Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

This is a broad, catch-all category of works that fit best here and not elsewhere. If you haven't found it someplace else, you might want to look here.

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Wed Sep 09, 2020 10:52 pm

The British Rule in India
by Karl Marx
New-York Daily Tribune
June 25, 1853

Karl Marx identified the notion of an Asiatic economic system in his 1853 analyses of British rule in India, and then put beside that immediately the human depredation introduced into this system by English colonial interference, rapacity, and outright cruelty. In article after article he returned with increasing conviction to the idea that even in destroying Asia, Britain was making possible there a real social revolution. Marx's style pushes us right up against the difficulty of reconciling our natural repugnance as fellow creatures to the sufferings of Orientals while their society is being violently transformed with the historical necessity of these transformations.

Now, sickening as it must be to human feeling to witness those myriads of industrious patriarchal and inoffensive social organizations disorganized and dissolved into their units, thrown into a sea of woes, and their individual members losing at the same time their ancient form of civilization and their hereditary means of subsistence, we must not forget that these idyllic village communities, inoffensive though they may appear, had always been the solid foundation of Oriental despotism, that they restrained the human mind within the smallest possible compass, making it the unresisting tool of superstition, enslaving it beneath the traditional rules, depriving it of all grandeur and historical energies ....

England, it is true, in causing a social revolution in Hindustan was actuated only by the vilest interests, and was stupid in her manner of enforcing them. But that is not the question. The question is, can mankind fulfil its destiny without a fundamental revolution in the social state of Asia? If not, whatever may have been the crimes of England she was the unconscious tool of history in bringing about that revolution.

Then, whatever bitterness the spectacle of the crumbling of an ancient world may have for our personal feelings, we have the right, in point of history, to exclaim with Goethe:


Sollte these Qual uns qualen
Da she unsere Lust vermehrt
Hat nicht Myriaden Seelen
Timurs Herrschaft aufgeziehrt?69
(Should this torture then torment us
Since it brings us greater pleasure?
Were not through the rule of Timur
Souls devoured without measure?)

[From Goethe’s “An Suleika”, Westöstlicher Diwan]


The quotation, which supports Marx's argument about torment producing pleasure, comes from the Westőstlicher Diwan and identifies the sources of Marx's conceptions about the Orient. These are Romantic and even messianic: as human material the Orient is less important than as an element in a Romantic redemptive project. Marx's economic analyses are perfectly fitted thus to a standard Orientalist undertaking, even though Marx's humanity, his sympathy for the misery of people, are clearly engaged. Yet in the end it is the Romantic Orientalist vision that wins out, as Marx's theoretical socio-economic views become submerged in this classically standard image:

England has to fulfill a double mission in India: one destructive, the other regenerating -- the annihilation of the Asiatic society, and the laying of the material foundations of Western society in Asia.70


The idea of regenerating a fundamentally lifeless Asia is a piece of pure Romantic Orientalism, of course, but coming from the same writer who could not easily forget the human suffering involved, the statement is puzzling. It requires us first to ask how Marx's moral equation of Asiatic loss with the British colonial rule he condemned gets skewed back towards the old inequality between East and West we have so far remarked. Second, it requires us to ask where the human sympathy has gone, into what realm of thought it has disappeared while the Orientalist vision takes its place.

We are immediately brought back to the realization that Orientalists, like many other early-nineteenth-century thinkers, conceive of humanity either in large collective terms or in abstract generalities. Orientalists are neither interested in nor capable of discussing individuals; instead artificial entities, perhaps with their roots in Herderian populism, predominate. There are Orientals, Asiatics, Semites, Muslims, Arabs, Jews, races, mentalities, nations, and the like, some of them the product of learned operations of the type found in Renan's work. Similarly, the age-old distinction between "Europe" and "Asia" or "Occident" and "Orient" hides beneath very wide labels every possible variety of human plurality, reducing it in the process to one or two terminal, collective abstractions. Marx is no exception. The collective Orient was easier for him to use in illustration of a theory than existential human identities. For between Orient and Occident, as if in a self-fulfilling proclamation, only the vast anonymous collectivity mattered, or existed. No other type of exchange, severely constrained though it may have been, was at hand.

That Marx was still able to sense some fellow feeling, to identify even a little with poor Asia, suggests that something happened before the labels took over, before he was dispatched to Goethe as a source of wisdom on the Orient. It is as if the individual mind (Marx's, in this case) could find a precollective, pre-official individuality in Asia -- find and give in to its pressures upon his emotions, feelings, senses -- only to give it up when he confronted a more formidable censor in the very vocabulary he found himself forced to employ. What that censor did was to stop and then chase away the sympathy, and this was accompanied by a lapidary definition: Those people, it said, don't suffer -- they are Orientals and hence have to be treated in other ways than the ones you've just been using. A wash of sentiment therefore disappeared as it encountered the unshakable definitions built up by Orientalist science, supported by "Oriental" lore (e.g., the Diwan) supposed to be appropriate for it. The vocabulary of emotion dissipated as it submitted to the lexicographical police action of Orientalist science and even Orientalist art. An experience was dislodged by a dictionary definition: one can almost see that happen in Marx's Indian essays, where what finally occurs is that something forces him to scurry back to Goethe, there to stand in his protective Orientalized Orient.

In part, of course, Marx was concerned with vindicating his own theses on socio-economic revolution; but in part also he seems to have had easy resource to a massed body of writing, both internally consolidated by Orientalism and put forward by it beyond the field, that controlled any statement made about the Orient. In Chapter One I tried to show how this control had had a general cultural history in Europe since antiquity; in this chapter my concern has been to show how in the nineteenth century a modern professional terminology and practice were created whose existence dominated discourse about the Orient, whether by Orientalists or non- Orientalists. Sacy and Renan were instances of the way Orientalism fashioned, respectively, a body of texts and a philologically rooted process by which the Orient took on a discursive identity that made it unequal with the West. In using Marx as the case by which a non-Orientalist's human engagements were first dissolved, then usurped by Orientalist generalizations, we find ourselves having to consider the process of lexicographical and institutional consolidation peculiar to Orientalism.


-- Orientalism, by Edward W. Said


London, Friday, June 10, 1853

Telegraphic dispatches from Vienna announce that the pacific solution of the Turkish, Sardinian and Swiss questions, is regarded there as a certainty.

Last night the debate on India was continued in the House of Commons, in the usual dull manner. Mr. Blackett charged the statements of Sir Charles Wood and Sir J. Hogg with bearing the stamp of optimist falsehood. A lot of Ministerial and Directorial advocates rebuked the charge as well as they could, and the inevitable Mr. Hume summed up by calling on Ministers to withdraw their bill. Debate adjourned.

Hindostan is an Italy of Asiatic dimensions, the Himalayas for the Alps, the Plains of Bengal for the Plains of Lombardy, the Deccan for the Apennines, and the Isle of Ceylon for the Island of Sicily. The same rich variety in the products of the soil, and the same dismemberment in the political configuration. Just as Italy has, from time to time, been compressed by the conqueror’s sword into different national masses, so do we find Hindostan, when not under the pressure of the Mohammedan, or the Mogul[4], or the Briton, dissolved into as many independent and conflicting States as it numbered towns, or even villages. Yet, in a social point of view, Hindostan is not the Italy, but the Ireland of the East. And this strange combination of Italy and of Ireland, of a world of voluptuousness and of a world of woes, is anticipated in the ancient traditions of the religion of Hindostan. That religion is at once a religion of sensualist exuberance, and a religion of self-torturing asceticism; a religion of the Lingam and of the juggernaut; the religion of the Monk, and of the Bayadere.[5]

I share not the opinion of those who believe in a golden age of Hindostan, without recurring, however, like Sir Charles Wood, for the confirmation of my view, to the authority of Khuli-Khan. But take, for example, the times of Aurangzeb; or the epoch, when the Mogul appeared in the North, and the Portuguese in the South; or the age of Mohammedan invasion, and of the Heptarchy in Southern India[6]; or, if you will, go still more back to antiquity, take the mythological chronology of the Brahman himself, who places the commencement of Indian misery in an epoch even more remote than the Christian creation of the world.

There cannot, however, remain any doubt but that the misery inflicted by the British on Hindostan is of an essentially different and infinitely more intensive kind than all Hindostan had to suffer before. I do not allude to European despotism, planted upon Asiatic despotism, by the British East India Company, forming a more monstrous combination than any of the divine monsters startling us in the Temple of Salsette[7]. This is no distinctive feature of British Colonial rule, but only an imitation of the Dutch, and so much so that in order to characterise the working of the British East India Company, it is sufficient to literally repeat what Sir Stamford Raffles, the English Governor of Java, said of the old Dutch East India Company:

“The Dutch Company, actuated solely by the spirit of gain, and viewing their [Javan] subjects, with less regard or consideration than a West India planter formerly viewed a gang upon his estate, because the latter had paid the purchase money of human property, which the other had not, employed all the existing machinery of despotism to squeeze from the people their utmost mite of contribution, the last dregs of their labor, and thus aggravated the evils of a capricious and semi-barbarous Government, by working it with all the practised ingenuity of politicians, and all the monopolizing selfishness of traders.”


All the civil wars, invasions, revolutions, conquests, famines, strangely complex, rapid, and destructive as the successive action in Hindostan may appear, did not go deeper than its surface. England has broken down the entire framework of Indian society, without any symptoms of reconstitution yet appearing. This loss of his old world, with no gain of a new one, imparts a particular kind of melancholy to the present misery of the Hindoo, and separates Hindostan, ruled by Britain, from all its ancient traditions, and from the whole of its past history.

There have been in Asia, generally, from immemorial times, but three departments of Government; that of Finance, or the plunder of the interior; that of War, or the plunder of the exterior; and, finally, the department of Public Works. Climate and territorial conditions, especially the vast tracts of desert, extending from the Sahara, through Arabia, Persia, India, and Tartary, to the most elevated Asiatic highlands, constituted artificial irrigation by canals and water-works the basis of Oriental agriculture. As in Egypt and India, inundations are used for fertilizing the soil in Mesopotamia, Persia, &c.; advantage is taken of a high level for feeding irrigative canals. This prime necessity of an economical and common use of water, which, in the Occident, drove private enterprise to voluntary association, as in Flanders and Italy, necessitated, in the Orient where civilization was too low and the territorial extent too vast to call into life voluntary association, the interference of the centralizing power of Government. Hence an economical function devolved upon all Asiatic Governments, the function of providing public works. This artificial fertilization of the soil, dependent on a Central Government, and immediately decaying with the neglect of irrigation and drainage, explains the otherwise strange fact that we now find whole territories barren and desert that were once brilliantly cultivated, as Palmyra, Petra, the ruins in Yemen, and large provinces of Egypt, Persia, and Hindostan; it also explains how a single war of devastation has been able to depopulate a country for centuries, and to strip it of all its civilization.

Now, the British in East India accepted from their predecessors the department of finance and of war, but they have neglected entirely that of public works. Hence the deterioration of an agriculture which is not capable of being conducted on the British principle of free competition, of laissez-faire and laissez-aller. But in Asiatic empires we are quite accustomed to see agriculture deteriorating under one government and reviving again under some other government. There the harvests correspond to good or bad government, as they change in Europe with good or bad seasons. Thus the oppression and neglect of agriculture, bad as it is, could not be looked upon as the final blow dealt to Indian society by the British intruder, had it not been attended by a circumstance of quite different importance, a novelty in the annals of the whole Asiatic world. However changing the political aspect of India’s past must appear, its social condition has remained unaltered since its remotest antiquity, until the first decennium of the 19th century. The hand-loom and the spinning-wheel, producing their regular myriads of spinners and weavers, were the pivots of the structure of that society. From immemorial times, Europe received the admirable textures of Indian labor, sending in return for them her precious metals, and furnishing thereby his material to the goldsmith, that indispensable member of Indian society, whose love of finery is so great that even the lowest class, those who go about nearly naked, have commonly a pair of golden ear-rings and a gold ornament of some kind hung round their necks. Rings on the fingers and toes have also been common. Women as well as children frequently wore massive bracelets and anklets of gold or silver, and statuettes of divinities in gold and silver were met with in the households. It was the British intruder who broke up the Indian hand-loom and destroyed the spinning-wheel. England began with driving the Indian cottons from the European market; it then introduced twist into Hindostan, and in the end inundated the very mother country of cotton with cottons. From 1818 to 1836 the export of twist from Great Britain to India rose in the proportion of 1 to 5,200. In 1824 the export of British muslins to India hardly amounted to 1,000,000 yards, while in 1837 it surpassed 64,000,000 of yards. But at the same time the population of Dacca decreased from 150,000 inhabitants to 20,000. This decline of Indian towns celebrated for their fabrics was by no means the worst consequence. British steam and science uprooted, over the whole surface of Hindostan, the union between agriculture and manufacturing industry.

These two circumstances – the Hindoo, on the one hand, leaving, like all Oriental peoples, to the Central Government the care of the great public works, the prime condition of his agriculture and commerce, dispersed, on the other hand, over the surface of the country, and agglomerated in small centers by the domestic union of agricultural and manufacturing pursuits – these two circumstances had brought about, since the remotest times, a social system of particular features – the so-called village system, which gave to each of these small unions their independent organization and distinct life. The peculiar character of this system may be judged from the following description, contained in an old official report of the British House of Commons on Indian affairs:

“A village, geographically considered, is a tract of country comprising some hundred or thousand acres of arable and waste lands; politically viewed it resembles a corporation or township. Its proper establishment of officers and servants consists of the following descriptions: The potail, or head inhabitant, who has generally the superintendence of the affairs of the village, settles the disputes of the inhabitants attends to the police, and performs the duty of collecting the revenue within his village, a duty which his personal influence and minute acquaintance with the situation and concerns of the people render him the best qualified for this charge. The kurnum keeps the accounts of cultivation, and registers everything connected with it. The tallier and the totie, the duty of the former of which consists [...] in gaining information of crimes and offenses, and in escorting and protecting persons travelling from one village to another; the province of the latter appearing to be more immediately confined to the village, consisting, among other duties, in guarding the crops and assisting in measuring them. The boundary-man, who preserves the limits of the village, or gives evidence respecting them in cases of dispute. The Superintendent of Tanks and Watercourses distributes the water [...] for the purposes of agriculture. The Brahmin, who performs the village worship. The schoolmaster, who is seen teaching the children in a village to read and write in the sand. The calendar-brahmin, or astrologer, etc. These officers and servants generally constitute the establishment of a village; but in some parts of the country it is of less extent, some of the duties and functions above described being united in the same person; in others it exceeds the above-named number of individuals. [...] Under this simple form of municipal government, the inhabitants of the country have lived from time immemorial. The boundaries of the villages have been but seldom altered; and though the villages themselves have been sometimes injured, and even desolated by war, famine or disease, the same name, the same limits, the same interests, and even the same families have continued for ages. The inhabitants gave themselves no trouble about the breaking up and divisions of kingdoms; while the village remains entire, they care not to what power it is transferred, or to what sovereign it devolves; its internal economy remains unchanged. The potail is still the head inhabitant, and still acts as the petty judge or magistrate, and collector or renter of the village.”


These small stereotype forms of social organism have been to the greater part dissolved, and are disappearing, not so much through the brutal interference of the British tax-gatherer and the British soldier, as to the working of English steam and English free trade. Those family-communities were based on domestic industry, in that peculiar combination of hand-weaving, hands-spinning and hand-tilling agriculture which gave them self-supporting power. English interference having placed the spinner in Lancashire and the weaver in Bengal, or sweeping away both Hindoo spinner and weaver, dissolved these small semi-barbarian, semi-civilized communities, by blowing up their economical basis, and thus produced the greatest, and to speak the truth, the only social revolution ever heard of in Asia.

Now, sickening as it must be to human feeling to witness those myriads of industrious patriarchal and inoffensive social organizations disorganized and dissolved into their units, thrown into a sea of woes, and their individual members losing at the same time their ancient form of civilization, and their hereditary means of subsistence, we must not forget that these idyllic village-communities, inoffensive though they may appear, had always been the solid foundation of Oriental despotism, that they restrained the human mind within the smallest possible compass, making it the unresisting tool of superstition, enslaving it beneath traditional rules, depriving it of all grandeur and historical energies. We must not forget the barbarian egotism which, concentrating on some miserable patch of land, had quietly witnessed the ruin of empires, the perpetration of unspeakable cruelties, the massacre of the population of large towns, with no other consideration bestowed upon them than on natural events, itself the helpless prey of any aggressor who deigned to notice it at all. We must not forget that this undignified, stagnatory, and vegetative life, that this passive sort of existence evoked on the other part, in contradistinction, wild, aimless, unbounded forces of destruction and rendered murder itself a religious rite in Hindostan. We must not forget that these little communities were contaminated by distinctions of caste and by slavery, that they subjugated man to external circumstances instead of elevating man the sovereign of circumstances, that they transformed a self-developing social state into never changing natural destiny, and thus brought about a brutalizing worship of nature, exhibiting its degradation in the fact that man, the sovereign of nature, fell down on his knees in adoration of Kanuman, the monkey, and Sabbala, the cow.

England, it is true, in causing a social revolution in Hindostan, was actuated only by the vilest interests, and was stupid in her manner of enforcing them. But that is not the question. The question is, can mankind fulfil its destiny without a fundamental revolution in the social state of Asia? If not, whatever may have been the crimes of England she was the unconscious tool of history in bringing about that revolution.

Then, whatever bitterness the spectacle of the crumbling of an ancient world may have for our personal feelings, we have the right, in point of history, to exclaim with Goethe:

“Sollte these Qual uns quälen
Da sie unsre Lust vermehrt,
Hat nicht myriaden Seelen
Timur’s Herrschaft aufgezehrt?”

[“Should this torture then torment us
Since it brings us greater pleasure?
Were not through the rule of Timur
Souls devoured without measure?”]

-- From Goethe’s “An Suleika”, Westöstlicher Diwan


Karl Marx

_______________

Footnotes

4 A reference to the rule in India, mainly in the north, of the Mohammedan invaders who came from Central Asia, Afghanistan and Persia. Early in the thirteenth century the Delhi Sultanate became the bulwark of Moslem domination but at the end of the fourteenth century it declined and was subsequently conquered by the Moguls, new invaders of Turkish descent, who came to India from the east of Central Asia in the early sixteenth century and in 1526 founded the Empire of the Great Moguls (named after the ruling dynasty of the Empire) in Northern India. Contemporaries regarded them as the direct descendants of the Mongol warriors of Genghis Khan’s time, hence the name “Moguls”. In the mid-seventeenth century the Mogul Empire included the greater part of India and part of Afghanistan. Later on, however, the Empire began to decline due to peasant rebellions, the growing resistance of the Indian people to the Mohammedan conquerors and increasing separatist tendencies. In the early half of the eighteenth century the Empire of the Great Moguls practically ceased to exist.

5 Religion of the Lingam – the cult of the God Shiva, particularly widespread among the southern Indian sect of the Lingayat (from the word “linga” - the emblem of Shiva), a Hindu sect which does not recognise distinctions of caste and rejects fasts, sacrifices and pilgrimages.

Juggernaut (jagannath) – a title of Krishna, the eighth avatar of Vishnu. The cult of juggernaut was marked by sumptuous ritual and extreme religious fanaticism which manifested itself in the self-torture and suicide of believers. On feast days some believers threw themselves under the wheels of the chariot bearing the idol of Vishnu-juggernaut.

6 Heptarchy (government by seven rulers) – a term used by English historiographers to describe the political system in England from the sixth to eighth centuries, when the country was divided into seven highly unstable Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, which, in their turn, frequently split up and reunited. Marx uses this term by analogy to describe the disunity of the Deccan (Central and South India) before its conquest by the Mohammedans at the beginning of the fourteenth century.

7 The island of Salsette, north of Bombay, was famous for its 109 Buddhist cave temples.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30823
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Wed Sep 09, 2020 11:28 pm

Ernest Renan
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/9/20

Image
Ernest Renan
Ernest Renan by Antoine Samuel Adam-Salomon, circa 1870s
Born: Joseph Ernest Renan, 28 February 1823, Tréguier, Kingdom of France
Died: 2 October 1892 (aged 69), Paris, French Third Republic
Notable work: Life of Jesus (1863); What Is a Nation? (1882)
Era: 19th-century philosophy
Region: Western philosophy
School: Continental philosophy
Main interests: History of religion, philosophy of religion, political philosophy
Notable ideas: Civic nationalism[1]
Influences: Thomas Reid, Nicolas Malebranche, G. W. F. Hegel, Immanuel Kant, J. G. Herder, David Strauss

Joseph Ernest Renan (French: [ʁənɑ̃]; 27 February 1823 – 2 October 1892)[2] was a French Orientalist and Semitic scholar, expert of Semitic languages and civilizations, historian of religion, philologist, philosopher, biblical scholar and critic.[3] He is best known for his influential and pioneering historical works on the origins of early Christianity,[3] and his political theories, especially concerning nationalism and national identity. Renan is credited as being among the first scholars to advance the now-discredited[4] Khazar theory, which held that Ashkenazi Jews were descendants of the Khazars,[5] Turkic peoples who had adopted Jewish religion and migrated to Western Europe following the collapse of their khanate.[5]

Life

Birth and family


Image
Ernest Renan birthplace museum in Tréguier

He was born at Tréguier in Brittany to a family of fishermen.[6] His grandfather, having made a small fortune with his fishing smack, bought a house at Tréguier and settled there, and his father, captain of a small cutter and an ardent republican, married the daughter of a Royalist tradesman from the neighbouring town of Lannion. All his life, Renan was aware of the conflict between his father's and his mother's political beliefs. He was five years old when his father died, and his sister, Henriette, twelve years his senior, became the moral head of the household. Having in vain attempted to keep a school for girls at Tréguier, she departed and went to Paris as a teacher in a young ladies' boarding-school.[7]

Education

Ernest, meanwhile, was educated in the ecclesiastical seminary of his native town.[8][7] His school reports describe him as "docile, patient, diligent, painstaking, thorough". While the priests taught him mathematics and Latin, his mother completed his education. Renan's mother was half Breton. Her paternal ancestors came from Bordeaux, and Renan used to say that in his own nature the Gascon and the Breton were constantly at odds.[9][7]

During the summer of 1838, Renan won all the prizes at the college of Tréguier. His sister told the doctor of the school in Paris where she taught about her brother, and he informed F. A. P. Dupanloup, who was involved in organizing the ecclesiastical college of Saint-Nicolas-du-Chardonnet, a school in which the young Catholic nobility and the most talented pupils of the Catholic seminaries were to be educated together, with the idea of creating friendships between the aristocracy and the priesthood. Dupanloup sent for Renan, who was then fifteen years old and had never been outside Brittany. "I learned with stupor that knowledge was not a privilege of the church ... I awoke to the meaning of the words talent, fame, celebrity." Religion seemed to him wholly different in Tréguier and in Paris.[7] He came to view Abbé Dupanloup as a father figure.[10]

Study at Issy-les Moulineaux

In 1840, Renan left St Nicholas to study philosophy at the seminary of Issy-les-Moulineaux. He entered with a passion for Catholic scholasticism. Among the philosophers, Thomas Reid and Nicolas Malebranche first attracted him, and, then he turned to G. W. F. Hegel, Immanuel Kant and J. G. Herder.[10] Renan began to see a contradiction between the metaphysics which he studied and the faith he professed, but an appetite for verifiable truths restrained his scepticism. "Philosophy excites and only half satisfies the appetite for truth; I am eager for mathematics", he wrote to Henriette. Henriette had accepted in the family of Count Zamoyski an engagement more lucrative than her former job. She exercised the strongest influence over her brother.[7]

Study at college of St Sulpice

It was not mathematics but philology which was to settle Renan's gathering doubts. His course completed at Issy, in 1844 he entered the college of St Sulpice in order to take his degree in philology prior to entering the church, and, here, he began the study of Hebrew. He realized that the second part of the Book of Isaiah differs from the first not only in style but in date, that the grammar and the history of the Pentateuch are later than the time of Moses, and that the Book of Daniel is clearly written centuries after the time in which it is set. At night he read the new novels of Victor Hugo; by day, he studied Hebrew and Syriac under Arthur-Marie Le Hir.[10] In October 1845, Renan left St Sulpice for Stanislas, a lay college of the Oratorians. Still feeling too much under the domination of the church, he reluctantly ended the last of his associations with religious life and entered M. Crouzet's school for boys as a teacher.[7]

Scholarly career

Image
Portrait of Joseph Ernest Renan, by F. Mulnier

Renan, educated by priests, was to accept the scientific ideal with an extraordinary expansion of all his faculties. He became ravished by the splendor of the cosmos. At the end of his life, he wrote of Amiel, "The man who has time to keep a private diary has never understood the immensity of the universe." The certitudes of physical and natural science were revealed to Renan in 1846 by the chemist Marcellin Berthelot, then a boy of eighteen, his pupil at M. Crouzet's school. To the day of Renan's death, their friendship continued. Renan was occupied as usher only during evenings. During the daytime, he continued his researches in Semitic philology. In 1847, he obtained the Volney prize, one of the principal distinctions awarded by the Academy of Inscriptions, for the manuscript of his "General History of Semitic Languages." In 1847, he took his degree as Agrégé de Philosophie – that is to say, fellow of the university – and was offered a job as master in the lycée Vendôme.[7]

In 1856, Renan married in Paris Cornélie Scheffer, daughter of Hendrik Scheffer and niece of Ary Scheffer, both French painters of Dutch descent. They had two children, Ary Renan, born in 1858, who became a painter, and Noémi, born in 1862, who eventually married Yannis Psycharis.

Life of Jesus

Within his lifetime, Renan was best known as the author of the enormously popular Life of Jesus (Vie de Jésus, 1863).[11][12] Renan attributed the idea of the book to his sister, Henriette, with whom he was traveling in Ottoman Syria and Palestine when, struck with a fever, she died suddenly. With only a New Testament and copy of Josephus as references, he began writing.[13] The book was first translated into English in the year of its publication by Charles E. Wilbour and has remained in print for the past 145 years.[14] Renan's Life of Jesus was lavished with ironic praise and criticism by Albert Schweitzer in his book The Quest of the Historical Jesus.[15]

Renan argued Jesus was able to purify himself of "Jewish traits" and that he became an Aryan. His Life of Jesus promoted racial ideas and infused race into theology and the person of Jesus; he depicted Jesus as a Galilean who was transformed from a Jew into a Christian, and that Christianity emerged purified of any Jewish influences.[16] The book was based largely on the Gospel of John, and was a scholarly work.[16] It depicted Jesus as a man but not God, and rejected the miracles of the Gospel.[16] Renan believed by humanizing Jesus he was restoring to him a greater dignity.[17] The book's controversial assertions that the life of Jesus should be written like the life of any historic person, and that the Bible could and should be subject to the same critical scrutiny as other historical documents caused controversy[18] and enraged many Christians,[19][20][21][22] and Jews were enraged because of its depiction of Judaism as foolish and absurdly illogical and for its insistence that Jesus and Christianity were superior.[16]

Continuation of scholarly career: social views

Renan was not only a scholar. In his book on St. Paul, as in the Apostles, he shows his concern with the larger social life, his sense of fraternity, and a revival of the democratic sentiment which had inspired L'Avenir de la Science. In 1869, he presented himself as the candidate of the liberal opposition at the parliamentary election for Meaux. While his temper had become less aristocratic, his liberalism had grown more tolerant. On the eve of its dissolution, Renan was half prepared to accept the Empire, and, had he been elected to the Chamber of Deputies, he would have joined the group of l'Empire liberal, but he was not elected. A year later, war was declared with Germany; the Empire was abolished, and Napoleon III became an exile. The Franco-Prussian War was a turning-point in Renan's history. Germany had always been to him the asylum of thought and disinterested science. Now, he saw the land of his ideal destroy and ruin the land of his birth; he beheld the German no longer as a priest, but as an invader.[7]

Image
Ernest Renan in his study by Anders Zorn

In La Réforme Intellectuelle et Morale (1871), Renan tried to safeguard France's future. Yet, he was still influenced by Germany. The ideal and the discipline which he proposed to his defeated country were those of her conqueror—a feudal society, a monarchical government, an elite which the rest of the nation exists merely to support and nourish; an ideal of honor and duty imposed by a chosen few on the recalcitrant and subject multitude. The errors attributed to the Commune confirmed Renan in this reaction. At the same time, the irony always perceptible in his work grows more bitter. His Dialogues Philosophiques, written in 1871, his Ecclesiastes (1882) and his Antichrist (1876) (the fourth volume of the Origins of Christianity, dealing with the reign of Nero) are incomparable in their literary genius, but they are examples of a disenchanted and sceptical temper. He had vainly tried to make his country obey his precepts. The progress of events showed him, on the contrary, a France which, every day, left a little stronger, and he roused himself from his disbelieving, disillusioned mood and observed with interest the struggle for justice and liberty of a democratic society. The fifth and sixth volumes of the Origins of Christianity (the Christian Church and Marcus Aurelius) show him reconciled with democracy, confident in the gradual ascent of man, aware that the greatest catastrophes do not really interrupt the sure if imperceptible progress of the world and reconciled, also, if not with the truths, at least with the moral beauties of Catholicism and with the remembrance of his pious youth.[7]

Definition of nationhood

Renan's definition of a nation has been extremely influential. This was given in his 1882 discourse Qu'est-ce qu'une nation? ("What is a Nation?"). Whereas German writers like Fichte had defined the nation by objective criteria such as a race or an ethnic group "sharing common characteristics" (language, etc.), Renan defined it by the desire of a people to live together, which he summarized by a famous phrase, "avoir fait de grandes choses ensemble, vouloir en faire encore" (having done great things together and wishing to do more). Writing in the midst of the dispute concerning the Alsace-Lorraine region, he declared that the existence of a nation was based on a "daily plebiscite." Some authors criticize that definition, based on a "daily plebiscite", because of the ambiguity of the concept. They argue that this definition is an idealization and it should be interpreted within the German tradition and not in opposition to it. They say that the arguments used by Renan at the conference What is a Nation? are not consistent with his thinking.[23]

Karl Deutsch (in "Nationalism and its alternatives") suggested that a nation is "a group of people united by a mistaken view about the past and a hatred of their neighbors." This phrase is frequently, but mistakenly, attributed to Renan himself. He did indeed write that if "the essential element of a nation is that all its individuals must have many things in common", they "must also have forgotten many things. Every French citizen must have forgotten the night of St. Bartholomew and the massacres in the 13th century in the South."

Renan believed "Nations are not eternal. They had a beginning and they will have an end. And they will probably be replaced by a European confederation".[24]

Renan's work has especially influenced 20th century theorist of nationalism, Benedict Anderson.

Late scholarly career

Image
Renan in his study in the College of France

Image
Renan caricatured by GUTH in Vanity Fair, 1910

Shifting away from his pessimism regarding liberalism's prospects during the 1870s while still believing in the necessity of an intellectual elite to influence democratic society for the good, Renan rallied to support the French Third Republic, humorously describing himself as a légitimiste, that is, a person who needs "about ten years to accustom myself to regarding any government as legitimate," and adding "I, who am not a republican a priori, who am a simple Liberal quite willing to adjust myself to a constitutional monarchy, would be more loyal to the Republic than newly converted republicans."[25] The progress of the sciences under the Republic and the latitude given to the freedom of thought that Renan cherished above all had allayed many of his previous fears, and he opposed the deterministic and fatalist theories of philosophers like Hippolyte Taine.[26][27]

As he got older, he contemplated his childhood. He was nearly sixty when, in 1883, he published the autobiographical Souvenirs d'Enfance et de Jeunesse which, after the Life of Jesus, is the work by which he is chiefly known.[7]

They showed the blasé modern reader that a world no less poetic, no less primitive than that of the Origins of Christianity still existed within living memory on the northwestern coast of France. It has the Celtic magic of ancient romance and the simplicity, the naturalness, and the veracity which the 19th century prized so highly. But his Ecclesiastes, published a few months earlier, his Drames Philosophiques, collected in 1888, give a more adequate image of his fastidious critical, disenchanted, yet optimistic spirit. They show the attitude towards uncultured Socialism of a philosopher liberal by conviction, by temperament an aristocrat. We learn in them how Caliban (democracy), the mindless brute, educated to his own responsibility, makes after all an adequate ruler; how Prospero (the aristocratic principle, or, if we will, the mind) accepts his dethronement for the sake of greater liberty in the intellectual world, since Caliban proves an effective policeman and leaves his superiors a free hand in the laboratory; how Ariel (the religious principle) acquires a firmer hold on life and no longer gives up the ghost at the faintest hint of change. Indeed, Ariel flourishes in the service of Prospero under the external government of the many-headed brute. Religion and knowledge are as imperishable as the world they dignify. Thus, out of the depths rises unvanquished the essential idealism of Renan.[7]

Renan was a great worker. At sixty years of age, having finished the Origins of Christianity, he began his History of Israel, based on a lifelong study of the Old Testament and on the Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum, published by the Académie des Inscriptions under Renan's direction from the year 1881 till the end of his life. The first volume of the History of Israel appeared in 1887; the third, in 1891; the last two posthumously. As a history of facts and theories, the book has many faults; as an essay on the evolution of the religious idea, it is (despite some passages of frivolity, irony, or incoherence) of extraordinary importance; as a reflection of the mind of Renan, it is the most lifelike of images. In a volume of collected essays, Feuilles Détachées, published also in 1891, we find the same mental attitude, an affirmation of the necessity of piety independent of dogma. During his last years, he received many honors, and was made an administrator of the Collège de France and grand officer of the Legion of Honor. Two volumes of the History of Israel, his correspondence with his sister Henriette, his Letters to M. Berthelot, and the History of the Religious Policy of Philippe-le-Bel, which he wrote in the years immediately before his marriage, all appeared during the last eight years of the 19th century.[7]

Renan died after a few days' illness in 1892 in Paris,[7] and was buried in the Cimetière de Montmartre in the Montmartre Quarter.

Reputation and controversies

Hugely influential in his lifetime, Renan was eulogised after his death as the embodiment of the progressive spirit in western culture. Anatole France wrote that Renan was the incarnation of modernity. Renan's works were read and appreciated by many of the leading literary figures of the time, including James Joyce, Marcel Proust, Matthew Arnold, Edith Wharton, and Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve.[28][29] One of his greatest admirers was Manuel González Prada in Peru who took the Life of Jesus as a basis for his anticlericalism. In his 1932 document "The Doctrine of Fascism", Italian dictator Benito Mussolini also applauded perceived "prefascist intuitions" in a section of Renan's "Meditations" that argued against democracy and individual rights as "chimerical" and intrinsically opposed to "nature's plans".[30]

Statue

Image
Statue of Ernest Renan in Tréguier town square

In 1903 a major controversy accompanied the installation of a monument in Tréguier designed by Jean Boucher. Placed in the local cathedral square, it was interpreted as a challenge to Catholicism, and led to widespread protests, especially because the site was normally used for the temporary pulpit erected at the traditional Catholic festival of the Pardon of St Yves. It also included the Greek goddess Athena raising her arm to crown Renan gesturing in apparent challenge towards the cathedral.[31][32] The local clergy organised a protest calvary sculpture designed by Yves Hernot as "a symbol of the triumphant ultramontaine church."

Views on race

Renan believed that racial characteristics were instinctual and deterministic.[33][34] He has been criticised for his claims that the Semitic race is inferior to the Aryan race.[35] Renan claimed that the Semitic mind was limited by dogmatism and lacked a cosmopolitan conception of civilisation.[36] For Renan, Semites were "an incomplete race."[37] Some authors argue that Renan developed his antisemitism from Voltaire's anti-Judaism.[38]

He did not regard the Ashkenazi Jews of Europe as being a Semitic people; Renan is credited with launching the so-called Khazar theory. This theory states that Ashkenazim had their origin in Turkic refugees that had converted to Judaism and later migrated from the collapsed Khazar Khanate westward into the Rhineland, and exchanged their native Khazar language for the Yiddish language while continuing to practice the Jewish religion. In his 1883 lecture "Le Judaïsme comme race et comme Religion" he disputed the concept that Jewish people constitute a unified racial entity in a biological sense,[39] which made his views unpalatable within racial antisemitism. Renan was also known for being a strong critic of German ethnic nationalism, with its antisemitic undertones.[40] His notions of race and ethnicity were completely at odds with the European antisemitism of the 19th and 20th centuries.

Renan wrote the following about the long history of persecution of Jews:

When all nations and all ages have persecuted you, there must be some motive behind it all. The Jew, up to our own time, insinuated himself everywhere, claiming the protection of the common law; but, in reality, remaining outside the common law. He retained his own status; he wished to have the same guarantees as everyone else, and, over and above that, his own exceptions and special laws. He desired the advantages of the nations without being a nation, without helping to bear the burdens of the nations. No people has ever been able to tolerate this. The nations are military creations founded and maintained by the sword; they are the work of peasants and soldiers; towards establishing them the Jews have contributed nothing. Herein is the great fallacy inspired in Israelite pretensions. The tolerated alien can be useful to a country, but only on condition that the country does not allow itself to be invaded by him. It is not fair to claim family rights in a house which one has not built, like those birds which come and take up their quarters in a nest which does not belong to them, or like the crustaceans which steal the shell of another species.[41]


However, during the 1880s, Renan shifted away from these views. In a lecture on "Judaism as a Race and as a Religion", he stated:

When, in 1791, the National Assembly decreed the emancipation of the Jews, it concerned itself very little with race. It considered that men ought to be judged, not by the blood that runs in their veins, but by their moral and intellectual value. It is the glory of France to take these questions by their human side. The work of the nineteenth century is to tear down every ghetto, and I have no praise for those who seek to rebuild them. The Israelite race has in the past rendered the greatest services to the world. Blended with the different nations, in harmony with the diverse national unities of Europe, it will continue to do in the future what it has done in the past. By its collaboration with all the liberal forces of Europe, it will contribute eminently to the social progress of humanity.[42][43]


And in 1883, in a lecture called "The Original Identity and Gradual Separation of Judaism and Christianity":

Judaism, which has served so well in the past, will still serve in the future. It will serve the true cause of liberalism, of the modern spirit. Every Jew is a liberal ... The enemies of Judaism, however, if you only look at them more closely, you will see that they are the enemies of the modern spirit in general.[44][45]


Other comments on race, have also proven controversial, especially his belief that political policy should take into account supposed racial differences:

Nature has made a race of workers, the Chinese race, who have wonderful manual dexterity and almost no sense of honor... A race of tillers of the soil, the Negro; treat him with kindness and humanity, and all will be as it should; a race of masters and soldiers, the European race. Reduce this noble race to working in the ergastulum like Negroes and Chinese, and they rebel... But the life at which our workers rebel would make a Chinese or a fellah happy, as they are not military creatures in the least. Let each one do what he is made for, and all will be well.[46]


This passage, among others, was cited by Aimé Césaire in his Discourse on Colonialism, as evidence of the alleged hypocrisy of Western humanism and its "sordidly racist" conception of the rights of man.[47]

Republican racism

During the arising of racism theories around Europe and specifically in France—French Republic (1870–1940)—Renan had an important influence on the matter. He was a defender of people's self-determination concept,[48] but on the other hand was in fact convinced of a "racial hierarchy of peoples" that he said was "established".[49] Discursively, he subordinated the principle of self-determination of peoples to a racial hierarchy,[50] i.e. he supported the colonialist expansion and the racist view of the Third Republic because he believed the French to be hierarchically superior (in a racial matter) to the African nations.[51] This subtle racism, called by Gilles Manceron "Republican racism"[52] was common in France during the Third Republic, and was also a well-known defensing discourse in politics. Supporters of colonialism used the concept of cultural superiority, and described themselves as "protectors of civilization" to justify their colonial actions and territorial expansion.

Honours

• The armoured cruiser Ernest Renan was named in his honour.
• The community of Renan, Virginia was named after him.

Archives and memorabilia

• Musée de la Vie romantique, Hôtel Scheffer-Renan, Paris

Works

• (1848). De l'Origine du Langage.
• (1852). Averroës et l'Averroïsme.
• (1852). De Philosophia Peripatetica, apud Syros.
• (1854). L'Âme Bretonne.
• (1855). Histoire Générale et Systèmes Comparés des Langues Sémitiques.
• (1857). Études d'Histoire Religieuse.
• (1858). Le Livre de Job.
• (1859). Essais de Morale et de Critique.
• (1860). Le Cantique des Cantiques.
• (1862). Henriette Renan, Souvenir pour ceux qui l'ont Connue.
• (1863–1881). Histoire des Origines du Christianisme:
o (1863). Vie de Jésus.
o (1866). Les Apôtres.
o (1869). Saint Paul.
o (1873). L'Antéchrist.
o (1877). Les Évangiles et la Seconde Génération Chrétienne.
o (1879). L'Église Chrétienne.
o (1882). Marc-Aurèle et la Fin du Monde Antique.
o (1883). Index.
• (1864). Mission de Phénicie (1865–1874)
• (1865). Prière sur l'Acropole.
• (1865). Histoire Littéraire de la France au XIVe Siècle [with Victor Le Clerc].
• (1868). Questions Contemporaines.
• (1871). La Réforme Intellectuelle et Morale de la France.
• (1876). Dialogues et Fragments Philosophiques.
• (1878). Mélanges d'Histoire et de Voyages.
• (1878–1886). Drames Philosophiques:
o (1878). Caliban.
o (1881). L'Eau de Jouvence.
o (1885). Le Prêtre de Némi.[53]
o (1886). L'Abbesse de Jouarre.
• (1880). Conférences d'Angleterre.
• (1881). L'Ecclésiaste.
• (1882). Qu'est-ce qu'une Nation?
• (1883). L'Islamisme et La Science: conférence faite à la Sorbonne, le 29 mars 1883.
• (1883). Souvenirs d'Enfance et de Jeunesse.
• (1884). Nouvelles Études d'Histoire Religieuse.
• (1884). Le Bouddhisme.
• (1887). Discours et Conférences.
• (1887–1893). Histoire du Peuple d'Israël [5 volumes].
• (1889). Examen de Conscience Philosophique.
• (1890). L'Avenir de la Science, Pensées de 1848.
• (1892). Feuilles Détachées.
• (1899). Études sur la Politique Religieuse du Règne de Philippe le Bel.
• (1904). Mélanges Religieux et Historiques.
• (1908). Patrice.
• (1914). Fragments Intimes et Romanesques.
• (1921). Essai Psychologique sur Jésus-Christ.
• (1928). Voyages: Italie, Norvège.
• (1928). Sur Corneille, Racine et Bossuet.
• (1945). Ernest Renan et l'Allemagne.

Works in English translation

• (1862). An Essay on the Age and Antiquity of the Book of Nabathaean Agriculture. London: Trübner & Co.
• (1864). Studies of Religious History and Criticism. New York: Carleton Publisher.
• (1864). The Life of Jesus. London: Trübner & Co.
• (1866). The Apostles. New York: Carleton Publisher.
• (1868). Saint Paul. London: The Temple Company.
• (1871). Constitutional Monarchy in France. Boston: Robert Brothers.
• (1883). Islam and Science: A lecture presented at La Sorbonne, 29 March 1883. ; translated by S.P. Ragep. Montréal, Canada: McGill University. 2nd ed. 2011.
• (1885). Lectures on the Influence of the Institutions, Thought and Culture of Rome, on Christianity and the Development of the Catholic Church. London: Williams & Norgate (The Hibbert Lectures).
o (1888). English Conferences of Ernest Renan. Boston: James R. Osgood and Company.
• (1888–1895). History of the People of Israel. London: Chapman & Hall [5 vols.]
• (1888). Marcus-Aurelius. London: Mathieson & Company.
• (1888). The Abbess of Jouarre. New York: G.W. Dillingham.
• (1889). The Gospels. London: Mathieson & Company.
• (1890). The Antichrist. London: Mathieson & Company.
• (1890). Cohelet; or, the Preacher. London: Mathieson & Company.
• (1891). The Future of Science. London: Chapman & Hall.
• (1891). The Song of Songs. London: W.M. Thomson.
• (1892). Recollections and Letters of Ernest Renan. New York: Cassell Publishing Company.
• (1893). The Book of Job. London: W.M. Thomson.
• (1895). My Sister Henrietta. Boston: Robert Brothers.
• (1896). Brother and Sister: A Memoir and the Letters of Ernest & Henriette Renan. London: William Heinemann.
• (1896). Caliban: A Philosophical Drama. London: The Shakespeare Press.
• (1896). The Poetry of the Celtic Races, and Other Essays. London: The Walter Scott Publishing Co.
• (1904). Renan's Letters from the Holy Land. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company.
• (1935). The Memoirs of Ernest Renan. London: G. Bles.

References

1. Ernest Renan. "What is a Nation?", 1882; cf. Chaim Gans, The Limits of Nationalism, Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 11.
2. "Notes & Obituary Notes" . Popular Science Monthly. Vol. 42. December 1892. ISSN 0161-7370 – via Wikisource.
3. Römer, Thomas (11 October 2012). Homage to Ernest Renan: Renan’s historical and critical exegesis of the Bible(Speech). Symposium. Amphithéâtre Marguerite de Navarre-Marcelin Berthelot: Collège de France. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
4. "Did the Khazars Convert to Judaism? New Research Says 'No'". en.huji.ac.il. Hebrew University of Jerusalem. 26 June 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
5. Stampfer, Shaul (Summer 2013). "Did the Khazars Convert to Judaism?". Jewish Social Studies. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. 19 (3): 1–72. doi:10.2979/jewisocistud.19.3.1. S2CID 161320785.
6. Kaufmann, Alfred (1924). "Renan: The Man," The Catholic Historical Review, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 388-398.
7. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Duclaux, Agnes Mary Frances (1911). "Renan, Ernest". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 93–95.
8. Loth, Joseph (1892). "Renan au Collège de Tréguier," Annales de Bretagne 8 (1), pp. 124-9.
9. Galand, René (1959). L'Âme Celtique de Renan. Presses Universitaires de France.
10. Theiss, Will. "The Pale Galilean: Ernest Renan, Jesus, and Modern History", Marginalia, Los Angeles Review of Books, March 16, 2018
11. Wright, Terence R. (1994). "The Letter and the Spirit: Deconstructing Renan's "Life of Jesus" and the Assumptions of Modernity," Religion & Literature, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 55–71.
12. Pitt, Alan (2000). "The Cultural Impact of Science in France: Ernest Renan and the Vie de Jésus," The Historical Journal, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 79–101.
13. Hammerton, J. A. (1937). Outline of Great Books, New York: Wise & Co., p. 998.
14. As of this writing, WorldCat reports 115 different editions of the book in 1426 different libraries.
15. Baird, William (1992). History of New Testament Research: From Deism to Tubingen. Augsburg: Fortress Press, p. 382.
16. Susannah Heschel (2008). The Aryan Jesus: christian theologians and the Bible in Nazi Germany. Princeton University Press. p. 34–. ISBN 978-0-691-12531-2. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
17. Chadbourne, Richard M. (1968). Ernest Renan. New York: Twayne Publishers, p. 68.
18. "Renan's 'Vie de Jesus'," The Dublin Review 2, January/April 1864, pp. 386–419.
19. Jules Théodose Loyson Une prétendue Vie de Jésus, ou M. Ernest Renan, historien, philosophe et poëte (Paris, Douniol, 1863)
20. Cochin, Augustin (1863). Quelques mots sur la Vie de Jésus de M. Ernest Renan. Paris: Douniol.
21. Instruction pastorale de Monseigneur l'évêque de Nîmes au clergé de son diocèse contre un ouvrage intitulé "Vie de Jésus" par Ernest Renan (1863)
22. Several of the books of Henri-Joseph Crelier have polemical titles naming Renan.
23. Azurmendi, Joxe . Historia, arraza, nazioa . Donostia: Elkar, 2014. ISBN 978-84-9027-297-8
24. "Inventing national identity". June 1999.
25. Lee, David C. J. (1996). Ernest Renan. Ardent Media. pp. 97–99.
26. Lee, David C. J. (1996). Ernest Renan. Ardent Media. p. 96.
27. Noronha-DiVanna, Isabel (2010). Writing History in the Third Republic. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 70.
28. Singley, Carol J. (2003). "Race, culture, nation: Edith Wharton and Ernest Renan". Twentieth Century Literature. 49 (1): 32. doi:10.1215/0041462X-2003-2003.
29. Brown, Richard (1988). James Joyce and Sexuality. Cambridge University Press. p. 130.
30. The Doctrine of Fascism by Benito Mussolini Complete text of the essay "Dottrina" (Doctrines).
31. Ernest Renan à Tréguier
32. Catalogue, Ernest Renan (1823–1892) un Celte en Orient, Musée d'Art et d'histoire, Musée de Bretagne, 1992, Ville de Saint-Brieuc, Ville de Rennes.
33. Olender, Maurice (1992). The Languages of Paradise: Race, Religion, and Philology in the Nineteenth Century. Harvard University Press.
34. Susannah Heschel (2008). The Aryan Jesus: christian theologians and the Bible in Nazi Germany. Princeton University Press. p. 30–. ISBN 978-0-691-12531-2. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
35. "I am therefore the first to recognize that the Semitic race, compared to the Indo-European race, truly represents an inferior combination of human nature."—Arvidsson, Stefan (2006). Aryan Idols: Indo-European Mythology as Ideology and Science. University of Chicago Press, p. 107.
36. "The Racial Motif in Renan's Attitude to Jews and Judaism", in: S. Almog (ed.), Antisemitism Through the Ages, Oxford, 1988, pp. 255–278.
37. Anti-Semitism, by Gotthard Deutsch, Jewish Encyclopedia
38. Azurmendi, Joxe (2014). Historia, arraza, nazioa. Donostia: Elkar. pp.177-86. ISBN 978-84-9027-297-8
39. Le Judaïsme comme Race et comme Religion: Conférence faite au Cercle Saint-Simon. Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1883.
40. Mian, Aristide (1945-46). "Renan on War and Peace," The American Scholar, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 90-96.
41. Antichrist. London: Walter Scott, Ltd., 1900, pp. 126-127.
42. Rose, Paul Lawrence (2013). "Renan versus Gobineau: Semitism and Antisemitism, Ancient Races and Modern Liberal Nations". History of European Ideas. 39 (4): 528–540. doi:10.1080/01916599.2012.724549. S2CID 145204339.
43. Gidley, Ben (2011). "On the Nation and the 'Jewish People'". Ethnic and Racial Studies. 35 (4): 782–783. doi:10.1080/01419870.2011.643817. S2CID 145721356.
44. Trawny, Peter (2015). "Heidegger, "World Judaism," and Modernity". Gatherings: The Heidegger Circle Annual. 5: 1–20. doi:10.5840/gatherings201551.
45. Graetz, Michael (1996). The Jews in Nineteenth-century France: From the French Revolution to the Alliance Israélite Universelle. Stanford University Press. p. 212.
46. From Ernest Renan, "La Reforme Intellectuelle et Morale". Paris: Calmann-Levy, 1929.
47. Césaire, Aimé (2000). Discourse on Colonialism, Joan Pinkham, trans. New York: Monthly Review Press, pp. 37–8.
48. "What is a Nation?" In: The Poetry of the Celtic Races, and Other Essays. London: The Walter Scott Publishing Co., 1896, pp. 61-83.
49. Preface to The Future of Science. London: Chapman & Hall, 1891.
50. The Future of Science. London: Chapman & Hall, 1891.
51. Manceron, Gilles (2005). Marianne et les Colonies: Une Introduction à l'Histoire Coloniale de la France. Editions La Découverte.
52. Manceron (2005).
53. Renan considers the problem of a rational transformation by High Priest Antistius of the practice of human sacrifice into "a more humane, spiritual, and scientific form." See Brieux and Contemporary French Society, by William H. Scheifley, 408. https://books.google.com/books?id=_dIaA ... &lpg=PA408 Accessed 27 February 2014

Further reading

• Alaya, Flavia M. (1967). "Arnold and Renan on the Popular Uses of History," Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 551–574.
• Azurmendi, Joxe (2003): Humboldt eta Renanen nazio kontzeptua, RIEV, Vol. 48, No. 1, 91–124.
• Azurmendi, Joxe (2014): Historia, arraza, nazioa. Renan eta nazionalismoaren inguruko topiko batzuk, Donostia: Elkar. ISBN 978-84-9027-297-8
• Babbitt, Irving (1912). "Renan." In: The Masters of Modern French Criticism. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
• Bancquart, Marie-Claire (1994). "Renan, Maître de la Violence Sceptique," Revue d'Histoire Littéraire de la France, 94e Année, No. 1, pp. 48–58.
• Barry, William (1897). "Newman and Renan," The National Review, Vol. XXIX, pp. 557–576.
• Barry, William Francis (1905). Ernest Renan. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
• Bazouge, Francis (1889). "Ernest Renan," Revue du Monde Catholique, Vol. C, pp. 5–26.
• Bierer, Dora (1953). "Renan and His Interpreters: A Study in French Intellectual Warfare," The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 375–389.
• Brandes, Georg (1886). "Ernest Renan." In: Eminent Authors of the Nineteenth Century. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company.
• Chadbourne, Richard M. (1949). "Renan, or the Contemptuous Approach to Literature," Yale French Studies, No. 3, Criticism and Creation, pp. 96–104.
• Chadbourne, Richard M. (1951). "Renan's Revision of His Liberté de Penser Articles," PMLA, Vol. 66, No. 6, pp. 927–950.
• DiVanna, Isabel (2010). Writing History in the Third Republic. Cambridge Scholars Publishing excerpt and text search
• Espinasse, Francis (1895). Life and Writings of Ernest Renan. London: The Walter Scott Publishing Co.
• Grant Duff, Mountstuart E. (1893). Ernest Renan, in Memoriam. London: Macmillan & Co.
• Guérard, Albert Léon (1913). "Ernest Renan." In: French Prophets of Yesterday. London: T. Fisher Unwin.
• Ingersoll, Robert G. (1892). "Ernest Renan," The North American Review, Vol. CLV, No. 432, pp. 608–622.
• Lemaître, Jules (1921). "Ernest Renan." In: Literary Impressions. London: Daniel O'Connor, pp. 80–107.
• Lenoir, Raymond (1925). "Renan and the Study of Humanity," American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 289–317.
• Mott, Lewis F. (1918). "Renan and Matthew Arnold," Modern Language Notes, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 65–73.
• Mott, Lewis F. (1921). Ernest Renan. New York: D. Appleton and Company.
• Myers, F.W.H. (1897). "Ernest Renan." In: Essays. London: Macmillan & Co.
• Neubauer, A. (1893). "M. Ernest Renan," The Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 200–211.
• Priest, Robert D. (2015). The Gospel According to Renan: Reading, Writing, and Religion in Nineteenth-Century France. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
• Richard, Edouard (1996). Ernest Renan Penseur Traditionaliste? Presses Universitaires d'Aix-Marseille.
• Robinson, Agnes Mary Frances (1897). The Life of Ernest Renan. London: Methuen & Co.
• Rolland, Romain (1925). "A Conversation with Ernest Renan," The Century Magazine, Vol. CIX, No. 4, pp. 435–439.
• Saintsbury, George (1892). "Ernest Renan." In: Miscellaneous Essays. London: Percival & Co.
• Shapiro, Gary (1982). "Nietzsche Contra Renan," History and Theory, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 193–222.

External links

Sources


• Works by Ernest Renan at Project Gutenberg
• Works by or about Ernest Renan at Internet Archive
• Works by Ernest Renan at JSTOR
• Works by Ernest Renan at Unz.org
• What is a Nation? – Renan's most famous lecture in English translation
• The history of the origins of Christianity Cornell University Library Historical Monographs Collection. {Reprinted by} Cornell University Library Digital Collections
• Société des Études renaniennes (Ernest Renan's Society website)
• Newspaper clippings about Ernest Renan in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW

WMF project links

• Media related to Ernest Renan at Wikimedia Commons
• Quotations related to Ernest Renan at Wikiquote
• Works written by or about Ernest Renan at Wikisource
• French Wikisource has original text related to this article: Ernest Renan
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30823
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Thu Sep 10, 2020 4:00 am

Alexander Cunningham
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/9/20



Image
Major-General Sir Alexander Cunningham, KCIE CSI ADC
Born: 23 January 1814, London
Died: 28 November 1893 (aged 79), London
Nationality: British
Occupation: Engineer; Archaeologist
Spouse(s): Alice Cunningham (married 1840)[1]
Children: Allan J. C. Cunningham;Sir Alexander F. D. Cunningham[1]
Parent(s): Allan Cunningham[1] (father)
Relatives: Francis Cunningham (brother); Joseph Davey Cunningham (brother); Peter Cunningham (brother)[1]

Major General Sir Alexander Cunningham KCIE CSI (23 January 1814 – 28 November 1893) was a British army engineer with the Bengal Engineer Group who later took an interest in the history and archaeology of India. In 1861, he was appointed to the newly created position of archaeological surveyor to the government of India; and he founded and organised what later became the Archaeological Survey of India.

The Bengal Engineer Group (BEG) (informally the Bengal Sappers or Bengal Engineers) is a military engineering regiment in the Corps of Engineers of the Indian Army. The unit was originally part of the Bengal Army of the East India Company's Bengal Presidency, and subsequently part of the British Indian Army during the British Raj. The Bengal Sappers are stationed at Roorkee Cantonment in Roorkee, Uttarakhand.

The Bengal Sappers are one of the few remaining regiments of the erstwhile Bengal Presidency Army and survived the Rebellion of 1857 due to their "sterling work" in the recapture by the East India Company of Delhi and other operations in 1857–58. The troops of the Bengal Sappers have been a familiar sight for over 200 years in the battlefields of British India with their never-say-die attitude of Chak De and brandishing their favourite tool the hamber.

-- Bengal Engineer Group, by Wikipedia


He wrote numerous books and monographs and made extensive collections of artefacts. Some of his collections were lost, but most of the gold and silver coins and a fine group of Buddhist sculptures and jewellery were bought by the British Museum in 1894.[2]

He was also the father of mathematician Allan Cunningham.

Early life and career

Image
Cunningham (fourth from the right) at an unknown date

Cunningham was born in London in 1814 to the Scottish poet Allan Cunningham (1784–1842) and his wife Jean née Walker (1791–1864). Along with his older brother, Joseph, he received his early education at Christ's Hospital, London.[3] Through the influence of Sir Walter Scott, both Joseph and Alexander obtained cadetships at the East India Company's Addiscombe Seminary (1829–31), followed by technical training at the Royal Engineers Estate at Chatham. Alexander joined the Bengal Engineers at the age of 19 as a Second Lieutenant and spent the next 28 years in the service of British Government of India. Soon after arriving in India on 9 June 1833, he met James Prinsep. He was in daily communication with Prinsep during 1837 and 1838 and became his intimate friend, confidant and pupil.[4] Prinsep passed on to him his lifelong interest in Indian archaeology and antiquity.

James Prinsep FRS (20 August 1799 – 22 April 1840) was an English scholar, orientalist and antiquary. He was the founding editor of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal and is best remembered for deciphering the Kharosthi and Brahmi scripts of ancient India. He studied, documented and illustrated many aspects of numismatics, metallurgy, meteorology apart from pursuing his career in India as an assay master at the mint in Benares.

-- James Prinsep, by Wikipedia


From 1836 to 1840 he was ADC [aide-de-camp (a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank)] to Lord Auckland, the Governor-General of India.

The Governor-General of India (from 1858 to 1947 the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was the representative of the monarch of the United Kingdom and after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state. The office was created in 1773, with the title of ‘Governor-general of the Presidency of Fort William’. The officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised other East India Company officials in India. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833, and the official came to be known as the "governor-general of India".

-- Governor-General of India, by Wikipedia


During this period he visited Kashmir, which was then not well explored. He finds mention by initials in Up the Country by Emily Eden.[1][5]

Military life

Image
Leh Palace, Ladakh. Illustration from Ladak: Physical, Statistical, and Historical

In 1841 Cunningham was made executive engineer to the king of Oudh. In 1842 he was called to serve the army in thwarting an uprising in Bundelkhand by the ruler of Jaipur. He was then posted at Nowgong in central India before he saw action at the Battle of Punniar in December 1843. He became engineer at Gwalior and was responsible for constructing an arched stone bridge over the Morar River in 1844–45. In 1845–46 he was called to serve in Punjab and helped construct two bridges of boats across the Beas river prior to the Battle of Sobraon.

In 1846, he was made commissioner along with P. A. Vans Agnew to demarcate boundaries. Letters were written to the Chinese and Tibetan officials by Lord Hardinge, but no officials joined. A second commission was set up in 1847 which was led by Cunningham to establish the Ladakh-Tibet boundary, which also included Henry Strachey and Thomas Thomson. Henry and his brother Richard Strachey had trespassed into Lake Mansarovar and Rakas Tal in 1846 and his brother Richard revisited in 1848 with botanist J. E. Winterbottom.[6][7] The commission was set up to delimit the northern boundaries of the Empire after the First Anglo-Sikh War concluded with the Treaty of Amritsar, which ceded Kashmir as war indemnity expenses to the British.[8] His early work Essay on the Aryan Order of Architecture (1848) [Joan Leopold, ‘British Applications of the Aryan Theory of Race to India, 1850–1870’, English Historical Review, 89: 352, 1974, 578–603, here 579 and 580; cf. Alexander Cunningham, ‘An Essay on the Arian Order of Architecture, as exhibited in the Temples of Kashmir’, Journal of the Asiatic Society, XVII: II, 1848, 241–242] arose from his visits to the temples in Kashmir and his travels in Ladakh during his tenure with the commission. He was also present at the battles of Chillianwala and Gujrat in 1848–49. In 1851, he explored the Buddhist monuments of Central India along with Lieutenant Maisey and wrote an account of these.[9]

In 1856 he was appointed chief engineer of Burma, which had just been annexed by Britain, for two years; and from 1858 served for three years in the same post in the North-Western Provinces. In both regions, he established public works departments. He was therefore absent from India during the Rebellion of 1857. He was appointed Colonel of the Royal Engineers in 1860. He retired on 30 June 1861, having attained the rank of Major General.[1]

Archaeology

Cunningham had taken a keen interest in antiquities early in his career. Following Jean-Baptiste Ventura, general of Ranjit Singh, who inspired by the French explorers in Egypt had excavated the bases of pillars to discover large stashes of Bactrian and Roman coins, excavations became a regular activity among British antiquarians.[10]

In 1834 he submitted to the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal an appendix to James Prinsep's article on the relics in the Mankiala stupa. He had conducted excavations at Sarnath in 1837 along with Colonel F. C. Maisey and made careful drawings of the sculptures. In 1842 he excavated at Sankassa and at Sanchi in 1851. In 1854 he published The Bhilsa Topes, an attempt to establish the history of Buddhism based on architectural evidence.

By 1851, he also began to communicate with William Henry Sykes and the East India Company on the value of an archaeological survey. He provided a rationale for providing the necessary funding, arguing that the venture
[10]

... would be an undertaking of vast importance to the Indian Government politically, and to the British public religiously. To the first body it would show that India had generally been divided into numerous petty chiefships, which had invariably been the case upon every successful invasion; while, whenever she had been under one ruler, she had always repelled foreign conquest with determined resolution. To the other body it would show that Brahmanism, instead of being an unchanged and unchangeable religion which had subsisted for ages, was of comparatively modern origin, and had been constantly receiving additions and alterations; facts which prove that the establishment of the Christian religion in India must ultimately succeed.[11]


Image
Letter dated 31 January 1862, appointing Cunningham as Surveyor General

Following his retirement from the Royal Engineers in 1861, Lord Canning, then Viceroy of India, appointed Cunningham archaeological surveyor to the Government of India.[12] He held this appointment from 1861 to 1865, but it was then terminated through lack of funds.[1]

Most antiquarians of the 19th century who took interest in identifying the major cities mentioned in ancient Indian texts did so by putting together clues found in classical Graeco-Roman chronicles and the travelogues of travellers to India such as Xuanzang and Faxian. Cunningham was able to identify some of the places mentioned by Xuanzang[13] and counted among his major achievements the identification of Aornos, Taxila, Sangala, Srughna, Ahichchhatra, Bairat, Sankisa, Shravasti, Kaushambi, Padmavati, Vaishali, and Nalanda. Unlike his contemporaries, Cunningham would also routinely confirm his identifications through field surveys. The identification of Taxila, in particular, was made difficult partly due to errors in the distances recorded by Pliny in his Naturalis Historia which pointed to a location somewhere on the Haro River, two days march from the Indus. Cunningham noticed that this position did not tally with the itineraries of Chinese pilgrims and in particular, the descriptions provided by Xuanzang. Unlike Pliny, these sources noted that the journey to Taxila from the Indus took three days and not two and therefore, suggested a different location for the city. Cunningham's subsequent explorations in 1863–64 of a site at Shah-dheri convinced him that his hypothesis was correct.[14]

Now as Hwen Thsang, on his return to China, was accompanied by laden elephants, his three days' journey from Takhshasila [sic] to the Indus at Utakhanda, or Ohind, must necessarily have been of the same length as those of modern days, and, consequently, the site of the city must be looked for somewhere in the neighbourhood of Kâla-ka-sarâi. This site is found near Shah-dheri, just one mile to the north-east of Kâla-ka-sarâi, in the extensive ruins of a fortified city, around which I was able to trace no less than 55 stupas, of which two are as large as the great Manikyala tope, twenty-eight monasteries, and nine temples.

— Alexander Cunningham, [15]


After his department was abolished in 1865, Cunningham returned to England and wrote the first part of his Ancient Geography of India (1871), covering the Buddhist period; but failed to complete the second part, covering the Muslim period.[16] During this period in London he worked as director of the Delhi and London Bank.[17] In 1870, Lord Mayo re-established the Archaeological Survey of India, with Cunningham as its director-general from 1 January 1871. Cunningham returned to India and made field explorations each winter, conducting excavations and surveys from Taxila to Gaur. He produced twenty-four reports, thirteen as author and the rest under his supervision by others such as J. D. Beglar. Other major works included the first volume of Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum (1877) which included copies of the edicts of Ashoka, The Stupa of Bharhut (1879) and the Book of Indian Eras (1883) which allowed the dating of Indian antiquities. He retired from the Archaeological Survey on 30 September 1885 and returned to London to continue his research and writing.[1]

Numismatic interests

Cunningham assembled a large numismatic collection, but much of this was lost when the steamship he was travelling in, the Indus, was wrecked off the coast of Ceylon in November 1884. The British Museum, however, obtained most of the gold and silver coins. He had suggested to the Museum that they should use the arch from the Sanchi Stupa to mark the entrance of a new section on Indian history. He also published numerous papers in the Journal of the Asiatic Society and the Numismatic Chronicle.[18]

Family and personal life

Two of Cunningham's brothers, Francis and Joseph, became well known for their work in British India; while another, Peter, became famous for his Handbook of London (1849).[19]

Cunningham married Alicia Maria Whish, daughter of Martin Whish, B.C.S., on 30 March 1840. The couple had two sons, Lieutenant-Colonel Allan J. C. Cunningham (1842–1928) of the Bengal and Royal Engineers, and Sir Alexander F. D. Cunningham (1852–1935) of the Indian Civil Service.[1]

Cunningham died on 28 November 1893 at his home in South Kensington and was buried at Kensal Green Cemetery, London. His wife had predeceased him. He was survived by his two sons.[1]

Awards and memorials

Cunningham was awarded the CSI on 20 May 1870 and CIE in 1878. In 1887, he was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire.[16]

Publications

Books written by Cunningham include:

• LADĀK: Physical, Statistical, and Historical with Notices of the Surrounding Countries (1854).
• Bhilsa Topes (1854), a history of Buddhism
• The Ancient Geography of India (1871)
• Archaeological Survey Of India Vol. 1 (1871) Four Reports Made During the Years, 1862-63-64-65, Volume 1 (1871)
• Archaeological Survey Of India Vol. 2
• Archaeological Survey Of India Vol. 3 (1873)
• Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum. Volume 1. (1877)
• The Stupa of Bharhut: A Buddhist Monument Ornamented with Numerous Sculptures Illustrative of Buddhist Legend and History in the Third Century B.C. (1879)
• The Book of Indian Eras (1883)
• Coins of Ancient India (1891)
• Mahâbodhi, or the great Buddhist temple under the Bodhi tree at Buddha-Gaya (1892)
• Coins of Medieval India (1894)
• Report Of Tour In Eastern Rajputana

Notes

1. Cotton, J. S. & James Lunt (reviser) (2004). "Cunningham, Sir Alexander (1814–1893)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/6916.
2. British Museum Collection
3. Buckland, Charles Edward (1906). Dictionary of Indian Biography. Swan Sonne schein. p. 102.
4. Kejariwal, O. P. (1999). The Asiatic Society of Bengal and the Discovery of India's Past 1784–1838 (1988 ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 200. ISBN 0-19565089-1.
5. Vibart, H. M. (1894). Addiscombe: its heroes and men of note. Westminster: Archibald Constable. pp. 455–459.
6. Waller, Derek J. (2004). The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia. University Press of Kentucky. p. 13.
7. Strachey, Henry (1854). Physical Geography of Western Tibet. London: William Clowes and sons. pp. iii.
8. Cunningham, Alexander (1854). Ladak, physical, statistical and historical. London: W. H. Allen.
9. Cunningham, A. (1854) The Bhilsa Topes, or Buddhist Monuments of Central India. London
10. "Sir Alexander Cunningham (1814–1893): the first phase of Indian archaeology". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (3–4): 194–207. 1963.
11. Cunningham, A (1843). "An Account of the discovery of the Ruins of the Buddhist City of Samkassa". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society: 241–247. doi:10.1017/S0035869X0015590X.
12. Cunningham, Alexander (1871). Archaeological Survey of India: four reports made during the years 1862–63–64–65. Simla: Government Central Press. pp. i–iii.
13. Cunningham, Alexander (1848). "Verification of the Itinerary of the Chinese Pilgrim, Hwan Thsang, through Afghanistan and India during the First Half of the Seventh Century of the Christian Era". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal. 17 (2): 13–60.
14. Singh 2008, p. 265.
15. Cunningham 1871, p. 105.
16. Cunningham, Alexander (1871). The Ancient Geography of India. 1. India: Trübner and Co.
17. Iman, Abu (1966). Sir Alexander Cunningham and the beginnings of Indian archaeology. Dacca: Asiatic Society of Pakistan. p. 191.
18. Mathur, Saloni (2007). India by Design: Colonial History and Cultural Display. University of California Press. p. 146.
19. Cunningham, Joseph Davey (1849). Cunningham's History of the Sikhs. John Murray. pp. xii–xiv.

References

• Singh, Upinder (2008). A history of ancient and early medieval India : from the Stone Age to the 12th century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. ISBN 9788131711200.
• Cunningham, Alexander (1871). The Ancient Geography of India: The Buddhist Period, Including the Campaigns of Alexander, and the Travels of Hwen-Thsang. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Pres. ISBN 9781108056458.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30823
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Sep 11, 2020 9:21 am

Jean Calmette (Jesuit and French Indianologist)
by Wikipedia France
Accessed: 9/11/20

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Jean Calmette
Birth: April 5, 1692, Rodez France
Death: February 1740 (at 47), Chikballadur India
Nationality: French
Country of residence: India
Profession: Jesuit priest
Primary activity: Missionary, Indianist, writer
Training: Sanskrit, philosophy and theology
Complements: Calmette is the first westerner to have access to the sacred texts of the Hindu Vedas.

Jean Calmette, born on April 5, 1692[1] in Rodez, Aveyron (France) and died in February 1740 at Chikballadur, Karnataka(India), was a priest Jesuit French, missionary in South India and Indianist.

Summary

First years in India


Entered at 17, October 4, 1709, at the Jesuit novitiate in Toulouse, Jean Calmette taught for a time in France and received priestly ordination before leaving for India in 1725. He arrived in Pondicherry on August 21, 1726. For a few years he was a missionary in the Tamil-speaking region around Vellore.

Initiation to Brahminism

From 1730 to his death he will be in the Telugu speaking region, (now Andhra Pradesh). In Ballapuram, Calmette attended Brahminic schools where Sanskrit and other Hindu disciplines (including astronomy and natural sciences) are taught. There he reached such a level of knowledge of the language that the Brahmins agreed to initiate him into the science of the sacred texts, the Vedas. This favor can be considered as a true religious initiation into Hinduism. Max Müller wrote that Father Calmette is the first to obtain the full text of the four Vedas. In these Vedas, according to Calmette himself, there are treasures of literature, treatises on grammar, philosophy and astronomy.

Ludo Rocher's detailed study on the “false Veda” Ezur vedam mentions Jean Calmette among the potential authors of this famous text [2]. New evidence presented by Urs App in 2010 indicates that the author of the Ezour vedam was in fact Jean Calmette; this text, published in 1778 by Guillaume de Sainte-Croix, was an important source of nascent Orientalism as well as the beginning of European studies on the Vedas and the religious and philosophical literature of ancient India [3]. He played an important role in the thought of Voltaire from 1760.

[cont'd from Roberto de Nobili, by Wikipedia]

Jean Calmette

In the meantime a second Jesuit was credited with the authorship of the EzV: Father Jean Calmette (1693-1740). The source of this attribution seems to be a number of statements by Calmette himself, which might easily be interpreted as coming from a person most likely to have composed the EzV. In 1733 he writes 46 about his involvement in collecting Oriental books for the library in Paris, and adds: "We already derive much benefit from it for the advancement of religion. For, having thus acquired the most essential books which are like the arsenal of paganism, we forge weapons out of them to combat the doctors of idolatry, and it is these weapons that hurt them most deeply. They are: their philosophy, their theology, and above all the four Vedams which contain the law of the brames, and which India has from time immemorial regarded as the sacred book, the book with unquestionable authority, and derived from God himself." Two years later he writes47 to Father Delmas: "Since the time that the Vedam, which contains their sacred books, came into our hands, we have extracted from it those texts which are most apt to convince them of the fundamental truths that destroy idolatry. For the uniqueness of God, the characteristics of the true God, benediction and reprobation, they are all in the Vedam. But the truths which are contained in that book are spread across it like gold dust across heaps of dirt; for the rest, one finds in it the basis of all Indian sects and, probably, the details of all the errors that make up the body of their doctrines. The method we adopt with the brames is as follows. We first make them agree on certain principles which simple reason has introduced in their philosophy; and through the consequences we draw from these we show them without difficulty the erroneous character of the opinions which are current among them. Especially in a public discussion they cannot close their eyes to arguments drawn from the sciences themselves, and even less to the demonstration that follows, in which one shows them by means of the very texts of the Vedam that the errors which they earlier rejected are part of their law. Another method of controversy is to establish the true and unique nature of God by means of definitions and propositions drawn from the Vedam. Since this book has among them the highest authority, they cannot help admitting them. After that the plurality of gods is easily refuted. If they reply that this plurality is in the Vedam -- which is correct -- one points to the fact that their law is contradictory and that it is inconsistent with itself." In a third letter Calmette refers48 to his ability to write verses in Sanskrit: "I have not missed the opportunity to compose a few verses in this language for the sake of controversy, to oppose them to those composed by the Indians." And Father Coeurdoux, writing in 1771, thirty one years after Calmette's death, reports (Anquetil 1808a:687) that there are, in the possession of the Jesuits at Pondicherry, "a few samskroutam verses by Father Calmette."

The principal champion of Calmette's authorship was Julien Bach, S.J. He notes (1848:60) that Calmette studied Sanskrit and sent the Veda to Europe. "But this was not all; being above all desirous, as a missionary, to convert the idolaters to whom he had been sent; knowing from experience how impossible it is to eradicate Indian prejudices without going back to their source; noticing on the other hand that the origin of most brahman superstitions was the way in which the Vedas abused primitive tradition -- he applied himself first of all to extract a number of texts from these Vedas to combat the Brahmans with their own weapons." Twenty years later Bach (1868:12) repeats that Calmette composed the EzV, and he adds: "The form adopted by Father Calmette is the dialogue, similar to the form of the brahmanic Vedas. In it a missionary and a brahman speak alternately, both under ancient names, the brahman to expose his ideas according to the Vedas and Pouranas, and the missionary to refute them. Thus, if we accept with the missionary that Indian superstitions derive from primitive traditions altered by ignorance or their taste for fables, and if we give the term Veda its real meaning revelation, we have the entire work of the missionary in a nutshell: there was a Veda, a primitive revelation, and its tradition spread as far as India; but you, brahmans, have corrupted the Veda by mistakes of all kinds. I shall destroy these mistakes." Bach (1868:23) also relates an interview with the abbe Jean Antoine Dubois on the authorship of the EzV; Dubois introduced a minor variant: "It is by Father Calmette, he also told me. But, he added, many Missionaries have contributed to it."

Bach's hypothesis has not met with much success. Yet, Sommervogel, whose main purpose was to deny de Nobili's authorship (see p. 41), adds (1891:566) without comment "Father Bach has shown that the original is by Father Calmette." Hull advances two arguments in favor of Calmette. First, he quotes (1904:1232) "a correspondent from Trichinopoly," saying, not without a few inaccuracies: "The Ezur-Vedam was written by Father Calmette. This Jesuit was a very clever linguist; and he wrote the Ezur-Veda in Sanskrit as a kind of pastime -- not with a view of imposing it on the public. It it he taught the principles of natural religion as paving the way to Christianity. It was never used as a means of converting Brahmins; in fact the MS. remained unpublished till after the suppression of the Jesuits in France, when some one, having found it in Pondicherry, sent it to a society of savants in Paris. The work was deciphered and admired as showing the purity of the Hindu religion; but when the mistake was discovered they began to accuse the Jesuits of dishonesty for writing it so skillfully." Hull's second argument (1232-3) is that Sommervogel lists it as one of Calmette's works in his Bibliotheque. Heras, who finds (1927:389n) that "there cannot be more historical errors in a few lines" than in d'Orsey's statements on the EzV, and who is of the opinion that Japp's "unfounded accusation" of de Nobill has been "thoroughly refuted" by Hull, undoubtedly also follows the latter when he says that "there cannot be any doubt about the authorship of the Ezur-Veda, A French Jesuit, named Calmette, wrote it one century later," Calmette's name has also found its way into Streit's Bibliotheca Missionum (1931:82-3): "Among his linguistic works became famous: his Ezour-Vedam," followed by the erroneous statement that "Voltaire found a copy of it in the National Library in Paris."

For a reason which is difficult to ascertain the British Library catalogue has the following note under Sainte-Croix' edition: "A fictitious work, written in French by J. Calmette." The Library of Congress call numbers, of Sainte-Croix' edition and of both editions of Ith's German translation, also seem to indicate that the cataloguer attributed the EzV to Calmette. The most extravagant statement on Calmette, which reminds us of Japp's information on Nobili, is Dahlmann's (1891:19): Calmette acquired an extraordinary skill in handling the Sanskrit language, "and his famous poem, the Ezour Veda, which was so much talked about in his time, became instrumental in numerous conversions in brahmanic circles."

The earliest author who explicitly expressed doubts about Bach's hypothesis is Vinson. He (1902:293) cannot accept Calmette for the same reasons for which he rejects de Nobili (see p. 40): the Vedas from Pondicherry, besides exhibiting Bengali transliteration, are too voluminous to have been the work of one man. Besides, Maudave's "revelation" came only in 1760, twenty years after Calmette's death. Castets (1935:40) advances similar arguments: nothing in Calmette's correspondence reminds us in any way of the EzV which, moreover, cannot have been written by a missionary who never worked anywhere else than in the Telugu country. Della Casa (1955:54-5) does credit Calmette with the discovery of the Vedas copies of which, in Telugu script, were sent to Paris; but "everyone now agrees that Calmette should not be charged with the ungainly medley of brahmanic wisdom and Christian doctrine, called Ezour Vedam."

[cont'd with Antoine Mosac]

_______________

Notes:

46. Letter dated Vencatiguiry, 24 January 1733, to Mr. de Cartigny, Intendant general des armees navales en France. See Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses (ed. Aime Martin, Paris: Auguste Desrez) 2, 1840, 611. For references to other editions, see Streit (1931:86, No. 321).
47. Letter dated Ballapouram, 17 September 1735. See ibid., pp. 621-2. References in Streit (1931:89, No. 337).
48. Dated 25 December 1737. Quoted by Vinson (1902:278), without indicating his source. Not listed by Streit (1931). Referred to by Hosten (1923:149) as from Darmavaram.

-- Ezourvedam, edited by Ludo Rocher


Writer in Sanskrit language

Calmette is passionate about Sanskrit and Orientalism. With the help of Brahmin friends he draws from the Vedas fundamental religious truths common to all religions such as the oneness of God, divine attributes, etc. He composes 'slokas' (texts versified in Sanskrit) containing the truths of the Christian faith (his work Satyaveda sara Sangraham contains 172) and translates the works of Roberto de Nobili into Sanskrit: The great catechism of the faith and the Refutation of the transmigration of souls. He also encourages his Christians to write in the sacred language. The Royal Library of Paris was enriched with many Telugu and Sanskrit manuscripts that he sent. Unfortunately the collection that he and his companions (Jean-François Pons, Nicolas Possevin, Gaston-Laurent Cœurdoux) had gathered in Pondicherry was lost during the suppression of the Company of Jesus (1773). Some claim that he was the real author of Ezour Veidam, a fake inspired by epic Sanskrit poetry collections, in an attempt to ridicule popular Hindu beliefs at the French court. On the other hand, the work could well be produced by other Jesuit missionaries.

This promising work was interrupted by the premature death of Jean Calmette in 1740; he was barely 48 years old.

Works

• (in Sanskrit) Satyaveda sara Sangraham

Bibliography

• J. Bach, Father Calmette and the Indianist missionaries, Paris, 1868
• Joseph Dahlmann, "Missionary pioneers and Indian languages." Trichinopoly: Catholic Truth Society of India, 1940 (cf. Rays Supplement, November 1941).
• G. Dharampal, La religion des Malabars:: Tessier de Quéralay and the contribution of European missionaries to the birth of Indianism, Immensee: Nouvelle Revue de science missionionnaire, 1982.
• Inès G. Zupanov, Marie Fourcade, François Pouillon (ed.), Dictionary of French-speaking orientalists, Paris, IISMM / Karthala,2008, 1007 p. ( ISBN 978-2-84586-802-1 , read online ) IISMM-Karthala editions, 2008 (see the biographical sheet)

External links

• Authority records :
• Virtual international authority file
• International Standard Name Identifier
• National Library of France ( data )
• University documentation system
• Gemeinsame Normdatei
• University Library of Poland

References

1. If this date is traditionally given, it will be noted that no baptism in the name of Jean Calmette can be noted in the parish registers of Rodez (Notre-Dame or Saint-Amans). On the other hand, a Jean Calmette was baptized on May 4, 1693. Only one family seemed to have this surname at that time, in this city, one can imagine that it is the same person. If this is the case, Jean Calmette was the son of François Calmette, doctor of medicine, author of a Summary of therapeutic medicine published in 1690 in Lyon, and of Marie-Jeanne de Jouery. ( Genealogies of Aveyron, by Bernard Aldebert)
2. Ludo Rocher (1984). Ezourvedam: a French Veda of the eighteenth century [1]. University of Pennsylvania Studies on South Asia 1. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1984. (ISBN 978-0-915027-06-4)
3. (in) Urs App (2010). The Birth of Orientalism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, p. 372-407. ( ISBN 978-0-8122-4261-4)

******************************

The Father Calmette and the Indianist Missionaries
by Father Julien Bach
of the Society of Jesus [Compagnie de Jesus]
1868
[Rough translation from French to English on Google books]

Translation from French Edition of Le Père Calmette Et Les Missionnaires Indianistes (Litterature) (French Edition)

If there is an interesting point of view in the history of the Society of Jesus, it is undoubtedly that of the Indian missions. Saint Francis Xavier, their wonderful founder, has had successors worthy of him, who continued his work, whose conquests on the paganism are recorded in a justly famous collection. One of our most distinguished Indianists, professor of Sanskrit at the College of France, M. Eugène Burnouf, once gave them a testimony which I am happy to be able to invoke at the beginning of this article. As I was talking to him about the missions in India, he suddenly got up with animation and showed me in his library the collection of Edifying & Curious Letters [Jesuit Accounts of the Americas, 1565-1896], saying: "There are men! They understood their mission."

This opinion of the Orientalist scholar is consistent with the impressions these letters left in the scholarly world. The conversion of idolaters, the establishment of the Catholic Church in the midst of an enemy civilization, such was the work with which the missionaries were charged, a difficult and thankless work that was necessary to undertake and accomplish by men of devotion and the sacrifice of heroes, such as the Catholic Church has given birth to thousands in all ages, and we can say that missionaries of India have not been below their task.

The deep roots that Christianity has grown in these climates, are known to us by the collection I mentioned just now, and if you judge they have produced fruit, and yet produce every day, read the letters of the new mission of Madurai recently published by the P. Jos. Bertrand, who, after having been superior of this mission, had the happy idea of ​​revealing to Europe some of the works of which he was the witness or the actor. This work, added to the Annals of the Propagation of the Faith, showed once again how powerful the charity of missionaries had been for the transformation of India.

But these big-hearted men did not stop at working for the establishment of the Christian religion in India. They have again made, and, so to speak, playing with each other, numerous conquests for the advancement of human knowledge. It is through them that literary history, philology, and ethnography emerged from the swaddling clothes where routine held them tight. There were those who knew how to wrest from the Brahmins the secret of their language and their philosophy, and who dared to engage in a hand-to-hand struggle against them, as admirable from the literary point of view as from the religious point of view. Such was the P. Jean Calmette, prime Indianist, as will the view. A study of his work is not without importance: it is connected with the history of Brahminism and Eastern philology, and in this respect it deserves the attention of scholars. so rich a mine of Sanskrit literature, and if it finds there unexpected treasures, is it not interesting to research who was the Christopher Columbus of this new world? The account of his first investigations is certainly worthy of exciting our curiosity.

The Carnate was a French mission formed around 1703 on the model of the Portuguese mission of Maduré; the Jesuits had adopted there, since the initiative of Father de Nobili, the way of life of the Brahmins, in order to be in more intimate relation with the populations, without having to fear national antipathies. In Pondicherry was the central establishment. Advancing towards the north and inland, the missionaries had found a population that differed from that of Madurai as much as Indians can differ between them. The same idolatry, the same uses based on the distinction of castes, the same horror for the Pranguis: ...

The opponents in this combat were mainly Brahmins who considered the Europeans worse than outcasts. Calmette explained: "Nothing is here more contrary to [our Christian] religion than the caste of brahmins. It is they who seduce India and make all these peoples hate the name of Christian" (p. 362). The label Prangui, which the Indians first gave to the Portuguese and with which "those who are ignorant about the different nations composing our colony designate all Europeans" (p. 347), was a major problem from the beginning of the mission, and the Jesuits' Sannyasi attire and "Brahmin from the North" identity were in part designed to avoid such ostracism. The fight against the Brahmin "ministers of the devil" who "never cease to pursue their plan to ruin both our church and the Christians who depend on it" (p. 363) is featured prominently in Calmette's letters, and it is clear that the Frenchman meant business when he spoke about stocking up an arsenal of weapons especially from the four Vedas for combating these doctors of idolatry.

-- Anquetil-Duperron's Search for the True Vedas, Excerpt from The Birth of Orientalism, by Urs App


...but, instead of the Tamil language, it was the Telugu; instead of the government of the Naïques du Maduré, it was, since the capture of Visapour, the Mohammedan domination of the Grand Mogul; and we know that the Nawabs of India showed, in imitation of the court of Delhi, a great sympathy for the Christian missionaries.

It also appears that the Brahmins of this region were less fanatic and more educated than those of the Tamil country. In Ballapouram, in particular, there was a kind of academy, whose doctors willingly entered into contact with the Roman Brahmins. This is the theater where several Indian missionaries will be shown, and especially the one which is the subject of this article. Party Penmarck the beginning of 1726 the P. Calmette happened in the month of October in Pondicherry, and after several years of trials in various homes of the mission, he was sent to Ballapouram. Gifted with a great facility for languages, ​​and a penetration of mind equal to his zeal, he soon saw all the advantage that a missionary could derive from knowledge of the Brahminic books, and he applied himself tirelessly to the study of Sanskrit, or Sanscrutan, as we said in the Carnate.

Several converted Brahmins were of great help to him for this. He conversed with them frequently, and he was thus able to make rapid progress, not only in their language, but also, a precious thing, in the true genius of Brahminism. As they took pleasure in transcribing various passages from the Vedas for him, he learned from memory some tirades; then, when he met Brahmins who were still pagan, he sold them out, and used them to object to them. Here is what he wrote in 1730: “Until now we had had little trade with this order of scholars; but since they realize that we hear their science books and their Sanscrutan language, they start to approach us, and as they have enlightenment and principles, they follow us better than the others in the dispute, and more readily agree with the truth."

The breach was made, but for the P. Calmette it was not enough. This missionary, desiring above all else the conversion of idolaters, knowing from experience how impossible it was to dispel the prejudices of the Indians without going back to the source of their beliefs, seeing on the other hand that the origin of most Brahminic superstitions was the abuse that the Vedas had made of primitive traditions, he first applied himself to drawing from them texts to fight the Brahmins with their own weapons. “Since their Vedam is in our hands, we have extracted texts suitable to convince them of the fundamental truths which ruin idolatry. Indeed the unity of God, the character of the true God, the salvation and reprobation are in the Vedam; but the truths which are to be found in this book are only spread there like gold spangles on heaps of sand: for the rest we find there the principle of all the Indian sects, and perhaps the details of all the errors which form their body of doctrine."

One of the first investigations of the fruits of P. Calmette was to have been sent to Paris a copy of the four Vedas, written about ____. Here is the occasion.

The King's Library was not yet very large, when Abbé Bignon was appointed curator in 1718, and this scholar brought there his own library, which was already very fine, and with it a great desire to enrich the royal establishment which he held and was entrusted. It was the time when we began to deal in France with the ancient religions of India and Persia. We spoke especially of certain sacred books, which went back, it was said, in the highest antiquity, and which deserved by their importance the attention of scientists.

Such curious works were worthy of the Royal Library, and Abbé Bignon, for this precious acquisition, believed that he had nothing better to do than to address himself to Father Souciet, librarian of the college Louis-le-Grand, in frequent correspondence with the missionaries of the East. The P. Souciet, zealous himself to this kind of research, sent an urgent request to Father Le Gac, superior of the residence of Pondicherry. The P. Le Gac replied first that to get an exact copy of the four Vedas would be a very difficult and perhaps an expensive affair; that he did not see too much of what use this copy could be in Paris, since there would be no scientist able to decipher it; that however he was going to take care of it seriously. If there was some hope of obtaining certified copies of the Vedas, it was through the medium of P. Calmette.

It was to him that indeed turned the P. Le Gac, and the deal was finalized, despite enormous difficulties. Here is what the P. Calmette said:


"Those who write that for thirty years the Vedam is not found are not entirely wrong: money was not sufficient for the find. It seems to me that we would never have had it, if we had not, among the Brahmins, hidden Christians who trade with them without being known to be Christians. It is to one of them that we owe this discovery, and there are two of them now who are busy researching the books and having them copied. If we came to know that it is for us, we would do serious business with them, especially on the subject of Vedam; it is an article that cannot be forgiven."

"On the thought so found, that many people would not agree in Pondicherry, whether it was the real Veda, and I was asked if I had considered, but the tests I made leave no doubt, and I still do every day when scholars or young Brahmins who learn the Vedam in the schools of the country come to see me, making them recite, and sometimes myself reciting with them, what I have learned from the beginning or elsewhere. This is the Veda, there is no doubt about that."


"It seems to me that we would never have obtained it, if we had not among the bramins a number of hidden Christians, who have regular contact with them without being recognized as Christians. It is to one of these that we owe this discovery, and at present there are two of them, searching for books or trying to copy them. If they found out that they were doing it for us, they would suffer terribly, especially when it comes to the Vedam. It is a thing that would not be forgiven."

-- Ezourvedam: A French Veda of the Eighteenth Century, Edited with an Introduction by Ludo Rocher


So, thanks to Father Calmette and several Christian Brahmins, the P. Le Gac could write in 1732 to Fr. Souciet:

"The four books that contain the Vedas are an expense of 35 to 40 pagodas (about 350 francs). I have already sent two for the Library of SM. We are working on transcribing the other two."


The copy of the four Vedas, sent to Paris the following year, was deposited in the Richelieu Library, department of manuscripts, where it is still found. [/b][/size]

NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FRANCE [BIBLIOTHEQUE NACIONAL DE FRANCE] https://www.bnf.fr/fr
YOUR SEARCH: VEDAS 1045 RESULTS
Image
https://ccfr.bnf.fr/portailccfr/jsp/pub ... all_simple
[OF 1045 VEDA RESULTS, ZERO 1732-33 LE GAC/CALMETTE VEDAS RESULTS FOUND]


If the learned P. Calmette had done nothing else than to obtain, by dint of zeal and industry, this unexpected result, he would already deserve great praise. To have made a first breach in the great wall of the Brahmins, his name should be inscribed with honor at the head of the Indianists. Among the Romans, there was a special crown for the soldier who climbed the first ramparts of a besieged city; the work of Father Calmette is comparable to the taking of a citadel.

It must be confessed, that the P. Le Gac had predicted what happened: this package in the Royal Library was first perfectly useless, and soon the souvenir was cleared. Some of the manuscripts were curious enough to show several Vedas written on palm leaves in Telingas characters. But we did not know the origin, and no Indianist was tempted to use it. It is to these books that Voltaire's mischief could rightly apply:

"Sacred they are, because no one touches them."


However, the taste for oriental studies gained consistency at the beginning of this century, and this mysterious copy of the Vedas contributed perhaps as much to it as the other oriental manuscripts which had been acquired. In 1815 a chair of Sanskrit was erected in Paris in favor of Léonard de Chézy. This famous orientalist, true founder of the Sanskrit school in France, alludes to the copy of the Vedas, when he says, when speaking of the efforts he had been made obliged to do to learn the knowledge of Indian languages:

"The rich treasure of Indian manuscripts that I had constantly before my eyes, those long palm leaves, depositories of the highest thoughts of philosophy, and which, silent for so long, seemed to require an interpreter, excited more and more my curiosity."


So spoke the most laborious of our Indianists. We know that his works, together with those of his worthy successor, Eugène Burnouf, gave great importance to the study of Sanskrit, not only in Paris, but also in the provinces. Honor to Father Calmette, laborious promoter of this movement of minds.

His discovery of the Vedas, and the copies he obtained through the converted Brahmins, were only a prelude. Soon the knowledge he had acquired made him suspect that behind these penetralia of Sanskrit literature, other poems, and even, as he confidently announced, real treasures unknown to him could be found. He said when speaking of Darma shastra:

"If the gentlemen of the Royal Library continue to honor us with the care of finding books, I hope that we will discover riches worthy of Europe. It is not pure gold; it is like that which one draws from mines, where there is more earth than gold. But the glare that certain passages give makes us believe that there really is gold."


This is how he discovered, in addition to several shastras, Upa-Vedas, or commentaries on the Vedas, and Puranas, poems more extensive than the Iliad and which, like the Iliad among the Greeks, contain all the sources of mythology.

This zeal of investigation was shared by his colleagues, and soon the residence of Ballapouram also became a kind of academy, where the Jesuit missionaries, in perfecting the knowledge of the Brahminic books, drew from them weapons to fight the errors.

But not content with a philosophical war, and wanting to join his arguments another way entirely consistent with the genius of these peoples, the P. Calmette conceived a design that then no one else was capable of. We read in his correspondence that he also began to compose poems himself, like the Brahmins, to refute their fictions. Surprisingly, a poor religious man, without grammar, without dictionary, made, more than a century ago, enough progress in the language of the Vedas, to accomplish a work which the Indianists of India would scarcely dare to undertake today.

It is curious to see what such extraordinary poetic inspiration has produced. The one of these poems which obtained a certain celebrity by a circumstance of which we will speak later is called Ezour-Vedam. We must say a word about it.

The form adopted by the P. Calmette, similar to that of the Brahminic Vedas, is that of dialogue. A missionary and a Brahmin, under ancient names, speak in turn, the Brahmin to expound his ideas from the Vedas and the Puranas, and the missionary to refute them. So that, if we suppose with the missionary that Indian superstitions come from primitive traditions altered by ignorance, or by the taste for fables, and if we attribute to the word Veda its true meaning of "revelation," we will have the abridgment of all the work of the missionary saying:

"There was a Veda, an early revelation, and the tradition has come down to The Indies; but you brahmins have corrupted the Veda with errors of all kinds. These errors, I come to destroy them. Soumanta, touched by the unhappy fate of men who all given over to error and idolatry, blindly ran to their ruin, formed the design of enlightening and saving them."


To dispel therefore the thick darkness which had obscured their reason, he composed Ezour-Vedam, where, recalling them to their very reason, he made them know and feel the truth which they had abandoned to indulge in idolatry. So begins the Ezour-Vedam, such is the purpose of the missionary and the subject of all that he delivered.

To enter into the matter, the author assumes that Vyasa, eager to learn and to achieve salvation, comes to find Soumanta, and thus addresses him:

"The unhappy century in which we live is the century of sin: corruption has become general. It is a boundless sea that has swallowed everything up. We hardly see a small number of virtuous souls floating around. All the rest has been drawn away; everything has been corrupted. Plunged myself, like the others, in this ocean of iniquities, of which I neither discover the edges nor the deep down, I cannot fail to perish like them. Give me a helping hand, and like a skilful pilot, pull me out of this abyss to lead me happily to port."


And a little further:

"You see at your feet a sinner who is only seeking to learn; serve me, therefore, as guide and father; save my soul by delivering it from its mistakes."


Soumanta replied:

"Since when did he come to you in the spirit of wanting to teach you the Vedas, and you become virtuous? Was it not you who invented this prodigious number of Puranas, contrary in everything to Vedam, and to the truth, and which were the unfortunate principle of idolatry and error? You have done more: you have invented several incarnations that you attribute to Vishnu. You maintained the world in these reveries, and you have succeeded in making them taste .... You have made men forget even the very name of God. You have plunged them into idolatry. How to defeat them today? They have your books in their hands all the time; they will not leave them. If I come to teach you today about the truth, what fruit will they reap? Is there an appearance that I can manage to make her taste and love?"


At these words, Vyasa is humbled, and still admits he is the greatest of sinners, and begs his new master to forget everything and think only of the rescue.

Responds Soumanta:

"I will rescue you, but on condition that you will throw in the fire all the books that you have composed; that you will give up your prejudices, etc."


Then the missionary, under the mantle of the Indian doctor, reviews the fables invented by Vyasa, sometimes by reproaching him, sometimes by answering his questions and dispelling the prejudices of his mind. Here are a few features.

“The sun you have made deified is just a lifeless, unconscious body. He is in the hands of God, like a torch in the hands of a man, created by him to light up the world; he obeys his voice and spreads his light everywhere, like a torch which begins to light up as soon as it is lit."

"You gave the figure of man to the sun, the moon, the stars; ___ done animated beings; it is a pure lie and proof of your ignorance. These inanimate beings are created by God to enlighten the world." [Ezour-Vedam 1. 1, c. VII]

"The Ganges has more virtues than another river, what do you get in? the Ganges water as the fountain, like the Creek, which washes away sins, it is the repentance have committed, it is a good practice for future.”


We see that the two interlocutors of Ezour-Vedam are Vyasa, the famous compiler of fables, the Homer of the Indians who is to be converted, and Soumanta who fulfills the role of missionary. It is useless to follow Soumanta in the series of his refutations. These passages taken at random can give a fair idea of ​​the Christian role he fulfills with regard to Vyasa.

The greatest obstacle to the conversion of the Brahmins was not so much in their errors, which they sometimes readily recognize, as in the demands of their proud caste. But the invasion and domination of the Mughals in the Carnate had the double advantage of protecting the missionaries, and greatly weakening the tyranny of customs.

Soumanta alludes to this circumstance. He said:

"However, despite the evils which flood the earth in this unhappy century, one can say that he has something more advantageous than the others. Vyasa, what are these advantages? In the first centuries, each caste was subject to different ceremonies that are no longer of usage. One did not think to teach the Veda to Choutres and the populace; it would have been a sin is the can now without fear or scruple."


The P. Calmette probably wants to speak of Christian revelation; and this was in fact the great innovation introduced then in the Indies by the Roman brahmins.

We can read in the Edifying Letters the astonishing successes of their apostolic enterprise.  

The Sama-Veda is another sacred book of the Brahmins, that P. Calmette wanted to make an imitation of; it was also a manuscript in the library of Pondicherry. The Sanskrit text was in European characters like that of Ezour-Vedam, with the French translation opposite. This work had for its object the creation of the world, and the refutation of the emblematic fables, which are like the foundation of Indian mythology. I mean the Avatars or Incarnations of Vishnu. The dialogue is between Narayan, author of the Brahminic Sama-Véda, and Djaimini, author of the Christian Sama-Véda. The beginning resembles that of Ezour-Vedam:

"Djaimini, touched with compassion, and eager to save men, who in this century of sin had had false ideas of the divinity, undertakes to recall them to the knowledge of the true God, by retracing in their eyes what constitutes his essence."


Then invocation and dedication of the book to the Supreme Being. Narayan, who had heard of the different metamorphoses of the divinity, and who had given thought to all these reveries, presents himself with his hands joined before Djaimini, the master of Vedam, and says to him:

“I am, Lord, a man completely given over to error. I address myself to you as to the most enlightened of all men, to beg you to teach me the road which I must follow henceforth to ____."


The story, as we can the see, is quite simple. Djaimini first tries to give a fair idea of ​​the true God, and the worship that should be rendered to him, and he condemns the worship that Narayan wants us to render to Vishnu. Then comes a series of chapters in five books, which in turn exposes one of Narayan incarnations of Vishnu, and Djaimini the rejects.

The Sanskrit text, as I said earlier, is in European characters, in favor of those who are not familiar with the Telinga character. An English author of whom I will have to speak shortly, for proving that it is pure Sanskrit, shows that there is no other difference there than that of the pronunciation of the carnate; he takes, for example, the beginning of the Sama-Veda, as the missionary wrote it, and he gives a correct transcription, where there is almost no other change than that of the vowels. We will only quote the first verse.

The missionary had written, according to the pronunciation of the carnate: Poromo kariniko zaimeni koli kolmocho, etc. The English author shows that it is pure Sanskrit, by making some small changes which are due to the pronunciation: Parama carinico jaimenih cali calmasha, etc. For European characters, it would be easy to substitute the devanagari character, and everything would be perfect.

At the same time, in the Maduré mission, the P. Beschi was famous for his poems and for his grammars and dictionaries, many of which were printed by the Asiatic Society of Madras and the Danish mission of Tranquebar. The main work of Father Beschi is the Tambâvani, a sacred poem as voluminous as the Iliad, and intended to bring evangelical history within the reach of Indian imaginations. "In this work," says the learned orientalist Klaproth, "the ____ Innocents massacre is regarded by the natives of Madurai as the most beautiful piece that exists in their language."

Another book that the P. Beschi composed, but prose, is called Veda-Vilakkam, which means "Light of the Gospel." It is an exposition of the Catholic faith. "The P. Beschi," still says Klaproth, "was generally esteemed for his piety, kindness and expertise. He was mainly concerned with the conversion of idolaters, and his zeal was rewarded with extraordinary success. "

Let us return to Fr. Calmette.

This kind of polemic, designed by the P. Calmette, and continued by several of his colleagues, has perhaps not had much power for the conversion of the Brahmins, but it is undoubtedly this which gave birth to other compositions of a completely different kind, and more effective, in my opinion, to strike the spirit of the Hindus.

The great obstacle was a blind respect for the person of the Brahmins. It occurred to the missionaries to use the weapon of ridicule against them, and they put French causticity to use. We owe Father Dubois the knowledge of a collection of pleasant tales which could only be composed by the missionaries. Such is, for example, a tale entitled: "The Four Mad Brahmins." One cannot imagine a more malicious or more amusing criticism of Brahminic vanity.

The author supposes that four Brahmins traveling together were greeted respectfully by a man of the military caste. "It is me he wanted to greet," said one of the four a little further on. "No, it's not you, it's me," said another. And on this great dispute, Chacun claims that it alone is that the salvation was addressed. To end the dispute, the party decides that the wisest thing is to run after the military man and to question him himself.

The latter, seeing what sort of people he was dealing with, wanted to amuse himself at their expense. "He's the craziest of the four I claimed to greet," he replied, and continued on his way.

But the four Brahmins did not stop there; they had the salvation of the soldier so strongly at heart that, in order to have the honor of it, each of them claimed to surpass the others in madness. As they would not yield on this point more than the other, the party decided to bring the case before the judges of the neighboring town. And so begins the most laughable trial that has ever been pleaded in any court. The comic detail is matched only by the even more comical gravity of the judicial form, and should be read in the Abbe Dubois, four speeches where every Brahmin, by the story of some trait of his life, seeks to demonstrate that he is crazier than the others.

If we want to put a stop to philosophy, and relax from the application that the subtlety of Indian metaphysics sometimes requires, read a work by Father Beschi entitled: "Les Aventures du guru Paramarta," which we must also owe the translation to M. l'Abbé Dubois. This guru, a model of simplicity, had five disciples, who called themselves: the first Stupid, the second Idiot, the third Dazed, the fourth Onlooker, and the fifth Heavy. As we see, it is only a charge, a story without verisimilitude, in which the author, to amuse his readers, and to ridicule popular prejudices, has combined the most laughable traits of silliness and stupidity.

Such tales are not worthy of appearing among the titles of glory of a nation, but they serve admirably to make known its genius and its customs, and the history of the missions must mention them, even if it loses a little of its seriousness.

And who could help laughing at the guru and his disciples crossing a river to test with a brand if she was asleep, for they had heard it said that it was dangerous to walk through her when she was awake; or else, seeing the credulity of Onlooker, to whom a joker takes a mare's egg for a pumpkin; then the driver who wants to pay the shadow of his ox; then the angled horse, etc.? What is surprising is that these silly disciples sometimes rediscover common sense and eloquence. But then their mind is perhaps even more laughable.

So after crossing the river, they imagined that one of them was swallowed up; for he who counted the others forgot to count himself, and they were only five instead of six. Then they uttered lamentable cries as at the death of a friend or a relative. After exhaling their first pain, they all turned to the side of the river and apostrophized unanimously:

"Merciless river," they cried, "damn river! more cruel and more treacherous than the tigers of the forests. How dare you swallow up a disciple of the great Paramarta? This famous character, whose name is so revered, of this holy man to whom all pay a tribute of esteem and admiration? After such a trait of perfidy, who will dare henceforth to set foot in your waters?"


From reproaches they passed to imprecations.

Said one:

"May I see your source dry up! May your bed dry up without leaving a single vestige that announces to future races that you were once a river!"


Said another,

"May the fish and the frogs which swim in your waters, devour you all alive so as to make you as dry as the sand of your banks!"


Said a third one:

"May there be a general drought. May the sky not let a drop of rain escape for three years, so that the springs, which have dried up to the last, do not send you a single drop of water! May I see the flies and ants walking around on your bed and insulted with impunity!"


Said a fourth:

"May you be devoured by the fire from your source to your mouth!"


And the last one:

"May you disappear. May your bed in future contain only stones, brambles and thorns!"


These charges obviously originated in Europe, and there are such pleasant stories that are still told every day in our countryside.

A tale as facetious as the others, but of a moral more profound, is that of the minister Appadji, who, to teach the king his master a wise lesson, made a stupid shepherd play the role of Sannyasi. It is an excellent review of the prejudices of the Indians, and of the charlatanism of some Brahmins.

But it's time to stop. It is enough for us to have noted among the Indians the existence of a multitude of very entertaining tales of which we already have good translations. Despite the apparent frivolity of this kind of work, they cannot fail to please in Europe. M. l'Abbe Dubois was astonished to have encountered in the depths of Indostan popular tales very widespread in several provinces of France. There is nothing in this which should be surprising, if we consider that the Indies owe their knowledge only to French missionaries.

We need not relate here either the successes then obtained by the two missions of the Carnate and the Maduré, nor the storm which arose against them from the bosom of the very Christian kingdom, and which ruined such fine hopes. In 1841, I saw in the archives of the kingdom (K. 1284) minutes signed Lauriston. These are the inventories, made by order of the government, of all the movable and immovable property of the missionaries. Sad reading! A table, a chair, a candlestick, two or three old books, and a few manuscripts -- that was all their cells contained. These miserable remains of their apostolate enriched no one, and idolatry alone had to rejoice in the extinction of the Jesuits. As for the small number of books and manuscripts left by them, they were deposited in the library of Foreign Missions in Pondicherry. Barely a few years had passed that in Paris no one any longer cared for missionaries, Indianists or Brahmins.

But one day, a member of the Council of Pondicherry arrived in Paris, declared himself the possessor of a precious manuscript. It was nothing less than a Vedam, and because of its importance, it was made a present to the King's Library. Let us hear Voltaire report on this event.

“A happier chance has procured at the Library of Paris an old book of the Brahmins; it is the Ezour-Vedam, written before the expedition of Alexander to India, with a ritual of all the ancient rites of the Brahmans, entitled the Cormo-Vedam. This manuscript, translated by a Brahmin, is not in truth the Vedam himself, but it is a summary of the opinions and of the titles contained in this law."

"Abbé Bazin, before dying, sent to the King's Library the most precious manuscript in all the East; it is an old comment from a Brahmin named Chumontou on the Vedam, which is the sacred book of the ancient Brahmins. This manuscript is undoubtedly from the time when the ancient religion of gymnosophists began to be corrupt; it is, after our sacred books, the monument the most respectable of the claim of the unity of God; it is entitled Ezour-Vedam, as it were the true Veda explained, the pure Vedam. There can be no doubt that it was written before Alexander's expedition."

"When we assume that this rare manuscript was written about four hundred years before the conquest of part of India by Alexander, we will not stray too far from the truth."


Voltaire adds elsewhere that this precious book was translated from Sanscretan by the high priest or archbrahme of the pagoda of Chéringam, an old man respected for his incorruptible virtue, who knew the French, and who rendered great service to the East India Company [Philosophy of History, c, XVII. Century of Louis XIV, c. XxIx.]. It was not without ulterior motives that our philosopher took pleasure in praising this work and in supposing that it was so ancient: this little stratagem suited the war he was waging on our holy books.

Even today, and with a very different intention, another school invoked the testimony of Ezour-Vedam as that of a Brahminic work. The Essay on the indifférence quotes lyrics showing the existence of Christian ideas to the Indians long before the Christianity. Thus Ezour-Vedam was in possession of a distinguished honor of which its author had hardly dreamed, and although this book does not entirely correspond to the idea that one should form Brahmanism, it was considered to be a sacred book, when suddenly the Asian Research of Calcutta let Europe know that this alleged Vedam is the work of a Jesuit missionary.

"An English orientalist, who happened to be in Pondicherry, having obtained permission to visit the library of Foreign Missions, had discovered the original of the Ezour-Vedam there, along with several other manuscripts of the same kind. Great rumor among scholars! This is how we were mystified! A Jesuit missionary made us take his work for a sacred book of the Brahmans! To deceive all of Europe, what a darkness! And here is another deception added to the others, in the history of the Society of Jesus."


This new crime was denounced to the public with the usual justice and indignation. What embarrassed the critics a little is that the author of these Vedas spoke of the four Vedas of the Brahmins to refute them: he said their origin; he gave the names of their authors.

Said M. Langles:

"It is an inexplicable thing, the missionary was not afraid to insert in his work which was capable of a convincing impostor. There is perhaps something more inexplicable still, it is that men of wit and taste allow themselves to be dominated by their prejudices to the point of closing their eyes to the evidence."


What embarrassed the critics a bit was that the author of the Pseudo-vedas spoke of the four vedas of the brahmins to refute them; he described their origin and even gave the names of their authors. "It is something inexplicable," said M. Lanjuinais, "that the missionary [who wrote the Ezour-vedam] did not shy away from inserting in his work what could convict him of his imposture." (Bach 1848:63)

-- Anquetil-Duperron's Search for the True Vedas, Excerpt from The Birth of Orientalism, by Urs App


Mr. Ellis, after listing the books he had found, missionary wondered what could have been the author, and he expressed the opinion that it was probably the P. Robert de Nobili; but he spoke by guesswork, and because he knew vaguely that once the P. Nobili had adopted the way of life of Brahmins. This assumption can in no way be justified. The P. Nobili was the Portuguese mission of Madura where they spoke the Tamil, and Ezour-Vedam, with other similar works, was composed for the French mission of the Carnatic, where they spoke a language quite different, the telinga. The Sanskrit text of these works, written in European characters, is expressed there with the pronunciation of the telinga, and the French translation which is opposite, says the Asiatik Researches, is by the same hand as the text.

Finally, the original manuscripts were found in the library of the French Seminary of Foreign Missions, in Pondicherry. In the time of Fr. de Nobili, Pondicherry did not exist, or was only a hamlet. It was only in the 18th century that the French having built a town there, it became the center of the new Carnate mission.

What I said above already made me suspect that not only the Ezour-Vedam was a French work, but that the P. Calmette was the author. To acquire the certainty I had thought to speak to that, all of Paris, was the better to know the status of the issue. The venerable Abbé Dubois, who was a missionary for forty years in India, who lived with the last Jesuit missionaries, and who lived in Pondicherry, has no doubt seen, I said to myself, those curious manuscripts which made so much noise. I went on to find, and without letting him know my opinion, I asked him if we knew the author of the Ezour-Veda. "This is the P. Calmette," he told me at once. But, he added, several missionaries got their hands on it. I needed no more. I had rediscovered the trace of the illustrious Indianist who was the initiator of French scholars in this branch which is so flourishing today.

See Asiatick Researches, t. XIV.

J. BACH.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30823
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Sat Sep 12, 2020 6:48 am

Part 1 of 3

Catalogs Rapid Search for "Vedas"
by National Library of France (Bibliotheque Nacional De France)
https://www.bnf.fr/fr
9/11/20

Librarian's Comment: Absence of Record to Prove Non-Existence of Catalog Item.

Father Jean Calmette's "copies of the four vedas" should be recorded as an entry into this catalog of works with a date of 1732-1735, when Calmette and Father Etienne Le Gac are said to have delivered the manuscripts, that Calmette opined would be unreadable. While the National Library of France gives notice that the index may not be exhaustive, the absence of a catalog entry for something that has been around to be catalogued for so long, and has been repeatedly cited by scholars as evidence of the existence of Veda transcripts on European soil during 18th century, would not be excusable. Accordingly, it seems likely that these Calmette/Le Gac vedas are among those that Father Paulinus a Sancto Bartholomaeo claims do not exist.


YOUR SEARCH: VEDAS 1045 RESULTS

105 pages

1 . Practical guide to Védasien / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Saint-Jean-de-Védas town hall
Periodic
SUDOC: 1 BnF-CG: 1
1997?

2. The Citizen / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Collective of Vedasian citizens
Periodic
SUDOC: 2 BnF-CG: 1
1999- [200.

3. Associative Life / St-Jean-de-Védas - Montpellier / [Town Hall] - S. Valade euro compo
Periodic
SUDOC: 1 BnF-CG: 1
1989-1996

4. Zysk Kenneth G. / Religious healing in the Veda / Philadelphia / American philosophical society
Delivered
SUDOC: 2 BnF-CG: 1
1985

5. The Vedas in Indian culture and history
Delivered
SUDOC: 1 BnF-CG: 1

6. Encyclopaedia of Indian heritage / New Delhi / Cosmo Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2002

7. Comparative studies in Merlin from the Vedas to CG Jung / Lewiston - Queenston - Lampeter / The Edwin Mellen Press
Delivered
SUDOC: 3 BnF-CG: 1
cop. 1991

8. Rigveda / Moskva / "Nauka
Delivered
SUDOC: 1 BnF-CG: 1
1999

9. The Vedas / Groningen / E. Forsten

10. Martinez Patrick / Saint-Jean-de-Védas
Delivered
SUDOC: 1 BnF-CG: 1

11. Hymns speculatives du Véda / [Paris] / Gallimard - UNESCO
Delivered
SUDOC: 18 BnF-CG: 1
DL 1985, I

12. Kuiper Franciscus Bernardus Jacobus / Aryans in the Rigveda / Amsterdam - Atlanta (Ga.) / Rodopi
Delivered
SUDOC: 4 BnF-CG: 1
1991

13. Remmer Ulla / Frauennamen im Rigveda und im Avesta / Wien / Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissensc
Delivered
SUDOC: 6 BnF-CG: 1
2006, cop.

14. Macdonell Arthur Anthony / Vedic index of names and subjects / Delhi / Motilal Bararsidass
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1995

15. Wilden Eva / Der Kreislauf der Opfergaben im Veda / Stuttgart / F. Steiner
Delivered
SUDOC: 2 BnF-CG: 1
2000

16. 6 feet underground / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground editions
Delivered
SUDOC: 3 BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2012

17. Jamison Stephanie W. / Function and form in the -áya- formations of the Rig Veda and Atharva Veda / Göttingen / Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht
Delivered
SUDOC: 3 BnF-CG: 1
cop. 1983

18. Oberlies Thomas / Der Rigveda und seine Religion / Berlin / Verlag der Weltreligionen
Delivered
SUDOC: 1 BnF-CG: 1
cop. 2012

19. Glück, Michaël / Brèves du Terral / Pézenas / Domens
Delivered
Heritage base: 1 SUDOC: 4 BnF-CG: 1
1997

20. Scarlata Salvatore / Die Wurzelkomposita im R̥g-Veda / Wiesbaden / Reichert
Delivered
SUDOC: 2 BnF-CG: 1

21. Rig-Veda - erster und zweiter Liederkreis
Delivered
SUDOC: 4 BnF-CG: 1

22. January, Ludovic / Brèves du Terral / Pézenas / Domens
Delivered
Heritage base: 1 SUDOC: 4 BnF-CG: 1
1998

23. Vraja Sundar das / Knowledge of the Vedas / Auxerre / Ed. des 3 monts
Delivered
SUDOC: 1 BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2010

24. Pinnacles of India's past / Amsterdam - Philadelphia / Benjamins
Delivered
SUDOC: 2 BnF-CG: 1
1986

25. Varenne Jean / Le Veda / Paris / The Two Oceans
Delivered
SUDOC: 13 BnF-CG: 1
1984

26. Jamison Stephanie W. / The "Rig Veda" between two worlds / Paris / Collège de France - Institut de civilization indi
Delivered
SUDOC: 10 BnF-CG: 1
2007

27. Feller Danielle / The Sanskrit epics' representation of Vedic myths / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass
Delivered
SUDOC: 4 BnF-CG: 1
2004

28. Glimpses of Veda and vyakarana / Bombay / Popular Prakasha
Delivered
SUDOC: 1 BnF-CG: 1
1985

29. Schmeja Hans / Interpretationen aus dem Rigveda / Innsbruck / Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität
Delivered
SUDOC: 1 BnF-CG: 1
1987

30. Martinez Patrick / 31 names in gold letters / [Saint-Jean-de-Védas] / [P. Martinez]
Delivered
SUDOC: 1 BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2011

31. Bianu Zéno / A fire in the heart of the wind
Delivered
SUDOC: 5 BnF-CG: 1

32. Aguilar i Matas Enric / R̥gvedic society / Leiden, The Netherlands - New York / EJ Brill
Delivered
SUDOC: 1 BnF-CG: 1
1990

33. Niederreiter Stefan / Morphologische Varianz und semantische Konkurrenz / Graz / Leykam
Delivered
SUDOC: 1 BnF-CG: 1
2001

34. Vedic Cosmogonies / Paris - Milano / The Beautiful Letters - Arche
Delivered
SUDOC: 11 BnF-CG: 1
1982

35. Rigveda / Moskva / "Nauka
Delivered
SUDOC: 1 BnF-CG: 1
1995

36. Bādarāyaṇa / Brahmasūtraśāṅkarabhāṣyam / Dillī / Nāga Prakāśakah̤
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
2000

37. Stories to scratch your head / Castelnau-le-Lez / Southern Publishing Company
Delivered
SUDOC: 1 BnF-CG: 1
impr. 1992

38. Richter-Ushanas Egbert / The Indus script and the Ṛg-Veda / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 4 BnF-CG: 1
impr. 1997

39. Gonda Jan / The medium in the Rgveda
Delivered
SUDOC: 6 BnF-CG: 1

40. Martinez Patrick / Saint-Jean-de-Vedas / [Saint-Jean-de-Vedas] / P. Martinez
Delivered
SUDOC: 2 BnF-CG: 1

41. Göhler Lars / Reflexion und Ritual in der Purvamimamsa / Wiesbaden / Harrassowitz
Delivered
SUDOC: 2 BnF-CG: 1
2011

42. Pirart Eric / Les Nāsatya / Liège - Geneva / Library of the Faculty of Philosophy and Let
Delivered
SUDOC: 11
1995, cop.  

43. Montpellier
Menu
BnF-CG: 1

44. [Hotel Palestine, play by Falk Richter] / Paris
Manuscript
BnF-CG: 1
2011

45. [Hotel Palestine, play by Falk Richter. Studio Casanova, Ivry-sur-Seine]
Manuscript
BnF-CG: 1
2011

46. Benedetto André / Here begins lunchtime - Last cigarettes / Avignon / Théâtre des Carmes
Manuscript
BnF-CG: 1
1989

47. [The precious ridiculous, directed by Yves Gourmelon]
Manuscript
BnF-CG: 1
2005

48. [First love, Yves Gourmelon design]
Manuscript
BnF-CG: 1
2005

49. Minutes of the election of Auguste Cambon (father of the conventional) as secretary-clerk of I
Manuscript
Heritage base: 1
18

50. Saumade, Gratien / Collection of documents to be used in the history of the anarchic municipal administration of the canton of
Manuscript
Heritage base: 1

51. [Collection. Le Chai du Terral, Saint-Jean-de-Védas] / Paris
Manuscript
BnF-CG: 1
1994

52. [Collection. Le Chai du Terral, Saint-Jean-de-Védas, 2014-2015. Programming documents]
Manuscript
BnF-CG: 1
2014-2015

53. [Collection. Le Chai du Terral, Saint-Jean-de-Védas, 2016-2017. Programming documents]
Manuscript
BnF-CG: 1
2016-2017

54. [Collection. Le Chai du Terral, Saint-Jean-de-Védas, 2017-2018. Programming documents]
Manuscript
BnF-CG: 1
2017-2018

55. [An evening with friends, designed by Yves Gourmelon]
Manuscript
BnF-CG: 1
2005

56. Actors / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Free Midi Group
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
1996- [199.

57. Arthropode / Saint-Jean-de-Védas - Montpellier / 6 feet underground ed. - 6 feet under edit
Periodic
BnF-CG: 0
impr. 2009

58. [Municipal bulletin] / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Town hall
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
19 ?? -

59. Theatrical field / Saint-Jean-de-Védas - Vic-la-Guardiole - Paris / l'Entretemps ed. - l'Entretemps ed. - Entreemps
Periodic
BnF-CG: 0
2002- - 20

60. Cnews morning Montpellier plus / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Société du journal Midi libre
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1

61. Cnews Montpellier plus / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Midi libre newspaper company
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
2017-2019

62. White collection / Montpellier - Frontignan - Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre éd. - 6 feet underground - 6 ft
Periodic
BnF-CG: 0
1996- - 20

63. Collection Les Beaux sites / Saint-Jean-de-Védas
Periodic
BnF-CG: 0

64. Direct morning Montpellier plus / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Montpellier Plus
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
2012-2017

65. Direct Montpellier plus / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / SPGM
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
2009-2011

66. In Var country / Draguignan - Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Agricultural Publishing of Var - SA Paysan du Midi
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
1973- - 20

67. Jade / Pignan / 6 feet underground
Periodic
SUDOC: 5
1991- [199.

68. [The Egg] / Saint-Jean-de-Vedas / COMEDI
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
1986-1989

69. The Sacred Science of the Vedas / Perpignan / Editions Ananda Marga-The Way of Bliss
Periodic
BnF-CG: 0
[20..] -

70. The Years Free Midi / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Free Midi
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
1994

71. [The Atlas of ACOMEN] / Saint-Jean-de-Vedas / Concerted action group in nuclear medicine of
Periodic
BnF-CG: 0

72. The Séranne notebooks / Le Vigan [then] Saint-Jean-de-Védas / The Séranne notebooks
Periodic
BnF-CG: 0
1992

73. Gourmet lunch / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Free lunch
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
2010

74. Monotrème / Montpellier - Frontignan - Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground ed. - 6 feet underground - 6 ft
Periodic
BnF-CG: 0
1997- 20

75. Monotrème mini / Frontignan - Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground - 6 feet underground
Periodic
BnF-CG: 0
2006- - 20

76. Montpellier Hérault synergy / Montpellier / SEDIP Communication
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
[199.] - [19

77. Montpellier plus / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / SPGM-Society for free publications in the Midi
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
2005-2009

78. Montpellier plus / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / SPGM-Society for free publications in the Midi
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
2011-2012

79. Occitans at Clapàs! / St-Joan-de-Vedas [Saint-Jean-de-Védas] / Occitan Ceucle de Montpelhièr
Periodic
BnF-CG: 0
198? -198?

80. Quo vadis? / Saint John of Védas / Quo vadis? C / o Jean-Pierre Almignan
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
1992-

81. Resources Free Midi / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Free Midi
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
1994-

82. Free time / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Free time
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
[ca 1991] -

83. Land of wines / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Ed. Midi periodicals
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
[201.] -

84. Achieve everything from home to garden / Saint-Jean-de-Vedas - Saint-Cloud / Midi libre - HB publications
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
2005

85. Yudansha / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / J.-J. Quero Martial Arts Academy
Periodic
BnF-CG: 1
1995-1997

86. Fabcaro / - 20% on the spirit of the forest / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2011

87. James / 365 times 77.8 / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground ed. Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2012

88. Cousinié Jean-Pierre / 500 new ideas to understand and apply the Cousinié / Narbonne / Cousinié method
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
[2011]

89. 6 feet underground (Saint-Jean de Védas, Hérault) / 6 feet underground, the animal is twenty years old / Montpellier / 6 feet underground
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
2011

90. Schmidt Peter / AC Bhaktivedanta Swami im interreligiösen Dialog / Frankfurt am Main - New York / P. Lang
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

91. Galewicz Cezary / A commentator in service of the empire / Wien / Sammlung de Nobili, Institut für Südasien-, Tibe
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
2009

92. Dvivedī Kapiladeva / A cultural study of the Atharvaveda / Gyanpur, India / Vishvabharati Research Institute
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1999

93. A descriptive catalog of Sanskrit manuscripts in the Government oriental library, Mysore / Mysore / the Asst. Supdt., Govt. branch press
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1937

94. Subrahmanya Sastri Palamadai Pichumani / A Descriptive catalog of the Sanskrit manuscripts in the Tanjore Maharaja Serfoji's Sarasvati Maha / Srirangam / Sri Vani Villas Press
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1928-1975

95. Sen Chitrabhanu / A dictionary of the Vedic rituals / Delhi / Concept Pub. Co. Delivered
SUDOC: 4
impr. 1978

96. Kulkarni Nirmala Ravindra / A grammatical analysis of the Taittirīya-padapāṭha / Delhi / Sri Satguru Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
impr. 1995

97. A grammatical word-index to R̥gveda / Hoshiarpur / VVRI
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1963

98. Dasgupta Surendranath / A history of Indian philosophy / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1975

99. Coomaraswamy Ananda Kentish / A new approach to the Vedas / New Delhi / Munshiram Manoharlal publ. Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1994

100. Nicoby / In Ouessant / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2010

101. Vasiṣṭha / A Pargiánya, ínno di Vásist̡a / Bològna / Règia tipografía
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1892

102. Lubotsky Alexander Markovitsj / A Ṛgvedic word concordance / New Haven (Conn.) / American Oriental Society
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1997

103. A second selection of hymns from the Rigveda / Bombay / Government central book depot - Department of publ
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1899

104. Gupta Shanti Swarup / A study of deities of Rig Veda / New Delhi / Abhinav Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2006

105. Barre Armand / Through the millennia / [Saint-Jean-de-Védas] / A. Barre
Delivered
BnF-CG: 0
2001-

106. Bloomfield Mauritius / A Vedic concordance / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1990

107. Macdonell Arthur Anthony / A vedic reader for students / Oxford / University Press
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
nineteen eighty one

108. Macdonell Arthur Anthony / A Vedic reader for students / Delhi / M. Banarsidass
Delivered
SUDOC: 4
1992

109. Sahoo Purna Chandra / Abhicāra rites in the Veda / Delhi / Pratibha Prakashan
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2009

110. Dvivedī Kapiladeva / Ācāra-śikṣā - आचार-शिक्षा / Vārāṇasī - वाराणसी / Viśvabhāratī Anusandhāna Pariṣad - विश्वभारती
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
san 1984 i

111. Rambachan Anantanand / Accomplishing the accomplished / Honolulu (TH) / University of Hawaii press
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
cop. 1991

112. Ellis Francis / Account of a discovery of a modern imitation of the Vedas with remarks on the genuine works / [S. l. ?]
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
[1822?]

113. Lauriol, Jean-Luc / Agence Laurion (Montpellier) / Montpellier / Agence Lauriol
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
2004

114. Kaṃsārā Nārāyaṇa Ma / Agriculture and animal husbandry in the Vedas / Delhi / Dharam Hinduja International Center of Indic Resea
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1995

115. Ayengar Viswanath KN / An attempt at the revivale of the Vedas in terms of modern science / [S. l. ?]
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
[nineteen eighty one?]

116. Bartley Christopher J. / An introduction to Indian philosophy / London - New York / Bloomsbury Academic
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2015

117. Bloomfield Maurice / An updated Vedic concordance / Cambridge (Mass.) - Milan / Department of Sanskrit and Indian studies, Harvard
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2007

118. Franceschini Marco / An updated Vedic concordance / Cambridge, MA - Milan / Dept. of Sanskrit and Indian Studies, Harvard Univ
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2007

119. Madhva / Ānandatīrthabhagavatpādācārya viracitam R̥gbhāṣyam / Bangalore / Dvaita Vedanta Studies and Research Foundation
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1999-

120. Anirvan / Anirvan's Veda-mīmāṁsā / Shimla / Indian Institute of Advanced Study
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2004-

121. Āpastamba / Āpastamba śraddha prayogaḥ
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

122. Āpastamba / Āpastambīyapūrvāparaprayogaḥ
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

123. Khanna Dev Raj / Aquatic science in the Vedas / New Delhi / Biotech Books
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2014

124. Arrest of the Council of State of Roy, of October 6, 1722, which breaks a sentence of the General Visitors of / Paris / impr. de la Vve and M.-C. Jouvenal
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1722

125. Arrest of the Council of State of Roy, of October 6, 1722, which overturns a sentence of the General Visitors of / Paris / Vve & M.-G. Jouvenel
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1722

126. Arrest of the Council of State of Roy, which breaks a sentence of the general visitors of the gabelles of Langu / Paris / impr. by Vve Saugrain and - P. Prault
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1732

127. Judgment of the Council of State which overturns a sentence of the general visitors of the Languedoc gabelles in Mo / Paris / imp. by Jouvenel
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1722

128. Judgment of the Council of State which overturns a sentence of the general visitors of the Languedoc gabelles in Mo / Paris / imp. by Jouvenel
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1722

129. Dange Sindhu Sadashiv / Aspects of speech in Vedic ritual / New Delhi / Aryan Books International
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1996

130. Āśvalāyana / Āśvalāyana śraddha prayogaḥ
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

131. Āśvalāyana / Āśvalāyanapūrvāparaprayōgaḥ
Delivered
SUDOC: 1



132. Jhala Gowriprasad Chunilal / Aśvinā in the Rgveda and other indological essays / Bombay - New Delhi / GC Jhala Memorial Committee - sole distributors,
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1978

133. Atha Gāyatrī pañcaṅga-prārambhaḥ / Bambaī [Mumbai] / Khemarāja Śrīkr̥ṣṇadāsa, Śrīvenkaṭeśvara
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1986

134. Atharva-Veda saṃhitā
Delivered
SUDOC: 2

135. Atharva-veda Saṁhitā / Delhi / Nag
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1987

136. Ātharvaṇā / Kolkata / Sanskrit Book Depot
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2002

137. Zehnder Thomas / Atharvaveda-Paippalāda Buch 2, Text, Übersetzung, Kommentar / Idstein / Schulz-Kirchner
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1999

138. Atharvavedavaiyakarana-padasuci / Hoshiarpur / VVRI
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1963

139. Lacroix Samuel / Audit of the DECATHLON cycle department, St Jean de Vedas / Montpellier / University of Montpellier 2 Sciences and Technology
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2002

140. Authority, anxiety, and canon / Albany / State University of New York Press
Delivered
SUDOC: 3

141. Domergue René / Avise, the organic! / Montpezat / R. Domergue
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2008

142. Nigal Sahebrao Genu / Axiological approach to the Vedas / New Delhi / Northern book center
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1986

143. Caudhurī Sādhana Kamala / Beda o Buddha / Kalakātā / Karuṇā Prakās̓anī
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2000

144. Hertel Johannes / Beiträge zur Erklärung des Awestas und des Vedas, von Johannes Hertel / Leipzig, S. Hirzel
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1929. Gr.

145. Quet Dominique André / Shepherd in the four seasons / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / PHOTOBIM
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2007

146. Roy Ramashray / Beyond ego's domain / Delhi / Shipra Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1999

147. Bhattacharyya Narendra Nath / Bhārata-itihāse baidika yuga / Kalakātā / Bedabidyākendra, Rabīndrabhāratī Bisvabidyāla
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1998

148. Murthy SRN / Bhārathīya bhū-tattwa-rahasyam / Bangalore / Kalpatharu Research Academy
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
impr. 1994

149. Evolutionary library / Paris / A. Maloine
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1919-

150. Libraries manual / [Sète] / Agence de cooperation pour le livre en Languedoc-R
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1997

151. Nagar Shanti Lal / Biographical dictionary of ancient Indian Ṛṣis / New Delhi / Akshaya Prakashan
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2012

152. Baudhāyana / Bodhāyanapūrvāparaprayōgaḥ
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

153. Bali Saraswati / Bṛhaspati in the Vedas and the Purāṇas / Delhi / Nag Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1978

154. Patton Laurie L. / Bringing the gods to mind
Delivered
SUDOC: 5

155. Bouchart d'Orval Jean / Burning clarity / Paris / Almora editions
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
DL 2016

156. Chevrou Robert / Corpses in the forest / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / RB Chevrou
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2002

157. Fernhout Rein / Canonical texts / Amsterdam - Atlanta, Ga. / Rodopi
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1994

158. Blaine Julien / Character for the one who flames / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Les Cahiers de la Séranne
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1994

159. Demangeot Cédric / & cargaisons / Montpellier / Éd. Greige
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2004

160. Quet Dominique André / Dominique André Quet's report card / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / PHOTOBIM
Delivered
BnF-CG: 0
2007-

161. Beguin Coralie / Carrefour Saint-Jean-de-Védas / [Sl] / [sn]
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1999

162. Śarmā Muṃśirāma / Caturveda mīmāṃsā / Naī Dillī / Yūnivarsiṭī Pablikeśansa
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1999

163. Caturveda-vaiyākaraṇa-padasūcī / Hośiārapuram (Bharata) / Viśveśvarānanda-Vaidika-Śodha Saṃsthānam
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1960-1963

164. Terral cellar / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Terral cellar
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1995

165. Madhva / Chāndogyopaniṣadbhāsyam / Bangalore / Poornaprajna samshodhana mandiram
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2004

166. Sparreboom M. / Chariots in the Veda / Leiden / EJ Brill
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1985

167. Sparreboom Marcus / Chariots in the Veda / [Netherlands] / M. Sparreboom
Delivered
SUDOC: 3 BnF-CG: 1
1983

168. Soto Fernández Ramón / Clave de las mitologías, 2a época. Cuaderno 6. El Brahmanismo y el Buddhismo. Las Puranas. Los Vedas / Madrid
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1954. In-8

169. Collection of the Upanichats, extracts from the Vedas / [Sl] / [sn]
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1837

170. Collection of Oupanichats extracted from the Védas trad. from Sanskrit by L. Poley / Paris
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
Delivered
SUDOC: 4 BnF-CG: 1
2004

171. Poley, Ludovicus / Collection des Oupanichats, extracts from the Védas, translated from Sanskrit / Paris / Dondey-Dupré and Arthus Bertrand
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1836

172. James / Like a Monday / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground ed. Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2009

173. Plateau Émilie / Comme un plateau / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre éd. Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2012

174. How to discriminate the spectator of the show? / Paris / J. Maisonneuve
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
1977

175. Chinmoy Sri / Commentaries on the Vedas, the Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita / Jamaica, NY / Aum Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
c1966

176. Chakraborty Chhanda / Common life in the Ṛgveda and Atharvaveda / Calcutta / Punthi Pustak
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1977

177. Mueller Christoph / Tales of a man of taste / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2012

178. Tyagi Jaya / Contestation and compliance / New Delhi / Oxford university press
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
cop. 2014

179. Tyagi Jayanti / Contestation and compliance / New Delhi / Oxford University Press
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
cop. 2014

180. Rāghavan Veṅkaṭarāma / Contribution of Tamilnadu to Sanskrit: Vedas, Śāstras, Kāvyas, etc / [S. l. ?]
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

181. Malamoud Charles / Cooking the world / Delhi - New York / Oxford University Press
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
1996

182. Varenne Jean / Vedic cosmogonies / [Sl] / [sn]
Thesis
SUDOC: 1
1979

183. Adolphe Jean-Marc / Crisis of representation / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Entretemps ed. Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2003

184. Malamoud Charles / Bake the world
Delivered
SUDOC: 59

185. Sharma Rajendra Nath / Culture & civilization as revealed in the Śrautasūtras / Delhi / Nag Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1977

186. Singh Satya Prakash / Dadhyaṅ Ātharvaṇa / New Delhi / Standard publishers (India)
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2013

187. Dal X libro del Ṛg-Veda / Pisa / Giardini
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
nineteen eighty one

188. Duba Pierre / In my paper house / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre éd. Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2014

189. Mylius Klaus / Das Altindische Opfer / Wichtrach / Institut für Indologie
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
2000

190. Labernadie Victor / On the antiquity of leprosy according to the Vedas... / Paris, Masson
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
(nd) In

191. Plateau Émilie / On the other side, in Montreal / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre éditions
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2014

192. Masset Pierre / Of remembrance and friendship / [Saint-Jean de Védas] / "Quo vadis"
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1996

193. Dumézil Georges / Latin goddesses and Vedic myths / New York / Arno press
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1978

194. Mukhopadhyay Samir Kumar / Deities in the R̥gvedic Brāhmanas / Kolkata / Sanskrit Book Depot
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2003

195. Gädicke Carl / Der Accusativ im Veda, dargestellt von Carl Gaedicke,... / Breslau / W. Koebner
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1880

196. Sartorius Joachim / Shadows under the waves / Montpellier / Ed. Greige
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2005

197. Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire, Jules / Des Védas / Paris / B. Duprat
Delivered
Heritage base: 3 BnF-CG: 1
1854

198. Desnoyer, 1894-1972 / Nîmes / Art gallery
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1996

199. Vader VH / Determination of the vernal equinox in the constellations Punarvasu, Puṣya, Aśleṣā, etc., or furth / [S. l. ?]
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
[1926?]

200. Devotional Agni-Hymns from Rigveda / Poona / Bharatiya Charitrakosha Mandal's PJ Chinmulgund
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
[1990]

201. Dharma and Vedic foundations / Bombay / Shri Bhagavan Vedavyasa Itihasa Samshodhana Mandir
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1995

202. Kuznetsova Irina / Dharma in ancient Indian thought
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

203. Sudres Claude / International Cycling Dictionary 2004 / [Saint-Jean-de-Vedas] / [C. Sudres]
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2004

204. Miyakawa Hisashi / Die altindischen Grundzahlwörter im Rigveda / Dettelbach / Röll, JH
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
cop. 2003

205. Kupfer Katharina / Die Demonstrativpronomina im Rigveda / Frankfurt am Main - New York / Lang
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
cop. 2002

206. Richter-Ushanas Egbert / Die Dialog-Hymnen des Rg-Veda / Worpswede / Richter
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2005

207. Richter-Ushanas Egbert / Die Dreigestalt des Seins und der androgyne kosmische Mensch / Bremen / Richter
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2005

208. Die Hymnen des Rigveda / Berlin
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1851-1863

209. Die Hymnen des Rigveda / Bonn
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1877. 2nd

210. Die Hymnen des Rigveda / Wiesbaden / Otto Harrassowitz
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1955

211. Mayrhofer Manfred / Die Personennamen in der Rgveda-Samhita. Sicheres und Zweifelhaftes / München / Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften
Delivered
SUDOC: 4
2003

212. Mayrhofer Manfred / Die Personennamen in der Ṛgveda-Saṁhitā / München / Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
cop. 2003

213. Oberlies Thomas / Die Religion des R̥gveda / Wien / Inst. für Indologie der Universität Wien
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
1998

214. Oberlies Thomas / Die Religion des rgveda / Wien / Institut für Indologie der Universität Wien
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
cop. 1999

215. Oldenberg Hermann / Die Religion des Veda / Berlin / Besser
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1894

216. Oldenberg Hermann / Die Religion des Veda / Stuttgart - Berlin / JG Cotta
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1917

217. Richter-Ushanas Egbert / Die Symbolik der Indus-Schrift im Vergleich zum Rg-Veda / Bremen / E. Richter
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2002

218. Rau Wilhelm / Die vedischen Zitate im Vyākaraṇa-Mahābhāṣya / Mainz - Stuttgart / Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur - F. Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1985

219. Rau Wilhelm / Die vedischen Zitate in der Kāśikā Vṛtti / Mainz - Stuttgart / Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur - F. Delivered
SUDOC: 7
1993

220. Zeller Gabriele / Die vedischen Zwillingsgötter
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

221. Klaus Konrad / Die wasserfahrzeuge im vedischen Indien / Mainz - Stuttgart / Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur - F. Delivered
SUDOC: 6
1990

222. Harvest Patrick / Magician gods in the Rgvedasamhita / [Sl] / [sn]
Thesis
SUDOC: 1
1990

223. Doumergue Jean-Louis / Diffuser of love / Béziers / Association Amour essence
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2007

224. Bary / Speech delivered / (Montpellier / Tournel
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1791

225. Valat, Etienne / Speech delivered at the tomb of C. Chapel in Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Montpellier / Impr. southern
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1894

226. Staal Frits / Discovering the Vedas / New Delhi - New York / Penguin Books
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
2008

227. Dange Sadashiv Ambadas / Divine hymns and ancient thought / New Delhi / Navrang
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1992

228. Auvard Alfred / Doctor A. Auvard. Evolutionary doctrine, science of the Vedas. Theosophy, evolution... / Paris, A. Maloine et fils
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
(nd). I

229. Auvard, A. / Doctor A. Auvard. Evolutionary doctrine, science of the Vedas. Theosophy, evolution... / Paris, A. Maloine et fils
Delivered
Heritage base: 2
2209

230. Auvard, A / Evolutionary doctrine / Paris / A. Maloine
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1920

231. Auvard, A. / Evolutionary doctrine; science of vedas / Paris / Maloine
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1920

232. Auvard, A. / Evolutionary doctrine. (Science of the Vedas). Théosophie Evoluisme / Paris / A. Maloine et fils
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1920

233. Auvard, Alfred / Evolutionary doctrine, science of the Vedas, theosophy, evolution / Paris / Maloine
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1920

234. Auvard, A. / Evolutionary doctrine (science of the Vedas) / Paris / A. Maloine et fils
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1920

235. Auvard, Alfred / Evolutionary doctrine / Paris / A. Maloine
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1920

236. Sarkar Anil Kumar / Dynamic facets of Indian thought / New Delhi / Manohar
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1980

237. Sarkar Anil Kumar / Dynamic facets of Indian thought / New Delhi / Manohar
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1980

238. Ecclesia Divina, or, A selection of hymns from the four Vedas / New Delhi / Kaveri Books
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2002

239. Vannucci Marta / Ecological readings in the Veda / New Delhi / DK Printworld
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
impr. 1994

240. Kamal Rajiv / Economy of plants in the Vedas / New Delhi / Commonwealth publ. Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

241. Sihler Andrew L / Edgerton's law / Heidelberg / Winter
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
cop. 2006

242. Gavach Claude / Saint-Jean-Baptiste Church of Saint-Jean-de-Védas / [Saint-Jean-de-Vedas] / P. Martinez
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
[2013]

243. Ekagnikāṇḍaḥ / Tirupati / Śrīveṅkaṭeśvaravedaviśvavidyālayaḥ
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2010

244. Larios Borayin / Embodying the Vedas
Delivered
SUDOC: 2

245. Blanvillain Francis / On the way / Paris / Éd. Writers
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2002

246. On the way V. / Paris / Editions des Ecrivains
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
2002

247. Rubinstein Raphael / In search of a miracle / Montpellier / Ed. Greige
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2004

248. James / In all simplicity / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre éd. Delivered
BnF-CG: 0
impr. 2013

249. James / In all simplicity / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre éd. Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2013

250. James / In all simplicity / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre éd. Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

251. James / In all simplicity / St-Jean de Védas / 6 pieds sous terre éditions
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2015

252. Encyclopaedic dictionary of Vedic terms / New Delhi / Sarup & Sons
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
2000

253. Between Coulazou and Mosson, ten villages, ten faces / Nîmes / Lacour
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1999

254. Between Coulazou and Mosson, ten villages, ten faces / Montpellier / Secondy
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1985

255. Ara Mitra / Eschatology in the Indo-Iranian traditions / New York / P. Lang
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2008

256. Müller Max / Essays on the history of religions / Didier et Cie
Delivered
Valdo: 1
1872

257. Oguibénine Boris / Essays on Vedic and Indo-European culture / Pisa / Giardini
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1985

258. Kashyap Rangasami L. / Essentials of Sāma Veda and its music / Bangalore / Sri Aurobindo Kapāli Sāstry Institute of Vedic C
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2012

259. Étienne Decroux, body mime / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / l'Entretemps ed. Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2003

260. Regnier, Adolphe / Study on the idiom of the Vedas and the origins of the Sanskrit language. / Paris / Ch. Lahure
Delivered
Heritage base: 1

261. Regnier, Adolphe / Study on the idiom of the Vedas and the origins of the Sanskrit language, by Ad. Regnier. First party / Paris / impr. by C. Lahure
Delivered
Heritage base: 1 BnF-CG: 1
1855

262. Baudry, Frédéric / Study on the Vedas / Paris / A. Durand
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1855

263. Renou Louis / Studies on the vocabulary of Rgveda / Pondicherry / French Institute of Indology
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1958

264. Eugène Dufour, Provencal painter / [Allauch] / [Allauch Museum]
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
[2005]

265. Dhar Sodarshan / Evolution of Hindu family law / Delhi / Deputy Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 2 BnF-CG: 1
impr. 1986

266. Dandekar Ramchandra Narayan / Exercises in Indology / Delhi / Ajanta Publications (India) - distributors, Ajanta
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
nineteen eighty one

267. Exploring science in ancient Indian texts / Dartmouth - Delhi / Published by Center for Indic Studies, University
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
2014

268. Toṭaka Ācārya / Extracting the essence of the Śruti
Delivered
SUDOC: 2

269. Ezourvedam / Amsterdam - Philadelphia / J. Benjamins Pub. Co. Delivered
SUDOC: 3
1984

270. Malamoud Charles / Femininity of speech / Paris / Albin Michel
Delivered
SUDOC: 26
impr. 2005

271. Demont Adrien / Feu de paille / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground editions
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
cop. 2015

272. Jurewicz Joanna / Fire and cognition in the Ṛgveda / Warszawa / Elipsa
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2010

273. Kwella Peter / Flussüberschreitung im Rigveda. RV III, 33 und Verwandtes / von Peter Kwella / Wiesbaden / O. Harrassowitz
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1973

274. Chaudière Maurice / Fruit forests / Saint-Maurice-Navacelle / Éd. of the Green Dragon
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1998

275. Bruno Carla / Forme della sintassi media / Perugia / Guerra
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
cop. 2005

276. Choudhary Bijoy Kumar / From kinship to social hierarchy / Patna / Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1999

277. Frawley David / From the river of heaven / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
impr. 2002

278. Ahsen Akhter / Ganesh / New Delhi / Virgo Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1995

279. Carri Sebastian Joseph / Gaveṣaṇam, or, On the track of the cow - and, In search of the mysterious word - and, In search of / Wiesbaden / Harrassowitz
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2000

280. Keshavadas Satguru Sant / Gāyatrī, the highest meditation / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 4
impr. 1991

281. Ray Bidyut Lata / Geographical aspect of the vedas / Delhi / Kant Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2006

282. Gogai PK / God Shiva, Devi and tantric cult / Varanasi / Bhartiya Pub. House
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2007

283. Frawley David / Gods, sages and kings / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
1993

284. Frawley David / Gods, sages and kings / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass publ. Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1993, cop.

285. Frawley David / Gods, sages and kings / Salt Lake City, Utah / Passage Press
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
c1991

286. Olivelle Patrick / Gṛhastha
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

287. Saint Jean de Védas (Hérault) / Practical guide to Vedasian 2005-2006 / Saint Jean de Védas (Hérault) / Town hall
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
2005

288. Leen / Hasu / [Saint-Jean-de-Védas] / Tengu edition
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
DL 2019

289. Massol Gilbert / Languedoc Hauts Pays / Saint-Jean-de-Vedas / Méridionales Ed. Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1987

290. Vesci Uma Marina / Heat and sacrifice in the Vedas
Delivered
SUDOC: 3

291. Védas Jean de / Hours of France and Poland... / Warsaw / Drukarnia społeczna Stow. robotników chrześc. Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1920

292. Hindī Rgveda saṃhitā / Dillī / Caukhambā saṃskr̥ta pratishṭhāna
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1992

293. Ghosh Shyam / Hindu concept of life and death / New Delhi / Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1989

294. Ghosh Shyam / Hindu concept of life and death / New Delhi / Munshiram Manoharlal
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1989

295. Bhandari Narendra Singh / Hindū dharma paricaya - हिन्दू धर्म परिचय / Dillī - दिल्ली / Hāī-Ṭaika Pablikeśansa - हाई-टैक पब्लिकॆशंस
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1990 - 199

296. Hindu scriptures / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
impr. 2001

297. Hindu scriptures / London / Phoenix Giant
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
impr. 1996

298. Hindu spirituality / New York / Crossroad
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1989-

299. Hindu spirituality / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1995

300. Lipner Julius J. / Hindus / London / Routledge
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30823
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Sat Sep 12, 2020 6:50 am

Part 2 of 3

301. Bouquier Serge / History of the parish of Sainte-Thérèse-de-l'Enfant-Jésus in Montpellier / Montpellier / [Association] Sainte-Thérèse-Assas-Montpellier
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1996

302. Eliade Mircea / Historia das crencas e das ideias religiosas / Rio de Janeiro / Zahar ed.
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
cop. 1978

303. Historical & critical studies in the Atharvaveda / Delhi / Nag Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
nineteen eighty one

304. Hmyns [sic] of the Atharvaveda / New Delhi / Munshiram Menoharlal Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1985

305. Homage to Renée Rauzy / [Montpellier] / ["Midi libre"]
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1993

306. Mars LL de / Off topic / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
cop. 2012

307. Vannucci M. / Human ecology in the Vedas / New Delhi / DK Printworld
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1999

308. Hymns of the Veda / [Paris] / the Ledger of the month
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1996

309. Hymns and prayers from the Veda / Paris / Adrien-Maisonneuve
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1938

310. Hymns speculatives du Véda, translated from Sanskrit and annotated by Louis Renou / (Paris) / Gallimard (Abbeville, impr. By F. Paillart)
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

311. Hymns speculatives du Véda / (Paris,) Gallimard
Delivered
Heritage base: 2
1956

312. Hymns from the golden age / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass
Delivered
SUDOC: 1 BnF-CG: 1
1986

313. Peterson Peter / Hymns from the Ṛgveda / Delhi / Bharatiya Kala Prakashan
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
impr. 2004

314. Hymns from the Rigveda / Bombay / Government central book depot - Department of publ
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1888

315. Hymns of the Ṛgveda / New Delhi / Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1987

316. Hymns to the mystic fire, hymns to Agni from the Rig Veda [Extracts from the Gritsamada, Bharadwada / (Pondichery / impr. De Sri Aurobindo Ashram
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1946.)

317. Hymns to the mystic fire, hymns to Agni from the Rig Veda [Extracts from the Gritsamada, Bharadwāda / (Pondochery, impr. De Sri Aurobindo Ashram
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1946.) In-

318. Hymns to the mystic fire, hymns to Agni from the Rig Veda, translated in their esoteric sense / Pondicherry / Sri Aurobindo ashram (Sri Aurobindo ashram press)
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1952

319. Graphic terror / Hypochondria (s) / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2013

320. Melazzo Roberta / I Bahuvrīhi del R̥g Veda / Innsbruck / Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen der Univers
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
2010

321. Berthelé, Joseph / Toponymic identification of two old cemeteries around Montpellier / Montpellier / Impr. general of the Midi
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1910

322. Capion-Malric Monique / I had to tell you / La Grande-Motte / Mr. Capion-Malric
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2006

323. Chierichetti Pietro / Il sacrificio alla base della costruzione dell'identità culturale indiana
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

324. Ranade HG / Illustrated dictionary of Vedic rituals / New Delhi / Indira Gandhi National Center for the Arts and Ary
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
impr. 2006

325. Dange Sadashiv Ambadas / Images from vedic hymns and rituals / New Delhi / Aryan Books International
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
2000

326. Gaillet Marc / In-justice / Saint-Jean-de-Vedas / Digital workshop - Marc Gaillet
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
[2015]

327. Chevrou Robert / Deadly forest fires / Saint-Jean-de-Vedas / R. Chevrou
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2004

328. Ram Gopal / India of Vedic kalpasūtras / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1983

329. Chatterjee Jagadish Chandra / India's outlook on life / New York / Kailas
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1931

330. Wilson John / India three thousand years ago, or the Social state of the A'ryas on the banks of the Indus in the t / Bombay / Smith, Taylor and Co.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

331. Müller Friedrich Max / India / Escondido, CA / Book Tree
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
c1999

332. Tilak Bal Gangadhar / Indian historical researches / New Delhi / Cosmo publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1990

333. Colebrooke HT / Indian historical researches / New Delhi / Cosmo publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1990

334. Colebrooke HT / Indian historical researches / New Delhi / Cosmo publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1990

335. Sharma Chandradhar / Indian philosophy a critical survey / Barnes & Noble
Delivered
Valdo: 1
1962

336. Cappeller, Carl / Indian in seiner weltgeschichtlichen Bedeutung / Leipzig / W. Engelmann
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1884

337. Bloch Jules / Indo-Aryan / Paris / Adrien-Maisonneuve
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1965

338. Malhotra Rajiv / Indra's net / Noida / HarperCollins publishers India
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2014

339. Deshmukh PR / Indus civilization, Rigveda, and Hindu culture / Nagpur / Saroj Prakashan
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1982

340. Indus-Sarasvati (Harappan) civilization vis-à-vis Rigveda
Delivered
SUDOC: 2

341. Hettrich Heinrich / Infinitivische Konstruktionen im R̥gveda und bei Homer
Delivered
SUDOC: 3

342. Hettrich Heinrich / Infinitivische Konstruktionen im R̥gveda und bei Homer / Mainz - Stuttgart / Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur - Fr
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2018

343. Panikkar Raimundo / Initiation to Vedas / Arles / Actes Sud
Delivered
SUDOC: 10
2003

344. Chevrou Robert / Initiations / Saint-Jean-de-Vedas / R. Chevrou
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2007

345. Inside the texts, beyond the texts / Cambridge / Harvard University Dept. of Sanskrit and Indian St
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1997

346. Kaṅkātaraṉ Ca. / Intiyap peruñ camayam
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

347. Pandey Janardan Shastri / Introduction to Hindu scriptures and mythological texts / New Delhi / Cyber tech publications
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2013

348. Jain Ramchandra / Jaya, the original nucleus of Mahabharat / Delhi / Agam
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1979

349. Narahari HG / Jayantabhaṭṭa and the Vedas / [S. l. ?]
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
[1957?]

350. Cazals, Bastien / I am a teacher and I disobey / Montpellier / Indigenous
Delivered
Heritage base: 1

351. Cazalis, Henri / Jean Lahor (H. Cazalis). History of Hindu literature. The great religious and philosophical poems / Paris / G. Charpentier
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1888

352. Jewels of authority / Oxford - New York - New Delhi / Oxford University Press - Oxford university press
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
2002 - 200

353. Joannis Cassiani opera omnia, cum commentariis D. Alardi Gazaei, coenobitae vedas tini, ordinis S. B / Atrebati
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1628

354. Vandermeulen David / Joss Fritz / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2010

355. Moog / June / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre ed.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2011

356. Vedālaṅkara Jagannātha / Jyotiṣāṃ jyotiḥ, Vaidikasūktānāma ādhyātmikavyākhyāna / Navadehalyāṃ / Rāṣṭriyavedavidyāpratiṣṭhānam - = Rashtriya
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1991

357. Kalpacintāmaṇiḥ
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

358. Sethna Kaikhushru Dhunjibhoy / Karpāsa in prehistoric India
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

359. Kātyāyana / Kātyāyana-Śrautasūtra / Delhi / New Bharatiya Book Co.
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2006

360. Köhler Frank / Kaví im Ṛgveda / Aachen / Shaker Verlag
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2011

361. Kenādyupaniṣatpuruṣasūktaśrīsūktabhāṣyam / Madras / Sri Uttamur Viraraghavachariar centenary trust
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2003

362. Oertel Hanns / Kleine Schriften / Stuttgart / F. Steiner
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1994

363. Roth Rudolf von / Kleine Schriften / Stuttgart / F. Steiner
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1994

364. Weller Friedrich / Kleine Schriften / Stuttgart / F. Steiner Verl. Wiesbaden
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1987

365. Scherman Lucian / Kleine Schriften / Stuttgart / F. Steiner Verlag
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2001

366. Kṛṣṇayajurvedīya Taittirīya-saṃhitā / Bangalore / Sri Aurobindo Kapāli Sāstry Institute of Vedic C
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2002

367. Kṛṣṇayajurvedīya Taittirīya saṃhitā mantrāḥ / Bangalore / Sri Aurobindo Kapāli Sāstry Institute of Vedic C
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2005

368. Gauḍapāda / L'Āgamaśāstra
Delivered
SUDOC: 13

369. Monteiro Paulo / The infinite love I have for you / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2013

370. Vallet Jacques / Love is late in Dijon / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2008

371. Cattelain Rémy / The year of the win / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre ed.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2009

372. Calasso Roberto / The ardor
Delivered
SUDOC: 9

373. Calasso Roberto / L'ardore / Milano / Adelphi
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2010

374. Vittoz Pierre / The Attraction of Oriental Religions and the Christian Faith / Labor et fides
Delivered
Valdo: 1
1978

375. Chemparathy George / The authority of the Veda according to the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣikas
Delivered
SUDOC: 4

376. Chemparathy George / The Veda Authority according to the Nyāya-Vaiśesikas / Louvain-la-Neuve / Center for the History of Religions
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1983

377. The school of play / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / l'Entretemps
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2003

378. Gautier Anne-Charlotte / The funeral of my ex / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2015

379. James / L'épi / [Saint-Jean-de-Vedas] / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2011

380. Castets J / L'Ezour védam by Voltaire and the pseudo-védams from Pondicherry. Voltaire and the mystification of Ezou / Pondichéry / Impr. modern
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1935

381. The Ezour-vedam or old commentary on Vedam translated from Samscretan by a slab, (published by the bar / Yverdun
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1778

382. Collective / The spiritual heritage of India / Gollion - [Paris] - Calcutta / Editions infolio - Editions The Ramakrishna missi
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2007

383. Renou Louis / Hinduism / PUF
Delivered
Valdo: 2
1966

384. James / The Man Who Floated / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2011

385. Golfin Jean / Vedic India / Toulouse / PAP
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1996

386. Herbert Jean / The Psychological Interpretation of the Veda according to Shri Aurobindo / Paris / Dervy
Delivered
SUDOC: 5
1979

387. Chemparathy George / The Bible and the Veda as the Word of God / Vienna / De Nobili Research Library, Department of South As
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2010

388. Bonnemère, Lionel / Brittany and the Védas / St Brieuc / Sté d'Emulation des Côtes du Nord
Delivered
Heritage base: 1

389. Bonnemère, Lionel / Brittany and the Vedas (Extract from the Memoirs of the Côtes-du-Nord Emulation Society) / Saint Brieuc / [sn]
Delivered
Heritage base: 1

390. Fabcaro / The fence / Saint-Jean-de-Vedas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

391. Vraja Sundara dās / Knowledge of the Vedas / Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray / Vaiṣṇava monastic order
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2007

392. Pousse Chantal / The temporal contiguity of the gods / Liège
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
2004

393. Malamoud Charles / The stone dance studies on the sacrificial scene in ancient India / Threshold
Delivered
Valdo: 1
2005

394. Ogibenin Boris Leonidovič / The goddess U.sas / [Sl] / [sn]
Thesis
SUDOC: 2
1985

395. Ogibenin Boris Leonidovič / The goddess Uṣas / Louvain / Peeters
Delivered
SUDOC: 11
1988

396. Belkadi Hicham / Inventory management in mass distribution / Montpellier / University of Montpellier II Sciences et Techniqu
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2002

397. Guerse Guillaume / The day of an American journalist in 2889 / Saint-Jean-de-Vedas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2009

398. Barre Armand / The legend of Busch Laï / [Saint-Jean-de-Védas] / A. Barre
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2001

399. The Law of Chimeras / Marans / Impr. P. Mingot
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1987

400. Huchette Antony / The high tide / Montpellier / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2008

401. Erre Fabrice / The Mechanics of Anguish / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2011

402. Lambert Yves / The birth of religions from prehistoric times to universalist religions / Armand Colin
Delivered
Valdo: 1
2007

403. Barre Armand / The new homeland / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / A. Barre
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2001

404. D'Intino Silvia / The revealed word and the poetic experience / Lille / National workshop for the reproduction of theses
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2014

405. By Intino Silvia / The revealed word and the poetic experience / [Sl] / [sn]
Thesis
SUDOC: 1
2004

406. Vandermeulen David / The passion of the Anabaptists / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 0
2010-

407. Formichi, Carlo / The religious thought of India before Buddha / Paris / Payot
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1930

408. Legars Joël / The power and the glory / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2013

409. Bertho Joël / The reconstituted pyramid / Saint-Georges-d'Orques / Ed. Unic
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2001

410. Barre Armand / The meeting / [Saint-Jean-de-Védas] / A. Barre
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2001

411. Observed health / Montpellier / Regional health observatory, Languedoc-Rouss
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1994

412. Lo Bue Salvatore / La storia della poesia / Milano / F. Angeli
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2004

413. Satprem / The tragedy of the Earth / Paris / R. Laffont
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
1995

414. Eblière Claire / The second life / [Vic-la-Gardiole] / Éd. Clair obscur
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2002

415. Sandness Adela / The voice of the river of being / Lille / National workshop for the reproduction of theses
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2014

416. Sandness Adela / The voice of the river of being / [Sl] / [sn]
Thesis
SUDOC: 1
2004

417. Elizarenkova Tatʹâna Âkovlevna / Language and style of the vedic rsis / Albany / State University of New-Yoek Press
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
impr. 1995

418. Language, style and structure in the Indian world / Paris / H. Champion
Delivered
SUDOC: 11
1996

419. Paliepa Jānis Radvils / Latvju dainas un vedu himnas / Rīga / JR Paliepa
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2004

420. Zaragoza Jean-Luc / Le Canal du midi / Saint-Jean-de-Vedas / Ed. Southern
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

421. Wasson Robert Gordon / The divine mushroom of immortality - followed by What was the soma of the Aryans? / Paris / The Batting Spirit
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
DL 2000

422. Mandala Patrick / The Song of the World
Delivered
SUDOC: 2

423. Jacquemin Lucie / Is the street arts festival the democratic and artistic ideal?
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

424. Martin Serge / The madman, king of theaters / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / l'Entretemps ed.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2003

425. Hawād Maḥmūdān / The taste of rock salt / Montpellier / Éd. Greige
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2006

426. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada / The Book of Krsna / Bhaktivedanta
Delivered
Valdo: 1
1978

427. Pezin Patrick / The exercise book for actors / Saussan / l'Entretemps ed.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2002

428. Viarre Guy / The book of the walls / Montpellier / Grèges
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2005

429. Krishna Dvaipayana / The Maha-Bharata, epic poem of Krishna-Dwaipayana more commonly called Véda-Vyasa, that is to say / Meaux and Paris
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1861

430. Krisnadvaip? Yana / The Maha-Bharata, epic poem by Krishna-Dwaipayana, more commonly known as Veda-Vyasa, i.e. / Paris / Durand
Delivered
Heritage base: 1

431. Vyasa / Le Maha-Bharata, epic poem by Krishna-Dwapayana, more commonly known as Veda-Vyasa / Paris / A. Durand
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1863

432. Zaragoza Jean-Luc / Le Massif de l'Aigoual / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / BP 31, 34430 - Ed. Méridionales
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1987

433. Barre Armand / The world of Arkos / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / A. Barre
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2001

434. Évagoras de Mégare / The world in crumbs / [Montpellier] / Ed. Greige
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2005

435. The Archaeological Museum is 100 years old / Nîmes / Archaeological Museum of Nîmes
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1996

436. The myth of Rohita / Paris / E. Leroux
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1892

437. Ben Saadoun Nourredine / The date palm / Montpellier / BEDE
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2010

438. Bourquin A / Pantheism in the Vedas / Paris / Fischbacher
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1885

439. Bourquin, A. / Pantheism in the Vedas / [S. l. ?] / Fischbacher
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1886

440. Bourquin Auguste-Ali / Pantheism in the Vedas Auguste-Ali Bourquin
Delivered
Valdo: 1

441. Bourquin A. / Le Panthéisme dans les Védas, exhibition and critique of pantheism in general, by A. Bourquin, ... / Paris / Fischbacher
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1886

442. Bourquin, A. / Pantheism in the Vedas / Paris / Fischbacher
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1886

443. Barre Armand / The universal people / [Saint-Jean-de-Védas] / A. Barre
Delivered
BnF-CG: 0
2001-

444. Recycling / Paris / Company of the mineral industry
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2008

445. Arnaud Gilles / The directory of herds of Camargue / Sommières / G. Arnaud
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2003

446. Barre Armand / Olga's dream / [Saint-Jean-de-Védas] / A. Barre
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2002

447. Grégoire Raymond / The Rhône or The accents of a river / [Aubenas] / [R. Gregory]
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
DL 2011

448. Râmatîrtha Swâmî / The sun of the self / Paris / Éd. Accarias-L'Originel
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
impr. 2005

449. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada AC / The Srimad Bhagavatam first chant "The Creation" / Bhaktivedanta
Delivered
Valdo: 1
1978

450. Augier Isabelle / The tramway in Saint-Jean-de-Védas / [Sl] / [sn]
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

451. Harmel Jean-Régis / The tympanum of Conques in detail / [Sète] / V. Cunillere
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1998

452. Satprem / The Veda and human destiny / Paris / Institute for evolutionary research
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1992

453. Bedoin Evelyne / The Veda and the Word
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

454. Rosé Viviane / Reading the Rg-Veda: the dawn of thought or the glory of re-drafting / Toulouse
Thesis
SUDOC: 1
1983

455. Lommel, Hermann / The ancient Aryans / Paris / Gallimard
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1943

456. Leblois Louis / The Bibles and the religious initiators of humanity / Fischbacher
Delivered
Valdo: 1
1885

457. Rey Stéphane / Les bums / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre éd.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2009

458. Moisson Patrick / The magical gods in the Rig-Véda / Milano - Paris / Arche - diff. Edidit
Delivered
SUDOC: 5
1993

459. Schweitzer Albert / The Great Thinkers of India study of comparative philosophy / Payot
Delivered
Valdo: 1
1945

460. Moonstone Douglas / The Indo-Europeans / Monéteau / Douglas Moonstone
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
DL 2015

461. Coulon, Louis / The sacred books of ancient India, 1500 years before our era / St-Etienne / éditions des Flambeaux
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1945

462. Coulon Louis / The sacred books of ancient India, 1500 years before our era / Saint-Étienne / Éditions des Flambeaux
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1945

463. The Sacred Books of the East, including the Chou-King [by Confucius, translated by Fr. Antoine Gaub / Paris / Société du Panthéon littéraire
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1843

464. The sacred books of the East, including the Chou-King, or the book par excellence; les Sse-Chou or / Paris / Société du Panthéon littéraire
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1842

465. The sacred books of all religions, except the Bible / Paris / J.-P. Migne
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1865

466. The Laws of Manou [translated by Auguste-Louis-Armand Loiseleur-Deslongchamps. Preceded by a Notice / Paris / Société du Panthéon littéraire
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1843

467. The sharpening wheels of Saint-Privat-Les Salces, Hérault / Lodève department / the Lodévois-Larzac Charter
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2003

468. Pirart Eric / The Nāsatya
Delivered
SUDOC: 14

469. Cassagne Jean-Marie / The place names of the Hérault / [Saint-Jean-de-Védas] - [Bordeaux] / "Midi libre" - Éd. "South West"
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
DL 2009

470. Cassagne Jean-Marie / Place names in Gard / [Saint-Jean-de-Védas] - [Bordeaux] / "Midi libre" - Éd. "South West"
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
DL 2009

471. Peña Nancy / The new adventures of Puss in boots / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground editions
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
cop. 2015

472. Regnaud, Paul / The first forms of religion and tradition in India and Greece / Paris / Leroux
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1894

473. Salet, Pierre / The upanishads / Paris / Payot
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1920

474. Myers Michael Warren / Let the cow wander / Honolulu / University of Hawai'i Press
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
c1995

475. Roesler Ulrike / Licht und Leuchten im R̥gveda / Swisttal-Odendorf / Indica and Tibetica-Verlag
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1997

476. Lieder des Rgveda ... / Göttingen
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1913

477. Srinivasa Iyengar PT / Life in ancient India in the age of mantras / New Delhi / Asian Educational Services
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1982

478. Chaturvedi Sharda / Linguistic study of the seventh Maṇḍala of the Ṛgveda / Varanasi / Sampurnanand Sanskrit University
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2001

479. Resplandy Franck / Slurry in the eyes / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2010

480. Bhattacharji Sukumari / Literature in the Vedic age / Calcutta / KP Bagchi
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

481. Kāśyapa Padmacandra / Living pre-Rigvedic and early Rigvedic traditions of Himalayas / Delhi / Pratibha Prakashan
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
impr. 2000

482. Hintze Almut / Lohn im Indoiranischen / Wiesbaden / Reichert
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
2000

483. Laws of Manou / Paris / Editions d'Aujourd'hui
Delivered
Heritage base: 1 SUDOC: 6
1976

484. Laws of Manou / Paris / Today's Editions
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1976

485. Manou / Laws of Manou ... followed by a notice on the Vedas, translated from Sanskrit and accompanied by notes / Paris / Garnier
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1918

486. Pichelin Marc / Long haul / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground ed.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2011

487. Quero Jacques Jean / My method of ju-jutsu / [Saint-Jean-de-Vedas] / [Academy of martial arts]
Delivered
BnF-CG: 0
1994-

488. Quero Jacques Jean / My method of ju-jutsu / [Saint-Jean-de-Vedas] / [Academy of martial arts]
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1994

489. Quero Jacques Jean / My method of ju-jutsu / [Saint-Jean-de-Vedas] / [Academy of martial arts]
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1994

490. Quero Jacques Jean / My method of ju-jutsu / Saint-Jean-de-Vedas / Academy of martial arts
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1994

491. Quero Jacques Jean / My method of ju-jutsu / Saint-Jean-de-Vedas / Academy of martial arts
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
[1995]

492. Vical François / My life as a fisherman / [Palavas-les-Flots] / F. Vical
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1994

493. Mādhavācārya / Mādhava's commentary on the Uttarācika of Sāmaveda / New Delhi / International Academy of Indian Culture
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1982

494. Maharṣi Dayānanda kā saṃskr̥ta sāhitya evaṃ rāṣṭra ko yogadāna - महर्षि दयानन्द का संस्कृत / Dillī - दिल्ली / Īsṭarna Buka Liṅkarsa - ईस्टर्न बुक लिंकर्स
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2013 - 201

495. Bhoumika Khagendra Natha / Mānabasaṃhitā / Kalakātā / Sancaẏana Prakās̓anī
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1998

496. Manava-Dharma-Sastra. Laws of Manou, including the religious and civil institutions of the Indians, / Paris / Garnier frères
Delivered
Heritage base: 1

497. Manava-dharma-sastra. Laws of Manou, including the religious and civil institutions of the Indians, / Paris, Garnier frères
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1919. In-1

498. Manava-dharma-sastra. Laws of Manou, including the religious and civil institutions of the Indians, / Paris / Garnier frères
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1919

499. Manava-Dharma-Sastra [or] Laws of Manou, including the religious and civil institutions of the Indi / Paris / Garnier
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1925

500. Manu / Mānavaśrautasūtram / Dillī / Nāga Pabliśarsa
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2003

501. Powell James Newton / Mandalas / New Delhi / Sterling
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1979

502. Manifesto for a present time / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / l'Entretemps
Delivered
BnF-CG: 0
1999-

503. Kazzazi Kerstin / "Mann" und "Frau" im R̥gveda / Innsbruck / Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen der Univers
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
2001

504. Gupta Uma / Materialism in the Vedas / New Delhi / Classical publ.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1987

505. Pandit MD / Mathematics as known to the Vedic Saṁhitās / Delhi / Sri Satguru Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1993

506. Zysk Kenneth G. / Medicine in the Veda / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass publ.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2009

507. Joachim Ulrike / Mehrfachpräsentien im Ṛgveda / Frankfurt am Main - Bern / Las Vegas - P. Lang
Thesis
SUDOC: 1
1978

508. Pauthier, Guillaume / Memoir on the origin and propagation of the doctrine of the Tao founded by Lao-Tseu. / Paris / Dondey-Dupré
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1831

509. Pauthier, Guillaume / Memoir on the origin and propagation of the Tao doctrine, founded by Lao-Tseu / Paris / Dondey-Dupré, Père et Fils
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1831

510. Pauthier, Guillaume / Memoir on the origin and propagation of the Tao doctrine, founded by Lao-Tseu, translated from Chino / Paris / oriental bookshop by Dondey-Dupré, father and son
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1831

511. Muir John / Metrical translations from Sanskrit writers / London / Routledge
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2000

512. Korn Agnes / Metrik und metrische Techniken im Rgveda / Graz / Leykam
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1998

513. Free lunch / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Société du Journal Free lunch
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
[199.] -

514. "Midi libre", special anniversary edition / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Company's edition of the newspaper "Midi libre"
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
201.

515. Mil adverts / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Free Midi press
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2000- [200?

516. A thousand years after the year 1000 / Castelnau-le-Lez Hérault / Climats
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1999

517. Muir John / Miscellaneous hymns from the Rig and Atharva Vedas, by J. Muir, ... / London / Trübner
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
(nd)

518. Garnier Patrick / Montségur / Toulouse / Association for the promotion of heritage in Mid
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1995

519. Peña Nancy / Mortefauche / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre ed.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2012

520. Wens Isaac / Mr Popo and Martian noodles / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground editions
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

521. Müller's translation of the rig-veda-sanhita / [Sl] / [sn]
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1871

522. Thite Ganesh Umakant / Music in the Vedas / Delhi / Sharada
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1997

523. Thite Ganesh Umakant / Music in the Vedas / Delhi / Sharada Pub. House
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1997

524. Moog / My american diary / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre éd.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2009

525. Schroeder Leopold von / Mysterium und Mimus im Rigveda / Amsterdam / Philo Press
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1974

526. Pandit Madhav Pundalik / Mystic approach to the Vedas and the Upanishads. MP Pandit / Madras, Sri Aurobindo Library - (Pondicherry, Sri
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1952. In-1

527. Varenne Jean / Myths and legends from the Brâhamana (sic) / Gallimard
Delivered
Valdo: 1
1967

528. Varenne Jean / Myths and legends from the Brâhmana / Gallimard
Delivered
Valdo: 1
1967

529. Naturwissenschaft und Bewusstsein / Darmstadt / Synergia-Verlag und -Mediengruppe
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2006

530. Dauvillier Loïc / Neuf pieds sous terre / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre ed.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2010

531. New dimensions in the Atharvaveda / Delhi / Pratibha Prakashan
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
impr. 2003

532. Sarmah, Thaneswar / New trends in the interpretation of the Vedas / New Delhi / Sundeep Prakashan
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2006

533. Nice shoulder course / Montpellier / Sauramps medical
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2003

534. Dvivedī Kapiladeva / Nīti-śikṣā - नीति-शिक्षा / Vārāṇasī - वाराणसी / Viśvabhāratī Anusandhāna Pariṣad - विश्वभारती
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
san 1984 i

535. Atmaprajnananda Saraswati / Nomenclature of the Vedas / New Delhi / DK Printworld
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2012

536. Nicoby / Nu / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2011

537. Dupin Jacques / Night of color / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / M.-N. Willaime
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1995

538. Vai Massimo / Nuove ricerche di sintassi vedica / Milano / Ledizioni
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2018

539. Dalai Bata Kishors / Nyāya siddhānta dīpaḥ of Śaśadhara / Delhi / Pratibha Prakashan
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
impr. 2005

540. B-Gnet / Old skull / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2010

541. Ricard Sylvain / We ate Zidane / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre ed.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2011

542. Colebrooke Henry Thomas / On the Vedas or Sacred writings of Hindus / [S. l. ?]
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
[1805?]

543. Tilak Bal Gangadhar / Polar origin of the Vedic tradition / Milano / Arché
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
1979

544. Tilak Bal Gangadhar / Orion, or, Research on the antiquity of the Vedas / Milano / Arche
Delivered
SUDOC: 5
1989, c198

545. Bourquin A. / Pantheism in the Vedas (The) / Fischbacher
Delivered
Valdo: 1
1885

546. Bourquin, A. / Pantheism in the Védas (Le) / Paris / Fischbacher
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1885

547. Papers on Indian religious reform ... / London - Madras / Christian literature society for India
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1897

548. Bécriaux Roger / Over the hills and over the valley / [Saint-Jean-de-Vedas] / [Free lunch]
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1990

549. Stautzebach Ralf / Pāriśikṣā und Sarvasaṃmataśikṣā / Stuttgart / F. Steiner
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
1994

550. James / Pathetik / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 0

551. Talrejā Kanaʾiyālālu Manghandāsu / Pearls of Vedas / New Delhi / Rashtriya Chetana Sangathan
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2006

552. Pégairolles-de-l'Escalette / [Lodève] / Lodévois-Larzac Charter
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2003

553. From Radiguès Max / Meanwhile at White River Junction / Saint-Jean-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2011

554. Coomaraswamy Ananda Kentish / Perception of the Vedas / New Delhi / Indira Gandhi National Center for the Arts - Manoh
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
cop. 2000

555. Misra Ram Shankar / Philosophical foundations of Hinduism / New Delhi / Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
2002

556. Rastelli Marion / Philosophisch-theologische Grundanschauungen der Jayakhyasamhita / Wien / Vlg. d. Öst. Akad.
Delivered
SUDOC: 7
1999

557. Raster Peter / Phonetic symmetries in the first hymm of the Rigveda / Innsbruck / Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
1992

558. Cunillère Vincent / Pierre Soulages at the Fabre Museum / [Sète] / Intédiprint
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2007

559. Quilici Dominique / Pilotin / [Nîmes] / Éd. Pilotin
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
DL 2007

560. Ray Pramod Ranjan / Poetic vocables in the family of the RV [R̥g Veda], II-VII / Calcutta / Punthi Pustak
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

561. Johnson Willard L. / Poetry and speculation of the ṚG Veda / Berkeley - Los Angeles - London / University of California press
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
cop. 1980

562. Pandey Uma Kant / Political concepts and institutions in the Sukla Yajurveda / Patna / Janaki Prakashan
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1979

563. Ashokvardhan Chandragupta / Political legacy of the Rigveda / Varanasi (India) / Bharati Prakashan
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1987

564. Demariaux Jean Christophe / To understand Hinduism / Deer
Delivered
Valdo: 1
1995

565. Galet Pierre / Precise of practical ampelography / Montpellier / P. Galet
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1998

566. Galet Pierre / Precise on viticultural pathology / [Montpellier] / P. Galet
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1995

567. Galet Pierre / Precise on viticultural pathology / [Montpellier] / P. Galet
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1999

568. Balasubramanian R. / Primal spirituality of the Vedas / Delhi - New Delhi / Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy,
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
impr. 1996

569. Oldenberg Hermann / Prolegomena on meter and textual history of the R̥gveda / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
impr. 2005

570. Knapp Stephen / Proof of Vedic culture's global existence / Detroit, MI / World Relief Network
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2000

571. Puṣpasūtram nāma Sāmavedīyaprātiśākhyam / New Delhi / Indira Gandhi National Center for the Arts in asso
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
impr. 2001

572. Duba Pierre / Someone is coming / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground editions
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
cop. 2014

573. Raccolta degli inni del Veda ... Libro I. [Inno I: ad Agni.] / Bologna
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1899

574. Duba Pierre / Racines / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre ed.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2010

575. Argaud Jacky / Reheating Prajâpati analysis of the Vedic sacrifice in its functioning as a reference to the substantive act
Delivered
Valdo: 1
1990

576. Argaud Jacky / Reheating Prajâpati analysis of the Vedic sacrifice in its functioning as a reference to the substantive act
Delivered
Valdo: 1
1990

577. [Collection. Publisher's catalogs] / Saint-Jean-de-Vedas / L'Entretemps
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
[2000-

578. [Collection. Highway codes] / Saint Jean de Védas / EDISER
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1999-

579. Maury Bernard / Reflections on an epidemic of intermittent fevers which reigns in Lavérune, Saint-Jean de Védas, Fab / Montpellier
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
28 May 182

580. Reg weda / Jakarta / Departemen Agama RI
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
nineteen eighty one

581. Quet Dominique André / A look at lichens in Languedoc-Roussillion [ie Roussillon] / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / PHOTOBIM
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2010

582. Saxena DP / Regional geography of vedic India / Kanpur / Grantham
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
[pref. 197

583. Venkitasubramonia Iyer S. / Religion art and culture / Trivandrum / College Book House
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1977

584. Renaissance of peasant seeds / Brens - Montpellier / Peasant Seeds Network
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2004

585. Ferré Guy / Giving up arms / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Good company association
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2018

586. Ricard Sylvain / Return to Plouc-land / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre éd.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2011

587. Moog / Return to Sonora / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2013

588. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada AC / Returning the science of reincarnation / Bhaktivedanta
Delivered
Valdo: 1
1983

589. Śuklā Manīṣā / R̥gatirikta vedoṃ meṃ strī - ऋगतिरिक्त वेदों में स्त्री / Vārāṇasī - वाराणसी / MPASVO - MPASVO
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2010 - २०१

590. Chakravarti Shyamalkanti / R̥gbedera kābyanāṭaka / Kalakātā / Sāhitya Prakāśa
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2003

591. Śāstrī Jñāna Prakāśa / R̥gbhāṣya-padārtha-koṣaḥ - ऋग्भाष्य-पदार्थ-कॊषः / Dillī - दिल्ली / Parimala Pablikeśansa - परिमल पब्लिकॆ́शन्स
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2013 - 201

592. Tivārī Śaśī / R̥gvaidika adhyayana / Naī Dillī / Veṅkateśa Prakāśana
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2001

593. Ghosh Ila / R̥gvaidika r̥ṣikā, jīvana evaṃ darśana - ऋग्वैदिक ऋषिका, जीवन एवं दर्शन / Dillī - दिल्ली / Īsṭarna Buka Liṅkarsa - ईस्टर्न बुक लिंकर्स
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2007 - २००

594. Bregenhøj Carsten / ṚgVeda as the key to folklore / København / Nyt Nordisk Forlag, A. Busck
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1987

595. Ramachandra Rao Saligrama Krishna / R̥gveda-darśana / Bangalore / Kalpatharu Research Academy
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
impr. 1998

596. R̥̣gveda / Ilahābāda / Lokabhāratī Pustaka Vikretā tathā Vitaraka
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2012

597. Ghosh Shyam / Ṛgveda for the layman / New Delhi / Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
impr. 2002

598. Singh Kripa Shanker / R̥gveda, haṛappā-sabhyatā aura sāṃskr̥tika nirantaratā - ऋग्वॆद, हड़प्पा-सभ्यता और सांस्कृतिक / Nayī Dillī - नयी दिल्ली / Kitābaghara Prakāśana - किताबघर प्रकाशन
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2007 - 200

599. Varmā Ṭhākura Prasāda / R̥gveda ke sāta sūktoṃ kā vaijñānika vivecana - ऋग्वॆद कॆ सात सूक्तॊं का वैज्ञानिक विवॆचन / Delhi / BR Publising Corporation
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2014

600. Ṛgveda / Venezia / Marsilio
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

601. Śarmā Nigama / R̥gveda meṃ kāvya-tattva / Dillī / Parimala Pablikeśansa
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1998

602. Kamalā / R̥gveda meṃ nārī / Dillī / Viśāla Prakāśana
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2002

603. Khām̐ Khālida Bina Yusufa / R̥gveda meṃ nīti-tattva / Alīgar̥ha / Môḍarna Bāinḍara
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1997

604. Kumāra Surendra / R̦gveda meṃ vividha vidyāeṃ / Dillī̄ / Sañjaya Prakāśana
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2000

605. R̥̣gveda / Ilahābāda / Lokabhāratī Pustaka Vikretā tathā Vitaraka
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2012

606. R̥̣gveda / Ilahābāda / Lokabhāratī Pustaka Vikretā tathā Vitaraka
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2012

607. R̥gveda-saṃhitā / Delhi / Parimal Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1997

608. R̥gveda-saṃhitā / Delhi / Parimal Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1997

609. R̥gveda-saṃhitā / Delhi / Parimal Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1997

610. R̥gveda-saṃhitā / Delhi / Parimal Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1997

611. R̥gveda-saṃhitā / Pune / Vaidika Saṃśodhana Maṇḍalena
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1995-2014

612. R̥gveda saṃhitā
Delivered
SUDOC: 2

613. Ṛgveda-saṃhitā, with the commentary of Sāyaṇāchārya ... [Edited by NS Sontakke, CG Kashikar, / Poona
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1933-1946

614. Dvivedī Kapiladeva / R̥gveda-subhāṣitāvalī - ऋग्वॆद-सुभाषितावली / Vārāṇasī - वाराणसी / Viśvabhāratī Anusandhāna Pariṣad - विश्वभारती
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
san 1989 i

615. Dayananda Saraswati / R̥gvedādibhāṣyabhūmikā / Ajamera / Vaidikayantrālaya
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1985

616. Shukla Vijay Shankar / R̦gvedakālīna samāja aura saṃskr̦ti / Dillī / Śāradā Pabliśing Hāusa
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2001

617. Prahlādakumāra / R̥gvede'laṅkārāḥ / Naī Dillī / Praṇava-Pratiṣṭhāna - Munśīrāma Manoharalāla
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1977

618. Śarma Nigama / Ṛgvede vāri / Dillī / Parimala Pablikeśansa
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1996

619. Sastri Pothukuchi Subrahmanya / R̥gvedic aesthetics / Delhi - Varanasi / Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1988

620. Shridhar Prem Chand / R̥gvedic legends / Delhi / Kalinga Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2001

621. Pathak Muralimanohar / R̥gvedīya darśana evaṃ pramukha dārśanika sūkta / Dillī̄ / Pratibhā Prakāśana
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2003

622. Ježić Mislav / R̥gvedski himni / Zagreb / Globus
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
[1986]

623. Gonda Jan / Rice and barley offerings in the Veda
Delivered
SUDOC: 4

624. Dayananda Saraswati / Rig vaid / Lāhaur / Nigārishāt
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2002

625. Rig-Veda / Wiesbaden / Marix Verlag
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2008

626. Rig-Veda / Frankfurt am Main / Verlag der Weltreligionen
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2013

627. "Rig-Veda" oder die heiligen Lieder der Brahmanen ... mit einer Einleitung, Text und Übersetzung des / Leipzig
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1856

628. Langlois Alexandre / Rig-veda
Delivered
SUDOC: 14

629. Rig-Véda, or Book of Hymns / Paris / F. Didot frères
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1848-1851

630. Rig-Véda or Book of Hymns / Paris / J. Maisonneuve
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1984

631. Rig-Véda or book of hymns / Paris / Maisonneuve et Cie
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1872

632. Bloomfield Maurice / Rig-Veda repetitions / New Delhi / Meharchand Lachmandas Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
nineteen eighty one

633. "Rig-Veda-Samhitâ", the sacred hymns of the Brāhmans, together with the Commentary of Sāyanākarya ... / London
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1890-1892

634. Rig-Veda sanhita / New Delhi / Cosmo Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1977

635. Rig-Veda Sanhita, the sacred hymns of the Brahmans ... edited by F. Max Müller, ... / London
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1849-1874

636. "Rig-Veda Sanhita", the sacred hymns of the Brahmans, together with the commentary of Sayanacharya .. / London
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1849-1874

637. "Rig-Veda-Sanhita", the sacred hymns of the Brahmans ... Vol. I. Hymns to the Maruts or the Storm-God / London
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1869

638. Rig-Veda, übersetzt und mit kritischen und erläuternden Anmerkungen versehen / Leipzig / Teil FA Brockhaus
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1876

639. Rig-Veda, übersetzt und mit kritischen und erläuternden Anmerkungen versehen / Leipzig / Teil FA Brockhaus
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1877

640. Rig-Vedae specimen ... / Londini
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1830

641. Rigveda Brahmanas ... / Cambridge
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1920

642. Rigveda samhita pada text edited by GR Josyer, ... with the assistance of pandits / Mysore / Coronation press
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1947

643. Rigveda-Sanhita, liber primus, Sanskrit and Latin ... / London
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1838

644. Mikhailov Mikhail Ivanovich / Rigvedic studies / Mumbai / Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2001

645. Stuhrmann Rainer / Rigvedische Studien
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

646. Krisch Thomas / Rivelex / Graz / Leykam
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2006

647. Jhā Bālagovinda / R̥ksūkta-sandarśikā / Vārāṇasī (Bhārata) / Caukhambā Surabhāratī Prakāśana
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2003

648. Graphic terror / Rorschach / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2011

649. Atmaprajnananda Saraswati / R̥sikās of the R̥gveda / New Delhi / DK Printworld
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2013

650. Hazra Rajendra Chandra / Rudra in the R̥g-Veda / Kolkata / Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2003

651. Rudra mantra-s from Taittirīya samhitā
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

652. Barcelo, Germain / City rugby, regional rugby / Castries (Hérault) / Les éditions du Mistral
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
2003

653. Śabda-Vedaḥ - शब्द-वॆदः / Jayapura - जयपुर / Rājasthāna-Patrikā-Prakāśanam - राजस्थान-पत्र
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2000 - 200

654. Praseed George / Sacrifice and cosmos / New Delhi / Decent Books - Distributed by DK Printworld
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2009

655. Martinez Patrick / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / [Saint-Jean-de-Védas] / Patrick Martinez
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
[2019]

656. Martinez, Patrick / Saint-Jean-de-Védas in the days of yesterday / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Patrick Martinez
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
2004

657. Fournier René / Saint-Jean-de-Védas and Lavérune / [Sl / sn]
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1998

658. Martinez, Patrick / Saint-Jean-de-Védas: Images and stories / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Martinez
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
2000

659. Fournier René / Saint-Jean-de-Védas & Lavérune / [Béziers] / R. Fournier
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1998

660. Pouliquen Yann / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Sl / sn
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

661. Harmel Jean-Régis / Sainte Foy / [Sète] / Intédiprint
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
[2005]

662. Mirolûbov Ûrij / Sakralʹnoe Rusi / Moskva / Assot︠s︡iat︠s︡ii︠a︡ Dukhovnogo Edinenii︠a︡ "Zoloto
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1996-

663. Sāma Veda, pūrva archika / Bangalore / Sri Aurobindo Kapāli Sāstry Institute of Vedic C
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2008

664. Sāma Veda, uttara archika / Bangalore / Sri Aurobindo Kapāli Sāstry Institute of Vedic C
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2014, cop.

665. Sāma Veda / Madras / SV Ganapati
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1982

666. Sāmaveda samhitā of the Kauthuma school / Cambridge, Mass. / Dept. of Sanskrit and Indian Studies, Harvard Univ
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
cop. 2000-

667. Siddhāntālaṅkāra Hariśaraṇa / Sāmaveda-vyākhyā / Naī Dillī / Saṁskāra prakāśana
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
[2000]

668. Sāmavedaḥ / Sringeri, Karnataka, India / Dakshinamnaya Sri Sharada Peetham
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1998

669. Sāmavedasaṃhitā / Dillī / Nāga Pabliśarsa
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2000

670. Howard Wayne / Sāmavedic vocals
Delivered
SUDOC: 2

671. Āpiśali Acharya / Sāmavedīya-prātiśākhyam akṣaratantram savr̥ttikam / Kurukṣetra / Nirmala Buka Ejensī
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2010

672. Rāmaswāmi Śāstr̲i / Śāntiratnākara
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

673. Rāmaswāmi Śāstr̲i / Śāntiratnākara
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

674. Śatarudrīya / New Delhi / Abhinav Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1976

675. Kar Indrani / Sāyaṇa's methodology in interpreting the R̥gveda / Kolkata / Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2005
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30823
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Sat Sep 12, 2020 6:50 am

Part 3 of 3

676. Science and technology in ancient Indian texts / New Delhi / DK Printworld
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2012

677. Auvard Alfred / Science of the Vedas (what everyone should know) / Paris, A. Maloine
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1919. In-1

678. Science in Veda / Delhi / Daya Publishing House
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2009

679. Scientific aspects of Vedic knowledge
Delivered
SUDOC: 0

680. Bhattacharyya Debjani / Seasons in classical Sanskrit literature / Kolkata / Progressive Publishers
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

681. Deussen Paul / Sechzig Upanishad's des Veda aus dem Sanskrit übersetzt und mit Einleitungen und Anmerkungen versehe / Leipzig / FA Brockhaus
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1897

682. Kashyap Rangasami L. / Secrets of Rig Veda / Bangalore / Sri Aurobindo Kapāli Sā̄stry Institute of Vedic
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2003

683. Jain Manju / Seers, deities and meters in Vedas / New Delhi / Radha Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2004

684. Participatory selection / Brens / Farmer Seeds Network
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2004

685. Self, sacrifice, and cosmos
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

686. Dange Sadashiv Ambadas / Sexual symbolism from the Vedic ritual / Delhi / Ajanta publ.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1979

687. Dange Sadashiv Ambadas / Sexual symbolism from the vedic ritual / Delhi / Ajanta Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
1979

688. Leen / Shinobi iri / [Saint-Jean-de-Védas] / Tengu edition
Delivered
BnF-CG: 0
2015-

689. Leen / Shinobi iri / [Saint-Jean-de-Védas] / Tengu edition
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
DL 2015

690. Leen / Shinobi iri / [Saint-Jean-de-Védas] / Tengu edition
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
DL 2016

691. Leen / Shinobi iri / [Saint-Jean-de-Védas] / Tengu edition
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
DL 2018

692. Meisig Konrad / Shivas Tanz / Freiburg - Basel - Wien / Herder
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
cop. 2003

693. Siebenzig Lieder des Rigveda übersetzt von Karl Geldner und Adolf Kaegi, mit Beiträgen von R. Roth / Tübingen
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1875

694. Siebenzig Lieder des Rigveda ... / Tübingen
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1875

695. Deussen Paul / Sixty Upanisads of the Veda
Delivered
SUDOC: 3

696. Elizarenkova Tatʹâna Âkovlevna / Slova i veŝi v Rigvede / Moskva / Vostočnaâ literatura
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1999

697. Venkatrama Srowthigal / Smārta tantra sudhānidhiḥ
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

698. Smārikā, padavākyapramāṇajña Paṃ. Brahmadattajī Jijñāsu janma-śatābdī / Bahālagaṛha (Bhārata) / Rāmalāla Kapūra ṭrasṭa
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1992

699. James / Smilin 'Joe & Captain Bulb pamper in interconic space! / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2010

700. Kharade BS / Society in the Atharvaveda / New Delhi / DK Printworld
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1997

701. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada AC / Solutions for an Iron Age / Bhaktivedanta
Delivered
Valdo: 1
1982

702. Shendge Malati J. / Songs and ruins / New Delhi / RangaDatta Vadekar Center for the Study of Indian
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
c1995

703. Ricard Sylvain / Special dedication to Mamie / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre ed.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2011

704. Mehra BS / Śrauta sacrifice in the Atharva-Veda / Delhi / Sanjay Prakashan
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1994

705. Sri Aurobindo. Hymns to the mystic fire, hymns to Agni from the Rig Veda, translated in their esote / Pondicherry, Sri Aurobindo ashram (Sri Aurobindo a
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1952. In-8

706. Sri Aurobindo. Hymns to the mystic fire, hymns to Agni from the Rig Veda, translated in their esote / Pondicherry / Sri Aurobindo ashram (Sri Aurobindo ashram press)
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1952

707. Mishra Giri Ratna / Śrī Bagalā tatva prakāśikā
Delivered
SUDOC: 2

708. Śrutiparṇā / Haridvāra / Śrī Svāmī Śraddhānanda Anusandhāna Prakāś
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1992

709. Laycock Patrick H. / Statics and dynamics of the axis of the world in Vedic times / Brussels, Belgium / Thanh-Long
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
nineteen eighty one

710. Studi indoeuropei / Pisa / Giardini ed.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1985

711. Ranganath S. / Studies in R̥gveda and modern Sanskrit literature / Delhi / Eastern Book Linkers
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
impr. 2003

712. Dvivedī Kapiladeva / Sukhī gr̥hastha - सुखी गृहस्थ / Vārāṇasī - वाराणसी / Viśvabhāratī Anusandhāna Pariṣad - विश्वभारती
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
san 1986 i

713. Dvivedī Kapiladeva / Sukhī jīvana - सुखी जीवन / Vārāṇasī - वाराणसी / Viśvabhāratī Anusandhāna Pariṣad - विश्वभारती
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
san 1991 i

714. Dvivedī Kapiladeva / Sukhī parivāra - सुखी परिवार / Vārāṇasī - वाराणसी / Viśvabhāratī Anusandhāna Pariṣad - विश्वभारती
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
san 1991 i

715. Dvivedī Kapiladeva / Sukhī samāja - सुखी समाज / Vārāṇasī - वाराणसी / Viśvabhāratī Anusandhāna Pariṣad - विश्वभारती
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
san 1983 i

716. Morel Jean-Paul / On the life of Monsieur Poivre / [Saint-Jean-de-Védas] / Jean-Paul Morel
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2018

717. Gongsun Long / On the finger that shows that / Paris / M. Chandeigne
Delivered
SUDOC: 4
1990

718. Moreau Ronan / On the paths of wild lands / [Sl] / [sn]
Thesis
SUDOC: 1
2008

719. Dayananda Saraswati / Svāmī Dayānanda Sarasvatī's R̥gvedādi-bhāṣya-bhūmikā / New Delhi / Meharchand lachhmandas Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
nineteen eighty one

720. Sri P. S / TS Eliot / Vancouver / University of British Columbia press
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1985

721. B-Gnet / Taches / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2012

722. Bhāskara Bhaṭṭa Miśra / Taittirīya-saṃhitā / Pune / Adarsha Sanskrit Shodha Samstha, Vaidika Saṃśodh
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2010

723. Bhāskara Bhaṭṭa Miśra / Taittirīya-saṃhitā / Pune / Adarsha Sanskrit Shodha Samstha, Vaidika Saṃśodh
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2006

724. Taittirīya-saṃhitā / Pune / Adarsha Sanskrit Shodha Samstha
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2007

725. Bhāskara Bhaṭṭa Miśra / Taittirīya-saṃhitā / Pune / Vaidika Saṃśodhana Maṇḍala
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1999

726. Bhāskara Bhaṭṭa Miśra / Taittirīya-saṃhitā / Pune / Vaidika Saṃśodhana Maṇḍala
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1990

727. Bhāskara Bhaṭṭa Miśra / Taittirīya saṃhitā
Delivered
SUDOC: 2

728. Bhāskara Bhaṭṭa Miśra / Taittirīya saṃhitā
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

729. Bhāskara Bhaṭṭa Miśra / Taittirīya saṃhitā / Pune / Adarsha Sanskrit Shodha Samstha, Vaidika Saṃśodh
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2014

730. Lucet Sophie / Tchekhov-Lacascade, the community of doubt / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / l'Entretemps
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2003

731. Chevrou Robert / Firestorms / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / RB Chevrou
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2004

732. Ten upanishads of four vedas / New delhi / New Age Books
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
impr. 2003

733. Mittwede Martin / Textkritische Bemerkungen zur Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā
Delivered
SUDOC: 3

734. The Aitareya Āraṇyaka / Delhi / Eastern book linkers
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
2005

735. The Aitareya Brahmanam of the Rigveda, containing the earliest speculations of the Brahmans on the m / Bombay
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1863

736. Leaf Murray J. / The anthropology of eastern religions / Lanham, Maryland / Lexington books
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
[2014]

737. Tilak Bal Gangadhar / The arctic home in the Vedas
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

738. Misra Satya Swarup / The Aryan problem, a linguistic approach / New Delhi / Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1992

739. Thapar Romila / The Aryan / Gurgaon (Haryana) / Three essays collective
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2008

740. Kak Subhash / The astronomical code of the Ṛgveda / New Delhi / Aditya Prakashan
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1994

741. Kak Subhash / The astronomical code of the R̥gveda / New Delhi / Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2000

742. Bloomfield Maurice / The Atharvaved and the Gopath Brahmana / New Delhi / Asian Publication Services
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1978

743. The Atharvaveda / New Delhi / Munshiram Manoharlal
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1982

744. Pyper Hugh S. / The Battle of the Books the Bible versus the Vedas
Delivered
Valdo: 1

745. Sarmah, Thaneswar / The Bharadvājas in ancient India / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1991

746. App Urs / The birth of orientalism / Philadelphia (Pa.) - Oxford / University of Pennsylvania Press
Delivered
SUDOC: 12
2010, cop.

747. Macdonald Kenneth Somerled / The Brahmanas of the Vedas / Delhi / Bharatiya Book Corp.
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1979

748. Maitreya / The Buddha-Mimansa or the Buddha and his relation to the religion of the Vedas / Delhi / Pilgrims Book
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1999

749. Ramamurty A. / The central philosophy of the R̥gveda / New Delhi / DK Printworld
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
cop. 2012

750. Wallis Henry White / The cosmology of the Rigveda / New Delhi / Cosmo publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1999

751. The dawn of Indian civilization / New Delhi / Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy a
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
impr. 1999

752. The enworlded subjectivity: its three worlds and beyond / New Delhi / Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy a
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
2006

753. Gonda Jan / The Functions and significance of gold in the Veda / Leiden - New York / EJ Brill
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
1991

754. Grace Victoria / The Goddess of Victory / [Sl] / [sn]
Thesis
SUDOC: 1
2011

755. The golden book of Rigveda / New Delhi / Lotus Press
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2006

756. The golden book of the holy Vedas / Delhi / Vijay-Goel English-Hindi Publisher
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2005

757. The golden womb of the sun / Calcutta / Writers Workshop
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1996

758. Bettany George Thomas / The Great Indian Religions, being a popular account of Brahmanism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Zoroastri / London / Ward
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1892

759. The Gṛihya-sūtras / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidas
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1967

760. The Gṛihya-sūtras / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidas
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

761. The Grihya-Sūtras / Oxford / Clarendon press
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1886-1892

762. The Hidden wisdom of Rig-Veda samhita / Calcutta, India / A. Banerjee
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1984-

763. Ram Gopal / The history and principles of Vedic interpretation / New Delhi / Concept
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1983

764. Sinha SN / The history of marriage and prostitution, Vedas to Vatsyayana / New Delhi / Khama Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1992

765. The Hymns of the Rig-Veda in the Samhita and Poda texts, reprinted from the "editio princeps" ... / London
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1877

766. The Hymns of the Rigveda ... / Benares
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1889-1891

767. The hymns of the Sâmaveda / New Delhi / Munshiram Manoharlal
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1986

768. Baum Daniel / The imperative in the Rigveda / Utrecht / LOT
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
c2006

769. Bhattacharji Sukumari / The Indian theogony / Calcutta / Firma KLM Private Ltd.
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1978

770. Moonstone Douglas / The Indo-Europeans / [Monéteau] / Douglas Moonstone
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

771. Gonda Jan / The Indra hymns of the Ṛgveda
Delivered
SUDOC: 6

772. Śāmbavya / The Kauṣītaka Gṛhyasūtrānī / New Delhi / Paini
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1982

773. The Khila-sūktas of the R̥gveda / Poona, India / Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1995

774. Rambachan Anantanand / The limits of scripture / Honolulu / University of Hawaii Press
Delivered
SUDOC: 4
c1994

775. Dharmadhikari Trivikram Narayan / The Maitrāyaṇī saṁhitā, its ritual and language
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

776. Mueller Christoph / The mighty Millborough / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 0
impr. 2012

777. Crangle Edward Fitzpatrick / The origin and development of early Indian contemplative practices / Wiesbaden / Harrassowitz Verlag
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
1994

778. Tilak, Bal Gangadhar / The Orion, or Researches into the antiquity of the Vedas / Bombay / Sagoon

Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1893

779. The Paippalāda-saṃhitā of the Atharvaveda / Calcutta / Asiatic Society
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1997

780. Klein Jared S / The particle u in the Rigveda: a synchronic and diaghronic study / Goettingen / Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
Delivered
SUDOC: 4
1978

781. Yati Nitya Caitanya / The psychology of Darśana Mālā / New Delhi / DK Pritworld
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
cop. 2004

782. Jamison Stephanie W. / The ravenous hyenas and the wounded sun
Delivered
SUDOC: 5

783. Jamison Stephanie W. / The ravenous hyenas and the wounded sun / New Delhi / Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2013

784. The Relevance of Ambedkarism in India / Jaipur / Rawat Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
c1993

785. Keith Arthur Berriedale / The religion and philosophy of the Veda and Upanishads / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
c2007

786. Keith Arthur Berriedale / The religion and philosophy of the Veda and Upanishads / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
c1989

787. Oldenberg Hermann / The Religion of the Veda / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1988

788. Clyton AC / The R̥gveda and Vedic religion / Delhi / Bharatiya Kala Prakashan
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2006

789. Datta Nilanjana Sikdar / The R̥gveda as oral literature / New Delhi / Harman Publishing House
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1999

790. Mishra Madhusudan / The ̣Rgveda in the Indus inscriptions / Delhi / Shipra Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
impr. 2003

791. The Ṛgveda / Hoshiarpur / Vishveshvaranand Vedic Research Institute
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2007

792. The Ṛgveda / Hoshiarpur / Vishveshvaranand Vedic Research Institute
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2011

793. The Ṛgveda
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

794. Brereton Joel Peter / The Ṛgvedic Ādityas / New Haven (Conn.) / American Oriental Society
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
nineteen eighty one

795. Chawla Jyotsna / The R̥gvedic deities and their iconic forms / New Delhi / Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1990

796. Szałek Benon Zbigniew / The Rig Veda in the light of the Indus valley (Mohenjo Daro, Harappa) and Easter Island rebus-like i
Delivered
SUDOC: 2

797. Talageri Shrikant G. / The Rigveda / New Delhi / Aditya Prakashan
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2000

798. The Rigveda / Oxford - New York / Oxford University Press
Delivered
SUDOC: 9
cop. 2014

799. The Rigveda / New York (NY) / Oxford University Press
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2017

800. The Rigveda / New Delhi / Sarvadeshik Arya Pratinidhi Sabha
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1974

801. The Rigveda / New Delhi / Sarvadeshik Arya Pratinidhi Sabha
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1978

802. Lal Braj Basi / The R̥igvedic people / New Delhi / Aryan Books International
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2015

803. Gonda Jan / The ritual functions and significance of grasses in the religion of the Veda / Amsterdam - Oxford - New York / North-Holland
Delivered
SUDOC: 7
1985

804. Thomas Edward / The Rivers of the Vedas, and how the Aryans entered India ... by Edward Thomas, ... / Hertford / printed by S. Austin and sons
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1883

805. Aguilar H. / The sacrifice in the Ṛgveda / Delhi / Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1976

806. The Sāmaveda / New Delhi / M. Manoharlal
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
nineteen eighty one

807. Vartaka Padmākara Vishnu / The scientific dating of the Rāmāyaṇa & the Vedas / Pune / Veda Vidnyana Mandala
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1999

808. Smith Frederick M. / The self possessed / New York / Columbia University Press
Delivered
SUDOC: 4
impr. 2006

809. Āpastamba / The Śrauta Sūtra of Āpastamba / New-Delhi / Munshiram manoharlal publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1983

810. Phillips Maurice / The Teaching of the Vedas, what light does it throw on the origin and development of religion? By M / London / Longmans, Green and Co.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

811. Griffith Ralph Thomas Hotchkin / The Texts of the White Yajurveda / Banaras / BN Yadav
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1957

812. The texts of the White Yajurveda / New Delhi / Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1987

813. Gondhalekar Prabhakar / The time keepers of the Vedas / New Delhi / Manohar
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2013

814. Sil Arun K. / The undying flame / Calcutta / Arun Sil
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1998

815. The upadeśa-sāhasrī of Śaṅkara / Chennai / The Ādi śaṅkara advaita research center
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2005

816. The Upaniṣads
Delivered
SUDOC: 2

817. Navathe PD / The Vājapeya of the Kaṭha Śākhā / Pune / Adarsha Sanskrit Shodha Samstha
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2015

818. Chakrabarti Samiran Chandra / The value system as reflected in the Vedas / Ujjain / Maharshi Sandipani Rashtriya Ved Vidya Pratishthan
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
2003

819. Joshi Kireet / The Veda and Indian culture / New Delhi / Rashtriya Veda Vidya Pratishthan in association wi
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1994

820. Dalal Roshen / The Vedas / New Delhi / Penguin books India
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2014

821. The Vedas and Brahmanas / Delhi / Caxton Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1988

822. Miller Jeanine / The Vedas / New Delhi / BI Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1976, c197

823. The Vedas, Hinduism, Hindutva / Kolkata / Ebong Alap
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2005

824. Rammohun Roy / The Vedas / Delhi / Nag Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1977

825. The Vedic experience / Pondicherry / All India Books
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1983

826. The Vedic experience / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1997, c197

827. The Vedic experience / Berkeley / University of California Press
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
c1977

828. The Vedic experience / Pondicherry, India / All India Books
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1983, cop.

829. The Vedic experience, Mantramañjarī / Pondicherry / All India books
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
cop. 1977

830. The Vedic experience, Mantramañjarī / Berkeley - Los Angeles / University of California press
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

831. Ram Gopal / The Vedic language and exegesis / Rohtak [India] / Spellbound publications Pvt Ltd
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1997

832. Gonda Jan / The Vedic morning litany / Leiden / Brill
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
nineteen eighty one

833. Rahurkar VG / The Vedic priests of the Fire-cult / Aligarh / Viveka Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1982

834. Miller Jeanine / The vision of cosmic order in the Vedas / London - Boston / Routledge & Kegan Paul
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1985

835. Sharma Umesh Chandra / The Viśvāmitras and the Vasiṣṭhas / Aligarh / Viveka Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1975

836. The volatile world of sovereignty / New Delhi / DK Printworld
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2015

837. Chatterjee Jagadish Chandra / The wisdom of the Vedas / Delhi / Vikas publ. house
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1975

838. The world of Vedic life and culture / Delhi / Sharada Prakashan
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1990

839. The Yajurveda / New Delhi / M. Manoharlal
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1980

840. Mishra Madhubala / Theism in ancient Indian philosophy / New Delhi, India / Mahamaya Pub. House
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

841. Oupanichats / Theology of the Vedas / [Sl] / Bertrand
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1838

842. Dahl Eystein / Time, tense and aspect in early Vedic grammar / Leiden / Brill
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2010

843. Klein Jared S. / Toward a discourse grammar of the Rigveda
Delivered
SUDOC: 4

844. Klein Jared S. / Toward a discourse grammar of the Rigveda / Heidelberg / C. Winter
Delivered
BnF-CG: 0
1985 -

845. Klein Jared S. / Toward a discourse grammar of the Rigveda / Heidelberg / C. Winter
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1985

846. Halbfass Wilhelm / Tradition and reflection / Albany, NY / State University of New York press
Delivered
SUDOC: 5
cop. 1991

847. Bhāradvāja Vēdāyana / Treatise on Ṛgvēda
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

848. Bhāradvāja Vēdāyana / Treatise on Ṛgvēda
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

849. Sinha Rekha / Treatment of gods in the Vedas / [S. l. ?]
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
[1986?]

850. Gonda Jan / Triads in the Veda / Amsterdam - London - New York / North-Holland publishing Co.
Delivered
SUDOC: 6

851. Bustos Arratia Myriam / Tribilín prohibido y otras vedas / Santiago / Editorial Nascimento
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1978

852. Ricard Sylvain / Urban trilogy / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 Pieds sous terre ed.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 0
2011-

853. Strohm Harald / Über den Ursprung der Religion / München / Fink
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2003

854. Bonnevialle Jean-Marie / A child of Saint-Jean / Lodève / Lodévois-Larzac Charter
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2003

855. Bianu Zéno / A fire in the heart of the wind
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

856. Duba Pierre / A portrait of Moitié Claire / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 pieds sous terre ed.
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2012

857. Kannan GK / Understanding Veda karma kāṇḍa / Mumbai / Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1997-1999

858. Coomaraswamy Ananda Kentish / A new approach to the Vedas / Milano / Arche
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1994

859. Bourquin, Auguste / University of France. Academy of Paris. Pantheism in the Vedas / Paris / Fischbacher
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1885

860. Upaniṣadbhāṣyam / Varanasi / Mahesh Research Institute - Shri Dakshinamurti mat
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1982

861. Upaniṣadbhāṣyam / Varanasi / Mahesh Research Institute - Shri dakshinamurti mat
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1986

862. Upaniṣadbhāṣyam / Varanasi / Mahesh Research Institute - Shri Dakshinamurti mat
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2004

863. Chevrou Robert / Holidays in Hell / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / RB Chevrou
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2000

864. Chevrou Robert / Holidays in Hell / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / RB Chevrou
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2002

865. Kumāra Śaśiprabhā / Vaidika anuśīlana / Dillī / Vidyānidhi prakāśana
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1998

866. Vaidika cintana / Dillī / Prācya Vidyā Pratiṣṭhāna
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1997

867. Nauṭiyāla Jayantī Prasāda / Vaidika evaṃ prācya vijñāna - वैदिक एवं प्राच्य विज्ञान / Naī Dillī - नई दिल्ली / Gaṇapati Pabliśarsa - गणपति पब्लिशर्स
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2007 - 200

868. Upādhyāya Candraśekhara / Vaidika kośa / Dillī / Nāga Prakāśaka
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1995

869. Haṃsarāja / Vaidika kośaḥ / Jñānapura / Viśvabhāratī Anusandhāna Pariṣad
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1992

870. Dvivedī Kapiladeva / Vaidika manovijñāna - वैदिक मनॊविज्ञान / Vārāṇasī - वाराणसी / Viśvabhāratī Anusandhāna Pariṣad - विश्वभारती
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

871. Guptā Puṣpā / Vaidika saṅkalana - वैदिक सङ्कलन / Vārāṇasī - वाराणसी - Vārāṇasī / Caukhambā Surabhāratī Prakāśana - चौखम्बा सुरभारती
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2008 - 200

872. Vaidika vijñāna / Jodhapura (Bhārata) / Rājasthānī Granthāgāra
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1995

873. Misra Janardan / Veda and Bharat, India / New Delhi / Ess Ess
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1988

874. Holdrege Barbara A. / Veda and Torah / Delhi / Sri Satguru Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1997

875. Holdrege Barbara A. / Veda and Torah / Albany (NY) / State university of New York press
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
cop. 1996

876. Veda and Vedic literature
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

877. Veda as word / New Delhi / Special center for Sanskrit studies, Jawaharlal Ne
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2006

878. Siṃha Candraprakāśa / Veda evaṃ vibhinna sampradāya - वेद एवं विभिन्न सम्प्रदाय / Dillī - दिल्ली / Caukhambā Saṃskr̥ta Pratiṣṭhāna - चौखम्बा संस
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2012 - 201

879. Veda-lakṣaṇa / Stuttgart / F. Steiner
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1991

880. Veda-lakṣaṇa / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

881. Gītā Kumārī / Veda meṃ śikshā kā svarūpa: eka adhyayana / Jayapura / Klāsika Pablikeśansa
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2001

882. Gurudutt / Veda praveśikā - वॆद प्रवॆशिका / Naī Dillī - नई दिल्ली / Hindī Sāhitya Sadana - हिन्दी साहित्य सदन
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2007 - 200

883. Howard Wayne / Veda recitation in Vārāṇasī / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1986

884. Vedabhāratī / Bangalore / Bhāravi Prakāśana
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1984

885. Vidyānanda / Vedāloka / Naī Dillī / Veda-Saṃsthāna
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2000-

886. Vindevogel, Jules / Védanta or Hinduism & Christianity / Brussels / impr. G. Bastiné
Delivered
Heritage base: 1 BnF-CG: 1
1902

887. Vindevogel, Jules / Védanta or Hinduism & Christianity or The secret doctrine of the Vedas and of Jesus of Nazareth d / Brussels
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1902

888. Viraraghavacharya Uttamur T. / Vedāntapuṣpāñjaliḥ / Madras / [sn]
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1977

889. Sūryaprakāśaśāstri Rēmeḷla / Vedārtha jñāna dīpika
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

890. Nārāyaṇabhaṭṭatiri Vi. Ke. / Vedārthavicāraḥ / Calicut / Publication Division, University of Calicut
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

891. Coulon, L. / Vedas and Upanishads / Saint-Etienne / Editions ”Des Flambeaux”
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1945

892. Verma Shri Ram / Vedas, the source of ultimate science / Delhi / Nag Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
impr.2005

893. Śāstrī Padma / Vedavijñānāmr̥tam
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

894. Śāstrī Padma / Vedavijñānāmr̥tam / Jayapura (Bhārata) / Navodaya Prakāśana
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2004

895. Dikshit Lakshmi Datta / Vedārtha-bhūmikā / Bambaī / Iṇṭaraneśanala Āryana Phāuṇḍeśana
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1988

896. Dandekar Ramchandra Narayan / Vedic bibliography / Poona, India / Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1986

897. Dandekar Ramchandra Narayan / Vedic bibliography / Poona, India / Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
1986

898. Dandekar Ramchandra Narayan / Vedic bibliography / Poona, India / Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
1985

899. Dandekar Ramchandra Narayan / Vedic bibliography / Poona, India / Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1993

900. Murthiyedath Parameswaran / Vedic cosmology
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

901. Devi Leela / Vedic gods and some hymns / Delhi, India / SRI satguru publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1989

902. Vedic heritage for global harmony and peace in modern context / Alpharetta - New Delhi / World association for Vedic studies - DK Printwo
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2012

903. Vedic hymns / Oxford / Clarendon press
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1891-1897

904. Vedic hymns / Dehli - Varanasi - Patna [etc.] / Motilal Barnasidass
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1988

905. Haṃsarāja / Vedic koṣa, by Haṃsarāja, with an ... introduction on the history of the Brahmana litterature, by B / Lahore, Research library DAV College
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1926. In-8

906. Tarlekar Ganesh Hari / Vedic music and its application in rituals / Delhi / Dharam Hinduja International Center of Indic Resea
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1995

907. Dandekar Ramchandra Narayan / Vedic mythological tracts / Delhi / Ajanta Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1979

908. Singh Nagendra Kumar / Vedic mythology / New Delhi / APH Pub. Corp.
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1997

909. Choudhuri Usha / Vedic mythopoeia / Delhi, India / Nag Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1983

910. Gonda Jan / Vedic ritual
Delivered
SUDOC: 14

911. Dange Sadashiv Ambadas / Vedic sacrifices / New Delhi / Aryan Books International
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
impr. 2000

912. Raghu Vira / Vedic studies / New Delhi / Mrs Sharada Rani
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
nineteen eighty one

913. Vedic studies / New Delhi / Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan - DK Printworld
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2014

914. Singh Satya Prakash / Vedic symbolism / New Delhi / Maharshi Sandipani Rashtriya Veda Vidya Pratishtha
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2001

915. Bhat Muralidhar Shrinivas / Vedic tantrism / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass
Delivered
SUDOC: 4
1987

916. Bhat Muralidhar Shrinivas / Vedic Tantrism / Delhi - Varanasi - Patna / Motilal Banarsidass
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1987

917. Bhat Govind Keshav / Vedic themes / Delhi / Ajanta Publications
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1978

918. Bloomfield Maurice / Vedic variants / New Delhi / Oriental Books Reprint Corp. : exclusively distrib
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1979

919. Murthy SRN / Vedic view of the earth / New Delhi / DK Printworld
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
1997

920. Murthy Sindhughatta Ramasastry Narasimha / Vedic view of the earth / New Delhi / DK Printworld
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2013

921. Śāstrī Rāmagopāla / Vedoṃ meṃ ayurveda
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

922. Dvivedī Kapiladeva / Vedoṃ meṃ āyurveda / Vārāṇasī (Bhārata) / Viśvabhāratī Anusandhāna Pariṣad
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2001

923. Ṭhākura Ādyādatta / Vedoṃ meṃ Bhāratīya saṃskr̥ti / Jayapura / Rājasthāna Patrikā Prakāśana - Grantha-prāpt
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1997

924. Dvivedī Kapiladeva / Vedoṃ meṃ nārī - वॆदॊं मॆं नारी / Vārāṇasī - वाराणसी / Viśvabhāratī Anusandhāna Pariṣad - विश्वभारती
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
san 1986 i

925. Dave Dayā / Vedoṃ meṃ paryāvaraṇa / Jayapura / Surabhi Pablikeśansa
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2000

926. Dave Dayā / Vedoṃ meṃ paryāvaraṇa śikṣā - वॆदॊं मॆं पर्यावरण शिक्षा / Jayapura - जयपुर / Surabhi Pablikeśansa - सुरभि पब्लिकॆशन्स
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2008 - 200

927. Dvivedī Kapiladeva / Vedoṃ meṃ samājaśāstra, arthaśāstra aura sikṣāśāstra / Jñānapura (Bhārata) / Viśvabhāratī Anusandhāna Pariṣad
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2002

928. Dvivedī Kapiladeva / Vedoṃ meṃ samājaśāstra arthaśāstra aura sikshāsāstra / Jyānapura / Viśvabhāratī Anusandhāna Parishad
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2002

929. Sharma Balraj / Vedoṃ meṃ vijñāna / Dillī / Biśanacanda eṇḍa Sansa
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
2004

930. Dvivedī Kapiladeva / Vedoṃ meṃ vijñāna / Vārāṇasī (Bhārata) / Viśvabhāratī Anusandhāna Pariṣad
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

931. Tanx / Hairy / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2015

932. Niederreiter Stefan / Verba dicendi im Rigveda / Graz / Leykam
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2014

933. Katre Shailaja Shashikant / Verbal forms of the Ṛgveda / New Delhi / Adarsha Sanskrit Shodha Samstha
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2013

934. Laṭcuminārāyaṇan̲ Kē. Ci. / Vētaṅkaḷai ēr̲r̲up pōr̲r̲um tamil̲ ilakkiyaṅkaḷ / Cen̲n̲ai / El. Kē. em. papḷikēṣan̲
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
August 2005

935. Kulakarṇī Raghunātha Purushottama / Viśvakarmīya Rathalakṣaṇam / Delhi / Kanishka Publishers, Distributors
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1994

936. Singh Satya Prakash / Viśvāmitra / New Delhi / Standard Publ. (India)
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2003

937. Kumar VR Anil / Vivāha saṁskāra in Gr̥hya-sūtras of the four Vedas / New Delhi / DK Printworld
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2014

938. Quet Dominique André / Trip to Phnom Penh, Cambodia / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / PHOTOBIM
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
DL 2009

939. Travel to Languedoc-Roussillon / Paris / ABF
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
2001

940. Clare John / Voyage beyond the limits of Essex / Montpellier / Ed. Greige
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1

941. Vrātya culture in Vedic sources
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

942. Vrihadárańyakam, kåthakam, iça, kena Mundakam oder Fünf Upanishads aus dem Yagur-Såma-und Atharva-Ve / Bonn
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1844

943. Mawil / Welcome home / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / 6 feet underground
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
impr. 2009

944. Haas Cornelia / Wie man den Veda lesen kann - Wege der Interpretation eines archaischen Texts / Göttingen / Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
cop. 2004

945. Powell Barbara / Windows into the infinite / Fremont, Calif. / Asian Humanities Press
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
c1996

946. Bhattacharya Vivek Ranjan / Wisdom of cultural heritage of India / New Delhi / Metropolitan
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1989

947. Frawley David / Wisdom of the ancient seers / Delhi / Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1994, cop.

948. Frawley David / Wisdom of the ancient seers / Salt Lake City, Utah / Passage Press
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
impr. 1992

949. Sinha SN / Women in ancient India / New Delhi / Khama Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2002

950. Upadhyaya Bhagwat Saran / Women in Ṛigveda / New Delhi / Khama Publishers
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1994

951. Das Gupta Mau / Women seers of the R̥gveda
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

952. Grassmann Hermann Günther / Wörterbuch zum Rig-Veda / Wiesbaden / Harrassowitz
Delivered
SUDOC: 2
1996

953. Grassmann Hermann Günther / Wörterbuch zum Rig-Veda / Delhi / M. Banarsidass
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1999

954. Grassmann Hermann Günther / Wörterbuch zum Rig-Veda / Leipzig / FA Brockhaus
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1873

955. Yadjour Véda / Paris / The author
Delivered
Heritage base: 1
1849

956. Bhimavālah Cittarañjana Dayāla Siṃha Kauśala / Yajurveda-bhāshya meṃ ʿIndra 'evaṃ ʿMarut' / Dillī / Nirmala Pablikēśansa
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
1993

957. Śāstrī Jñāna Prakāśa / Yajurveda-padārtha-koṣaḥ / Dillī / Parimala Pablikeśansa
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2009

958. Zwölf Hymnen des Rigveda. mit Sāyana's commentar / Leipzig / S. Hirzel
Delivered
BnF-CG: 1
1883

959. Елизаренкова - Elizarenkova Татьяна Яколевна - Tat / Ригведа - Rigveda
Delivered
SUDOC: 4

960. Русские веды - Песни птицы Гамаюн - Велесова книга - Russkie vedy - Pesni pticy Gamaûn - Velesova k / Москва - Moskva / Наука и религiдиа - Велесова книга - Russia
Delivered
SUDOC: 3
1992 - 199

961. Омельченко - Omelʹčenko Виктор Валентинович - Vik / Системные основы древникх писаний и древнерistинович - Vik / Системные основы древникх писаний и древнерусistского языnnovniка - Sisanrevemnoviković
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

962. उपाध्याय - Upādhyāya आरुण कुमार - Aruṇa Kumāra / पुरुष - सूक्त - Puruṣa-sūkta / दिल्ली - Dillī / नाग पब्लिशार्स - Nāga pabliśarsa
Delivered
SUDOC: 1
2011 - 201

963. ஸ்ரீ ருத்ரப்ரச்நம் - Śrī Rutrapracnam
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

964. முத்தாண்டியா பிள்ளை - Muttāṇṭiyā Piḷḷai / சோமயாகப் பெருங்காவியம் - Cōmayākap peruṅkāviyam
Delivered
SUDOC: 1

965. Body and nature in Saint-Jean de Védas / Kyrnea international
Animated Images
BnF-CG: 1

966. The leading figure of the Midi Libre group / [Saint Jean de Vedas] - [Saint Jean de Vedas] / [Midi Libre [prod.]] - [Midi Libre [distrib.]]
Animated Images
BnF-CG: 1
[cop. 1994

967. Midi Libre as figurehead (12 min) - Midi Libre a daily story (11 min) / [Saint Jean de Vedas] - [Saint Jean de Vedas] / [Midi Libre [prod.]] - [Midi Libre [distrib .]]
Animated Images
BnF-CG: 1
[cop. 1994

968. Midi Libre, a daily story / [Saint Jean de Vedas] - [Saint Jean de Vedas] / [Midi Libre [prod.]] - [Midi Libre [distrib.]]
Animated Images
BnF-CG: 1
[cop. 1994

969. Amphonesinh Saysamone / Color Mekong / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / S. Amphonesinh
Printed Score
BnF-CG: 1
cop. 2009

970. Amphonesinh Saysamone / Color Mekong / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / S. Amphonesinh
Printed Score
BnF-CG: 1
cop. 2010

971. Amphonesinh Saysamone / Color Mekong / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / S. Amphonesinh
Printed Score
BnF-CG: 1
cop. 2011

972. Tallien de Cabarrus A. / Invocation to the Sun (Hindu Prayer). Extracted from the Vedas. Translation by Louis Jacolliot / Paris / Henri Tellier
Printed Score
BnF-CG: 1
[1896]

973. Armentières. Vedas tus du Plonich fecit / [Sl] / [sn]
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
[1648]

974. Hérault / [Cesson-Sévigné] / Ed. Oberthur
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
[2000]

975. Montpellier / Montreuil-sous-Bois / Blay-Foldex
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
[2001]

976. Montpellier / Montreuil-sous-Bois / Blay-Foldex
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
[2002]

977. Montpellier / Montreuil-sous-Bois / Blay-Foldex
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
[2003]

978. Montpellier / Montreuil-sous-Bois / Blay-Foldex
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
[2004]

979. Montpellier / Montreuil-sous-Bois / Blay-Foldex
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
[2008]

980. Montpellier / Montreuil / Blay-Foldex
Menu
BnF-CG: 1

981. Montpellier / Montreuil / Blay-Foldex
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
2011

982. Montpellier agglomeration / Montreuil / Blay-Foldex
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
[2001]

983. Montpellier / Issy-les-Moulineaux / Grafocarte
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
1995

984. Montpellier / Issy-les-Moulineaux / Grafocarte
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
1996

985. Montpellier / Issy-les-Moulineaux / Grafocarte
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
1997

986. Montpellier / Issy-les-Moulineaux / Grafocarte
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
1998

987. Montpellier / Issy-les-Moulineaux / Grafocarte
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
1999

988. Montpellier / Issy-les-Moulineaux / Grafocarte
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
2001

989. Montpellier and surroundings / Paris / Blay guide maps
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
1986

990. Montpellier and its agglomeration
Menu
BnF-CG: 1

991. Montpellier and its agglomeration / Montreuil-sous-Bois / Blay-Foldex
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
1996

992. Montpellier and its agglomeration / Montreuil / Blay-Foldex
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
1997

993. Montpellier and its agglomeration / Montreuil / Blay-Foldex
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
1998

994. Montpellier and its agglomeration / Montreuil / Blay-Foldex
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
1999

995. Montpellier and its agglomeration / Paris / Plans-Guides Blay
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
1990

996. Montpellier and its agglomeration / Montreuil-sous-Bois / Plans-Guides Blay
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
1993

997. Montpellier and its agglomeration / Paris / Blay guide maps
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
1988

998. Montpellier / Charenton-le-Pont / Plans-Guides Blay
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
1991

999. Montpellier / Montreuil / Blay-Foldex
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
[2012]

1000. Damais Virginie / S [ain] t-Jean-de-Védas / Montpellier / Publi Écho
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
[1996]

1001. S [ain] t-Jean-de-Védas / Montpellier / Publi Echo
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
1996

1002. S [ain] t-Jean-de-Védas / Montpellier / Publi echo
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
1997

1003. Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Castelnau-le-Lez / Dixicom
Menu
BnF-CG: 1
2005

1004. Blue series 1: 25,000 / Paris / National Geographic Institute
Menu
SUDOC: 3
nineteen eighty one

1005. Blue Series / Paris / National Geographic Institute
Menu
SUDOC: 6
1988

1006. Corpataux Francis / The song of the children of the world / Paris - [sl] / Arion
Sound document
SUDOC: 3
P 1994

1007. Daunès Yves / Mezza voce / Saint-Jean-de-Védas (Hérault) / Zodiac
Sound document
BnF-CG: 1
[DL 2012]

1008. Malamoud Charles / Cook the world / Paris / The Discovery
Electronic document
SUDOC: 12
2016

1009. Direct morning Montpellier plus / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Montpellier plus
Electronic document
BnF-CG: 0
2012-2017

1010. Quillet Anne-Marie / The Sāmavidhānabrāhmaṇa in the Sāmavedic tradition
Thesis
SUDOC: 1

1011. Free lunch / Saint-Jean-de-Védas / Société du Journal Free lunch
Electronic document
BnF-CG: 1
[199.] -

1012. Hopkins Marmaduke / Murmurers reproved / Ann Arbor, Mich. / UMI
Electronic document
SUDOC: 1
d1999-

1013. Grace Victoria / The Goddess of Victory / Strasbourg / University of Strasbourg
Electronic document
SUDOC: 1
2013

1014. Amelin, Jean-Marie / A La Lauze
Still image
Heritage base: 1
1836

1015. Amelin, Jean-Marie / In St Jean de Védas
Still image
Heritage base: 1
1836

1016. Amelin, Jean-Marie / Au Terral
Still image
Heritage base: 1
1834

1017. [Beef, Pascal Nordmann. Company Pierre Barayre] / [Sl] / [sn]
Still image
BnF-CG: 1
[2004]

1018. Amelin, Jean-Marie / Quarries of Saint-Jean de Védas
Still image
Heritage base: 1
1821

1019. Amelin, Jean-Marie / Quarries of Saint-Jean de Védas
Still image
Heritage base: 1
1822

1020. Amelin, Jean-Marie / Quarries of St Jean de Védas
Still image
Heritage base: 1
1836

1021. Amelin, Jean-Marie / Château de La Lauze
Still image
Heritage base: 1
1822

1022. Amelin, Jean-Marie / Château de La Lauze
Still image
Heritage base: 1
1834

1023. Amelin, Jean-Marie / Courtyard of the castle of La Lauze
Still image
Heritage base: 1
1822

1024. Collet Yves / [Hotel Palestine, play by Falk Richter. Studio Casanova, Ivry-sur-Seine] / [Sl] / [sn]
Still image
BnF-CG: 1
2011

1025. Amelin, Jean-Marie / The old post office near St Jean de Védas
Still image
Heritage base: 1
1822

1026. Amelin, Jean-Marie / The Castle of La Lauze
Still image
Heritage base: 1
1832

1027. Amelin, Jean-Marie / Pont de la Fuste, Moulin du Pastourel
Still image
Heritage base: 1
1832

1028. Amelin, Jean-Marie / Pont de la Fuste, road to Toulouse
Still image
Heritage base: 1
1834

1029. Amelin, Jean-Marie / Bridge near the Moulin du Pastourel
Still image
Heritage base: 1
1830

1030. Amelin, Jean-Marie / Near the road to Toulouse
Still image
Heritage base: 1
1822

1031. Amelin, Jean-Marie / Puits au Terral
Still image
Heritage base: 1
1836

1032. Ollier Magali / [Collection. Posters. Terral cellar, Saint-Jean de Védas. 2003-2004 season]
Still image
BnF-CG: 1
[2003-2004

1033. Amelin, Jean-Marie / Village of Saint-Jean de Védas
Still image
Heritage base: 1
1821

1034. Pinault Georges-Jean / Index verborum of Vedic and Pāṇinéennes Studies by Louis Renou / Paris / French Association for Sanskrit Studies
Item
SUDOC: 1
2012

1035. Sandness Adela / OnṚta and Brāhman / Pune / Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute
Item
SUDOC: 1
impr. 2008

1036. Kazanas Nicholas / RṾ is pre-Harappan / Pune / Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute
Item
SUDOC: 1
impr. 2008

1037. Jamison Stephanie W. / The earliest evidence for the inborn debts of a brahmin / Paris / Asian Society
Item
SUDOC: 1
2014

1038. Vahia Mayank N. / TheHarappan Question / Pune / Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute
Item
SUDOC: 1
impr. 2008

1039. Sandness Adela / Yāma and Sārasvatī / Pune / Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute
Item
SUDOC: 1
impr. 2008

1040. “Vedas. »(For 261 and 262, the editor transcribed purely and simply the indications of the anci ...
BAYEUX - Municipal multimedia library. Bayeux, Calvados / Ms. 262
Manuscript
CGM

1041. Bhāgavatapurāṇa
PARIS-BNF - Manuscripts / Sanskrit 477
Manuscript
BnF-AM
1793

1042. SIRR-i AKBAR, or SIRR-i ASRĀR.
PARIS-BNF - Manuscripts / Persian supplement 14
Manuscript
BnF-AM
1771 (November 2).

1043. "I have the Vedas, the putras ..." ... "... of the thyroid precisely". To f. 22, 24-26, 28v, 29, 3 ...
PARIS-BNF - Manuscripts / NAF 27606
Manuscript
BnF-AM
1945-1948

1044. “Zozur Bedo”; French translation of YADJOUR VEDA, 4 th book of Vedas .
PARIS-BNF - Manuscripts / French 19117
Manuscript
BnF-AM
17th-18th century

1045. Miscellaneous documents
CARPENTRAS - Inguimbertine Library / 2679 (5)
Manuscript
CGM
19th-20th centuries
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30823
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Sat Sep 12, 2020 8:23 am

Paulinus of St. Bartholomew
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/12/20

Le Gac’s doubts about the usefulness of the Vedas he dispatched to Europe were well-founded. Although catalogued, on the basis of the Jesuits’ descriptions of the texts, as soon as 1739, 114 they remained unread throughout the eighteenth century. 115 One of the few who might have been able to read them was the Carmelite Paulinus a Sancto Bartholomaeo. He knew both Sanskrit and the Tamil and Malayalam scripts, and may have recognized Telugu, even if he had not learned it. Paulinus saw them in late 1789, but in the chaos of the revolution was not permitted enough time to examine them closely.116
For Paulinus a Sancto Bartholomaeo, the word "Veda" "does not signify exclusively a sacred book but implies in general as much as a sacred law, whether observed by Indians or other nations" (p. 65). Of course, Paulinus famously (and wrongly) argued that "the Vedas" do not exist as a specific set of ancient Indian scriptures and that the Indians call many texts, even non-Indian ones, "Vedas." But modern southern Indian usage agrees with Paulinus's view about the word, as the entries in the University of Madras Tamil Lexicon cited by Rocher(1984:65) show:

vetam: 1. The Vedas; 2. The Jaina scriptures; 3. The Bible; ...
veta-k-karan: Christian (the only meaning!)
veta-pustakam: 1. The Vedas; 2. The Bible.
veta-vakkiyam: 1. Vedic text; 2. Gospel truth.
veta-vakkiyanam: 1. Commentaries on the Vedas; 2. Expounding the bible.


-- The Birth of Orientalism, by Urs App

Anquetil did not limit himself to revealing to us, through his luminous dissertations, what had been the empire of the Achaemenids and the Sassanids, he also introduced us to India, which we did not know in the last century even more than Persia. Voltaire did not take the sanscrit, which was then called Sanscretan, for a book, and was he not duped by the forger who had composed Ezour-Vedam, and surprised the religion of Father Nobili? The Vedas themselves were so ignored that Father Paulinus of Saint-Barthélemy did not believe in their existence, and considered them mythical books. ['Voy. Hem. de l'Acad., t. L, p. 1 and following.]

We can say that the discoveries are in the air and that when they occur, alongside their authors, a crowd of researchers met who had approached them and who would have been called upon to make them, if the discoverer had not been taken from the world before reaching his goal. Thus, at the same time as Anquetil du Perron lifted the veil which hid ancient India from us, Abbé Étienne Mignot, a learned theologian that the Academy had enrolled among its members, shed light in five memoirs published successively by his Collection, the history of Hindu doctrines. [He should not be confused with Father Vincent Mignot, Voltaire's nephew.] An independent mind, who had shaken off the yoke of the Sorbonne, Mignot sometimes succeeded, in spite of very incomplete documents, in unraveling the speculations of these ancient Indian thinkers whose boldness he loved, and which took a century of study to be known and understood.

Anquetil had only been able to advance on the threshold of Hindu literature, with the help of Persian translations; but on the other hand he had collected a prodigious number of information on India and the East, which he put to use and which have earned us works which have remained indispensable to the study of Asia. [its Eastern Legislation and India in relation to Europe.] As his reputation spread, oriental manuscripts and documents from Hindustan and Persia flocked to him in greater numbers; he ended up becoming in Europe the true representative and the literary agent of these countries, which one did not know before with us only by the connections of Bernier, Tavernier, Chardin, merchants or tourist philosophers who had neither the ardor of the French orientalist, nor the taste for erudition. If Anquetil had been able to learn Sanskrit, the last century would already have enjoyed some of the discoveries which have been the exclusive patrimony of ours; but having at its disposal an incomplete vocabulary that had been communicated to him by Cardinal Antonelli, prefect of the Congregation of Propaganda, he tried in vain to translate the Vedas, and had to be content to let us know the Upanishads [We see from a letter from Father Cœurdoux to Anquetil du Perron, which was addressed to him from the Indes in 1771, that the translation of the Vedas was then regarded as an almost impossible undertaking: The true Vedam, writes this missionary, is, in the opinion of Father Calmette, of a Sanserutan (Sanskrit) so old that it is almost unintelligible, and that what is cited is from Vedantam, that is to say introductions and comments made there.]; one of his correspondents had transmitted the text to him in 1775. Thanks to these curious but obscure treatises, Anquetil gave the Academy an idea of the religious philosophy of the Hindus, and he later published a Latin version. [See Handwritten correspondence from Anquetil du Perron, kept at the Imperial Library.]

De Guignes, through another source of information, Chinese documents, sought to shed light on the darkness of the Hindu religion. For want of being able to understand the original books, we were, as we see, reduced to asking the knowledge of Brahmanism and its philosophy from the neighboring peoples of Hindustan, who had only had one idea - perfect; so all the schools and all the sects were confused; we did not even know how to distinguish the Vedic religion from Buddhism; for for a long time we had no idea of this latter religion. It was in 1753 that De Guignes read his memoir on the Samaanian philosophers at the Academy, where the first glimpses of knowledge of Buddhism appeared, the teachings of which he had rediscovered in China. However, he associated with the information provided to him by China some indications which he obtained directly from India. He had in his hands the translation of the Bhagavata-Pourana, made on a Tamil version, and due to an indigenous interpreter from Pondicherry, four years later, in 1776, De Gui named Méridas Poullé. He owed it to Minister Bertin, who had given it to him in 1769. De Guignes endeavored to bring out data for the Indian chronology and communicated them in 1772 to his colleagues. But, as was inevitable, this orientalist, who had at his disposal none of the elements suitable to enlighten his progress, without realizing it, a complete shipwreck. Four years later, in 1776, De Guignes named Méridas Poullé. He owed it to Minister Bertin, who had given it to him in 1769. [See, on the Upanichads, Max Muller, A history of ancient Sanskrit literature, 2nd ed., P. 316-319. These books, which are metaphysical commentaries on the Vedas intended for the teaching of young disciples of Brahmam science, belong to the class of writings called Aranyakas, and enjoy the greatest authority in India.] [Under the title of Oupnek'hat, 1802, in-10. See the analysis given by Lanjuinais in his oEuvres, t. 1V, p. 216.]

De Guignes was no happier in his Historical Researches, Indian religion, and on the fundamental books of this religion, published by the Academy. Indeed, without knowledge of Sanskrit, one could only have incomplete and confused notions about India. It was up to England to endow us at last with documents which placed India in its true light. But the dawn of that day was barely breaking when De Guignes was writing his memoirs, and the misfortune for the reputation of this orientalist was to have come too early.

It was only in the last years of the Academy, in 1785, that the works of Ch. Wilkins began to penetrate us. Parraud gave, in 1787, the French translation of the English version of the Indian poem entitled: Bhagavadgîte, that is to say, song of the blessed, epilogue of one of the great Sanskrit epics, the Mahâbhàrata, which A.W. de Schlegel was to make us better known in the following century. An eminent compatriot of Wilkins, William Jones, who had been in India to complete his acquaintance, gave in Calcutta, in 1789, the translation of the famous drama of Kâlidâsa, Sacountala, and published in 1793 the version of Laws of Manu.

-- Histoire de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres (1865), by Louis Ferdinand Alfred Maury

In 1847 the Jesuit Julien Bach commented wryly: “aucun indianiste n’est tenté d’en fair usage, et c’est de ces livres qu’on peut dire: Sacrés ils sont, car personne n’y touche.” [Google translate: No Indianist is tempted to make use of it, and it is from these books that we can say: Sacred they are, because no one touches them.]117

It is to these books that Voltaire's mischief could rightly apply:
"Sacred they are, because no one touches them."

-- The Father Calmette and the Indianist Missionaries, by Father Julien Bach

-- The Absent Vedas, by Will Sweetman


Image
Paulinus of St. Bartholomew

Paulinus of St. Bartholomew (b. at Hof am Leithaberge in Lower Austria, 25 April 1748; d. in Rome, 7 January 1806) was an Austrian Carmelite missionary and Orientalist of Croatian origin[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. He is known by several names as Paulinus S. Bartholomaeo, Paolino da San Bartolomeo, Paulinus Paathiri, Paulin de St Barthelemi, Paulinus A S. Bartholomaeo, Johann Philipp Wesdin, or Johann Philipp Werdin.[12]

He is credited with being the author of the first Sanskrit grammar to be published in Europe,[13] and for being one of the first Orientalists to remark upon the close relationship between Indian and European languages, followed by others such as William Jones and Gaston-Laurent Coeurdoux.[14][15][16]

Life

He was born in a peasant family in Lower Austria, and took the religious habit at the age of twenty. He studied theology and philosophy at Prague. Having entered into the seminary of the missions of his order at Rome, he did Oriental studies at the College of St Pancratius.[17]

He was sent in 1774 as missionary to Malabar, India. After spending fourteen years in India, he was appointed vicar-general of his order and apostolic visitor. He was very well versed in languages: he spoke German, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Portuguese, English, Malayalam, Sanskrit, and some other languages of India.
He became known in Kerala as Paulinus Paathiri. He was one of the first to detect the similarity between Sanskrit and Indo-European languages, though the very first was likely Fr Thomas Stephens, SJ.

Recalled in 1789 to Rome to give an account of the state of the mission in Indostan, he was charged with editing books -– to correct the Catechisms and elementary books printed at Rome [17] -– for the use of missionaries.
On account of political troubles he stayed from 1798 to 1800 at Vienna.

In Rome, he came into contact with Cardinal Stefano Borgia, Secretary of Propaganda Fide, antiquarian scholar and patron, who had set up in Velletri, his native city, the very well-endowed Museo Borgiano. Cardinal Borgia appointed him his private secretary and financed the publication of many volumes of indology, including the first European grammar of the Sanskrit language (Sidharubam seu Grammatica Samscrdamica), published in Rome in 1790. Paulinus also wrote, in Italian, a long essay on India (Viaggio alle Indie Orientali) which was translated into the principal European languages.

In 1800, Pope Pius VII appointed him as counsellor of the Congregation of the Index and as inspector of studies at the Pontifical Urban University. He wrote an account of his travels, translated into French, under the title Voyage aux Index Orientales, published at Paris in 1808.
[17]

While in Europe, he also made known the works of Johann Ernst Hanxleden (Arnos Paathiri). He had carried some of Hanxleden's works to Europe. He also wrote about Hanxleden and quotes him extensively in his memoirs.

When Cardinal Borgia died suddenly at Lyons while accompanying Pius VII to Napoleon, Paulinus wrote a moving biography of him.[18][19]

Works

Paulinus wrote many learned books on the East, which were highly valued in their day, among them the first printed Sanskrit grammar. They include:

1. 'Systema brahmanicum liturgicum, mythologicum, civile, ex monumentis indicis musei Borgiani Velitris dissertationibus historico-criticis illustratu (Rome, 1791), translated into German (Gotha, 1797);
2. Examen historico-criticum codicum indicorum bibliothecae S. C. de Propaganda (Rome, 1792);
3. Musei Borgiani Velitris codices manuscripti avences, Peguani, Siamici, Malabarici, Indostani ... illustrati (Rome, 1793);
4. Viaggio alle Indie orientali (Rome, 1796), translated into German by Forster (Berlin, 1798);
5. Sidharubam, seu Grammatica sanscridamica, cui accedit dissert. hiss. crit. in linguam sanscridamicam vulgo Samscret dictam (Rome, 1799), another edition of which appeared under the title "Vyacaranam" (Rome, 1804);
6. India orientalis christiana (Rome, 1794), an important work for the history of missions in India. Other works bear on linguistics and church history.
7. Paolino da San Bartolomeo, Viaggio alle Indie Orientali umiliato alla Santita di N. S. Papa Pio Sesto pontefice massimo da fra Paolino da S. Bartolomeo carmelitano scalzo, Roma, presso Antonio Fulgoni, 1796.
8. Paolino da San Bartolomeo, Voyage aux Indes Orientales, par le p. Paulin de S. Barthelemy, missionnaire; traduit de l'italien ... avec les observations de Mm. Anquetil du Perron, J. R. Forster et Silvestre de Sacy; et une dissertation de M. Anquetil sur la proprieté (in lingua francese), A Paris, chez Tourneisen fils, libraire, rue de Seine, n 12, 1808.
9. Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Amarasinha. Sectio prima de caelo ex tribus ineditis codicibus indicis manuscriptis curante P. Paulino a S. Bartholomaeo ... (in lingua Latina), Romae, apud Antonium Fulgonium, 1798.
10. Paulinus von Heilig Bartholomaus, Atlas pour servir au voyage aux Indes orientales. Par le p. Paulin de Saint-Barthelemy, missionaire (in lingua francese), A Paris, chez Tourneisen fils, 1808.
11. Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo. De basilica S. Pancratii M. Christi disquisitio. Auctore P. Paulino a S. Bartholomaeo (in lingua Latina), Romae, apud Antonium Fulgonium, 1803.
12. Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Dissertation on the Sanskrit language, Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo (in lingua inglese), a reprint of the original Latin text of 1790, together with an introductory article, a complete English translation, and an index of sources by Ludo Rocher, Amsterdam, J. Benjamin, 1977.
13. Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Examen historico criticum codicum indicorum bibliothecae Sacrae Congregationis de propaganda fide (in lingua Latina), Romae, ex typ. S. C. de Propaganda Fide, 1792.
14. Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, India orientalis christiana continens fundationes ecclesiarum, seriem episcoporum, Auctore P. Paulino a S. Bartholomaeo carmelita discalceato (in lingua Latina), Romae, typis Salomonianis, 1794.
15. Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Jornandis vindiciae de Var Hunnorum auctore p. Paulino a S. Bartolomeo carmelita discalceato ... (in lingua Latina), Romae, Apud Antonium Fulgonium, 1800.
16. Paolino da San Bartolomeo, Monumenti indici del Museo Naniano illustrati dal P. Paolino da S. Bartolomeo (in lingua Latina), In Padova, nella Stamperia del Seminario, 1799.
17. Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Mumiographia Musei Obiciani exarata a P. Paulino a S.Bartholomaeo carmelita discalceato (in lingua Latina), Patavii, ex Typographia Seminarii, 1799.
18. Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Musei Borgiani Velitris codices manuscripti Avenses Peguani Siamici Malabarici Indostani animadversionibus historico-criticis castigati et illustrati accedunt monumenta inedita, et cosmogonia Indico-Tibetana, auctore p. Paulino a S. Bartholomaeo ... (in lingua Latina), Romae, apud Antonium FUgonium, 1793.
19. Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Sidharubam seu Grammatica Samscrdamica. Siddarupam. Cui accedit Dissertatio historico-critica in linguam Samscrdamicam vulgo Samscret dictam, in qua huius linguae exsistentia, origo, praestantia, antiquitas, extensio, maternitas ostenditur, libri aliqui ea exarati critice recensentur, & simul aliquae antiquissimae gentilium orationes liturgicae paucis attinguntur, & explicantur auctore Fr. Paulino a S. Bartholomaeo ... (in lingua Latina), Romae, ex typographia Sacrae Congregationis de Propaganda Fide, 1790.
20. Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Systema Brahmanicum liturgicum mythologicum civile ex monumentis Indicis musei Borgiani Velitris dissertationibus historico-criticis illustravit fr. Paullinus a S. Bartholomaeo carmelita discalceatus Malabariae missionarius Academiae Volscorum Veliternae socius (in lingua Latina), Romae, apud Antonium Fulgonium, 1791.
21. Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Vitae synopsis Stephani Borgiae S.R.E. cardinalis amplissimi S. Congr. De Propaganda fide praefecti curante p. Paulino a S. Bartholomaeo carmelita discalceato ... (in lingua Latina), Romae, apud Antonium Fulgonium, 1805.
22. Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Vyacarana seu Locupletissima Samscrdamicae linguae institutio in usum Fidei praeconum in India Orientali, et virorum litteratorum in Europa adornata a P. Paulino a S. Bartholomaeo Carmelita discalceato (in lingua Latina), Romae, typis S. Congreg. de Propag. Fide, 1804.
23. Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Notitia topographica, civilis, politica, religiosa missionis Malabaricae ad finem saeculi 18. / auctore r. P. Paulino a S. Bartholomaeo, O. C. D. (in lingua Latina), Romae, apud Curiam generalitiam, 1937, Tip. A. Manuzio.
24. Paulinus of St. Bartholomew: De manuscriptis codicibus indicis R. P. Joan Ernesti Hanxleden epistola ad. R. P. Alexium Mariam A. S. Joseph Carmelitam excalceatum, Vienna, 1799.

Notes

1. "sanskrt - Hrvatska enciklopedija". Retrieved 4 July 2017.
2. "Vesdin, Filip Ivan - Hrvatska enciklopedija". Retrieved 4 July2017.
3. "Hrvatski "indolog" Ivan Filip Vesdin (1748-1806) i "Portugalske Indije"". Retrieved 4 July 2017.
4. "Religious Studies: A Global View". Retrieved 4 July 2017.
5. "Filip Vezdin - Croatian History". Retrieved 4 July 2017.
6. "Filip Vezdin bio je gradišćanski Hrvat". Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
7. "Vatroslav Jagić (1865.) o Filipu Vezdinu ( 1748.-1806.) - Hrvatske novine". Retrieved 4 July 2017.
8. "indoeuropski jezici - Proleksis enciklopedija". Retrieved 4 July 2017.
9. "Vezdin - značenje - Hrvatski leksikon". Retrieved 4 July2017.
10. "H. Kekez: Velikani hrvatske prošlosti by Svijet Knjige - issuu". Retrieved 4 July 2017.
11. "Johann Philipp Vezdin - Paulinus a Sancto Bartholomaeo". Retrieved 4 July 2017.
12. Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo, Paolino da San Bartolomeo; known as Paulinus Paathiri; secular name Johann Philipp Wesdin.
13. "PAULINUS A SANCTO BARTHOLOMAEO, [Johannes Philippus Werdin or Wesdin].India Orientalis Christiana continens fundationes ecclesiarum, seriem episcoporum, missiones, schismata, persecutiones, reges, viros illustres". Horden House. Archived from the original on 25 January 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2012. Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo (1748-1806).....He was the author of many learned studies on the east, and published the first Sanskrit grammar
14. "Sidharubam seu grammatica Samscrdamica cui accedit dissertatio historico-critica in languam samscrdamicam vulgo samscret dictam by Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo". National Book Auctions.com. Retrieved 12 February 2012. First Edition - This is a scarce first edition of the first Sanskrit grammar to be published in Europe.
15. "Results from NBA's January Auction". finebooksmagazine.com. Retrieved 12 February 2012. Philip Werdin (or Wesdin) was an Austrian Carmelite missionary in Malabar from 1776 to 1789. An outstanding Orientalist, he was one of the first to remark upon the close relationship between Indian and European languages
16. "British Library - Mss Eur K153 - PAULINUS, a Sancto Bartholomaeo". bl.uk. Retrieved 13 February 2012. A copy of `Systema Brahmanicam' (Rome 1791) by Fr Paolino (Paulinus, a Sancto Bartholomaeo [Joannes Philippus Werdin or Wesdin]), containing critical comments possibly by Sir William Jones (1746-94), oriental scholar, Judge of Supreme Court, Calcutta 1783-94
17. Gorton, John (1833). A General Biographical Dictionary. Whittaker and Co. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
18. Vitae synopsis Stephani Borgiae S.R.E. cardinalis amplissimi S. Congr. De Propaganda fide praefecti curante p. Paulino a S. Bartholomaeo carmelita discalceato. Romae, apud Antonium Fulgonium, 1805
19. Carlo Gastone della Torre di Rezzonico, Lettera su' monumenti indici del Museo Borgiano illustrati dal padre Paolino di San Bartolomeo in Opere del cavaliere Carlo Castone conte Della Torre di Rezzonico patrizio comasco raccolte e pubblicate dal professore Francesco Mocchetti, Como, presso lo stampatore provinciale Carlantonio Ostinelli, 1820, Tomo VIII, p. 7-54

References

• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. The entry cites:
o Giuseppe Barone, Vita, precursori ed opere del P. Paolino da S. Bartolommeo (Filippo Werdin) : contributo alla storia degli studi orientali in Europa (Napoli: A. Morano, 1888);
o Max von Heimbucher, Die Orden und Kongregationen der katholischen Kirche, II (2nd ed., Paderborn: Schoningh, 1907), 568-69

External links

• Paulinus of St. Bartholomew
• PAULINUS A S. BARTHOLOMAEO (WERDIN , JOHANN PHILIP)[permanent dead link]
• Catholic Missionaries - John Philip Werdin
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30823
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Sun Sep 13, 2020 12:55 am

For a History of the Catalogues of Indian Manuscripts in Paris
by Jérôme Petit
2017

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


It is a great honor for me to write an article in a felicitation volume dedicated to Dr. Kanubhai V. Sheth. He opened his door to help me at the very beginning of my Jain studies. He brought me to different places in Gujarat that appeared to be very helpful in the course of my studies. I remember the profound respect and kind admiration with which he was welcomed at the L.D. Institute of Indology, and the patience with which he explained to me the history of these institutions. Ten years after, I can say that he is not for nothing in the path I choose to take in the Jain studies and the manuscriptology field. The sweetness of his home and the immensity of his knowledge are always present in my mind.

The South and South-East Asian collections constitute a significant part of the Manuscripts collections in the National Library of France. Of course the French, Latin and Greek collections are the most important in number and historicity, but Indian manuscripts have a good place in what we call the Oriental service of the Manuscripts department. The ‘Sanscrit’ collection counts 1878 call numbers, the ‘Indien’ collection 1064, the ‘Pali’ collection 885, the ‘Indochinois’ 1 513, the ‘Malayo-Polynesian’ counts 293 call numbers.

The ‘Sanscrit’ collection is constituted by manuscripts in Sanskrit or Prakrit languages written in different scripts: Bengali, Devanagari, Grantha, Telinga, Singhalese or Nagra2. The ‘Indien’ collection gathers together around 600 Tamil manuscripts that constitute – in the terms of ancient Tamil specialists – the most important collection of Tamil manuscripts in Europe; 70 Telugu and Kannada manuscripts; 47 Singhalese manuscripts; and around 300 manuscripts gathered under the general term of ‘Indien’, written in different North Indian languages, mostly Bengali, Hindi, Urdu, Pendjabi, Gujarati and also in Prakrit.

For the ‘Sanscrit’ collection, the catalogue in use is the one done by Antoine Cabaton (1863-1942) at the beginning of the twentieth century.3 It gives short bibliographical records: call number, title, author, date, number of folios, dimensions, material description, ancient owner, and ancient call number. In 1941 and 1970, Jean Filliozat (1906-1982) prepared and published the detailed catalogue for the beginning of the collection and gave for the manuscripts 1 to 462 a full record with the transcription of the incipit, explicit, scribe remarks, ends of the chapters, etc. This a “modèle du genre” that has to be followed nowadays.4

The catalogue of Cabaton covers the manuscripts number 1 to 1102. The rest of the collection is shortly described, mostly by Jean Filliozat, on a handwritten supplement add to a copy of the published catalogue.5 The access of these particular records was of course very difficult and limited. But today all the records of the Sanscrit collection are now accessible online through the online catalogue of the Manuscripts department of the National Library of France, BnF Archives et manuscrits.6 This catalogue has been published online for the first time in 2007.
The choice has been made to encode the records in the language XML-EAD in order to propose the different catalogues to a large audience and to be compatible with other databases in the world. The records give short bibliographical data, the existence of a microfilm, and a direct link through Gallica if the manuscript has been digitalized. Gallica is the digitalized library of the National Library of France.7 It counts few Indian manuscripts but a real effort is now in progress to digitalize more and more manuscripts with the perspective of a portal dedicated to the place of India in the French national collections.

For the collections in Modern Indian languages, the catalogue in use is also the one done by Antoine Cabaton.8 Short records are also given with the ancient call numbers in brackets. That is a real problem for researchers. Indeed, the ‘Indien’ letter gathers together the ancient ‘Tamil’ letter, ‘Telinga’ letter and then the ancient ‘Indien’ letter. That means that the ancient “Indien 201” is the actual “Indien 840”, which constitutes an additional step between the researcher and the librarian.9

The catalogues for the ‘Indien’ collections in use today are also the detailed and particular catalogues made by languages. They have been generally published in the second half of the twentieth century in the form of articles in the Bulletin de l’Ecole Française d’Extreme Orient (see on the Bibliography: Mukherjee’s catalogue for the Bengali manuscripts, Tulpule for the Marathi manuscripts of the Charles d’Ochoa collection) or in a book like Agha Iftikhar Husain for the Urdu, Punjabi and Sindhi manuscripts, Linayaratne’s catalogue for the Singhalese manuscripts or Gérard Colas and Usha Colas-Chauhan’s catalogue for the Telugu manuscripts.

This last catalogue gives important details for the history of the Indian manuscripts collection, as well as the historical “epic” given by Jean Filliozat in the introduction of his detailed catalogue for the Sanscrit collections. It is on those works and by the consultation of the original catalogues and archives that I want to present a short history of the catalogues made at the National Library of France for the Indian manuscripts collections.


The very first list of Indian manuscripts had been written by the Jesuit father Jean-François Pons (1698-1753) who responded to a call made by Etienne Fourmont (1683-1745) at the beginning of the eighteenth century. The Abbey Jean-Paul Bignon (1662-1743), librarian of the King Louis the fifteen, asked Fourmont, who was seen as the essential figure of the orientalist at that time, to constitute a collection of Chinese and Indian books. Fourmont decided to take profit of the network of missionaries that stayed in this part of the world. He wrote letters to ask Jesuits fathers to send to the Royal Library manuscripts of important texts that could be representative of the literary production of China and India. That is how the heart of the Indian collection had been constituted.

Jean-François Pons, established in Chandernagore (Chandannagar), sent among 170 manuscripts from Bengal that formed the historical core of the collection. He sent also a list of the manuscripts that can be seen as the first catalogue of the collection. This list, done in January 1733, presents many bibliographical satisfactions. The manuscripts are classified in seven categories. We find 31 manuscripts classified as ‘Philological Books’ that are the tools for the learning of Sanskrit. Among these tools is the famous “Grammar of Father Pons” on which the first Indologists learned Sanskrit.10 We also find 22 ‘Mythological Poems’, a quite large category under which is classified the Abhijñanasakuntala of Kalidasa for example. The category ‘Pouranam’, with the Sanskrit term kept by Pons, contains 42 numbers. We find in it the Great Purana (Siva-, Vishu-, Bhagavata-, Brahmavaivarta-, Markandeya-, Matsya-, etc.) but also the 17 volumes of a Bengali recession of the Mahabharata. Then we find 8 manuscripts of important texts in the Astronomy/astrology field like the Siddhantamañjari. Nine texts are classified in a quite vague category of ‘Diverse Poetry’ in which we find for example a copy of the Amarusataka. Then we find 25 texts classified under the category ‘Books of Laws, Usages, and Practices of the Cult of Gods’ that form a solid set with the Manavadharmasastra (Laws of Manu) and some devotional or ritual texts. The case of the ‘Philosophical Books’ is certainly the more interesting. It seems that they particularly took the attention of Father Pons. He gave before the list in itself a brief introduction on the different philosophical schools that are to be found in India. Among these schools, the Nyaya is the more represented with 38 manuscripts. We can explain this peculiarity by the strong presence of the Navya-nyaya school in Bengal, especially in Navadvipa, with the great master Gangesa Upadhyaya and his illustrious pupil Raghunatha Siromani, both perfectly pointed by Father Pons.


To this first set of manuscripts, we have to add the 70 manuscripts sent from South India by the Fathers Etienne Le Gac (1671-1738) in Pondicherry, and Jean Calmette (1692-1740) in Mysore. Those manuscripts had been subject to sending lists but they were not classified as the Bengali manuscripts were. All the fields are still well represented: Veda, Purana, Logics, Poetics, Grammar, and Dictionaries of Tamil and Telugu languages which could be interesting in reading this ‘palm-leaves’ literature.

The records given by the Jesuit Fathers helped in the redaction of the general catalogue for the manuscripts kept in the Royal Library. This project was a strong wish of the Abbey Jean-Paul Bignon who wanted to follow the need of describing the collections at a time when the Scientists of the ‘Europe des Lumières’ were describing and organizing the species. In 1739 was published the first volume of the Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum Bibliothecae regiae dedicated to the oriental collections. It is a master piece in the field of library science. Etienne Fourmont had translated the brief records given by the Jesuits Fathers into Latin and gave some other bibliographical elements such as the material, paper or palm-leaves. Fourmont adopted the classification system given by Father Pons. In trying to make a concordance between the Jesuit lists and the Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum Bibliothecae regiae, it appears that the larger part of the catalogue, namely the ‘Books on Theology’ which contains 111 numbers on the 287 of the ‘Indian Codices’ described, gathers mostly all the manuscripts from South India, even the topics is far from ‘Thelogy’, as if the lack of classification had a direct impact on the cataloguing process. Despite these hesitations, very understandable due to the early date of publication, the Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum Bibliothecae regiae is very solid. Some records contain elements on the nature of God, the great principles of Indian Philosophy, some famous stories of Hindu mythology, etc.

During the late eighteenth century, some French travelers brought Indian manuscripts to the Library. Anquetil-Duperron (1731-1805) made a deposit in 1772 of 180 Indian manuscripts in different languages, mostly in the Pahlavi, Persian, Arabic and Sanskrit languages. Jean Baptiste Joseph Gentil (1726-1799), who had a position of a diplomat at the court of the nawab of the Lucknow/Faizabad area, sent to the Library 130 manuscripts, mostly in Persian and Hindoustani, and 40 books in Sanskrit. Among them are several illustrated manuscripts that constitute among the most precious Indian manuscripts that are kept in the National Library of France. Another important figure among the French travelers is Augustin Aussant who served the French Company of East Indies as an interpreter in the 1780’s. This position allowed him to work with Bengali munshi and to get copies of Persian, Hindoustani and Bengali manuscripts. We can cite also Antoine Polier (1741-1795) whose collection had been examined in 1790 by Louis Langlès (1763-1824). Langlès was the chief librarian in charge of the oriental manuscripts at the Library and a key role in what the nineteenth century had made in the adventure of the catalogues.

All those manuscripts were not described in the Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum Bibliothecae regiae. Some lists had been written at the arrival of the manuscripts but the need of the real catalogue arose. In 1807, Alexander Hamilton (1762-1824), after being enrolled in the East India Company, was obliged to stay in France after the break of the Traité d’Amiens which ensured the peace between France and England. He spent his time in describing the Sanskrit collection of the Imperial Library with the help of Langlès.11 The paradox is that the catalogue of Hamilton described less manuscripts than the Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum Bibliothecae regiae published seventy years before. The reason is that Hamilton described only the Sanskrit manuscripts in Devanagari and Bengali scripts. He did not treat the manuscripts from South India, in Tamil, Grantha, or Telugu scripts.

In 1732, Father le Gac mailed to Paris two Vedas written in Telugu letters on palm leaves, and the copying of the remaining two was ongoing (p. 442).

-- Anquetil-Duperron's Search for the True Vedas, Excerpt from The Birth of Orientalism, by Urs App


Hamilton had time to see all the manuscripts that he wanted to describe, but he gave a detailed description only for the texts he was interested in, like Purana or poetry. We can read this information after the manuscript number 23: “For the others manuscripts, we did not adopt any classification”. He also gave up the fundamental notion of material support. It is impossible to know in reading this catalogue if the manuscripts are written on paper or on palm-leaves while we had this information in the Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum Bibliothecae regiae. This catalogue is often seen as the first printed catalogue of Sanskrit manuscripts. It is indeed the first catalogue which is entirely dedicated to the Sanskrit manuscripts but we have seen how the Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum Bibliothecae regiae, which is the very first printed catalogue for Indian manuscripts, is stronger from the point of view of the library science. One of the principal consequences of Hamilton catalogue is a new system of letters in the call numbers. In treating only the Sanskrit manuscripts on Devanagari and Bengali scripts, he obliged to classify the manuscripts by language and by script. This is the birth of the ‘Language-Script’ system like “Sanscrit Bengali”, “Sanscrit Devanagari”, “Sanscrit Grantha”, “Sanscrit Telinga”, etc. This system is the one adopted all along the nineteenth century.

The first half of the nineteenth century is particularly interesting because of the early age of Indian studies. The bibliographical records of Hamilton were translated into French by Langlès who added the information that he could find in the Asiatic Researches particularly. Langlès died in 1824. The administration of the library had to choose between Antoine Léonard Chézy (1773-1832) and Abel Rémusat (1788-1832) to succeed him in his function of chief librarian for the oriental manuscripts. There were both the first teachers for the Sanskrit and the Chinese respectively at the Collège de France, and they were both employed in the Royal library. Beside a list of the Sanskrit manuscripts brought by Polier, Chézy did not make strong efforts to describe the collections. He largely took advantage of his position at the library to ensure his power on oriental studies and to make translation of Sanskrit literary works.
The administration chose Abel Rémusat, provoking Chézy’s resignation. Rémusat kept his function until his death in 1832. He was succeeded by Sylvestre de Sacy (1758-1838) until his death in 1838. Sacy engaged as deputy librarians Toussaint Reinaud (1795-1867) and Claude Fauriel (1772-1844). This period is also marked by the works of Auguste Loiseleur-Deslongchamps (1805-1840) who was engaged to give bibliographical records for the Turkish, Persian and Indian manuscripts.

In November 1833, François Guizot (1787-1874), one of the most influential Minister of Education of the century, asked librarians to give a catalogue of the manuscripts of all kinds that were in their care. It is in this climax that worked Claude Fauriel and Auguste Loiseleur-Deslonchamps. They gave bibliographical details for the manuscripts left aside by Alexander Hamilton or freshly arrived in the library. A particular attention was given to describe the manuscript and the text that it contains. Incipit and explicit are sometimes given in original script or in transcriptions, the material used is mentioned (paper or palm leaves), the date in samvat era, the name of the author, the subject, and some bibliographical information are also given when it was possible.12

In 1844, Salomon Munk (1803-1867) was employed in the oriental section of the Manuscripts department. He gave a catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts classified in western alphabetical order. Munk had knowledge in Hebrew but certainly not in Sanskrit. His catalogue is more a detailed index that reemployed Loiseleur-Deslongchamps and Fauriel data.

The second half of the century is also interesting. The Indian studies had really emerged as a scientific discipline. The collections were enriched by many personal collections gathered by scholars or diplomats. In France, Eugène Burnouf (1801-1852) made a strong link between the orientalist institutions like the Asiatic Society of Paris, the Collège de France where he was professor of Sanskrit studies, the Royal Library where he spent many hours, the Royal Press in which he was named inspector for the oriental typography. These links were instrumentals to enrich the collections. Munk’s catalogue and the catalogue for Sanskrit manuscripts classified by call numbers were both enriched with new data as new collections were acquired by the library.

This period is also marked by a real need for strong catalogues. Following the call of Guizot, Jules Taschereau (1801-1874) was named deputy administrator of the National Library in 1852 with the particular task to publish the catalogues of the national collections. At the same time, Léopold Delisle (1826-1910) was engaged in the Manuscripts Department and Toussaint Reinaud was named chief librarian for the oriental section. These three names gave a real impulse to get full descriptions of the Indian manuscripts. At that time, the collections were also enriched by many private collections of scholars like Charles d’Ochoa, Eugène Burnouf, Edouard Ariel, abbey Guérin, Frédéric Haas, and then Emile Senart.

The great and discreet architect for the building of strong catalogues for Indian manuscripts is certainly Léon Feer (1830-1902). He devoted all his life to oriental studies and all his laborious work to describe oriental collections, especially Sanskrit and Pali collections. He left a detailed catalogue of the Sanskrit manuscripts in Devanagari script of 700 folios, that means 1400 pages of his delicate handwriting. He gave incipit, explicit, ends of chapters, number of folios, dimensions for the 469 manuscripts concerned.13 He gave also the detailed catalogue of the 286 Sanskrit manuscripts in Bengali script.14

The South Indian manuscripts were at least taken into account. Léon Rodet (1832-1895), a historian for oriental mathematics, was engaged to give the catalogues of the Sanskrit manuscripts in Grantha script in 1872. He described the full collection of 41 manuscripts that were kept at that time. He began his catalogue by giving the alphabet of the Grantha script and the equivalent in devanagari for the clusters which are “difficult to analyse”. His records are shorts but they give useful information for the content. The title is given in original characters with a translation in a post-romantic French language: the Smrticandrika for example is translated as “le Clair de lune de la souvenance”, but then he got a grip on himself by giving the exact content of the manuscripts, “traité de droit coûtumier” in that case. In 1886, a huge collection of manuscripts form South India was given by a diplomat, Frédéric Haas (1843-1915). The catalogue of the Grantha manuscripts was continued by Léon Feer whose records had a more professional profile.15 They give the title, beginning and end of the text in original characters, numbers of folios, dimensions, and physical description. Léon Feer gave also the full catalogue for the Sanskrit manuscripts in Telugu script, Nandinagari script, Singhalese and Cambodian scripts. His knowledge and his ability in reading different scripts (beside Tibetan and all the scripts from South-East Asia used for the Pali manuscripts) are really impressive.

Another name for the South-Indian Manuscripts should not be forgotten. Julien Vinson (1843-1926) indeed gave the detailed catalogue for the Tamil manuscripts. At the end of the year 1867, Vinson corrected the printed proofs sent by the typographical printing workshop of the Imprimerie imperiale. We keep the third proofs corrected, ready to be printed, for the manuscripts Tamoul 1 to 204, but the booklet of 49 pages had never been published. Maybe Vinson wanted to add to this first part of the catalogue the other records that he had done. We keep indeed these records 205 to 496 in a handwritten form.16

We have to say that Julien Vinson and Léon Feer’s huge efforts were not well rewarded. The bibliographical records that they did remained mostly in a handwritten form and were never published in order to be accessible to the researchers. As we already mentioned, the National Library employed Antoine Cabaton in the very beginning of the twentieth century. Cabaton was a young scholar from the Ecole Française d’Extrême Orient. He was engaged in order to give quickly the complete catalogues of the Indian and South-East Asian collections. He took all the material given by his predecessors and simplified the shelf-mark system with the problem of the concordance that it poses nowadays.

Many great scholars worked hard to give us catalogues that are still in use today, and, in the case of Jean Filliozat, to provide us with a detailed history of the Indian collections. The future allows us to dream to some other realizations, in the field of digitalization through Gallica and detailed catalogues for the entire collection on the online catalogue “BnF Archives et manuscrits”. Different projects are in progress. The Jain manuscripts catalogue that Prof. Nalini Balbir presents in that volume is one of them.

APPENDIX

Time line


1729-1735 Sending from the “Mission du Carnate” (South India & Bengal)

1739 Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum Bibliothecae regiae. Tomus primus. Pars prima complectens codices manuscriptos orientales (E. Fourmont)

1762 Deposit by Anquetil-Duperron

1777 Sending from Faizabad by Gentil

1785 Manuscripts collected by Aussant in Bengal

1790 Langlès examines the Polier collection

1805 Death of Anquetil-Duperron. His scientific papers are given to Sylvestre de Sacy who made a deposit at the Imperial Library

1807 Catalogue des manuscrits samskrits de la bibliothèque impériale : avec des notices du contenu de la plupart des ouvrages (A. Hamilton, L. Langlès)

1833 Buying of Ducler and Reydellet collections

1840 Transmission to the Royal Library of the Hodgson collection

1847 Charles d’Ochoa collects manuscripts in North-West India

1854 Buying from Eugène Burnouf’s widow

1861 Buying of J. F. M. Guérin collection

1866 Deposit of Ariel collection

1868 Catalogue des manuscrits tamouls (1-204), corrected proof-sheet remained unpublished (J. Vinson).

1870 Buying of Grimblot collection

1877 Gift by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres of the Rajendralal Mitra collection

1861-1898 Buying of various collections, among which is the Garcin de Tassy collection

1886 Buying of Haas collection

1886 Deposit of the scientific papers of Eugène Burnouf

1898 The AIBL deposits the manuscripts from Kashmir collected by Alfred Foucher

1898 Emile Senart gives the Mark Aurel Stein collection

1899 Papiers d’Eugène Burnouf conservés à la Bibliothèque Nationale (L. Feer)

1907 Catalogue sommaire des manuscrits sanscrits et p¹lis. Fascicule 1 : Manuscrits sanscrits (A. Cabaton)

1908 Catalogue sommaire des manuscrits sanscrits et p¹lis. Fascicule 2 : Manuscrits p¹lis (A. Cabaton)

1912 Catalogue sommaire des manuscrits indiens, indo-chinois & malayo-polynésiens (A. Cabaton)

1925 Deposit of the Emile Senart collection

1932 Buying of the Palmyr Cordier collection

1934 État des manuscrits sanscrits, bengalis et tibétains de la collection Palmyr Cordier (J. Filliozat)

1936 État des manuscrits de la collection Émile Senart (J. Filliozat)

1941 Catalogue du fonds sanscrit. Fascicule I, nos 1 à 165 (J. Filliozat)

1970 Catalogue du fonds sanscrit. Fascicule II. Nos 166 à 452 (J. Filliozat)

1983 Catalogue des manuscrits singhalais (J. Liyanaratne)

1983 Catalogue du fonds Bengali (P. Mukherjee)

1986 A descriptive catalogue of the marathi manuscripts in the Charles d’Ochoa collection of the Bibliothèque Nationale Paris (S. G. Tulpule)

1995 Manuscrits telugu : catalogue raisonné (G. Colas, U. Colas- Chauhan)

2016 Various buyings

Forthcoming Catalogue of the Jain Manuscripts of the National Library of France (N. Balbir, J. Petit)

Handwritten Catalogues

• List of the manuscripts brought by Anquetil-Duperron (NAF 5433, f. 21)
• List of Oriental mss. (NAF 5440)
o Oriental mss. bought from Anquetil-Duperron (f. 13)
o Oriental mss. bought from Brueys (f. 18)
o Mss. sent from Faizabad by Gentil (f. 21)
o List of the mss. brought by Polier (f. 28)
o Catalogue of the Sanskrit mss. in Telinga script (f. 28v)
• Ancient catalogues of the Royal Library (NAF 5441)
o Records on some Sanskrit mss. by Claude Fauriel (f. 6)
o Records on some Sanskrit mss. (f. 40)
o Records on some Sanskrit mss. in Bengali script by Loiseleur- Deslongchamps (f. 58)
o List of the mss. in Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit and Hindustani from Polier (f. 291, 293)
o List of 47 mss. in Arabic, Persian, Hindustani and Bengali from Aussant (f. 295)
o List of the Tamil mss. from Ducler (f. 309)
o List of the books in Tamil sent by the French Company (f. 327)
o Catalogue of the Indian mss. (f. 328)
• List of the mss. sent by the Jesuit Fathers, 1729-1735 (NAF 5442), edited by Henri Omont, Missions archeìologiques franc’aises en Orient aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siécles, Paris, 1902.
• Catalogue of the Tamil mss. by Velanguani Arokium from Pondichéry, 1845 (NAF 5443)
• Records on Singhalese, Tamil, Pali mss. (Tolfrey collection) by Claude Fauriel (NAF 5444)
• Records on European mss. on India by C. Fauriel (NAF 5445)
• List of the mss. brought by Gentil (NAF 8878)
• Catalogue of the M. A. Stein collection of Kashmiri mss. given by E. Senart (Sanscrit 1044)
• Records by A. Loiseleur-Deslongchamps for the catalogue of Sanskrit mss. (Sanscrit 1045)
• Catalogue of the Sanskrit mss. by S. Munk, alphabetical order (Sanscrit 1772-1)
• Catalogue of the Sanskrit mss. (Sanscrit 1772-2)
• Catalogue of the Sanskrit-Devanagari mss. by Léon Feer (Sanscrit 1773)
• Catalogue of the Sanskrit-Bengali mss. by L. Feer (Sanscrit 1774)
• Catalogue of the Sanskrit-Grantha mss. by Léon Rodet and L. Feer (Sanscrit 1775)
• Catalogue of the Sanskrit-Telinga mss. by L Feer (Sanscrit 1776)
• Catalogue of the Sanskrit mss. in Nagra, Singhalese and Cambodian scripts by L. Feer (Sanscrit 1777)
• Catalogue of the Tamil mss. by Julien Vinson, no 1-132 (Indien 1061)
• Catalogue of the Tamil mss. by Julien Vinson, no 133-204 (Indien 1062)
• Catalogue of Tamil and Telugu mss. by J. Vinson and L. Feer (Indien 577, 578)

Published catalogues

• Étienne Fourmont, Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum Bibliothecae regiae. Tomus primus. Pars prima complectens codices manuscriptos orientales, Paris, 1739.
• A. Hamilton, L. Langlès, Catalogue des manuscrits samskrits de la bibliothèque impériale : avec des notices du contenu de la plupart des ouvrages, Paris, 1807.
• Antoine Cabaton, Catalogue sommaire des manuscrits sanscrits et p¹lis, fasc. 1 : Sanscrit 1-1102, Paris, 1907.
• Antoine Cabaton, Catalogue sommaire des manuscrits sanscrits et p¹lis, fasc. 2 : Pali 1-719, Papiers Burnouf 1-124, Papiers Feer 1-21, Paris, 1908.
• Antoine Cabaton, Catalogue sommaire des manuscrits indiens, indochinois & malayo-polynésiens, Paris, 1912.
• Jean Filliozat, « Liste des manuscrits de la collection Palmyr Cordier », Paris, 1934.
• Jean Filliozat, «Etat sommaire des manuscrits de la collection Cordier», Paris, 1936.
• Jean Filliozat, Catalogue du Fonds Sanscrit, fasc. 1 : Sanscrit 1-165, Paris, 1941.
• Agha Iftikhar Husain, A catalogue of Manuscripts in Paris : Urdu, Pundjabi and Sindhi, Karachi, 1967.
• Jean Filliozat, Catalogue du Fonds Sanscrit, fasc. 2 : Sanscrit 166-452, Paris, 1970.
• Jinadasa Liyanaratne, Catalogue des manuscrits singhalais, Paris, 1983.
• Prithwindra Mukherjee, “Catalogue du fonds Bengali.” Bulletin de l’École Française d’Extrême-Orient, vol. 72 (1983): 13–48.
• S. G. Tulpule, “A Descriptive Catalogue of the Marathi Manuscripts in the Charles d’Ochoa Collection of the Bibliothèque Nationale Paris.” Bulletin de l’Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient, vol. 75, no. 1 (1986) : 105-23.
• Gérard Colas, Usha Colas-Chauhan, Manuscrits telugu : catalogue raisonné, Paris, 1995.

On-line catalogues and guides

• BnF – Archives et manuscrits [http://bnf.archivesetmanuscrits.fr]
• BnF – Catalogue général [http://catalogue.bnf.fr/]
• Gallica, Digitalized Library [http://gallica.bnf.fr/]
• Annie Berthier, Manuscrits, xylographes, estampages/ : les collections orientales du département des Manuscrits/ : guide, Paris, BnF, 2000 [online on Gallica]
• Guide du lecteur du département des Manuscrit s [http:// bnf.libguides.com/manuscrits]

Footnotes

1. The letter ‘Indochinois’ in the shelf-mark gathers together collections from Myanmar, Cambodia, Champa, Laos, and Thailand: the letter of the collection remained after the decolonization process...

2. Nagra script is also called Nandinagari: it is the Nigari from the Dekkan aera.

3. Antoine Cabaton, Catalogue sommaire des manuscrits sanscrits et p¹lis, Paris, E. Leroux, 1907-1908.

4. Jean Filliozat, Catalogue du fonds sanscrit. Fascicule I, nos 1 à 165, Paris, A. Maisonneuve, 1941 ; Fascicule II. Nos 166 à 452, Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, 1970.

5. Catalogue sommaire des manuscrits sanscrits avec supplément manuscrit, call number « 8-IMPR OR-719 ». Online [http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/ btv1b10536321f].

6. http://archivesetmanuscrits.bnf.fr

7. http://gallica.bnf.fr

8. Antoine Cabaton, Catalogue sommaire des manuscrits indiens, indo-chinois & malayo-polynésiens, Paris, E. Leroux, 1912.

9. The records of the ‘Indien’ collection will be accessible online in a near future, that will hopefully solve this problem.

10. Call number « Sanscrit 551 », online [http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/ tv1b105326379

11. Alexander Hamilton, Catalogue des manuscrits samskrits [sic] de la Bibliothèque impériale, Paris, 1807. See also Rosane Rocher, Alexander Hamilton, 1762-1824; a chapter in the early history of Sanskrit philology, American Oriental Society, 1968.

12. All these information were reemployed in later catalogues. A copy of Hamilton’s catalogue (call number ‘Sanscrit 1782’) presents blank pages bound with the printed book precisely to add those new elements. The hand could not be identified, but this is certainly one of a librarian employed for the catalogues operations.

13. Call number ‘Sanscrit 1773’.

14. Call number ‘Sanscrit 1774’.

15. Call number ‘Sanscrit 1775’.

16. Call number ‘Indien 577’.
 
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30823
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Sun Sep 13, 2020 4:37 am

Part 1 of 4

Anquetil-Duperron's Search for the True Vedas, Excerpt from The Birth of Orientalism
by Urs App
© 2010 University of Pennsylvania Press

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Chapter 7: Anquetil-Duperron's Search for the True Vedas

In 1762, after his return from India, Abraham Hyacinthe ANQUETIL-DUPERRON (1731-1805) wrote to one of his former classmates at a Jansenist seminary in Utrecht, Holland:

To deepen the understanding of the history of ancient peoples, to elaborate the revolutions which peoples and languages undergo, to visit regions unknown to the rest of the people where art has preserved the character of the first ages: you will perhaps remember, with distress and sighing about my follies, that these subjects have always been the focus of my attention. (Schwab 1934:18)


From his youth, Anquetil-Duperron's interest in the world's first ages was connected to a deep religiosity that put him on the path to priesthood. It is probably during his theological studies at the Sorbonne that young Anquetil-Duperron wrote a manuscript of about a hundred pages that is now part of his dossier at the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris.1 It is titled "Le Parfait theologien" (The Perfect Theologian), but the word "Parfait" is doubly struck through. The title is emblematic for Anquetil-Duperron's career; and the manuscript, ignored even by Anquetil-Duperron's biographers,2 merits a look.

The Perfect [crossed-out] Theologian

Anquetil-Duperron starts out by insisting that theology is "a science like philosophy" but must, unlike philosophy, stay within the limits circumscribed by "a genuine revelation, the mysteries of religion, and several dogmas transmitted to us by apostolic tradition," which form the bedrock that no one is allowed to question (p. 369r). Since natural religion is also a subject of philosophy, the proper realm of theology is that of revelation (p. 371r). Yet the idea that people have of theology is far too narrow, and Anquetil-Duperron wants in this manuscript to show how broad and deep theology must be. Chapter 3 is titled "That a theologian must be almost universal" and argues that, faced with many pretended revelations, a theologian must be equipped to judge their claims. This indicates the need for knowledge of several languages in order to read the original texts; of history to understand their context; of geography to understand their setting; and of poetry to appreciate their style. "All such knowledge thus forms part of theology" (p. 373v). Furthermore, a real theologian should know not only the Old and New Testaments and all related languages but everything ever divinely revealed and transmitted (p. 375r). He must also question Old Testament authorship:

Is Moses really the first of all writers, as has been asserted by some fathers? If that was the case, where did he get his creation story and deluge story and even the Abraham story from? Did he prophesy the past, as a monk has recently argued? Or has he only reported things that were known in his time and that he could have learned from the tradition of the patriarchs because of the long lifespan of the first humans, as the majority of authors think? But who can say if there were not other historians before Moses, and earlier books? (p. 381V)


A theologian worth the name has to go to the bottom of all these questions, research all opinions and sources ancient and modern, and must especially "discover the systems of Chaldaea, Phoenicia, and Egypt" (p. 393r). Another "thorny question" that "requires infinite caution" is that of Paradise and Adam's sin:

What is this delicious garden of which we are told? Where was it? What has become of it? 1. Was it on the moon or in the air, as some fathers have believed? 2. Was it exclusively spiritual or corporeal, or both together as St. John Damascene thought? 3. Was it in the Orient? In Syria? In Armenia? Or close to India [vers le mogol], where one ordinarily places it? 4. Or was it the entire habitable earth, as some theologians have asserted? 5. How can one reconcile what Genesis says about these four rivers [of paradise] with geography as it is now known? 6. Could the location have changed? What proofs are there of that? 7. If there is no proof: must one take recourse to parables? (p. 393v)


Such is the kind of questions over which young Anquetil-Duperron pondered. He asked himself why Moses put this narration of Adam's sin in the book of Genesis, why the angels rebelled, whether the deluge was universal, and other pressing questions (pp. 394r-v). A perfect theologian must go beyond the biblical text and learn about the histories of other peoples, including the Greeks and the Chinese, and about their religions and arts (p. 407r). With regard to languages, a theologian ought to master not only standard Hebrew and rabbinical Hebrew but also Greek, Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopian (pp. 414v-41v), and he should also study the histories and philosophies of these peoples. After dozens of pages filled with such desiderata, Anquetil-Duperron begins to deal with the critical analysis of concrete texts, but this is where the manuscript abruptly ends (p. 481r).

Anquetil-Duperron's early manuscript already shows his interest in ancient textual sources and his boundless thirst for knowledge, and it defines the field of revelation as his working area. The task the young man had set for himself seems daunting, but his search for genuine ancient records of God's earliest revelations was to carry him far beyond the Middle East and become a drawn-out quest for the Indian Vedas that lasted from his youth to his death in 1805. His last publication -- a posthumously published annotated translation of Father Paulinus a Sancto Bartholomaeo's Viaggio alle Indie orientali (Voyage to the East Indies, 1796) that appeared in 1808 -- shows the end point of Anquetil-Duperron's theological journey of a lifetime. Taking issue with Paulinus's statement that the Ezour-vedam was "composed by a missionary and falsely attributed to the brahmins" and that the Indians' conception of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva clearly shows "the materialism of the Indians" and their pagan philosophy (Paulinus a Sancto Bartholomaeo 1796:66), Anquetil-Duperron vigorously defended the Ezour-vedam's genuineness ("a donkey can deny more than a philosopher can prove"3) as well as the orthodoxy of the Indian trinity:

The missionary [Paulinus] keeps forgetting that by his comparisons with the false Orpheus, the fake oracles of Zoroaster, Hermes, and the Egyptians he gives an air of falsity to the Indian dogmas .... It is no surprise that one finds the trinity in Plato, with the Egyptians, and possibly with the Pythagoreans: the earliest sages, the philosophers, have always been careful to preserve and meditate on the ancient truths. In the one finds the supreme Being, his word, his spirit. (Paulinus a Sancto Bartholomaeo 1808:3.419)


Anquetil-Duperron wrote that until Paulinus "makes positively known" who the author of the Ezour-vedam was "one cannot trust his magisterial assertions regarding erudition about India" (p. 120). But by the time this challenge was published, both Anquetil-Duperron (d. 1805) and Paulinus (d. 1806) were dead. In the meantime, several authors have faced that challenge, but so far the debate has ended inconclusively. The last word came from Ludo Rocher who, in his 1984 monograph on the Ezour-vedam, offers much interesting information but ends the discussion of authorship not with a culprit but with a list of suspects:

The question who the French Jesuit author of the EzV [Ezour-vedam] was we can only speculate on. Calmette was very much involved in the search for the Vedas; Mosac is a definite possibility; there may by some truth to Maudave's information on Martin; there is no way of verifying the references to de Villette and Bouchet. The author of the EzV may be one of these, but he may also be one of their many more or less well-known confreres. In the present state of our knowledge, we cannot go any further than that. (Rocher 1984:60)


What I said above already made me suspect that not only the Ezour-Vedam was a French work, but that the P. Calmette was the author. To acquire the certainty I had thought to speak to that, all of Paris, was the better to know the status of the issue. The venerable Abbé Dubois, who was a missionary for forty years in India, who lived with the last Jesuit missionaries, and who lived in Pondicherry, has no doubt seen, I said to myself, those curious manuscripts which made so much noise. I went on to find, and without letting him know my opinion, I asked him if we knew the author of the Ezour-Veda. "This is the P. Calmette," he told me at once. But, he added, several missionaries got their hands on it. I needed no more. I had rediscovered the trace of the illustrious Indianist who was the initiator of French scholars in this branch which is so flourishing today.

-- The Father Calmette and the Indianist Missionaries, by Father Julien Bach


In this chapter I will take up Anquetil-Duperron's challenge and offer my answer on the backdrop of a broader sequence of events: the European discovery of India's oldest sacred literature. How did Anquetil-Duperron come to regard the Ezour-vedam as genuine; and why could he, an ardent Christian, call Vedic texts "orthodox"?

Approaching the Vedas

Theological questions very much like those posed by young Anguetil-Duperron were the major motivation for the study of ancient languages and histories, and as textual critique and conflicts between secular (Chinese, Egyptian, etc.) and sacred (biblical) history stirred up debates in Europe, the study of ancient oriental languages and texts became increasingly important. Books possibly older than the Pentateuch were of special interest.

As we have seen, rumors circulated about the book of Enoch, which for a long time was regarded as possibly the oldest book in the world. It was coveted by eminent European intellectuals such as Reuchlin, Peiresc, and Kircher (Schmidt 1922) and stimulated the study of Ethiopian. Then the Jesuit figurists in China identified Enoch with Fuxi and the Yijing seemed for a while to be the world's oldest book. Its study stimulated the study of ancient Chinese texts and produced a number of excellent Sinologists like Premare, Visdelou, Foucquet, and Gaubil.

India was also associated with Enoch's book since 1553 when Guillaume Postel suggested in De originibus that "treasures of antediluvian books" stored in India could include "the work of Enoch" (Postel 1553b:72). But scriptures of Indian rather than mideastern origin were also mentioned among the world's oldest. Henry Lord's 1630 book stated in the introduction that God gave Brammon "a Booke, containing the forme of divine Worshippe and Religion" (p. 5). Since this divine work (which Brammon took to the East, "the most noble part of the world") reportedly was transmitted in the first world age, it must have been the world's oldest book; but it was lost at the end of the first yuga. In the second world age, after the great flood, God again "communicated Religion to the world" in "a book of theirs called the SHASTER, which is to them as their Bible, containing the grounds of their Religion in a written word" and was delivered "out of the cloud into the hand of Bremaw" (Lord 1630: Introduction). Lord's Shaster is said to consist of three tracts -- a book of precepts, the ceremonial law, and the observations of castes (p. 40) -- of which Lord translated some parts garnished with his (mostly critical) comments. But this information got relatively little publicity in Europe.4 The same author's "The Religion of the Persees" described the religion of the Parsees in India, who have a "Booke, delivered to Zertoost [Zarathustra], and by him published to the Persians or Persees" (p. 27) and furnished translations of some extracts. Lord's two thin volumes, which are often bound together, deal exactly with the two major areas of Anquetil-Duperron's work more than a century later: his research on the oldest texts of Persian origin found in India's Parsee community at Surat and his work on ancient India's religious literature.

For people in search of the world's oldest books, India's mysterious Vedas had a particular attraction, even though -- or perhaps because -- information about them often consisted of little more than the names of its four parts and the assertion of great antiquity. Agostinho de Azevedo's report about the Vedas and Shastras of India found its way into Johannes Lucena's Historia da Vida do Padre Francisco de Xavier (1600) and Diogo do Couto's Decada Quinta da Asia (1612), and from there into other works including Holwell's (see Chapter 6). The report in the Livro da Seita dos Indios Orientals by the Jesuit Giacomo Fenicio from the early seventeenth century was plagiarized by Baldaeus (1672) and also got some publicity. However, both Fenicio's and Azevedo's data were based not on the Vedas but on other texts.5

In the seventeenth century, bits and pieces of information about the Vedas from Heinrich Roth/Kircher, Francois Bernier, Jean Baptiste Tavernier, and others were floating around, and even Johann Joachim MULLER'S (1661-1733) (in)famous De tribus impostoribus contained a passage about them. The false date of 1598 on the original printed edition of these Three Impostors led some researchers6 to conclude that this book contained the earliest Western mention of the four Vedas; but Winfried Schroder has proved that the book is by Muller and was written almost a century later, in 1688 (Muller 1999; Mulsow 2002:119). Muller had been involved in oriental studies, and his Veda passage shows beautifully how competition by alternative revelations and older texts could be used to destabilize Christianity, whether in jest -- as seems to have been his intention -- or in earnest, as his readers understood it. Muller's passage about the Vedas occurs in the context of an attack on Christianity on the basis of competing revelations that form the basis of the sacred scriptures of the "three impostors" Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed:

By a special revelation? Who are you to say this? Good God! What a hotchpotch of revelations! Do you rely on the oracles of the heathen? Already antiquity laughed about this. How about the testimony of your priests? I offer you others who contradict them. Hold a debate: but who will be the judge? And what will be the outcome of the controversy? You cite the writings of Moses, of the prophets, and of the apostles? The Koran will be held against you which on the basis of the ultimate revelation calls them corrupt; and its author boasts of having cut by divine miraculous intervention the corruptions and quarrels of the Christians with his sword, like Moses those of the heathens. (Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek Wien, Cod. 19540, pp. 8-9)


After this argument of mutually contradictory absolute truth claims -- which was already advanced in the thirteenth century by Roger Bacon in the context of his discussion of the religious debates in front of the great Khan -- Muller brings up the delicate topic of chronology, which was much discussed after Martino Martini's publications of the 1650s:

Indeed, Mohammed subjugated Palestine by force, as had Moses, and both were guided by great miracles. And their followers oppose you, as do the Veda and the collections of the Brachmans that date from 14,000 years ago, to say nothing of the Chinese. You, who hide yourself in this corner of Europe dismiss these religions and deny their validity, and you are right to do so; but the others negate yours with the same ease. (p. 9)


This kind of "foreign" perspective was also adopted by the author of the Letters by a Turkish Spy which will be quoted below, and in the eighteenth century it was quite fashionable and used, for example, by Montesquieu in his Lettres Persanes and by Voltaire in many writings. Instead of making the "older-is-better" argument, however, Muller immediately undercuts the authority of even the oldest scriptures of the world:

And what miracle could not convince men if [they are so credulous as to believe] that the world has been born from a scorpion's egg, that the earth is carried on the head of a bull, and that the ultimate basis of things would be formed from the three Vedas if some jealous son of the Gods had not stolen the first three volumes? Our people would laugh about this, and this would be another argument for them in support of the soundness of their religion, even if it has no basis except in the brains of their priests. Besides, from where did they get those enormous amounts of scriptures, packed with lies, about the heathen gods? (p. 9)


At the end of the seventeenth century, the reputation of the Vedas and of Sanskrit for great antiquity was also reflected in the much-read Letters writ by a Turkish Spy, whose eight volumes were reprinted many times. The third volume contains the following observation that Holwell, among others, adduced in support of his idea of humanity's origin in India (Holwell 1771:3.157):

But that seems very strange which thou relatest, of a certain Language among the Indians, which is not vulgarly spoken; but that all their Books of Theology, and Pandects of their Laws, the Records of their Nation, and the Treatises of Human Arts and Sciences are written in it. And that this Language is taught in their Schools, Colleges, and Academies, even as Latin is among the Christians. I cannot enough admire at this; for, where and when was this Language spoken? How came it to be difus'd? There seems to be a Mystery in it, that none of their Brachmans can give any other Account of this, save, that it is the Language, wherein God gave, to the first Creature he made, the four Books of the Law: which according to their Chronology, was above Thirty Million Years ago. (Marana et al. 1723:3.171-72)


These "four Books of the Law" are of course the four Vedas. The continuation of this "Turkish Spy" letter beautifully shows the subversive potential of such news from the Orient at the end of the seventeenth century:

I tell thee, my dear Brother, this News has started some odd Notions in my Mind: For when I consider, That this Language, as thou sayest, Has nothing in it common with the Indian that is now spoken nor with any other Language of Asia, or the World; and yet, that it is a copious and regular Language, learne'd by Grammar, like the other material Languages; and that, in this obsolete Language Books are written, wherein it is asserted, That the World is so many Millions of Years old; I could almost turn Pythagorean, and believe, The World to be within a Minute of Eternal. And, where would be the Absurdity? Since God had equally the same infinite Power, Wisdom and Goodness, from all Eternity, as he had Five or Six thousand Years ago. What should hinder him then from exerting these divine Attributes sooner? What should retard him from drawing forth this glorious Fabrick earlier, from the Womb of Nothing? Suffer thy Imagination to start backwards, as far as thou canst, even to Millions of Ages, and yet thou canst not conceive a Time, wherein this fair unmeasurable Expanse was not stretch'd out. As if Nature her self had engraven on our Intellect, this Record of the Worlds untraceable Antiquity, in that our strongest, swiftest Thoughts, are far too weak and slow, to follow time back to its endless Origin." (p. 172)


De Nobili's Vedic Restoration Project

Since access to the Vedas was nearly impossible, most of the information about their content was pure fantasy. We have seen in the chapter on Holwell how easy it was to be misled by speculation. But a few missionaries (whose writings were mostly doomed to sleep in archives for several centuries) were in a position to consult vedic texts or question learned informants. The Jesuit Roberto DE NOBILI (1577-1656) obtained direct access to some Vedas from his teacher, a Telugu Brahmin called Shivadharma.

Nobili is the first European known to have read parts of the Vedas. In a number of his works defending his strategy of tolerating aspects of Brahminical lifestyle among his converts, he cites directly from the texts associated with the Black Yajur Veda... Nobili’s access to these texts was mediated by the Telugu Brahmin convert who taught him Sanskrit, Śivadharma or Bonifacio... Śivadharma, who had falling out with Nobili, assisted [Goncalo] Fernandes with scriptural quotations in his 1616 treatise attacking Nobili... as Fernandes did not know Sanskrit, the texts were translated into Tamil by Śivadharma and only thence into Portuguese by Fernandes with his assistant Andrea Buccerio. This kind of mediated access to Sanskrit texts, likely the same method used by Azevedo and Rogerius, would be repeated in the following century by other missionaries.

-- The Absent Vedas, by Will Sweetman


He wrote that the four traditional Vedas are "little more than disorderly congeries of various opinions bearing partly on divine, partly on human subjects, a jumble where religious and civil precepts are miscellaneously put together" (Rubies 2000:338). Having been told in 1608 that the fourth Veda was no longer extant, the missionary decided to proclaim himself "teacher of the fourth, lost Veda which deals with the question of salvation" (Zupanov 1999:116). De Nobili apparently believed, like his contemporary Matteo Ricci in China, that though original pure monotheism had degenerated into idolatry, vestiges of the original religion survived and could serve to regenerate the ancient creed under the sign of the Cross. After his failed experiment with Buddhist robes (see Chapter I), Ricci adopted the dress of a Confucian scholar, asserted that the Chinese had anciently been pure monotheists, and proclaimed Christianity to be the fulfillment of the doctrines found in ancient Chinese texts. A few years later, Ricci's compatriot de Nobili presented himself in India as an ascetic "sannayasi from the North" and "restorer of 'a lost spiritual Veda'" (Rubies 2000:339) who hailed from faraway Rome where the Ur-tradition had been best preserved. In his Relafao annual for the year 1608, Fernao Guerreiro wrote on a similar line that he was studying Brahmin letters to present his Christian message as a restoration of the spiritual Veda, the true original religion of all countries, including India whose adulterated vestiges were the religions of Vishnu, Brahma, and Shiva (p. 344).

For de Nobili, the word "Veda" signified the spiritual law revealed by God. He called himself a teacher of Satyavedam, that is, the true revealed law, who had studied philosophy and this very law in Rome. He maintained that his was exactly the same law that "by God's order had been taught in earlier times by Sannyasins" in India (Bachmann 1972:154). De Nobili thus had come to India to restore satyavedam and to bring back, as the title of his didactic Sanskrit poem says, "The Essence of True Revelation [satyavedam]" (Castets 1935:40). De Nobili's description of the traditional Indian Vedas clearly shows that he did not regard them as "genuine Vedas" or genuine divine revelations. That de Nobili was for a long time suspected of being the author of the Ezour-vedam is understandable because in that text Chumontou has fundamentally the same role as de Nobili: he exposes the degenerate accretions of the reigning clergy's "Veda," represented by the traditional Veda compiler Biache (Vyasa), in order to teach them about satyavedam, the divine Ur-revelation whose correct transmission he represents against the degenerate transmission in the Vedas of the Brahmins. This "genuine Veda" had once upon a time been brought to India, but subsequently the Indians had forgotten it and instituted the false Veda that is now religiously followed. The common aim of de Nobili and of Chumontou was the restoration of the true, most ancient divine revelation (Veda) and the denunciation of the false, degenerated Veda that the Brahmins now call their own.

In the wake of Ricci in China and de Nobili in India, the desire to find and study ancient texts and to acquire the necessary linguistic skills to handle them was increasing both among China and India missionaries, and this desire was clearly linked to the idea of a common Ur-tradition and its local vestiges that could be put to use for "accommodation" or, as I prefer to call it, "friendly takeover." What we have observed in other chapters, namely, that religion is deeply linked to the beginnings of the systematic study of oriental languages and literatures, clearly also applies to India; and if such study produced wondrous Egyptian (Kircher) and Chinese figurist flowers in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the heyday of India in this respect was yet to come.

Calmette's Veda Purchase

At the beginning of the eighteenth century, Europeans in search of humanity's oldest texts received some enticing news in letters by Jesuit missionaries in India. For example, on January 30, 1709, Pierre de la Lane wrote in a letter that Indians are idolaters but also have some books that prove "that they had antiently a pretty distinct Knowledge of the true God." The missionary went on to quote the beginning of the Panjangan almanac that, as we saw in Chapter I, was among the earliest materials that impressed Voltaire about India (Pomeau 1995:161). In John Lockman's English translation of 1743, this passage reads as follows:

I worship that Being who is not subject to Change and Disquietude; that Being whose Nature is indivisible; that Being whose Simplicity admits of no Composition with respect to Qualities; that Being who is the Origin and Cause of all Beings, and surpasses 'em all in Excellency; that Being who is the Support of the Universe, and the Source of the triple Power." (Lockman 1743:2.377-78)


Father de la Lane wrote that the majority of Indian books are works of poetry and that "the Poets of the Country have, by their Fictions, imperceptibly obliterated the Ideas of the Deity in the Minds of these Nations" (p. 378). But India also has far older books, especially the Veda:7

As the oldest Books, which contained a purer Doctrine, were writ in a very antient Language, they were insensibly neglected, and at last the Use of that Tongue was quite laid aside. This is certain, with regard to their sacred Book called the Vedam, which is not now understood by their Literati; they only reading and learning some Passages of it by Heart; and these they repeat with a mysterious Tone of Voice, the better to impose upon the Vulgar. (pp. 378-79)


Such mystery, antiquity, and potential orthodoxy whetted the appetite of Europeans with an interest in origins and ancient religion. After Abbe Jean-Paul Bignon had been nominated to the post of director of the Royal Library in 1719 and of the special library at the Louvre in 1720 (Leung 2002:130), he gave orders to acquire the Vedas. But this was easier said than done. In 1730 a young and linguistically gifted Jesuit by the name of Jean CALMETTE (1693-1740), who had joined the Jesuit India mission in 1726, wrote about the difficulties:

Those who for thirty years have written that the Vedam cannot be found were not completely wrong: there was not enough money to find them. Many people, missionaries, and laymen, have spent money for nothing and were left empty-handed when they thought they would get everything. Less than six years ago [in 1726] two missionaries, one in Bengal and the other one here [in Carnate], were duped. Mr. Didier, the royal engineer, gave sixty rupees for a book that was supposed to be the Vedam on the order of Father Pons, the superior of [the Jesuit mission of] Bengal. (Bach 1847:441)


But in the same letter Calmette announced that he was certain of having found the genuine Vedas:

The Vedams found here have clarified issues regarding other books. They had been considered so impossible to find that in Pondicherry many people could not believe that it was the genuine Vedam, and I was asked if I had thoroughly examined it. But the investigations I have made leave no doubt whatsoever; and I continue to examine them every day when scholars or young brahmins who learn the Vedam in the schools of the land come to see me and I make them recite it. I even recite together with them what I have learned from some text's beginning or from other places. It is the Vedam; there is no more doubt about this. (p. 441)


Calmette achieved this success thanks to a Brahmin who was a secret Christian, and in 1731 he reported having acquired all four Vedas, including the fourth that de Nobili had thought lost (p. 442). In 1732, Father le Gac mailed to Paris two Vedas written in Telugu letters on palm leaves, and the copying of the remaining two was ongoing (p. 442).

[W]hile Calmette did obtain the Rg, Yajur, and Sama Veda samhitas, his “Adarvana Vedam” is in fact an assortment of tantric and magical texts connected with goddess worship called Atharvanatantraraja and Atharvanamantraśāstra.

-- The Absent Vedas, by Will Sweetman


From the early 1730s Father Calmette devoted himself intensively to the study of the Vedas and wrote on January 24, 1733:

Since the King has made the decision to form an Oriental library, Abbe Bignon has graced us with the honor of relying on us for research of Indian books. We are already benefiting much from this for the advancement of religion; having acquired by these means the essential books which are like the arsenal of paganism, we extract from it the weapons to combat the doctors of idolatry, and the weapons that hurt them the most are their own philosophy, their theology, and especially the four Vedam which contain the law of the brahmins and which India since time immemorial possesses and regards as the sacred book: the book whose authority is irrefragable and which derived from God himself. (Le Gobien 1781:13.394)


The opponents in this combat were mainly Brahmins who considered the Europeans worse than outcasts. Calmette explained: "Nothing is here more contrary to [our Christian] religion than the caste of brahmins. It is they who seduce India and make all these peoples hate the name of Christian" (p. 362). The label Prangui, which the Indians first gave to the Portuguese and with which "those who are ignorant about the different nations composing our colony designate all Europeans" (p. 347), was a major problem from the beginning of the mission, and the Jesuits' Sannyasi attire and "Brahmin from the North" identity were in part designed to avoid such ostracism. The fight against the Brahmin "ministers of the devil" who "never cease to pursue their plan to ruin both our church and the Christians who depend on it" (p. 363) is featured prominently in Calmette's letters, and it is clear that the Frenchman meant business when he spoke about stocking up an arsenal of weapons especially from the four Vedas for combating these doctors of idolatry.

The preparation consisted in the intensive study of Sanskrit and a survey of India's sacred literature, in particular, of the Vedas.

The Veda has occupied an ambiguous position in Hinduism. On the one hand, many Hindus have proclaimed it their most authoritative and sacred body of literature. On the other, for the past two thousand years its contents have been almost completely unknown to the vast majority of Hindus, and have had virtually no relevance to their religious practices. In the last centuries before the Common Era, access to the Vedic texts was limited to male members of the three highest social classes, and since at least the second century CE, Hindu law-makers have declared that only male Brahmins are eligible to study the Veda. Between then and now, the great majority of the people we retrospectively identify as “Hindu” have been deliberately excluded from the Veda, and for most of this period we have little means of knowing whether such people accepted its authority. In ancient India, the maintenance of the Veda’s exclusivity was largely dependent on two factors: first, that it was prohibited to commit the Vedic texts to writing; second, that Brahmins were the guardians not only of the Vedas, but also of Sanskrit. By excluding all except male Brahmins from learning Sanskrit, the Veda was kept out of the majority’s reach. However, after the Sanskrit of the Vedas had developed, in the last centuries BCE, into the distinct, post-Vedic “Classical Sanskrit”, the content of the Vedas became inaccessible even to many Brahmins. Already in the Mānavadharmaśāstra, a Brahminical text composed probably around the 2nd century CE (Olivelle 2004), there is a reference to Brahmins who recite the Veda but do not understand it, and ethnographies attest to the existence of such persons today. This neglect of the content of the Vedas, together with the sustained emphasis on their correct recitation, signals the prevalent belief that the sacredness of these texts is in their sounds rather than their meaning. Thus, to recite correctly, or to hear such a recital, is intrinsically efficacious.

-- A religion of the book? On sacred texts in Hinduism, by Robert Leach


Of course, Calmette was eager to find any possible allusion to Jesus and major events of the Old and New Testaments. He searched for textual traces of the deluge and asked himself whether Vishnu is Jesus, if Chambelam means Bethlehem, and if the Brahmins stem from the race of Abraham (pp. 379-85). But the study of Sanskrit was also useful for disputing with Brahmins and scholars:

Up to now we have had little dealings with this kind of scholars; but since they noticed that we understand their books of science and their Samouscroutam [Sanskrit] language, they begin to approach us, and because they are intelligent and have principles, they follow us better than the others in dispute and agree more readily to the truth when they have nothing solid to oppose it. (p. 396)


Naturally, Calmette profited from the experience of other missionaries who had mastered difficult languages and were interested in antiquity, for example, Claude de Visdelou who resided in Pondicherry for three decades and was very familiar with missionary tactics and methods in China.8 But even more important, in 1733 a learned fellow Jesuit by the name of Jean-Francois PONS (1698-1751) had joined Calmette in the Carnate mission. Pons and Calmette came from the same town of Rodez in southern France, had both joined the Jesuit novitiate in Toulouse, were both sent to India, and were both studying Sanskrit. Pons had arrived in India two years prior to Calmette, in 1724, and spent his first four years in the Carnate region. It was Pons who had tried to buy a copy of the Veda for 60 rupees in 1726, only to find out that he had fallen victim to a scam. From 1728 to 1733, he was superior of the Bengal mission, and it is during this time that he studied Sanskrit. As superior in Chandernagor he became an important channel for the European discovery of India's literature. He spent on behalf of Abbe Bignon and the Royal Library in Paris a total of 1,779 rupees for researchers, copyists, and manuscripts in Sanskrit and Persian. They included the Mahabharata in 17 volumes, 24 volumes of Puranas, 31 volumes about philology, 22 volumes about history and mythology, 7 volumes about astronomy and astrology, and 8 volumes of poems, among other acquisitions (Castets 1935:47). Though Pons was Calmette's junior by five years, he was thus more experienced and knowledgeable than his countryman when he joined the Carnate mission for a second time in 1733, and the two gifted missionaries could combine their efforts.

In 1735 Calmette described some of the benefits of the study of Sanskrit and the Vedas for his mission:

Ever since their Vedam, which contains their sacred books, has been in our hands, we have extracted texts suitable for convincing them of the fundamental truths that ruin idolatry; because the unity of God, the characteristics of the true God, salvation, and reprobation are in the Vedam; but the truths that are found in this book are only sprinkled like gold dust on piles of dirt; because the rest consists in the principle of all Indian sects, and maybe the details of all errors that make up their body of doctrines. (Le Gobien 1781:13.437)


Vedic Talking Points and Broken Teeth

From the early 1730s Calmette thus collected -- probably with the help of knowledgeable Indians and later of Pons -- examples of "fundamental truths" as well as "details of all errors" from the Vedas. This was the first systematic effort by Europeans to study such a mass of ancient Indian texts; and it was not an easy task because the language of these texts proved to be so difficult that even most Indians were at a loss:

What is surprising is that the majority of those who are its depositaries do not understand its meaning because it is written in a very ancient language, and the Samouscroutam [Sanskrit], which is as familiar to the scholars as Latin is among us, is not yet sufficient [for understanding] unless aided by a commentary both for the thought and for the words. It is called the Maha Bachiam, the great commentary.9 Those who make that kind of book their study are first-rate scholars among them. (p. 395)


At the time there were only six active Jesuit missionaries in the whole Carnate region around Pondicherry (p. 391), but they were assisted by many more Indian catechists who were essential for the mission. The missionaries could not personally go to some regions because of Brahmin opposition and other reasons, and to preach there was a main task of these catechists. Calmette's objective in studying the Vedas was not a translation of any part of them. That would definitely have been impossible after just a few years of study, even with the help of Pons. The language of these texts, particularly that of earlier Vedas, was a tough nut to crack even for learned Indians. In a letter dated September 16, 1737, Calmette wrote to Father Rene Joseph de Tournemine in Paris:

I think like you, reverend father, that it would have been appropriate to consult original texts of Indian religion with more care; but we did not have these books at hand until now, and for a long time they were considered impossible to find, especially the principal ones which are the four Vedan. It was only five or six years ago that, due to [the establishment of] an oriental library system for the King, I was asked to do research about Indian books that could form part of it. I then made discoveries that are important for [our] Religion, and among these I count the four Vedan or sacred books. But these books, which even the most able doctors only half understand and which a brahmin would not dare to explain to us for fear of a scandal in his caste, are written in a language for which Samscroutam [Sanskrit], the language of the learned, does not yet provide the key because they are written in a more ancient language. These books, I say, are in more than one way sealed for us. (Le Gobien 1781:14.6)


But Calmette tried his hand at composing some verses in Sanskrit and wrote on December 20, 1737, after a bout of fever that had hindered his study of Sanskrit: "I could not help composing a few verses in this language, in the style of controversy, to oppose them to those poured forth by the Indians" (Castets 1935:40). Calmette was inspired by de Nobili's writings that were stored at the Pondicherry mission and seems to have partly copied and rearranged de Nobili's Sattia Veda Sanghiragham (Essence of genuine revelation) (p. 40), whose title expresses exactly the idea that seems to have influenced Calmette so profoundly: the notion of a true Veda (satya veda).

Unlike de Nobili who had thought that the fourth Veda was lost and had presented himself as the guru who brought at least its teaching back to India, Calmette had also bought the fourth Veda10 and found that it was far more readable and therefore of somewhat later origin:

[W]hile Calmette did obtain the Rg, Yajur, and Sama Veda samhitas, his “Adarvana Vedam” is in fact an assortment of tantric and magical texts connected with goddess worship called Atharvanatantraraja and Atharvanamantraśāstra.

-- The Absent Vedas, by Will Sweetman


There are texts that are explained in their theology books: some are intelligible for a reader of Sanskrit, particularly those that are from the last books of the Vedan, which by the difference of language and style are known to be more than five centuries younger than the earlier ones. (Le Gobien 1781:14.6)


Even if the Vedas remained for the most part a sealed book for Calmette and Pons, they could make a survey of their contents and pick out certain topics, stories, and quotations that could be used as talking points in debates and serve as "weapons" in the missionary "arsenal." One goal of such a collection of "truth" and "error" passages drawn from the Veda was their use in public disputes against Brahmins. A favorite tactic mentioned by Calmette is the following:

Another way of controversy is to establish the truth and unity of God by definitions or propositions drawn from the Vedam. Since this book is among them of the highest authority, they do not fail to admit this. Following this, it is very easy to reject the plurality of gods. Now if they reply that this plurality is found in the Vedam, which is true, it is confirmed that there is a manifest contradiction in their law as it does not accord with itself. (Le Gobien 1781:13.438)


The verbal operations in such writing as Patai's (who has outstripped even his previous work in his recent The Arab Mind 134 [The Indian Mind] ) aim at a very particular sort of compression and reduction. Much of his paraphernalia is anthropological -- he describes the Middle East [India] as a "culture area" -- but the result is to eradicate the plurality of differences among the Arabs [Indians] (whoever they may be in fact) in the interest of one difference, that one setting Arabs [Indians] off from everyone else. As a subject matter for study and analysis, they can be controlled more readily. Moreover, thus reduced they can be made to permit, legitimate, and valorize general nonsense of the sort one finds in works such as Sania Hamady's Temperament and Character of the Arabs [Temperament and Character of the Indians]. Item:

The Arabs
[Indians] so far have demonstrated an incapacity for disciplined and abiding unity. They experience collective outbursts of enthusiasm but do not pursue patiently collective endeavors, which are usually embraced halfheartedly. They show lack of coordination and harmony in organization and function, nor have they revealed an ability for cooperation. Any collective action for common benefit or mutual profit is alien to them.

The style of this prose tells more perhaps than Hamady intends. Verbs like "demonstrate," "reveal," "show," are used without an indirect object: to whom are the Arabs
[Indians] revealing, demonstrating, showing? To no one in particular, obviously, but to everyone in general. This is another way of saying that these truths are self-evident only to a privileged or initiated observer, since nowhere does Hamady cite generally available evidence for her observations. Besides, given the inanity of the observations, what sort of evidence could there be? As her prose moves along, her tone increases in confidence: "Any collective action ...is alien to them." The categories harden, the assertions are more unyielding, and the Arabs [Indians] have been totally transformed from people into no more than the putative subject of Hamady's style. The Arabs [Indians] exist only as an occasion for the tyrannical observer: "The world is my idea."

-- Orientalism, by Edward W. Said


Calmette described various dispute strategies that are based on the knowledge of the Vedas and address themes such as the concept of a world soul, punishment in hell, and reward in paradise. (pp. 445-50).

Like de Nobili, Calmette thought that the word "Veda" referred to the divinely revealed "word of God" and explained: "I translated the word Vedam by divine scriptures [divines Ecritures] because when I asked some brahmins what they understood by Vedam, they told me that for them it means the word of God" (p. 384). But if this was God's revelation, then it had been incredibly corrupted. The best proof of this was that Calmette had to look so hard for those little specks of gold. The more he studied, the clearer it must have become to him that de Nobili had been right in concluding that the Indian Veda was far removed from the "genuine Veda" or satya vedam, that is, the divine revelation to the first patriarchs. That true Veda had been disfigured in India and needed to be restored to its ancient glory. It is for this purpose that Calmette collected both the specks of gold and the worst symptoms of degeneration in the Veda. In the quoted example, the unity and goodness of God were first confirmed on the basis of Vedic passages and then contrasted with very human failings and even crimes of Indian gods like Shiva and Vishnu. In this manner an inner contradiction of the Veda could be exposed, and the opponents in the debate who could not deny the accuracy of the quotations from the Vedas could be caught in a no-win, "heads I win, tails you lose" type of situation.

Such tactics thus required intensive study of Indian sacred scriptures. Since the Indian catechists were almost never from the Brahmin caste, they were at best familiar with some puranic literature but certainly not with the Vedas. But since they most often had to conduct the debates, the quotations from the Vedas and talking points had to be set in writing; and because the disputes were held in front of ordinary people, such texts and quotations needed to be in Telugu rather than Sanskrit.
In the Edifying and curious letters there are many examples of disputes involving catechists; but one of them is of particular interest here since it features a catechist who used exactly the kind of text that could have resulted from Calmette's "talking points" effort. The letter by Father Saignes is dated June 3, 1736, a couple of years after the acquisition and copying of the Vedas, and it stems from the very region in which Calmette worked:

A brahmin, the intendant of the prince, passed through a village of his dependency and saw several persons assembled around one of my catechists who explained the Christian law to them. He stopped, called him, and asked him who he was, of what caste, what job he had, and what the book which he held in his hand was about. When the catechist had answered these questions, the brahmin took the book and read it. He just hit upon a passage which said that the gods of the land are no more than feeble men. "That's a rare teaching," said the brahmin, "and I would like you to try to prove that to me." "Sir," replied the catechist, "that will not be difficult if you order me to do so." "If that's all you need then I order you," rejoined the brahmin. The catechist began to recite two or three events from the life of Vishnu, which were theft, murder, and adultery. The brahmin wanted to change the topic [detourner le discours]; but the catechist would not let him and pressed on even more. The brahmin realized too late that he had become caught in a dispute without paying attention to his status as a brahmin; and not knowing how to extricate himself honorably from this affair, he flew into a violent rage against the Christian law. "Law of Pranguis," he said, "law of miserable Parias, infamous law." "Permit me to say this," said the catechist, "the law is without stain: the sun is equally worshipped [adore] by the brahmins and the Parias, and it must not be called the sun of the Parias even though they worship it just as the brahmins do." This comparison enraged the brahmin even more and he had no other response than to hit the catechist several times with his stick. He also hit him on the mouth and shattered all his teeth, and he had him chased out of the village like a Parias, prohibiting him ever to come there again and ordering the villagers to never give him shelter. (Le Gobien 1781:14.29-30).


Father Saignes wrote that this catechist "explained the Christian law" to his local audience and that for this purpose he used a "book" that one could practically open at random and hit upon a passage that says that "the gods of the land are no more than feeble men." Was this a praeparatio evangelica type of work that denounces the reigning local religion (see Chapter I) in order to prepare the people for the Good News of the Christians? At any rate, it must have been a book in Telugu whose content stemmed from the Carnate missionaries who intensively studied the local religion and prepared such materials for the catechists. All this would seem to point to Father Calmette and Father Pons who at that very time (in the mid-1730s) and in that very region devoted much time to the study of the sacred scriptures of India.

We do not know what book the catechist read, but to my knowledge, the only extant text that would fit the missionary's description is the Ezour-vedam. A Telugu translation of this text must have existed since both Anquetil-Duperron's and Voltaire's Ezour-vedam manuscripts contain the following passage:

Biache. I would now be interested in knowing the names of the different countries inhabited by people and the differences among them. You have told me about heaven and hell. Give me a brief description of the earth which brings me up to date on all the different countries that are inhabited.

Chumontou responding to the question tells him the names of the different countries he knew and marks their location for him. Those interested can find them on the other page in the Telegoa language.
11


Apart from indicating that the Ezour-vedam's original French text had been translated into Telugu and was illustrated with a map, this passage is also extremely significant because it shows that the Ezour-vedam was designed for use by missionaries or catechists in the region where Telugu is spoken. It is one of two passages in the book that betrays the book's intended use. The target audience must have spoken Telugu, and the content of the map must have conveyed not classical Indian geography but rather a more correct and modern vision of the world and its countries. World maps played an important role in the Christian mission since the vast advantage in knowledge they embodied could boost the claim of expertise about other unknown regions such as heaven and hell. Ricci's world maps created quite a sensation in China but I ignore if seventeenth-century world maps from the Indian missions are extant in some Indian or Roman archives.

Thus a Telugu version of the Ezour-vedam could very well have been in the hands of that catechist. Opening the Ezour-vedam at random, one may indeed hit upon some passage that could enrage a Brahmin. For example,

Are you stupid enough to overlook even what is right there before your eyes? What you say about the inhabitants of the air is completely insane! How can beings born of a man and a woman and therefore with a body like us live in the air and keep afloat? ... There is only one god, and there has never been any other; this god is not born from Kochiopo, and those who are born from him were never gods. They are all simply men, composed of a body and a soul like us. If they were gods, they would not be numerous, one would not have seen them getting born, and they would not be subject to death. (Rocher 1984:161-62)


There are many other pages in the Ezour-vedam that more or less fit the missionary's description, but the following example may suffice to make the point: "I will not stop, however, to repeat and tell you that Brahma is no God at all, that Vishnu is no God either, and neither are Indra and all the others on whom you lavish this name; and Shiva, finally, is no God either, and even less the Lingam" (p. 180).

The speaker of these words in the Ezour-vedam, Chumontou, uses a method that strangely resembles Calmette's: "in order to instruct people and save them," Chumontou examines common features of Indian religion such as the "different incarnations" of its gods and "refutes them through the words of the Vedan" (p. 135) -- the very "weapons" that, according to Calmette who was proud of this method, hurt the Brahmins most. But there is another feature that links Calmette to the Ezour-vedam and the other texts found by Francis Ellis in 1816 among the remains of the Jesuit library at Pondicherry: his overall view of the Vedas.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30823
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

PreviousNext

Return to Articles & Essays

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 3 guests