Stop Teaching Our Kids to Kill: A Call to Action Against TV

Rapeutationists and DIRA zombies are preconditioned for violent behavior by cinema and video game violence.

Re: Stop Teaching Our Kids to Kill: A Call to Action Against

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RESOURCES

A DEFINITION OF MEDIA VIOLENCE


The following is a definition of media violence. Not the only one, mind you, but one that we find gives fairly clear guidelines on a complicated issue. Let it act as a useful lens for viewing any type of entertainment or playing the hundreds of video games that exist on the market.

Violence is the intentional use of force to harm a human being or animal. Its outcome is injury -- physical or psychological, fatal or nonfatal. It is true that violence is a part of the real world. However, we do not take our children to see autopsies performed as entertainment, nor do we invite someone into our living room to kill, brutally beat, or rape another person for our children to witness for their amusement.

Therefore, portrayals of violence in the media that glamorize and/or sensationalize violent acts toward other human beings or animals and show them as acceptable behavior provide a socially aberrant environment in which it is difficult to raise emotionally healthy children. Also, the prevalence of violence on television in itself imparts an implicit acceptability to the vicarious experience of violence and pushes the boundaries of cultural norms into the realm of social deviancy. From a synthesis of the research we find that harmful media violence includes:

• Plots that are driven by quick-cut scenes of gratuitous violent acts delivered in a rapid-fire frequency with graphic, salient technical effects.
• Graphic, sadistic revenge, torture techniques, inhumane treatment of others in a context of humor, trivialization, glibness and/or raucous "fun."
• Explicitly depicted violent acts shown through special effects, camera angles, background music, or lighting to be glamorous, heroic, "cool," and worthy of imitation.
• Depictions of people holding personal and social power primarily because they are using weapons, or using their bodies as weapons, and dominating other people through the threat of violence or through actual violence.
• Extraneous, graphic, gory, detailed violent acts whose intent is to shock.
• Violent acts shown as an acceptable way to solve problems or presented as the primary problem-solving approach.
• News programs that explicitly detail murder and rape, with information and graphic images not necessary for understanding the central message.

It should be noted, however, that any form of aggression on the screen has the potential to make children more aggressive. The more graphic and horrific the violence, the more likely the negative effects. Research clearly demonstrates that sensational media violence causes children and teens to become more aggressive and mean, creating fear, a lack of sensitivity to all forms of violence, and an increased appetite for violence -- in real life and on the screen. An early preference for violent programming is a strong indicator of aggressive and antisocial behavior as an adult. Sensational portrayals, then, offer children a justification for violent acts in real life and perpetuate socially dangerous attitudes, behaviors, and values.

VOICES OF CONCERN ABOUT ON-SCREEN VIOLENCE

Throughout this book we have cited the work of many organizations that have contributed to the scholarship on the subject of violent entertainment and its negative effects on children. While we do not have the room to name every group that has commented on the issue, we present here a list of the major organizations -- as well as how to contact them, and the specifics on the stands they take -- that have set the tone and lent strong backing to our argument.

The American Medical Association (AMA)
515 North State St.
Chicago, IL 60610
312-464-5563
http://www.ama-assn.org

In 1952, an editorial in the Journal of the American Medical Association raised the topic of TV violence as a health issue. The editorial ran during the first Congressional hearings on the impact of television on delinquency.

At its 1976 meeting, the American Medical Association adopted a policy supporting research on the impact of TV violence. Also adopted at that meeting was a resolution that declared the AMA's "recognition of the fact that TV violence is a risk factor threatening the health and welfare of young Americans, indeed our future society."

In 1982, the AMA reaffirmed " ... its vigorous opposition to television violence and its support for efforts designed to increase the awareness of physicians and patients that television violence is a risk factor threatening the health of young people."

In 1996, the AMA developed a guidebook for physicians with the goal of helping their patients understand the harmful effects of media violence. A portion of the summary in that guidebook reads:

"Television and other forms of visual media play an enormous role in everyday life, particularly in the lives of children and adolescents. While television serves in the education and socialization of children, there are also a number of health problems associated with the excessive watching of television, independent of content. In addition, an extensive body of research amply documents a strong correlation between children's exposure to media violence and a number of behavioral and psychological problems, primarily increased aggressive behavior. The evidence further shows that these problems are caused by the exposure itself. Physicians have important roles to play in diminishing children's involvement with violent media by serving as educators, advisors, and advocates .... There is an established body of evidence documenting the troubling behavioral effects of repeated exposure to media violence .... This guide offers physicians an overview of the health consequences of such exposure and how to understand the findings in relation to general societal violence, child development, and learning."

The American Psychological Association (APA)
750 First St. NE
Washington, DC 20002-4242
202-336-5500
http://www.apa.org

The American Psychological Association is the nation's largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology and the world's largest association of psychologists. The APA's membership includes more than 102,000 researchers, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.

In 1993, the APA's Commission on Violence and Youth stated: "There is absolutely no doubt that higher levels of viewing violence on television are correlated with increased acceptance of aggressive attitudes and increased aggressive behavior. Three major national studies ... reviewed hundreds of studies to arrive at the irrefutable conclusion that viewing violence increases violence. In addition, prolonged viewing of media violence can lead to emotional desensitization toward violence .... We call upon the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to review, as a condition for license renewal, the programming and outreach efforts and accomplishments of television stations in helping to solve the problem of youth violence. This recommendation is consistent with the research evidence indicating television's potential to broadcast stations to 'serve the educational and informational needs of children,' both in programming and in outreach activities designed to enhance the educational value of programming. We also call on the FCC to institute rules that would require broadcasters, cable operators and other telecasters to avoid programs containing an excessive amount of dramatized violence during 'child viewing hours' between 6 A.M. and 10 P.M."

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)
141 Northwest Point Blvd.
Elk Grove Village, IL 60009-0927
847-981-7873
http://www.apa.org

In 1997 the American Academy of Pediatrics presented the following statement to the U.S. Senate:

"The American Academy of Pediatrics, an organization of 53,000 pediatricians, offers this statement on behalf of the children and adolescents of this country. The level of violence to which they are exposed through the media has reached such horrific proportions, health professionals, parents, legislators and educators agree that something has to be done. The problem of violence on television may not appear as compelling or as urgent as immunizations, the risk of AIDS for adolescents or the need for health insurance for all children. However, in terms of overall childhood morbidity and mortality, it breeds so many problems in our society that child health experts are very concerned. Although no one holds television responsible as the sole instigator of violence, the influence of television is a factor.

"The American Academy of Pediatrics states without hesitation that televised violence has a clear and reproducible effect on the behavior of children. Televised violence contributes to the unwholesome social environment in which we live, the frequency with which violence is used to resolve conflict, and the passivity with which violence is perceived. Both epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated a clear relationship in children between the viewing of televised violence and violent or aggressive behavior."

The National Association for the Education of Young Children
(NAEYC)
1509 16th St. NW
Washington, DC 20036-1426
202-232-8777 or 800-424-2460
http://www.naeyc.org

In 1996, the National Association for the Education of Young Children, an organization of over one hundred thousand early childhood educators, issued a position statement, "Violence in the Lives of Children," which, in part, states:

"The culture of violence is mirrored in and influenced by the media. As a result of the deregulation of the broadcasting industry, children's television and related toys have become more violent. Research is clear that the media, particularly television and films, contribute to the problem of violence in America. Research demonstrates that children who are frequent viewers of violence on television are less likely to show empathy toward the pain and suffering of others and more likely to behave aggressively."

The statement went on to call for early childhood educators " ... to generate a sense of public outrage that motivates actions that will eliminate violence in the lives of children, families, and communities, along with restricting the marketing of violence through linkup of media, toys, and licensed products."

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
(AACAP)
3615 Wisconsin Ave. NW
Washington, DC 20016
202-966-7300
http://www.aacap.org

This national organization, representing 6,900 psychiatrists who specialize in working with children and adolescents, produces policies and research reports on media violence. Their Media Committee periodically publishes reviews of children's films. Below is an excerpt from one of the "Facts for Families" taken from their Web site.

"American children watch an average of three to four hours of television daily. Television can be a powerful influence in developing valuing systems and shaping behavior. Ultimately, much of today's television programming is violent. Hundreds of studies of the effects of TV violence on children and teenagers have found that children may: (1) become 'immune' to the horror of violence; (2) gradually accept violence as a way to solve problems; (3) imitate the violence they observe on television; and (4) identify with certain characters, victims and/or victimizers.

"Extensive viewing of television violence by children causes greater aggressiveness. Sometimes, watching a single violent program can increase aggressiveness. Children who view shows in which violence is very realistic, frequently repeated or unpunished, are more likely to imitate what they see. Children with emotional, behavioral, learning or impulse control problems may be more easily influenced by TV violence. The impact of TV violence may be immediately evident in the child's behavior or may surface years later, and young people can even be affected when the family atmosphere shows no tendency toward violence. "

The National Parent/Teacher Association (National PTA)
330 North Wabash Ave., Suite 2100
Chicago, IL 60611
800-307-4782
FAX: 312-670-6783
http://www.pta.org

The National Parent/Teacher Association, representing 6.5 million members, plays a pivotal role in informing and educating us about media violence. Visiting their Web site, parents can find a wealth of helpful information, including information on the rating systems, practical ideas for critical viewing, and activity sheets for dealing with media violence. The National PTA has consistently issued strong statements against TV violence, video game violence, and video game sites.

In 1993, the Convention Resolutions Committee reviewed their resolution "Violence in TV Programming," adopted in 1975. It stands in effect today.

STATEMENT ON VIOLENCE IN TV PROGRAMMING

"Whereas, children spend countless unsupervised hours watching TV; and whereas, the choice of program offerings often is less desirable, with much emphasis on violence; and whereas, children are known to imitate observed behavior and actions; and whereas, statistics reveal an alarming increase in crime committed by younger and younger children; and whereas, the Surgeon General's report states that there can be a cause-and-effect relationship between watching violence on TV and aggressive behaviors in children and young people; and whereas, at this time TV programming is self-regulated by the broadcasting industry through the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) TV Code, a voluntary code not subscribed to by all stations and the provisions of which are repeatedly violated; be it therefore resolved, that the National PTA urge its state congresses, districts, councils and local units to observe and monitor TV programming and commercials in their areas; and where an excessive amount of violence in programming is seen to make known their views with documented reporting to sponsors of the program, with copies to the local TV stations, to the TV networks, to the NAB, to the Federal Communications Commission, and to their elected representatives; and be it further resolved, that the National PTA demand from the networks and local stations reduction in the amount of violence shown on television programs and commercials during the entire day, with particular attention to viewing hours between 2:00 P.M. and 10:00 P.M. and weekend morning hours, when impressionable children and young people are most likely to be watching; and be it further resolved, that the National PTA through its state congresses, districts, councils, and local units demand, if the self-regulation of programming and commercials by the broadcasting industry does not result in better TV programming with less emphasis on violence, that the Federal Communications Commission establish and enforce regulations limiting the number and percentage of programs of violence to be presented each day."

STATEMENT ON VIOLENCE IN VIDEO GAMES AND OTHER INTERACTIVE MEDIA (ADOPTED BY THE 1994 CONVENTION DELEGATES)

"Whereas, the term 'video games' is defined broadly to include any interactive computer game including all software and hardware and future developments in video game technology and interactive media; and whereas, research studies have found that, at least in the short term, children who play violent video games are significantly more aggressive afterwards than those who play less violent video games; and whereas, studies show that violent TV programs and video games have similar effects in raising children's subsequent levels of aggression; and whereas, research shows violent video games can suppress children's inclination towards engaging in pro-social behaviors; therefore be it resolved, that the National PTA, through its constituent bodies, work to educate and to increase awareness of the impact of violent video games and other interactive media; and be it further resolved, that the National PTA, through its constituent bodies, support federal legislation to provide for the development of ratings or other appropriate information systems by a commission independent of the industry to inform parents and consumers about the content of video games and other interactive media; and be it further resolved, that the National PTA and its constituent bodies actively support efforts to end the violence in video games and other interactive media that desensitize consumers to the value of life, human or animal."

STATEMENT ON VIDEO GAME SITES (ADOPTED BY THE 1982 BOARD OF DIRECTORS; LAST REVIEW, 1998 BY THE CONVENTION RESOLUTIONS COMMITTEE)

"National PTA is concerned about video game sites which may have an adverse effect on many of the young people who frequent such establishments. Initial studies have shown that game sites are often in close proximity to schools.

"In many cases there is not adequate control of access by school-age children during school hours, which compounds the problems of school absenteeism and truancy.

"Where little or no supervision exists, drug selling, drug use, drinking, gambling, increased gang activities, and other such behavior may be seen. Where there is diligent supervision and adequate lighting, however, the interest of the customers centers on the games and the quality of play seems to be the major concern of the youthful participants.

"State PTAs should encourage their units, councils and districts to become aware of and to educate their membership and the community regarding activities of young people at business establishment having video game machines and the impact these activities have on school attendance, alcohol and drug activity.

"PTAs should study the impact of video game arcades and other establishments where games are located. They should also work for the best possible solution that allows for reasonable use by children and youth, and at the same time does not encroach on the right of merchants to conduct their businesses."

A CHRONOLOGY OF MAJOR FINDINGS, STATEMENTS, AND ACTIONS ON MEDIA VIOLENCE, 1952-1999

Television and entertainment violence and its effects on children has been an issue since the middle of the century, although you'd barely know it. It seems that every time it captures the national consciousness, usually due to some horrendous act of schoolyard violence or a skyrocketing youth aggravated assault rate, it is presented as if it's never been discussed before. Herewith, a chronology of major findings, statements, and actions regarding media violence from 1952 to the present day. Much, if not all, of this regards television, as opposed to film and video games. Collectively, this places our fight in context, for without understanding the history of this issue, we will forever be starting over when confronting it.

1952: The U.S. House of Representatives conducts the first House committee hearings on TV violence and its impact on children. These are the first of many hearings to occur over the following decades.

1954: The U.S. Senate conducts the first Senate committee hearings on the role of television in juvenile crime.

1961: Federal Communications Commission chairman Newton N. Minow tells the National Association of Broadcasters that American TV is a "vast wasteland."

1969: The National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence cites TV violence as a contributor to violence in our society.

1972: The surgeon general's office issues a report citing a link between TV/movie violence and aggressive behavior.

1975: The National Parent/Teacher Association adopts a resolution demanding that networks and local TV stations reduce the amount of violence in programs and commercials.

1976: The House of Delegates of the American Medical Association adopts a resolution "to actively oppose TV programs containing violence, as well as products and/or services sponsoring such programs," in "recognition of the fact that TV violence is a risk factor threatening the health and welfare of young Americans, indeed our future society."

1979: Parents of a fifteen-year-old convicted of murdering a neighbor initiate the first known lawsuit against TV networks (Zamora v. CBS, et al.), for inciting their son to violence. The suit is unsuccessful.

1982: The National Institute of Mental Health issues an extensive report stating that there is a clear consensus on the strong link between TV violence and aggressive behavior.

1984: The attorney general's Task Force on Family Violence states that evidence is overwhelming that TV violence contributes to real violence.

Leonard Eron and L. Rowell Huesmann, in a twenty-two-year study that tracked 875 boys and girls from ages eight to thirty, find that those who watched more violent television as children are more likely as adults to commit serious crimes and to use violence to punish their own children.

The American Academy of Pediatrics' Task Force on Children and Television cautions physicians and parents that TV violence promotes aggression.

1985: The American Psychological Association's Commission on Youth and Violence cites research showing a link between TV violence and real violence.

1987: Canadian broadcasters institute a voluntary code on TV violence that discourages broadcasting violent programming early in the evening.

1989: The National PTA again calls for the TV industry to reduce the amount of violence in programs.

1990: The Television Violence Act (TVA) gives three major networks (ABC, CBS, and NBC) an antitrust exemption so they can formulate a joint policy on violence.

1991: Former FCC chairman Newton Minow declares: "In 1961 I worried that my children would not benefit much from television, but in 1991 I worry that my children will actually be harmed by it."

1992: The Journal of the American Medical Association publishes Dr. Brandon Centerwall's study concluding that "the introduction of television into the United States in the 1950s caused a subsequent doubling of the homicide rate," and "if, hypothetically, television technology had never been developed, there would today be 10,000 fewer murders each year in the United States, 70,000 fewer rapes, and 700,000 fewer injurious assaults."

The American Psychological Association report "Big World, Small Screen" concludes that the forty years of research on the link between TV violence and real-life violence has been ignored. It goes on to state that the "scientific debate is over," and calls for federal policy to protect society.

Days before the House of Representatives hearings on TV violence, and having been forced to do so by the 1990 Television Violence Act, the broadcast industry releases a set of "voluntary" industry guidelines (called "principles") on violence.

1993: In June, major TV networks announce their agreement to air parental advisories when shows deemed violent are aired.

The National Council for Families and Television holds the industrywide Leadership Conference on Violence in Television Programming.

The Departments of Justice, Education, and Health and Human Services sponsor a major conference, calling for TV networks to consider the social effects of media violence when designing programming.

1994: The Center for Media and Public Affairs conducts a study of television violence and finds that from 1992 to 1994, depictions of serious violence on television increased 67 percent.

1998: The National Television Violence Study concludes that 60 percent of all TV programs are violent and that "there are substantial risks of harmful effects from viewing violence throughout the television environment."

The publication of "Children and Media Violence: A Yearbook from the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen." It reviews worldwide studies of media violence from twenty-five countries and outlines the world's concern about the "global aggressive culture" being formed by violent television, particularly violent U.S. television and film.

1999: President Clinton initiates a study by the FTA and the Attorney General of the strategies of marketing violent media to children.

WHERE TO VOICE YOUR CONCERNS

As its subtitle says, this book is a call to action. Here's where to call, write, fax, E-mail, and visit for action on this issue. We suggest contacting the following television broadcast and cable networks, major movie studios, theaters, pertinent organizations, government offices, and toy companies to voice your concerns about violent entertainment. But we also encourage you to let those people and organizations know when they're helping to make a positive difference.

TELEVISION STATIONS

(Note: The Telecommunications Act of 1996 requires television stations to make available a staff person to act as a liaison with viewers who want to comment on children's programs.)

ABC
Audience Information Dept.
77th West 66th St., 9th Floor
New York, NY 10023
212-456-7477

ABC Entertainment
2040 Avenue of the Stars
Los Angeles, CA 90067
310-557-5413 or 800-213-6222

A&F/Arts and Entertainment
235 East 45th St.
New York, NY 10017
212-210-1340

AMC/American Movie Classics
1111 Stewart Ave.
Bethpage, NY 11714
516-364-2222

CBS
Audience Services
530 West 57th St.
New York, NY 10019
212-975-3247

CNN
One CNN Center
Atlanta, GA 30348-5366
404-827-1500

COM/Comedy Central
Attention: Dennay Riley
1775 Broadway
New York, NY 10019
212-767-8600

Discovery Channel
7700 Wisconsin Ave., Suite 700
Bethesda, MD 20814
301-986-0444

Disney Channel
3800 West Alameda Ave.
Burbank, CA 91505
800-822-8648
FAX: 818-842-1024

ESPN
935 Middle St.
Bristol, CT 06010
860-585-2236

FOX Broadcast Studios
PO Box 900
Beverly Hills, CA 90213
310-369-1000

HBO/Home Box Office
1100 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10036
212-512-1000

Lifetime
Viewer Services
309 West 49th St.
New York, NY 10019
212-424-7000

MTV (owns VH-1 and Nickelodeon)
Viewer Comments
1515 Broadway, 24th Floor
New York, NY 10036
212-258-8000

NBC
30 Rockefeller Plaza
New York, NY 10112
212-664-2333

NICK/Nickelodeon
1515 Broadway, 42nd Floor
New York, NY 10036
212-258-7500

PBS
Attention: Program Information
1320 Braddock PI.
Alexandria, VA 22314
703-739-5000

SHO/Showtime
1633 Broadway
New York, NY 10019
212-708-1600

TNN (The Nashville Network)
2806 Opryland Drive
Nashville, TN 37214
615-883-7000

TNT/Turner Network TV
1050 Techwood Drive NW
Atlanta, GA 30318
404-885-4538

USA Network
Viewer Response
1230 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10020
212-408-9100

VH-1/Contemporary Music Videos
1515 Broadway
New York, NY 10036
212-258-7800

MAJOR STUDIOS: MOTION PICTURES, HOME VIDEOS, TV MOVIES

Columbia Pictures Entertainment Company, or
Sony Pictures Entertainment, Inc., or
Tri-Star Pictures
10202 West Washington Blvd.
Culver City, CA 90232
310-244-4000

MGM Communications Co.
Attention: William Mitchell
2500 Broadway St.
Santa Monica, CA 90404-3061
310-449-3000

Paramount Communications, Inc.
Publicity Department
1515 Broadway
New York, NY 10036
212-846-4320

Paramount Pictures and Home Videos
Bluhdorn Building
5555 Melrose Ave.
Hollywood, CA 90038-3917
323-956-5000

The Samuel Goldwyn Company
10203 Santa Monica Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90067-6403
310-552-2255

The Samuel Goldwyn Company
Attention: Publicity Department
1133 Broadway
New York, NY 10010
212-367 -9435

Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation
10201 West Pico Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90035
310-369-1000

Universal Pictures
100 Universal City Plaza
Universal City, CA 91608
818-777-1000

The Walt Disney Company
500 South Buena Vista St.
Burbank, CA 91521
818-560-1581

Warner Brothers, Inc. (a division of Time Warner, Inc.)
4000 Warner Blvd.
Burbank, CA 91522
818-954-6000

THEATERS

Cineplex Odeon Corporation
1303 Yonge St.
Toronto, Ontario
Canada M4T 2Y9
416-323-6600

General Cinema Corporation
Director of Operations
1280 Boylston St.
Chestnut Hill, MA 02467
800-992-0084

For comments on the film rating system:

Motion Picture Association of America, Inc.
Jack Valenti, President
1600 Eye St. NW
Washington, DC 20006
202-293-1966

For comments on the video and computer game rating system:

Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB)
845 3rd Ave.
New York, NY 10022
800-771-3772
http://www.ersb.org

VIDEO RENTAL COMPANIES
Blockbuster Videos
Corporate Office
1201 Elm St.
Dallas, TX 75270
214-854-3000

Tower Records/Video
Customer Comments/Video Rental
MTS, Inc.
2500 Del Monte St., Building C
West Sacramento, CA 95691-9001
916-373-2500 or 800-541-0070

VIDEO AND COMPUTER GAMES

Nintendo of America, Inc.
Corporate Communication Manager
4820 150th Ave. NE
Redmond, WA 98052
425-882-2040
FAX: 425-882-3585

Sega of America
650 Townsend St., Suite 650
San Francisco, CA 94065
415-701-6000

To voice your opinion about a coin-operated video game parental advisory system, contact:

American Amusement Machine Association (AAMA)
450 East Higgins Rd., Suite 201
Elk Grove Village, IL 60007
847-290-9088
http://www.com-op.org

The AAMA is a nonprofit trade association that represents approximately 120 manufacturers, distributors, and parts suppliers of coin-operated amusement equipment.

International Association of Family Entertainment Centers
(IAFEC)
36 Symonds Rd.
Hillsborough, NH 03244
603-464-6498
E-mail: IAFECnh@ao1.com

GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS

Federal Communications Commission
Mass Media Bureau
Complaints/Enforcement Division
Political Programming Branch, Room 3443
445 12th St. SW
Washington, DC 20554
202-418-1430

The President of the United States
The White House
1600 Pennsylvania Ave.
Washington, DC
202-456-1414

TOY MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS

Lewis Galoob Toys
500 Forbes Blvd.
San Francisco, CA 94080
650-952-1678

Hasbro Toy Group
1027 Newport Ave.
Pawtucket, RI 02862
401-431-8697

Mattel Toys
333 Continental Blvd.
El Segundo, CA 90245
310-252-2000

Saban Entertainment
400 West Alameda Ave.
Burbank, CA 91505
818-972-4800

Toys R Us Corporate Office
CEO Robert Nakasone
461 From Rd.
Paramus, NJ 07652
210-262-7800

MEDIA LITERACY AND VIOLENCE PREVENTION ORGANIZATIONS

We're not alone out there. There are several worthwhile watchdog groups that have been fighting the good fight for years. The following is a list of media literacy and violence prevention organizations, along with their statements of purpose.

Americans for Responsible Television
(The Dove Foundation)
4521 Broadmoor SE
Grand Rapids, MI 49512
616-514-5000 or 800-968-8437
http://www.dove.org

Established to encourage and promote the creation, production, and distribution of wholesome family entertainment, the Dove Foundation, free from commercial pressures, awards a blue-and-white Dove Seal to any movie or video that is rated "family friendly" by its film review board.

Atrium Society Publications
PO Box 816
Middlebury, VT 05753
800-848-6021
http://www.atriumsoc.org

The Atrium Society offers understanding about the conditioned mind, "which has brought us to a state of unparalleled conflict and devastation that we experience in the world today." Its intent is to bring the issue of conditioning, and the tremendous conflict conditioning creates, to the forefront of awareness and consideration. Resources include a series of books for youth on understanding and handling violence; books for parents, such as Growing Up Sane: Understanding the Conditioned Mind; audio/videotapes; teacher training workshops; and seminars to address the primary causes of conflict.

Canadians Concerned About Violence in Entertainment
(C-CAVE)
416-961-0853
FAX: 416-929-2720
E-mail: rdyson@oise.utoronto.ca

Founded in 1983 in collaboration with the U.S.-based National Coalition on Television Violence, Canadians Concerned About Violence in Entertainment provides public education on the results of media violence research and believes the public has a right to know that the overwhelming weight of research points toward harmful effects. The organization functions primarily as a working group through media interviews and the provision of information to journalists and other members of the media. CCAVE maintains links with a broad coalition of groups, both nationally and internationally.

Center for Media Literacy
4727 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 403
Los Angeles, CA 90010
800- 226- 9494
FAX: 323-931-4474
http://www.medialit.org

The Center for Media Literacy distributes a broad range of media literacy education books, kits, and videos for parents and teachers, including the highly acclaimed Beyond Blame: Challenging Violence in the Media. This kit applies the principles of media literacy education to violence reduction and prevention. It contains lesson plans, ready-to-use handouts, and audio/video resources for all age groups. A comprehensive catalog of all resources offered is available.

Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence
Institute for Behavorial Sciences
University of Colorado, Boulder
Campus Box 442
Boulder, CO 80309-0442
303-492-8147

The Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence provides guidance on research, effective programs, and policy actions that improve the effectiveness of antiviolence interventions. Among the reports available is What Works in Reducing Adolescent Violence: An Empirical Review of the Field by Patrick Tolan and Nancy Guerra.

Center for Successful Parenting
1917 East 116th Street
Carmel, IN 46032
317-581-5355
Fax: 317-581-5399
E-mail: sstoughton@stoughtongroup.com.

Founded in 1997, the Center for Successful Parenting is presently focused on media violence because the founders believe that protecting children from the negative impact of media violence is key for adults of the next generation to be mentally and socially healthy. The group is organizing the ever-growing body of research demonstrating the negative effects of media violence, along with a national parent awareness campaign.

Committee for Children
2203 Airport Way S., Suite 500
Seattle, WA 98134
800-634-4449

The Committee for Children is an international nonprofit organization whose mission is to promote the safety, well-being, and social development of children by creating quality educational programs for educators, families, and communities. The prekindergarten-to-grade 9 violence prevention curriculum, Second Step, teaches children prosocial skills and includes a companion program for parent education at the elementary level. Second Step implementation has taken place in approximately ten thousand schools across North America. A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (May 27, 1997) demonstrates Second Step's effectiveness in changing children's behavior.

Cultural Environment Movement (CEM)
PO Box 40285
Philadelphia, PA 19106
E-mail: CEM@libertynet.org

The Cultural Environment Movement is a nonprofit coalition of independent organizations and individual supporters in every state of the United States and in fifty-seven other countries on six continents, united in working for freedom, fairness, gender equity, general diversity, and democratic decision-making in media ownership, employment, and representation. The organization supports, and if necessary organizes, local and national media councils, study groups, citizen groups, minority and professional groups, and other forums of public discussion, policy development, representation, and action. Not waiting for a blueprint, it creates and experiments with methods of community and citizen participation in local, national, and international media policy-making.

The Fathers' Network
PO Box 800-SH
San Anselmo, CA 94979
415-453-2839
http://www.menstuff.org

The goal of this organization is to increase fathers' involvement in parenting and to promote fulfilling relationships between fathers and children. Much useful information can be found on their Web site for men who want to make a difference in a child's life.

GrowSmartBrains
PO Box 311
Redmond, WA 98073-0311
206-654-2994
http://www.GrowSmartBrains.com

Author Gloria DeGaetano and her staff of highly trained educators and consultants offer research-based, application-rich workshops across the United States and Canada for corporations, school districts, social service, and parent organizations. Emphasis is on the impact of screen technologies on brain development and the problematic effects of violent entertainment on children's learning and behavior. GrowSmartBrains provides manuals (in English and Spanish) and educational audio- and videotapes, including Maximizing Your Child's Potential: Healthy Brain Development in a Media Age, a forty-minute video for parents of young children.

Heavy Freight Films
811 First Avenue, Suite 425
Seattle, WA 98104
Contacts:
Richard Hazzard, M.Ed.
206-755-3118
FAX: 206-621-1193
Sandy Cioffi
206-322-1332
FAX: 206-322-1341

Two of Washington State's leading media literacy specialists founded Heavy Freight Films with the intention of creating unique opportunities for individual and social change through media education, addressing issues such as violence prevention, youth leadership, and community involvement. Their projects include consulting with school districts for adopting media literacy standards, extensive teacher training programs, conducting innovative film schools for youth, and community film projects with professional filmmakers mentoring youth in film production. One video production, Terminal 187, produced by and for youth, is an excellent, compelling examination of the consequences of violence for anyone who cares about kids.

Institute on Violence and Destructive Behavior
1265 University of Oregon
Eugene, OR 97403-1265
541-346-3591
http://interact.uoregon.edulivdb/ivdb.html

The Institute on Violence and Destructive Behavior is doing some of the most seminal research in the area of violence prevention today. Its mission is to empower schools and social service agencies to address violence and destructive behavior, at the point of school entry and beyond, in order to ensure safety and to facilitate the academic achievement and healthy social development of children and youth. Key target areas addressed are antisocial behavior, school failure, delinquency, violence, gang membership, and at-risk conditions. Call for a list of publications and research studies currently available.

Lion and the Lamb Project
4300 Montgomery Ave., Suite 104
Bethesda, MD 20814
301-654-3091
FAX: 301-718-8192
http://www.lionlamb.org

The Lion and the Lamb Project provides information about the effects of violent entertainment, toys, and games on children's behavior for parents, teachers, day-care providers, social workers, psychologists, grandparents, and others -- anyone interested in teaching values of nonviolence to children. They offer four different types of workshops, along with a Parent Action Kit, which provides suggestions for selecting age-appropriate, nonviolent toys and games, and tips for resolving family conflicts peacefully at home and on the playground.

Media Awareness Network
1500 Merivale Rd., 3rd Floor
Nepean, ON
Canada K2E 6Z5
613-224-7721
FAX: 613-224-1958
E-mail: info@media-awareness.ca
http://www.media-awareness.ca

The Media Awareness Network (MNet) is a nonprofit organization promoting media education among children and young people. MNet's award-winning Web site is one of the largest educational Web sites in Canada. It provides parents, educators, and community leaders with free, copyright-cleared on-line resources and information on a variety of issues related to children and the media, including media violence, advertising to children, and children and the Internet.

Media Education Foundation
26 Center St.
Northampton, MA 01060
413-584-8500
E-mail: mediaed@mediaed.org
http://www.igc.org/mef
video orders: 800-897-0080

Directed by well-known media scholar and author Sut Jhally, this foundation produces and distributes award-wining resources for students of media literacy, educators, parents, and community leaders. The Killing Screens: Media and the Culture of Violence is an educational video that examines the psychology, sociology, and politics of media violence. In the video, paced for high school and college students, Dr. George Gerbner addresses the issue of living and growing within a cultural environment of pervasive violent representation. Social critic Neil Postman says of this video: "If every American could see The Killing Screens there would ensue a revolution in the content of popular media."

Mediascope, Inc.
12711 Ventura Blvd., Suite 440
Studio City, CA 91604
818-508-2080
http://www.mediascope.org

Mediascope is a national, nonprofit research and public policy organization working to raise awareness about the influence of media on society. Founded in 1992, the organization works with the entertainment industry to encourage responsible depictions of health and social issues, particularly as they relate to children and adolescents. They address such topics as media violence, ratings, teen sexuality, effects of video games, artists' rights and responsibilities, and substance abuse. Mediascope's resources and services are used by screenwriters, journalists, researchers, producers, media critics, educators, lawyers, media executives, legislators, government officials, advocacy groups, and students.

MediaWise
PO Box 6145
Kansas City, KS 66106
913-831-3221
FAX: 913-831-0262

Media Wise operates through a broad-based coalition of community groups to reduce the impact and incidence of violence in the media through public awareness, education, and community action without invading First Amendment rights. They provide programs and services to help children, youth, and adults become discriminating media consumers by learning how to analyze, evaluate, and interpret the messages and images delivered by the various forms of media in our society. They offer MediaSmarts, an innovative video-based media literacy and antiviolence curriculum for use in middle schools or by youth-serving agencies.

Mothers Against Violence in America (MAVIA)
105-14th Ave., Suite 2A
Seattle, WA 98122
206-323-2303
800-897-7697
FAX: 206-323-2132
http://www.mavia.org

Mothers Against Violence in America is a national, nonprofit, nonpartisan educational organization dedicated to reducing violence by and against children. Founded in 1994, with over thirty-five thousand members, MAVIA encourages prevention investment in young people before they are affected by violence, and advocates for changes that support a safer environment. MAVIA's innovative programs, such as Students Against Violence Everywhere (SAVE) and violent video game legislative initiatives, have been praised by President and Mrs. Clinton as exemplary models of grassroots activism.

National Alliance for Non-Violent Programming (NANP)
122 North Elm St., Suite 300
Greensboro, NC 27401
336-370-0392
FAX: 336-370-0407
E-mail: NA4NVP@aol.com

A network of national not-for-profit organizations including the American Medical Women's Association, Jack and Jill of America, Jewish Women International, the National Association of Women Business Owners, National Council of LaRaza, and Soroptimist of the Americas, the National Alliance for Non-Violent Programming's reach into communities extends to over two million citizens at the grassroots level. NANP researches and recommends noncensorial resources, workshops, and educational materials appropriate for children and youth, parents, teachers, caregivers, service organizations, violence prevention efforts, and the faith community. Once a community initiative is launched, NANP provides technical assistance and support to ensure sustainability.

National Coalition on Television Violence (NCTV)
51332 Newport Ave.
Bethesda, MD 20816
E-mail: nctvmd@aol.com
http://www.nctvv.org

Since 1980 the National Coalition on Television Violence has been providing useful information regarding the amount of TV violence, the accuracy of rating systems, and practical tips for citizen advocacy. Directed by MaryAnn Banta, the organization responds to E-mail and acts as a clearinghouse to direct inquires to the most helpful resources available nationwide.

National Institute on Media and the Family
606 24th Ave. S., Suite 606
Minneapolis, MN 55454
888-672-5437
FAX: 612-672-4113
http://www.mediafamily.org

The National Institute son Media and the Family is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to maximize the benefits and minimize the harm of media on children and families through research, education, and advocacy. The organization provides a range of educational resources for parents, teachers, and community leaders, including a comprehensive alternative rating system for violent media and Media Wise, a multimedia resource kit that provides innovative, action-oriented solutions to the question "What can we do about the powerful influence of media on our children's lives?" Visit their Web site for current lists of the most violent and dangerous as well as the best video and computer games for our kids.

Teachers Resisting Unhealthy Children's Entertainment (TRUCE)
PO Box 441261
Somerville, MA 02144

Teachers Resisting Unhealthy Children's Entertainment is a national group of educators deeply concerned about how children's entertainment and toys are affecting the play and behavior of children in the classroom. TRUCE publishes a valuable newsletter and works to raise public awareness about the negative effects of violent and stereotyped toys and media on children, families, schools, and society.

Turn Off the TV
800-949-8688
http://www.turnoffthetv.com

The mission of Turn Off the TV is to bring people together by encouraging families and friends to turn off the television and spend time playing, learning, and communicating. A catalog of resources is available by calling the above toll-free number. By visiting their Web site, parents will find loads of fun ideas for children in all stages of development who say, "I'm bored; there's nothing to do."
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Re: Stop Teaching Our Kids to Kill: A Call to Action Against

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NOTES

INTRODUCTION


Adolescents who copy crimes ... correct flaws that may have caused the television crime to fail: Wendy Josephson, "Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages." Ottawa: National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, 1995, 40.

Scientific evidence has established that screen portrayals of violence need not lead to reinforcement of aggressive attitudes and behaviors ... Joel Federman, Television Violence Study, vol. 3. Santa Barbara: University of California, 1998, 7-11.

CHAPTER 1: IT'S A VIOLENT WORLD AFTER ALL

According to InterPol, between 1977 and 1993 the per capita "serious assault" rate increased ... InterPol International Crime Statistics, InterPol, Lyons, France, vols. 1977 to 1994.

The Japanese crime data (30 percent increase in juvenile violent crime in 1997): BBC News Online, "Japanese tackle teenage knife attacks," Friday, February 6, 1998.

According to FBI reports, crime is down 7 percent: Fox Butterfield, "Crime Fell 7 Percent in '98, Continuing a 7-Year Trend," The New York Times, May 17, 1999, 14.

From 1960 through 1991 the U.S. population increased by 40 percent, yet violent crime increased by 500 percent; murders increased by 170 percent, rapes 520 percent, and aggravated assaults 600 percent: Ronald Kotulak, Inside the Brain: Revolutionary Discoveries of How the Mind Works. Kansas City: Andrews McMeel Publishing, 1996, 69.

In 1996 there were 19,654 murders, 95,769 reported rapes, over 1 million cases of aggravated assault, and 537,050 robberies, amounting to a loss of about $500 million in stolen property: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States 1996, Uniform Crime Reporting Statistics. Washington, D.C.; U.S. Department of Justice, 1996.

Murder is the least committed violent crime, although the most often reported crime on the nightly news: Howard Kurtz of The Washington Post, "Murder Rates Fall-But Not on Network News," The Seattle Times, August 13, 1997, A9.

Figure 1- Violent Crime in America: "Statistical Abstract of the United States." Washington, D.C.: The U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, editions 1957 to 1997.

Professor James Q. Wilson quote: Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society. New York: Little, Brown & Co., 1996, 301.

According to the U.S. Army Medical Service Corps, a hypothetical wound that ... Dave Grossman, "Evolution of Weaponry," in Encyclopedia of Violence: Peace and Conflict. New York: Academic Press, 1999.

The per capita incarceration rate in America more than quadrupled between 1970, when it was at 97 people per 100,000, and 1997, when it reached 440 per 100,000: Statistical Abstract of the United States. Washington, D.C.: The U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, editions 1957 to 1997.

John J. DiIulio quote: Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society. New York: Little, Brown & Co., 1996, 301.

In Richmond ... "zero tolerance" ... has been credited with cutting murders by 65 percent: Virginia Governor James Gilmore, quoted in Virginia Governor James Gilmore, quoted in U.S. News & World Report, November 16, 1998.

In Boston ... led to an 80 percent drop in youth homicides from 1990 to 1995, and in 1996 not a single youth died in a firearm homicide: President Clinton, State of the Union Address, "The President's Anti-Gang and Youth Violence Strategy-An Overview," February 4, 1997.

Among young people fifteen to twenty-four years old, murder is the second-leading cause of death. For African-American youths, murder is number one; Every 5 minutes a child is arrested in America for committing a violent crime, and gun-related violence takes the life of an American child every three hours; A child growing up in Washington, D.C., or Chicago is fifteen times more likely to be murdered than a child in Northern Ireland: Ellen Wartella, Adriana Olivarez, Nancy Jennings, "Children and Television Violence in the United States," in Children and Media Violence: Yearbook from the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, eds. U. Carlsson and C. Von Felitzen. Nordicom: Goteborg University, 1998, 55.

. . . 4,881 gangs in the United States: Daniel Flannery, C. Ronald Huff, Michael Manos, "Youth Gangs: A Developmental Perspective," in Delinquent Violent Youth: Theory and Interventions, eds. T. Gullotta, G. Adams, R. Montemayor. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1998, 176.

Since 1960 teen suicide has tripled: John Crudele and Richard Erickson, Making Sense of Adolescence: How to Parent from the Heart. Minneapolis: John Crudele Productions, 1995, 139.

Every day an estimated 270,000 students bring guns to school; One of every fifty children has a parent in prison: Ronald Kotulak, Inside the Brain: Revolutionary Discoveries of How the Mind Works. Kansas City: Andrews McMeel Publishing, 1997, 93.

At least 160,000 children miss school every day because they fear an attack or intimidation by other students: National Education Association statistics, in Suellen Fried and Paula Fried, Bullies and Victims: Helping Your Child Through the Schoolyard Battlefield. New York: M. Evans and Company, 1996, xii.

One out of three girls and one out of seven boys are sexually abused by the time they reach the age of eighteen: Ellen Bass and Laura Davis, The Courage to Heal-A Guide for Women Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1988, 20.

Figures 2and 3- Violent Crime Arrest Rate for Juvenile Males and Juvenile Females: Graphs compiled by authors using data from Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States 1996, Uniform Crime Reporting Statistics. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 1996.

Stephen M. Case, of America Online, says that 80 percent of teenagers on A 0 L say that what happened at Columbine could happen in their school. Ken Auletta. "What I Did at Summer Camp," The New Yorker, July 26, 1999, 48.

Diane Levin quote: Ann Cornell, "TV, Video Game Violence Cause Aggressive Behavior, Leads to Crime, Experts Warn," Lion and Lamb Newsletter, Video Game Violence (Internet Information).

CHAPTER 2: NOT JUST A "TOASTER WITH PICTURES"

Brandon Tartikoff quote: John Caputo, "Tune Out the Tube: television viewing poor substitute for summer recreation," The Spokesman-Review, June 30, 1991, A-17.

Since 1950 there has been a total of more than 3,500 research studies ... Ellen Wartella, Adriana Olivarez, Nancy Jennings, "Children and Television Violence in the United States," in Children and Media Violence: Yearbook from the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, eds. U. Carlsson and C. Von Felitzen. Nordicom: Goteborg University, 1998, 57.

One random analysis of almost 1,000 of these studies found that all save 18 (12 of those were funded by the television industry) demonstrate ... Dr. Scott Snyder, in a 1998 presentation at the annual meeting of the American College of Forensic Psychiatry. "Clinical Psychiatry News," International Medical News Group, 1998,26(7), 36.

In the myriad studies done over the last four decades, experts have found three basic negative effects ... "Safeguarding Our Youth: Violence Prevention for Our Nation's Children, Report from the Working Group on Media." Washington, D.C., Center for Media Literacy, July 20-21, 1993, 4.

Since 1982, television violence has increased 780 percent ... Phil Phillips, Saturday Morning Mind Control. Nashville: Oliver- Nelson Books, 1991, 54.

The first U.S. Congressional hearings on the question took place in 1952 ... John P. Murray, "Studying Television Violence: A Research Agenda for the 21st Century," in Research Paradigms, Television, and Social Behavior, eds. Joy Asamen and Gordon Berry. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1998, 370.

. . . when only around a quarter of American households had television sets ... Dr. Brandon Centerwall, "Journal of the American Medical Association," June 10, 1992-vol. 267, no. 22, "Television and violence: The scale of the problem and where to go from here," page 3,061, fig. 2.

. . . the "university of the air" brought quality programming ... Mary Megee, On Television: Teach the Children, a video. San Francisco: California Newsreel, 1991.

Concerns about television violence in the mid-50s ... totally unacceptable risk: John P. Murray, "Impact of Televised Violence," Kansas State University, http://www.ksu.edulhumec/impact.htm. 1-2.

In 1969, Senator John Pastore ... invited the Surgeon General ... John P. Murray, "Children and Television Violence," Kansas Journal of Law and Public Policy, vol. no. 3 (1995), 10.

1972 Surgeon General's Report: Surgeon General's Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior, Television and Growing Up: The Impact of Television Violence. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1972.

Quote from the National Institute of Mental Health Report: Pearl D. Bouthilet, L. Lazar, J. Eds. National Institute of Mental Health, Television and Behavior: Ten Years of Scientific Progress and Implications for the Eighties, vol. 1, Summary Report. Washington D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1982.

Eron and Huesmann's study: L. D. Eron and L. R. Huesmann, "The Control of Aggressive Behavior by Changes in Attitudes, Values, and the Conditions of Learning," in Advances in the Study of Aggression, eds. R. J. Blanchard and D. C. Blanchard. Orlando: Academic Press, Inc., 1984, 139-171.

McBeth Williams's study: Tannis McBeth Williams, The Impact of Television: A Natural Experiment in Three Communities. New York: Academic Press, 1986.

Centerwall's study: Brandon Centerwall, "Television and Violence: The Scale of the Problem and Where to Go from Here," The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 267 (June 10, 1992), 3059-3063.

"There never was a moment of 'Aha!' It simply happened": Gloria DeGaetano, personal interview with Dr. Brandon Centerwall, June 15, 1998.

In a classic 1974 study ... Ronald Drabman and Margaret Thomas, "Does media violence increase children's toleration of real-life aggression?" Developmental Psychology, vol. 10, 1974, 418-421.

... one of the more benign movies of the 1990s ... Vincent Canby's observations in Michael Medved, Hollywood vs. America: Popular Culture and the War on Traditional Values. New York: HarperCollins, 1992, 187.

Miller quote: Michael Medved, Hollywood vs. America: Popular Culture and the War on Traditional Values. New York: HarperCollins, 1992, 190-191.

Power Rangers contains about two hundred acts of violence per hour: Chris J. Boyatzis, "Of Power Rangers and V-Chips," Young Children, vol. 52, no. 7 (November 1997), 75.

... cartoons averaging twenty-five acts of violence per hour: A. Huston, E. Donnerstein, et aI., Big World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1992, 136.

British children under the age of twelve were not allowed to see Batman: "Batman Off Limits to Kids in Britain," Reuter Press, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, July 31, 1989, C-5.

Swedish children under the age of fifteen ... Turtles movies. Description of audiences for films by Swedish Bureau of Censors, http://www.statensbiografbyra.se.

Fright reactions: "Problems Frequently Caused by Scary Television and Movies," in Joanne Cantor, Mommy, I'm Scared: How TV and Movies Frighten Children and What We Can Do to Protect Them. Orlando: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1998, 215.

Cantor quote: Joanne Cantor, Ph.D., Mommy, I'm Scared: How TV and Movies Frighten Children and What We Can Do to Protect Them. Orlando: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1998, 12-13.

23 million Americans suffer from some sort of anxiety-based disorder: Stephen Hall, "Fear Itself: What we know about how it works, how it can be treated and what it tells us about our unconscious," The New York Times Magazine, February 28, 1999, 44.

Hall quote: Stephen Hall, "Fear Itself: What we know about how it works, how it can be treated and what it tells us about our unconscious," The New York Times Magazine, February 28, 1999, 45.

George Gerbner study: George Gerbner and Nancy Signorielli, Violence Profile, 1967 Through 1988-89: Enduring Patterns, manuscript. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Annenberg School of Communication, 1990; George Gerbner, et al., "Growing Up with Television: The Cultivation Perspective," in J. Bryant and D. Zillmann (eds.), Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 17-41.

Center for Media and Public Affairs study: R. Lichter and D. Amundson, "A Day of Television Violence." Washington, D.C.: Center for Media and Public Affairs, 1992; R. Lichter and D. Amundson, "A Day of TV Violence: 1992 vs. 1994." Washington, D.C.: Center for Media and Public Affairs, 1994; Elizabeth Kolbert, "Study Finds TV Violence on the Rise," The New York Times, August 5, 1994, A9.

Newton Minow quote: Newton Minow quoted in E. Barnouw, Tube of Plenty: The Evolution of American Television (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975), 300.

Mark Fowler quote: C. Mayer, "FCC Chief's Fears: Fowler Sees Threat in Regulation," Washington Post, February 6, 1983, K-6.

. . . in the 1980-81 season, when the FCC was discussing deregulation of children's programming, violence on children's television shows reached its highest level in twenty years: thirty-three acts of violence per hour: John P. Murray, "Impact of Televised Violence," Kansas State University, http://www.ksu.edu/humec/impact.htm. 5.

By 1987, the sales of violent toys had soared more than 600 percent: Levin, Diane, Remote Control Childhood? Combating the Hazards of Media Culture. Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1998, 10.

Television Violence Act: Newsletter from Senator Paul Simon, December 12, 1990.

Children's Television Act: Brian Sullivan, "Children's TV Bill Becomes Law," National Coalition on Television Violence Press Release, December 28, 1990.

. . . such programs as G.I. Joe, Leave It to Beaver, The Jetsons, and James Bond, Jr.... Newton Minow and Craig Lamay, "Making Television Safe for Kids," book excerpt in Time, June 26, 1995, 70; Cox News Service, "TV Stations Say 'Toons, Reruns Teach Kids," Bellevue Journal American, August 30, 1992, B-6.

The 1990 Report, Watching America quote: Michael Medved, Hollywood vs. America: Popular Culture and the War on Traditional Values. New York: HarperCollins, 1992, 196-197.

Barry Diller quote: Terry Pristin, "Soul-Searching on Violence by the Industry," The Los Angeles Times, May 18, 1992, Home Section, 1.

National Association of Broadcasters "Statement of Principles": Advisory Committee on Public Interest Obligations of Digital Television Broadcasters, "Statement of Principles of Radio and Television Broadcasting," Issued by the Board of Directors of the National Association of Broadcasters, adopted, 1990; reaffirmed 1992.

National Television Violence Study: George Comstock, "Television Research: Past Problems and Present Issues," in Research Paradigms, Television, and Social Behavior, eds. Joy Asamen and Gordon Berry. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1998, 32.

The broadcast industry ... financed its own three-year study: George Comstock, "Television Research: Past Problems and Present Issues," in Research Paradigms, Television, and Social Behavior, eds. Joy Asamen and Gordon Berry. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1998, 32.

Facts from National Television Study: Federman, Joel (ed.), National Television Violence Study, Vol. 3, Executive Summary. Santa Barbara: University of California, 1998, 29-42.

Marty Franks quote: Jeannine Aversa (The Associated Press), "Prime-Time Television on the Rise," The Seattle Times, April, 16, 1998, A-3.

George Comstock quote: George Comstock, "Television Research: Past Problems and Present Issues," in Research Paradigms, Television, and Social Behavior, eds. Joy Asamen and Gordon Berry. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1998, 32.

. . . the largest study ever conducted which surveyed five thousand twelve-year-olds in twenty-three countries ... Jo Grobel, "The UNESCO Global Study on Media Violence: Report Presented to the Director General of UNESCO," in Children and Media Violence: Yearbook from the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, eds. U. Carlsson and C. Von Felitzen. Nordicom: Goteborg University, 1998, 181-199.

A recent study examining 2,380 major movie releases from 1988 to 1997 indicates ... Armstrong Williams, "Extra! Extra! Family-friendly films make money for Hollywood," Eastside Journal, June 6, 1999, B-4.

CHAPTER 3: PRETENDING TO BE FREDDY KRUEGER

Many believe that the desire for murderous violence is largely unnatural: Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, "Psychological effects of Combat," in The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Brigadier General S. L. A. Marshall first observed ... by nature, are not close-range, interpersonal killers: S. L. A. Marshall, Men Against Fire. Gloucester: Peter Smith, 1978,51, 78-79.

A preschooler is exposed to nearly 10,000 violent episodes each year Federman, Joel (ed.), National Television Violence Study, Vol. 3, Executive Summary. Santa Barbara: University of California, 1998, 34.

Nearly 40 percent of all violent incidents on television are initiated by characters who possess qualities that make them attractive role models to kids ... More than half of violent incidents feature physical aggression that would be lethal or incapacitating if it were to occur in real life: Federman, Joel (ed.), National Television Violence Study, Vol. 3, Executive Summary. Santa Barbara: University of California, 1998, 29.

By age eighteen, a typical American child will have seen at least two hundred thousand dramatized acts of violence and forty thousand screen murders: President Clinton, in his national address on media violence following the Littleton Massacre.

Poussaint quote: Poussaint, Alvin M.D., "Taking Movie Ratings Seriously: The Risks Faced by Children Allowed to Watch Films Meant for Adults Are as Real as Those from Alcohol, Tobacco, or Abuse," in Good Housekeeping, April 1997, 74.

Bruner quote: Gloria DeGaetano, "Learning from Creative Play," in Television and the Lives of Our Children (Redmond: Train of Thought Publishing, 1998), 35.

The most popular children's television shows in 1995 were ... G. Fabrikant, "The Young and Restless Audience," The New York Times, April 18, 1996, D1.

That infants can, and do, imitate an array of adult facial features ... Brandon Centerwall, "Television and Violence: The Scale of the Problem and Where to Go from Here," The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 267 (June 10, 1992), 3059.

Emotionally laden images are even more efficient at catching and holding the attention of youngsters ... Wendy Josephson, Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages. Ottawa: National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, 1995, 17-19.

... case of a preschooler who expressed fear and hostility ... Wendy Josephson, Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages. Ottawa: National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, 1995, 19.

... but they do not possess an instinct for gauging whether a behavior ought to be imitated: Brandon Centerwall, "Television and Violence: The Scale of the Problem and Where to Go from Here," The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 267 (June 10, 1992), 3059.

... "they have a refrigerator, and there are such things as refrigerators": H. Kelly, "Reasoning About Realities: Children's Evaluations of Televisions and Books," in H. Kelly and H. Gardner (eds.), New Directions for Child Development: Viewing Children Through Television, no. 13. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1981, 63.

. . . an Indiana school board had to issue an advisory ... Neal Lawrence, "What's happening to our children?" Midwest Today, December 1993.

A seven-year-old boy described a deliberate attempt to reduce his own fear ... Since identifying with an aggressive hero ... is chilling indeed: Wendy Josephson, Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages. Ottawa: National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, 1995, 32.

It has been found that the more unrealistic the character, the more preschoolers both want to be like that character and think they are like that character: D. G. Perry and K. Bussey, "Self-Reinforcement in High and Low Aggressive Boys Following Acts of Aggression," Child Development, vol. 48, 1977, 653-657.

. . . young children are more likely to choose fantasy heroes over real-life heroes ... rather than from friends, siblings, or parents: J. French and S. Pena, "Children's Hero Play of the 20th Century: Changes Resulting From Television's Influence," Child Study Journal, vol. 21, 1991, 79-94.

Children with a propensity for violence usually have both learning and behavior problems ... Gloria DeGaetano, "Cycle Effects from Long-Term Viewing of Television Violence," in G. DeGaetano and K. Bander, Screen Smarts: A Family Guide to Media Literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1996, 57.

Like 56 percent of kids between ages twelve and seventeen ... "Television in the Home, The 1997 Survey of Parents and Children," The Annenberg Public Policy Center, 1997, in "TV in the Bedroom," Better Viewing Magazine, September/October 1997, 3.

An estimated four million American children are victimized each year by physical abuse ... and other traumatic events: Ronald Kotulak, Inside the Brain: Revolutionary Discoveries of How the Mind Works. Kansas City: Andrews McMeel Publishing, 1996, 89.

Research has found that abused children ... most likely to commit violent crimes later in life: Wendy Josephson, Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages. Ottawa: National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, 1995, 47.

Violent or aggressive people have decreased activity ... leading to a short fuse: Two of four characteristics listed by Daniel G. Amen, M.D., in Change Your Brain, Change Your Life: The Breakthrough Program for Conquering Anxiety, Depression, Obsessiveness, Anger, and Impulsiveness. New York: Times Books, 1998, 212.

The brain of the child is not a miniature version of the adult brain: Florida Starting Points Initiative with support from the Carnegie Corporation, Maximizing Washington's Brain Power: We Need to Use It or Lose It, October 1997, 7.

In Florida, for instance, a six-year-old boy and his friend ... Brandon Centerwall, "The TV Message is Mayhem," Encyclopaedia Britannica: 1995 Medical and Health Annual. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 1995, 94-95.

When children start off in an alarm state with high noradrenaline and impulsive behavior ... revert to low noradrenaline levels and calculating behaviors: Perry, Bruce, M.D., Ph.D., "Incubated in Terror: Neurodevelopmental Factors in the 'Cycle of Violence,''' in Children in a Violent Society, Joy D. Osofsky, ed. New York: The Guilford Press, 1997, 124-149.

Research indicates that children may be deliberately trying to conquer their fears ... through repeated exposures to horror movies: D. Zillmann and J. Bryant, "Affect, Mood, and Emotion as Determinants of Selective Exposure," in D. Zillmann and J. Bryant, eds., Selective Exposure to Communication. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1985, 157-190.

Belson study: William Belson, Television Violence and the Adolescent Boy. Farnborough, UK: Saxon House, Teakfield Limited, 1978. John P. Murray, "Studying Television Violence: A Research Agenda for the 21st Century," in Research Paradigms, Television, and Social Behavior, eds. Joy Asamen and Gordon Berry. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1998, 387-388.

Constant exposure ... incapable of producing socially acceptable emotional responses: Paul Gathercoal, "Brain Research and Mediated Experience: An Interpretation of the Implications for Education," Clearing House, Vol. 63, February 1990, 271.

The Japanese army very effectively used classical conditioning with their soldiers: Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, "We are training our kids to kill," Saturday Evening Post, August 1999, 70.

The conditioning of our children by violent visual entertainment creates an "acquired deficiency" in this immune system. AVIDS ... Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society. New York: Little, Brown & Co., 1996, xviii.

CHAPTER 4: "IT'S IMPORTANT TO FEEL SOMETHING WHEN YOU KILL"

We must assume that what we know of the more benign, outdated games of the 1970s ... cannot be considered valid for the games that have been put on the market in the last five years: Eugene Provenzo in The Social Effects of Electronic Games: An Annotated Bibliography, eds. Joel Federman, S. Carbone, Helen Chen, and William Munn. Studio City: Mediascope, 1996, ii.

"Globally, annual video game revenues now exceed $18 billion. In the United States alone, video game revenues exceed $10 billion annually, nearly double the amount Americans spend going to the movies. On average, American children who have home game systems play with them about ninety minutes a day": eds. Joel Federman, S. Carbone, Helen Chen, and William Munn, The Social Effects of Electronic Games: An Annotated Bibliography (Studio City: Mediascope, 1996), i.

. . . 49 percent of young teens indicate a preference for violent games, while only 2 percent prefer educational ones: Jeanne B. Funk, "Reevaluating the Impact of Video Garnes," Clinical Pediatrics, vol. 32, no. 2, 1993, 86-90.

Patricia Greenfield quote: Eugene Provenza, Video Kids (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991), 47-48.

More than 60 percent of children report that they play video games longer than they intend to play: Mark D. Griffiths and N. Hunt, "Computer game playing in adolescence: Prevalence and demographic indicators," Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, vol. 5, 1995, 189-193.

Four basic elements of video games (we have expanded these to make points about violent video games): Jane M. Healy, Endangered Minds: Why Kids Don't Think and What to Do About It (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990), 207.

. . . studies show that generally boys' preferences ... Jeanne B. Funk, "Reevaluating the Impact of Video Games," Clinical Pediatrics, vol. 32, no. 2, 1993, 86-90.

For girls ... associated with lower self-esteem: Jeanne B. Funk, Debra D. Buchman, "Playing Violent Video and Computer Games and Adolescent Self-Concept," Journal of Communication, vol. 46, Spring 1996, 19-32.

Study on arcade use among adolescents: Sue Fisher, "Identifying Video Game Addiction in Children and Adolescents," Addictive Behaviors, vol. 19, 545-553.

Dr. Donald Shifrin quote: Gloria DeGaetano, personal interview, June 22, 1999.

. . . college students who had played a violent virtual reality game ... Sandra L. Calvert and Siu-Lan Tan, "Impact of virtual reality on young adults' physiological arousal and aggressive thoughts: Interaction versus observation," Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, vol. no. 5, 1, 125-139.

Mortal Kombat study: Mary E. Ballard and J. Rose Wiest, "Mortal Kombat: The Effects of Violent Video Technology on Males' Hostility and Cardiovascular Responding," March 1995, 8; paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (61st, Indianapolis, Ind., March 30-April 2, 1995).

Soldiers in that war spent a lot of time firing their guns the firing rate was a mere 15 percent among riflemen S. L. A. Marshall, Men Against Fire. Gloucester: Peter Smith, 1978, 51.

Their introduction is undeniably responsible for increasing the firing rate from 15 to 20 percent in World War II to 95 percent in Vietnam ... 75 percent to 80 percent of the killing on the modern battlefield is a direct result of the simulators. Ken Murray, Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, and R. W. Kentridge, "Behavioral Psychology," in Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict. San Diego: Academic Press, 1999.

Time Crisis brochure quote: Personal correspondence, Jack Thompson and Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, June 1999.

WingMan Force: Advertising copy in PC Gamer, cited by President Clinton in his national speech on media violence after the Littleton, Colorado, massacre, June 1, 1999.

Wesley Schafer quote: Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, personal interviews conducted with Wesley Schafer, Union, SC, January 1998.

These two avid video game players fired twenty-seven shots from a range of over one hundred yards, and hit fifteen people: Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, personal interviews conducted with law enforcement officers after the Jonesboro massacre, March 1998.

Description of Duke Nukem game: Media Watch Online: "Duke's the King Baby," http://www.mediawatch.com.

Gary Eng Walk quote: Gary Eng Walk. "All Gore," Entertainment Weekly, Summer Double Issue '99, 143.

Doug Lowenstein quote: Mark Boal. "One Step Ahead of the Law." salon.com, July 19, 1999.

Duke Nukem, rated M for mature audiences, seventeen and older, is shelved next to Eggs of Steel, a kiddie game about an animated egg. Susan Nielsen, "A beginner's guide to becoming a video game prude," The Seattle Times, February 21, 1999, B 7-8.

"Fatalities can be the best part of Mortal Kombat," Mortal Kombat action toys are labeled, "For children four and up"; "As easy as killing babies with axes"; "More fun than shooting your neighbor's cat": Susan Nielsen, "A beginner's guide to becoming a video game prude, The Seattle Times, February 21, 1999, B 7-8.

Capcom's latest Street Fighter proclaims, "The killer in me is just beginning"; Robert Lindsey quote: "Game Makers Downplay Violent Role," USA Today, Internet site (ctc8229.htm at http://www.usatoday.com). 2.

"The Creators of Redneck Rampage are about to bring you a new, urban drama ... ": "Kingpin: Life of Crime," http//www.interplay.com/kingpin.

CHAPTER 5: DON'T .JUST STAND THERE ... DO SOMETHING!

1998 ~'State of Children's Television" report: "V-Chip Debuts, Ratings Confuse," Better Viewing Magazine, September/ October 1998, 3.

Bruce Perry Quote: Perry, Bruce, M.D., Ph.D., "Incubated in Terror: Neurodevelopmental Factors in the 'Cycle of Violence,' " in Maximizing Washington State's Brain Power. Olympia: Department of Health and Human Services, Fall 1998, 8.

A recent Canadian study demonstrated that 40 percent of parents ... A study by Tony Charlton cited by Paul Majendide, "TV Dominates Family Life," The Seattle Times, April 1, 1998, E-6.

And an American study has shown that 82 percent of parents ... do not encourage reading at home: Eric Jensen, Teaching With the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1998, 23.

Russell Harter quote: Jane M. Healy in Endangered Minds: Why Kids Don't Think and What to Do About It. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990, 208.

"Gratuitous Violence Is 200 Times Faster with a D-Link Network"; "No cure. No hope. Only death"; "Destroying Your Enemies Isn't Enough ... You Must Devour Their Souls": PC Gamer, vol. 6, no. 8, August 1999. Advertising on pages 142, 104, 22-23.

40 percent of ten- to seventeen-year-olds said they would be less likely to watch such a program. "The Power of Three Hours," Better Viewing Magazine, September/October 1997, 3.

Story of Tim: Beverly Robertson Jackson, "Creating a Climate for Healing in a Violent Society," Young Children, vol. 52, no. 7 (November 1997), 70.

"21st Century Media Responsibility Act": Mark Boal, "One Step Ahead of the Law," salon.com, July 19, 1999.

Mason City, Iowa, has embraced a plan by their mayor to rid the town of violent video game, vowing "zero tolerance" for these murder simulators: "A Ban on Trouble," Newsweek, June 14, 1999, 4.

President Clinton quotes: National address by President Clinton, June 1, 1999.

Colorado Attorney General Ken Salazar quote: Ken Salazar, OpEd Column: "Initiatives may arise from dialogue," Denver Post, 13 June 1999.

Jack Thompson quote: Personal correspondence, Jack Thompson and Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, June 1999.

In New York, a father taught his eight-year-old how to use and fire a gun ... Fox News, "Hannity & Colmes," May 12, 1999.

Jennifer James quote: Jennifer James, "Death rattle: last gasp of a failed mind-set," The Seattle Times, July 4, 1999, L6.

This is exactly the technique used by some very notable citizens to call for an entertainment industry "Code of Conduct": "An Appeal to Hollywood," http://www.media-appeal.org.

RESOURCES

A DEFINITION OF MEDIA VIOLENCE


Definition written by authors using the following sources:

Belson, W. Television Violence and the Adolescent Boy. Franborough: Teakfield, 1978.

DeGaetano, Gloria, and Kathleen Bander. Screen Smarts: A Family Guide to Media Literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1996.

Comstock, G., and H. Paik. Television and the American Child. San Diego: Academic Press, 1991.

Federman, Joel, ed. National Television Violence Study, Vol. 3, Executive Summary. Santa Barbara: University of California, 1998.

Murray, John. "Children and Television Violence," in Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy, 1995, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 7-14.

VOICES OF CONCERN ABOUT ON-SCREEN VIOLENCE

Information from the American Medical Association: Physician Guide to Media Violence, The American Medical Association, 1996, 4-6.

Information from the American Psychological Association: Violence and Youth: Psychology's Response; vol. 1: Summary Report of the American Psychological Association Commission on Violence and Youth, The American Psychological Association, 1993,33-35, 77-78.

Information from the American Academy of Pediatrics: "Statement for the Senate Commerce Science and Transportation Committee on the Television Rating System," American Academy of Pediatrics, February 27, 1997.

Information from the National Association for the Education of Young Children: "NAEYC Position Statement on Violence in the Lives of Children," National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1996.

Information from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: http://www.aacap.org excerpt used with permission from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Information from the National Parentrreacher Association: Resolutions used with permission of the National PTA.

A CHRONOLOGY OF MAJOR FINDINGS, STATEMENTS, AND ACTIONS ON MEDIA VIOLENCE, 1952-1999

Adapted from http://www.videofreedom.com/chrono.html (Original source: Charles S. Clark, Communication Quarterly, September 4, 1993).
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Re: Stop Teaching Our Kids to Kill: A Call to Action Against

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SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Asamen, Joy, and Gordon Berry, eds. Research Paradigms, Television, and Social Behavior. Sage Publications, 1998.

Cantor, Joanne. Mommy, I'm Scared: How TV and Movies Frighten Children and What We Can Do to Protect Them. Harcourt Brace, 1998.

Carlsson, C., and C. Von Felitzen, eds. Children and Media Violence: Yearbook from the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen. Nordicom: Goteborg University, 1998.

Condry, John. The Psychology of Television. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 1989.

Cress, Joseph, and Burt Berlowe. Peaceful Parenting in a Violent World. Perspective Publications, 1995.

Crudele, John, and Richard Erickson. Making Sense of Adolescence: How to Parent from the Heart. John Crudele Productions, 1995.

DeGaetano, Gloria. Media Smarts for Young Folks. Train of Thought Publishing, 1999.

DeGaetano, Gloria. Television and the Lives of Our Children. Train of Thought Publishing, 1998.

DeGaetano, Gloria and K. Bander. Screen Smarts: A Family Guide to Media Literacy. Houghton Mifflin, 1996.

Duhon-Sells, Rose, ed. Dealing with Youth Violence: What Schools and Communities Need to Know. National Education Services, 1995.

Eron, Leonard, et al. Reason to Hope: A Psychosocial Perspective on Violence and Youth. American Psychological Association, 1994.

Federman, Joel. Television Violence Study, vol. 3. University of California, 1998.

Fried, Suellen, and Paula Fried. Bullies and Victims: Helping Your Child Through the Schoolyard Battlefield. M. Evans and Company, 1996.

Garbarino, James. Raising Children in a Socially Toxic Environment. Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1995.

Garbarino, James, et al. Children in Danger: Coping with the Consequences of Community Violence. Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1992.

Grossman, Dave. On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society. Little, Brown & Co, 1996.

Gullotta, T., et al., eds. Delinquent Violent Youth: Theory and Interventions. Sage Publications, 1998.

Healy, Jane M. Endangered Minds: Why Our Kids Don't Think and What to Do About It. Simon and Schuster, 1991.

Healy, Jane M. Failure to Connect: How Computers Affect Our Children's Minds-for Better and Worse. Simon and Schuster, 1998.

Josephson, Wendy. Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages. Ottawa: National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, 1995.

Kotulak, Ronald. Inside the Brain: Revolutionary Discoveries of How the Mind Works. Andrews McMeel Publishing, 1996.

Levin, Diane. Remote Control Childhood? Combating the Hazards of a Media Culture. National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1998.

Levin, Diane. Teaching Young Children in Violent Times: Building a Peaceable Classroom. Educators for Social Responsibility, 1994.

Levine, James. Getting Men Involved: Strategies for Early Childhood Programs. Scholastic, 1994.

Levine, Madeline. Viewing Violence: How Media Violence Affects Your Child's and Adolescent's Development. Doubleday, 1996.

Medved, Michael. Hollywood vs. America: Popular Culture and the War on Traditional Values. HarperCollins, 1992.

Provenzo, Eugene. Video Kids. Harvard University Press, 1991.

Slaby, R. Early Violence Prevention: Tools for Teaching Young Children. National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1995.

Walsh, David. Selling Out America's Children: How America Puts Profits Before Values -- and What Parents Can Do. Fairview Press, 1994.
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Re: Stop Teaching Our Kids to Kill: A Call to Action Against

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INDEX

Page numbers in italics indicate figures.

abuse. See child abuse; domestic violence
Acquired Violence Immune System
Deficiency Syndrome (AVIDS),
64
action figures, 39, 51, 53, 80-81
addiction, video game, 68-70
adolescents. See teenagers
African-American youth murder victims,
17
age
American cultural insensitivity to
appropriate viewing fare, 34-37
appropriate television news viewing,
96-97
movie rating system, 109
prime years for violent criminal
acts, 16
See also preschoolers; teenagers
aggravated assault. See assault
aggression, 7, 133, 134
brain activity and, 58-64, 89
and decreased prefrontal cortex
activity, 58
heroic fantasies of, 55
studies of increased levels of,
26-32
video game arousal effects, 70-71
See also assault rates; violent
crime
Allen, Steve, 116
American Academy of Child and
Adolescent Psychiatry
(AACAP), 127-28
American Academy of Pediatrics,
The (AAP), 87, 125-26, 134
American Medical Association, The
(AMA), 123-24, 133
American Psychological Association
(APA), 124-25, 134-35
Americans for Responsible Television,
147
America Online, 18
animal behavior, 47-48
animal mutilation, 7, 18
anxiety, 35, 36
arcade games. See video and computer
games
Arkansas. See Jonesboro (Ark.) middle
school shootings
Army, U.S.
combat simulator usage, 4-5, 74
Medical Service Corps, 14
arrest rates
violent crime, 18, 19
assault rates, 11, 12, 15
comparison of murder, assault, and
imprisonment (1957-97), 13
international per-<:apita rate
increase (1977-93), 10-11
Atrium Society Publications, 147-48
Australia, 10
AVIDS. See Acquired Violence
Immune System Deficiency Syndrome

Batman movies, 35
behavior problems, 10, 56, 59, 61, 88
Belgium, 10-11
Belson, William, 62
Ben Hur (movie), 85
Bennett, William J., 116
Boston (Mass.) crime deterrents, 16
boys. See males
brain activity, 58-64
language skills as violence
inhibitor, 89-90
violence-provoked cognitive confusion,
55
violent imagery as overstimulant,
59
brain stem reactivity, 59
Bruner, Jerome, 52
Bullitt (movie), 34
bullying, 18, 56
Burke, Edmund, 33
Bush, George, 39-40

cable television violence, 42, 44
Canada, 11, 134
Canadians Concerned About Violence
in Entertainment
(C-CAVE), 148
Cantor, Joanne, 36
Capcom, 80, 81
Carneal, Michael, 4, 61, 75-76,
111, 112
CarnEvil (video game), 79
Carter, jimmy, 116
cartoon violence, 34-35, 37, 49
toy counterparts, 39
Case, Stephen M., 18
CBS television, 133
Center for Media Literacy, 148-49
Center for Media and Public Affairs,
37-38, 135
Center for Successful Parenting,
149-50
Center for the Study and Prevention
of Violence, 149
Centerwall, Brandon, 31-32, 134
Chicago (111.) child murder-victim
potential, 17
child abuse, 15, 57, 59
exposure to screen violence as,
49-50, 57
sexual, 18
child development
and brain activity stimulation,
58-64
impact of violent imagery on,
53-58
literacy skills-building and, 89-92
reduced viewing rules and, 87-88
"Children and Media Violence: A
Yearbook from the UNESCO
International Clearinghouse on
Children and Violence on the
Screen, " 45, 135-36
Children's Television Act of 1990,
39-40
chronology of media violence finding,
statements, and actions
(1952-99), 132-36
civil litigation. See lawsuits
classical conditioning, 63, 64
Clinton, Bill, 1, 7, 104-5, 109, 136
CNN Newsroom and World View
(television program), 97
"Code of Conduct, " 116
cognition. See brain activity
Colorado. See Littleton (Colo.) high
school shootings
Columbine High School. See Littleton
(Colo.) high school shootmgs
commercials, television, 45
Committee for Children, 150
compassion, 61
computers
placement in home, 88
reduced use-time rules, 87
See also video and computer
games; World Wide Web
Comstock, George, 44
conditioning, 48, 63, 64, 73. See
also desensitization
Congress, U.S., 39-41
hearings on television violence,
26-28, 39, 132
violence-restrictive legislative initiatives,
107-8
conversational skills, 90-92
crime. See assault rates; law enforcement;
violent crime
Cultural Environment Movement
(CEM), 150-51
Cuomo, Mario, 116
Cypress Hill (rap group), 79

Death Wish (movie), 34
Denmark, 11
desensitization, 2-3, 26
cultural, 32-37
of young children, 7, 60-64
development, child. See child development
Dewey, John, 49
Dick Tracy (movie), 34
Die-Hard 2 (movie), 85
DiIulio, John J., 15
Diller, Barry, 41
Disney Company, 105, 113
domestic violence, 12, 56-57, 59
Doom (video game), 67, 83
Littleton perpetrators' practice in,
101, 77
as mechanical training simulator,
71-72, 77
drug abuse, 15
Duck Hunt (video game), 74
Duke Nukem (video game), 67, 78,
80

educational television, 98
Education Department, U.S., 135
Eggs of Steel (video game), 80
ego development, 56
Ellerbee, Linda, 97
E-mail campaigns, anti-media violence,
115-16
empathy, 61
Endangered Minds (Healey), 68-69
England. See Great Britain
environmental influences, 49-53
Eron, Leonard, 29, 133
Exorcist, The (movie), 36

Falklands War, 48, 74
fantasy, 54-55
Fathers' Network, 151
FATS (Fire Arms Training Simulator),
74
FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation),
11, 12, 48
FCC (Federal Communications
Commission), 39, 115
address and telephone number,
145
rating system investigation, 111
fears, children's, 26, 35-37
feelings, articulation of, 90
females
arrest rate for violent crimes, 20
video game use, 68
fight or flight response, 59
films. See movies; television
firearms. See guns
Fire Arms Training Simulator
(FATS), 74
First Amendment, 1, 40, 105, 111,
112
"First Person Shooter" video games,
71, 78, 79, 81
Ford, Gerald R., 116
Fowler, Mark, 39
France, 11
Franks, Marty, 43-44
free speech. See First Amendment
French Connection, The (movie), 34
Fresh (movie), 95
FTC (Federal Trade Commission),
104-5

gaming industry. See video games
gangs, 12, 16, 17
Gerbner, George, 37
G.I. Joe (cartoon), 34-35, 40
girls. See females
Golden, Andrew, 61
government officials, list of, 145
G-rated movies, 45
Great Britain, 11, 35
Greece, 10
Greenfield, Patricia, 67
Griffith, Paddy, 48
GrowSmartBrains, 151-52
Guncon, 74
guns, 16, 17, 21
marksmanship simulators, 4-5,
71-80, 112
Gunsmoke (television program), 27

Hall, Stephen, 36
Harris, Eric, 9, 21, 77, 101
Harter, Russell, 91
Healey, Jane, 68-69
Health and Human Services Department,
U.S., 135
Heavy Freight Films, 152
heroes, screen, 51, 52, 56, 57
Hitman (book), 111
Holmes, Richard, 48
home video games. See video and
computer games
homicide. See murders
horror movies, 36, 93
House of Representatives, U.S.,
hearings on television violence,
132
House of the Dead (video game), 79
Huesmann, L. Rowell, 29, 133
Hungary, 11
Hustler (magazine), 108
Hyde, Henry, 107
hyperactivity, 59, 88
hypervigilancy, 59-60
identification, 53-58

id Software, 112
imagination, 61
imitation, 51-52
identification and, 53-58
imprisonment. See incarceration
impulsive behavior, 59, 61, 89
incarceration, 17
rate comparisons, 13, 15
indicator species, 17
insensitivity. See desensitization
Institute on Violence and Destructive
Behavior, 152-53
interactive video games. See video
and computer games
Internet. See World Wide Web
InterPol, 10
Invasion of the Body Snatchers
(movie), 36

Jackson, Beverly Robertson,
100-101
James, Jennifer, 114
James Bond, Jr. (television program),
40
Japan, 11
Jetsons, The (cartoon), 40
Jonesboro (Ark.) middle school
shootings, 2, 3, 22, 61, 76-77
Journal of the American Medical
Association, 32, 134
joystick, similarity to pistol grip,
79
Judd, Naomi, 116
Justice Department, U.S., 104-5,
111, 135

Kennard, Bill, 115
Kentucky. See Paducah (Ky.) school
shootings
Kingpin: Life of Crime (video game),
79, 81
Klebold, Dylan, 9, 21, 77, 101
Krueger, Freddy (movie character),
55

language skills, 89-92
Laugh-In (television program), 44
law enforcement, 4, 48
anticrime measures, 16
training simulators, 73, 74, 75
See also incarceration
laws. See legislation
lawsuits
first-known against television network,
133
against media and video game
manufacturers, 75, 110, 111
product liability, 113
learning problems, 56, 88
Leave It to Beaver (television program),
40
legislation
Children's Television Act, 39-40
media violence-restriction initiatives,
107-10
Levin, Diane, 18
Lieberman, Joseph, 107-8
Lindsey, Robert, 81
Lion and the Lamb Project, 153
listening skills, 92
literacy skills, 89-92
litigation. See lawsuits
Littleton (Colo.) high school shootings,
2, 6-7, 22, 104
characteristics of perpetrators, 9,
21, 77, 101
youth reactions to, 18, 63
Lowenstein, Doug, 80

MACS (Multipurpose Arcade Combat
Simulator), 74
males
juvenile violent crime arrest rate,
19
study of teenage exposure to television
violence, 62
study of video game reactions, 68,
71
Marine Corps, U.S., 77
Marine Doom simulator, 77
marksmanship practice, video games
as, 4-5, 72-74
Marshall, S. L. A., 48
Masked Rider (television program),
52
Mason City, Iowa, 109
Matrix, The (movie), 34
McCain, John, 107-8
Media Awareness Network,
153-54
Media Education Foundation,
154-55
media literacy organizations, list of,
147-58
Mediascope, Inc., 42, 66, 155
media violence, 3-4
behavioral links with, 7, 10,
24-26
damaging and potentially good
effects of, 6-8
definition of, 121-22
increased levels of graphic imagery
in, 22
list of prevention organizations,
147-58
production techniques, 92-94
regulatory approaches, 104-18
research studies findings, 24-26,
29-32, 42-45
See also movies; television; video
and computer games
MediaWise, 155-56
medical technology, 14
Mighty Morphin Power Rangers
(television program), 52-53
military psychology, 2, 48, 63
military simulators, 4-5, 72, 73, 74,
77
Miller, Mark Crispin, 34
Minow, Newton N., 134
"vast wasteland" speech, 38, 39,
132
Mommy, I'm Scared: How TV and
Movies Frighten Children and
What We Can Do to Protect
Them (Cantor), 36
Mortal Kombat (video game), 67,
71, 80
Mothers Against Violence in America
(MAVIA), 156
movies
as aggression stimulators, 7
cognitive confusion from, 55
desensitization to violence from,
33-34
fearful reactions to, 35-36, 55
listing of major studios, 141-42
listing of theater exhibitors, 143
parental guidance on, 85, 93, 95
rating system, 34, 45, 109, 143
rating system initiatives, 107-10
sensational vs. sensitive violence
portrayals in, 94-96
"slasher" genre effects, 22, 83, 110
murder, 6, 11, 12, 16, 31
comparison with assault and violent
crime rates (1957-97),
12-14, 13
military psychology studies, 48
urban youth liability to, 17
video game practice-stimulus,
76-77
See also school shootings
Murrow, Edward R., 27

National Alliance for Non-Violent
Programming (NANP), 156-57
National Association of Broadcasters
(NAB)
Mark Fowler's speech to, 39
Newton Minow's "vast wasteland"
speech to, 38, 132
National Association for the Education
of Young Children
(NAEYC), 126-27
National Cable Television Association
(NCT A), 42
National Centers for Disease Control,
violence research program,
31-32
National Coalition on Television
Violence (NCTV), 157
National Commission on the Causes
and Prevention of Violence,
133
National Council for Families and
Television, 135
National Funding Collaborative on
Violence Prevention, 9
National Institute of Mental Health,
report on link between television
violence and aggressive
behavior, 29, 133
National Institute on Media and the
Family, 157-58
National Parent/Teacher Association
(National PTA), 128-31, 133,
134
National Television Violence Study
(NTVS), 42-43, 44, 70, 135
Natural Born Killers (movie), 33,
106
NC-17-rated movies, 45
Netherlands, 11
New Zealand, 10
Nick News (television program), 197
Nightmare on Elm Street, A (movie),
55
nightmares, 35, 36
noradrenaline levels, 58, 61
Norway, 10

007 Golden Eye (video game), 71
operant conditioning, 73
organizations, media literacy and
prevention, 157-58

Pac-Man (video game), 65
Paducah (Ky.) school shootings, 4,
22, 61, 75-76
lawsuits, 75, 110, 111
parental recourses, 82-118
alternate quality entertainment
choices, 98-99
approaches to television news violence,
96-98
banned use of violent video
games, 99-100
consistent viewing-time rule
enforcement, 87-89
discussions with children, 85-86,
92-96, 100-101
guidelines of responsibilities,
83-87
language and reading skills
encouragement, 89-92
list of action resources, 137-46
list of watch-dog organizations,
147-58
litigation, 75, 110, 111, 113
movie viewing with children, 85, 95
national-level measures, 106-18
peer pressure confrontation,
101-3
as process, 84-86
Pastore, John, 28
Patton (movie), 85
PC Gamer (magazine), 93
Peckinpah, Sam, 34
peer pressure, parental confrontation
with, 101-3
Perry, Bruce, 89-90
PG-rated movies, 34, 45
PG-13-rated movies, 109
physiological arousal, video games
and, 71
play, imitation of screen violence,
51-52
PlayStation 2, 4
police. See law enforcement
Pong (video game), 65
pornography industry, 8
Postal (video game), 67, 78, 106
post-traumatic stress disorder, 36
Poussaint, Alvin, 49-50
poverty, 15
Powell, Colin, 116
power issues, 85-86
Power Rangers, 34, 52-53
prefrontal cortex activity, 58, 89
preschoolers, 7, 96-97
cartoon violence exposure, 49
credulity of, 55
cultural desensitivity and viewing
habits of, 34-35
imitative behavior, 54, 56
as television merchandising targets,
51
production techniques, 92-94
PTA. See National Parent/Teacher
Association
Pulp Fiction (movie), 34
punishments, 29-30, 133

Quake (video game), 79

racism, 14, 15
rape, 11, 12
rating systems
Clinton on enforcement of, 109
FCC investigation of, 111
industry organizations, 143
legislative initiatives, 107-8
movie, 34, 45, 109, 143
television, 44, 88-89
video games, 80, 143
reading
to children, 90
skills as violence inhibitor, 89-90
Redneck Rampage (video game),
78-79, 81
Richmond (Va.) crime deterrents, 16
robberies, 11, 12
role models, television characters as,
49
Roots (television program), 54
R-rated movies, 45, 109

Salazar, Ken, 109
Schafer, Wesley, 76
school shootings, 2-3
Jonesboro (Ark.), 2, 76-77
Littleton (Colo.), 2, 9, 18-19, 21,
63, 77, 101
Paducah (Ky.), 4, 75-76, 110, 111
student reactions to, 2-3, 18-19,
63
Schwarzkopf, Norman, 116
Scotland, 11
Searchers, The (movie), 34
See It Now (television program),
27
self-expression skills, 91
Senate, U.S., hearings on television
violence, 27, 132
sexual abuse, 18
She-Ra (cartoon), 34-35
Shifrin, Donald, 70
Signorielli, Nancy, 37
simulators, 4-5, 71-80, 112
slasher films, 22, 83, 110
societal values, decay of, 21
sociopathic behaviors, 61
Soldier of Fortune (magazine), 108
Sounder (movie), 94-95
South Carolina, convenience store
murder, 76
Spider-Man (television program),
52
"State of Children's Television"
(1998 report), 88-89
stimulus-response training, 73, 76.
See also conditioning
Street Fighter (video game), 80-81
stress, 56
suicide, teen, 17
Super Mario Brothers (video game),
65
Super Nintendo, 5
Surgeon General, U.S., 28, 133
Sweden, 10, 35

Tartikoff, Brandon, 23
Task Force on Family Violence, 133
Teachers Resisting Unhealthy Children's
Entertainment (TRUCE),
158
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, 35,
55, 85
teenagers, 62, 65
interactive video game popularity
with, 65-71
peer pressure and, 102-3
suicide rate increase, 17
television news viewing, 97-98
Telecommunications Act of 1996,
137
television, 23-46
as aggressive and violent behavior
trigger, 7, 26-32
cartoon violence, 34-35, 37, 49
commercials, 45
congressional hearings, 26-28
distorted perception of reality
from, 37
escalation of children's exposure
to violence on, 3, 37-38
first violence-incitement lawsuit,
133
industry "Statement of Principles, "
41-42, 135
listing of networks and stations,
137-41
merchandising tie-ins, 51
national study of violence on,
42-43, 44
news program violence, 96-98
parental program selection, 98-99
parental reduced viewing-time
rules, 87-89
rating system, 44, 88-89
reading as alternative to, 90-91
research studies, 29-32, 42-45
surgeon general's report, 28-29
V-chip blocking device, 44, 88-89
"Television and Growing Up: The
Impact of Televised Violence"
(U.S. Surgeon General's report),
28-29
Television Violence Act (TVA) of
1990, 39, 40, 41, 134
Thompson, Jack, 110
Time Crisis (video game), 74
toddlers, 34, 51
toys
list of manufacturers and retailers,
145-46
as reinforcement of screen violence,
39, 51, 53, 80-81
television cartoon tie-ins, 39
Turn Off the TV (organization), 158
21st-Century Media Responsibility
Act (proposed), 107-8

UNESCO, 45, 135-36
University of California, 42
University of North Carolina, 42
University of Texas, 42
Untouchables, The (television program),
27

V-chip device, 44, 88-89
video and computer games, 4-5,
65-81, 105, 113
as addictive, 68-70
add-on packages, 77
escapist quality of, 69
"First Person Shooter, " 71, 78,
79, 81
inadequacy of rating system, 80
interactive effects of, 65-66,
67-68, 71-72
legislative rating system initiative,
107-8
linked with school shooting perpetrators,
75-77, 101
list of manufacturers, 144-45
list of rental companies, 143-44
manufacturer denials, 79-80
manufacturer liability, 112
as marksmanship practice, 4-5,
71-77
on-line availability of, 66, 81
parental countermeasures, 87-88,
93, 99-100
psychological and physiological
effects of, 68-71
technological advances, 65, 66,
77-78
Vietnam War, 74
violence. See aggression; assault
rates; media violence; movies;
murders; television; video and
computer games
violence immune system, 64
violent crime, 6-7, 17
comparison of murder, assault,
and imprisonment rates
(1957-97), 13
juvenile arrest rates, 19, 20
local deterrents, 16
rate increase, 1960-1991, 11
See also murders; school shootings
visual imagery, 91-92

Walk, Gary Eng, 79-80
warfare, 48, 63, 74, 77
Washington (D.C.) child murder-victim
potential, 17
Washington (state) media-violence
control legislative initiative,
110
watch-dog organizations, listing of,
147-58
"Watching America" (1990 report),
40
Westside Middle School. See Jonesboro
(Ark.) middle school
shootings
Williams, Tannis McBeth, 30-31
Wilson, James Q., 14
WingMan Force (video game), 75
World War II, 48, 63, 72, 74
World Wide Web, 18, 80, 101,
116
violent video games availability,
66, 81
World Wrestling Federation, action
figures sold by, 53
wrestling, professional, 53, 106
writing skills, 89-92

X-Men (television program), 52

youth gangs, 12, 16, 17

Zamora v. CBS, et at. (1979), 133
zero-tolerance policies, 16, 109

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

LT. COL DAVE GROSSMAN (U.S.A., RET.) is the author of On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society. As a West Point psychology professor and professor of military science, Grossman trains medical and health professionals on how to deal with and prevent killing. He trained mental health professionals in the aftermath of the Jonesboro shootings, and has been an expert witness and consultant in several murder cases, including that of Timothy McVeigh and Michael Carneal.

GLORIA DEGAETANO is a nationally recognized educator in the field of media violence, and the author of the critically acclaimed Screen Smarts: A Family Guide to Media Literacy.
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