward supporting the Confederacy. Hotze was given $750 by the Confederate government to influence the British press with pro-Confederate propaganda.[2] Until the end of the war, he made substantial and vigorous activities to this end.

Hotze realized that propaganda effort had to be about more than cotton alone. He appealed to prejudice against the United States, British naval rights, and the rights of smaller nations. He paid English journalists to support the cause and wrote his own pieces in the Morning Post, the London Standard, the Herald, and the financial weekly paper Money and Market Review.

His first piece in the British press was published on 23 February 1862 in the influential Morning Post, the newspaper loyal to then British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston.[3]

In May 1862, he created a weekly journal, The Index, which was perhaps the best Confederate propaganda activity in Europe. It had a circulation of around 2,000 and was distributed primarily in Britain but was also read in France, Ireland, and even sent back to the Union itself. Hotze's realism and subtlety in his propaganda differed with other Confederate agents in Europe like Edwin De Leon, James Williams, Felix senac, John Slidell, and Paul Pecquet du Bellet. With a total of sixteen pages, The Index appeared every week on Thursdays. The newspaper cost six pence and thirty shillings for an annual subscription. By the month of July 1864, though sales had been increasing very slowly since 1862, sales revenue of The Index finally became sufficient to amortize the total running costs of the paper.[4] The offices of The Index were located on London's Fleet Street, two doors down from The London American, the official pro-Union propaganda journal.[5]

Contributors to The Index included British authors, as well as Americans living in London such as Albert Taylor Bledsoe and John Reuben Thompson.

According to Serge Noirsain of the Confederate Historical Association of Belgium, "Hotze called upon the assistance of professional journalists on the European continent. Manetta was a long-standing Italian friend of a member of the Confederate diplomatic mission in London, who had lived for a while in Virginia. Using the same methods as Hotze in England, Manetta managed to successfully infiltrate the Italian media, in particular the Turin press. This complicity produced a profitable exchange of information between The Index and the best newspapers on the European market. When sources were available, Hotze developed topics that influenced or helped the Confederate envoys in their official missions. As a result, his columns in The Index and their echoes in other well-known newspapers helped consolidate the logic behind the policies of the South".[6]

Hotze participated in a number of other important activities to support the south. He assisted in writing Lord Campbell's speech against the Union blockade given in the House of Lords on March 10, 1862. He also had an important dinner with William Ewart Gladstone (according to Gladstone's papers, July 31, 1862), where he stressed that the Union and Confederacy could negotiate their boundaries in a mediation effort. As 1862 moved on and after the battle of Antietam and the Emancipation Proclamation, Hotze became more frustrated over the course of public opinion in Great Britain.[7]

In London, Hotze took under his wing the famous Confederate spy Belle Boyd who had fled to England.[8] Boyd had landed in Liverpool and made her way to London to meet Hotze, upon the recommendation of the Confederacy's Secretary of State.[9] Boyd soon after married Union naval officer Samuel Wylde Hardinge in London on August 24, 1864. Though a shock to many, in light of the Civil War raging back home, the ceremony was nonetheless attended by influential Confederates such Hotze, Caleb Huse, John Walker Fearn, John L. O'Sullivan (who had coined the phrase "Manifest Destiny") and James Williams. Both O'Sullivan and Williams had previously been US Ambassadors; O'Sullivan to Portugal and Williams to the Ottoman Empire.

Last efforts and post-war activities

After the death of Stonewall Jackson prompted some sympathy for the south, Hotze attempted to organize pro-Confederacy meetings in Manchester, Sheffield, Preston and elsewhere to support a House of Commons resolution, initiated by J. A. Roebuck, for recognition of the Confederacy. Its failure and withdrawal on July 13, 1863, seemed like the end of hope for diplomatic solutions to Hotze. When James M. Mason was withdrawn, Hotze was the only remaining agent for the Confederacy in Britain.

He continued to draw on negative sentiments related to Union actions against Confederate attempts to build ironclad ships in Britain and concerns over occasional Union actions against British shipping. He also worked to obtain signatures for petitions for peace and was able to influence French newspapers by affecting Havas Agency telegraphs.

According to Serge Noirsain, Hotze "took time to analyze the routing of information in France. He learned that it was the Havas Agency that spread the world news to the French press. By way of intrigues, he managed to make friends with Auguste Havas and convince him to exploit his exclusive information coming supposedly directly from the New World. Of course he took care not to reveal his true sources...In addition to France and Great Britain, Hotze was soon put in charge of Confederate propaganda in Ireland and in the German kingdoms. However, those nations had gradually passed under the control of Union agents who were provided with considerable funds. In spite of some local successes, Richmond advised Hotze not to focus on those areas because of the enormous amount of energy that this operation would require."[10]

In the long run Hotze's strong feelings about slavery made him averse to work with Jefferson Davis, whose final offer to accept emancipation in exchange for European recognition he flatly rejected.

After the war, he refused to return to the United States and remained in Europe working as a journalist, mostly Paris. He returned to London during the Franco-Prussian War and is known to have visited Istanbul for a newspaper assignment.[11]

Shortly after the war, Hotze joined the rifle manufacturing company Martini, Tanner & Co. as senior partner. The company was later renamed Martini, Hotze, & Co.[12] The company operated from the rue de Lisbonne in Paris.

Hotze died of a stomach cancer in Zug, Switzerland on April 19, 1887 at the age of 53.[13]

Marriage to Ruby Angela Senac

Henry Hotze married Ruby Senac in 1867 at the American Legation in Paris. A religious ceremony was held on December 7, 1867 at the Church of Saint Augustine in Paris by Rev. Crabod, 1st Vicar.

Image
Henry Hotze's wife Ruby Senac Hotze photographed in 1867 in Paris, France

Image
Funeral service for Ruby Senac Hotze

Ruby Senac, born in Mobile on 4 January 1844, was the daughter of Felix senac and Marie Louise Hollinger. She had come to England with her parents in 1863 and had appeared at Court, being presented to Queen Victoria.[14] Ruby had been educated in the United States and had attended Georgetown Visitation Academy in Washington until 1858. Her father Felix senac, born in Pensacola on 28 July 1815 to Pierre Senac and Agnes Senac, had been the Confederacy's purchasing agent and paymaster in New Orleans and then Europe. Felix senac, who had married Marie Louise Hollinger on 16 April 1843, began his military career in Florida in June 1834 before being dismissed as purser on August 15, 1856.[15] Senac had been stationed on Key West's Fort Taylor as Chief Clerk in the 1850s, responsible for the construction and budget of the newly built Fort Taylor.[16][17]

Felix senac enlisted in the Confederate navy on 22 July 1861 and died on 27 January 1866 in Wiesbaden, Germany.[18] His widow and daughter returned to Paris and it was there that Ruby first met Hotze. The Senacs were related to Angela Sylvania Moreno, the wife of Stephen Mallory, Secretary of the Navy of the Confederacy. The Senac family and Moreno family were related through Fernando Moreno (1771-1830), who had married Florentina Senac in 1788 in New Orleans, Louisiana.[19] Felix Senac was also the maternal uncle of Confederate Second Lieutenant John Lawrence Rapier.

The Hotze couple and Ruby's mother lived in the St Mary Abbotts area of Kensington in 1871, and were still living in Kensington as late as 1881. Following Hotze's death in 1887, Ruby survived her husband by several decades. She continued to live in England and then moved to Washington, D.C. with her mother Marie Louise who died on 2 October 1898. Ruby was employed in the Census Office on July 1, 1890 and then became a clerk in the Signal Corps. She was transferred to the Weather Bureau in 1891. She died on January 3, 1929 in Washington, D.C. at the age of 84. She is buried at Mount Olivet Cemetery.[20]

See also

• Diplomacy of the American Civil War

Further reading

• Bennett, John D. The London Confederates: The Officials, Clergy, Businessmen and Journalists who Backed the American South During the Civil War (McFarland, 2008).
• Bonner, Robert E. "Slavery, Confederate Diplomacy, and the Racialist Mission of Henry Hotze," Civil War History 51, no. 3 (2005): 288–316.
• Burnett, Lonnie. Henry Hotze, Confederate Propagandist: Selected on Revolution, Recognition, and Race, University of Alabama Press, 2008. ISBN 0-8173-1620-5
• Crook, D.P. "Hotze, Henry"; [1]; American National Biography Online February 2000.
• Cullop, Charles P. Confederate Propaganda in Europe, 1861–1865 (1969)
• Fleche, Andre. Revolution of 1861: The American Civil War in the Age of Nationalist Conflict (2012)
• Oates, Stephen B. "Henry Hotze: Confederate Agent Abroad." Historian 27.2 (1965): 131-154. in JSTOR

References

1. Andre Fleche, Revolution of 1861: The American Civil War in the Age of Nationalist Conflict (2012) p 84.
2. "CONFEDERATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF BELGIUM" (PDF).
3. "CONFEDERATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF BELGIUM" (PDF).
4. "CONFEDERATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF BELGIUM" (PDF).
5. "Historynet.com : Battlefields Beyond (London UK)".
6. "CONFEDERATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF BELGIUM" (PDF).
7. "Early American History".
8. "Belle Boyd: Siren of the South p. 159".
9. "Belle Boyd: Siren of the South p.157".
10. "CONFEDERATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF BELGIUM" (PDF).
11. "The London Confederates: The Officials, Clergy, Businessmen and Journalists".
12. "Persuading John Bull: Union and Confederate Propaganda in Britain, 1860–65".
13. "The Civil War Research Engine at Dickinson College".
14. "In the Shadow of the Alabama: The British Foreign Office and the American Civil War".
15. "Southern Anthology".
16. "US Congress: House Documents, 13th Congress, p.288".
17. "US Congress: Senate Documents p. 181".
18. "In the Shadow of the Alabama: The British Foreign Office and the American Civil War".
19. "Our family: the Moreno and related families".
20. "Southern Anthology".

External links

• "The South's Man in London,' Andre M. Fleche, The New York Times, 20 November 2012 [2]
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