Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Thu Mar 05, 2020 8:25 am

Bureau of Social Hygiene
by The Rockefeller Foundation Digital History
Accessed: 3/5/20

Bureau of Social Hygiene

From 1911 to 1934, the Bureau of Social Hygiene (BSH) funded research and sought to influence public policy on a number of issues related to sex, crime and delinquency. Although the BSH received contributions from a number of organizations, including the Rockefeller Foundation (RF), the Bureau was largely dependent upon the patronage of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. (JDR Jr.), who created the organization to address many of his own personal concerns and interests.

Research and Reform

The idea for the BSH originated in 1910, following JDR Jr.’s participation in a grand jury investigation of white slavery in New York City. Motivated by frustration with temporary public commissions that could only recommend governmental action, JDR Jr. established a permanent and private body to deal directly with a variety of social ills, including prostitution, corruption, drug use and juvenile delinquency.

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Pamphlet produced by the Bureau of Social Hygiene: "Commercialized Prostitution in New York City" 1916

The goals and projects of the BSH evolved over time. Its earliest efforts concentrated on surveying the scope of prostitution in New York City and the reform of young women involved in the trade. The BSH commissioned George Kneeland to study various aspects of prostitution in New York City and offered Katherine Bement Davis of the Bedford Hills Women’s Reformatory the resources to study the impact of prostitution on young women and the possible paths to reform. The BSH also devoted significant efforts to sex education, sponsoring the publication of materials related to sexual health and working with state departments of health to disseminate these materials among the general public.

The Root of the Problem

In 1917 [Katherine Bement] Davis was named general secretary of the BSH, and her appointment transformed the organization. She believed that prostitution could not be fully addressed without a deeper understanding of human sexuality. To promote this understanding, Davis spent years advocating for more scientific research into human sexuality. This advocacy helped to create a partnership between the BSH and the National Research Council (NRC) and to form the NRC’s Committee for Research in the Problems of Sex.

The Committee for Research in Problems of Sex was established in 1921 following a proposal by Davis and Earl F. Zinn “[t]o undertake systematic comprehensive research in sex in its individual and social manifestations, the prime purpose being to evaluate conclusions now held and to increase our body of scientifically derived data.”[1] The proposed fields of research included the psychological and physiological aspects of the “sex instinct,” abstinence, masturbation, contraception, venereal disease and sexual relationships. Importantly, these fields of research were to be explored not only from medical and biological perspectives but also from a sociological perspective.

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Yale University - endocrinology continuous extractor, 1940

Yet to the dismay of both Zinn and Davis, throughout the 1920s the Committee remained a relatively conservative organization controlled primarily by men trained in the medical sciences rather than the social sciences. The Committee repeatedly funded studies that focused on topics of animal biology and sexuality while ignoring proposed studies on human sexuality. In addition to being uncomfortable with topics of human sexuality and fearing a public backlash, committee members also expressed a general distrust of the social sciences. Davis encountered significant obstacles from BSH trustees who sought to distance the BSH from its work in sex research and direct it towards topics deemed less controversial. Bowing to internal pressures, Davis retired in 1928, and with her retirement the BSH became more deeply involved in the field of criminology.

Beginning in 1931 the BSH planned its own demise by allowing all of its outstanding grants expire. By 1933 all BSH grants had concluded, and the organization effectively ceased operations, although it was not formally dissolved until 1940. Research into sex, including grants to fund the study of endocrinology and the work of Alfred Kinsey, was subsequently taken up by the RF [Rockefeller Foundation].

Notes:

[1]Outline Presented by Mr. Zinn, Earl F. Zinn, undated, Rockefeller Archive Center (RAC), Rockefeller Family Boards, RG III 2 O, Box 7, Folder 50.

***********************

Bureau of Social Hygiene
by Social Networks and Archival Context (SNAC)
Accessed: 3/5/20

Bureau of Social Hygiene

The Bureau of Social Hygiene resulted from the appointment of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. to a Special Grand Jury to investigate white slavery in New York City in 1910. In conferences taken in the course of this investigation, Mr. Rockefeller, Jr. became convinced that for a lasting improvement of conditions a permanent organization was needed. On March 22, 1911, The Committee of Three, including Mr. Rockefeller, Paul Warburg and Starr J. Murphy [counsel for the Rockefeller Foundation and personal legal adviser of John D. Rockefeller for 17 years] met. The name "Bureau of Social Hygiene" was first used in October of that year, but was not used consistently until 1913.

In 1913 the Bureau was incorporated and its purpose was stated as " ... the study, amelioration, and prevention of those social conditions, crimes, and diseases which adversely affect the well being of society, with special reference to prostitution and the evils associated therewith." The Bureau would engage in research and education, publish reports, and employ and/or cooperate with other public or private agencies to obtain these goals. The emphasis in the years from 1911 until the reorganization of 1928 was mainly on prostitution, the control of vice, and their relationships to police organization. Narcotics was also an early interest.

The General Secretary during the early years was Katharine Bement Davis. She resigned in 1928 and Lawrence B. Dunham was appointed Director. In 1929 the certificate of incorporation was amended and the emphasis on prostitution was dropped. From 1929-1934 the Bureau developed an interest in criminology. Studies and projects were still conducted in narcotics and social hygiene during this time.


The Bureau functioned through grants. It was not a foundation and had no set endowment. In the early years, financial backing came from several sources including Paul Warburg, the New York Foundation, and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Mr. Rockefeller was always the main contributor. Grants were occasionally channeled through the Bureau from the Spelman Fund of New York and the Rockefeller Foundation. Grants were most often long range, covering periods of from three to five years. The Bureau did not interfere in the conduct of a project once the money had been granted, but it was careful in its selection of projects and kept in close touch for the duration of the grant.

The Bureau ceased making new appropriations in 1934 and by mid 1937 all the previous commitments had been brought to a close. Annual meetings were held until 1940 when the Bureau was dissolved on November 13th.

Associated With:
• American Birth Control League.
American Social Hygiene Association.
• British Social Hygiene Council.
• Bureau of Social Hygiene (New York, N.Y.)
• Flexner, Abraham, 1866-1959.
• Fosdick, Raymond B., 1883-1972.
• Frankfurter, Felix, 1882-1965.
• Glueck, Sheldon, 1896-
• Harrison, Leonard Vance, b. 1891.
• Hoover, J. Edgar 1895-1972.

Subjects:
• Birth control
• Correctional institution
• Crime and criminals
• Criminal behavior, prediction of
• Criminal investigation--Scientific
• Criminal law
• Criminal psychology
• Criminal statistics
• Drug control
• Eugenics
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Mar 06, 2020 7:40 am

Alfred Ploetz
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3/6/20

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Alfred Ploetz

Alfred Ploetz (August 22, 1860 – March 20, 1940) was a German physician, biologist and eugenicist known for coining the term racial hygiene (Rassenhygiene)[1] and promoting the concept in Germany. Rassenhygiene is a form of eugenics.

Life and career

Alfred Ploetz was born in Swinemünde, Germany (now Świnoujście, Poland) and he grew up and attended school in Breslau (now Wrocław). At this time he began his friendship with Carl Hauptmann, brother of the famous author Gerhart Hauptmann. In 1879 he founded a secret racist youth society. In Gerhart Hauptmann's Drama "Vor Sonnenaufgang" (Before Sunrise) which was first performed on October 20, 1889, in Berlin, the key figure of the journalist Loth is based on Ploetz.

After school Ploetz at first studied political economy in Breslau. There he joined the "Freie wissenschaftliche Vereinigung" (free scientific union). Among his friends were – besides his brother – his former school friend Ferdinand Simon (later son-in-law of August Bebel), the brothers Carl and Gerhart Hauptmann, Heinrich Laux, and Charles Proteus Steinmetz.

This circle enthusiastically read the works of Ernst Haeckel and Charles Darwin. Carl Hauptmann was a student of Ernst Haeckel, and Gerhart Hauptmann and Ploetz attended some of his lectures. The group expanded and developed a plan of founding a colony in one of the pacific states and established itself as the "Pacific association". They planned a "community on friendly, socialist and maybe also pan-Germanic basis". In consequence of the prosecution of socialistically minded persons in application of Otto von Bismarck's anti-socialist laws (1878–1890), in 1883 Ploetz fled to Zurich, where he continued to study political economy with Julius Platter (1844–1923). In his memoirs Ploetz states as an important reason for his choice of Zurich that in his studies in Breslau socialist theories were only incidentally mentioned.

After living for a half a year in the United States, Ploetz returned to Zurich and began to study medicine. In 1886, he fell in love with a fellow student Agnes Bluhm despite being involved with Pauline Rüdin. They decided to get married early in 1887. Ploetz was also seeing an American named Mary Sherwood who was studying hypnotism. In 1890 Ploetz became medical doctor and married his former girlfriend Pauline, though the two never had children. Bluhm however kept Ploetz as a close friend throughout her life and they both shared similar views on racial purity and the benefits of eugenics.[2] Ploetz and his wife lived in the US for four years, and divorced in 1898. Ploetz later married Anita Nordenholz. This marriage produced three children: Ulrich (called Uli), Cordelia (called Deda) and Wilfrid (called Fridl, 1912–2013).[3]

Ploetz first proposed the theory of racial hygiene (race-based eugenics) in his "Racial Hygiene Basics" (Grundlinien einer Rassenhygiene) in 1895. In 1904 Ploetz founded the periodical "Archiv für Rassen-und Gesellschaftsbiologie" with Fritz Lenz as chief editor, and in 1905 the German Society for Racial Hygiene (De Berliner Gesellschaft fur Rassenhygiene) [4] with 31 members. page [5] In 1907 the society became the "International Society for Racial Hygiene".[6] In 1930 he became an honorary doctor of the University of Munich.

Ploetz was a supporter of the Nazi Party, which took power in 1933. Ploetz wrote in April 1933 that he believed Hitler would bring racial hygiene from its previous marginality into the mainstream.

In 1933 Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick established an "expert advisory committee for population and racial policy," which included Ploetz, Fritz Lenz, Ernst Rüdin and Hans F.K. Günther. This expert advisory committee had the task of advising the Nazis on the implementation and enforcement of legislation regarding racial and eugenic issues.[7] In 1936, Hitler appointed Ploetz to a professorship.

In 1937 he joined the Nazi party.[8]


He died at the age of 79 and is buried at his home in Herrsching on the Ammersee in Bavaria. After his death, Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer praised his "inner sympathy and enthusiasm [with] the National Socialist Movement".[9] Ernst Rüdin, also a committed National Socialist, praised Ploetz two years before as a man "by his meritorious services has helped to set up our Nazi ideology."[10]

Theories

In his book The efficiency of our race and the protection of the weak (1895) he described a society in which eugenic ideas were applied. Society would examine the moral and intellectual capacity of citizens to decide on marriage and the permitted number of children. It may also include a prohibition on reproduction. Disabled children are aborted, the sick and weak, twins and children whose parents Ploetz considers too old or young, are "eliminated".

Along with many other eugenicists in Europe and America, Ploetz believed in the superiority of the Nordic race. His writings were a major influence on Nazi ideology.
His opinion of the Jewish Question changed during the course of his life, but his view and the doctrine of the NSDAP were in accord by the time the party came to power in 1933.

In his early writings Ploetz credited Jews as the second highest cultural race after Europeans.[11] He identified no substantial difference in "racial character" between Aryans and Jews, arguing that the mental abilities of Jews and their role in the development of human culture made them indispensable to the "process of racial mix" which would enhance humanity.

The high aptitude of the Jews and their outstanding role in the progress of mankind considering men like Jesus, Spinoza, Marx has to be kindly acknowledged without hesitation... All this Antisemitism is a flop which will vanish slowly in the light of scientific knowledge and a humane democracy".[12]


Later he revised this view. He stressed that the distinctiveness of Jews indicated that their mental characteristics would adversely affect Aryans by introducing individualism and lack of love for the military and the nation. He favored the global dominance of the Aryan race.[13]


Bibliography

• (Alfred Hoche, Alfred Ploetz, Alfred Vierkandt, Carl Hans Heinze Sennhenn) German Eugenicists: ISBN 9781230541914 [14]
• (Alfred J Ploetz) Die Tüchtigkeit unsrer Rasse und der Schutz der Schwachen ISBN 1103490796 [15]
• (Alfred J Ploetz) Archiv für Rassen- und Gesellschafts-Biologie, einschliesslich Rassen- und Gesellschafts-Hygiene 1908, Fuenfter Jahrgang ISBN 117441166X [16]

See also

• Ernst Rudin
• Eugen Fischer
• Eugenics
• Karl Binding
• Racial hygiene
• Wilhelm Schallmayer

References

1. Bashford, Alison; Levine, Phillipa, eds. (2010). "Eugenics and the Modern World". The Oxford Handbook of the History of Eugenics. Oxford University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0199945054. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
2. Weindling, Paul (1993). Health, race, and German politics between national unification and Nazism, 1870-1945 (1st pbk. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 74. ISBN 052142397X.
3. "Anzeige von Wilfrid Ploetz". merkur-online.de.
4. "Mystiek Antisemitisme Waar Sprookjes En Wetenschap Elkaar Ontmoeten". Internet Archive.
5. Schafft, Gretchen Engle: "From Racism to Genocide: Anthropology in the Third Reich". University of Illinois Press. 2004. Pg. 42.
6. Atkins, Stephen E. (2009). Holocaust Denial as an International Movement. Greenwood Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0313345388.
7. Anahid S. Rickman: "Rassenpflege im völkischen Staat", Vom Verhältnis der Rassenhygiene zur nationalsozialistischen Politik. Dissertation Bonn 2002, Online einsehbar unter [3], p. 331
8. Federal Archives Act Party Zehlendorf.
9. Otmar von Verschuer, "Alfred Ploetz," in The Erbarzt, Bd 8 p.69-72, 1940, p.71
10. Ernst Rudin: "Honor of Prof. Dr. Alfred Ploetz," in ARGB, Bd 32 / S.473–474, 1938, p.474
11. "Wir haben frueher die Juden neben den Westariern als hoechstentwickelte Culturrasse angefuehrt." Ploetz, 137
12. "Die Tüchtigkeit unserer Rasse und der Schutz der Schwachen", 1893, p. 141, 142. cited by Massimo Ferari Zumbini: The roots of evil. Gründerjahre des Antisemitismus: Von der Bismarckzeit zu Hitler , Vittorio Klostermann, Frankfurt a. M. 2003, ISBN 3-465-03222-5, p.406
13. Julia Schäfer: "Vermessen – gezeichnet – verlacht Judenbilder in populären Zeitschriften 1918–1933." Campus Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-593-37745-4, p. 182
14. "German Eugenicists".
15. "Die Tüchtigkeit unsrer Rasse und der Schutz der Schwachen: Alfred J. Ploetz: 9781103490790: Amazon.com: Books".
16. "Archiv für Rassen- und Gesellschafts-Biologie, einschliesslich Rassen- und Gesellschafts-Hygiene 1908, Fuenfter Jahrgang (German Edition): Alfred J. Ploetz, Ludwig Plate, A Nordenholz: 9781174411663: Amazon.com: Books".

External links

• Works by or about Alfred Ploetz at Internet Archive
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Mar 06, 2020 7:51 am

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3/6/20



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International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
Abbreviation IFRC
Formation 1919
Type Humanitarian aid organization
Purpose To carry out relief operations to assist victims of disasters, and combine this with development work to strengthen the capacities of its member National Societies
Headquarters Geneva, Switzerland
Secretary General
Jagan Chapagain
President
Francesco Rocca
Main organ
Governing board[1]
Parent organization
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
Budget
495,444,000 CHF[2]
Website http://www.ifrc.org

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Henry Pomeroy Davison, founding father of the League of Red Cross Societies.[3]

The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies is a worldwide humanitarian aid organization that reaches 160 million people each year through its 192 member National Societies.[4][5] It acts before, during and after disasters and health emergencies to meet the needs and improve the lives of vulnerable people. It does so with impartiality as to nationality, race, gender, religious beliefs, class and political opinions.

Guided by Strategy 2020[6] – the IFRC's collective plan of action to tackle the major humanitarian and development challenges of this decade – the IFRC is committed to saving lives and changing minds.

The IFRC is part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement along with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and 192 National Societies.[7] The IFRC's strength lies in its volunteer network, community-based expertise and independence and neutrality. It works to improve humanitarian standards, as partners in development and in response to disasters. It persuades decision makers to act in the interests of vulnerable people. It works to enable healthy and safe communities, reduce vulnerabilities, strengthen resilience and foster a culture of peace around the world.

The seven Fundamental Principles that guide the work of the IFRC and its members are: humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity and universality.

History

Founding


On 5 May 1919, following the First World War, representatives from the National Red Cross Societies of the Allied Powers (Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and the US) came together in Paris to establish the League of Red Cross Societies (LORCS) whose stated goal was "to strengthen and unite, for health activities, already-existing Red Cross Societies and to promote the creation of new Societies".[8] The initiative was taken by Henry P. Davison, then chairman of the American Red Cross' “War Committee”,[9] with the support of Woodrow Wilson, the President of the United States of America. Davison was assisted by the British general Sir David Henderson who became the first Director-General. This newly created federation of National Societies expanded the international mandate of the Red Cross Movement beyond the strict mission of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to include relief assistance in response to emergencies which were not caused by armed conflict. In addition to the coordination of relief operations caused by natural disasters and health emergencies, the league's mission was to assist National Societies in their founding and development, especially in peacetime.

In addition to providing assistance to victims of epidemics, natural disasters (earthquakes, floods and hurricanes) and famines, two other activities were developed during the first years of the league. One main activity was to promote health by preventing illnesses and developing the training of nurses and volunteers. The other activity was to create the Junior Red Cross within the National Societies, which introduced children and students to the Red Cross with various educational courses and involved them in practical relief activities.

The formation of the league, as an additional international Red Cross organization alongside the ICRC, was not without controversy. The ICRC had, to some extent, valid concerns about a possible rivalry between the two organizations. The foundation of the league was seen as an attempt to undermine the leadership position of the ICRC within the Movement and to gradually transfer tasks and competencies to a multilateral institution. As well, Davison did not want to include National Societies of the defeated powers, namely Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey, which was contrary to the ICRC's principle of universality. Moreover, the league's beginnings were expeditious as it took 154 days between the approval of President Wilson and its incorporation. This hasty formation forced Davison to cut corners and leave unresolved issues such as a clear framework of the league's mandate, duties and funding.

The coexistence concerns between the league and the ICRC were discussed during three consecutive International Conferences of the Red Cross (1921, 1923, 1926). The statutes adopted in 1928 at the XIIIth International Conference of the Red Cross in The Hague clarified and confirmed the roles of each entity.[10] In that same year, the "International Council" was founded to coordinate cooperation between the ICRC and the league, a task which was later taken over by the Standing Commission of the Red Cross and Red Crescent.

In 1920, the league's “General Council, originally composed of representatives of the victorious Allies”,[11] welcomed additional National Societies; 27 out of the 31 member societies were represented in 1920. In the following decade, the league admitted over 25 National Societies, including the Egyptian Red Crescent and the Red Lion and Sun of Iran.[12] Following the adoption of the Statutes of the International Red Cross in 1928 (revised in 1952 and 1986, amended in 1995 and 2006), the National Societies of the Nordic Red Cross (Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway) returned to the league after resigning three years earlier because of the discords within the Red Cross movement.[13] The Alliance of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies of the Soviet Union joined the league during the XVth International Conference in 1934. By the mid-1930s, the league became truly universal, with 58 registered National Societies.[14]

Secretariat on the move

The league's headquarters, named the secretariat, was originally based in Geneva. The league moved its secretariat from Geneva to Paris in 1922 with a restrained budget and reduced staff. The need to move away from the ICRC to further develop the league's own identity was part of the decision-making. On September 5, 1939, days following the German troops invasion of Poland, the league personnel in Paris were moved to Geneva. The league believed it could ensure the continuity of its work from a neutral country such as Switzerland. To this day, the secretariat's offices have remained in Geneva, but it was only in 1959 that the secretariat moved into its current headquarters in Petit-Saconnex.[15]

Missions begin

During the first years of the league, the work was essentially reactive and consisted mostly of recording information and statistics to be shared with the National Societies.[16] The league's first operational mission was to perform onsite observations of the conditions of the victims of a typhus epidemic in Poland,[17] and to develop and circulate information material to the surrounding countries to prevent the spread of similar epidemics diseases. The first large-scale relief action of the league came after the 1923 earthquake in Japan which killed about 200,000 people and left countless more injured and without shelter. For the first time, 35 National Red Cross Societies participated in a joint action of the ICRC and the league, for which the record sum of 277 million Swiss francs was donated.[18]

The league began issuing appeals in 1925 but appeals were not consistently issued for all disasters. During the 1920s and 1930s disaster relief remained a minor activity, behind public health, nursing and youth activities. The National Societies, with the league's assistance in the 1920s, were better prepared to deal with disaster relief and consequently less in need of external assistance.[19] Additionally, the Great Depression caused economic insecurity worldwide, urging the league to dedicate more coverage to poverty programs.

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A stamp from Turkey to support the Red Crescent, 1938.

The 1930s saw the growing use of the automobile, the development of road infrastructure and consequently the increase of traffic and casualties. The league became a leader in first aid prevention for road accidents, by establishing in 1932 a Permanent Committee on First Aid on Roads, with the collaboration of various motoring associations.[20]

As the world headed closer to another war, the activities of the league reduced considerably. Nonetheless, the collaboration between the league and the ICRC continued to grow. The league provided support to the ICRC in the late 1930s, notably during the Spanish Civil War and the Second Sino-Japanese war, by issuing appeals and establishing distribution points of food and medical supplies for the civilians. The Joint Relief Commission, initiated by the ICRC in 1941, established the mandates of the league and the ICRC, ensuring their continuous support to the National Societies amid the intensifying war. This agreement also increased the National Societies' independence and allowed them to pursue their civilian relief activities without causing friction with the belligerent, occupied and neutral states.

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The Federation is honored at the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony in 1963. From left to right: King Olav of Norway, ICRC President Léopold Boissier [de], and League Chairman John MacAulay.

After World War II

After a six-year hiatus, the board of governors held its first meeting in October 1945. The post-war period provided a new driving force to the league as it resumed its relations with the National Societies and provided relief to war-affected regions.

Following disastrous weather conditions that afflicted parts the world between 1951 and 1954,[21] the league's relief activities became more operational and were no longer entirely informational. During those years, the league issued numerous appeals and showed great efficiency in disaster relief operations. In the late 1950s, there was a marked increase in the number of recognized Red Cross and Red Crescent National Societies due to decolonisation.[22] By the end of the 1960s, there were more than 100 societies around the world.[23] On December 10, 1963, the league and the ICRC jointly received the Nobel Peace Prize.[24]

In 1983, the League of Red Cross Societies was renamed to the "League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies" to reflect the growing number of National Societies operating under the Red Crescent symbol. Three years later, the seven fundamental principles of the Movement, as adopted at the XXth International Conference of the Red Cross in 1965, were incorporated into the league's statutes. The name of the league was changed again during the General Assembly of 1991 to its current official designation the "International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies" (IFRC). In 1997, the ICRC and the IFRC signed the Seville Agreement which further defined the responsibilities of both organisations within the Movement.[25]

Until the beginning of the 1990s all disaster relief operations were responded as one Federation in a multilateral form. Donor red cross national societies were used to provide support through the Federation Secretariat, with money and human resources to support the Federation in the response to disasters under the coordination and leadership of the Federation Secretariat. The focus at that time was of one team, with a common mission, common goals in support of a sister red cross or red crescent society affected by a disaster.

Hurricane Mitch affected few countries in Central America in 1998. The disaster relief efforts could be considered one of the disaster response operations that change the course of multilateralism within the membership of the International Federation. Since then, bilateralism become the new norm, and the reduce number of red cross from wealthy countries responding to disasters and expanding to development work continuously grow during the 2000s, including the growing number of red crescent societies operating internationally.

In 2004, the IFRC began its largest mission to date after the tsunami disaster in South Asia. More than 40 National Societies worked with more than 22,000 volunteers to bring relief to the countless victims left without food and shelter and endangered by the risk of epidemics.[26]

Activities and responsibilities

The IFRC coordinates between National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies throughout the world. The IFRC along with ICRC supports the foundation of new National Societies in countries where no official society exists. A National Society is admitted as a member to the IFRC only after it is recognized by the ICRC. The IFRC cooperates with the National Societies of the affected countries – called the Host National Society (HNS) – as well as the National Societies of other countries willing to offer assistance – called Partner National Societies (PNS). Among the 190 National Societies admitted to the General Assembly of the IFRC as full members or observers, about 25–30 regularly work as PNS in other countries. The most active are the American Red Cross, the British Red Cross, the German Red Cross, and the Red Cross Societies of Sweden and Norway. Another major mission of the IFRC which has gained attention in recent years is its commitment to work towards a codified, worldwide ban on the use of land mines and to bring medical, psychological, and social support for people injured by land mines.

The stated tasks of the IFRC can be summarized as follows:

• to promote humanitarian principles and values
• to support National Societies
• to support projects where funds are available

The Red Cross Red Crescent is the world's largest humanitarian network with:[27]

• Nearly 11.6 million volunteers
• More than 473,000 paid staff
• More than 165,000 local Red Cross and Red Crescent units/ branches
• 19.4 million people having donated blood to National Society blood services worldwide
• More than 11 million people trained in First Aid by National Societies
• More than 106.5 million people reached by Long Term Services and Programme Development
• More than 49.5 million reached in 2016 by disaster response and early recovering programming
• A total income of more than 23.4 billion Swiss francs in 2016, with total expenditures being just over 23.1 billion Swiss francs

Organization

The IFRC has its secretariat in Geneva. It also has five regional offices and numerous country and multi-country cluster offices around the world. The secretary general is Jagan Chapagain (Nepal).[28] The IFRC is governed by a governing board consisting of a president, four vice-presidents, the chairman of the finance commission and 20 National Society representatives.[29] The highest body of the IFRC is the General Assembly which convenes every two years with delegates from all National Societies. Among other tasks, the General Assembly elects the president. The current president of the IFRC is Francesco Rocca, who also fulfills the role of president of the Italian Red Cross.

Presidents of the Federation

As of 2017,[30] the president of the IFRC is Francesco Rocca (Italian Red Cross). The vice presidents are Annemarie Huber-Hotz (Swiss Red Cross), Miguel Villarroel (Venezuela Red Cross), Abdoul Azize Diallo (Senegalese Red Cross Society), Kerem Kinik (Turkish Red Crescent), Chen Zhu (Red Cross Society of China).

Former presidents (until 1977 titled "Chairman") have been:

• 1919–1922: Henry Davison (American Red Cross)
• 1922–1935: John Barton Payne (American Red Cross)
• 1935–1938: Cary Travers Grayson (American Red Cross)
• 1938–1944: Norman Davis (American Red Cross)
• 1944–1945: Jean de Muralt (Swiss Red Cross)
• 1945–1950: Basil O'Connor (American Red Cross)
• 1950–1959: Emil Sandström (Swedish Red Cross)
• 1959–1965: John MacAulay (Canadian Red Cross)
• 1965–1977: José Barroso Chávez (Mexican Red Cross)
• 1977–1981: Adetunji Adefarasin (Nigerian Red Cross Society)
• 1981–1987: Enrique de la Mata (Spanish Red Cross)
• 1987–1997: Mario Enrique Villarroel Lander (Venezuela Red Cross)
• 1997–2001: Astrid Nøklebye Heiberg (Norwegian Red Cross)
• 2001–2009: Don Juan Manuel Suárez Del Toro Rivero (Spanish Red Cross)
• 2009–2017: Tadateru Konoe (Japanese Red Cross Society)
• 2017–present: Francesco Rocca (Italian Red Cross)

Funding and financial matters

The IFRC is funded by statutory contributions from National Societies, the delivery of field services to programme partners, and voluntary contributions from donors such as governments, corporations and individuals. The criteria for the statutory contributions of each National Society are established by the Finance Commission and approved by the General Assembly. Additional funding, especially for unforeseen relief assistance missions, is raised by emergency appeals. From 2005 to 2015, the Chairman of the Finance Commission was Mr. Chrystold Chetty (Seychelles) and the Vice- Chair was Ms Kathryn Forbes (United States). From 2016, the Chairman is Mr. Abdulkader Husrieh. Ms Kathryn Forbes has been nominated the Chairperson of the Audit and Risk Committee whilst Mr. Chrystold Chetty has been elected as a member of the Standing Commission of the Red Cross and Red Crescent.

Emblem, mottos, and mission statement

The emblem of the IFRC is the combination of a red cross and a red crescent on a white background, surrounded by a red rectangular frame without any additional text. The red cross, the original symbol of the Movement, is on the left while the red crescent appears to the right. Per Humanitatem ad Pacem is the primary motto of the IFRC (Article 1 of the Constitution of the Federation). The mission statement of the IFRC, as formulated in its "Strategy 2010" document is to improve the lives of vulnerable people by mobilizing the power of humanity. From 1999 to 2004, the common slogan for all activities of the International Movement was The Power of Humanity. In December 2003, the 28th International Conference in Geneva adopted the conference motto Protecting Human Dignity as the new slogan for the entire Movement.

The official logo for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement published in April 2016 was described as the red cross and red crescent emblems placed together side by side, encircled by the words "INTERNATIONAL MOVEMENT" in one or other of their official languages (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian or Spanish). It was described as for use when the ICRC, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies operate together for the purposes of a humanitarian emergency, or a theme or campaign of global concern.[31]

Relationships within the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

Image
The International Red Cross Memorial in Solferino, Italy

The IFRC has come into conflict with the ICRC at various times, first and foremost when the American Red Cross threatened to supplant the ICRC with its creation of the league as "a real international Red Cross" after the First World War.[32] Several agreements about the respective roles of the organizations helped to smooth relations, beginning with the agreement of 1928, the 1997 Seville Agreement and most recently the Supplementary Measures of 2005. The Seville Agreement gives the IFRC the lead in any emergency which does not take place as part of armed conflict (in which case the ICRC takes charge). Organizational discord has now largely subsided.[33]

References

1. "The Governing Board – IFRC". http://www.ifrc.org.
2. https://media.ifrc.org/ifrc/wp-content/ ... t-2017.pdf
3. "Home - http://www.redcross.int". http://www.redcross.int.
4. https://media.ifrc.org/ifrc/press-relea ... societies/
5. "The International Red Cross Red Crescent Movement on the Internet". Who we are. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
6. "Strategy 2020". Who we are. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
7. "IFRC: Everyone Counts Report 2018" (PDF).
8. "History – IFRC". http://www.ifrc.org. Retrieved 2019-06-07.
9. "History – IFRC". http://www.ifrc.org. Retrieved 2019-06-07.
10. Haug, Hans (1993). Humanity for all: The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. p. 57. ISBN 3-258-04719-7
11. Reid, Daphne & Gilbo, Patrick (1997). Beyond Conflict: The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 1919–1994. p. 53. ISBN 92-9139-041-0
12. Haug, op. cit., pp. 633–644
13. Reid & Gilbo, op. cit., p.86
14. Reid & Gilbo, op. cit., pp. 83–92
15. Reid & Gilbo, op. cit., p. 194
16. Reid & Gilbo, op. cit., p.66
17. Haug, op. cit., p.353
18. Haug, op. cit., p. 353
19. Reid & Gilbo, op. cit., p. 92
20. Reid & Gilbo, op. cit., p. 102
21. Reid & Gilbo, op. cit., pp. 140, 166–167
22. Reid & Gilbo, op. cit., p.179
23. Haug, op. cit., p.633-645
24. "The Nobel Peace Prize 1963". http://www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2017-12-13.
25. "Reinforcing Red Cross / Red Crescent cooperation in emergencies: the Seville Agreement – ICRC". http://www.icrc.org. 2003-02-07. Retrieved 2019-06-07.
26. http://www.ifrc.org/PageFiles/113863/FWR10.pdf
27. "IFRC: Everyone Counts Report 2018. p. 22" (PDF).
28. IFRC: Who We Are: The Secretary General.
29. http://www.ifrc.org/Global/Governance/O ... gva_EN.pdf
30. "The Governing Board – IFRC". http://www.ifrc.org.
31. "A logo for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement". 13 April 2016.
32. Andre Durand, History of the International Committee of the Red Cross: From Sarajevo to Hiroshima, Geneva: ICRC, 1984, p. 147.
33. David P. Forsythe: The Humanitarians: The International Committee of the Red Cross. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2005, p. 37. ISBN 0-521-61281-0

External links

• International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies – official site
• International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement – official site
• International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement Logo
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Mar 06, 2020 8:15 am

The National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations
by Mrs. Frederic Schoff
President National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teachers
Director Home Education Division, Bureau of Education, Washington
American Academy of Political and Social Science
Source: The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 67, New Possibilities in Education (Sep., 1916), pp. 139-147

[Founded in 1897 as the National Congress of Mothers by Alice McLellan Birney and Phoebe Apperson Hearst]

Active members of the Interdepartmental Social Hygiene Board are Edward Clifford, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, J. M. Wainwright, Assistant Secretary of War, Theodore Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Surgeon General M. W. Ireland of the Army, Surgeon General E. R. Stitt of the Navy, and Surgeon General Hugh S. Cumming of the Public Health Service. Dr. T. A. Storey, of the College of the City of New York, formerly chief inspector of the New York State military training commission, was executive secretary over the period covered by the report. He has been succeeded lately in that position by Dr. Valeria H. Parker, an active figure in the social-hygiene work of the National League of Women Voters, the National Women's Christian Temperance Union, the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teachers Associations, and the American Social Hygiene Association.

-- Journal of Social Hygiene, Vol. VIII, January, 1922, by The American Social Hygiene Association


The National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations was the pioneer organization in studying and promoting every phase of child welfare, and it must ever stand at the very heart of all child welfare movements, because without cooperation no real betterment can be secured for children. It was the first national movement to widen and deepen the influence of fathers and mothers through the demand for educated parenthood and a wider vision of childhood's needs and parental duty. To help the home to do its best work, a practical plan for reaching every home must be found. The Parent-Teacher Association and the Mothers' Circle were selected as the mediums best adapted to reach all homes. Through the well organized school system a way was open to provide opportunities for home education for parents, and at the same time establish sympathetic, intelligent cooperation with the great body of teachers who were sharing with parents the education and guidance of the children.

The National Congress of Mothers’ Clubs lent strong support to both G.F.W.C. [General Federation of Women’s Clubs] and W.C.T.U. [Women’s Christian Temperance Union] pure food, drink, and drug campaigns. Its members were concerned with all aspects of homemaking, child health and development, and children’s education. The quality of food and medication they gave their children was of utmost importance to them. Often they assisted public health officials, took part in food fairs, and agitated for food and drug regulation. Many state and local Mothers’ Clubs joined state and national federations of women’s clubs and were active pure food, drink, and drug advocates. Mothers’ clubs also functioned in temperance unions, particularly before 1890, and assisted in projects involving the well-being of children, such as introducing and monitoring scientific instruction in schools.

The Montgomery, Alabama, Mothers’ Circle was one of the earliest proponents of pure food and drug legislation in the South. Organizing on March 10, 1900, under the name of Montgomery Mothers’ Union (later changed to Circle) for the purpose of training for motherhood and solving problems of mothers, the Mothers’ Circle joined the National Congress of Mothers’ Clubs in February 1901 and affiliated with the Alabama State Federation of Women’s Clubs in April of the same year. The Circle established a household economics committee shortly after it organized and in April 1902, this committee divided into two subcommittees, one to investigate food values and another to promote pure food regulation. To kick off her organization’s crusade in 1902, Mrs. Moritz of the Domestic Science committee presented an extensive and detailed paper on the “Chemistry of Foods.” In 1903 she reported that through her correspondence with a Mr. A.A. Wiley in reference to the “Pure Food” bill, that he had promised to push the bill through the Alabama legislature. From 1903 through 1906 the Circle’s minute books frequently refer to attempts to influence state pure food and drug legislation. Following animated discussion in the February 1, 1906, meeting, the members petitioned national legislators for federal regulation.

-- The Pure Food, Drink, and Drug Crusaders, 1879-1914, by Lorine Swainston Goodwin


At a meeting of the Mothers’ Circle of P.S. 52, The Bronx, held March 21, 1917, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted:

Inasmuch as the members of this Circle have learned that the City authorities are trying to introduce the duplicate school plan into P.S. 52, The Bronx; and

Inasmuch as the members of the Circle, the introduction of said plan would not be for the best interests of the children attention P.S. 52, be it

Resolved, By the Mothers’ Circle of P.S. 52, The Bronx, that said Circle is opposed to the introduction of the Duplicate School Plan into P.S. 52, The Bronx, and respectfully requests those in authority to reconsider any plans for including P.S. 52, The Bronx, among the Schools in which said Duplicate School Plan is to be introduced; and be it further

Resolved, That copies of this resolution be transmitted to the President of the Board of Education, the President of the Board of Aldermen, the President of the Borough of The Bronx, the Acting City Superintendent of Schools, the District Superintendent of the 23rd and 24th Districts and such other persons as may be designated.

March 22, 1917
Mrs. Salinger, President.

-- Proceedings of the Board of Aldermen, by New York (N.Y.). Board of Aldermen


Greene County:...The Mt. Gilead Household Science and Mothers' Circle has held meetings the first Thursday in each month at the homes of the members. Meetings are well attended, interest good. Enough members are in a position to entertain to make each one's time come once in two years, which is not hard on anyone. Endeavor to have a roll call at each meeting which will bring helpful thoughts from each one present. Then we have a paper on some domestic science topic followed by discussion, and select one of the topics for Mothers' Circle work as outlined by David C. Cook, and follow that paper by discussion of questions in the quarterlies furnished by him. We all take the "Mothers' Magazine" to aid in answering the questions. The women on a farm are so busy that without some such an organization as this they would never take time to brush up on many of the things so essential for mothers to think about.

-- Year Book 1916, by Illinois Farmers' Institute. Department of Household Science, compiled and edited by Mrs. H.A. McKeene, Secretary


Organizations Promoting Education in Child Nurture

At the present time educational work in child nurture and home making for the parents of the United States is in its infancy. The National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations, which covers the various phases of parental education, was incorporated om 1897. The Home Education Division of the Bureau of Education was established in 1913. The State boards of health in some of the larger cities are giving education in health and hygiene. The settlements are reaching the people in congested districts. A few of the universities and colleges are doing extension work covering phases of home education. Some churches are giving attention to the necessity for education in child nurture. Kindergartners have always recognized the necessity for it by establishment of mothers clubs in connection with the kindergarten. The United States Public Health Service and various bureaus in the Department of Agriculture, the Department of the Interior, and the Department of Labor publish educational bulletins dealing with this subject. School superintendents and principals cooperate in establishing parent-teacher associations. The Young Women's Christian Associations have worked for better homes, while visiting nurse associations and various local organizations have extended help to parents. The National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations devised the plan of a mothers' circle or parent-teacher association in every church and every school, reaching mothers and fathers of children before school age as well as during and after school age. Upwards of 500,000 parents have been brought together for study by the work of the congress, while teachers everywhere testify to the increased efficiency of the school resulting from intelligent cooperation with the home. With national offices in Washington, and branches in nearly all States, with a definite plan of education and organization, with cooperation with educational specialists, Government departments, universities, colleges, schools, boards of health, and other organizations, a machine valuable for transmission of education to the remotest districts has been formed. The cooperation of the Home Education Division of the Bureau of Education and the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations has brought many thousand letters from parents and teachers asking advice and help.

-- Report of the Commissioner of Education for the Year ended June 30, 1914, The U.S. Bureau of Education, Created as a Department March 2, 1867, Made an Office of the Interior Department July 1, 1869


Neither parents nor teachers were in touch with each other, and children suffered by lack of this mutual understanding -- while the work of the teachers was greatly increased by lack of it. The Congress assumed the task of organizing Parent-Teacher Associations in every school. It also assumed the educational direction of these associations, in order to make them of real value to parents, to ensure their continuance, and to keep them true to their fundamental, far-reaching purpose. There had been parent associations of various kinds, but the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations originated the movement to make them universal, and to widen the scope of the educational system by making the schools serve a double purpose in education, by making it possible for parents to learn through them all that would enable them to be better fathers and mothers. The plan included the wider use of school buildings, opening them for reading rooms and recreation centres wherever the need existed, and placing the responsibility for all this in the hands of those most concerned -- the parents and teachers of the children in the schools.

A NATIONAL UNIVERSITY FOR PARENTS

The Congress, in its comprehensive plan for a nation-wide system of providing educational help for parents, assumed the functions of a National University for Parents with headquarters in Washington, but radiating its educational guidance to all who could be reached.

It was soon found necessary to establish state branches, through which extension work could be done, carrying the message to mothers just where they were. The interest and cooperation of state superintendents of schools were enlisted. Every officer gave her time and financed her work. For information a pamphlet on "How to Organize Parent-Teacher Associations with Suggestions for Programs " is published by the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations, 910 Loan & Trust Bldg., Washington, D. C. The Child Welfare Magazine, Box 4022, West Philadelphia, gives each month a program and publishes reports of work of Parent-Teacher Associations all over the United States.

SCOPE OF PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS

In the organization of Parent-Teacher Associations, the following reasons for their formation are given. Parent-Teacher Associations have three main reasons for existence:

First: To give fathers and mothers the opportunity to better educate themselves for intelligent home-making and child-nurture.

Second: To enable parents to learn what the schools are doing in order that the home may offer effective cooperation and that the schools may also cooperate with the home.

Third: To study community conditions affecting the welfare of the young with the purpose of arousing a sentiment of community responsibility.


The Parent-Teacher Association, needing for its full success the membership of parents and teachers of all political parties, all religious beliefs and of many different opinions as to the right and wrong of various movements, cannot afford to risk antagonisms needlessly. There are other well established agencies available for discussion and action along these lines. Let the Parent-Teacher Association confine itself to its own single high purpose, that of bettering conditions for "citizens in the making."

The world has no greater need than that of a wiser, better trained parenthood; this need is not yet recognized in school and college courses; the Parent-Teacher Association, therefore, serves as almost the only study class open to parents who wish to learn more of the duties of their calling. It raises the standard of home life through the education of parents; and through organization gives power for united and effective service.

COOPERATION OF SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS

The Parent-Teacher Association has long passed its experimental stage; from leaders in education everywhere letters come asking the help of the Congress in organizing and providing educational programs. State superintendents of public instruction in the states of Delaware and Washington have made it a part of their work to request all principals to organize parent-teacher associations as members of the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations. Valuable pamphlets on this subject have been published by these superintendents. Hundreds of other state and county superintendents have given invaluable cooperation. Mrs. Ella Flagg Young, of Chicago, in a letter dated January, 1916, says:

Since the organization of the Congress of Mothers and of the Parent-Teacher Associations, I have known the leaders in Chicago and many of the workers in Illinois outside of Chicago. These auxiliary associations have endeavored to work in the spirit of the National Association. They have been invaluable in bringing the parents into close relations with the schools. They have had a marked influence on the administration of the schools. The barrier which had been quite generally erected between parents and teachers has been removed. They have helped revive the feeling that the public schools are the people's schools; are to be strengthened by the people.


MOTHERS STUDY CONDITIONS OF CHILDREN

Ever since 1897 conditions of childhood outside the home have been a subject of exhaustive study by the Congress. When it began its work, children were in prisons and jails in every state, associated with confirmed criminals in all court procedure and before and after trial. No state except Michigan had assumed the responsibility of providing adequately for its dependent or orphan children. No state had, from the mother's viewpoint, provided for the all around protection of the welfare of the children.

The first juvenile court and probation system was established Chicago in 1899, the bill for it being drafted by Hon. Harvey B. Hurd. The Congress appreciated fully the advantages offered by this new system and worked unceasingly to promote its establishment in every state and in other lands, by conducting a systematic propaganda which was successful in many states.

Detention houses instead of jails were promoted. Recognizing that successful probation work is an educational function, and can only be successful when done with sympathetic insight into life, the Congress has never ceased its efforts to place probation work under educational direction. Judge Lindsey1 [1. Pamphlets on "Next Steps Forward in Juvenile Court and Probation Work" --Report of Ben B. Lindsey and Mrs. Frederic Schoff, Chairman and Vice- Chairman Juvenile Court and Probation Dept. National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Association. "Small Town and Rural Probation Work, Applicable to any County." Send to 910 Loan & Trust Bldg., Washington, D, C.] says: "There is no one factor or influence among the many good influences working for human betterment in this country that has done more to advance Juvenile Court and Probation work than the Mothers' Congress."

PROTECTION AGAINST CHILD LABOR

The Congress in 1902 inaugurated its child labor committee, and used its efforts to prevent the employment of little children in mines and factories, and to insure better factory inspection, and has ever since given its influence to promoting protection of children in industry. It has opposed all employment of children in occupations injurious to life, health or character, and the committee has given exhaustive study to the entire subject of work for children, earnestly working against abuses. An investigation is being made by the committee on the effects of child labor laws on child-life in different states, with a view to present and future welfare of children. Superintendents of schools and parents have called the attention of the committee to the necessity for such investigation.

MOTHERS' PENSIONS

In a study of children coming into juvenile courts, children who were truants and little children who were working, the children in orphanages and institutions, the Congress saw the necessity of keeping the mother with her children, and in 1911 inaugurated a nation-wide movement to secure mothers' pensions to prevent the breaking up of the home when through poverty or death of the father, the mother is unable to keep it.

There is an aspect to this question which has wielded its influence in the evolution of a plan that would enable the mother to keep a home for her children. The struggle for existence has driven many children of tender years into the ranks of wage-earners before they were physically able to do the tasks required of them. Deprived thereby of any chance for the fundamental education which would enable them to fill places where there would be opportunity for advancement, these children have become a source of anxiety to all who are interested in the future of society. Some plan must be devised that would make it possible for the home to be sustained without the work of little children. Thus the nation-wide movement to secure mothers' pensions has a meaning and purpose the scope of which is not fully realized even by some of its warmest advocates.

A working mother with the best qualifications for being a good mother to her children, cannot exercise her powers when she is absent most of the daylight hours and must work far into the night to keep the roof over their heads. The state has decided that her service to the children is more important than her service as a wage-earner. It is safe to predict that truancy will decrease 50 per cent when the mother's pension becomes operative. Thirty-five states have adopted this preserver of the home, and a mother's care for the children, and in every state the Congress has been an active factor in securing this legislation, and in placing its administration outside of charity. Pennsylvania and New York methods are recommended.2 [2. "The Evolution of the Mother's Pension -- Its Scope and Object." The pamphlet used successfully in legislative campaigns in a number of states can be supplied by application to National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations, 910 Loan & Trust Bldg., Washington, D. C.]

SAVING THE BABIES

By careful tests the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations has proved that 70 per cent of babies who die before they are a year old, can be saved by education of mothers in infant hygiene. All the knowledge possessed by physicians and health boards counts for nothing unless the mothers, who have the actual care of the babies, can themselves possess the knowledge of the proper care and feeding of babies.

The National Congress of Mothers has for years conducted constant campaign to awaken mothers and make them realize that more than instinct is required to have healthy babies, and to give them a chance to live. It has a method of learning of mothers of babies, and sends a bulletin on The Care of the Baby. It has sent appeals to all state and local Boards of Health to establish and maintain Departments of Child Hygiene, to see that every new mother is informed of all that will help her to give proper care to her baby and furnish protection to the milk supply; to have a Parents' Educational Bureau as a part of the equipment of every Board of Health, and to see that every mother is given the opportunity to visit it. In Portland, Oregon, the city cooperates with the local branch of the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations in maintenance of a most successful Parents' Educational Bureau. Through the Child Hygiene Department, National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations, vast amount of work for baby-saving has been done in many states.

STATE CHILD WELFARE COMMISSIONS

The Congress urged the appointment of an unsalaried state child welfare commission in every state to study every phase of child welfare, to consider existing conditions and to recommend needed improvements. Oregon has complied with the request. Its commission, appointed by Governor West, has done fine work -- Chairman, Mrs. Robert H. Tate, 1811 E. Morrison St., Portland, Oregon. Every state requires the work of a child welfare commission, made up of broad-minded, unsalaried citizens, with the governor as ex officio member and with reports to the legislature that the members may have in mind the development of a system of state protection for the physical, mental and moral development of all its children. The Congress has done, and is doing, valuable work in many states in the extension of kindergartens as part of the school system in cooperation with the Kindergarten Division, United States Bureau of Education and National Kindergarten Association.

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT COOPERATION

Federal cooperation has been given the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations from the beginning, for the relation of its work to the youth of the nation was fully appreciated. Three international child welfare conferences have been held in Washington, the invitations for all nations to participate being sent by the Department of State. At the first of these the President of the United States delivered the main address. Federal cooperation with several divisions of the Department of Agriculture has been mutually advantageous during many years.

HOME EDUCATION DIVISION ESTABLISHED

The National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations most earnestly desired that the United States Bureau of Education should recognize that parents are educators, and in as great need of suggestion as teachers in schools, or as farmers in agriculture. When recognition was given by the Commissioner of Education to the fact that the larger part of children's education is conducted by parents -- and that possibilities for preparation and study must be provided for them, an important step for child welfare was taken, and an unlimited field of service to parents was opened. The Home Education Division of the Bureau of Education was established in September, 1913, in cooperation with the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations. The official announcement is here given:

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
Bureau of Education
Washington


The Home Education Division, which has just been established, will do whatever it can to help parents:

1. To further their own education by recommending to them interesting and valuable reading matter.

2. In regard to the care and home education of their children, with reference to: (a) physical care and health, sleep, food, etc.; (b) games and plays; (c) their early mental development; (d) the formation of moral habits.

We hope to interest the boys and girls who have left school and are still at home, and by directing their home reading and study we may be able to further their education.

It is our intention to issue bulletins and literature, practical in their character, which will be available to every home.
The National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations has agreed to assist the Bureau of Education in this work and can supply much literature not available through this office.

If the parents of your school district could be brought together at the school house or any other good place, perhaps once a month, to discuss their common problems, it would be mutually helpful. Will you let us know if you are willing to take up this matter in your school district and make a beginning by inviting some of the parents who are interested in such matters, and by enlisting, if possible, the cooperation of the teacher or teachers. The Bureau will send a brief form for simple organization of a Parents' Association, if you desire it. We expect to have a great deal of valuable matter for use of parents and teachers and for older boys and girls.

Rightly used, the home is the most important factor in the education of children. Through its Home Education Division, the Bureau of Education is trying to help the home to do its best work. Your cooperation will be invaluable. Kindly let me know if we may expect it.

Yours sincerely,

P. P. CLAXTON,
Commissioner.


WORK OF THE HOME EDUCATION DIVISION

The extension of Parent-Teacher Associations, the cooperation of 40,000 women recommended by superintendents of schools, the distribution of educational bulletins to mothers, the preparation of reading courses for parents, for boys and girls who have left school, for men and women wishing to pursue home study, the provision of certificates for all who complete the courses, the replies to many questions from individual mothers, have brought much appreciation and have given a keen perception of the great need for the work of home education. Thirteen million children under school age in the United States are under the exclusive care of parents. Education in physical care means life to thousands. Education in the development of moral habits will prevent the blighting of many lives at their beginning. The greatest educational work is done in the first six years, and no after care can make up for neglect then. Eighteen million children of school age spend one tenth of their time in school, while nine tenths of their time is under parental direction and guidance, showing the relative educational responsibility of parents and teachers.

Twenty million boys and girls who have left school need encouragement in the continuance of education during the most critical years of youth, when insight and sympathy can lead upward, but when lack of it has driven many away from home influence. The federal government now considers the education of children from infancy instead of from the age of six, and it considers their education for twenty-four hours a day, instead of five hours, and for twelve months of the year instead of ten months, as heretofore.

During 1915, 95,000 reading courses were sent out by request, and over 25,000 letters were sent. Thousands of bulletins on The Care of the Baby have been sent to mothers, while two editions of 1,000 Good Books for Children have been published. This was prepared by the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations.

Two joint tours of representatives of the Bureau of Education, and officers of the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations, and National Kindergarten Association, have been arranged during 1915-16, covering the western and southern states in the promotion of home education.

FOREIGN INTEREST

Extension of national organizations similar to the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations is assured. The Chinese government requested the Congress to send its president to China to aid the government in forming a National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations. Japan through private sources has also asked this help. The Marchioness of Aberdeen has accepted the duty of organizer for Great Britain. Cuba has already organized. Argentina has taken steps toward national organization.

The ideals of a nation are created and inspired by the homes. To help all homes to give true high ideals of life, of citizenship and of duty to God and man is to lay sure and strong the foundations for a great nation. The work of the Congress is civic work in its highest sense, and it welcomes the cooperation and membership of all who would give a happy childhood to every child.
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Mar 06, 2020 8:21 am

Mothers' Union
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3/6/20

There is general agreement in the Commission (1) that abortion is ethically indefensible, except under medical direction with a view to removing serious risk to the mother; (2) that persons who are likely to transmit any serious physical or mental taint should not have children; (3) that no means of preventing conception can be tolerated that may injure the health of potential parents or of children; (4) that no person should refuse the duties of parenthood for purely selfish reasons; (5) that while parents cannot be relieved of their responsibility, it is, nevertheless, the duty of society to remove disabilities that may be imposed on worthy parents without any fault of theirs; and (6) that instruction should be given especially to young persons in the laws of sex hygiene, the prevalence and dangers of venereal disease, the right and healthy use of the state of marriage, the immorality of inducing abortion with criminal intent at any period of pregnancy, the duties, responsibilities, and privileges of parenthood, the importance of healthy offspring, and the value of family life to the nation and the human race.

The Commission further agrees that no moral issue is raised in regard to the limitation of the family when there is good reason for such a course; but moral issues are raised by the means used for the purpose. The Commission then presents six "arguments for the use of contraceptives" and six "arguments against the use of contraceptives." But twelve members of the Commission signed a note of reservation disapproving the former and approving the latter; and of the twelve dissenters, seven are theologians.

The proposed remedies range all the way from the neo-Malthusian recommendations of the universal practice of birth control for the elimination of poverty, as a solution of the population problem, to the inculcation of various kinds of "holiness" as a panacea for all problems. Thus the president of the Mother's Union, who presented some very interesting summaries of investigations into the reasons for voluntary restriction of families, on being asked by Rider Haggard whether she could imagine people in crowded rooms and with no comforts understanding the "dignity and holiness of parenthood and of the duty to the country in the passing on of life," replied: "That is all the more reason why they should be taught." In short, the emptiness and hardships of life are to be replaced by magic words. There is considerable material on various schemes for the endowment of motherhood, on the causes of illegitimacy, the need for legislation on the protection of children, and on the relation between the industrialization of the female population to the problems of childbirth and child nurture.

-- Society Becoming Self-Conscious, by Benjamin C. Gruenberg, Ph.D., Assistant Educational Director, United States Public Health Service


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Mothers’ Union
Founded: 1876
Founder: Mary Sumner
Type Charity
Focus Supporting family life
Method prayer, social outreach, campaigning, lobbying
Website Mothers' Union homepage

Mothers’ Union is an international Christian charity that seeks to support families worldwide. Its members are not all mothers or even all women, as there are many parents, men, widows, singles and grandparents involved in its work. Its main aim is to support monogamous marriage and family life, especially through times of adversity.

History

The organisation was founded by Mary Sumner in 1876 in the Church of England parish of Old Alresford, near Winchester, where her husband was rector. She was inspired to start the movement after the birth of her first grandchild. Remembering her own difficulties when she was first a mother, Sumner wanted to bring mothers of all social classes together to provide support for one another and to be trained in motherhood, something which she saw as a vocation.

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Banner made in 1906 for the Mothers' Union of St Mary's parish church, Broomfield, Essex

In 1885 Ernest Roland Wilberforce, the first Bishop of Newcastle, was preparing to address churchgoing women in the Portsmouth Church Congress. Finding he had nothing relevant to say to churchwomen, he contacted Mary Sumner and asked her to speak to the conference in his stead. Although she was reluctant and beset by nervousness, she addressed the women passionately about the power of mothers to change the nation for the better. A number of the women present were encouraged to return to their parishes to set up similar women's meetings, and the Bishop of Winchester, who presided over the congress, declared that the Mothers' Union become a diocesan organisation. The growth of the movement beyond the boundary of the Diocese of Winchester was due to the emphasis in Victorian British society on morality and contending with social ills as well as the growth in Anglican mission throughout the British Empire.

Mothers' Union spread rapidly to the dioceses of Ely, Exeter, Hereford, Lichfield and Newcastle, and then throughout the United Kingdom. By 1892, there were 60,000 members in 28 dioceses, which grew to 169,000 members by the turn of the century. In 1893, annual general meetings were organised, and, in 1896, Mothers' Union Central Council was formed. Mary Sumner was unanimously elected president, a post she held into her nineties. In 1897, during her Diamond Jubilee, Queen Victoria became patron of Mothers' Union, giving it an unprecedented stamp of approval. Mary Sumner's Mothers' Union set up branches throughout the British Empire, beginning in New Zealand, then Canada and India. She lived to see the first Mothers' Union Conference of Overseas Workers in 1920.

Mothers' Union today

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Mary Sumner House, Mother's Union headquarters, Tufton Street, London

As a global movement of women and men, Mothers' Union supports local churches with the prayers and activities of its branch members, local communities through social outreach projects and is an international campaigning charity. Particularly concerned with the plight of women in the World, its projects include literacy and development, parenting, micro finance and campaigning against violence against women and the trafficking of women. Mothers' Union is part of Make Poverty History and the Jubilee Debt Coalition. In the UK it has successfully lobbied government to introduce the right to request flexible working for all parents, and internationally it speaks out on issues of gender equality through its representative status at the United Nations. Campaigning in the UK has also included lobbying for industry and policy change with regard to the commercialization and sexualisation of children. This led to then chief executive, Reg Bailey, being appointed in 2010 to lead an independent review for the UK Government, the Bailey Review.

Of its four million members, about 1.9 million are from Indian dioceses from the formerly independent churchwomen's organisations of the Church of North India and the Church of South India, which affiliated with the Mothers' Union in 2001 and 2003 respectively. A further 1.3 million Mothers' Union members are in African dioceses, with the largest membership, 680,000, in Tanzania. Membership in the United Kingdom is about 93,000[when?] and has seen rapid declines from 122,000 in 2003 and more than 222,000 in 1993.[1]

Aim and objectives

From the Mothers' Union website:

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Mothers' Union banner of the Diocese of Bermuda

Its vision is of a World where God's love is shown through loving, respectful, and flourishing relationships.

Aim & Purpose: To demonstrate the Christian faith in action by the transformation of communities worldwide through the nurture of the family in its many forms.

In order to carry out this aim, Mothers' Union's objectives are:

• To uphold Christ's teaching on the nature of marriage and promote its wider understanding.
• To encourage parents to bring up their children in the faith and life of the Church.
• To maintain a worldwide fellowship of Christians united in prayer, worship and service.
• To promote conditions in society favourable to stable family life and the protection of children.
• To help those whose family life has met with adversity.


Structure

Mothers' Union developed within the Anglican Communion and uses its structure as its own. Individual branches are usually based on parishes or small groups of parishes. There are often levels of co-ordination corresponding to deaneries and archdeaconries, that link the branch organisations with that of the diocese. The Anglican provinces each have their own administration, which, in turn, supports the worldwide President, currently Sheran Harper, from Guyana. The worldwide headquarters is in Mary Sumner House in Westminster, London.

Prayer

Mothers' Union emphasises the importance of prayer underpinning its work. Each year, Mothers' Union organises a Wave of Prayer. Each diocese is given a set day to pray for other dioceses, and within each diocese each branch is given a specific time to pray. This gives to members a sense of unity in prayer for one another as the wave of prayer moves from branch to branch and from diocese to diocese.

See also

• Women's Institute

References

1. Jonathan Petre (18 November 2003). "Mothers' Union tells newly-weds to take Aids test". The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 March 2016.

External links

• The Mothers' Union website
• Mothers' Union Enterprises website
• Canterbury Province MU — covering southern England and Europe
• MU Australia
• MU Ireland
• MU Canada
• Mothers' Union USA
• MU Scotland
• Barbados Diocesan MU
• Manicaland Diocesan MU — in Zimbabwe, in the Church of the Province of Central Africa
• Archives of The Mothers' Union at Lambeth Palace Library
• Grade II listing for Mary Sumner House (Historic England)
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Mar 06, 2020 8:57 am

The Spiritual Significance of Motherhood
by Geoffrey Hodson

Freda was concerned that the Indian authorities simply didn't understand the tradition of incarnate lamas, and their critical place in Tibetan society and spiritual practice. Little was done to identify these young lamas, some little more than infants. 'Nobody knew quite what to do with them,' Freda lamented to Olive Shapley. 'In the lamas we have inherited a tradition that dates back to the seventh century -- spiritual richness we can only as yet partially realise,' she wrote to friends. 'I am sure the whole world will ultimately be enriched.'

There are perhaps 200 high 'incarnate' lamas in the country now headed by His Holiness [the Dalai Lama] (including 40-60 child or adolescent incarnations: many of them young people of extraordinary intelligence and physical beauty) ... dedicated monks and lamas of a high standard of learning and spirituality number perhaps 2,500; in addition we have junior and simpler country monks, over 1,500 of whom have volunteered for roadwork. We all pray ultimately we may be able to settle the bulk of the refugees in big land settlements.32


Nehru had taken a diplomatic risk by hosting the Dalai Lama and tens of thousands of those who followed in his wake. But there was a limit to the amount of official support and funding that could be expected for the refugees' welfare, with the most urgent and unmet need being the upkeep and education of the young lamas.

Freda was entirely comfortable soliciting money and support from the rich and well connected. She had also established links with Buddhist and similar groups in London and elsewhere. Within weeks of returning to Delhi from the camps, she sought to turn her extensive network to the Tibetans' advantage. In mid-August 1960, she wrote a long letter to Muriel Lewis, a California-based Theosophist with whom she had corresponded for several years. Muriel ran the Mothers' Research Group principally for American and Western Theosophists, a network which had an interest both in eastern religions and in parenting issues.

I should like to feel that the 'Mothers' Group' was in touch with all I do (Freda wrote). Do you think it would be possible for some of your members to 'Adopt' in a small way -- write to, send parcels to -- these junior lamas? Friendships, even by post, could mean a great deal. We could work out a little scheme, if you are interested. The language barrier is there, but we can overcome it, with the help of friends.


Freda's family had, she recounted, already taken a young lama under their wing.

Last year my son [Kabir] 'adopted' one small lama of 12, sent him a parcel of woollen (yellow)clothes, sweets and picture books, soap and cotton cloth. This time when I went to Buxa, Jayong gave me such an excited and dazzling smile. He was brimming over with joy at seeing me again! It is very quiet away from your own country and relations for a small lama with a LOT TO LEARN. It was of course most touching to see the 'Mother-Love' in the faces of the tutor-lamas and servant lamas who look after the young ones. They are very tender with them.


Freda's letter was included in Muriel's research group newsletter and subsequently reprinted by the Buddhist Society in London. This was the founding act of the Tibetan Friendship Group, which quickly established a presence in eight western countries and was the conduit by which modest private funds were raised for the refugees.34 It outlasted Freda and ... it helped give prominence to the Tibet issue as well as the well-being of the Tibetan diaspora.

-- The Lives of Freda: The Political, Spiritual and Personal Journeys of Freda Bedi, by Andrew Whitehead


Chapter 1: The Influence and Work of the World Mother

Christianity, Hinduism (see note) and other great World Faiths all teach that there exists a Being here on our earth Who embodies in perfection all the highest attributes of the Feminine Aspect of both the creative Deity and the human race, including human motherhood. She, the all-compassionate One, gazes with infinite tenderness and concern upon life on earth. What must She see? A frankly ruthless and nakedly cynical violation and desecration by man -- chiefly, though not entirely, by the male -- of everything holy and beautiful for which She stands. She must see everywhere throughout the world irreverence, abuse and cruelty -- the continual infliction of unnecessary suffering by man upon man, and by man upon the animal kingdom

If it were not that She must also know that this epoch is a phase out of which there will grow a nobler, a fairer, a kinder and a more gentle civilization, surely Her heart would be unbearably torn by what She must see. If we add that in Her divine love She voluntarily remains near to humanity, that She is not only an outside observer, not only a great Spirit removed from us, not only an ascetic Adept who long again attained to a spiritual mountain top, but that in a mysterious way She is actually present within our hearts, and especially within the hearts of every woman and child, what an almost unbearable experience such nearness to mankind would be!

I am myself profoundly convinced that such a Being exists and that, beyond human understanding. She is the perfected embodiment of all that is highest and noblest in womanhood. Her heart, I believe, is filled with love and compassion for us all and, while She does see our sins, She does not condemn us. Rather does She draw nearer to enfold us in Her arms of love, even whilst we transgress.

St. Catherine of Sienna, when for a time she had lost contact with her Lord and in her own eyes had fallen deeply, asked, "Lord, where wast Thou amidst all that failure?" In what is called the mystic locution, when the devotee communes with God and hears His voice, the Lord answered, "Daughter, I was there with thee in thy heart." So She, the Mother of the World, is here with us in our hearts, as well as brooding maternally over all humanity, especially now when a new racial birth is occurring, the racial Christ-consciousness being "born". (See Theosophy Answers Some Problems of Life -- also by Geoffrey Hodson)

Let us now look at our world and see some of the problems with which we -- and so the World Mother, since She is one with us -- are confronted.

In the world of today we observe a great reliance on force and cunning. "Let him take who has the power and let him keep who can" is the general philosophy, particularly under totalitarian regimes. I am aware of the existence of the United Nations and its wonderful subsidiary agencies, but it must be confessed that, by some people, honour, morality and goodwill have come to be regarded only as useful means to a selfish ends. In the ultimate, all right still tends to be founded on power.

Then consider the greatest casualty of the Second World War -- loyalty. When the Spanish Commander outside Madrid said he could easily conquer the Capital City because he had four columns outside and a fifth column within, the world pounced on the phrase like a writer who had been seeking a word. "Fifth Column" has since come to connote the great corroding influence in the world today. Other times have had their traitors but never before have such large numbers of people been willing to band themselves together in disloyalty to bring about the downfall of the system within which they live and are nourished, and to act secretly and subversively even while under the protection of the National they seek to destroy. "Fifth Column" "Fifth Column" is now a fear-inspiring phrase, a tocsin of calamity, if ever there was one; for how can we build a brave new world unless we have loyalty?

The world She loves and serves is also deeply sullied by organized crime and vice, such as drug peddling, even to children and adolescents, prostitution, white slavery- horrible to contemplate when thinking of the World Mother and ideal womanhood. Other evils deeply affecting the progress, happiness and health of mankind, particularly the birth of a new and nobler race of man, with which process the World Mother may also be presumed to be concerned, consist of monopolies, cartels, price fixing, corruption in public, professional and business life, soil exploitation and timber denudation. All these bring gain to the few but result in poverty, and in some parts of the world in famine, to the many.

Other serious evils must be known to Her. The colossal consumption of alcohol, for example, takes more lives than war, ruins homes, degrades men and women, brings immeasurable sorrow and loss everywhere, but very great gain to a few who do not hesitate to foster the evil in order to acquire that gain. Then think of the wholly unnecessary and brutal annual slaughter of hundreds of millions of animals for food which also brings immense profit to the few, ugliness to civilization, ill-health to millions, agonized suffering to food animals and degradation to the slaughterman.

All these wickednesses are voluntary and quite deliberate. The infliction of the greatest possible disaster to one's fellow-men and to animals in order to bring gain for oneself is deliberately chosen by all too many people as a most desired way of life and means of making money.

Such are some of the plainly discernible phenomena of the particular phase of evolution through which mankind is now passing. In consequence, most people go on living their everyday life half-frightened, half indifferent, not daring to think into the future and, as Thoreau said, "in quiet desperation". So we, the people of the world see -- as She, the World Mother, must also see -- the ghastly, tragic comedy that is being performed on the international, national, political and economic stages, where the fate of mankind is being largely decided and individuals find themselves relatively helpless. No wonder disillusionment, bitterness and cynicism characterize the thinking and the outlook of youth and adult alike.

Hence the deep significance of those Movements which focus attention on certain aspects of this problem, particularly those concerning the birth of a new and higher Race of men and the life and work of woman in the world. There are all too few of such Movements on earth, born our of tenderness and compassion for humanity, out of a spiritual vision and a recognition of the existence of a Feminine Principle in God, in all Nature and in man.

If I may here introduce a personal note, I well remember how the vision of the veritable existence of the World Mother first dawned upon me many years ago. I think I was privileged to see Her, however faintly, not only as an ideal, or even as One in the succession of Personifications of the Mother Aspect of Deity, but also as a wondrous living Being, the Exquisite Jewel in the Hierarchy of Earth's Adepts, the World Mother for this epoch, the Star of the Sea, as She is severally named.

Galahad ... soldier that perished ... ages ago,
Our hearts are breaking with shame, our tears overflow.
Galahad ... knight who perished ... awaken again,
Teach us to fight for immaculate ways among men.
Soldiers fantastic, we pray to the star of the sea,
We pray to the mother of God that the bound may be free.
Rose-crowned lady from heaven, give us thy grace,
Help us the intricate, desperate battle to face
Till the leer of the trader is seen nevermore in the land,
Till we bring every maid of the age to one sheltering hand.
Ah, they are priceless, the pale and the ivory and red!
Breathless we gaze on the curls of each glorious head!
Arm them with strength mediaeval, thy marvelous dower,
Blast now their tempters, shelter their steps with thy power.
Leave not life's fairest to perish -- strangers to thee,
Let not the weakest be shipwrecked, oh, star of the sea!

-- Galahad, Knight Who Perished: A Poem to All Crusaders Against the International and Interstate Traffic in Young Girls, By permission of the Macmillan Company, from The Congo and Other Poems, by Vachel Lindsay.


Some thirty years ago it fell to my lot to try and collaborate with certain physicians in London in a search for the root cause of disease. Our thoughts were constantly led back to prenatal life where it seemed that the seeds of disease, the tendency to disease, latent disease, first appear. In consequence, it was decided that I should attempt clairvoyant (clairvoyance, an extension produced by self-training and used in full waking consciousness, of the normal range of visual response, now known as Extra-Sensory Perception or ESP) investigations (see "The Miracle of Birth, also the description of Plates 29 and 30, and Chapter IV of The Kingdom of the Gods by Geoffrey Hodson). Two of the doctors owned a large Maternity Hospital, and so ample opportunity for observation was provided. In certain cases, investigations were made day by day and week by week into the prenatal development of the new mental, emotional, etheric and physical bodies of the reincarnating Egos. In certain cases the studies were followed right through to the birth itself. Some of the principles of human incarnation were observed and support gained for the view that susceptibility to disease can be observed in the human embryo.

Gradually, as the time of delivery came near, a sheen of beautiful pure blue began to unveil and tinge the auras of both the mother-to-be and the devas (Sanskrit word) meaning "shining ones", the Angelic Hosts) responsible for part of the work of building the new bodies. As the last weeks went by, this blue deepened in the auras of the devas, who began to assume Madonna-like forms. This culminated in the appearance at the time of birth of the Mother of the World as a veritable Presence, presiding over the "miracle" of human motherhood and childbirth.


As a result of these experiences, I feel that I came to know at least that She Exists and a little of what may be seen in Her eyes and in her Heart -- a divinely tender, maternal solicitude for all mankind. I learned, I think, that motherhood should ideally be as conscious as possible, though never at the cost of undue pain: for certain expansions of consciousness can then be experienced which can effect, can exhalt, the consciousness of the mother and through her that of the whole Race.

How may She be truly envisaged? Whilst the beautiful Madonna blue is probably universal, the form in which She presents Herself is apparently adapted to those who see Her. Possibly their own minds shape the vision of Her into a familiar form. As those of us who were then studying prenatal life were all Christians, She in Her compassion may have deliberately adopted the Madonna form so that we might recognize her.

A Chinese lady once invited me to her home and showed me her beautiful garden. Amongst the trees were statues of Kwan Yin, Goddess of Wisdom and Compassion, the Feminine Logos of Chinese Buddhism. My hostess said to me, "I have had thirteen children and on more than one occasion Kwan Yin Herself saved my life. When the pangs of birth became unendurable and I would die, I saw Her there beside my bed. She stretched out Her hand towards me and immediately the pain was eased and the lost poise and steadiness restored, not once, but many times."

Thus I have come to believe, even to know, that there is such a wondrous and glorious Being on our Earth as the World Mother, that She is very near to human mothers during pregnancy and at the time of birth. I have also learned that She ever seeks human agents and human helpers who will serve in Her name and endeavour to live in Her presence. Whilst women especially represent Her, She also needs men of honour to be her knights, ever ready to fight for the weak and the exploited and to guard with knightly loyalty all women and children, as true knights should. Unhappily, men tend to forget the ideals of chivalry, save those who are still knightly in their nature.

A great Mahatma once wrote: "Not till woman bursts the bonds of her sexual slavery, to which she has ever been subjected, will the world obtain an inkling of what she really is and of her proper place in the economy of Nature." (See The Paradoxes of the Highest Science, by Eliphas Levi, page 171)

On one other memorable occasion an Angel Teacher opened my consciousness into some realisation of the present holder of the Office of World Mother, who is Mary, the mother of Jesus. She also attained perfection and chose that one of the seven roads open to the Adept which leads out of the human into the Angelic Kingdom of Nature. The Angel showed me that "She labours ever for the cause of human motherhood, and even now is bending all Her mighty strength and calling her Angel Court to labour for the upliftment of womanhood throughout the world. Through Her angel messengers, She Herself is present at every human birth, unseen and unknown, it is true, but if men would but open their eyes She would be revealed.

"She sends this message through the Brotherhood to men:-

"In the Name of Him whom long ago I bore, I come to your aid. I have taken every woman into my heart, to hold there a part of her that through it I may help her in her time of need.

"Uplift the women of your race till all are seen as queens, and to such queens let every man be as a king, that each may honour each, seeing the other's royalty. Let every home, however small, become a court, every son a knight, every child a page. Let all treat all with chivalry, honouring in each their royal parentage, their kingly birth; for there is royal blood in every man; all are the children of the KING."


"All nations have recognized, honoured and worshipped this Maternal Principle in Nature. All their exoteric religions have personified it as a Goddess, an Archangel Mother of universes, races, nations and men. These personifications of the World Mother are amongst the very noblest concepts of the human mind, which in creating, reverencing and serving them reaches its highest degrees of idealism, devotion and religious self-expression. Such reverence, such devotion and such worship as are offered to World Mothers are therefore worthy of the deepest respect and, gross superstition apart -- ever to be resisted -- may usefully be encouraged. For through human devotion, human beings may be reached from on high. Through human aspiration, higher love and supplication, man is susceptible to both his own Spiritual Self and the influence of the Adept Ministrants of mankind. The Madonna ideal, for example, has been and still is of incalculable value in consoling, purifying and ennobling humanity. Through it, a realisation of the Mother-Love of God has been brought within reach of millions of suffering and aspiring people. The concepts of Kwan Yin, Isis, Ishtar, Parvati and other Goddesses are similarly founded upon the existence, nature and function of the same great Being. Perhaps, because I am a Christian and the cases I was examining were also Christian, the Madonna-like forms here pictured presented themselves to my mind.

"The planetary World Mother is conceived in certain schools of occult philosophy as a highly evolved, Archangel Representative and Embodiment on earth of the Feminine Aspect of the Deity. She is also thought of as an Adept Official in the Inner Government of the World, in whom all the highest qualities of womanhood and motherhood shine forth in their fullest perfection." (See Kingdom of the Gods pages 242-243 )

Such are some of the thoughts and the ideals which have awakened in me since I passed through those experiences of many years ago, followed as they have been by others. Is it not worthwhile to be associated with such an ideal and with such a work as Hers? I feel strongly urged to appeal to those similarly moved, that they will participate and contribute to the best of their ability that this, Her Work, shall not only live on and prosper, but that it shall enter on a great era of activity in Her Name, which is the Name of Compassion, Wisdom and Universal Love.

Chapter 2: The Descent to Birth of the Human Soul

The situation in the world concerning woman, womanhood and the maternal and paternal functions is deplorable, being chiefly characterized by the absence of reverence. Humanity, or at least some parts of western humanity, seem to be losing the sense of holiness. When a Nation loses its sense of the holiness of life in any aspect, and particularly in that of the maternal function, then that nation is in a moral decline. As I travel through the Nations of the world, I see evidences of that decline. The moral standard everywhere is far too low. That is why I welcome and value so greatly such a Movement as the Mothers' Research Group of America.

I feel there cannot be too many such Movements and branches of such Movements, and that is indeed practical Theosophy. I hope many of you who can spare the time from existing obligations, which must always come first, will feel moved to help in this beautiful, much-needed work.


I am now going to offer, undogmatically, some ideas concerning the process of the descent of the Ego into incarnation -- ideas born of the study of Theosophy and of attempted research into pre-natal life.

Let us imagine that we are functioning in our Causal Bodies and watching the process of descent to birth. What are we likely to see? First of all there will have been consultation between certain high Authorities, Intelligences connected with the outworking of karma, racial, national and individual. These beings are partly concerned with the evolution of the Egos of humanity, give careful consideration to the evolutionary necessities of Egos about to descend to birth.
These Representatives of the Lipika (a Sanskrit word: A uniting Great karmic deities of the Cosmos, agents of the law of cause and effect) are participating at the Causal level and there will be One Who might be called the Presiding Angel for the period and processes of pre-natal life Who, under Its seniors, makes the decision. This Angel knows the whole of the karma of the Ego -- pleasure-giving, pain-producing and neutral. It also knows, often by consultation with Its Seniors, how much of benefice and how much of adversity can be worked out in the new incarnation without hurting, injuring or holding up the progress of that Ego.

After such consultation with Its colleagues and certain Officials in the Adept Hierarchy, the Presiding Angel portions out in general, and very flexibly, the karmic position for the new life. All karma, let us remember, is good karma, because it is harmonizing, balancing and educative. Before birth the amount of karma, adverse and beneficent in its outworking, which is to be expressed and at what levels -- mental, astral or physical -- in the life about to begin, is decided upon. That knowledge will then be handed on to the building devas at the mental and astral levels, and it is part of their office to make the very most of the situation and to see that any adverse physical tendencies, malformations or disease are offset by benefices, to the end of the best possible result. They cannot, however, work against the karma of the person. If we think of the descending Word-Force of the Ego, sounding down into the mental, astral and physical worlds as a formative agency which will build the corresponding bodies (This is a manifestation by man, as microcosm, of precisely the same processes by which the Logos, as macrocosm, forms universes out of pre-cosmic substance by the agency of Will-Thought-Sound) then you can think of the karma from past lives as a lateral energy. Where there has been cruelty and the abuse of the body, the resultant discordance could impinge on the descending Word-Force and cause a dissonance, which in its turn will produce malformation, deficiency or weakness down in the physical body.

Then there is the whole karmic question of the choice of country, which is not in the least accidental. The karma of the incarnating Ego must harmonise reasonably well with the karma of the Nation. If the Ego has a karma which could be reasonably worked out under the stress and strain of war, or disruption, or revolution, or catastrophe, or flood, or famine, or whatever it might be, and there is a Nation which is going to endure those afflictions, then, other things being equal, that is the Nation to which such an Ego would be sent. If, on the other hand, an Ego does not have an adversity of that kind waiting in suspension between lives for its precipitation when the conditions are ripe, then a neutral country like Switzerland or somewhere else which was not going to be seriously affected by the war, or invaded by the enemy or injured by catastrophe, would be chosen. The main factor to be considered would be the harmonization of the two karmas.

Next comes the selection of the city and the neighbourhood in which the Ego will be born. These also are not chosen by mere chance. The outworking of karma is seen in the choice of fellow citizens and in what is going to happen to the city and the neighbourhood, none of which is haphazard. That brings us to the choice of parents. This involves the perpetuation of personal or Egoic links from former lives, for nearly always there are links of love between the Egos of children and those of their parents, I said nearly always, for sometimes there is a bond of discord, and even dislike, and that also can draw people together and children into a family. Then you get the phenomenon of a child in a family who does not fit in, who is the cause of distress, and who eventually leaves to find his own happiness elsewhere. Both sides have had the opportunity to harmonise the situation, however, and if they are wise they will have done so. Parents who have such discordant children in their families should take good care to try and do their utmost to resolve that discord into harmony, to serve and never to neglect them under those conditions. Then the problem is more or less solved and will not recur. This knowledge is part of the practical value of our philosophy. Of course, the true Theosophist would act in that way in any case, but humanity as a whole does not always do so. It would be well if we took as our guide in all problems of karma, the injunction always to be kinder than the situation demands.

Let us remember that big issues are at stake in a great number of our human relationships -- far bigger than we realise -- and that when we meet and are drawn, or not drawn, to each other, casually or intimately, karma is all the time being both worked out and generated for the future. Wisdom should therefore always be applied. We should try never to generate adversity by inflicting pain unnecessarily, and endeavour always to be wise and balanced in the conduct of human relationships. With children especially there should be the greatest possible kindness, love and care, however poor the response might be and however difficult the situations.

Where the karma of the incarnating Ego has been very adverse and there are mental or physical deficiencies, or both, it should be remembered that the parents are really being honoured by being chosen to help the Ego through very grave adversity. As far as is sane and reasonable, keep the child at home, surround him with all possible love and care, help the Ego through this time, remembering that this is a kind of call -- from God if you like -- to shepherd and shelter someone through a dark period in a series of incarnations. Where, however, the other members of the family suffer unduly, and the situation is rather hopeless, then it would not be wrong to consider provision outside of the home, so long as it is helpful.

Other matters to be considered when an Ego descends to birth are those of the class or caste to which the parents belong, the opportunities for education and a start in life which they can offer, the environment and special possibilities and openings which would be provided, the educative curriculum, the type of school and teachers. All of these are also given consideration in the choice of parenthood.
Some further factors include within fairly wide and flexible limits, the possibility or likelihood of cruelty, as in corporal punishment at home and in school, and the experience of harshness or lack of understanding. These would tend to drive the more advanced type of Egos away. I will be considering these matters in more detail later on.

Thus, according to Theosophy, nothing is left to chance. Our lives are lived according to a strict law which provides absolute justice for everyone, and that justice is administered with compassion and wisdom to the end of the greatest possible evolutionary advancement. When the Ego which is about to reincarnate is sufficiently developed, and where there is a choice, then it may be consulted. This would especially refer to the caste or class into which it is to be born -- the ruling, aristocratic or wealthy classes, or those of the artisan or other manual workers. Egos will sometimes choose an adverse situation for the sake, first, of the lessons to be learned, and second, of the service to be rendered. That is why one may find advanced Egos in lowly circumstances.

The Inner Self of an advanced person nearly always has a sense of a mission, knows to a considerable extent what it wants to do with the new life
, what contribution it wants to make, what qualities of character it hopes to develop, and what existing faculties are to be increased. A spiritually awakened Ego is well aware of these possibilities and has ideals for the new life. There, again, a great responsibility is thrown upon the parents. They can make or mar the incarnation, and, moreover, quite early in life.

It should always be recognized that it is only the body which is infantile, childish, adolescent, and that the shining Ego is often wiser than the parents, more advanced in evolution, and is seeking to continue the great pilgrimage of life by their aid. Everything which draws out and encourages the highest faculties and attributes should surround the child. Anything which suppresses, unduly represses, causes sorrow or suffering -- as by severe corporal punishment, which drives the Ego back in humiliated retreat -- should be avoided. Corporal punishment warps the personality, twists it, hardens it, makes it deceitful, can awaken the determination to bully others in turn when the opportunity comes. It solves no problems at all, except the mere temporary ones of local difficulty. As one teacher said to me, "Every time I use the strap or the cane, I consider it to be acknowledgement of defeat."

All of these possibilities and factors and doubtless many more -- problems and other influences from past lives and the future mission of the Ego up to Adeptship -- all of this is taken into account and given consideration largely in the Causal world as the Ego is about to descend. Particularly is this so with regard to the more advanced and developed Egos.

Let me sum up these ideas before I pass on to a further aspect of our subject. Each cycle of human rebirth is presided over by members of the Orders of Angels which are especially associated with man. At each successive rebirth, individual Egos receive the special assistance of angels responsible for the construction of mental, emotional, etheric and physical forms. These angels operate partly under the direction of representatives of the Lipika. The choice of era, continent, Nation, Religion, parents, environment and opportunity, sex, type and condition of body and degree of potential or actual health and disease, are all decided according to law by these presiding Intelligences. The several karmas of the incarnating Ego, of the natal Nation, of members of groups with whom there will be association, of the whole family and of the future husband or wife and children, are all fully considered. The inherent rhythm of the Monad-Ego (Monad. The one, indivisible Self -- the unity; the eternal, immortal and indestructible human Spirit) the ultimate destiny according to Monadic temperament or Ray, the past karma and the immediate and future missions are all reviewed and with unfailing justice the most favourable choices are made under the karmic circumstances.

Then the incarnation begins, very much in the same way as the incarnation of a Logos in a newly emanated Solar System. The Egoic Word, also, is uttered. The microcosmic Logos, which is a human Ego, again turns its attention to the material worlds and utters its Word, or sends out a ray of its own creative power, life and consciousness, which impinges primarily upon the matter of the mental world. Think of it diagrammatically (actually, from within outwards) if you will, as projecting downwards like a finger of fire, or a ray of light, or a beam of creative sound vibrating on the frequencies of the Ego's characteristic Nature, powers and faculties. Impinging on the mental world, this ray sets up a kind of vortex into which surrounding matter from the mental plane, vibrating on frequencies of similar types to the Ego, is drawn in and gradually shaped into an ovoid -- the embryo mental body.

The preponderance of one or other of three gunas, or attributes of matter, rajas -- activity, salva -- harmony, rhythm and tamas -- inertia, is also decided by the Egoic Self and the vibrating Word Forces by which it is expressed down there. In the very substance of which our bodies are built, therefore, complete justice is meted out to us, and they fit us as perfectly as is possible and as karma permits. Then the ray impinges upon the matter of the astral plane and sets up a vortex there into which, similarly, astral matter is drawn and the astral body begins to be built. Again the same principles apply, because only the matter which is vibrating on the same frequencies as those of the Egoic current of creative force is drawn in. Resonance and magnetic properties ensure this.

These bodies look like small ovoids, perhaps 10" to 12" high at first. They are almost transparent, with very little colour in them. There is a suggestion of colour, however, a kind of opalescence, like mother-of-pearl, gleaming in the otherwise white aura of the child. These all represent skandas (Sanskrit word, "Bundles" or groups of attributes which unite at the birth of a man and constitute his personality.
The results of the past which become seeds for future lives. Karmic results.) properties, capacities brought over from former lives and latent for the time being, until physical life and its experiences bring them out again.

In due course, and not necessarily from the beginning, the physical body will begin to be built. The descent into incarnation can, and not infrequently does, commence before physical conception. Eventually, however, the twin cell is formed and the physical permanent atom (Permanent atom: An atom retained by the reincarnating Ego after the death of his vehicles. The experiences in essence of the body of which it has formed a part are impressed upon the permanent atom and from it the tone or vibratory rate is transferred to the new body when the Ego reincarnates. Vide: A Study in Consciousness, By A. Besant) is then attached to it by a member of the Angelic Hosts. Then the Ego through the "descending", vibrating ray of creative Life-Force, is in contact with the physical plane and the new physical body begins to be built.

All of this process is watched over and cared for by certain angels. As far as I know -- and remember that research in this field is very limited and there is a tremendous amount of it still to be done -- there is, under the Causal, Presiding Deva of the incarnation, a Deva at the mental level and another at the astral level. These angels extend their auras around the mother, the vibrating ray and the mental and astral bodies. So far as karma permits, they thus shelter from shock and from intrusion from outside. They are also at work on the adjustment of the mechanism of consciousness. This latter is very delicate; it consists of the seven chakras in the mental and astral bodies and, later, those in the etheric body and the associated, physical nerve centres and glands.

As far as I know, particular types of nature spirits of the four "elements" are at work on our bodies from the moment of conception to the moment of death, building, repairing and regenerating as occasion demands, and in accordance with physical laws.
The mystery of the development of a perfect physical body from so small an organism as the twin cell is not yet solved by science. Why certain microscopic areas in the germ develop certain kinds of tissue in a certain part of the body-to-be until the whole, with all its tremendous variety, comes into existence according to the prototype, the pattern or plan, never failing -- that is still a mystery and will continue so until the subject is studied from within and from the superphysical worlds.

During this time the mental and astral angels have been at work, supervising the building of the mental and astral bodies and chakras, and their adjustment, whilst the nature spirits themselves are under their direction. Thus, throughout the period of gestation, the physical, etheric, astral and mental bodies are gradually built, according to the karma and the evolutionary necessities of the reincarnating Ego. Then, all being well, the time of delivery or birth arrives. At that moment, if all has proceeded satisfactorily, the angels associated with the pre-natal life withdraw at birth and the new personality is then in the hands of man.

The foregoing practically completes what I have to say on this important subject. I might, perhaps, add one further thought, which is that the Ego is only very dimly conscious through the physical body during prenatal life. At quickening, the development of the nervous system has reached a point where a certain small measure of the consciousness of the Ego can manifest, and a little more of the Ego is added to its manifestation as power and life; for it should be remembered that the Inner Self of man is a triplicity and that the formative Egoic ray or current of thought-force is also threefold. The three component aspects and currents of force are expressive of Spiritual Power, Spiritual Life and Spiritual Intelligence. The first two of these play through the physical permanent atom from the moment of conception and influence the building of the embryo. Only when the foetal cerebro-spinal system has become sufficiently established can the third, the Intelligence aspect of the Ego, find a vehicle of expression. Even when this is absent owing to injury, as in the case of insanity of varying degree, the power and the life of the Ego will still keep the physical body alive and the Ego will remain in incarnation so far as they are concerned.

After the quickening, then, the Ego in the embryo is dimly, drowsily aware of warmth, protection, seclusion and safety. From the point of view of the elemental consciousness of the body, and even that of the subtler bodies, birth is a shock, a somewhat sudden extrusion from that comfort, warmth, complete protection and internal nutriment of the gestatory period. Therefore, in the early days and weeks -- yes, and months -- but especially in the early days and weeks, that shock should be minimized, I personally think, by as close a relationship with the mother, and as much affection and comfort as is possible.

I find myself completely disagreeing with these modern schools of thought which advise taking the babies and keeping them away from the mothers, only bringing them back to be fed. Some doctors rather advise against frequent picking up, petting and loving babies. They seem to prefer a somewhat strict regime from the beginning, to encourage the development of habit patterns to ease the processes of weaning and upbringing.

One sees a certain value in it, but a certain undesirable effect as well. The mother needs the outlet for her love provided by the near presence of her baby -- maternity is a spiritual as well as a physical experience, bringing expansions of consciousness to the mother which are shared with the Race. They are therefore very valuable and important. The child, in its turn, needs the influence of the mother's aura, her magnetism and her love. Little ones are very dependent, so that as far as the health of the mother, her duties and her environment all permit, the baby should stay, I think, as close to her as possible. I am happy to learn of some reversals of the newer methods of people in that field and a tendency to return to the earlier, more natural treatment of babies.

Chapter 3: Factors Influencing the Character and Conduct of the Child

Theosophy teaches that all manifested divine Power, Life and Consciousness, and so all human Monads or Spirits, radiate from the One Source and pass through the Three and the Seven. In their passage through the Three and the Seven, these three Emanations of the Logos -- divine Power, Life and Consciousness -- are impressed with the special quality of that One of the Three "Persons" and the seventh Sephiroth through which they pass, are attuned to their vibratory frequency or chord and are stained with their particular colour. The colour of the spectrum and divine attribute which each of these Sephiroths represents is accentuated in each projected Monadic Ray, and thereafter predominates over the other six.

The pure Ray type is rare, admixtures with consequent modification of ideal, temperament and method being the rule. The evolutionary position or "age" of the Spiritual Self usually decides the degree in which the Ray qualities and virtues are displayed and the defects and limitations are overcome. As a general rule, the more advanced the Ego, the more readily discernible in the personality is the primary Ray.

One particular quality is generally regarded as supremely desirable by persons on each of the seven Rays. For the first Ray this is power; for the second, wisdom; for the third, comprehension; for the fourth, beauty; for the fifth, knowledge; for the sixth, one-pointed devotion; for the seventh, order.

Knowledge of the seven Rays is helpful in the comprehension of others
, specially of those whose approach to life, methods of obtaining desired ends and ultimate destiny differ from one's own. Such knowledge can bestow upon those who possess it one of the highest virtues. This is a wide tolerance, born of deep understanding, concerning the ideals and actions of other Nations and of other individuals. This virtue is beautifully expressed in the words of the Lord Shri Krishna, who was speaking as an incarnation of Vishnu, the Second Aspect of the Blessed Trinity:

"However men approach Me, even so do I welcome them, for the path men take from every side is Mine." (Bhagavad Gita, IV, translated by A.Besant)


If this knowledge of the Rays is applied to child training, then the eight factors influencing and in large measure forming the character of every child are as follows:-

1 -- The Ray and more dominant sub-Rays, generally two in number.

First ray Egos, generally with the fifth and seventh Rays, subdominant, manifest the qualities of power, will, and an inherent tendency to independence, which should be respected within the reasonable limits of domestic harmony.

Second Ray Egos, generally with the fourth and sixth Rays subdominant, manifest unity and love, with an inherent tendency to dependence upon the love of others, which also should be respected, especially in childhood.

Third Ray Egos, generally with the fourth and fifth Rays sub-dominant, manifest reason and inherent tendency to understanding and reasonableness. The purpose of rules, redirection of energy and disciplinary correction should always be explained to such children, though this practice is eminently desirable in all cases.

Fourth Ray Egos, generally with no fixed sub-dominant Rays, manifest an inherent tendency to harmoniousness and love of colour, rhythm and beauty. All children who display these attributes should be granted every opportunity for self-expression and training of the body through the arts.

Fifth Ray Egos, generally with the first and third Rays subdominant, manifest logic and determination, even to obstinacy. These tendencies should be respected, so redirection should always be accompanied by a reasonable explanation.

Sixth Ray Egos, generally with the second Ray sub-dominant and the fifth almost absent in the early years, manifest a desire for love, to be loved, to make love, to possess personally and exclusively. These attributes, and the parental instinct which may accompany them, should be wisely directed along constructive channels and never wholly repressed.

Seventh Ray Egos, generally with the first and fifth Rays sub-dominant and the fourth often well-developed, manifest an inherent tendency to personal dignity. They are peculiarly sensitive to affronts, particularly when accompanied by violence, rudeness and disrespect. This attribute, together with those of the sub-dominant Rays, should always be respected.

2 -- The phases of evolution which the Ego has reached, through which it will pass, and which therefore are to be accentuated in the new life.

Every effort should be made by parents and teachers to discern and be guided by these factors.

3 -- World thought during pre-natal life and the early years.

This influences the personality, in some cases strongly enough to modify, and even temporarily neutralize, the Egoic influences.

4 -- National thought, tendencies and characteristics.

These are inevitably built into the mind of the new personality.

5 -- Local, parental and family mental outlook, which affect the building and nature of the mental body.

Strong, well developed Egos overcome factors 3,4 and 5, but others are moulded by them.

6 -- The emotional atmosphere of the home and neighbourhood.

Harmony, love and self-restraint help greatly, as their opposites can hurt the formation of the emotional character and body.

7 -- The racial, ancestral and parental physical characteristics which are transmuted through the father and the mother to the child.

8 -- The immediately preceding incarnation:

(a) All the above influences as they affected the last life

(b) The nature, and especially the failure or success, of that life. Failure, disaster, tragedy, can leave an impression which may reappear in the next life, particularly up to adolescence, though even afterwards.

(c) The major activities and achievements, which also play their part in moulding the character of the new personality.

(d) Any acute suffering, particularly if prolonged, will give a natural tendency to shrink from pain, and inability in a child to contemplate and cope with it successfully. Apparently unreasoning fears may cloud the early years. All of such children should be carefully protected from experiences which arouse fear and every effort should be made to establish in the child a sense of security, safety and freedom from personal attack. The child's hyper-sensitivity to the thought of pain, to the threat of pain, and to pain itself, should not be regarded as a weakness . It should never be punished, but always be regarded with a special tenderness and respect, for it stems from suffering in a former life so acute as to produce extreme sensitivity to pain. This is one of the most important of all factors in child-training at home and at school, and yet one of the most neglected, and even abused. A whole incarnation can be marred in consequence.

(e) A position of rule, power over others, tyrannical tendencies and cruelty in one life can produce a very difficult personality in the next. Such a new personality can, in childhood, exhibit rebelliousness and unreadiness to co-operate in the management either of its own body, or of the home in general. Most of such rebels have been created by unfortunate conditions and by opportunities for tyranny, major or minor, in former lives, especially the immediately preceding one.

In consequence, the Ego is placed in a difficult position, is handicapped in developing and exhibiting the opposite qualities in the new personality. This difficulty should be recognized and respected. Above all, the child should not be bullied or harshly treated, with a view to "breaking its spirit". Nevertheless discipline must be firm, redirection, not repression, being the ideal.

(f) The manner of death. If "natural", as from old age or disease, then no particular influence will be brought over. If violent, then the next life will inevitably be affected. Certain inherent fears will show themselves, generally related to the circumstances and the cause of premature death. Some examples, as related to the four elements, are: earth -- smothering, burial or falling; water -- drowning; air -- heights, falls, extremes of temperature; fire-burning, explosions, volcanic catastrophes.

Admittedly, the average parent cannot know by seership all of these factors. Most of them do, however, become evident quite early in life.

Knowledge of these principles can serve as a guide to both parents and teachers who seek to discern the factors of major importance. As these are realised, the treatment and the training of the child can be adapted to its special needs.

One principle which emerges and which should never be forgotten is that, though children can be naughty and must be trained by firm handling when necessary, no child is wholly to blame for adverse characteristics. All the above factors enter in to produce both the general and the temporary goodness or badness of the child.

Another basic principle is that virility and effectiveness in a man do not demand roughness, harshness, brutality and so-called "toughening" in childhood. The toughened child is generally cut off from its Ego. A middle course has therefore to be followed in developing the character. A certain sensitivity, tenderness and natural kindliness should be blended with a courageous independence and initiative.

The doctrine of reincarnation, which shows the present life as only one in a series of incarnations, with many lives ahead, and the influence of many former lives, is the great key which Theosophy gives to parents and to teachers and, indeed, to all who are responsible for the children of the Race.

Ego. "Self"; the unified triad, Atma-Buddhi-Manas, or the duad (djad), Atma-Buddhi, that immortal part of man which reincarnates and gradually progresses to the final goal -- Nirvana. Also the consciousness in man -- "I am I" -- or the feeling of "I-am-ship". Esoteric philosophy teaches the existence of two Egos in man, the mortal or personal, and the Higher, the Divine and the Impersonal, calling the former "personality, and the latter "individuality". -- Adapted from The Theosophical Glossary, H.B.Blavatsky.

In Hinduism, the Supreme Deity is worshipped in both Masculine and Feminine Aspects, is regarded as Universal Father of the World and Universal Mother. The Feminine Aspect is worshipped under many names and in many forms. She is chiefly known as Jagadamba, the World Mother, and this concept includes also the Shakti (expressed energy) Aspect or Complements of the Trimurti. These are Parvati, the Complement of Shiva, Lakshmi of Vishnu, and Sarasvati of Brahma.

All women are regarded as representatives of the Jagadamba who is the Mother of all mothers, the Divine Queen of the Kingdom of Motherhood, woman's highest ideal.
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

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Part 1 of 2

America, Birthplace of a New Race
by Geoffrey Hodson
Published by the Mothers’ Research Group, Theosophical Society in America
The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai. India


Freda was concerned that the Indian authorities simply didn't understand the tradition of incarnate lamas, and their critical place in Tibetan society and spiritual practice. Little was done to identify these young lamas, some little more than infants. 'Nobody knew quite what to do with them,' Freda lamented to Olive Shapley. 'In the lamas we have inherited a tradition that dates back to the seventh century -- spiritual richness we can only as yet partially realise,' she wrote to friends. 'I am sure the whole world will ultimately be enriched.'

There are perhaps 200 high 'incarnate' lamas in the country now headed by His Holiness [the Dalai Lama] (including 40-60 child or adolescent incarnations: many of them young people of extraordinary intelligence and physical beauty) ... dedicated monks and lamas of a high standard of learning and spirituality number perhaps 2,500; in addition we have junior and simpler country monks, over 1,500 of whom have volunteered for roadwork. We all pray ultimately we may be able to settle the bulk of the refugees in big land settlements.32


Nehru had taken a diplomatic risk by hosting the Dalai Lama and tens of thousands of those who followed in his wake. But there was a limit to the amount of official support and funding that could be expected for the refugees' welfare, with the most urgent and unmet need being the upkeep and education of the young lamas.

Freda was entirely comfortable soliciting money and support from the rich and well connected. She had also established links with Buddhist and similar groups in London and elsewhere. Within weeks of returning to Delhi from the camps, she sought to turn her extensive network to the Tibetans' advantage. In mid-August 1960, she wrote a long letter to Muriel Lewis, a California-based Theosophist with whom she had corresponded for several years. Muriel ran the Mothers' Research Group principally for American and Western Theosophists, a network which had an interest both in eastern religions and in parenting issues.

I should like to feel that the 'Mothers' Group' was in touch with all I do (Freda wrote). Do you think it would be possible for some of your members to 'Adopt' in a small way -- write to, send parcels to -- these junior lamas? Friendships, even by post, could mean a great deal. We could work out a little scheme, if you are interested. The language barrier is there, but we can overcome it, with the help of friends.


Freda's family had, she recounted, already taken a young lama under their wing.

Last year my son [Kabir] 'adopted' one small lama of 12, sent him a parcel of woollen (yellow)clothes, sweets and picture books, soap and cotton cloth. This time when I went to Buxa, Jayong gave me such an excited and dazzling smile. He was brimming over with joy at seeing me again! It is very quiet away from your own country and relations for a small lama with a LOT TO LEARN. It was of course most touching to see the 'Mother-Love' in the faces of the tutor-lamas and servant lamas who look after the young ones. They are very tender with them.


Freda's letter was included in Muriel's research group newsletter and subsequently reprinted by the Buddhist Society in London. This was the founding act of the Tibetan Friendship Group, which quickly established a presence in eight western countries and was the conduit by which modest private funds were raised for the refugees.34 It outlasted Freda and ... it helped give prominence to the Tibet issue as well as the well-being of the Tibetan diaspora.

-- The Lives of Freda: The Political, Spiritual and Personal Journeys of Freda Bedi, by Andrew Whitehead


CHAPTER 1: A NEW RACE AND A NEW AGE NOW BEING BORN

THE FUTURE OF MAN


Has mankind reached the peak of its possible development in modern leaders of men? Is the human race evolving, improving and unfolding greater powers? Will the present civilization decline and fall, as its predecessors have done? These are vital problems. Theosophy makes a valuable contribution towards their solution.

THE COST OF WAR

In the lifetime of most of us, humanity has lived through years of the most diabolical evil the world has ever known. Estimates of the extent of the sufferings of humanity in the recent years of the Second World War are now available. The latest figures tell that forty-two and one-half millions of people have died prematurely in these ten years. Nearly twenty-five millions were civilian and nineteen and one-half millions were military deaths. These forty-two and one-half millions were men, women and children who were starved, tortured, shot, blown to bits, vivisected, frozen and gassed to death. They were deliberately murdered by every conceivable method of fiendish cruelty at the hands of supposedly civilized, cultured and mostly Christian Nations.

Since the end of the Second World War, the Nations have sought unsuccessfully for that international unity and solidarity for which the great majority are longing. Thus far humanity seeks in vain to satisfy its growing hunger for wholeness, its longing for friendship, peace and security. Like twin swords of Damocles, atomic and bacteriological warfare hang over every Race, city and home on earth. In the face of these tragic facts men might well despair, not only of world peace in our time, but of the whole future of the Race.

THE EVOLUTIONARY PLAN

What has Theosophy to offer to mankind at this juncture and in this hour of urgent need? The answer is guiding principles, knowledge of which is all-important, especially for those who aspire to play an effective part in the present world crisis. Theosophy provides that knowledge; for its study mentally lifts one to great heights from which a panoramic view of human life is possible. Theosophy reveals the master plan, one part of which concerns the evolution of the human Race. The total number of major Races is said to be seven, each of which is composed of seven successive sub-races. Five major Races have already appeared on earth, the Aryan peoples belonging to the fifth. Two Root Races lie in the future. Five sub-races of the fifth, the Aryan Race, have already appeared and a sixth is now being born. From this theosophical teaching we learn that we, being in the fifth of the seven Root Races, are rather more than half way through our planet's life.

When considering racial evolution upon earth it should be remembered that the same spiritual individuals, the same human Egos incarnate in the successive races. The Atlanteans, the Egyptians and the other ancient peoples were none other than ourselves. Similarly, the sixth sub-race and the sixth and seventh Root Races will only be new reincarnations of the same family of Egos, ourselves, for whom this earth has been appointed as the evolutionary field.

BIRTHPLACES OF A NEW RACE

What, then, is the place of Australia in this great plan and what is the destiny of its peoples? Simply put, the answer is that the fifth Race is at this time producing a sixth sub-race, and the four countries of North America and Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand are the chief places of its birth. The sixth sub-race of the mother Aryan stock is being produced by emigration of European peoples, chiefly British, to the new racial homes. Even now the plan is well advanced. Each of the four countries is already producing its typical variant of the new type. Indeed, the two World Wars may be regarded as both the death throes of an old dispensation and the birth pangs of a new.

THE COMING RACE

What will New Age man look like? Here is the young man. In Australia he is tall, wiry and somewhat slender of form. In New Zealand the build has perhaps been somewhat shorter and stockier up to now, though an increase in the height is said to be occurring. The facial features of the sixth sub-race man, when they do show, are everywhere much the same. They are finely modeled, the nose tends to be long, the chin pointed and the forehead broad, thus making the face somewhat triangular. A certain eagerness, a vivid alertness, is stamped upon the whole face.

The women will especially display the quality of grace. They, too, will be slender and athletic, and the ideal of physical beauty and perfection will make great appeal to them. Again, the face will be triangular, the head pear-shaped, the features becoming clear-cut, regular and more and more refined as the new racial type is established. The texture of the skin will be notably fine and the hands and feet are beautifully formed. So much for apparent physical trends.


What of the outlook? This also must be considered; for, from the point of view of recent world events and the grave danger of a Third World War, the attitude of mind and the outlook of the new racial type are all important. Can we forecast them? Yes. The new psychological characteristics may be discerned by a study of advanced people throughout the world; for this new Race is not to be born in a single place, not to belong to a single Nation. It is the type of the new humanity which will seek unity and co-operation between free individuals and Nations. The very essence of all action in the sixth sub-race will be the union of many to achieve a single object, and not the dominance of one who compels others to his will. To advance together in freedom to a goal that all realize as desirable, will ultimately become the method of attainment. This tendency to unity of action is one of the signs of racial evolution out of dependence upon mental processes, analysis, deduction and logic into the use of direct intuitive perception.

MANKIND'S WILL TO WORLD UNITY

Despite grave difficulties at present appearing, signs are not wanting that this development is actually occurring. Indeed, it is abundantly evident today; for, amid the welter of conflicting peoples and ideologies now evident, there is distinctly discernible a subtle yet powerful change occurring in the outlook of mankind upon the planet -- the growth of one dominating idea with tremendous possibilities for the future. This change has been described as "a hunger for wholeness", and it is indeed a revolutionary event. It is almost comparable to a geological cataclysm, like the tilting of the earth's axis or a descent of an ice cap. It must culminate, I suggest, in an irresistible will to world unity.

This recognition of unity and determination to achieve it characteristic of New Age man will not only be physical and racial, but mental and spiritual as well. Also, it will not only be local, but world-wide. Even now, this unifying tendency is discernible in the world and constitutes a definite sign of the emergence of the sixth sub-race of the Fifth, the Aryan Race.

If one is looking for signs that any particular person is beginning to show marks of that sixth sub-race today, such signs may be found in a growing intuitiveness and in a capacity to lead by love, sympathy and comprehension rather than by the dominance of an imperious will; for, to advanced humanity, dominance is anathema, freedom is a veritable religion. A synthesizing spirit will be found in the fore-runners of the sixth sub-race. They will be able to encourage and to unite diversity of opinion and of character, to gather round them the most unlike elements and blend them, whilst still free, into a common whole.


Many of [Guido von] List's essays endorsed health food fads, herbal cures, and Baron Karl von Reichenbach's Theory of Odic Force.

His fetish for the natural extended to politics. Real nationhood could only be based on blood ties, or "soul relationship." The ideal state must be a Volksgemeinshaft (folk-union or spiritual brotherhood) consisting of genetically-related people who would function as an extended family because of blood-compatibility, "soul-connection," and implicitly shared values. True patriotism had biological as well as spiritual roots. It was simply a higher form of family loyalty, and fraternal affection among Aryan receivers of "God-Knowledge."

-- Hitler's Mentor: Dietrich Eckart, His Life, Times, & Milieu, by Joseph Howard Tyson


Now the evolution of the external form or body round the astral is produced by the terrestrial forces, just as in the case of the lower kingdoms; but the evolution of the internal or real MAN is purely spiritual. It is now no more a passage of the impersonal Monad through many and various forms of matter — endowed at best with instinct and consciousness on quite a different plane — as in the case of external evolution, but a journey of the “pilgrim-soul” through various states of not only matter but Self-consciousness and self-perception, or of perception from apperception. (See “Gods, Monads and Atoms.”)

-- The Secret Doctrine: The Synthesis of Science, Religion, and Philosophy, by Helena P. Blavatsky


MAN CALLED TO COLLABORATE IN THE TRANSCENDENTAL TASK

Those who at present possess the capacity for taking into themselves diversities and sending them out again as unities, and for utilizing the most different individualities, finding each its place in freedom and welding all together into a strong whole -- such people already display New Race characteristics. The ideal, as will be seen, is not a universalized set of conditions and a uniformity of human personality, but full individual development with readiness to combine and to co-operate in the great causes of human happiness and progress.

Theosophy adds to the statement of this far-reaching plan that every individual can participate in the progress of the Race. Each one of us is important; for each of us can help or hinder the historical process. If each one of us will play our constructive part, if we can inspire our young people with the vision of themselves as Nation-builders, then America, Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand will fulfill their present promise of rapid advance to magnificent nationhood.

In the light of such teachings of Theosophy, the truly alarming portents to which I drew attention at the beginning of this Talk assume a less menacing aspect, dangerous though they are. The student of Theosophy need not fear that any futility overshadows man's highest dreams; he need not be afraid that civilization will be allowed up in unheeding, everlasting night; for he is taught that man moves through innumerable ages to ever-in-creasing power, wisdom and glory.

CHAPTER 2: THE CHILDREN OF TODAY ARE THE CITIZENS OF TOMORROW

THE INFLUENCE OF EDUCATION


The problem which I am now going to discuss is that of good citizenship and bad citizenship, particularly in the young people of today. Reports and statistics emanating from many countries and sources demonstrate that all is not as it should be with modern youth.

"Poets are born, not made", it is said, but good citizens are made, not born, and the same is true of bad citizens. Moral laxity in youth is largely the result of deficient education at home and at school and of pernicious influences out in the world. In consequence, idealists are visualizing an educational system with the main objectives of developing human character and of producing good citizens of the home, the school, the city, the Nation and the world. Advanced thinkers have long been proclaiming the urgent need for education for character-building, stability and integrity. They seek to imbue young people with a strong moral sense and a vision of excellence. Education for successful living and for useful citizenship, including public service, is now being regarded as both the key to the New World Order and the life blood of civilization.

Education is of two parts — in school and out of school. At present these two influences upon the growing child tend to become divorced. Teachers state that the good they try to do in the school is all too often undone at home and out in the world. In-school and out-of-school education should be co-ordinated, otherwise the one nullifies the other. The home will then widen naturally into the school which in its turn becomes both an extension of the home and a natural gateway to adult life.

MORAL DANGERS

The grave dangers confronting youth after leaving school arise from contact with adult materialism, selfishness, commercialism and vice. Girls and boys go out into life without the necessary guidance and protection against moral danger and insufficiently supported by belief in spiritual and moral principles. In consequence, they are often helpless in the presence of the evils and tendencies to evil which surround them in the world.

RADIO AND CINEMA

Broadcasting is one example of these dangers. The radio penetrates every home. Every child from babyhood is exposed to it. Sensational stories, luring advertisements, moronic crooning and raucous jazz pour out of loudspeakers throughout the Nations. To combat this very serious evil, a due censorship is urgently needed, with the single purpose of producing good citizens.

There are no sports at European Waldorf schools and no jazz or popular music; these phenomena are considered to harbor demonic forces. Instead students read fairy tales, a staple of Waldorf education.

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As the Wheel Turned: Tales of a Child Who Lived in the Long Ago, by Elsie Cecilia Rutledge, Publisher: Mothers' Research Group/Parents Theosophical Research Group: 1952

-- Anthroposophy and Ecofascism, by Peter Staudenmaier


Negermusik ("Negro Music") was a pejorative term used by the Nazis during the Third Reich to signify musical styles and performances by African-Americans that were of the jazz and swing music genres. They viewed these musical styles as inferior works belonging to an "inferior race" and therefore prohibited. The term, at that same time, was also applied to indigenous music styles of black Africans....

Their criticisms have included "gratuitous use of syncopation" and "orgies of drums"....On 4 May 1930, Wilhelm Frick, the Reich's newly appointed Minister of the Interior and Education for Thuringia made a decree called "Against the Negro Culture — For Our German Heritage".

In 1932 the national government under Franz von Papen pandered to the Nazis by banning all public performances by black musicians. After Adolf Hitler gained power in 1933, the Reich's Music Chamber was also created in that same year. This was then followed by a full legal ban on this music on October 12, 1935 across all German national radio....

Prior to the D-Day landings, during the German occupation of the Netherlands, Joseph Goebbels's propaganda ministry published pamphlets written in Dutch named "Greetings from England -– The Coming Invasion". These pamphlets contained in-between statements, such as "old jazz-records" and a further full statement declaring "at the celebration of liberation your daughters and wives will be dancing in the arms of real Negroes"....

Even in the Post–World War II years in 1950s Germany, there were some protests from churches, school authorities and politicians against the "obscene Negro music" of the newly emerging rock 'n' roll genre with such acts like Elvis and Chuck Berry gaining new popularity amongst youth. This attitude also continued right up into the 1960s carrying the same derogatory term that not only maintained its resentment by older generations and conservatives but also was an aggressive defense against a then new contemporary American culture. Dance halls in East-Germany often displayed "Affentanzen verboten" notices (lit.: monkey dancing forbidden).


-- Negermusik [Negro Music], by Wikipedia


[T]he astral prototypes of the lower beings of the animal kingdom of the Fourth Round, which preceded (the chhayas of) Men, were the consolidated, though still very ethereal sheaths of the still more ethereal forms or models produced at the close of the Third Round on Globe D. [215] “Produced from the residue of the substance matter; from dead bodies of men and (other extinct) animals of the wheel before,” or the previous Third Round — as Stanza 24 tells us. Hence, while the nondescript “animals” that preceded the astral man at the beginning of this life-cycle on our Earth were still, so to speak, the progeny of the man of the Third Round, the mammalians of this Round owe their existence, in a great measure, to man again. Moreover, the “ancestor” of the present anthropoid animal, the ape, is the direct production of the yet mindless Man, who desecrated his human dignity by putting himself physically on the level of an animal….

Ay, but that “primeval man” was man only in external form. He was mindless and soulless at the time he begot, with a female animal monster, the forefather of a series of apes….

Perchance in these specimens, Haeckelians might recognize, not the Homo primigenius, but some of the lower tribes, such as some tribes of the Australian savages. Nevertheless, even these are not descended from the anthropoid apes, but from human fathers and semi-human mothers, or, to speak more correctly, from human monsters — those “failures” mentioned in the first Commentary. The real anthropoids, Haeckel’s Catarrhini and Platyrrhini, came far later, in the closing times of Atlantis. The orang-outang, the gorilla, the chimpanzee and cynocephalus are the latest and purely physical evolutions from lower anthropoid mammalians. They have a spark of the purely human essence in them; man on the other hand, has not one drop of pithecoid blood in his veins.….

These “Men” of the Third Race — the ancestors of the Atlanteans — were just such ape-like, intellectually senseless giants as were those beings, who, during the Third Round, represented Humanity. Morally irresponsible, it was these third Race “men” who, through promiscuous connection with animal species lower than themselves, created that missing link which became ages later (in the tertiary period only) the remote ancestor of the real ape as we find it now in the pithecoid family. [150]...

A naturalist suggests another difficulty. The human is the only species which, however unequal in its races, can breed together. “There is no question of selection between human races,” say the anti-Darwinists, and no evolutionist can deny the argument — one which very triumphantly proves specific unity. How then can Occultism insist that a portion of the Fourth Race humanity begot young ones from females of another, only semi-human, if not quite an animal, race, the hybrids resulting from which union not only bred freely but produced the ancestors of the modern anthropoid apes? Esoteric science replies to this that it was in the very beginnings of physical man. Since then, Nature has changed her ways, and sterility is the only result of the crime of man’s bestiality….

But this was when Africa had already been raised as a continent. We have meanwhile to follow, as closely as limited space will permit, the gradual evolution of the now truly human species. It is in the suddenly arrested evolution of certain sub-races, and their forced and violent diversion into the purely animal line by artificial cross-breeding, truly analogous to the hybridization, which we have now learned to utilize in the vegetable and animal kingdoms, that we have to look for the origin of the anthropoids. In these red-haired and hair-covered monsters, the fruit of the unnatural connection between men and animals, the “Lords of Wisdom” did not incarnate, as we see. Thus by a long series of transformations due to unnatural cross-breeding (unnatural “sexual selection”), originated in due course of time the lowest specimens of humanity; while further bestiality and the fruit of their first animal efforts of reproduction begat a species which developed into mammalian apes ages later....

For surely, it was not in or through the wickedness of the “mighty men” . . . . men of renown, among whom is placed Nimrod the “mighty hunter before the Lord,” that “god saw that the wickedness of man was great,” nor in the builders of Babel, for this was after the Deluge; but in the progeny of the giants who produced monstra quaedam de genere giganteo, monsters from whence sprang the lower races of men, now represented on earth by a few miserable dying-out tribes and the huge anthropoid apes….

The monsters bred in sin and shame by the Atlantean giants, “blurred copies” of their bestial sires, and hence of modern man (Huxley), now mislead and overwhelm with error the speculative Anthropologist of European Science…

[T]he bestiality of the primeval mindless races resulted in the production of huge man-like monsters — the offspring of human and animal parents. As time rolled on, and the still semi-astral forms consolidated into the physical, the descendants of these creatures were modified by external conditions, until the breed, dwindling in size, culminated in the lower apes of the Miocene period. With these the later Atlanteans renewed the sin of the “Mindless” — this time with full responsibility. The resultants of their crime were the species of apes now known as Anthropoid

On the data furnished by modern science, physiology, and natural selection, and without resorting to any miraculous creation, two negro human specimens of the lowest intelligence — say idiots born dumb — might by breeding produce a dumb Pastrana species, which would start a new modified race, and thus produce in the course of geological time the regular anthropoid ape….

-- The Secret Doctrine: The Synthesis of Science, Religion, and Philosophy, by Helena P. Blavatsky




For it will be admitted that some knowledge of man’s position in the animate world is an indispensable preliminary to the proper understanding of his relations to the universe—and this again resolves itself, in the long run, into an inquiry into the nature and the closeness of the ties which connect him with those singular creatures whose history has been sketched in the preceding pages.

The importance of such an inquiry is indeed intuitively manifest. Brought face to face with these blurred copies of himself, the least thoughtful of men is conscious of a certain shock, due perhaps, not so much to disgust at the aspect of what looks like an insulting caricature, as to the awakening of a sudden and profound mistrust of time-honoured theories and strongly-rooted prejudices regarding his own position in nature, and his relations to the under-world of life; while that which remains a dim suspicion for the unthinking, becomes a vast argument, fraught with the deepest consequences, for all who are acquainted with the recent progress of the anatomical and physiological sciences.

I now propose briefly to unfold that argument, and to set forth, in a form intelligible to those who possess no special acquaintance with anatomical science, the chief facts upon which all conclusions respecting the nature and the extent of the bonds which connect man with the brute world must be based: I shall then indicate the one immediate conclusion which, in my judgment, is justified by those facts, and I shall finally discuss the bearing of that conclusion upon the hypotheses which have been entertained respecting the Origin of Man.

-- On the Relations of Man to the Lower Animals, by Thomas Henry Huxley


Advertising may be taken as another example. The newspapers, the hoardings, the handbills, and some of the radio stations of the world are designed for advertising. This almost hypnotic procedure beats upon the consciousness of modern man, influencing thought and word and deed. The adult gradually acquires a self-defense against this perpetual battering. Unfortunately that defense is cynicism. But the child does not know any better and is inevitably affected, deceived, moulded. The predominant motive of commercial advertising is to get, to acquire, to deceive, to persuade, to allure one's fellow men. It is selfish, acquisitive. The child tends to conclude that cleverness in deceit for personal profit wins the world's greatest prizes. He absorbs this attitude towards life, gravely to his detriment, thinking of success in purely worldly terms and material values.

Many children are thus spoilt, marred as potential good citizens. They are sent out into life with a strong desire to advertise themselves, to sell themselves, their education, their scholastic degrees, their highest gifts, for money, power, possessions. Thus the young people of today are being moulded by adults into selfish embodiments of a ravenous passion for getting things. Of religion, of the Divine Presence, they know naught. Their minds are not spiritually moulded. [From Reader’s Digest, USA] A radio announcer's daughter when asked to say grace spoke forth easily: “This food comes to us by courtesy of God Almighty." A story is told of another child who, when shown by her mother her first rainbow, immediately asked: "What is it supposed to advertise?"
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

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Part 2 of 2

UNDUE ACQUISITIVENESS

Excuse me if I seem to over-stress this commercial element. It is, I think, the key to the present deplorable situation. The child, as soon as he is old enough, perceives humanity perpetually advertising itself and its wares, luring, deceiving, setting baits to entrap the unwary. He receives an education which is predominantly materialistic, in which true religion has only a minor part. The child is taught to memorize facts and ideas in order that by repeating them correctly at examinations he will win educational rewards, defeat his fellow pupils and shine over them, and then sell the whole result of education in the market place. Doubtless it was this perversion of the true purpose of education -- to draw out inherent faculties rather than only to drive in ideas from without, I suggest -- which caused Mark Twain to say: "Education is not so swift as massacre, but it is far more deadly in the long run"!

All this combative, competitive, acquisitive, materialistic education is a crime against the child. It is, therefore, a crime against adults and so a crime against humanity. Excessive commercialization is, I conclude, the greatest single, external cause of the unhappiness of man amidst an excess of this world's goods.

It is a melancholy fact that there has been a bitter race between certain civilized peoples of our times in the production and selling of all sorts of manufactures, useful and necessary things as well as articles of luxury, in enormous quantities. Rivalry for the markets of the world has then sprung up, and had to spring up some time or other, between the principal trading nations. This has perhaps been the deepest-lying cause of the great war. It surely was no chance happening that Germany and England, the two foremost trading empires of Europe, got to fighting a struggle for life or death.

Industry has in the course of decades made these and other countries richer by milliards. Universal prosperity has increased enormously, very considerable improvements of environment have been brought about, and nevertheless, our modern civilization is at present practically in ruins. Thus these riches have been of no use to us, but have instead brought with them great harm. From many parts of England, and from other places, there is shown by reports that industry is the greatest devitalizer of races and peoples....

To begin with, one might seriously discuss the question, whether wealth pouring into a country really is of use to a people. One has a right to doubt this, for experience shows that rapidly increased prosperity, in olden times as well as in ours, breeds an infinitude of needs, the desire for luxury increases, effeminacy begins to show, love for work decreases, and so on. Luxurious living calls forth too much love for ease, for which the children will soon enough have to suffer. The women begin more and more commonly to shun maternity, and all round about us we witness how the 0-1-2-children system flourishes, beginning within the wealthier classes of society. Gradually this process goes deeper and removes by and by every trace of peoples before vigorous. This is what is called race suicide....

It is undoubtedly harmful to let young people in industry, who have not yet families of their own, handle a disproportionally large income, which they often live up in waste and frivolity. At the same time their elder fellow workers are almost starving, because they have wives and children to maintain.

That the women have been thrown, together with the men, into the jaws of the industrial Moloch is decidedly an evil, both for themselves and for society. A great many of these women are no doubt worth a far better fate than their lot. Within factory walls all sorts of elements come together, bad as well as good. Many of them go to the dogs on account of bad surroundings. It is difficult for them to manage by themselves: they take to dangerous pleasures, immorality, even prostitution. Soon enough they form amorous relations indiscriminately -- as a rule not from necessity, but in consequence of temptations and love of pleasure. There are, unfortunately, too many men who, if relations of that kind come easily within reach, prefer this irregular sort of life with women, liquors, and conviviality, to the road of self-denial in economic matters which leads to a home and family of one's own. This brings with it many a misspent life. No small number of them die prematurely. Gradually there ensues corruption of society, frivolity, vulgarity, which is noticeable everywhere. Who is to blame? And with whom rests the responsibility?

It is no easy matter to do justice to all, but this much is certain, that industry is very much to blame. It breeds a proletariat of both men and women, that often, sooner or later, are heaped up in poorhouses, hospitals, workhouses and prisons....

Of what avail are whole heaps of gold, nay, the wealth of all the world, if we through wars are marching toward times of trouble and degeneration? It is no easy thing for a private man to resist all the temptations of wealth. It is perhaps still more difficult for a people to take the road of self-denial and, instead of living in pleasures and enjoyments, lead the lives of hard-working, saving men, which make for amelioration.


-- The Sins of Industry Against the Race, by Herman Lundborg, Docent, University of Upsala, Sweden


The child has no chance against all this. Unless an advanced Ego is especially fortunate in parents, teachers, companions and employers, he grows up like his fellow men. His character reflects his environment. With numerous individual exceptions, he becomes moulded by both into a self-centered, acquisitive animal, bereft of either spirituality or culture. If to this be added the outbreak and the nature of the two World Wars and the threat of a Third, it is small wonder that so many young people (far from all) grow up into selfish, self-indulgent and materially minded cynics.

SEX EDUCATION

Then there is the other pressing problem of guidance in the exercise of the creative functions of the body. How, where and by whom should this guidance be given? Let me suggest an answer. As soon as they are old enough, that is as soon as they notice the difference in sex and begin to enquire, young people should be wisely given adequate knowledge of the creative functions of their bodies. They should not grow up in ignorance either of the place and purpose of sex in human life or of the grievous effects of its misuse. Especially should they be unmistakably aware of the dangers to both body and soul of sexual indulgence.

How should this guidance be given? It should at first, I submit, be a highly individual and very private instruction, received preferably from one whom the boy or girl loves and trusts. Ideally, I conclude, mothers should guide girls and fathers instruct boys. Primarily this is the responsibility of the parents and of no one else. The wise and sympathetic family doctor or the enlightened minister may, however, assist or even replace the parents should they not feel equal to the task. The right occasions and the right presentation are of supreme importance and the truth must be told, not untruths. In the absence of state clinics founded for the purpose, as in the New Age we hope they will be, and in the absence of experts trained for the task, the parents can and do make or mar their children by their own example and by their fulfillment or neglect of parental responsibility in this most important matter. Thus I submit that a home with a strong moral atmosphere based upon Christ-like love is a form of instruction and guidance for life for which there is no alternative.

CIVILIZATION MARCHES FORWARD ON THE FEET OF LITTLE CHILDREN

The importance of especial care of the youth of the Nation cannot, I submit, be over-estimated. Civilization marches forward on the feet of little children. The post-war world must be a world characterized especially by great advances in education. The New Age must be the age of the child and the freedom-loving Nations will do well to direct their immense resources to the spiritual the moral and the physical welfare of the youth of the world, by whom the New Age must be built. This would involve a world-wide extension of educational facilities for young and old, first and foremost to save mankind from threatened annihilation by atomic weapons and second to produce the finest possible types of human beings, and so of human civilization.

CHAPTER 3: INSPIRED LEADERS - HOW THEY MAY BE FOUND AND TRAINED

HUMANITY ASTRAY


What is the greatest need of the world today? I suppose we might all answer differently. Let me offer an idea. In the critical times through which humanity has passed during the first half of the Twentieth Century it must, I think, be admitted that the great need of mankind today is for inspired leadership. Humanity needs men and women to whom it can give complete and wholehearted respect because of their fine attainments, spiritually, intellectually and culturally, and the splendid human beings they are. During the Second World War, Winston Churchill proved to be just such a leader. He aroused, inspired, encouraged and led the British people through their darkest time, which he called "their finest hour'*. In consequence of Churchill's leadership, those times of trial, did, in fact, become their finest, greatest hours. We should remember, however, that, no less than war, peace also demands leadership.

In the representative system, the reason for everything must publicly appear. Every man is a proprietor in government, and considers it a necessary part of his business to understand. It concerns his interest, because it affects his property. He examines the cost, and compares it with the advantages; and above all, he does not adopt the slavish custom of following what in other governments are called Leaders....

The government of a free country, properly speaking, is not in the persons, but in the laws. The enacting of those requires no great expense; and when they are administered, the whole of civil government is performed -- the rest is all court contrivance.

-- The Rights of Man, by Thomas Paine


The urgent necessities of war, the pressing dangers of invasion, death and enslavement, though not entirely banished, are not immediately overshadowing the peoples of the world's democracies. Numerous and far-reaching dangers do, however, still threaten mankind. We are under attack both from within, in the moral sense, and from without as a result of subversive influences and the threat of the outbreak of a third aggressive war. To guide us through these dangers, leaders can prove extremely valuable. Great men and women, alive to the pressing dangers of our times, are amongst us but there are not enough of them. It seems as if the dead weight of apathy, the corroding influence of cynicism, the deliberate undermining of the stability of the Democratic States and the continued excitation to over-indulgences as in sex, alcohol, drugs and gambling, almost nullify the efforts of the all too few spiritual and cultural leaders of the modern world. Therefore the need is urgent for more great men and women in the world.

THE CALL FOR GUIDANCE

Is there any hope of the emergence of leaders? More important, can we ourselves do anything to prepare the way for the birth amongst us of truly great Souls or, as we say theosophically, advanced Egos? If reincarnation be true, can the rebirth of great leaders from the past be hoped for and, if so, what are the conditions which prospective parents should provide? Let me suggest an answer. It is generally agreed that a new and higher type of human being is now appearing in the world. In consequence, there is hope that a new civilization, a new World Order and a new (re-expressed) World Religion will be established on earth. Obviously we are on the threshold of great changes, are at the dawn of a new day in the life of our planet.

By what processes will such advanced men and women come into existence and the new dispensation displace the old? More important still, what can be done to prepare the way for them? The essentials appear to be at least twofold. First, the incarnation of advanced Egos and second, the provision of suitable environment and education, these two being to a considerable extent mutually interdependent. Advanced Egos require both special kinds of bodies and special opportunities for the fulfillment of their mission as world leaders. From this it would appear that the parents and the teachers of today are favored with unique opportunities.

PARENTAL OPPORTUNITIES

What, then, may we assume, is the parental contribution to the birth of the special types of bodies into which advanced Souls may incarnate? First, it is probable that such parents would have a wide and catholic outlook on life. Their interests would extend far beyond the round of domestic, recreational, business or professional life. Where circumstances permit, they would be actively concerned with interests larger than those of their own immediate preoccupations. Such great Causes as the Child Welfare Movements, civic, state and national affairs, and particularly in these days the United Nations Association would be likely to attract them. New Age [For the sense in which this term is used, see Chapter II] parents would naturally have great appreciation of beauty and in many cases be proficient in one of the arts. The love of beauty would be an outstanding characteristic of their natures and show itself in the beauty of their homes and the lives they live.

THE RELIGION OF THE FUTURE

What would be likely to be the religious views of such forward-looking people? Their religion would probably be both mystical and practical. Some form of religious exercises leading to individual experience of union with God would doubtless be employed, thus also keeping open the channels between the Inner Immortal Self and the personal bodily life and consciousness. Extremes of religious belief and practice, and constant changes of philosophic and religious attachment, would naturally be avoided. So much for the probable and desirable parental ideals.

What may we suppose are the more material essentials, especially for the attraction into a family of advanced Souls?

THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL

At this point I wish to dissociate myself from the Theosophical Society and to express a purely personal opinion about pre-natal necessities for the production of first-class physical bodies and brains. After some forty year's study of social problems and of practical work in various reform Movements, I have been forced to the conclusion that abstinence from alcohol is essential in those parents who would give birth to the finest type of children. Alcohol and drugs can bedull the brain and nervous system and, in consequence, shut the Spiritual Self out of the individual's life, particularly as far as intuition and other spiritualizing impulses are concerned. I know that I am presenting ideals which may sound extreme, but the world need is so great at this time that it is worth our while to consider high ideals, especially concerning marriage, parenthood and child training. Procreation and childbirth, for instance, should be recognized as divine acts, sacraments In very truth, since they are human enactments of the great and continuous process of creation [Not of something out of nothing, but rather emanation from a latent to an active state] which is enacted by the one Divine Creator of all.

PREPARATIONS FOR MOTHERHOOD

The period of pre-natal life is of the utmost importance in the production of the finest type of body and the incarnation of the highest type of Ego. Throughout the whole period, the home should be as harmonious as possible and everything should be done to keep the mother healthy and happy. As far as material responsibilities permit, she herself should allow her thoughts to be centered upon ideals of beauty, peace and the service of the world.

THE GIFT OF FREEDOM

At this point a word of warning may be useful. Whilst all these external preparations for the child, if wisely made, can be productive of nothing but good, it should never be forgotten that no limitations should be put on the child itself. Mentally and emotionally, no pressure to follow any particular, line of thought or parentally chosen, specific mode of life should be applied to the incarnating Ego. The freedom of the Ego should be at all times most zealously guarded. Parents are rightly concerned with the mental, the emotional and the physical conditions during gestation, at birth and afterwards, but the interior life of the child, the Egoic intention, must ever be respected. This may then be fulfilled unhampered by external pressure. This restriction apart, the joy of attracting an advanced Ego and of producing a healthy and beautiful body, is within reach of reasonably healthy, married people who care to provide the conditions to which I have referred.

CHILDREN OF TODAY THE LEADERS OF TOMORROW

In conclusion, I repeat the conviction that the world suffers today from lack-of wise and inspired leadership. Where, then, are the urgently-needed leaders to be found and trained? Surely the answer is, "Amongst the children now being born and amongst the children now at school." Despite the pressing necessities inseparable from the maintenance of the routine of education, members of the educational profession especially should be on the look-out for leaders, should watch for the spark of genius in every child who comes to them, and should do their utmost to fan it into a flame, and especially the latent genius for leadership.

The physical and mental examination of the men drafted for military service during the world war was the first complete national health survey of any large group carried on in this country....

All men within the drafted age were examined by the medical officers of the local draft boards in their home communities before being sent to the army camps. Thus the more pronounced cases of physical and mental defects were eliminated at once and never reached the various army cantonments. On the mental side these included the idiots, some of the imbeciles, the well-recognized cases of insanity, and the known epileptics. The other mental cases such as the higher grades of feeble-mindedness and various forms of nervous and mental unfitness, were not discovered in a great number of cases until an examination was given by the neuro-psychiatric and psychological boards at the cantonment.

The Surgeon General of the Army had early recognized the necessity for a mental survey of the prospective troops, and had created in his office at Washington two divisions, one of Neurology and Psychiatry, and the other of Psychology. It was the function of these two, by intercorrelation, to know and act on the problem of the mental hygiene of the army....

But let us first consider in detail the work and organization of the psychological group. In each camp were several trained psychologists with a staff of workers whose particular function it was to carry out the specific purposes of this section, which were:

1. The discovery of men whose superior intelligence suggested their consideration for advancement.

2. The prompt selection of men mentally inferior and their assignment to special work-organizations suited to their various abilities.

3. To form organizations of uniform mental or superior mental strength where such particular mental strength was desired.

4. To select suitable men for training in various army duties or for special training in technical schools.

5. To recognize early the mentally slow as contrasted with the stubborn or disobedient.

6. To discover men whose low grade of intelligence rendered them a burden and a menace to the service, and to take steps for their discharge....

Perhaps the most important work accomplished by the psychologist was the immediate rejection of draft men who were so mentally inferior as to be unacceptable to the army. These were the middle- and high-grade feeble-minded and many constitutional psychopaths who could be found only through lengthy individual tests. These men were returned immediately to their families and to their home communities, and resumed their former places in society. The army could not afford to lower its efficiency by having such misfits in its ranks and so returned them to be a burden to society as before. Society is beginning to realize this burden.

The conscientious objectors formed another group of interest to the psychologist. These were men who objected to compulsory military service for many reasons, personal, religious, and otherwise. A few studies have been published concerning the mental make-up of these persons. The results of the complete mental tests given by the writer to the conscientious objectors in but one Southern camp showed in general that they were either abnormal or defective with the exception of a few who had clear-cut, well-defined scruples against service, and a few sects such as the Quakers. Several cases of dementia praecox were found in this group....

Observation was also made of the malingerers, i.e., those who attempted to secure release by simulating either mental or physical disease or defects. Large numbers were found to be unstable mentally but not sufficiently defective to be unacceptable to the army for some useful and necessary occupation. The great majority were found acceptable for infantry training and work....

One may note particularly that men rated A, B, and C+, were found to be best suited for officer material, and were therefore the men picked first for training in officers' training camps. It was found through studies at these special camps, that men who had a mental rating below that of C+ were generally not sufficiently acute mentally to become officers and acquire the knowledge necessary in the short time allowed for such training....

[T]he Division of Psychology at Washington has in its files a mental rating of one and a half million persons. It has lists of all the mentally defective and abnormal found, with more or less of their personal history attached. Thus, as a starting point, great eugenical studies could be made, and many valuable histories worked out. Finally, the cross-section of the mental and physical make-up of the population started in the great emergency by the army might be made the basis for a complete mental, physical, and social study of the entire population of the United States.

-- The Biological Bearing of Army Mental Tests, by Arthur H. Estabrook, Ph.D., Eugenics Record Office, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.


Image

And because these are the racially best of the German nation ...
they can in the proudest self-esteem ...
claim the leadership of the Reich and the people.
The German people ...
subordinated itself to this leadership in ever-growing numbers!
The German people is happy ...
in the knowledge that a constantly changing vision ...
has been replaced by a fixed pole!
Whoever feels that he is the carrier of the best blood ...
and knowingly uses it to attain the leadership ...
will never relinquish it!...
For all time to come the Party will be the source of political leadership for the German people.
It will in its teaching ...
and was ultimately in its organization hard as steel ...
malleable in its tactics and adaptable in its entirety.
yet it will be a training school like a holy order for political leaders.


-- Triumph of the Will, directed by Leni Riefenstahl


“Look out for leaders" might well be a guiding principle for both the parents and the educational profession throughout the world. Thus may be found and trained great servants of the Race. Thus, in this period of dire need, there may be given to the world spiritual teachers, statesmen, educators, scientists and artists who will carry humanity through the present dangers into the security and world co-operation essential to the fulfillment of man's dream of world brotherhood and world peace.

CHAPTER 4: EDUCATION FOR FINE CITIZENSHIP

THE CHILD AS A PERSON


How did ancient civilizations produce great men and women, literature, art and engineering achievements without the aid of modern education? What is "the mystery of a person"? (Carlyle). Are "children born persons" or are they just girls and boys? Why did the Christ place so great a value upon "these little ones"? Should children be protected from the tyranny of the adult? Should a child be restricted at all points? Must we be like the mother in Punch; "Go and see what Tommy is doing and tell him he mustn't." Should children be brought up on "do" and "don't"? Are intelligence and industry at school to be decided only by marks? Should corporal punishment be displaced by "the new discipline"?

REPRESSION OR REDIRECTION?

In offering a reply to the last of these vital questions, I am expressing purely personal, rather than theosophical, opinions concerning one great need of the world today. As I suggested in my first Talk on this subject, one need is for spiritual, intellectual, cultural and political [Politics, the science of State organization] leaders. I have already made suggestions concerning the influence upon the development of the child of parental idealism and the conditions of pre-natal life,

What are the fundamentals in the training of leaders, as indeed of all children? One is, I suggest, that the world outlook, the planetary vision, [This subject receives consideration in Chapter II, Part 4] should be inculcated from the beginning. Another is that all discipline should take the form of a redirection rather than a suppression of the upwelling, and often overflowing, energies of youth.

SPARE THE ROD AND SPARE THE CHILD??

Sir Edmund Gosse, in his enjoyable book Father and Son; A Study in Temperaments, tells of an incident which occurred when he was six years old. He had been guilty of disobedience and his father, after a solemn sermon, chastised him sacrificially by giving him several cuts with a cane. Sir Edmund Gosse writes: "I have to confess with shame that I went about the house for some days with murderous hatred of my father locked within my bosom.

I am aware of the view that a good thrashing does no one any harm, but find myself quite unable to accept it. I know that whilst an immense change is taking place in the theory and practice of child training, as a result of which a spirit of individuality and co-operation pervades the modern class room, masters and mistresses of the old type still hammer their will upon the children in their care. Such teachers are generally themselves insensitive, unsympathetic and uninspired, whilst the children are all too often devitalized. They have been described as "plastic lumps to be crushed into a given mould” the result being "standardization or illiteracy....The cane was the sceptre, symbol of power in an age of mental and emotional torture. Mental torture, for those who were punished knew beforehand of the impending strokes, and the mental suspense was greater pain than the physical shock. Emotional torture, because all self-respect vanishes when one becomes a beaten unit in a fear-ridden group." School became "intermittent warfare.....The odds were on the teacher and all the losses against the child....There was no redress except in cases of extreme brutality and this was, and is, always difficult to establish as a fact." [The Psychology of Punishment, Arthur B Allen]

The effects of such a system, and especially of such punishments, make a lasting impression upon the developing adult. Shocks sustained by the child can become firmly embedded in the subconscious and remain as a hidden and potential adverse influence throughout the whole life. These problems resolve themselves into the queries. When to punish, when not to punish and how to punish?

Consideration of these questions brings me, with many modern educationalists and psychologists, to a strongly held personal conviction. It is that corporal punishment should be unthinkable, not only where new and more sensitive children are concerned, but in the training of all children. Corporal punishment not only does not remedy misconduct, but by the shock which it gives, both to the body and psyche, intensifies the existing causes of difficulty and in addition is most likely to create new ones; for what greater shock could there be to a child than the humiliation and pain of corporal punishment administered by those hitherto trusted and loved?

Right conduct is dependent upon a harmonious relationship between the Spiritual Soul or Inner Self of man, the mind, the emotions and the physical body; for these interact upon each other continually, conditions in one of them being reflected in all of the others. Every physical shock, for example, disturbs the harmonious relationship which normally exists throughout the whole nature of a healthy, happy child.[For a fuller exposition of this subject see Part Four, Chapter I.] It then becomes difficult for the Ego, the Spiritual Self within, to express itself through, and control the actions of, its new vehicles. One imagines that, when the time for rebirth approaches, Egoic prevision of the possibility of corporal punishment, either at home or at school, would cause the advanced Soul to choose a more favorable parentage and environment, if such were within its karma; [The law of cause and effect. See Part Three, Chapter I.] for when a certain stage of development has been reached a considerable measure of freedom is granted to a reincarnating Ego in the choice of the Nation, the family and the conditions into which it will be reborn. Since the world's need for inspired leadership can only be met by the reincarnation of such highly developed human beings, it is important that no unnecessary obstacles should be put in the way of rebirth into an otherwise favorable environment. Nothing, one assumes, would drive a highly evolved, and therefore sensitive, individual away from prospective parents and teachers more than the existence in them of the disrespect and the streak of sadistic brutality from which the infliction of severe corporal punishment arises.

"SPARE THE ROD AND SPOIL THE CHILD" AN ERRONEOUS DOCTRINE

Observation of children and adults who have been brought up on the "spare the rod and spoil the child" principle, has shown that many of them have been spiritually arid intellectually deadened, and psychically and physically coarsened, as a result of the frequent infliction of corporal punishment. [For a fuller exposition of this subject see The Psychology of Punishment, Arthur B Allen; and Children as “Persons”, Charlotte M Mason, Parents, National Education Union, 28 Victoria Street, London]

In a broadcast which was also printed in The Broadcaster of West Australia, February 23, 1952, Dr. Ruth Sheffield stated that: "Regulations made under the Education Act in this State impose strict limits on the use of corporal punishment in our schools. The limits are not always observed, it is reported, but the Education Department can and does invoke the regulations to deal with errant teachers reported by parents. The boxing of children's ears is strictly forbidden. So, too, is corporal punishment for girls aged twelve years and over. Corporal punishment for girls below the age of twelve is allowed only in very extreme circumstances. If it is to be inflicted it is to be carried out only by a female teacher. When corporal punishment is inflicted on girls, a statement of the circumstances and a full report must be sent to the district superintendent. Generally, corporal punishment may, as a last resort, be inflicted by the head teacher only and may be employed for offences against morality, gross impertinence or wilful and persistent disobedience. Corporal punishment shall not be inflicted for failure or inability to learn, for trivial breaches of school discipline or for neglect to prepare home lessons."

BAD CITIZENS ARE MADE, NOT BORN

"Juvenile delinquents", continues Dr. Sheffield, "get better treatment than our schoolchildren!” This dawned on me when I learnt from a kindly Children's Court magistrate that 'corporal punishment is out of date now in our Children's Courts', and further, that 'nowadays there is help and sympathy, not a beating, for the youngster who goes too far.'

"This is no preparation for good citizenship. We don't want stunted, fearful or aggressive children who resent or distrust authority and cannot get along happily with their fellow men. But without more intelligent goodwill and wisdom in dealing with children, that is all we are going to reap. Let's face it. Beatings, strappings and other harsh punishments are autocratic measures, worthy only of the dictator state that needs to prove that 'might is right'. They are contrary to the fundamentals of democracy and the United Nations Charter, both of which proclaim the freedom and dignity of the individual, whatever his race, nationality - or age! It's time, therefore that we, the parents of Australia, and trustees for the nation's future, unite in demanding the abolition of corporal punishment in our schools." Such is the expressed opinion of a medical specialist, Dr. Ruth Sheffield.

What is the alternative to smacking and thrashing? I suggest it is a wise, firm, redirection of often unwittingly misdirected energies and interests and a continual appeal to reason.

HYPERSENSITIVITY AND THE MODERN CHILD

This brings me to a rather strange phenomenon of our times. I refer to the growing evidence for the existence and activity of supernormal faculties. This has become so marked that the existence of what has come to be called Extra Sensory Perception in man has been demonstrated after extensive laboratory tests. [For fuller information on this subject see The Reach of the Mind, by Dr. J. B. Rhine.] This hypersensitivity often shows itself quite early. Children display uncanny wisdom and unusual perception at times. Such young people require special care and this poses a difficult problem for parents and teachers. I suggest that when there are psychic powers, these should be treated as quite normal. They should be neither encouraged nor discouraged; rather should they be taken for granted, so that the child may grow up to think of them as perfectly normal. On no occasion should they be made the subject of parade before others.

Parents and teachers should also remember that the psychic child is far more sensitive in every way than the non-psychic. Using always common sense, all treatment should be gentler, kinder and more lenient than is usually given to the robust, objective type of child; for the greater sensitivity produces more intense response to disciplinary correction, and especially to the mental aspects of any punishment which may be deemed necessary. Such children should never be corrected publicly on this account. When they have done wrong, their psychic nature causes them to experience an extreme sense of guilt and humiliation. They tend to brood unduly upon their error and upon any injustice in the treatment meted out to them. This may set up complexes which can later destroy health and happiness, especially since the psychic child is also subject to influences and forces to which non-psychic types are unresponsive. These inevitably affect his conduct and may lead him, if not protected, into errors into which the normal child would not fall.

All these considerations are of especial importance just now; for whilst it is true that the finest types of human beings, the leaders and geniuses of the New Age, will be advanced Egos, there would appear to be in addition very large numbers of children being born at this period who, under right training could develop into wise leaders of men. This presupposes that, as Egos, they have the necessary development and evolutionary experience behind them. If they have and are born under helpful parental, climatic and magnetic conditions, then with the right education they could become powerful influences for good in their community. This is especially true at the present time; for whilst leaders with magnetic personalities generally arise in response to crises and special opportunities, personal and national, the present may justly be regarded as both intensely critical and full of opportunities for the display of those qualities which are the mark of the true leader.

A LEADER OF MEN

What are the chief qualities to be developed in a would-be leader? [For a full exposition of this subject, see Leadership Through the Ages, George MacMunn ] Some of them, I suggest, are: capacity for sublimated selfhood; the sense of a great mission and of having the power to fulfill it; self-confidence; vision and ability and courage to recognize and answer the call when it comes; courage, physical and mental; earnestness; integrity; knowledge of the world; faculty for handling men; camaraderie; enthusiasm and fervor; joy of living; sympathy; health; capacity to be inspired on occasion and to convey that sense of uplift to those who are to be led; knowledge of guiding principles; insight into first causes; humility; an inherent goodliness and godliness; a flair for propaganda; calmness on some occasions and fire on others; oratory.

When practicable, the child should visit foreign countries; for the mental outlook of the leader-to-be must be broad, tolerant and co-operative, and more especially I suggest, concerning non-Christian religions and peoples. The planetary view must continually be inculcated and the child taught to see humanity as a whole, and to realize the interdependence of man upon man and of Nation upon Nation.

EDUCATION MEANS "DRAWING OUT"

In conclusion, it seems to me to be most important that both parents and teachers should have the right attitude to their parental and tutorial offices. They should, for example, be conscious of a profound respect for the Divine Self within every child. They should recognize the laws which govern man's evolutionary development, especially the laws of rebirth and cause and effect. In addition, I suggest, they should have the educative sense, which means they would ever be watching for revelations of the child's own innate qualities, natural power and inherent knowledge brought over from past lives. Perceiving these attributes, they should ever be ready to assist in their fullest and freest expression.

Briefly expressed, these, I believe, are the main principles upon which the treatment of all children should be founded. Where they are applied, a very large percentage of modern children could be changed from ordinary to outstanding types, from mediocrity to genius, from followers to leaders and, I repeat, it is wise and inspired leaders which are so greatly needed in the world today.

Objects of the Mothers' Research Group

• To promote a realization of the spiritual aspects of motherhood and family life
• To gather together for mutual study those who are interested in work for children and youth
• To bring to parents the light shed by the theosophical philosophy on all problems in the home.
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Mar 06, 2020 9:29 am

79th Annual General Report of the Theosophical Society [Excerpt]
Published by the Recording Secretary,
The Theosophical Society, Adyar, Madras 20. India
May 1955

Freda was concerned that the Indian authorities simply didn't understand the tradition of incarnate lamas, and their critical place in Tibetan society and spiritual practice. Little was done to identify these young lamas, some little more than infants. 'Nobody knew quite what to do with them,' Freda lamented to Olive Shapley. 'In the lamas we have inherited a tradition that dates back to the seventh century -- spiritual richness we can only as yet partially realise,' she wrote to friends. 'I am sure the whole world will ultimately be enriched.'

There are perhaps 200 high 'incarnate' lamas in the country now headed by His Holiness [the Dalai Lama] (including 40-60 child or adolescent incarnations: many of them young people of extraordinary intelligence and physical beauty) ... dedicated monks and lamas of a high standard of learning and spirituality number perhaps 2,500; in addition we have junior and simpler country monks, over 1,500 of whom have volunteered for roadwork. We all pray ultimately we may be able to settle the bulk of the refugees in big land settlements.32


Nehru had taken a diplomatic risk by hosting the Dalai Lama and tens of thousands of those who followed in his wake. But there was a limit to the amount of official support and funding that could be expected for the refugees' welfare, with the most urgent and unmet need being the upkeep and education of the young lamas.

Freda was entirely comfortable soliciting money and support from the rich and well connected. She had also established links with Buddhist and similar groups in London and elsewhere. Within weeks of returning to Delhi from the camps, she sought to turn her extensive network to the Tibetans' advantage. In mid-August 1960, she wrote a long letter to Muriel Lewis, a California-based Theosophist with whom she had corresponded for several years. Muriel ran the Mothers' Research Group principally for American and Western Theosophists, a network which had an interest both in eastern religions and in parenting issues.

I should like to feel that the 'Mothers' Group' was in touch with all I do (Freda wrote). Do you think it would be possible for some of your members to 'Adopt' in a small way -- write to, send parcels to -- these junior lamas? Friendships, even by post, could mean a great deal. We could work out a little scheme, if you are interested. The language barrier is there, but we can overcome it, with the help of friends.


Freda's family had, she recounted, already taken a young lama under their wing.

Last year my son [Kabir] 'adopted' one small lama of 12, sent him a parcel of woollen (yellow)clothes, sweets and picture books, soap and cotton cloth. This time when I went to Buxa, Jayong gave me such an excited and dazzling smile. He was brimming over with joy at seeing me again! It is very quiet away from your own country and relations for a small lama with a LOT TO LEARN. It was of course most touching to see the 'Mother-Love' in the faces of the tutor-lamas and servant lamas who look after the young ones. They are very tender with them.


Freda's letter was included in Muriel's research group newsletter and subsequently reprinted by the Buddhist Society in London. This was the founding act of the Tibetan Friendship Group, which quickly established a presence in eight western countries and was the conduit by which modest private funds were raised for the refugees.34 It outlasted Freda and ... it helped give prominence to the Tibet issue as well as the well-being of the Tibetan diaspora.

-- The Lives of Freda: The Political, Spiritual and Personal Journeys of Freda Bedi, by Andrew Whitehead


Mothers' Research Group.— After twenty years of fruitful effort, an endeavor has been made to increase the international scope of the work, and an advertisement sent to Section journals evoked an enthusiastic response. Additions have been made to the list of publications, the quarterly journal The Mothers Bulletin has increased the number of its pages, and courses of study and information are provided.
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Mar 06, 2020 9:31 pm

Negermusik / Negro Music
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3.6.20

The grave dangers confronting youth after leaving school arise from contact with adult materialism, selfishness, commercialism and vice. Girls and boys go out into life without the necessary guidance and protection against moral danger and insufficiently supported by belief in spiritual and moral principles. In consequence, they are often helpless in the presence of the evils and tendencies to evil which surround them in the world.

Broadcasting is one example of these dangers. The radio penetrates every home. Every child from babyhood is exposed to it. Sensational stories, luring advertisements, moronic crooning and raucous jazz pour out of loudspeakers throughout the Nations. To combat this very serious evil, a due censorship is urgently needed, with the single purpose of producing good citizens.

Advertising may be taken as another example. The newspapers, the hoardings, the handbills, and some of the radio stations of the world are designed for advertising. This almost hypnotic procedure beats upon the consciousness of modern man, influencing thought and word and deed.

-- America, Birthplace of a New Race, by Geoffrey Hodson, Published by the Mothers' Research Group, Theosophical Society in America, The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai. India.


Image
Poster of a 1938 exhibit in Düsseldorf

Negermusik ("Negro Music")[1][2] was a pejorative term used by the Nazis during the Third Reich to signify musical styles and performances by African-Americans that were of the jazz and swing music genres. They viewed these musical styles as inferior works[3] belonging to an "inferior race" and therefore prohibited. The term, at that same time, was also applied to indigenous music styles of black Africans.

Nazi Germany

At the time of the Weimar Republic during 1927, Ernst Krenek's opera of Jonny spielt auf (Jonny Plays) contained jazz musical performances that caused protests among some right-wing ethnic-nationalist groups in Germany at the time. In 1930, the American musician Henry Cowell wrote in the Melos journal that jazz interpreted a mixture of African-American and Jewish elements, stating that:

The fundamentals of jazz are the syncopation and rhythmic accents of the Negro. Their modernization is the work of New York Jews ... So jazz is Negro music seen through the eyes of the Jews.[4]


Such views were readily picked up by the Nazis. Their criticisms have included "gratuitous use of syncopation" and "orgies of drums".[5] More statements from the Nazis included such things as "artistic licentiousness" and "corruption seed in the musical expression" with "indecent dance forms".[6] They went on to scrutinize all modern music of the 1930s as a "political weapon of the Jews".[7] On 4 May 1930, Wilhelm Frick, the Reich's newly appointed Minister of the Interior and Education for Thuringia made a decree called "Against the Negro Culture — For Our German Heritage".[8][9]

In 1932 the national government under Franz von Papen pandered to the Nazis by banning all public performances by black musicians. After Adolf Hitler gained power in 1933, the Reich's Music Chamber[10] was also created in that same year. This was then followed by a full legal ban on this music on October 12, 1935 across all German national radio.[11] This ban was spearheaded by the German Reich's radio conductor, Eugen Hadamovsky, who purportedly stated:

Mit dem heutigen Tag spreche ich ein endgültiges Verbot des Negerjazz für den gesamten Deutschen Rundfunk aus. (As of today, I decree a definitive ban on the negro jazz for the entire German Radio.).[8][12]


In 1938, the Nazis organized the 'Entartete Musik' public exhibition in Germany, mainly held in Düsseldorf. This exhibition included a poster displaying a cartoon caricature of an African-American male playing on a saxophone with the Star of David on his tuxedo lapel. The overall theme of the exhibition was defamation of contemporary American music as "Negro music" and as another Jewish 'plot' upon German culture.[13][14]

Swing kids

The "Swing Kids" (German: Swingjugend) were a group of jazz and swing lovers in Germany in the 1930s, mainly in Hamburg (St. Pauli) and Berlin. They were mainly composed of 14- to 18-year-old boys and girls. They defied National Socialism (Nazism) by listening and dancing to this same banned music in private quarters, clubs, rented halls and vacant cafés.[15] Jazz music was offensive to Nazi ideology, because it was often performed by blacks and a number of Jewish musicians. The Swing Kids gave the impression of being apolitical, similar to their zoot suiter counterparts in North America.

On 18 August 1941, in a brutal police operation, over 300 Swing kids were arrested. The measures against them ranged from cutting their hair and sending them back to school under close monitoring, to the deportation of their leaders to Nazi concentration camps.

The 1993 movie Swing Kids gives a fictional portrayal of these same youths in that period in Germany.

World War II

Prior to the D-Day landings, during the German occupation of the Netherlands, Joseph Goebbels's propaganda ministry published pamphlets written in Dutch named "Greetings from England -– The Coming Invasion". These pamphlets contained in-between statements, such as "old jazz-records" and a further full statement declaring "at the celebration of liberation your daughters and wives will be dancing in the arms of real Negroes".[3] This further equated jazz music with 'blackness' during this time to stir up racism and anti-Allied propaganda within occupied Europe. However, Goebbels managed to create a Nazi-sponsored German swing band named Charlie and his Orchestra whose propagandistic purpose was to win over Nazi support and sympathy from British and American listeners through Shortwave radio.[12]

Additionally counter-propaganda was used by Allied forces which played upon the fears of the Nazi's banned music. One such example is Glenn Miller,[3] who was a White American jazz musician, that initially provided jazz music, through radio, to Allied combat soldiers for the purposes of entertainment and morale. His same music was used as counter-propaganda by AFN radio broadcasting to denounce fascist oppression in Europe with even Miller once stating himself:

America means freedom, and there's no expression of freedom quite so sincere as music.[16][17] –Glenn Miller


Post-War period

Even in the Post–World War II years in 1950s Germany, there were some protests from churches, school authorities and politicians against the "obscene Negro music" of the newly emerging rock 'n' roll genre with such acts like Elvis and Chuck Berry gaining new popularity amongst youth.[18] This attitude also continued right up into the 1960s carrying the same derogatory term that not only maintained its resentment by older generations and conservatives but also was an aggressive defense against a then new contemporary American culture.[19] Dance halls in East-Germany often displayed "Affentanzen verboten" notices (lit.: monkey dancing forbidden).

See also

• Degenerate music
• Jazz in Germany
• Valaida Snow
• Afro-Germans
• Hans Massaquoi
• Degenerate art
• Low culture
• Hans Hauck
• Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany
• Rhineland Bastard
• Nazism and race
• Racial policy of Nazi Germany
• Swingjugend

Literature

• Michael Hans Kater (2003): Different Drummers: Jazz in the Culture of Nazi Germany. Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-516553-1
• Mike Zwerin (2000): Swing Under the Nazis: Jazz as a Metaphor for Freedom. Cooper Square Publishers, ISBN 978-0-8154-1075-1
• Clarence Lusane (2003): Hitler's black victims: the historical experiences of Afro-Germans, European Blacks, Africans, and African Americans in the Nazi era. Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-93295-0

References

1. Gillmann, Sabine (May 2004). "Jazz und der Nationalsozialismus--ein ambivalentes Verhältnis". H-Net Reviews (H-German, Ruhr University Bochum). Retrieved 19 September 2011.
2. "Black History and Germany - Afro-German Glossary". About.com. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
3. "Blacks: forgotten target of Europe's hate and love". Chronicle World. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
4. Polster, Bernd (1998) [1989]. Swing Heil – Jazz im Nationalsozialismus (in German). Berlin: Transit Buchverlag. p. 9. ISBN 978-3-88747-050-0.
5. Wulf, Joseph (1983) [1963]. Musik im Dritten Reich – Eine Dokumentation (in German). Gütersloh: Ullstein. p. 350. ISBN 978-3-548-33032-7.
6. Drechsler, Nanny (1988) [1988]. Die Funktion der Musik im deutschen Rundfunk, 1933-1945 (Musikwissenschaftliche Studien) (in German). Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht (edit.) volume 3. Pfaffenweiler: Centaurus. p. 126. ISBN 978-3-89085-169-3.
7. Wulf, Joseph (1983) [1963]. Musik im Dritten Reich – Eine Dokumentation (in German). Gütersloh: Ullstein. p. 353. ISBN 978-3-548-33032-7.
8. Schröder, Heribert (1988) [1988]. Zur Kontinuität nationalsozialistischer Maßnahmen gegen Jazz und Swing in der Weimarer Republik und im Dritten Reich (in German). Colloquium – Festschrift Martin Vogel zum 65. Geburtstag. Bad Honnef: G. Schroder. p. 176.
9. Zalampas, Sherree (1990) [1990]. Adolf Hitler: A Psychological Interpretation of His Views on Architecture. US: Bowling Green University. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-87972-488-7.
10. "Music and the Holocaust: Reichskulturkammer & Reichsmusikkammer". Music and the Holocaust: Home. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
11. "GSB-Hamburg: World in Touch 10e (1999-2001), Politik & Geschichte". Chronicle World. 19 September 2011. Archived from the original on August 17, 2011.
12. "Wir haben damals die beste Musik gemacht". Der Spiegel. 18 August 1988. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
13. "Degenerate Music". Florida Center for Instructional Technology. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
14. "Im Dritten Reich verboten – Entartete Musik, Folge 1 (Rezension)". Filmmusik auf Cinemusic.de. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
15. "Case Study: Swing Kids". HMD Trust. Archived from the original on August 17, 2011. Retrieved 19 September2011.
16. Kater, Michael (2003) [1992]. Different Drummers: Jazz in the Culture of Nazi Germany. US: Oxford University Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-19-516553-1.
17. Erenberg, Lewis (1999). Swingin' the Dream: Big Band Jazz and the Rebirth of American Culture. US: University Of Chicago Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-226-21517-4.
18. "Martin Schäfer – Millionen von Elvis-Fans können sich nicht irren" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 8, 2011. (Millions of Elvis-fans cannot be wrong) Retrieved 19 September 2011
19. "Mythos 1968 – 1968 heute". Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. (Federal Agency for Civic Education) Retrieved 19 September 2011

External links

• Hitler's black victims: the ... – Clarence Lusane (pages. 199-200) – Google Books
• Degenerate Music – Holocaust – Florida Center for Instructional Technology
• Ebony | March 1966 | magazine | (p. 111) – Google Books
• The Music Survives! Degenerate Music: Music Suppressed by the Third Reich
• The Chronicle – Blacks: forgotten target of Europe's hate and love
• Melos (1920-1934) – RIPM Journal Information
• Music and the Holocaust: Swing Kids Behind Barbed Wire
• Circular Breathing: The Cultural Politics of Jazz in Britain (George McKay) – Academia.edu
• GSB-Hamburg: World in Touch 10e (1999-2001), Politik & Geschichte
• Django-World War II
• Label of love: Blue Note | Music | guardian.co.uk
• Offensive English translation of Arnold Schwarzenegger's last name? – Straight Dope Message Board
• Is the German word "Neger" a pejorative?
• Case Study: Swing Kids – Resources – HMD Trust
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