Bertha Lutz, by Wikipedia

Bertha Lutz, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Jun 02, 2018 8:48 am

Bertha Lutz
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/2/18

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Image
Bertha Maria Júlia Lutz
Bertha Lutz in 1925
Born August 2, 1894
São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Died September 16, 1976 (aged 82)
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Nationality Brazilian
Other names Lutz Berta
Occupation Brazilian scientist

Bertha Maria Júlia Lutz (August 2, 1894 in São Paulo – September 16, 1976 in Rio de Janeiro) was a Brazilian zoologist, politician, and diplomat. Lutz became a leading figure in both the Pan American feminist movement and human rights movement.[1]

Biography

Early life and education


Bertha Lutz was born in São Paulo. Her father, Adolfo Lutz (1855–1940), was a pioneering physician and epidemiologist of Swiss origin, and her mother, Amy Fowler, was a British nurse. Bertha Lutz studied natural sciences, biology and zoology at the University of Paris - Sorbonne, graduating in 1918. Soon after obtaining her degree, she returned to Brazil.[2][3]

Return to Brazil and the fight for women’s suffrage

In 1919, one year after returning to Brazil, Lutz founded the League for Intellectual Emancipation of Women and was appointed to represent the Brazilian government in the Female International Council of the International Labor Organization (ILO). Lutz later created the Brazilian Federation for Women’s Progress in 1922, a political group which advocated for Brazilian women’s rights, most importantly their right to vote, around the world. Lutz served as a delegate to the Pan-American Conference of Women in Baltimore, Maryland, US that same year, and would continue to attend women’s rights conferences in the years to come.[4] In 1925, she was elected president of the Inter-American Union of Women.[5] Lutz’s involvement in the fight for women’s suffrage made her the leading figurehead of women’s rights until the end of 1931, when Brazilian women finally gained the right to vote.

Leading the inter-American feminist campaign

Lutz’s advocacy for the rights of women did not end with the right to vote, and she continued to play a prominent role in the feminist campaign. In 1933, after obtaining her law degree from Rio de Janeiro Law School, Lutz participated and introduced several proposals for gender equity in the [Inter-American Conference] of Montevideo, Uruguay. Most notable of these proposals was her call for the refocusing of the Inter-American Commission of Women on the issue of gender equality in the workplace.[6] In 1935, Lutz decided to run for Congress and came in second behind Cándido Pessoa, and replaced him when he died a year later, making Lutz one of the few Brazilian Congresswomen of the time. The first initiative that Lutz presented while in Congress was the creation of the “Statue of women”, a committee with the intended purpose of analyzing every Brazilian law and statute to ensure none violated the rights of women.[7]

Lutz, however, was unable to push forward her measures when Getúlio Vargas was reinstated as dictator in 1937, which led to a suspension of parliamentary and, consequently, a suspension her project.[8] Lutz nonetheless continued her diplomatic career. She was one of the four women to sign the United Nations Charter at the Inter-American Conference of Women held in San Francisco in 1945 and served as vice president of the Inter-American Commission of Women from 1953 to 1959.[9]

Later years

In 1964, Lutz headed the Brazilian delegation at the 14th Inter-American Commission in Montevideo.[10] Additionally, at the 15th annual meeting of the Inter-American Commission of Women held in 1970, she proposed to hold a seminar dedicated to addressing the specific problems faced by indigenous women. Although she was a little over seventy during this stage of her life, Lutz continued to attend conferences and push for the expansion of women’s rights, including the International Women's Year conference in Mexico City in 1975.[11] She died in 1976 at the age of 82.[8]

Scientific career

After returning to Brazil in 1918, Lutz dedicated herself to the study of amphibians, especially poison dart frogs and frogs of the family Hylidae.[12] In 1919, she was hired by the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. She later became a naturalist at the Section of Botany. Throughout her lifetime, Lutz would publish numerous scientific studies and publications, most notably “Observations on the life history of the Brazilian Frog” (1943), “A notable frog chorus in Brazil” (1946), and “New frogs from Itatiaia mountain” (1952).[13] In 1958, she described what is now known as Lutz's rapids frog (Paratelmatobius lutzii Lutz and Carvalho, 1958), which is named in honor of her father.[14]

Bertha Lutz is honored in the names of two species of Brazilian lizards: Liolaemus lutzae and Bogertia lutzae,[14] as well as three species of frogs: Megaelosia lutzae,[15] Dendropsophus berthalutzae, and Scinax berthae.[16]

Lutz and political conferences

Female International Council of the International Labor Organization (ILO): 1919


During this conference, Lutz advocated for equality among the sexes and the specific mention of women in the clauses that protect against injustices and abuse.[17]

Pan American Women’s Congress Conference in Baltimore: 1922

At this conference, Lutz advocated for the equality of rights and opportunity of women, with a special focus on political inclusion.[9]

Inter-American Conference of Montevideo: 1933

Lutz came prepared to this conference with a study of the legal status of women in the Americas and advocated that the nationality of married women should not be contingent on that of their husbands. She also proposed an Equals Rights treaty and pushed the Inter-American Commission of Women to refocus and recommit to analyzing working conditions of women in the Americas.[18]

San Francisco UN conference: 1945

Along with three other women, Lutz fought for the inclusion of the word “women” in the preamble to the United Nations Charter. The final clause read: " ...faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small"[19]

She further proposed the creation of a special commission of Women whose purpose it would be to analyze the "legal status of Women" around the world in order to better understand the inequalities they face and be better prepared to combat them. She is credited with being the most prominent and tenacious advocate for the inclusion of women's rights in the charter, and without her work the United Nations would likely not have a mandate to protect women's rights.[20]

Further reading

• Hahner, June E. Emancipating the Female Sex: The Struggle for Women's Rights in Brazil, 1850-1940. (1990)

References

1. June E. Hahner, "Bertha Maria Julia Lutz" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 3, pp. 474-75. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996.
2. "Vida Pessoal". Museo Virtual de Berta Lutz. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
3. Lôbo, Yolanda Lima (2010). Bertha Lutz. Recife, PE: Fundação Joaquim Nabuco, Editora Massangana. p. 129.
4. Lôbo, Yolanda Lima (2010). Bertha Lutz. Recife, PE: Fundação Joaquim Nabuco, Editora Massangana. pp. 31–33.
5. Pernet, Corinne. "Chilean Feminists, the international Women's Movement, and Suffrage, 915-1950". Pacific Historical Review. 69. JSTOR 10.2307/3641229.
6. Lôbo, Yolanda Lima (2010). Bertha Lutz. Recife, PE: Fundação Joaquim Nabuco, Editora Massangana. p. 73.
7. Lôbo, Yolanda Lima (2010). Bertha Lutz. Recife, PE: Fundação Joaquim Nabuco, Editora Massangana. p. 75.
8. Lôbo, Yolanda Lima (2010). Bertha Lutz. Recife, PE: Fundação Joaquim Nabuco, Editora Massangana. p. 132.
9. Miller, Francesca. "Women, Culture, and Politics in Latin America". UC Press E-books Collection. University of California Press.
10. Lôbo, Yolanda Lima (2010). Bertha Lutz. Recife, PE: Fundação Joaquim Nabuco, Editora Massangana. p. 97.
11. Hahner, "Lutz", p. 475.
12. Lutz, Bertha. Brazilian Species of "Hyla". 1973. University of Texas Press. Austin. 260 pp. ISBN 978-0292707047.
13. Lôbo, Yolanda Lima (2010). Bertha Lutz. Recife, PE: Fundação Joaquim Nabuco, Editora Massangana. p. 133.
14. Beolens B, Watkins M, Grayson M. (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. ("Lutz, A." and "Lutz, B. M. J.", p. 163).
15. Bo Beolens; Michael Watkins; Michael Grayson (22 April 2013). The Eponym Dictionary of Amphibians. Pelagic Publishing. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-907807-44-2.
16. Bo Beolens; Michael Watkins; Michael Grayson (22 April 2013). The Eponym Dictionary of Amphibians. Pelagic Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-907807-44-2.
17. Lôbo, Yolanda Lima (2010). Bertha Lutz. Recife, PE: Fundação Joaquim Nabuco, Editora Massangana. p. 32.
18. Marques, Teresa Cristina. "Between the Equalitarism and Women's Rights Reformation: Bertha Lutz at Montevideo Interamerican Conference, 1933". Revista Estudos Feministas. 21 (3).
19. Skard, Torild. "Getting Our History Right: How Were the Equal Rights of Women and Men Included in the Charter of the United Nations?". Forum for Development Studies. 35 (1): 37–60.
20. "Centre for International Studies and Diplomacy (CISD) at SOAS University of London". www.cisd.soas.ac.uk.
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Re: Bertha Lutz, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Jun 02, 2018 9:23 am

Berta Lutz
by Wikipedia
2008

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
Berta Lutz in 1925
Birth: August 2 of 1894, São Paulo
Death: September 16 of 1976, 81 years, Rio de Janeiro
Field: naturalist, zoologist, professor, feminist
Abbreviation in zoology: Lutz or B.Lutz

Berta Maria Júlia Lutz (August 2, 1894, São Paulo – September 16, 1976, Rio de Janeiro) was a zoologist, and scientist who became a leading figure of the feminist movement in Brazil.

She was born in São Paulo. Her father, Adolfo Lutz (1855–1940), was a famous physician and epidemiologist of Swiss origin, and her mother, Amy Fowler, was a British nurse. Berta Lutz studied natural sciences, biology and zoology at the University of Paris - Sorbonne. After returning to Brazil, she dedicated herself to the study of amphibians, especially poison dart frogs and frogs of the family Hylidae.[1] The Lutz's Rapids Frog (Paratelmatobius lutzii, Lutz and Carvalho, 1958), was described by her. In 1919, she was hired by the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, a fact which achieved great repercussion in the country, because the access to public offices was barred to women at that time. She later became a naturalist at the Section of Botany at the same institution.

In 1918, Berta returned to Brazil and spoke out for a feminist movement to begin. After seeing the advancements made by European and American women towards the feminist movements, she could see that Brazilian women could also help out with the movement by lending whatever aid they could to the organization. In 1922, Berta attended the Pan American Conference of Women, and was advised by Paulina Luisi and Carrie Chapman Catt. Following the conference, Berta drew up the constitution for a group named the Federação Brasileira pelo Progresso Feminino (FPBF) [English: Brazilian Federation for the Advancement of Women].

In 1934, the women of Brazil earned the right to vote due to Lutz and her organization.

As a politician, Berta Lutz was elected a deputy federal representative in 1934, after failing two successive ballots. Her main political platform was changing worker's legislation in relation to women's right to work, child labor, gender equality in wages and rights, the lawful right to maternity leave. She lost her mandate when Getúlio Vargas closed down both legislative chambers in 1937.

Lutz was one of four women who signed the United Nations Charter at San Francisco on 25 Oct. 1945 ≤UN Charter; UN Chronicle 2002≥. She was also Brazil's representative to sign the important treaty on Diplomatic Asylum 1954. ≤UN Treaty Series≥

Some Publications

In politics


• About to Nacionalidade nas da mulher married American republics. Pan American Union. 8 pp. 1923
• D. Bertha Lutz: das Homenagem senhoras illustre brasileiras to President da União mulheres inter-American. Ed Typ. do Jornal do Commercio, Rodrigues & C. 21 pp. 1925
• A hair Federação Brasileira Progresso Feminino: seus fins. With Carmen de Carvalho, and Orminda Bastos . Sales Office Ed Graphicas do Jornal do Brasil. 19 pp. 1930
• A Nacionalidade da mulher Perante married or private international direito. I. Pongetti, Niterói . 108 pp. 1933
• 13 basic principles: suggestões ao da Constituição to-project. Ed Federação Brasileira Feminino Hair Progresso. 64 pp.. 1933
In science
• Index two files do Museu Nacional. Museu Nacional (Brazil), Print. National 1920
• Studies on floral biology gives Mangifera indica L. Ed National Museum. 158 pp.. 1923
• The flora of the Serra da Bocaina. 1926
• Wild Life in Brazil: a pageant of the wildlife That is sheltered in the forests and on the prairies of the largest country in South America. Edition reprinted in 1932 . University of Texas Press reissued. 260 pp. ISBN 0-292-70704-5 1973
• British naturalists in Brazil. E. Rodrigues & Co. 37 pp. 1941
• Biology and taxonomy of Zachaenus parvulus . 64 pp. 1944
• The development of Eleutherodactylus nasutus Lutz: I. the external embryology of Eleutherodactylus nasutus Lutz. 13 pp. 1946
• Anuran amphibians do Solimões and Rio Black high: about Algumas apontamentos vicariant forms and suas. With Gertrud Rita Kloss . Ed Graphic Serviço do Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 678 pp. 1952
• Taxonomy of the neotropical Hylidae . No. 11 Pearce-Sellards Series, Texas Memorial Museum, Austin. Texas Memorial Museum Ed. 26 pp. 1968
• Brazilian species of Hyla . With Gualter Adolpho Lutz. Photographs and illustrations by Gualter Adolpho Lutz. Ed University of Texas Press, 260 pp. ISBN 0-292-70704-5 1973
• A two museus educational Função. Volume 33 of Série Livros. With Gantois Guilherme Miranda. Ed Museu Nacional, Muiraquitã, 236 pp. ISBN 85-7427-028-8 2008

Some taxa described

Species Plant ( Onagraceae ) Oenothera aberrans Lutz, 1916
Species and subfamilies zoological
Aplastodiscus musicus (Lutz, 1949)
Cochranella ritae (Lutz, 1952)
Grandis Crossodactylus Lutz, 1951
Dendropsophus meridianus (Lutz, 1954)
Eleutherodactylidae Lutz, 1954
Eleutherodactylinae Lutz, 1954
Dunni Gastrotheca Lutz, 1977
Bradei Holoaden Lutz, 1958
Hypsiboas cipoensis (Lutz, 1968)
Hypsiboas goianus (Lutz, 1968)
Hypsiboas joaquini (Lutz, 1968)
Hypsiboas secedens (Lutz, 1963)
Ischnocnema Gualtieri (Lutz, 1974)
Ischnocnema hoehnei (Lutz, 1958)
Ischnocnema venancioi (Lutz, 1958)
Pictiventris Paratelmatobius Lutz, 1958
Phyllomedusa Aye-aye (Lutz, 1966)
Phyllomedusa distincta Lutz, 1950
Pristimantis carvalhoi (Lutz, 1952)
Scinax alcatraz (Lutz, 1973)
Scinax alter (Lutz, 1973)
Angrensis Scinax Lutz, 1973
Scinax caldarum (Lutz, 1968)
Scinax duartei (Lutz, 1951)
Scinax humilis (Lutz, 1954)
Scinax longilineus (Lutz, 1968)
Scinax obtriangulatus (Lutz, 1973)
Scinax perpusillus (Lutz & Lutz, 1939)
Scinax squalirostris (Lutz, 1925)
Scinax trapicheiroi (A. Lutz & B. Lutz, 1954)
Scinax v-signatus (Lutz, 1968)

References

1. Gantois Guilherme Miranda: Berta Lutz: scientist and feminist em mulher da Luta pela emancipação. ( text )
2. Bertha Lutz. 1973 . Brazilian species of Hyla. University of Texas Press. Austin.
3. Amer. J. Bot. 3: 512. 1916 (GCI)
4. UN Charter, UN Chronicle 2002
5. UN Treaty Series
This article was created from the translation of the article Bertha Lutz of the Wikipedia in Portuguese under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License and License GNU Free Documentation.
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