Postby admin » Sun Sep 13, 2015 12:23 am

Chapter 7: Gesture, Space and Time



This study of Lascaux is the result of several years of observations carried out, above all, with the eyes of a naturalist. The data gathered over the course of time thus relate to very different scientific fields, such as archaeology, ethology or geology. They link anthropic phenomena with natural ones, man with animal and the profane with the sacred.

It should be emphasized that scientific doubt was always present during this enquiry and, as a result, we refrained from all unfounded opinions, indeed from all thoughts of a dogmatic nature. Faced with the monument that is Lascaux, and despite the relatively large amount of time devoted to its study, we remain convinced that we have succeeded in identifying and decoding only a fraction of its message. This most exceptional theme of decorated caves remains all the more difficult to grasp in that some of its numerous aspects lie on the threshold with the irrational. Here, we encounter a world in which the temptation to overstep its limits is sometimes great, if we allow our imagination to wander even slightly.

This study has motivated us nor only to examine the site itself, but also to reconnoitre the whole of the underground environment of the Black Petigord accessible today. It relies upon the analysis, at different scales, of the natural context and the parietal works. This course was to lead us from the Vezere drainage basin to Lascaux, from the figures on the walls to the forms of the walls, from rudimentary traces to the spatial and temporal organization of the decorated ensemble, each stage bringing its yield of information. It was possible to obtain a number of partial answers concerning, on the one hand, the selection and occupation of the site and, on the other, the ways of dealing with the pictorial use of the underground space and the construction of the panels. A geomorphological approach to the region revealed important variations in the landscape, due in large part to the petrographic characteristics of the Upper Coniacian and to its remarkable homogeneity. These properties favoured the formation of entablatures, or cliffs, resulting from the down-cutting of the Vezere and its tributary streams such as the Beunes, the Vimont or the Manaurie. To both sides of this steep-sided zone, upstream from Castelmerle, in the region of Lascaux, and downhill from Saint-Cirq, to the west, the landscape changes, presenting a more hilly appearance, with subdued slopes. This phenomenon is related to a decrease in the homogeneity of the rock and to the replacement of the Upper Coniacian horizon by that of the Campanian, in particular -- s unit less conducive to this type of steep topography. These changes created a surrounding landscape that is more open in contrast to the more constricted central area.

At the base of the Upper Coniacian we have recorded a change in the texture of the rock. Its greater porosity has led to the formation of a level of rock shelters along both sides of the Vezere and, to some extent, in the valleys of its tributaries. This long horizontal recess, interrupted by the areas of confluences, maintains the same character throughout the entire steep-sided region of the Vezere drainage basin, between Thonac and Les Eyzies. It favoured the establishment of habitation sites throughout the Upper Palaeolithic, such as those at La Madeleine, Laugerie- Haute, Laugerie-Basse or Gorge-d'Enfer. On the other hand, we have noticed that this hollow formation is no longer visible in the adjacent small valleys. It is buried below valley bottom deposits formed since the Neolithic. The deposition of these materials during the Postglacial covered the rock shelters, notably those in the Beunes, leaving the ancient occupation sites inaccessible from that time on. These geological conditions have left the Upper Palaeolithic habitation sites with a relatively singular distribution: their number is greater in the valley of the Vezere and far smaller in the small tributary valleys.

This is not the only example of the influence of geology on the motivation and manner of human settlement in this region. At the very heart of this level of the Upper Coniacian, more precisely within its upper part, another layer is characterized by karstic properties that are more marked than elsewhere. In fact, almost 70 per cent of the 306 known sites (including Lascaux) are here.

We have emphasized that the state of preservation of this highly karstified level presented significant differences. Destroyed by erosion in the valley of the Vezere, which may explain the small number of caves recorded, it retains its integrity in those of the Beunes, from the confluence to the upper reaches of their valleys, hence the higher number of caves.

Furthermore, access to the systems appears much more problematical in the main valley because the cliffs do not feature any secondary projections. This gives the entire outcrop an absolute verticality, which can exceed 40 metres. Without special equipment, this type of profile impedes access to the karstified level and hence to the caves. On the other hand, in the tributary valleys and, most particularly in those of the Beunes, the elevation of the formations is divided into terraces. These successive platforms favour movement from one to the other and thus the approach to the entrances of the caves.

In summary, this analysis has revealed a high concentration of rock-shelter habitation sites in the valley of the Vezere, in contrast to the valley of the Beunes. As for the deep caves, the proportions are reversed. This major tributary can boast, within a relatively limited area, more than a third of the decorated caves in the Department of Dordogne, including Font-de-Gaume, Les Combarelles and Bernifal. We thus observe that the ancient distribution of the habitation sites on the one hand and the decorated caves on the other - two clearly distinct groups - results from a combination of phenomena essentially geological in origin, which are linked with the formation of the landscapes and the caves, processes of erosion of the cliffs and the infilling of the bottoms of the valleys. Upper Palaeolithic people knew their territory perfectly and exploited it optimally with regard to the possibilities offered, the result of very ancient natural phenomena. These geological phenomena have continued and have hidden some of the habitation sites. It is necessary to bear them in mind during the study of human settlement patterns or while prospecting for sites.

Beyond the local geological constraints, a second factor intervenes, which is apparently cultural in origin. There is a particular concentration of decorated caves dating to the period from the end of the Solutrean and the Lower Magdalenian. including Lascaux, Saint-Cirq, Bara-Bahau, Gabillou (in the valley of the Isle) and Villars (further to the north in the drainage basin of the Dronne). These sites have been attributed to the same period, in part based on formal analogies in their depictions, but also because one sees at them the repetition of exceptional themes - for example, the quadrangular sign, which is present at Lascaux, Gabillou and Bara-Bahau, or the theme of the man opposite a bison, which one finds in a more complete form at Lascaux and Villars or more reduced at Saint-Cirq, Gabillou and Bara-Bahau. Again, all the caves are located in similar landscapes, on the flanks of gently sloping hills, which distinguishes them from the sanctuaries of the Middle Magdalenian -- Font- de-Gaume, Rouffignac, Les Combarelles or Bernifal, for instance - which are in much more steep-sided landscapes. The choice of the site of Lascaux therefore seems to be determined as much by the geomorphological properties of the region as by the conditions of access - with no particular constraints - and by the inconspicuous character of the entrance, which is less easily detectable than an opening with a porch at the foot of a cliff. (... )

187 Head and neck of the yellow horse, locality of the Upside-down Horse.

The morphology of the engraved or painted surfaces, which often extend into an overhang or indeed a vault, to a large extent conditioned the execution of the decorated panels, the framework of the different compositions and the animation of the animals, sometimes even suggesting a three-dimensional graphic approach.

The presence of a significant portable lithic and bone assemblage, scattered throughout the cave, and the numerous markings on the walls, executed as far as the most remote zones, attest to the wish to explore everything and to take over the whole of the subterranean space. This is true of the majority of the great decorated sites, no matter what the period, including Niaux, Chauvet or Cussac, [56] and shows all the signs of sacralization.

The contrasting surfaces, resulting from the specific mechanical, granulometric and chromatic properties of the rock, encouraged a certain variation in the methods used. The support thus appears to have been another major element affecting the choices made and the decisions taken by Palaeolithic man. Its variations caused a very marked topographical division, as the Hall of the Bulls and the Axial Gallery are different from the other sectors of the cave. The calcite encrustation, which covers almost the whole of the walls of these two spaces, has a reflective power that marks them out. In the other caves of the Vezere drainage basin we have observed this formation very rarely, in most cases over only a few square decimetres; moreover, it is often associated with elements that interrupt its homogeneity or present such large gaps that the underlying rock, which is always chromatically more dense, appears over large areas.

The exceptional optical properties of the wall support in the Hall of the Bulls and the Axial Gallery, together with its increased hardness and light relief, encouraged the artists of Lascaux to paint it and to choose appropriate tools. In the other parts of the cave, the friability of the rock necessitated the use of a range of complementary tools, particularly for engraving. The methods employed imply an experienced hand because the application of colour to the painting or the removal of rock by cutting are unforgiving of mistakes and leave indelible traces on the support. The rare corrections show the very great skill of these people in overcoming difficulties of access and the irregular character of the morphology of the support.

The art of Lascaux is characterized by the sheer number of figures represented, accounting for almost a seventh of all known examples of parietal art in France. Of the 1,963 representations counted, 915 are animal figures, 434 signs, 613 indeterminate figures and 1 is human. They occur in relatively uniform concentrations, except in the Passageway and the Apse. In this last space, with its very modest dimensions, there are no fewer than 1,073 figures. This number alone far exceeds that of any other of the great sites of Palaeolithic parietal art. It is a sanctuary at the heart of a sanctuary.

The bestiary is largely dominated by the theme of the horse (ill. 187), with 364 representatives. There are just 28 aurochs (ill. 188), but this theme nevertheless remains prominent due to its visual impact in the first two sectors, where the animals are huge. Beyond this point, it rends to recede in favour of the image of the bison. This last animal, represented 26 times, is found at the three extremities of the cave (locality of the Upside-down Horse, Chamber of the Felines and Shan). The ibex accompanies it on several occasions, but with a certain discretion, on dividing panels such as that of the Falling Cow close to the Red Panel or that of the frieze of the Seven Ibexes engraved immediately above the Panel of the Imprint. On the other hand, the stag (ill. 189), in second place with 90 representatives, remains some distance away from these animals but comes closer to the horses and the aurochs. The carnivores, bear (ill. 190) and felines (ill. 131), are less numerous and have a very inconspicuous presence. The creation of these works, whether they are figurative (the animals and the man of the Shaft) or geometric (the signs), follow well-defined rules, specific to each painted or engraved theme, and a remarkable adaptation to the support that testifies to a natural determinism, as in numerous other circumstances.

188 Head and neck of the second aurochs, Hall of the Bulls.

The study of the representations of the equids, which we have stressed, shows that the methods of constructing each image and the positioning of the different anatomical elements rely on a recurring chronology. This process, conducted in successive stages, implies the use of implements adapted to the morphological and physical properties of the wall. The first actions involved spraying colouring materials to portray the mane, then the neck and the flank of the animal. It is in the course of the following phases that the techniques diverge, more particularly during the rendering of the outlines and the anatomical details, such as the fore- and hindlimbs, the tail, and the bridge and tip of the nose. The variations recorded depend on the degree of hardness of the support. Drawing was used for the hardened surfaces of the Hall of the Bulls and its axial extension, and engraving for the friable supports of the Passageway and the sectors beyond. This striking difference might, in a superficial interpretation, suggest the involvement of two distinct groups, but this is not the case. As we have seen, the repetition of the actions, the persistence of the themes and the construction of the figures are all indications of the uniformity of the ensemble of these parietal works.

89 The central subject of this frieze of the Swimming Stags, Nave, is the most detailed drawing of the panel, resembling many other examples in the compositions of the friezes.

We have also shown that change of technique is not only related to the nature of the support. On several occasions, and very locally, the tool has been changed in order to define the outlines of the same animal- the neck, the croup or the flank -- which cannot be attributed to constraints of access to the walls.

The first studies at Lascaux emphasized the difficulties of access to the upper levels of the galleries and the halls and suggested that Palaeolithic man may have used scaffolding. This hypothesis makes sense for a few rare sections of the galleries, notably the Axial Gallery, bur its extension to the whole of this area does not seem feasible. As already mentioned, numerous ledges underlie the panels apart from in the first third of this gallery. These projections would have given the artist access to the walls and thus placed the majority of the surfaces to be painted or engraved within easy reach. For the zones beyond reach, we have observed a change of technique, such as for the black bull of the Axial Gallery or the one in the Hall of the Bulls above the entrance to the Passageway. In these two cases, spraying, which requires a certain proximity to the wall surface, is replaced by a drawn line. The extension of the manual reach created by an instrument used as a brush or a pad permitted access to the entire surface to be painted, without the need for an artificial structure.

The expression of the third dimension constitutes one of the distinctive features and one of the strong points of this art. It is effective at several levels, from the smallest anatomical details to the subject as a whole. It also appears in the distribution of the different elements represented in the composition of a panel. The interpretation and the rendering of the relief presuppose the anticipation of an action and the pursuit of a graphic technique that can achieve the illusion of depth, as is shown by many examples.

The most common convention was to leave a reserve (a blank), thus isolating the body from the fore- and hindlimbs located in the background. This gap reduces their graphic importance relative to those located on the side of the observer. However, this three-dimensional approach went much further. On certain figures, in particular those of the diptych of the Crossed Bison, a difference of construction between the fore- and hindlimbs is noticeable, the latter being distinctly more elementary because they are placed in a more remote position. On the same panel, the composition benefited from the morphology of the wall's angled interface, with each plane receiving one of the two representations. Moreover, the forward-sloping line around which these images are joined reinforces the symmetrical movement of the two animals away from each other.

With a desire to execute figures with optimal proportions, the artists resorted to distorting some of them deliberately through anamorphosis. C...) We have observed a similar approach in the layout of certain panels constructed around a single theme. The frieze of the Small Stags and the group of horses located in front of the Falling Cow also obey the same criteria of adapting their lines relative to their position in space. The animals in the foreground are presented with all their detail; the others are progressively less detailed the further away they are from the observer, thus conveying distance.

190 Of the outline of the bear painted in black, only the upper line, the frontal section and the tip of the right hindlimb extend beyond the edge of the very broad ventral band of the fourth bull, Hall of the Bulls.

These graphic inventions in the paintings of Lascaux constitute one of the great moments of pictorial art - in no other sanctuary is it carried to this level of perfection. At many sites with parietal art, the natural relief or irregularities in the rock (fissures, concretions, flake scars) are occasionally used as substitutes for certain anatomical details of the animals represented. This is rare at Lascaux. On the other hand, the structural heterogeneity of the wall, the interfaces of strata or the channel of the roof, and also the variations of shapes produced by overhangs, projections of the wall or ledges, provide the basis for the creation of horizontal fields, which are generally clearly developed. They are also potential surfaces for expression. Palaeolithic people exploited these configurations of the walls to position linear compositions that can extend over several tens of metres, as in the Hall of the Bulls. These shapes create natural frameworks that delineate the work, and indeed provide the draft of a composition: they hold the eye and direct, in some way, the spatial distribution of the figures. Even if the natural setting does not, perhaps, influence motivation, it does to a large extent determine the form. This characteristic is due in large part to the specific architecture of the site. Indeed, one sees a very marked twofold topographical division in the morphology of the galleries. The art appears to complement this very closely. There is a sort of opposition between the very structured assemblages (the Hall of the Bulls, Axial Gallery, Nave, Shaft [ill. 191] and Chamber of the Felines) and the other locations (the Passageway and, to a lesser extent, the Apse), where the distribution of the figures seems to be more confused, even if this is mere appearance.

The structure of the compositions in a frieze depends on particular, horizontally very extended surfaces. Each associates animals of the same species, forming what we have termed monothematic groups. The analysis of the form and technique of each motif demonstrates the individuality of the gesture. The homogeneity of the dimensions of each figure, their regular spacing and their alignment along the same line show that each of these assemblages was created at a single instant. The strength of the image is reinforced when the drawn animal occupies a dominant spatial position. Its power is increased tenfold by the accumulation and the repetition of the motifs. The convention behind the construction of these pictorial groups is thus not limited to a simple juxtaposition of the themes: its purpose is, above all, the creation of homogeneous monothematic ensembles.

Analysis of superimpositions showed that, on all the panels in which these animals were represented, the image of the horse is always placed under that of the aurochs, while the latter is always below the stags. The theme of the horse was thus depicted first; it was followed by that of the aurochs, then the stag. These sequences are repeated persistently in all sectors of the cave.

This 'horse-aurochs-stag' order had its rules and demonstrates once more the structured and deliberate nature of this parietal art. Another conclusion follows on from this: the distribution of the works is not limited to an ordered repetition of the motifs on the panels, bur also follows a precise chronology. The systematic linking of the animal images shows that there existed a structuring not only in space, as was demonstrated by Max Raphael, followed by Annette Laming-Emperaire and Andre Leroi-Gourhan, but that at Lascaux this construction also enters another dimension, that of time.

The comparative study of the coats of the animals and their peculiarities showed a close relationship between the species shown and distinct seasons. The analysis of seasonal characteristics revealed that the horses were represented with features corresponding to the end of winter and the beginning of spring, the aurochs during summer and the stags in autumn. For each species, these periods correspond to the mating season, an event never itself reproduced on the walls. This in no way implies that the works were necessarily created during the season depicted.

It is appropriate to combine these observations with the sequence in which the paintings and engravings were created, and indeed there is a close correspondence between the two. The chronology of the parietal works follows closely that embodied by the annual variations of the coat and behaviour of the animals (ill. 192). The 'spring- summer-autumn' cycle can be superimposed on the 'horse-aurochs-stag' sequence, which also incorporates the first indications of the animals mating. The organization of the ensemble of figures at Lascaux acknowledges a structure, both in terms of its creation and meaning, that is determined by time.

191 The man, the bison and the bird of the Shaft, more than all the other compositions, have prompted a large number of interpretations.

This interconnection of graphic sequences and biological cycles reinforces the very great unity of the sanctuary. The creation of the parietal works stems from a rational design, which is shown by a rigorous spatial organization of the figures and a precise temporal logic. These observations suggest that the art of Lascaux is largely the product of an activity limited in rime and possibly belonging to a single generation. The last chronological estimate, 18,600 years BP, is based on a radiocarbon test on a fragment of a spearhead found during the excavation of the Shaft. It therefore pushes back previous datings of around 17,000 years BP. These archaeological remains ought thus to be placed in the period of time covering the end of the Solutrean and the Lower Magdalenian. The art of Lascaux would foreshadow the great parietal expansion of the Middle Magdalenian while still preserving the Solutrean tradition.

From the Upper Palaeolithic period and, without doubt, well before, man has formulated rules in order to codify and order all the activities of his life, whether profane or sacred - the two being inseparable most of the time. The history of religions shows that certain customs or traditions were shared by the majority of so-called primitive societies. These universals recur irrespective of time - from our origins to the present day - and irrespective of place - from Siberia to the Amazonian forest. Among these practices, that relating to the sacralization of a place remains invariable. Sacralization transforms a cave into a closed space because it is explored over its entire extent. The way is lined by a succession of markings applied to the walls or the floors as a sign of occupation. Structured in this way, this closed setting contrasts with the conditions outside, where space is boundless and associated with chaos. This process must have led to a gathering of people, indeed to a degree of sedentarization.

This concept of the sacralization of the underground environment inevitably raises questions about the spiritual meaning of the evidence, even though we are unable to come to any solid conclusions in this area. Several studies have attempted to discover the meaning of this legacy by means of numerous theories, some of which take a cosmographical approach. The line of argument made in support of the latter interpretation often consists of reproducing the geometry of a field of stars and superimposing it over a scatter of dots created using specific anatomical details of a group of animal figures or signs. Although, by taking into account the movements of the stars, it is relatively simple to recreate the image of the sky as it would have appeared to Palaeolithic people, 18,000 years ago, the selected photographs of sketches of parietal figures not only lack any metrical properties, but are normally affected by serious distortions, especially at Lascaux, where the highly irregular walls and the 'keyhole' cross section of the galleries greatly accentuates this problem. Furthermore, the integration of the two topographical models, stellar and parietal, offers so many combinations that any interpretation becomes impossible.

Nevertheless, the link between these two components - the one astronomical, the other derived from the underground environment - should certainly nor be rejected: it is the argumentation and the precise interpretation drawn from it that must be reconsidered. We have considered this possibility since 1972, without ever obtaining sufficient credible evidence to permit progress to be made in this direction. Meanwhile, thanks to our investigations, we have discerned a more plausible alternative path. Definite clues encouraged us to proceed in this direction.

The numerous studies carried out on Lascaux and its natural context, which extended to the whole of the region of the Black Perigord, reveal the organization of the relationship between the three inseparable elements represented by gesture, time and space. They ate at the origin of the creation of this image of the Palaeolithic world, a vast fresco that reproduces a sublime model. With its overhanging walls and paintings extending to the ceiling, recurring features from the Hall of the Bulls to the Nave, the morphological characteristics of this cave bear some resemblance to the architecture of the celestial vault: this is the major contribution of the natural context.

The second contribution arises from the chronology and the primary meaning of the works. We have established that the creation of the panels followed an immutable scheme (horse-aurochs-stag'), over the course of which the space acquires its full value. As we have seen, this sequence follows a biological progression, revealed by the seasonal characteristics of the animals depicted. The different phases of these biological cycles, involving horses, aurochs and stags in succession, indicate the onset of mating - the animal ritual from which life arises. Beyond this surface interpretation lies the rhythm, indeed the regeneration of the seasons, which is symbolized by this phenomenon. The phases of spring, summer and autumn thus form a metaphorical evocation which. in this context, links biological and cosmic time.

This series of observations and associated deductions has led us to think that it is, after all, not rash to imagine that these vast painted or engraved compositions might be a testimony to spiritual ideas, the symbolic import of which is founded upon a cosmogonic perception. From the entrance to the cave depths, this record of the first mythologies unfurls before our eyes, with its central theme, the creation of life, and, beyond that, the origin of the world.

In the framework of this study I have had the privilege of visiting Lascaux many times, often alone. With the work accomplished, I would linger for a few moments, either at the foot of the great bulls in the Hall of the Bulls or on the stairs in front of the entrance to the Apse. This allowed me to adjust my vision. It was during these brief moments that contact with this special world was the most bewitching. Some days, imperceptibly at first and then overwhelmingly, I had to cut short this contemplation when it all became too emotional. Beyond the excellence of the works themselves, Lascaux draws its power of suggestion from the constant presence of an image: whatever your position, an animal is watching you, questioning you. Aurochs, horses, stags, bison and ibexes are omnipresent and, through them, the dominating impression of man.

192 Horse with extended forelimbs, Hall of the Bulls.
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Postby admin » Sun Sep 13, 2015 12:26 am

Discovery, Research and Conservation

193 Entrance to the Lascaux Cave at the end of September, 1940. From left to right: Leon Laval, Marcel Ravidat, Jacques Marsal and Henri Breuil. Successive alterations would bring about an important widening of the entrance, enlarging it from the sub-vertical shaft through which the discoverers had entered the cave for the first time, to the entire breadth of the gallery.

194 Visit to Lascaux by Abbot Breuil and Count Begouen, on 24 October, 1940. Sitting in front of them, Jacques Marsal, left, and Marcel Ravidat, right.

The escapade that led to the discovery of one of the most prestigious pieces of archaeological evidence in French prehistory resembles a work of fiction. On 12 September 1940, four adolescents -- Jacques Marsal, Georges Agnel, Simon Coencas and Marcel Ravidat, under the leadership of the latter (the eldest among them) - went towards the commanding hill to the south of the town of Montignac. One of the incentives driving this small team was a desire to finish off unblocking a 'foxes' earth', which they had begun the preceding Sunday. According to the stories of the village elders, this foxes' earth led via an underground passage to the manor of Lascaux, located down on the western slope.

After enlarging the passage, they threw a stone into the narrow hole they had made. It rolled for quite a long time, indicating that the hole was very deep. After much discussion and hesitation, it was Marcel Ravidat who decided to cross this first obstruction. He slipped into the vertical hole and set foot on a steeply sloping floor, which he traversed over a distance of several tens of metres. The very low ceiling forced him to crawl at first, but it was succeeded by a space of increasingly more comfortable size and proportions. Having arrived at the foot of a large scree deposit, which had until that day covered the original entrance to the cave, he called to his friends to follow him. Once assembled. they ventured into a much larger space, today known as the Hall of the Bulls, the entire breadth of which was occupied by a series of petrified pools, surrounded by natural dams of calcite, which caught the percolating water streaming over the scree from the entrance. After progressing several tens of metres they arrived at the entrance of a noticeably rectilinear gallery, which was higher than it was broad: the Axial Gallery. The greater confinement here and familiarity with the darkness, discreetly disturbed by the light of an unsteady flame, were bound to favour the observation and recognition of the first animal figures, painted on the ceiling and the walls.

During this preliminary visit exploring almost the entire system, it dawned on them that this must be one of the most magnificent collections of Palaeolithic parietal art to date.

13 September 1940

With the greatest possible secrecy, they returned to the site in order to continue their exploration, particularly beyond the Apse and the Shaft. Using the most rudimentary means - a simple rope they had brought with them - they descended some 6 to 7 metres. In the single underlying gallery they recognized a panel with a man and a bison: the Shaft Scene.

18 September 1940

They invited their teacher, Leon Laval, to share their discovery, but the opening to the cave was too small. He was unable to enter until the following day, after the passage had been widened.

21 September 1940

The first scientists of the day travelled to the locality - Henri Breuil, in the company of Doctor Cheynier and the Abbe Bouyssonie. Maurice Thaon had preceded them the day before and had made some preliminary sketches to give a first impression. According to Andre Glory, in one week 1,500 visitors entered the sanctuary, under the supervision and guidance of Ravidat and Marsal. He added, 'that ... the visitors ... did not ransack the cave due to the devotion of these young boys.' The portable objects littering the floor and the ledges of the walls required the same amount of care and attention as the parietal works. According to the descriptions of the first initiates to look over the different galleries of this cave, there were numerous remains of bones and stone artefacts, which singles out this site even more, since, with a few rare exceptions, such evidence is always very limited in this type of setting. For example, in Cussac in the Dordogne, the last decorated cave to be discovered, a very low quantity of material was discovered on the floor. Some uncommon flakes and blades of flint form the portable material at this site, at least to date.

In order to avoid the dispersal, indeed the destruction of the portable material, Ravidat and Marsal, together with Laval, began to collect the most vulnerable stone and bone objects. This collection, a significant group of material, includes a long and decorated reindeer antler rod, bone points, shells and some flint artefacts.

October 1940

Fernand Windels initiated the first campaign to photograph the parietal works of art at the site. The sanctuary attracted numerous personalities (ill. 194), but also a whole host of curious people from the entire Department and beyond.

Abbe Breuil worked in the cave until mid-December (ill. 193).

December 1940

Lascaux was classed as an historic monument.


Breuil entrusted recording the work to Thaon, which he carried out using a camera lucida. He was to reproduce some thirty paintings and a single engraved figure. The images were reproduced at a scale of 1:5 on yellow-brown card.


Building work, begun in June 1947, facilitated access to the decorated galleries and enabled tourists to explore the site. The site was opened to the public a year later on 13 July 1948.

Windels produced the first description of the most important parietal works and published, together with Annette Laming-Emperaire, the first work on this site, illustrated with numerous photographs: Lascaux. Chapelle Sixtine de La Prehistoire.


Breuil, Blanc and Bourgon began the first test excavations, carried out on this occasion at the foot of the Shaft Scene. They yielded numerous plaques of limestone used as lamps. Some of these, concave at the centre due to an artificial hollow, contained remains of coniferous charcoal. The bone industry was also represented in the form of fragments of spearheads, sometimes ornamented (grooves, convergent or parallel lines), and awls. They collected the charcoal for the first radiocarbon tests.


Despite the extraordinary discovery of Lascaux, Breuil had only sketched our the record of a few figures in the cave. A few months before the discovery of the site an accident had deprived him temporarily of his sight, and he only recovered it a few weeks later. After this episode his activities in the Perigord slowed down. It fell upon Abbe Andre Glory to continue his work. The remarkable results of the first two years, spent carrying out an inventory of practically all of the images of the cave, and the succeeding nine years, recording the majority of the images, enabled him to raise the number of identified representations to 1,433. The inextricable tangle of the figures engraved from the Apse to the Chamber of the Felines inspired a rigorous approach using suitable equipment. Access to the upper level of the Apse required the construction of tubular metal scaffolding, which helped to trace the figures. Abbe Glory chose to trace the images on to a transparent material, in this case a film of cellulose or cellophane, impregnated with rubberized material to render it impervious to the humidity. Nevertheless, the limestone, which in places is very powdery, prohibited placing the sheet directly or entirely against the wall. A soft pencil and other, coloured ones, made the differentiation of the Palaeolithic lines and the natural contours, fissure or calcite deposits more intelligible. Painted lines were separated from the engravings and recorded on different tracing paper. Once finished, the record was stretched over a drawing board for control and to intensify the principal lines. A final assessment involved replacing the copy in its original position. Measurements taken in situ permitted the readjustment of each element of the mosaic, an operation carried out at the base of the original panel. After assembly, the montage was reduced to a scale of 1:5 or 1:10 with a camera lucida.


The first signs of deterioration appeared on the walls: the formation of droplets of water which, as they trickled down, removed prehistoric pigments. A study was able to establish that an excess of carbon dioxide, produced by the breath of the visitors, brought about an acidification of the water vapour, which was condensed and corroded the underlying rock and the calcite. The phenomenon was exaggerated by natural processes, related especially to the presence, at the base of the Shaft, of an intermittent source of carbon dioxide issuing from the lower levels of the system.


Following repeated observations of the first traces of the degeneration of the substrate, an air-conditioning system was installed below the entrance stairs, designed primarily to get rid of the excess carbon dioxide. The installation of this bulky equipment meant that the entire entrance zone of the cave had to be cleared - the whole of the cone of scree, from its foot, adjoining the Hall of the Bulls, to its summit at the present-day entrance.

As a result of these measures, Glory had to keep track of the day-to-day construction work and initiate several test excavations and studies of sections, particularly in the present engine room and along the course of pipes for the extraction of air, from the Hall of the Bulls to the distal end of the Axial Gallery and from the former to the entrance of the Mondmilch Gallery.

He carried out the stratigraphic recording of some fifteen sections in the sections open to visitors and in the engine room. The tatter, no less than 11 metres deep, was the most important.

The air-conditioning system was designed to allow filtration and removal of carbon dioxide from the air, to stabilize temperature at a level of 14° and to provide the air with a stable level of 98 per cent humidity. The number of visits was not reduced, despite all this, and reached 1,000 visitors a day at its peak.


Max Sarradet, then Conservator of French Monuments (Batiments de France) and, more particularly, of the Lascaux Cave, noticed that green stains were slowly developing on the walls.


Glory resumed excavations at the foot of the Shaft Scene. He dug up other lamps and, in particular, the lamp of pink sandstone and the fragment of a second lamp that had been made in exactly the same way.


During the winter of 1962-63, it became noticeable that green stains immediately next to some of the figures were developing more rapidly. They showed the presence of colonies of algae brought in by tourists and the artificial air- conditioning system. The phenomenon was sustained by inadequately subdued lighting and the ambient temperature, which was several degrees too high.


Despite ozone filters having been inserted in the air-conditioning system, the colonies of algae increased. A decision was taken to stop the machine. Faced with the proliferation of micro-organisms, the Minister of State in charge of Cultural Affairs had the cave closed to the public in April and, in the same year, appointed a scientific investigation committee for the preservation of this national heritage.

An antibacterial chemical treatment helped to combat the contamination, and a decline was recorded. Some time later, the 'green leprosy', as it had been called, disappeared completely.

By cancelling the visits, eliminating the causes of deterioration and restoring climatic conditions, the works of Lascaux were able to return to their original brilliance, at least that at the time of their discovery.

As a result, far more stringent regulations were implemented regarding public access to caves and rock shelters. The number of visits was limited, determined specifically by the particular cave in question, and surveillance of the walls and floors was increased in those caves in France open to the public.


Initial work was carried out to dismantle the air-conditioning machine, and equipment was installed to control and regulate temperature and humidity levels. By taking this approach, the natural conditions of circulation of the masses of air by convection were recreated. A low temperature was maintained in the engine room - before the earliest construction work, the underground stream that used to flow over the scree cone at the entrance had played this role.

A protocol for the surveillance of the cave was set up. A chronicle of the measurements of different parameters was established -- covering temperature, humidity and CO2 levels. This has since been carried out by the Historic Monuments Research Laboratory and the Laboratory for Hydrogeology of the University of Bordeaux 1.


As a prophylactic measure the Conservation authority of the French Monuments of Aquitaine (Batiments de France d'Aquitaine) asked the National Geography Institute to carry out the stereo-photogrammetric recording of all the decorated sections of the cave. The possibilities for reproduction offered by this type of recording prompted a suggestion: the construction of a replica of the cave.


The civil society, which owned the Lascaux Cave at that time, purchased the replica project. Parr of the funds necessary for financing such a project came from the sale of the original to the state in the same year. The entrance to a quarry 200 metres downhill from the original cave was chosen as the site. Only the Axial Gallery and the Hall of the Bulls, the most representative sectors of the monument, would be replicated.



On the initiative of Arlette Leroi-Gourhan, the excavation data and records of Abbe Glory, who had died prematurely in 1966, were re-examined. The multidisciplinary team assembled on this occasion was to present its contribution to the study of the geology of the site and the stratigraphy of the soils, and to proceed to the analysis of the portable objects found since the discovery, the lithic industry, the lamps, the bone industry, the shells, the fauna and colourants.


Lascaux inconnu was published under the direction of Arlette Leroi-Gourhan and Jacques Allain.


The civil society, which was in charge of the replica, handed over its rights to the Department of the Dordogne. Under the directorship of Daniel Debaye, the Departmental tourist service took up the torch. A concrete construction, covered eventually by a layer of arable soil, served as a receptacle for the copy. Inside this building, a concrete shell, some 10 centimetres thick, was constructed, which gave a good approximation of the internal volume of the original. Its dimensions were established using cross sections specified by the IGN. Once the metal framework and its concrete lining (ill. 195) were in place, the relief was created in two stages: the study and materialization of exceptional positions on the wall, followed by their modelling. The National Centre of Prehistory (CNP) was entrusted with relaying information, from the in situ recording of morphochromatic data to their transferral into the heart of the replica. Monique Petral was to devote herself to the work of reproducing the entire collection of drawings and paintings of the two sectors forming the subject of this construction, the Hall of the Bulls and the Axial Gallery. Towards the end of the decade, the Departmental tourist service extended this action at the site of Thot (Thonac) by taking on Renaud Sanson to create a copy of the Shaft Scene and the two great panels on the left wall of the Nave: the Crossed Bison and the Great Black Cow. A second team, directed by Jean-Francois Tournepiche, was entrusted with the reproduction of the frieze of the Swimming Stags.


Cinematographic documentation of the cave was shot, directed by Mario Ruspoli.


Opening of Lascaux II to the public.


The Ministry of Culture suggested the production of interactive video discs about the iconography of the cave. The department of parietal art of the National Centre of Prehistory was charged with the scientific supervision of this operation. 'Lascaux: Paintings and Engravings', a programme designed for museums, universities and other research centres, assembled sequences filmed in 1982-83 by Mario Ruspoli. The CNP added a number of documents to this, including several hundred graphic and photographic items. A second programme, 'Lascaux Revisited', aimed at the general public, was produced using the same data but in a less analytical form.


At the request of the urban community of Bordeaux, the National Centre of Prehistory contributed to the production of the replica of the frieze of the Stags. This was to feature under the theme 'From Lascaux to Hermes' in the Exhibition of the Pacific Countries at Fukuoka in Japan, a town twinned with the regional capital of Aquitaine.


Norbert Aujoulat (CNP) began his studies of the parietal art of the Lascaux Cave and its physical environment. His work is the subject of this book.


The symposium on the fiftieth anniversary of the discovery of Lascaux started in September at Montignac, organized by the CNP and the Superintendence of Prehistoric Antiquities of Aquitaine, Ministry of Culture and Communication, under the direction of Jean-Philippe Rigaud, the conservator at that time.


At the request of the Research and Technology Mission, Aujoulat produced the official Internet site for the Lascaux Cave, which was recognized in the following year by the Webby Awards 2000 in the category 'Science'. Due to renewed alterations to the entire entrance zone of the cave, research was stopped at the beginning of autumn 1999 for an indefinite period.


During June, work began in the engine room to replace the cave's climatic regulation system, which had become too obsolete. It was finished at the beginning of 2001.


A short time later, at the start of summer, Bruno Desplat, the technician in charge of the supervision of the site, reported the appearance of mould in the airlocks of the site entrance. Over a few days to a few weeks, a white blanket of filaments covered the floors and ledges of all the decorated sectors except the Shaft.

The most prolific pathogenic agent, Fusarium solani, was quickly identified by the research laboratory of the historic monuments research laboratory. This Fungus lives in symbiosis with a bacterium, Pseudomonas, which is able to break down Fungicides. This is why it was so difficult to eradicate these micro-organisms. Action was carried out very rapidly. Quicklime, spread over the affected floor, stopped the spread of the fungus immediately. Pads soaked in a remedial product, combining a fungicide and an antibiotic, were applied to the ledges. The biological proliferation was suppressed, but the mycelium responsible still resisted treatment.

Furthermore, during May, the development of another fungus was noticed on the walls. It took the form of dark, circular patches, from 10 to 15 centimetres in diameter. They spread progressively into the cave, from the entrance airlocks towards the Apse.


At the beginning of July, the Ministry of Culture and Communication created the International Scientific Committee for Lascaux Cave, under the presidency of Marc Gauthier. Within the framework of the Direction of Cultural Affairs of Aquitaine, it brought together some thirty administrative personnel and researchers, notably microbiologists, hydrogeologists, chemists, archaeologists and climatologists.


Despite the permanent treatment of the floors and walls, since the first in situ interventions, the mould continued to develop. The chemical process had revealed its limitations, and as a result a programme commenced that involved cleansing the surfaces through the injection and extraction of a special material. This process allowed the removal of sediments deposited on the ledges during the course of millennia. These function as veritable collectors / gutters for organic alter material, creating a nutritive environment promoting the renewed outbreak of destructive agents. Since the summer, the materialization of these pathogenic agents has declined, and their appearances have become increasingly rare and inconspicuous.


By January a clear improvement was recorded regarding the state of the cave. Nevertheless, the entire apparatus of surveillance and maintenance remains in place, as it is still unclear whether this improvement is permanent or temporary. The risks to the preservation of parietal works, and current thinking concerning the problems of conserving this heritage at Lascaux, are relevant to all the decorated caves in Western Europe, whether they are open to the public or not. These considerations can apply equally to rock art. From this perspective, these investigations may be of benefit for all the decorated sites worldwide.
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1. The study of karst, limestone formations favourable for the development of caves.

2. The study of animal behaviour.

3. The entire group is classed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

4. In the geomorphological definition, use of the term cliff ('falaise') is reserved for coastal formations. Nevertheless, in this context, tradition encourages us to retain it.

5. Occupied from the Middle Ages until the end of the sixteenth century, this site, which is today open to the public, is one of the most important troglodyte cities in France.

6. Vouve, J., in Leroi-Gourhan, A et aI., 1979.

7. Bouchud, J., in Leroi-Gourhan, A et al., 1979.

8. Schoeller, H., 1965, internal report.

9. A sedimentological analysis ought to be carried out on the two entrance formations.

10. Breuil, H., 1950.

11. Information obtained at the locality on 3 January 1992.

12. Couraud, c., Laming-Emperaire, A., in Leroi-Gourhan, A. et al., 1979.

13. Taborin, Y, 1979, in Leroi-Gourhan, A. et al., 1979.

14. Leroi-Gourhan, A., 1971.

15. Ibid.

16. Leroi-Gourhan, A. et al., 1979.

17. (GIF A 95582). Aujoular, N. et al., 1998.

18. Blanc, S., 1948-50.

19. Clottes, J. et al., 1990.

20. Delpech, E, 1992.

21. Delluc, B. and G., 1990.

22. Vialou, D., 1979.

23. Clottes, J. et al., 1990.

24. Clottes, J., 2003.

25. Aujoulat, N. et al., 2002.

26. Breuil, H., 1952.

27. Leroi-Gourhan, A, 1971.

28. On this causse (limestone karstic plateau) the WWF is establishing a stock of Przewalski horses to be then re- established in their country of origin, Mongolia.

29. Breuil, H., 1952.

30. Koby, N. 1954.

31. Aujoulat, N. et al., 1998.

32. Here it is appropriate to mention the works of Sylvie Demailly on this subject (Demailly S., 1990). She notes the presence of a carbonaceous deposit in one of the samples taken in the Hall of the Bulls, more precisely from the small head of a horse painted in the right hind hoof of the second bull. A subsequent sample taken at the same location was unable to rediscover it.

33. Clottes, J. et al., 1990.

34. Clottes, J., Courtin, J. 1994

35. Valladas, H. et al., 2003.

36. Lorblanchet, M. et al., 1990.

37. DRIRE -- Department of Mines (regional direction industry research environment) and Archives of the Department of the Dordogne.

38. Diderot D. and d'Alembert J., 1778, Dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts et des metiers, par une societe des gens de lettres, 1. XXV, 17.

39. Vigenere, 1578, t. 1, fº 241 rº

40. Clottes, J. et al., 1990.

41. Ibid.

42. Lorblanchet, M., 1993.

43. Lorblancher, M., 1980.

44. For ethical reasons the site chosen for experimenting with the different methods of application of pigments was an underground mine (Mauzens-Miremont) and not a natural cave, so that there could be no possibility of confusion in future centuries with true Palaeolithic images. The marks of colouring materials, in particular the iron oxides, remain very difficult to eliminate.

45. Translated into the language of the graphic arts, these are, respectively, tonal range, saturation and brightness.

46. When the identification as male / female is made possible by the presence of antlers, in the case of cervids, or of more developed and massive horns for the aurochs, it is noticeable that, in the majority of cases, the eye of the male is shown. On the other hand, this is not observed on the representations of female bovines.

47. Aujoulat, N., 1985.

48. Although not very numerous, images of this type are encountered in several sites in the Perigord, such as at Font-de-Gaume, where an often quoted specimen, located immediately next to the 'Carrefour', shows only the outline of a croup, while the hindlimbs of the horse are represented by a block of stalagmite. In the majority of cases, these interpretable wall formations make up only a fraction of the animal outline. Nevertheless, there exist examples for which the opposite is true. They are more difficult to recognize, because it is sometimes very hard to find marks of indubitably human origin. This is the case at Bernifal, where the very thick formation of calcite lends itself perfectly to this utilization of the backdrop and where a few rare examples have been recognized, among them a bear, on the right wall, some metres from the entrance. The entire body is natural; only the eye, marked by a black dot, and the curved line of the mouth bring the outline to life. The facing wall offers a similar example, by the presence of a corresponding head of a bovine: the outline, from the poll to the beginning of the neck, is natural; only the eye and the nostrils are emphasized in red. At Combarelles I, examples are more numerous. Some thirty specimens have been recognized, no doubt due to the extreme unevenness of the surfaces, upon which some of the protrusions have been altered and transformed into human or animal shapes. The chosen areas embody virtually the entire outline of the subject, while a few lines added by the artist allow it to be interpreted.

49. Glory, A., 1960.

50. Barriere, c., Sahly A, 1964.

51. Delluc, B. and G., 1979.

52. Raphael, M., 1986.

53. Laming-Emperaire, A., 1962.

54. Leroi-Gourhan, A., 1971.

55. Glory, A, 1964.

56. The determination to explore everything takes on a much greater importance at the latter site. Effectively, after travelling 1 kilometre, progress was halted by a stalagmitic curtain blocking the entire width of the gallery. The desire to take possession of the whole of the cave prompted them to stave in this curtain by breaking off numerous concretions several centimetres in diameter to gain access to the sectors forbidden just a moment before.
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Without the unfailing support of the Ministry of Culture, the sub-directorate of archaeology, the regional archaeological service of Aquitaine and the National Centre of Prehistory, this research could not have been brought to a successful conclusion. It necessitated several years of observation, data collection and a great number of analyses. During the different stages of this journey, I was led to associate with and seek out the skills of many people -- prehistorians, geologists, ethologists, the owners of sites or the custodians of caves. All of them presented me with a contribution from their own field.

Patrick Monod, at the time Director of the sub-directorate of archaeology, and subsequently Jean-Francois Texier, in the same capacity, encouraged me to pursue and publish these studies.

It is also a pleasure for me to express, in these lines, my enormous gratitude to Jean-Philippe Rigaud, at that time Director of the National Centre of Prehistory and of the Institute of Prehistory and Quaternary Geology, UMR 5808 of the CNRS, Jean Clottes, former Conservator General for Heritage and Director of the collection 'Arts rupestres' of the Editions du Seuil, Javier Fortrea, Professor at Oviedo University, Jacques Jaubert, Professor at the University of Bordeaux 1, Jan F. Simek, Professor at the University of Tennessee, and Jean-Pierre Texier, Director of research at the CNRS.

I would like to express my sincere appreciation to Dany Barraud, Conservator General for Heritage (SRA Aquitaine), to Jean-Michel Geneste, Conservator of the Lascaux Cave, and to Max Sarradet, his predecessor in this capacity; who initiated the first measures for the preservation of the site.

My warmest thanks go to my friends in the Compagnie des Beunes, Christian Archambeau, Bernard, Jean-Pierre and Michel Bitard, but also Danilo Grebenart, Christian Lamaison, Jean Lentisco, Hugues Nielsen and Francis Theil.

Without their contribution the chapter dealing with to the endokarstic environment would not have been as comprehensive. Our prospecting has led us to the most remote sites in the Black Perigord in order to explore even the slightest underground developments. Furthermore, they have led us to the discovery of several decorated Palaeolithic caves, such as Cazelle and Puymartin, but also Vezac or Redon-Espic.

What can I say of the role played by Marie during the whole of this journey? There would not be enough room to say everything. She has always taken care that her archaeologist husband, one minute irritable, the next enthusiastic, has enjoyed the most tranquil working conditions. I am indebted to Jean-Jacques Cleyet-Merle, Conservator of the National Museum of Prehistory, for having authorized me to publish documents relating to the portable archaeological material found during the first excavations of the Shaft.

Nicole Dauriac, who left us much too soon, was responsible for the correction of the manuscript and the structuring of the documentary and bibliographic part of this work.

Gabriel Karnay informed me regularly about the progress of his work, during the survey for the geological map of the Bugue region for the records of the BRGM. Jean-Pierre Capdeville, of the same institution, shared with me his knowledge of the cartography of the Vezere drainage basin, thereby expediting the graphic rendition of my observations. My thanks go also to Bertrand Kervazo, Valerie Feruglio and Guy Celerier, with whom I have always appreciated our wide-ranging discussions about the essential meaning of prehistoric art, whether portable or parietal, debates in which we indulge regularly.

My gratitude also goes to Claude Bassier who let me profit from the various surveys of the topography that he had carried out at the Lascaux Cave.

This book also owes a lot to Francoise Peyrot, Valerie Gautier and Charlotte Debiolles, of the Editions du Seuil, who contributed their skills to the production of this work.

Bruno Desplat and Sandrine Van Solinge always welcomed me at Lascaux with the same kindness and took care that these weekly visits took place in the best possible circumstances.

It was in 1972 that I was to meet Jacques Marsal for the first time, in the context of a traditional visit to the site. Some years later, he was to accompany me regularly during the sessions of recording. He imparted to me knowledge of the site and its figures which he alone then possessed. His premature passing would deprive us of one of the most significant recollections of Lascaux.

Together with Michel Menu, research technician, Colette Vignaud and Emilie Chalmin, of the Centre for research and Restoration of the Louvre Museum, we were to carry out several campaigns of sampling colouring materials for their determination.

My thanks go out also to Jean-Luc Holubeik, engineer / technician at the DRIRE, Subdivision Dordogne, to the Conservator of the Departmental Archives of the Dordogne and to the staff of these services for having provided me with access to documents, and also to Christian Faure and Jean Tarallo, who received me on several occasions in the premises of the Departmental Base of the Ardeche.

To each and everyone, may you find in these lines the proof of my gratitude.
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Postby admin » Sun Sep 13, 2015 12:29 am


Abri Blanchard 56
Ahri Labattut 56
accessibility (to caves, walls etc) 9, 14, 18, 20, 21,
22, 26-8, 29, 40-1, 42, 43, 50, 56, 64, 66, 69, 72,
75, 96, 106, 138, 144, 145, 149, 155, 169, 198, 199,
206, 211, 213, 221, 234-41, 257, 260
Alembert, Jean Le Rond d' 199; Encyclopedie 199
Allain, Jacques 58, 237
alterations (man-made to Lascaux) 20, 26, 29, 33, 34, 37,
40, 42, 50, 51, 69, 138, 144, 156, 221, 234
anamorphosis 221, 260
animation (of figures) 114, 120, 121, 124, 134, 143, 153,
155, 158, 163, 174, 183, 190, 194, 215, 218, 221, 231,
232, 246, 247
Apse, see also diagrams 26, 28, 30 (location of figures), 37,
40--1, 41, 50, 52, 55, 64, 65, 66, 142, 144-57, 158,
162, 184, 207, 209, 211, 232, 234, 243, 246, 257,
262, 265
aurochs 145, 150, 155; black cow 156
bison 153
Great Sorcerer 155, 156
horses 28, 109, 144, 150, 151, 153, 155, 156;
confronted horses 145, 246; engraved horse 155;
Horse with Claviform Signs 151, 153; Upward-turned
Horse 151; yellow horse 145, 148
Hut 155, 156
ibexes 144, 151
Musk Ox 151, 153
Small Sorcerer 153, 155
stags 144, 145, 149, 150, 151, 152, 155, 156, 157, 234,
243, 246; confronted stags 150, 150, 151, 246;
Fallen Stag 149, 149; 'fend-la-bise' Stag 153, 155;
'Great Reindeer' 153; Major Stag 154, 155, 156;
small frieze of stags 146-7, 153; Stag with [he
Thirteen Arrows 149
Apsidiole 40, 144, 145, 149, 151, 153, 246
aurochs 144
bison 144
horses 144, 145
ibexes 144
stags 144, 145, 246
Armorican alignment 12
Axial Gallery, see also diagrams 28, 29, 30 (location
of figures), 34-7, 35, 42, 44, 45, 46, 50, 52, 55,
56, 59, 65, 66, 69, 72, 73, 77, 78, 81, 90-138,
139, 174, 194, 201, 203, 204, 206, 207, 208,
209, 212, 213, 221, 231, 234, 237, 238,
242, 243, 246, 247, 249, 257, 260, 262
aurochs 97, 101, 104, 177, 215, 260;
Cow with the Drooping Horn
94-5, 96, 101; (panel of the) Falling Cow
66, 72, 90, 101, 105, 113-26, 116-17, J18-19,
169, 189, 190, 194, 204, 212, 218, 221, 225,
226, 227, 231, 237, 243, 259, 260; female
aurochs 213, 226, 241, 249; (panel of the)
Great Black Bull 46, 54, 90, 101, 105-9, 107,
109, 1I2, 130, 194, 206, 231, 234, 238, 239,
240, 241, 242; red cows 45, 90-105, 98-9,
106, 108, 204, 206, 208, 215; Red Cow with
the Black Collar 90, 92-3, 96, 101, 106, 206, 211,
221, 222, 223, 232; Red Cow with the Black Head
96, 100; yellow aurochs heads 106, 108, 109
bison 135; fourth bison 134
false pillar 130, 134, 231
feline 69, 109
Hemione 90, , 101, 105, 109-13, 228, 231
horses 81, 96, 97, 104, 108, 109, 112, 112, 113,
116-17, 120, 121, 124, 124, 125, 125, 126, 132-3,
134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 188, 204, 212, 225, 226,
230, 243, 256; brown horse 209; Chinese
Horses 34, 45, 58, 59, 80, 90, 96, 98-9, 100,
102-3, 108, 114, 174, 189, 190, 202, 206, 209,
211, 216-17, 242, 249; Galloping Horse 109,
1J()-ll, J30, 231; piebald 126, 126; red horse 124,
130; (frieze of the) Small Horses 90, 125, 208, 212,
213, 231, 237, 242, 244-5; Upside-down Horse 34,
36, 37, 39, 51, 90, 109, 126-34, 127, 131, 138, 151,
189, 204, 206, 209, 212, 231, 232, 233, 243, 259;
yellow horse 130, 130--1, 190, 212
ibexes 72; Confronted Ibexes 59, 90, 108, 113,
114, 120, 121, 122-3, 124, 203, 204, 243, 247
Red Panel 37, 66, 90, 130, 134-8, 207, 243, 259
signs 90, 190, 201, 203, 204
Stags 134; black stag 90, 91, 100, 134, 194, 195, 210
terminal passage 28, 34, 90
Bara-Bahau 60, 61, 255, 257
Barriere, Claude 237
Begouen, Count 266
Bernifal 61, 255, 257
Beune rivers 13, 15, 21, 22, 254, 255; Grande Beune 11,
14, 15, 18; Petite Beune 13, 14, 16-17, 18, 20, 22
Black Perigord 12, 14, 15, 18, 60, 199, 200, 254, 264
Blanc, Severin 42, 51, 56, 59
Bouchud, Jean 27
Breuil, Henri 34, 42, 51, 56, 58, 59, 70, 76, 145,
156, 187, 193, 215, 266
Campagne Saint-Cyprien (fault) 12
Castelmerle 254
Cazelle 21
Chamber of the Felines 28, 29, 30 (location of
figures), 34, 39-40, 40, 45, 55, 65, 66,
69, 140, 182-6, 207, 208, 209, 211,
234, 243, 246, 259, 262
aurochs 182
bison 182, 183, 184, 186, 186
felines 182, 183, 183
horses 182, 183, 183, 184
ibexes 182, 183
stags 182, 184, 184
'tree house' 185
chateau of Commarque 14, 15
Chauvet (Ardeche) 50, 59, 199, 257;
End Chamber 59; panel of the Horses 59
chronology 56-61, 246-9, 264, 266-70
Clottes, Jean 59, 158
Condat-Le-Lardin 12
Cosquer (Bouches-du-Rhone) 50, 59, 145, 199, 200
Cougnac 59, 145
Cussac (Dordogne) 50, 59, 257
diagrams: Axial Gallery 90 (four red cows), 105
(Great Black Bull), 113 (Falling Cow), 130 (Upside-down
Horse), 237; chronology 57; creation of a
painting (stages) 213; distribution of animals 65; dots
208; gallery section (Apse, Shaft & Great Fissure) 41;
Hall of the Bulls 67, 250--1; sedimentation 15;
stratigraphic section 32
Diderot, Denis 199; Encyclopedie 199
discovery (Lascaux) 9, 27, 29, 32, 34, 40, 41, 42, 69,
138, 234
Dordogne 50, 199, 218; Dordogne River 12
Duport, Louis 59
entrance (Lascaux) 9, 18-20, 26-8, 28, 29, 34, 39, 42,
43, 44, 50, 51, 54, 56, 58, 66, 257, 266; black mark 66;
red figures 66
ethology 9, 187-94, 254
Font-de-Gaume 20, 21, 56, 61, 255, 257
Fourneau-du-Diable 58, 59, 60
Gabillou (Isle) 60, 61, 255, 257
geology 9, 12-15, 20, 21, 22, 26, 198, 232, 254, 255
Glory, Abbe Andre 27, 33, 37, 40, 42, 50, 51, 55,
58, 70, 138, 144, 182, 234
Gorge-d'Enfer 255
Grand Abri 15
Great Fissure, see also diagrams 26, 27, 28, 29, 40, 41, 42,
50, 64, 211
Guilhem 18
Hall of the Bulls, see also diagrams 9, 20, 28, 29-34, 33,
37, 42, 44, 45, 46, 50, 56, 58, 62-3, 65, 66, 66-7,
67-89, 96, 105, 108, 114, 138, 139, 144, 145, 174,
190, 193, 193, 194, 204, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212,
213, 221, 228, 231, 232, 234, 237, 238, 242, 243,
246, 247, 249, 257, 260, 261, 262, 265
aurochs 67, 69, 70, 72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 83, 204,
213, 234, 243, fifth bull 44, 46, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77,
205, 734, 235, 236, 238; first bull 46, 69, 70, 70,
78, 232; fourth bull 28, 46, 70, 73, 78, 81, 90, 194,
221, 224, 225; red cows 71, 72, 73, 75, 76. 77, 77,
78, 194, 249; second bull 46, 70, 72, 78, 79, 190,
191, 203, 221, 224, 247, 249, 250-1, 258; seventh
bull 78; sixth bull 44, 46, 67, 75; third bull 46, 71,
72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 80, 203, 299, 221, 249; young
bovine 72, 73, 75, 77, 194
bear 65, 67, 69, 73, 246, 247, 249, 259, 261
bison 75, 77
deer 67
horses 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 78-84, 79, 81, 109,
190, 207, 211, 212, 265; bichrome horse 237;
black horses 75, 78, 79, 80, 190, 190, 211, 212,
242, 243, 248, 249; brown horse 81, 83, 174,
210, 211, 228, 237, 249; piebald 114; red and black
horse 79, 80, 82, 145; red horse 78, 174, 249
signs 67, 85, 19.8, 203, 203; hooked 205
stags 70, 72, 73, 193, 204, 232, 249; red stags 193,
228, 232; (frieze of the) Small Stags 86-7, 221, 224,
225, 226, 228, 231, 243, 249, 250-1, 260; yellow
and black stag 88, 232; yellow stag 211, 228, 229
Unicorn 64, 67, 68, 68, 69, 78, 80, 211, 242, 246,
247, 249
Ice Age 15
image processing 68, 69, 80, 96, 108, 109, 124
karstology 9
Koby, N. 193
La Cassagne (fault) 12
La Croze-a-Gontrand 21
La Foret 21
La Greze (Peyzac-le-Moustier) 56, 218
La Madeleine 12, 14, 255
La Mouthe 56
La Roque-Saint-Christophe 14, 14
Labastide (Hautes-Pyrenees) 200
Lagrave 59
Laming-Emperaire, Annette 56, 70, 242, 262
Lascaux II (replica) 269
Laugerie-Basse 14, 255
Laugerie-Haute 14, 255
Laval, Leon 266
Le Micoque 12
Le Moustier 12, 14
Le Placard (Charente) 59, 60
Leroi-Gourhan, Andre 58, 59, 134, 139, 183, 187, 215,
218, 242, 262
Leroi-Gourhan, Arlette 58, 237
Les Combarelles 15, 21, 22, 61, 255, 257; horizon 20, 21
Les Eyzies-de-Tayac 12, 14, 22, 56, 255
Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil 10
Libby, Willard 58
Limeuil 12
Lorblanchet, Michel 203
Lot 59, 199
Manaurie 13, 18, 254
Maps: Apse 144; Axial Gallery 90; Chamber of the
Felines 182; distribution 19, 23; geological map of
area 13; Hall of the Bulls 66-7; location of cave 12;
location of figures 31; Nave 162; Passageway 138;
Shaft Scene 158
Marsal, Jacques 9, 34, 142, 266
Massif Central 12
Ministry of Culture, France 9
Mondmilch Gallery 28, 29, 37, 39, 39, 44, 50, 51, 64, 182
Montignac 13, 26
National Centre of Prehistory 9
National Museum of Prehistory, terrace of 14
Nave 20, 28, 29, 30 (location of figures), 37-9, 38,
42, 45, 51, 55, 65, 96, 138, 142, 143, 144, 145, 149,
153, 156, 162-81, 182, 198, 209, 211, 212, 218,
231, 232, 234, 242, 243, 246, 247, 262, 265
Crossed-Bison 39, 42, 153, 162, 176-7, 178-9, 184,
211, 218, 219, 220, 234, 243, 246, 260
Great Black Cow 9, 44, 39, 55, 66, 145, 162, 166-7,
169-75, 170-1, 176, 190, 192, 198, 231, 234, 242,
243, 249
horses 8, 163, 166-7, 168, 169, 169, 172, 173,
174, 174, 175, 177, 234, 242, 249,
painted and engraved horse 214
Ibexes 162, 163, 169, 169, 234, 242, 247;
seven painted and engraved ibexes 162, 259
Imprint 39, 66, 162, 163-9, 163, 164-5, 174, 234,
249, 259
signs 162, 163, 168, 169, 174, 176, 177, 182
stags 249; seven stags 259; Swimming Stags 39, 44,
162, 177, 180-1, 182, 194, 211, 234, 242,
247, 249, 260
Niaux (Ariege) 199, 200, 257
Oreilie-d'Enfer 56
Pair-non-Pair 60
Passageway 20, 28, 29, 30 (location of figures), 33, 34,
37, 37, 42, 44, 45, 51, 52, 54, 56, 58, 64, 65, 66, 73,
75, 96, 138-43, 153, 162, 177, 184, 187, 208, 209,
211, 234, 238, 243, 246, 257, 260, 262
aurochs 141, 142
bison 140
bovines 138, 142
horses 54, 1.'38, 139, 140, 140, 141, 141, 142;
Bearded Horse 142-3, 143; black horse 140;
headless brown horse 139, 139,
tail-less horse 141
ibexes 138, 141, 142
stags 138
Pataud 14
Pech-Merle (Lor) 59, 145
Pech-Saint-Sour 14
Pechmemie 20
pediluvium 9
Perigord 199, 200
periods, see also diagrams: Aurignacian 56;
Badegoulian 59, 60, 61; Campanian 12, 13, 254;
Coniacian 12, 13, 14, 15, 20, 21, 26, 254, 255;
Creraceous 12, 199; Holocene 15, 51; Jurassic 12;
Magdalenian 56, 58, 59, 61, 153, 255, 257, 264;
Mesolithic 58; Neolithic 255
Perigordian (Gravettian) 56;
Santonian 12, 13, 20, 21, 26;
Solutrean 56, 58, 59, 60, 61, 264
perspective 56, 58, 66, 67, 75, 184, 215-26, 243
Pestillac S9
Peyrony, Denis 56, 61
Piler (Beyssac) 20
portable objects 34, 48-9, 50-4, 53, 58, 59, 60, 61, 66,
257; antler 52, 54, 58, 60, 60; awl 52; bladelets 34,
51, 52, 59; bone 27, 50, 51, 52, 54, 59, 60, 112;
burins 51, 52; dayobject5 51; cores 34; flakes 51, 52;
grinding-stones 51; haematite 51, 198, 207;
jewelry 51~2, 52; knapping waste 34; lamps 46,
51, 52, 54, 55, 55, 56, 66, 237; lithic items 50, 52,
58, 59; manganese 51, 52, 158, 198, 199, 200, 200,
203; mortars 51; one-eyed needle 52; pebble 52;
pins 52; plaques 51; rim (lamp) 55; scrapers 51, 52;
shaped clay 52; shells 52; spears/spearheads 52, 54, 54,
55, 59, 66, 264
Portel (Ariege) 200
Postglacial 34, 255
Przewalski horse 187, 187
radiocarbon tests 56, 58, 59, 199, 264; charcoal 34, 51,
52, 54, 55, 58, 59, 64, 234
Raphael, Max 242, 262
Ravidat, Marcel 41, 266
Roc-de-Sers 58, 59
Rouffignac 61, 199, 257
Sahly, Ali 237
Saint-Cirq 60, 254, 255, 257
Sarlat syncline 12, 14
scaffolding 15, 39, 149, 221, 234, 237, 241, 260
season: autumn 56, 194, 262, 265; spring 140, 189,
190, 194, 262, 265; summer 20, 55, 56, 189, 190,
194, 262, 265; winter 140, 189, 190, 194, 262
seasonal indicators 187, 189, 190, 193, 194, 226, 262, 265
Shaft, see also diagrams 26, 27, 27, 28, 29, 33, 39, 40, 41,
41, 42, 46, 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 59, 65, 145, 182,
211, 234, 246, 259, 262, 264
Shaft Scene 26, 30 (location of the figures), 42, 46,
50, 55, 59, 66, 158, 160-1, 177, 184, 252-3, 263
bird 59, 65, 158, 246
bison 60, 134, 158, 257
horse 158, 159
man 59, 60, 64, 158, 257
rhinoceros 65, 158, 246
signs 158; spear-thrower 158
Signs 54, 64, 66, 67, 72, 73, 75, 78, 90, 96, 101,
105, 113, 114, 120, 125, 130, 134, 139, 142,
144, 145, 153, 155, 156, 158, 162, 163, 168,
169, 174, 176, 176, 177, 182, 182, 183, 184,
186, 186, 198, 201, 202, 203, 204, 208,
212, 213, 249, 257, 264
barbed 149, 155, 169, 204
bracketed 58
branching 67, 90, 100, 105, 108, 134, 243
chimney style 59, 145
claviform 58
crosier-shaped 134, 138, 138
cross-like 149
cruciform 52, 54, 90, 96, 105, 142, 184
curly bracket 59, 100, 202, 203
do~ 66, 67, 70, 72, 73, 75, 85, 90, 101, 120, 130, 134,
158, 177, 182, 184, 186, 208, 201, 201, 203, 204,
205, 212, 213, 226, 238, 264
hooked 73, 75, 100, 149, 169, 183
linear 66, 67, 73, 78, 85, 90, 184, 201, 203, 204,
205, 238
nested 52, 54, 55, 66, 67, 90, 100, 156, 163, 184
Placard type 59
quadrangular 90, 100, 114, 115, 120, 121, 125, 145,
151, 153, 156, 163, 174, 176, 184, 204, 255
rods 134
star-like 54
tree-like 130
Silted-up Chamber 27, 28, 29, 39, 40, 42, 43, 64
southern Shaft 182, 184
spatial organization 9, 59, 66, 73, 114, 162, 182, 203,
221, 232, 242-6, 247, 254, 261, 264
Superintendence for Archaeology 9
surface 42-6, 163, 169, 200, 204, 209, 211, 232, 234,
242-6, 257, 260; 'cauliflower' form 44, 45, 139,
206; laminar form 46; macro-crystalline 47;
massive form 46; micro-porosity 213;
mondmilch 39, 45, 45; pedunculate form 46, 47;
porosity 254; powdery 43, 44; rhomboid form 46;
rice grain form 44, 45; spicular form 43, 44, 46
Taborin, Yvette 52
third dimension 177, 215, 221, 232, 234, 257, 260
Thonac 22, 255
tools 43, 51, 52, 59, 64, 70, 101, 198, 201, 203, 204, 211,
257; brush 68, 72, 75, 78, 80, 96, 100, 101, 106, 120,
125, 126, 130, 134, 135, 138, 142, 158, 169, 174, 177,
204, 205, 209, 211, 212, 213, 237, 238, 241, 260;
pad 203, 208, 211, 238, 260; swab 72, 203, 204;
tube 203
Touraine 52
Tursac 14
Vezere 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 21, 21, 22, 26, 60, 199, 200,
254, 255; Lascaux hill 24-5
Vialou, Denis 138
Vigenere, Blaise de 199; Tableux de platte peinture des
deux Philostrate 199
Villars (Dronne) 61, 199, 255, 257
Vimont 254
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