WOMEN AND SPANISH FASCISM -- THE WOMEN'S SECTION OF THE FALA

Re: WOMEN AND SPANISH FASCISM -- THE WOMEN'S SECTION OF THE

Postby admin » Thu Oct 22, 2015 10:52 am

Appendix: the oral sources

My original research plan was to examine the contrast between the rhetoric of SF’s agenda for women and the reality of its implementation in the context of the early post-war period. In particular, I was interested in exploring the lifestyle of elite members, to determine how work for SF might challenge traditional gender roles and how members conceptualized their own contribution to the organization. Through personal contacts in and around Salamanca, I intended to interview women who had implemented Franco’s mandate through SF’s educational programmes as well as women with experience of the organization through social service, the school curriculum or the necessity of carrying the Party card in the 1940s.

As I made a preliminary exploration of written sources, however, I was struck by the complexity of both SF’s staff hierarchies and its ideological origins. Concentrating on the ‘flat’ regional structure would have been to ignore the political, social and religious influences working at different times and in differing ways on the development of SF. Despite the availability of potential interviewees in Salamanca, therefore, I decided that the nuances and inconsistencies of SF’s ideological message could only be explored satisfactorily with more reference to the national team and over a greater time span than I had originally envisaged.

This was confirmed after early contact with the body of SF’s former members, the Asociación Nueva Andadura (ANA). The association has premises in Madrid and around six hundred members nationally. At the time of my first visit in 1994, it housed a library and private archive and teams of its members had recently completed an ‘official’ chronicle of SF. [1] As I realized that I would be able to speak directly to many women who had been part of Pilar Primo de Rivera’s national team, I made the decision to change my focus of study.

With the help of ANA, I was able to interview four former national heads of SF’s twelve specialist departments and many more working on national teams. In all, nineteen of the forty-five people interviewed were introduced to me by ANA and a further three interviews resulted from the personal intervention of two of these first interviewees. Most of the remaining twenty-three interviewees were introduced to me by friends in Spain and Britain. The largest number was from Salamanca, where I interviewed not only SF elites but also women health professionals marginally involved with SF and men with knowledge of SF in the early post-war period. I was keen to spread the interviewing base beyond Madrid and Salamanca, and consequently followed up contacts in Zaragoza, Santiago de Compostela, the province of León and Toledo. Two of my interviews with former SF national staff members were the result of chance encounters in Spain. They talked to me with no prior introduction or involvement of a third party.

Interviews were conducted through the ‘life-story’ model, allowing interviewees to tell their own story but using prompts and pre-prepared questions to guide them. [2] This was a decision taken after my first interview, when I had prepared a longer and more specific list of questions. I received detailed answers to all my points but the acquisition of facts was at the cost of understanding the individual’s feelings and emotions. From then on, I limited questions to open-ended invitations to tell me about early life, education, political background and reasons for becoming involved with SF. In most cases, this led to an account of their career both within SF and after the break-up of the regime. In the case of elite members, I asked further questions about their dealings with and experience of Pilar and their knowledge of La Mota. I prefaced all interviews with a short explanation of who I was and what I was aiming to do. In the case of interviewees secured by ANA, this was sufficient for us to begin the discussion. Indeed, ANA always provided a third person as the intermediary between interviewer and interviewee. This person generally remained for the first five minutes of the interview. Where the contact was through my own friends, however, I was usually on my own. I had to justify and explain my motives and on occasions, interviewees required reassurance.

The interview process was a constant reminder of the sensitivity of the information and the strength of feeling which still exists when discussing the Civil War and the regime. One former member of SF agreed to be interviewed only if she were sent a transcript of the conversation. On another occasion, I was required to give two names of people in the area willing to vouch for my integrity before the interviewee agreed to see me. The two families I cited were phoned. In two instances, despite assurances about me given by close friends, interviewees cancelled at the last moment.

In the case of the male interviewees, life stories were usually more focused on the elements which had involved SF and were generally less chronological than those of the women. Although my introduction to these interviews was the same, the men tended to begin with their direct experiences of SF and return to earlier experiences when they were reflecting on the significance of particular events. One, for example, talked late on in the interview about his wife, reflecting how she had fitted the propaganda image of SF women. Another male interviewee, after discussing at length the profile and importance of SF in the Civil War and early post-war years, personalized the contradictions in Falangist ideology by describing his own reactions to an enforced stay at a summer camp.

I did, however, conduct follow-up interviews with ten people, which took the form of a detailed question-and-answer session. In each case, this was because during their ‘life-story’ account, it was clear that they had more information about specific areas of SF operations. I used these interviews primarily to supplement written sources and to check their validity. In the areas of SF’s religious programme, its twin hierarchies and its work in the rural areas, interviewees gave me detailed accounts of SF practice. This was invaluable in helping me to evaluate the accuracy of SF ‘official’ literature and statistics. In the most extreme case, it showed the distance between the propaganda vision of SF local operations as a scaled-down version of the national programme and the reality, which was considerably less.

A benefit of having a large pool of interviewees was the number of personal narratives obtained from various age groups. Nineteen of the forty-five had experienced the Civil War as adults, and a further seven had had some involvement in youth activities in the war years. Of the remainder, around half had spent their most productive time with SF in the 1950s, while for the youngest group, this was when they began their connections with SF. Having decided to limit the time frame of the study to 1959, I could not fully use the material that these younger ex-members gave me. Although I conducted the interviews in the same way, I tried with these interviewees to find out more about their early experiences through supplementary questions at the end.

The dynamics and success of each interview depended on a number of factors. First was the question of my own credibility with the person to be interviewed. When I was visiting interviewees in their own homes, the length of my introduction depended on the ground work that my contact had done. In general, women who had been on the fringes of SF were less amenable than those who had been heavily involved. Those who had left SF tended to query my motives and stressed the insignificance of their time with SF in relation to the rest of their lives. There was a general reluctance within this group to allow me to tape the interview, although in each case I persuaded them on the grounds of my limitations as a non-native speaker of Spanish.

A number of other interviewees prefaced the interview with a lengthy account of SF’s operations, in particular its welfare work and role in preserving the folk culture of Spain. This was all the more reason for adhering to the ‘life story’ model of interview so that we could move quickly from the general to the particular. It was noticeable that their need to speak to me in such terms diminished as I could show detailed knowledge of SF. This group of women commonly also gave a self-justification of their own experiences within SF and expressed anger as they described Spain’s return to democracy and with it the demise of SF.

A second factor was the presence of other people at the interviews. Occasionally, a husband, wife or sibling would present themselves mid-way through the discussion, which invariably resulted in the rhythm of the conversation being broken. On other occasions, a second (or third) person was there from the beginning and ‘shared’ the interview. This made transcription much harder, and time within the interview was lost to internal disputes about the information and memories.

The third factor was the physical surroundings of the interview. Those conducted at the premises of ANA were the most technically efficient, because a quiet room and optimum recording facilities were guaranteed. But there was a great deal to be gained by interviewing in members’ own houses. The addresses themselves, particularly those in the centre of Madrid, were an indicator of the social status of the interviewees. In general, too, interviewees were relaxed and their home environment was often full of visual clues to their feelings about their past life. Photographs of Pilar and José Antonio, for example, were prominently displayed in many sitting-rooms, as were SF awards and decorations. The readiness and pride with which photo albums, press cuttings and SF memorabilia were produced in some homes were as powerful a comment as anything said in the interview. On one occasion, as I waited for an ex-member in her place of work, I was able to observe her interactions with colleagues and her personal style, both of which subsequently informed a number of my questions. At times, interviews were in public places such as in bars or restaurants: the noise levels and distractions made these difficult occasions.

With the exception of the first, and the final two interviews (conducted in the UK in informal conditions), all were tape-recorded with the prior agreement of the interviewee. With three exceptions, the interviews lasted between fifty and ninety minutes. All but the final two were transcribed and in each case this was done within a week of the interview. With the exception of my discussion with Monsignor Ronald Hishon, all interviews were in Castilian Spanish.

The interviews were conducted mainly through three one-week visits in each year between 1994 and 1999. The availability of interviewees did not always coincide with my own targets for completing chapters. There were therefore two stages in my analysis of the interview material. Following the research visit, I transcribed each block of interviews and analysed them individually and collectively. First, I went through each highlighting details that could be added to existing knowledge. This was copied across to other documents on, for example, ‘membership’ or ‘relations with Pilar’ or ‘career progression’. I then reread each interview separately, trying to see it as a complete narrative and considering the flaws and strengths in my interviewing technique. It was on the basis of this that I decided to send one questionnaire to ANA and, in another case, to clarify a piece of information on the telephone. Although there was not necessarily any prior link between the interviews I had conducted in any one week, I considered each block as a whole and attempted to see connections, similarities and inconsistencies in the set of narratives. In this category was the use of language (repeated phrases, preferred adjectives, the speed and flow of sentences), and more generally, subjects on which interviewees said little. Sometimes it was helpful to record this in the same way as I had done with more concrete information, but mostly it informed me of what my next set of interviews should attempt to do. In the case of SF collusion in the black market of the 1940s, for example, information was not readily forthcoming. I therefore added this as a specific question in my next block of interviews to be asked of all mandos who could possibly have known anything.

The second stage of analysis was to use the full set of interviews as part of my information source. For each chapter, this involved a full rereading of each interview and a more systematic recording of information in each. Facts given in interviews were cross-checked with secondary sources. Opinions and anecdotes were grouped and their frequency noted. Some interview material previously considered to be worth inclusion was discarded because it could not be verified via other interviews or through secondary sources. It was at this stage that I planned follow-up visits to a number of my interviewees. At the point where information was recorded systematically, I found several significant gaps both in information given and in my understanding of what had been said. In this category were the relationship between SF and Acción Católica, the relationship between SF and the male Falange, and the effect on SF and the Falange of the Axis defeat.

Although the present study draws also on written sources, the context and verification of the oral testimonies has been essential. Paying attention to why certain topics (their contribution to the welfare and education programmes, their belief in Falangism) appear to be so important to former SF members has required me to appreciate the greater truth behind the individual accounts, namely members’ collective sense of being ignored, forgotten and misunderstood. It was in this knowledge that I always invited comments from interviewees on political aspects of their role within SF or the regime. It was surprising, therefore, to realize that very few could tell me anything about the politics of the regime. Only at national level did staff have either knowledge or involvement and even among this group, political memories for most were suppressed or very dim. Politics was relevant mainly in terms of their own contribution and a general sense of ‘rightness’ of the regime, but its nuances did not usually impact upon staff members.

The quality of the information was best when personal memories and recollections of SF were voiced. [3] Where interviewees moved from the particular to the general, their information often sounded like political propaganda. This was the case when former SF members spoke of Madrid at the time of the Popular Front elections, the actions of the Communists in the war or made general comments on the Franco regime. It was more impressive when they coincided on points of detail, such as the money they earned, their recollections of Pilar, the regime at the training schools or their reasons for joining SF.

Information was less reliable when applied to events that were neither recurrent nor consistently remembered. This was the case with one interviewee who, in the course of describing her experiences in Germany, had difficulty separating the content of two distinct visits. In other cases, the detail of information was less valuable than its emotional memory and context. In this category were the many anecdotes about Pilar’s personal appearance, important for what they said about the character and importance of her relationship with members. Relevant here, too, was the story of one young member’s journey in the Civil War to take up a post in Nationalist territory. Her recall of the physical conditions of the journey -- sharing a closed train compartment with Republican prisoners -- is of symbolic importance, remembered as being the start of her role within Falangism.

I brought no preconceived ideas to the interviews of what might be considered ‘off-limits’ but soon understood that details of personal or sexual history or members’ sexuality would not be readily given. On the few occasions when interviewees volunteered information about boyfriends or fiancés, they equally clearly closed the topic. When invited to comment generally on marriages or relationships of SF members, they were similarly laconic. Such silences as there were tended to occur during interviews with older members, especially when recalling events of the Civil War and the loss of family members.

The need to avoid bias has been a constant concern. As I transcribed my first interview in 1994, I realized that the questions I had asked had been in part a reflection of the values of the friend who had secured me the contact. I had, in fact, prejudged the areas on which information might have been forthcoming. But the major potential pitfall was the fact that the interviewing pool was predominantly SF elites and their sympathizers. This reflected the contacts I was able to make and the access allowed me. I always hoped to find women with different experiences of SF, particularly those at the receiving end of its welfare work in the ‘liberated’ territories. The nearest I came was interviewing two professional women who had worked in the Nationalist zone. Each had refused to join SF and was prepared to discuss her dislike of SF style and methods. Within the ranks of SF members, I interviewed three who had resigned their posts and one who had been expelled. I was also keen to balance the views of the many national staff available for interview with those of SF staff in the lower ranks. The need to do this became obvious as I became gradually aware of the nuances of social rank and self-esteem within SF’s twin hierarchies. The most important interviews in this context were those with local leaders in the province of León and in Santiago de Compostela. I actively sought interviews with men, but those willing to be interviewed were from similar social and political backgrounds as the women. Only in one case did I secure an interview with someone who was openly critical of Falange and the Nationalist cause. Wherever possible I used information from all non-members of SF both to add detail and to corroborate other material. Fifteen of the forty-five people interviewed were in this category. [4]

Finally, there was a balance to be found between accepting the help of ANA and setting my own parameters for the conduct of the interviews and use of the information. Repecting the wishes of their leadership, the names of members interviewed by me have been anonymized for publication. There was, too, a tension between the undoubted hope of their members that I would present a positive view of SF and my need to avoid the charge of bias. In an attempt to resolve this, I wrote to them in the first year of research indicating the major focus of the study and later talked to them in person about each of the chapter themes. I shared with them my concern that information about SF needed validating from as many sources as possible, and was very grateful when, in response, they arranged (inter alia) an interview with the most openly critical former mando, Mercedes Fórmica.

Shortly before completion of my interviewing, ANA made public its archive, which is now lodged in the Real Academia de la Historia. Future researchers will be able to study and copy documents to which I had only periodic access. [5] The difficulties I faced obtaining information were an early talking point with former SF staff and broke down many barriers. Numerous informal conversations took place as I worked in the private archive or were held over the telephone, often from Britain. These are unrecorded but have been instrumental in forming my thoughts.
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Re: WOMEN AND SPANISH FASCISM -- THE WOMEN'S SECTION OF THE

Postby admin » Thu Oct 22, 2015 10:53 am

Part 1 of 2

Notes

Introduction

1 R. Griffin, The Nature of Fascism, London: Routledge, 1991, p. 1.

2 Griffin, The Nature of Fascism, pp. 32-8.

3 J. Ortega y Gasset, España invertebrada, Madrid: Revista de Occidente en Alianza Editorial, 1981, p. 2.

4 ‘Norma Programática de la Falange’, in J.A. Primo de Rivera, Textos de doctrina política, Madrid: DN de la SF de FET y de las JONS, 1966, p. 339.

5 ‘Mientras España duerme la siesta’, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, p. 619.

6 ‘Acerca de la Revolución’, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, p. 664.

7 ‘Norma Programática de la Falange’, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, pp. 341-2.

8 ‘Puntos iniciales’, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, p. 93.

9 J.P. Fusi, Franco. Autoritarismo y poder personal, Madrid: Ediciones El País, 1985, p. 50.

10 The 1934 Statutes of the Falange set out its structure as comprising: members (afiliados), local centres (JONS), provincial and national centres (jefaturas provinciales y territoriales), heads of Falangist departments (Jefes de Servicios), deputy leader (Secretario General), a political committee (Junta Política), a national council (Consejo Nacional) and the leader (Jefe del Movimiento). R. Chueca, El fascismo en los comienzos del régimen de Franco: un estudio sobre FET-JONS, Madrid: Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas, 1983, pp. 411-12.

11 Its title changed to reflect its merger with the other major party of the Right, the Carlists, or Traditionalists. Its full name was now FET y de las JONS (Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS).

12 The Stabilization Plan was a counter-measure to the economic crisis of 1956, when Spain was on the point of bankruptcy, with rising inflation and a severe balance of payments deficit. S. Payne, The Franco Regime 1936-1975, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987, pp. 469-71.

13 The Republican Constitution disestablished the Church and sought to curb its power. Legislation was passed in 1933 to remove all religious orders from primary and secondary teaching. A. Shubert, A Social History of Modern Spain, London: Unwin Hyman, 1990, p. 167.

14 C. Borderías Mondéjar, Entre líneas. Trabajo e identidad femenina en la España contemporánea -- La Compañía Telefónica 1924-1980, Barcelona: Icaria Editorial S.A., 1993, p. 67. The percentage of women working had fallen since 1900, from 14.51 per cent in 1900 to 9.16 per cent in 1930. Ibid. The Spanish term ‘población activa’ is interpreted as referring to those in work and those seeking it.

15 Borderías Mondéjar, Entre líneas, p. 60. The figures relate to illiteracy among the adult female population and girls over ten years old. The figure for male illiteracy is shown elsewhere at 19.5 per cent. S. Payne, Spain’s First Democracy: The Second Republic 1931-36, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993, p. 86.

16 Payne, Spain’s First Democracy, p. 24.

17 The foremost political group was the CEDA, the alliance of Catholic conservative groups. Another right-wing force was the Carlists, whose Women’s Section (the margaritas) had, from 1931, campaigned against the anti-clerical legislation.

18 Historial de Pilar Primo de Rivera, Real Academia de la Historia, Archivo de la Asociación Nueva Andadura, Carpeta 108-b, doc. 5.

19 P. Primo de Rivera, ‘Historia de la Sección Femenina’, in Revista ‘Y’ (February 1938; October 1938).

20 P. Primo de Rivera, ‘Historia de la Sección Femenina’, in Revista ‘Y’ (September 1938).

21 Ibid.

22 FET y de las JONS, La Sección Femenina: historia y organización, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1952, p. 14; SF de FET y de las JONS, Concentración nacional de las falanges femeninas en honor del Caudillo y del ejército español, Bilbao: Talleres Gráficos de Jesús Alvarez, 1939, p. 13.

23 FET y de las JONS, La Sección Femenina: historia y organización, p. 20. The figure probably refers to the total number helping the war effort in various capacities within the institutions of SF.

24 Following the Decree of Unification, the women of the Carlists were organized into the department of Fronts and Hospitals, with the mandate to manage all relief work at the fronts. The department was dissolved at the end of the war. M. Gallego Méndez, Mujer, Falange y franquismo, Madrid: Taurus, 1983, pp. 57-8.

25 ‘Lo femenino y la Falange’, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, p. 538.

26 ‘Discurso de la fundación de Falange Española’, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, p. 68.

27 M. Sanz Bachiller, La mujer y la educación de los niños, Madrid: Ediciones Auxilio Social, FET y de las JONS, 1939, p. 79.

28 Sanz Bachiller, La mujer, p. 94.

29 After the end of the Civil War, work began on a massive memorial and basilica in honour of the (Nationalist) dead, on a site north of Madrid in the Guadarrama mountains. P. Preston, Franco, London: HarperCollins, 1993, p. 351. Its basilica later housed Franco’s own tomb. Payne, The Franco Regime, p. 225.

30 Pilar’s speech at the 1956 SF national conference, in P. Primo de Rivera, Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1956, p. 5.

31 Franco’s speech at the rally in Medina del Campo, 1939, in Revista ‘Y’ (June 1939).

1 Starting the Revolution: SF’s programme for all women

1 H. Graham, ‘Women and Social Change’, in H. Graham and J. Labanyi (eds.), Spanish Cultural Studies: an Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 101.

2 For example, in Italy, legislation in 1938 which gave women workers maternity rights was accompanied by progressive limits set on the employment of women in state and private offices. V. de Grazia, ‘How Mussolini Ruled Italian Women’, in G. Duby and M. Perrot (eds.), A History of Women: Towards a Cultural Identity in the Twentieth Century, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994, pp. 140-1. In Nazi Germany, women were excluded from universities and many professions between 1933 and 1935. G. Bock, ‘Nazi Gender Policies and Women’s History’, in Duby and Perrot (eds.), A History of Women, p. 159.

3 In Italy, there were organizations for urban middle-class women (fasci femminili), for peasant women (massaie rurali), working-class women (Sezione Operaie e Lavoratrici a Domicilio) and for youths and students. V. de Grazia, ‘How Mussolini Ruled Italian Women’, in Duby and Perrot (eds.), A History of Women, pp. 140, 142. In Nazi Germany, there was an elite group, in charge of mobilizing the masses (NS-Frauenschaft) and an association of auxiliary groups which organized activities at a local and regional level (Deutsches Frauenwerk). J. Stephenson, The Nazi Organisation of Women, London: Croom Helm, 1981, pp. 14-15, 17.

4 M. Richards, A Time of Silence. Civil War and the Culture of Repression in Franco’s Spain, 1936-1945, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, p. 18.

5 Franco’s speech to SF in Medina del Campo, 30 May 1939, in SF de FET y de las JONS, Consejos nacionales (libro primero), Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d., p. 99.

6 ‘Acerca de la Revolución’, in Haz, no. 9, 12 October 1934, in J.A. Primo de Rivera, Textos de doctrina política, Madrid: DN de SF de FET y de las JONS, 1996, p. 664.

7 Arriba, 23 May 1939.

8 ‘La Falange llama a todas las mujeres de España’, leaflet, n.p.: FET y de las JONS, 1937, n.p.

9 Ibid.

10 Interview with Asociación Nueva Andadura (ANA), member (a), 21 February 1996.

11 ‘Una escuela de hogar en la prisión de las mujeres en Ventas’, in Revista ‘Y’ (April 1941).

12 Deaths of children up to the age of five years old accounted in that year for 29 per cent of all deaths in Spain. Of the causes of death, infectious diseases in general (classified as typhoid, smallpox, measles, scarlet fever, spotted fever, whooping cough, diphtheria, influenza, tuberculosis, meningitis, pneumonia, puerperal septicaemia) accounted for 24 per cent of total mortality, and enteritis and diarrhoea a further 10.7 per cent. Departamento de Estadísticas Sanitarias, Resumen de la natalidad y mortalidad en el año 1932, Madrid: Dirección General de Sanidad, 1933, pp. 30-6.

13 D. Bussy Genevois, ‘El retorno de la hija pródiga: mujeres entre lo público y lo privado (1931-1936)’, in P. Folguera (ed.), Otras visiones de España, Madrid: Editorial Pablo Iglesias, 1993, p. 116.

14 A. Sanz, ‘Escuelas del Hogar’, in Revista ‘Y’ (February 1940).

15 Dr Blanco Soler’s speech at the 1940 SF national conference, in SF de FET y de las JONS, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d., pp. 33-4.

16 S. Ellwood, Spanish Fascism in the Franco Era: Falange Española de las JONS 1936-76, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1987, p. 34. Onésimo Redondo had been the co-founder of the syndicalist organization, the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (JONS). The JONS fused with the Falange in 1934. Ellwood, Spanish Fascism, pp. 11, 15.

17 M. Orduña Prada, El Auxilio Social (1936-1940): la etapa fundacional y los primeros años, Madrid: Escuela Libre Editorial, 1996, p. 197.

18 The training period was 216 hours, split into three-hour daily sessions (Monday to Saturday), of two practical and one theory class. Of the 216 hours, 77 per cent of the time was spent on domestic subjects including childcare, 11 per cent on politics, and 5.5. per cent each on religion and music. DN de la SF, Plan de formación, Madrid: Afrodisio Aguado, 1942, p. 167.

19 Pilar’s speech at the 1940 SF national conference, in SF, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), p. 11.

20 Pilar’s speech at the 1940 SF national conference, in SF, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), p. 12.

21 Social service figures were first produced in 1940, for which year SF claimed that 31,397 women had been awarded certificates of completion. SF, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), p. 188. The issue is discussed further in Chapter 5.

22 This changed later from the 1960s, when greater numbers of women began to want passports and driving licences. In the 1940s, in country areas where the local SF had few training facilities, the certificate was often obtainable by presenting a set of baby clothes to the authorities. It was of course possible for mothers and grandmothers to do the sewing! Interview with Conchita Valladolid Barazal, 27 October 1995.

23 M. Nash, ‘Maternidad, maternología y reforma eugénica en España (1900-1939)’, in G. Duby and M. Perrot (eds.), Historia de las mujeres en Occidente, vol. 5, Madrid: Taurus, 1993, p. 634.

24 G. Marañón, Tres ensayos sobre la vida sexual, Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, 1927, pp. 100-1.

25 The first of these conferences (‘Primer Curso Eugénico Español’) was suspended by the Primo de Rivera dictatorship as being too controversial but the second, larger event, held in 1933 (‘Primeras Jornadas Eugénicas Españolas’) had the support of the Republican government and comprised a conference and separate series of lectures. Eugenics was treated as four broad areas - the biological (latest work on evolution and genetics), medical (reports on clinical problems and best practice in Spain), sociological (the views of lawyers, writers, politicians and historians on social issues such as birth control and prostitution) and finally, educational aspects of eugenics, discussed by teachers and educational experts. E. Noguera and L. Huerta, Libro de las primeras jornadas eugénicas españolas: genética, eugenesia y pedagogía sexual, Madrid: Javier Morata, 1934, pp. 9-10.

26 Marañón, Tres ensayos, p. 105.

27 Marañón, Tres ensayos, p. 86.

28 Marañón, Tres ensayos, p. 91.

29 Dr A. Vallejo Nágera, Eugenesia de la hispanidad y regeneración de la raza, Burgos: Editorial Española, 1937, p. 6.

30 Vallejo Nágera, Eugenesia, p .9.

31 Dr A. Vallejo Nágera, ‘Higiene psíquica de la raza’, in DN de Deportes de FET y de las JONS, Memoria-resumen de las tareas científicas del 1 Congreso Nacional de Educación Fisica, Madrid: Jesús López, 1943, p. 243.

32 In 1492, Spain was fully returned to Christianity, after nearly 800 years of Moorish occupation. The only Moors allowed to remain were those who converted to Christianity, the moriscos.

33 Dr A. Vallejo Nágera, Política racial del Nuevo Estado, San Sebastián: Biblioteca España Nueva, 1938, p. 18.

34 Vallejo Nágera, Eugenesia, pp. 109-10.

35 Vallejo Nágera, Eugenesia, p. 67.

36 Vallejo Nágera, Política racial, p. 14.

37 Vallejo Nágera, Eugenesia, p. 118.

38 Dr J. Bosch Marín, ‘El Fuero del Trabajo y la mujer’, in Revista ‘Y’ (April 1938).

39 Ibid.

40 Arriba, 1 July 1941.

41 Loans were interest-free and a quarter share was declared redeemed for each child born to the couple. Revista ‘Y’ (August 1941).

42 SF de FET y de las JONS, Lecciones de puericultura e higiene para cursos de divulgadoras sanitario-rurales, Madrid: Sucesores de Rivadeneyra, 1945, pp. 16-17, 47-9.

43 SF, Lecciones de puericultura, pp. 16-17, 23.

44 Pilar’s speech at the 1939 SF national conference, in P. Primo de Rivera, Cuatro discursos, Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1939, p. 23.

45 Ramón Serrano Suñer’s speech at the 1940 SF national conference, in SF, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), p. 88.

46 Ibid.

47 The stay varied from two to six months. The work often consisted of looking after the children or old folk of the house, releasing the wife to do the specialist outdoor work. Interview with ANA member (b), 30 May 1996.

48 The first SF enlaces were appointed in 1940 and in the five years before State legislation recognized their authority within the syndical system, there were a total of 2,800. FET y de las JONS, La Sección Femenina: historia y organización, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, p. 129.

49 P. Willson, ‘Women in Fascist Italy’, in R. Bessel (ed.), Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Comparisons and Contrasts, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 85-6.

50 E. Ruiz-Crespo, ‘Un bello resurgir de artesanía’, in Revista ‘Y’ (November 1940).

51 J. Hernández-Petit, ‘La escuela de capacitación’, in Revista ‘Y’ (January 1940).

52 E. Montes’ speech at the 1939 SF national conference, in SF, Consejos nacionales (libro primero), p. 79.

53 Ibid.

54 E. Ruiz-Crespo, ‘Mujeres en la ciudad’, in Medina (19 April 1942).

55 ‘¿Ha pensado usted en la posibilidad de ser artista de la radio, del teatro o del cine?’, in Revista ‘Y’ (February 1942).

56 P. Primo de Rivera, ‘¿Cuáles son los objetivos primordiales de la educación de la mujer contemporánea?’, in Pueblo, May 1948, in P. Primo de Rivera, Discursos, circulares, escritos, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d., p. 258.

57 E. Neville, ‘Cartas a las camaradas’, in Revista ‘Y’ (June 1938).

58 Regiduría Central de Educación Física, 1945. Real Academia de la Historia, Archivo de la Asociación Nueva Andadura, carpeta 41, doc. 3.

59 Ibid.

60 P. Primo de Rivera, Recuerdos de una vida, Madrid: Dyrsa, 1983, p. 279.

61 For example national women’s athletics competitions held in 1931 and won by Catalan women or women’s gymnastic championships held in Madrid. Informaciones (26 October 1931), p. 8; Mujer (7 November 1931), p. 5.

62 Mujer (7 November 1931), p. 3.

63 ‘Por una raza mejor’, in Arriba, 5 October 1943.

64 It was introduced, along with political and domestic education, in 1941 but in practice was not taught in primary or secondary schools until 1948. Previous to this, the majority of women and girls engaged in sport organized by SF were youth or adult members and, from 1946, women doing their social service (for whom it became a compulsory component of the training course). Teacher training in physical education had started during the war with courses run in Santander and continued to expand with the opening of a training college in Madrid. This later became the SF National School of Physical Education. Additionally, from 1947, physical education became a part of teacher training courses. FET y de las JONS, La Sección Femenina: historia y organización, p. 98.

65 Agosti began advising the SF during the war. He had certainly seen both sides of the political coin, having been in the national athletics squad in the anti-fascist Antwerp Workers’ Olympics of 1937. Primo de Rivera, Recuerdos, p. 279. He subsequently visited Nazi Germany at least twice in his capacity as SF adviser. Dr L. Agosti, ‘Educación física femenina - papel de la mujer en deportes’, in DN de Deportes de FET y de las JONS, Memoria-resumen, pp. 143, 152.

66 L. Suárez Fernández, Crónica de la Sección Femenina y su tiempo, Madrid: Asociación Nueva Andadura, 1992, p. 156.

67 Ibid.

68 C. Cadenas, ‘La educación física femenina’, in DN de Deportes de FET y de las JONS, Memoria-resumen, p. 438.

69 Dr Luque, ‘Futuras madres’, in Revista ‘Y’ (February 1938).

70 Gimnasiarca, ‘Cultura física’, in Revista ‘Y’ (June 1938). There are similar exercises in SF de FET y de las JONS, Lecciones de educación física de 1°, 2°. Enseñanza y comercio, Madrid: Fareso, 1964, pp. 26, 109.

71 Bund Deutscher Mädel, the League of German girls, was the female branch of the Hitler Youth for girls over fourteen.

72 C. Werner, ‘Cartas de Alemania’, in Revista ‘Y’ (March 1938). A former mando with experience of the German women’s organization made the same point to me, explaining SF’s stance: ‘What we had in common was a love for our country and the desire to make it great and to achieve greater social justice. We also shared a rejection of communism. But there were big differences, because our ideology was based on the essential meaning of life, with Christianity as its base. We weren’t racists or imperialists in the material sense. The Germans had as their objective the supremacy of the State and the race, ours was the human being as a “bearer of eternal values”.’ Interview with Julia Alcántara, 26 October 1994, and reply to questionnaire sent.

73 Interview with ANA member (c), 31 May 1995.

74 Interview with ANA member (d), 21 February 1996.

75 Regiduría de Educación Física, ‘Sobre la formación moral de la mujer, que debe ser la base de su formación física’, 1940. Real Academia de la Historia, Archivo de la Asociación Nueva Andadura, carpeta 41, doc. 41.

76 Dr L. Agosti, ‘Educación física femenina - papel de la mujer en los deportes’, in DN de Deportes de FET y de las JONS, Memoria-resumen, pp. 143-4.

77 DN de la SF, Regiduría Central de Educación Física, Emblema de aptitud física: reglamento, Madrid: Magerit, 1959, p. 8. To put the question of athletics in context, it is worth stating that opposition to women’s participation was not confined to Spain. The 1928 Olympic Games were the first to include any women’s competitive athletic events. J. Hargreaves, ‘Women and the Olympic Phenomenon’, in A. Tomlinson and G. Whanel (eds.), Five-ring Circus, London: Pluto Press, 1984, p. 59.

78 L. Agosti, Gimnasia educativa, Madrid: Talleres del Instituto Geográfico y Estatal, 1948, p. 726.

79 Dr L. Agosti, ‘Educación física femenina - papel de la mujer en los deportes’, in DN de Deportes de FET y de las JONS, Memoria-resumen, p. 144.

80 Ibid.

81 SF, ‘Resumen de la labor realizada por la S.F. en el año 1940’, in Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), p. 185.

82 Interview with ANA member (e), 27 May 1996.

83 In the collective memory, the influence of Italy was more decisive than that of Germany but no evidence has been found to support this view. However, part of the work of Social Aid, the Protection of the Mother and Child, was undoubtedly based on the Italian ONMI (Opera Nazionale per la maternità ed infanzia).

84 Between 1938 and 1942 there are press and journal accounts of sixteen visits made by members of SF to the Axis countries, of which thirteen were to Germany. Pilar Primo de Rivera took part in eight, visiting Italy, Portugal and Austria as well as Germany. Significant visits for the development of SF programmes were those of the national youth leader, Carmen Werner, to Germany and her successor to the post, Julia Alcántara, to the German girls’ national training school in 1938. In 1939 nineteen mandos went for three months to study how the German organization had set up its domestic schools and fifty SF provincial delegates attended and performed at the ‘Strength through Joy’ celebrations. In 1942, representatives from the SF choirs and dances groups performed for Blue Division soldiers convalescing in German war hospitals. Also in 1942, members of the Town and Country department went to study German agricultural methods. Revista ‘Y’ (February, May, December 1938; January, July 1939; December 1940; January, October 1942). Arriba (21 July 1939; 28 August, 7 October 1941; 3 July, 4 July, 22 August, 29 August, 13 September 1942).

85 Interview with Julia Alcántara, 26 October 1994.

86 SF statistics record that by 1941, 57 domestic schools and 2,332 literacy schools were in operation. SF, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), p. 233.

2 The construction of ideology: icons, rituals and private spaces

1 R. Griffin, The Nature of Fascism, Routledge: London, 1991, p. 27.

2 ‘Falange Española de las JONS no es un movimiento fascista’, in J.A. Primo de Rivera, Textos de doctrina política, Madrid: DN de la SF de FET y de las JONS, 1966, p. 395.

3 Griffin, The Nature of Fascism, p. 38.

4 ‘Sobre Cataluña’, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, p. 110.

5 ‘Mientras España duerme la siesta’, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, p. 619.

6 M. Richards, A Time of Silence. Civil War and the Culture of Repression in Franco’s Spain, 1936-1945, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, p. 7.

7 Griffin, The Nature of Fascism, p. 17.

8 The 1934 manifesto of SF in ‘Historia de la Sección Femenina’, in Revista ‘Y’ (April 1938).

9 M. Gallego Méndez, Mujer, Falange y franquismo, Madrid: Taurus, 1983, p. 29; SF de FET y de las JONS, Concentración nacional de las falanges femeninas en honor del Caudillo y del ejército español, Bilbao: Talleres Gráficos de Jesús Alvarez, 1939, p. 12.

10 P. Primo de Rivera, ‘Historia de la Sección Femenina’, in Revista ‘Y’ (February and March 1938). The José Antonio stamp was created at the beginning of the war to fund the SF laundries at the battle fronts and to provide war comforts to soldiers. SF de FET y de las JONS, Consejos nacionales (libro primero), Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d., n.p. It continued after 1939 as a general fund-raiser for the organization.

11 Interview with Enrique de Sena, 3 June 1995. The Falange anthem spoke of returning soldiers bearing flags of victory and five roses (each representing one of the Falange arrows). The woman of the anthem waited patiently at home for her absent husband or fiancé.

12 P. Primo de Rivera, ‘Historia de la Sección Femenina’, in Revista ‘Y’ (February 1938).

13 P. Primo de Rivera, ‘Historia de la Sección Femenina’, in Revista ‘Y’ (March and May 1939).

14 D. Ridruejo, Casi unas memorias, Barcelona: Planeta, 1976, p. 103.

15 Ridruejo, Casi unas memorias, p. 102.

16 He gave advice and helped her with ‘literary tasks’. Ridruejo, Casi unas memorias, p. 83. He was also one of her principal speech writers. Interview with Jesús Suevos, 30 May 1997.

17 Interview with Jesús Suevos, 30 May 1997. He believes that the idea was possibly inspired by a historical precedent. The sixteenth-century king of Portugal, Sebastian, had died in battle against the Moors but his death was concealed from the Portuguese people, who believed for many months that he would return. It was possible that news of José Antonio’s death had not reached some villages in Nationalist zones, but most people knew.

18 Pilar’s speech at the 1937 SF national conference, in P. Primo de Rivera, Cuatro discursos, Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1939, p. 15.

19 The Falange Secretary-General’s speech at the 1938 SF national conference, in SF, Consejos nacionales (libro primero), p. 55.

20 The early members of Falange before it was joined with the Traditionalists were known as ‘old shirts’ (camisas viejas). Those joining after Unification were ‘new shirts’ (camisas nuevas). After the Civil War, when Franco renamed the Falange the National Movement, camisas viejas and camisas nuevas continued to describe themselves as Falangists. The word became synonymous with belief in the early aims of the Falange and the doctrines of José Antonio. In this context, SF (with its national leader a camisa vieja), considered itself the most Falangist part of the National Movement.

21 Interview with Lolita Bermúdez-Cañete Orth, 22 February 1996.

22 The Alicante prison was dubbed the ‘House of José Antonio’, and Pilar was presented with the lock of her brother’s first cell in the Model Prison in Madrid, to be placed there. Arriba, 16 February 1941.

23 I. Gibson, En busca de José Antonio, Barcelona: Planeta, 1980, p. 248.

24 Ian Gibson has pointed out the precedent of the burial in 1478 of Philip the Fair, whose body was similarly transported across Spain to Granada, accompanied by his wife, Juana the Mad. Ibid. On Holy Day processions, the figure of Christ was sometimes represented as a body in a coffin. Interview with Msgr. Ronald Hishon, 5 December 1996.

25 S. Ros y A. Bouthelier, A hombros de la Falange, Madrid: Ediciones Patria, 1940, pp. 36, 62.

26 N. González Ruiz, José Antonio, biografía e ideario, Madrid: Editorial Redención, 1940, p. 31.

27 P. Primo de Rivera, Recuerdos de José Antonio, conferencia pronunciada por Pilar Primo de Rivera en el Club “Mundo”, Barcelona: DN de la SF del Movimiento, 1973, p. 15.

28 Gibson, En busca de José Antonio, pp. 228-32.

29 Interview with Rosalía Pemán, 30 July 1996.

30 Interview with José María Gutiérrez del Castillo, 19 February 1996; Pilar’s speech at the 1958 SF national conference, in P. Primo de Rivera, Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1958, p. 5.

31 Interview with Enrique de Aguinaga, 22 February 1996.

32 The 1937 conference was the blueprint for SF’s future annual gatherings. Conferences took place at the beginning of January and lasted five days. They were attended by provincial leaders and specialist staff working in the national office. They included visiting speakers from the Falange or Church officials connected with SF. Sessions were either lectures or reports from provincial staff. Conferences were a forum for debate, and decisions on organizational matters were taken by those attending. From 1952, the conferences were biennial.

33 E. Hobsbawm describes invented traditions as ‘a set of practices, normally governed by overtly or tacitly accepted rules and of a ritual or symbolic nature, which seek to inculcate certain values and norms of behaviour by repetition, which automatically implies continuity with the past’. E. Hobsbawm, ‘Introduction: Inventing Traditions’, in E. Hobsbawm and T. Ranger (eds.), The Invention of Tradition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983, p. 1.

34 Richards, A Time of Silence, pp. 72-3.

35 1937 Salamanca-Valladolid; 1938 Segovia-Avila; 1939 Zamora-León.

36 ‘Discurso de proclamación de Falange Española de las JONS’, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, p. 189.

37 SF, Consejos nacionales (libro primero), p. 8.

38 Pilar’s speech at the 1947 SF national conference, in P. Primo de Rivera, Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1947, p. 3.

39 SF, Consejos nacionales (libro primero), pp. 8, 24.

40 Pilar’s speech at the 1940 SF national conference, in SF, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d., p. 14.

41 SF published a two-volume chronicle of its first six conferences, describing both the conferences themselves and SF’s activities in the year.

42 The aldermen were members of the town council. Many were from the lower and middle ranks of the nobility. J-P. Amalric, B. Bennassar, J. Pérez and E. Témime, Léxico histórico de España siglos XVI a XX, Madrid: Taurus, 1982, p. 186.

43 By the early 1950s, the national departments (regidurías) of the service hierarchy were as follows: Administration (SF budget and salaries, maintenance and furniture; Training (political and religious education, travelling schools); Personnel (membership issues); Youth Wing (youth members, summer camps); Culture (domestic and literacy schools, libraries, music, choirs and dances); Physical Education (gymnastics, sports and games, dance); Health and Welfare (nurse training, health and welfare training, health centres, vaccination campaigns, sanatoria); Town and Country (agricultural schools, workers’ syndicates, promotion of craft skills); Social Service (management of the social service scheme); Press and Propaganda (journals, promotional and training material); Foreign Service (cultural and political links with foreign countries, especially Latin America, scholarships to foreign students, ‘Medina’ Cultural Circles); Students’ Syndicate (political and domestic education for university students, halls of residence, hostels for secondary pupils). FET y de las JONS, La Sección Femenina: historia y organización, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1952, pp. 39-179. Apart from the Foreign Service and the Students’ Syndicate, each of the departments also functioned in every province, with a provincial specialist (regidora provincial). At local level there were no departments, but SF specialists worked in a village or an urban neighbourhood. The only staff common to all local areas were the health workers (divulgadoras) and the youth workers (instructoras de juventudes). In urban neighbourhoods, there were extra SF instructors specifically in charge of cultural activities such as the choirs and dances. From 1950, there were also SF rural instructors (instructoras rurales) working in many villages. Also working at local level were SF’s specialist instructors who delivered programmes of domestic, physical and political education in schools. The numbers and distribution of these staff varied according to the location of schools. Increasingly, they were not ‘separate’ SF staff, but mainstream teachers qualified to teach SF specialisms. They too were dependent on their respective provincial offices (Culture, Physical Education, Training). In the course of the 1950s, there were some changes to the nomenclature, but the basic structure remained.

44 Circular no. 85 from the Secretary-General of the Movement established the awards (Decree of 27 October 1939). This was later broadened in scope (Decree of 9 March 1942). The award of ‘Y’ was at three levels - gold, silver and red, either individual or collective. In 1945, a green ‘Y’ youth award was added. In that year, thirty-five youth awards were made. Reply to questionnaire to Asociación Nueva Andadura, January 1995.

45 SF, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), p. 93.

46 ‘Discurso de clausura del segundo Consejo Nacional de la Falange’, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, p. 721.

47 C. Werner, Formación familiar y social, tercera edición, Madrid: Ediciones de la SF, Departamento de Cultura, 1946, p. 247.

48 Jesús Suevos’ speech at the 1940 SF national conference, in SF, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), p. 77.

49 ‘Resumen del discurso pronunciado en el gran teatro Córdoba el día 12 de mayo de 1935’, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, p. 549.

50 SF de FET y de las JONS, Enciclopedia elemental, Madrid: E. Giménez, 1959, p. 118 (programme of political education for social service courses).

51 Pilar’s lesson to flechas about to join SF, in P. Primo de Rivera, Discursos, circulares, escritos, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d., p. 183.

52 Contributors in 1938 included Luis Rosales, Dionisio Ridruejo, Eugenio D’Ors, Concha Espina and Carmen de Icaza.

53 The interchanging of the letters ‘i’ and ‘y’ was common in fifteenth-century Castilian. In 1492, the grammarian Nebrija had made a further symbolic connection between the initials of Ferdinand and Isabella and the icons associated with them - the arrows (Flechas) of Ferdinand and the yoke (Yugo) of Isabella. M. Ballesteros Gaibrois, La letra ‘Y’ - su historia y presente, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d., pp. 21-3, 46.

54 Ballesteros Gaibrois, La letra ‘Y’, pp. 49-50.

55 SF headquarters were in Almagro 36, now the Institute of the Woman.

56 SF de FET y de las JONS, Escuela Mayor de Mandos ‘José Antonio’, Castillo de La Mota mayo 1942 - mayo 1962, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1962, n.p.

57 Beatriz Galindo (1451-1534) was Isabella’s tutor of Latin and literature. She became known as La Latina, and after Isabella’s death founded a charity hospital in Madrid, also known as La Latina. M. Sanz Bachiller, Mujeres de España, Madrid: Textos Escolares Aguado, 1940, pp. 49-51.

58 Interview with Asociación Nueva Andadura (ANA) member (f), 22 February 1996.

59 SF de FET y de las JONS, Reglamento para Escuelas Nacionales de formación de mandos y especialidades de la S.F.

60 Interview with ANA member (g), 19 February 1996.

61 P. Primo de Rivera, Recuerdos de una vida, Madrid: Dyrsa, 1983, p. 177.

62 Pilar’s speech at the 1938 SF national conference, in Primo de Rivera, Cuatro discursos, p. 5.

63 Pilar’s speech at the 1947 SF national conference, in Primo de Rivera, Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, pp. 5-6.

64 Up until 1956, it trained ‘general instructors’, SF personnel who would work part-time or on a peripatetic basis in schools teaching the special SF subjects of political and social education and often, domestic science and physical education. General instructors also ran SF local youth activities and worked in SF summer camps. After 1956, Las Navas became a teacher training college. Students continued to gain general instructor status as part of their overall training. Reply to questionnaire to Asociación Nueva Andadura, January 1995.

65 The ‘Agricultural School: Hermanas Chabás’ opened in Valencia in 1941. FET y de las JONS, La Sección Femenina: historia y organización, p. 120. The ‘National Specialist Training School: Santa Teresa’ opened in 1960 and trained nurses, welfare workers and teachers of music and physical education. The first travelling school (cátedra ambulante) was named after Franco, the national agricultural school after the leader of the JONS, Onésimo Redondo, and a second national specialist school after the Falangist and war hero, Julio Ruiz de Alda.

66 G. Sorel, Reflections on Violence, London: Collier-Macmillan, 1961, quoted in Griffin, The Nature of Fascism, p. 28.

67 José Antonio, ‘Discurso de la fundación de Falange Española’, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, p. 68.

3 Modernity and reaction: SF and religion

1 Azaña’s speech in the Spanish Parliament, 13 October 1931, in A. Shubert, A Social History of Modern Spain, London: Unwin Hyman, 1990, p. 160.

2 In this sense, in Raymond Carr’s words: ‘The Republic was not “persecuting the church” but taking away the privileges that had made it the stronghold and nursery of political reaction.’ R. Carr, Spain 1808-1975, 2nd ed., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982, p. 607.

3 Shubert, A Social History, p. 168.

4 The religious dimension was explicit in the organization’s principles, members’ oath and its ceremonial prayers. ‘Puntos iniciales’, in J.A. Primo de Rivera, Textos de doctrina política, Madrid: DN de la SF de FET y de las JONS, 1966, pp. 92-3.

5 ‘Puntos iniciales’, 7 December 1933, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, p. 93.

6 ‘Puntos iniciales’, 7 December 1933, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, pp. 92-3.

7 F. Lannon, Privilege, Persecution, and Prophecy: The Catholic Church in Spain 1875-1975, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987, p. 199.

8 C. Werner, Formación familiar y social, tercera edición, Madrid: Ediciones de la SF, Departamento de Cultura, 1946, p. 251.

9 Pilar’s speech at the 1939 SF national conference, in P. Primo de Rivera, Cuatro discursos, Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1939, p. 21.

10 C. de Icaza, ‘Quehaceres de María y de Marta en la España Nueva’, in Revista ‘Y’ (March 1938).

11 ‘Discurso de la fundación de Falange Española’, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, pp. 66-7.

12 M. Junquera, in José Antonio, fundador y primer jefe de la Falange, capitán de luceros, !presente!, número extraordinario del Boletín Sindical, Madrid: Departamento Nacional de Prensa y Propaganda Sindical, 1942, n.p.

13 J.M. Amado, Vía-Crucis, Málaga: Editorial Dardo, 1938, n.p.

14 R. Garriga, El Cardenal Segura y el nacional-catolicismo, Barcelona: Planeta, 1977, p. 262.

15 Arriba, 29 October 1940.

16 ‘Escuela de Jefes’, in Revista ‘Y’ (July-August 1938).

17 Pilar’s speech at the 1942 SF national conference, in P. Primo de Rivera, Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, n.p., SF de FET y de las JONS, 1942, p. 13.

18 Interview with Asociación Nueva Andadura (ANA) member (h), 27 May 1996.

19 Interview with ANA member (e), 27 May 1996.

20 Corona de sonetos, Madrid: Ediciones Jerarquía, 1939, a collection of twenty-five sonnets by, among others, Dionisio Ridruejo, Manuel Machado, Gerardo Diego and Fray Justo Pérez de Urbel.

21 P. Primo de Rivera, Recuerdos de una vida, Madrid: Dyrsa, 1983, p. 133.

22 By 1938, compulsory religious education in schools had been reintroduced, with the promise of a new religiously inspired secondary school curriculum. S. Payne, The Franco Regime 1936-75, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987, p. 207.

23 Primo de Rivera, Recuerdos, p. 134.

24 Fray Justo entered religious life at the age of fifteen, was ordained at the abbey of Silos and in 1958 became the first abbot of the Valley of the Fallen. He was on friendly terms with the Primate, Cardinal Gomá, and the papal nuncio, Monsignor Cicognani. He published around fifty books, most notably a history of Castile, and was associated with literary figures who came to be prominent Falangists, such as Gerardo Diego and Eugenio D’Ors. M. Garrido Bonaño, OSB, Fray Justo y los hombres de su tiempo, Valle de los Caídos: Abadía de la Santa Cruz, 1983, pp. 10-13, 26, 70-1, 116, 120, 168.

25 Fray Justo’s speech at the 1945 SF provincial conference, in FET y de las JONS, Consejos provinciales de la Sección Femenina, Madrid: FET y de las JONS, 1945, pp. 69-70.

26 For example, Pilar consulted Fray Justo about whether SF should include competitive swimming in its sports programme. The issue was whether the special swimming costume worn for such events but recognized by Pilar as not being ‘a moral garment’ compromised SF’s ethos. Letter from Pilar to Fray Justo, 5 July 1939, Archivo de Santa Cruz, J-P 4, G. He intervened personally in disciplinary matters (Garrido Bonaño, OSB, Fray Justo, p. 110). He was also asked to resolve a local difficulty of morale. Letter from Pilar to Fray Justo, 12 September 1939, Archivo de Santa Cruz, J-P 4, G.

27 Since the nineteenth century, the Benedictines have emphasized active participation in the Mass and promoted the use of the prayer book. Benedictine liturgy is based on a much older form of worship, the Mozarabic rite, dating back to the sixth century ad and still celebrated in the Mozarabic chapel of Toledo Cathedral. Interview with Father Manuel González, 12 August 1998.

28 Pilar’s speech at the 1939 SF national conference, in Primo de Rivera, Cuatro discursos, p. 22.

29 Primo de Rivera, Recuerdos, p. 21.

30 Pilar’s speech at the 1942 SF national conference, in Primo de Rivera, Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, p. 5.

31 Pilar’s speech at the 1940 SF national conference, in SF de FET y de las JONS, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d., p. 12.

32 Pilar’s speech at the 1941 SF national conference in SF, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), p. 103.

33 Lannon, Privilege, Persecution, and Prophecy, p. 23.

34 Lannon, Privilege, Persecution, and Prophecy, p. 25.

35 ‘A misa tocan, no podemos ir, que vayan los ángeles y recen por mí’. Interview with Carmen Moreno de Vega, 28 October 1996.

36 Pilar’s speech at the 1940 SF national conference, in SF, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), pp. 12-13.

37 Religious teachings were divided into three areas: dogma, morality and liturgy. Gregorian chant was always included in SF music courses. DN de la SF, Plan de formación, Madrid: Afrodisio Aguado, 1942, pp. 16-21, 37-44.

38 The Epistle, the Gospel, and certain of the prayers. In the order of service for the youth members, the preparation for communion and prayer of thanks were also in the vernacular. The SF prayer book gave translations of the Latin responses. SF, Directorio litúrgico tercera edición, Madrid: Delegación Nacional de la Sección Femenina y de las JONS, 1963, pp. 19, 57.

39 SF de FET y de las JONS, Enciclopedia elemental, Madrid: E. Giménez, 1959, p. 127.

40 Interview with ANA member (g), 19 February 1996.

41 P. Primo de Rivera, ‘“Lecciones de Santa Teresa”, conferencia pronunciada por Pilar Primo de Rivera en el Casón del Buen Retiro, cerrando el ciclo organizado con motivo de la exposición “Santa Teresa y su tiempo”’, pamphlet, Madrid: Ruan, 1971, p. 11.

42 Interview with Father Manuel Garrido, 27 July 1996.

43 The most comparable of these bodies was Catholic Action. It was a lay organization and after the Civil War was split into four sections (men, women, boys, girls), with a programme of religious and charitable works for each. Its women’s section was hierarchically organized in a similar way to SF.

44 Orientaciones y normas (November 1940).

45 Arriba, 11 October 1939, describing nannies who were members of Catholic Action.

46 DN de la SF de FET y de las JONS, Personal: organización. Delegación provincial, SF, n.d., p. 121.

47 Interview with ANA member (i), 23 February 1996.

48 DN de la SF, Escuela Nacional de instructoras de juventudes ‘Isabel la Católica’, Madrid: Vicente Rico, 1951, n.p.

49 Interview with Carmen Martín Olmedo, 21 February 1996.

50 The same bishop in later years accepted an invitation to Las Navas but refused to enter the chapel. Interviews with ANA members (h and e), 27 May 1996. In the event, the Abbot (Benedictine) of Samos, who was of equivalent rank to a bishop, performed the opening ceremony. The Bishop of Avila did not visit the chapel until after the Second Vatican Council.

51 Bradomín, ‘Falanges juveniles en los colegios’, in Revista ‘Y’ (June 1945). Interview with Julia Alcántara, 26 October 1994. She believes now that the legislation was counterproductive.

52 The Federation of Religious in Education asked the Ministry of Education to protect the ‘distressed nuns’ from these intrusions. L. Suárez Fernández, Crónica de la Sección Femenina y su tiempo, Madrid: Asociación Nueva Andadura, 1992, p. 190.

53 Interview with ANA member (h), 27 May 1996.

54 Suárez Fernández, Crónica, p. 190.

55 On occasions, a little guile won the day, as in the case of the pololos, which were deliberately made shorter over the years. Interview with ANA member (j), 27 May 1996.

56 Interview with ANA member (h), 29 May 1996.

57 Interview with Lolita Bermúdez-Cañete Orth, 22 February 1996.

58 SF de FET y de las JONS, Nace Jesús, Madrid: Ibarra, 1958, pp. 29-30.

59 Social Aid was a separate department of the Falange and its (mostly male) staff were not connected directly with SF, despite the interest of both bodies in health and welfare matters. Any women working for Social Aid (for example, trained nurses, midwives, directors of orphanages) had been given preparatory training by SF but were not necessarily members. SF’s main point of contact was as suppliers of Social Aid’s volunteer workers. The institutions of Social Aid provided the main work placements for social service students.

60 FET y de las JONS, Auxilio Social desde el punto de vista religioso y moral, Madrid: Ayala, 1940, p. 42.

61 FET y de las JONS, Auxilio Social, p. 45.

62 ‘Normas para actuaciones públicas’, circular general no. 85, individual no. 4, 15 April 1944, in Revista Mandos (June 1944).

63 SF, II Concentración nacional de la Sección Femenina en el Escorial, SF de FET y de las JONS, 1944, p. 32.

64 SF de FET y de las JONS, Cátedras de Sección Femenina: organización, Madrid: Magerit, 1965, pp. 66-7.

65 Pilar’s letter to married members, Christmas 1946, in P. Primo de Rivera, Discursos, circulares, escritos, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d., p. 294.

66 Primo de Rivera, Recuerdos, p. 243; Suárez Fernández, Crónica, p. 249.

67 Interview with ANA member (e), 29 May 1996. The national schools each had a chaplain who led services and taught the religion classes. Other priests were brought in at Lent to conduct meditations. At Las Navas, it was decided to split the function of the chaplain so that he did not teach at all. A problem had arisen because the degree of members’ spirituality (known to the chaplain) was being reflected in the marks he gave for the taught course. The length of the courses at Las Navas made its case an unusual one and there is no memory of the situation arising elsewhere.

68 Circular to provincial leaders, ‘Defectos encontrados en la inspección de Albergues, procedentes todos ellos de falta de sujeción a las normas dadas y por defecto de no leer el Plan de Formación’, in Primo de Rivera, Discursos, p. 286.

69 Interviews with Mercedes Fórmica, 22 February 1996; Father Manuel Garrido, 26 July 1996.

70 Father Félix García’s speech at the 1940 SF national conference, SF, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), p. 67.
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Re: WOMEN AND SPANISH FASCISM -- THE WOMEN'S SECTION OF THE

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Part 2 of 2

4 Loyalty, influence and moral authority: SF 1936-1949

1 M. Richards, A Time of Silence. Civil War and the Culture of Repression in Franco’s Spain, 1936-1945, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, p. 11.

2 P. Primo de Rivera, Recuerdos de una vida, Madrid: Dyrsa, 1983, p. 109.

3 R. Fraser, Blood of Spain: The Experience of Civil War, 1936-1939, London: Allen Lane, 1979, p. 318.

4 P. Preston, Las tres Españas del 36, Barcelona: Plaza y Janés, 1999, p. 173.

5 In 1942, Franco established an ‘organic’ parliament with the passing of the Ley de Cortes. The new parliament opened officially on 17 March 1943, with all national councillors as members plus a further fifty direct appointments. This lessened the importance of the National Council, which after its drafting of the legislation for the Labour Charter of 1938 had little further significance. R. Chueca, El fascismo en los comienzos del régimen de Franco: un estudio sobre FET-JONS, Madrid: Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas, 1983, pp. 222-3.

6 Pilar’s speech at the 1938 SF national conference, in P. Primo de Rivera, Cuatro discursos, Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1939, p. 6.

7 The absence of margaritas from any of the national-level posts in SF was justified as the failure of their provincial hierarchies to suggest candidates. Pilar’s speech to SF members and all the women of the Basque provinces and Navarre. P. Primo de Rivera, Discursos, circulares, escritos, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d., p. 149.

8 An example is a report by Pilar to the General Secretariat of the Movement of a correspondence between SF and Fronts and Hospitals regarding the alleged failure of the latter to give out soldiers’ Christmas boxes provided by SF, at the right time. Fronts and Hospitals had responded vigorously, rejecting the help offered by SF and then submitting a complaint themselves. SF had then been asked to stop providing the boxes, prompting Pilar to write her own complaint about the situation. Letter from Pilar Primo de Rivera to the General Secretariat of the Movement, 30 January 1939. Archivo de la Asociación Nueva Andadura, carpeta 45-A, document 41.

9 Interview with Dolores Baleztena, head of the Pamplona margaritas, in Fraser, Blood of Spain, pp. 310-11. The determination of SF members to enter the ranks of the Fronts and Hospitals operation is noted in a local study of the female welfare operation in Málaga. E. Barranquero Texeira, ‘La Sección Femenina. Análisis del trabajo realizado durante la guerra’, in (Autores Varios), Las mujeres en Andalucía: actas del 2° encuentro interdisciplinar de estudios de la mujer en Andalucía, Málaga: Diputación Provincial Servicio de Publicaciones, 1993, p. 298.

10 ‘La labor realizada por las Secciones Femeninas de FET y de las JONS en las diversas dependencias sanitarias’, in SF de FET y de las JONS, Consejos nacionales (libro primero), Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d., pp. 35-9, 62.

11 The Ley Fundacional del Frente de Juventudes of 6 December 1940 was a key piece of legislation for SF. It created a Youth Front, comprising a university students’ section, and two sections for young people (schools and the workplace). The Youth Front was given the mandate and the cash to put into place the doctrinal, religious, pre-military (in the case of girls, domestic) training deemed politically necessary. All young people, even if they were not members of the separate volunteer youth organizations, were thereby exposed to indoctrination by convinced Falangists. J. Sáez Marín, El Frente de Juventudes: política de juventud en la España de la postguerra (1937-1960), Madrid: Siglo veintiuno de España editores, 1988, pp. 78-81.

12 DN de OJ, Tardes de enseñanza: formación nacional-sindicalista, Madrid: Afrodisio Aguado, 1939, pp. 5-6.

13 Her husband, Onésimo Redondo, had joined with Ramiro Ledesma Ramos to found the syndicalist movement which was principally in defence of the small farmers in Castile (the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista) in 1931. The JONS fused with the Falange in 1933.

14 S. Ellwood, Spanish Fascism in the Franco Era: Falange Española de las JONS 1936-76, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1987, p. 17.

15 Ibid.

16 J. Martínez de Bedoya, Memorias desde mi aldea, Valladolid: Ambito, 1996, pp. 105-6.

17 Interview with Mercedes Sanz Bachiller, 29 May 1997.

18 In August 1937, Mercedes spent a month in Germany, studying the workings of the Nazi welfare organization, the NS-Volkswohlfahrt (NSV). M. Orduña Prada, El Auxilio Social (1936-1940): la etapa fundacional y los primeros años, Madrid: Escuela Libre Editorial, 1996, p. 144. The NSV’s (male) leadership had full responsibility for all social welfare projects (even when these were run by other Nazi groups) and organized the Party nursing corps. J. Stephenson, The Nazi Organisation of Women, London: Croom Helm, 1981, p. 147.

19 Efforts at fund-raising by the first female volunteers to the Social Aid operation were apparently inefficient. Interview with Julio Ibáñez Rodrigo (Social Aid provincial leader for Salamanca 1937-9), 3 June 1995.

20 Orduña Prada, El Auxilio Social, pp. 135-6.

21 From April to December 1939, the comings and goings of both women are reported in similar fashion in Arriba. For example, 29 April, ‘Nuestras hermanas de yugo y flechas’; 8 July, ‘La delegada nacional de Auxilio Social regresa a Madrid’; 28 September, ‘Llega a Barcelona Pilar Primo de Rivera’.

22 Interview with Mercedes Sanz Bachiller, 29 May 1997. Social service as organized under Mercedes differed in some respects from its later manifestation under SF. The decree of 7 October 1937 established a six-month period of service as compulsory for single women between the ages of seventeen and thirty-five. A further decree (8 November 1937) elaborated on the conditions of service, regulations and exemptions. It made clear that although Social Aid processed all the applications and took charge of the detail of the placement, it had to go first via the provincial leader of SF. The service period was to be divided into two phases - theoretical (two months) and practical (four months). The theoretical component would be done residentially in specially created residences belonging to Social Aid. The practical work was to be carried out in institutions of Social Aid, unless the woman was a member of SF, in which case she could choose to work in any of SF’s departments. Orduña Prada, El Auxilio Social, pp. 179-208.

23 Interview with Mercedes Sanz Bachiller, 29 May 1997.

24 Martínez de Bedoya gave up both his job and his seat on the National Council when an offer of a ministerial post was suddenly withdrawn. Martínez de Bedoya, Memorias, p. 139.

25 Martínez de Bedoya, Memorias, p. 142. Bedoya also recounts that Dionisio Ridruejo tried to act as mediator between them and the ‘Madrid Falange’, advising Mercedes to bow to Pilar’s authority.

26 Arriba, 17 January 1940, quoted in Orduña Prada, El Auxilio Social, p. 76.

27 Interview with Julio Ibáñez Rodrigo, 3 June 1995.

28 Payne, The Franco Regime, pp. 286-7.

29 Pilar’s letter of resignation (undated) which she gave to Serrano Suñer, quoted in Preston, Las tres Españas, p. 181.

30 Miguel Primo de Rivera was appointed Minister of Agriculture and José Luis de Arrese became Secretary-General of Falange. In conjunction with Girón’s move to the Ministry of Labour, these changes satisfied Pilar and she was persuaded to carry on. Preston, Las tres Españas, p. 182.

31 P. Preston, Franco, London: HarperCollins, 1993, pp. 566-7.

32 Interview with Lolita Bermúdez-Cañete Orth, 24 October 1999.

33 Ellwood, Spanish Fascism, p. 97.

34 Interview with Asociación Nueva Andadura (ANA) member (b), 29 October 1997.

35 Pilar’s speech at the 1945 SF national conference, in P. Primo de Rivera, Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1945, pp. 3-4.

36 Interview with ANA member (b), 29 October 1997.

37 The programme of health visiting (divulgación), for example, was run in collaboration with the Department of Health. The SF divulgadoras were under the direct supervision of local doctors. A further example was the partnership of SF and the Ministry of Agriculture in setting up the National Agricultural School in Aranjuez in 1950. The school trained women to work as specialists not only in SF training centres but in government agricultural posts. DN de la SF del Movimiento, Regiduría del Trabajo, Escuela Nacional de instructoras rurales, Madrid: Magerit, 1970, n.p.

38 Pilar reported a deficit of over 2 million pesetas to Franco and informed him that separate fund-raising could not cover the deficit. L. Suárez Fernández, Crónica de la Sección Femenina y su tiempo, Madrid: Asociación Nueva Andadura, 1992, p. 188.

39 Interview with ANA member (b), 29 October 1997.

40 Interview with ANA member (c), 23 October 1995.

41 Interview with ANA member (b), 29 October 1997.

42 On the occasion of a mass in the village of Begoña to commemorate the deaths of Traditionalist soldiers (requetés) in the Civil War, groups of Traditionalists and Falangists came into conflict. Tensions grew and a bomb was thrown by the Falangists at the crowd, wounding nearly 100 bystanders. Among those present was General Varela, an outspoken critic of the Falange who demanded the court martial of the thrower of the bomb. Franco rightly interpreted the incident as having repercussions beyond its immediate circumstances. In an attempt to maintain the power balance of the Army and the Falange, he ordered the execution of the Falangist culprit but also accepted the resignation of Varela. The Minister of the Interior, Colonel Valentín Galarza, who had supported Varela’s insistence on the court martial, was dismissed by Franco as part of his balancing act. Preston, Franco, pp. 465-8.

43 Interviews with ANA member (b), 29 October 1997; 30 May 1996.

44 Interviews with Julio Ibáñez Rodrigo, 3 June 1995; ANA member (k), 24 October 1995; José Utrera Molina, 29 May 1995.

45 In 1946, there were two SF sanatoria, with capacity for around 600 girls. Suárez Fernández, Crónica, p. 185. In 1945, the equivalent male provision was nineteen establishments with capacity for nearly 2,000 boys. DN del Frente de Juventudes, Estaciones preventoriales - calendario que ha de regir en la campaña 1945, n.p.: Asesoría Nacional de Sanidad.

46 Interview with ANA member (b), 29 October 1997.

47 The force of 18,946 volunteers left Madrid on July 13 and, after training in Germany, finally arrived at the Russian Front in October 1941. The Blue Division remained in Russia until its disbandment in November 1943. K-J. Ruhl, Franco, Falange y Tercer Reich; España en la segunda guerra mundial, Madrid: Akal, 1986, pp. 25-6, 240.

48 ‘¿Qué haces tú para la División Azul?’, in Revista ‘Y’ (September 1941).

49 Each parcel contained knitted gloves and socks, balaclava, pullover, a copy of ‘Prayers for the Front’, photos of José Antonio and Franco, a picture of the Virgin, a Falange emblem, protective glasses, a medallion, a bottle each of brandy, anisette and wine, nougat, marzipan, toasted and sugared almonds, jam, tinned goods, soap, a comb and three packets of tobacco. ‘El aguinaldo a la División Azul’, in Medina (30 November 1941).

50 Interview with Lucía del Día Valdeón, 28 October 1997.

51 Arriba, 5 July, 7 July, 9 July 1944. The speakers (all male) were Falangists with responsibilities in the National Movement and members of the clergy. SF de FET y de las JONS, II Concentración nacional de la Sección Femenina en El Escorial, SF de FET y de las JONS, 1944, p. 17.

52 SF, II Concentración nacional, p. 32.

53 Interview with Rosalía Pemán, 30 July 1996.

54 Pilar cites many such instances. P. Primo de Rivera, Recuerdos de una vida, Madrid: Dyrsa, 1983, pp. 201-2.

55 A founder member of SF states that the idea behind coros y danzas was not political but that Pilar made the most of it. Interview with Mercedes Fórmica, 22 February 1996.

56 Pilar’s speech at the 1949 SF national conference, in Primo de Rivera, Discursos, p. 107.

57 The sardana is the most well-known traditional dance of Catalonia; the chistu is a traditional flute of the Basque Country.

58 Pilar’s speech at the 1939 SF national conference, in Primo de Rivera, Cuatro discursos, p. 22.

59 Point 17, in ‘Norma programática de la Falange’, in J.A. Primo de Rivera, Textos de doctrina política, Madrid: DN de la SF de FET y de las JONS, 1966, p. 342.

60 Payne, The Franco Regime, p. 184.

61 The opening of the National Agricultural School in Aranjuez in 1950 was the final stage of the expansion. In the year of its opening, forty-five women started training as rural instructors. SF de FET y de las JONS, Labor realizada en 1951, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1952, p. 43.

62 A number of villages destroyed in the war were rebuilt to contain an agricultural school run by SF. In a different scheme, new villages were built in under-developed areas of the country, giving financial inducements to settle there and work the land. In each, SF ran a ‘rural home’ (hogar rural) on behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture. It was a combined domestic and rural school, connecting the community with veterinary services, agricultural experts and doctors and was run by a rural instructor. Interview with ANA member (b), 30 May 1996. As Michael Richards notes, however, the scale of the colonization programmes was small, with only 37,000 people relocated between 1939 and 1954. Richards, A Time of Silence, p. 141.

63 The scheme continued for eight years after the dissolution of the National Movement in 1977. The finished goods collected in 1985 were valued at 200 million pesetas (about £820,000). Interview with ANA member (b), 30 May 1996.

64 Pilar’s speech at the first provincial conferences of SF, 1939, in Primo de Rivera, Discursos, p. 122.

65 Pilar’s speech at the 1947 SF national conference in Primo de Rivera, Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1947, p. 13.

66 For example, sheets and towels - five years, blankets - fifty years, cutlery - two hundred years. Reply to questionnaire to Asociación Nueva Andadura, January 1995.

67 Pilar’s speech at the 1948 SF national conference in P. Primo de Rivera, Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1948, p. 14.

68 Clergy and religious working for SF were not immune from its cautious housekeeping. In the memory of a former contributor to SF’s religious programmes, lecture fees were not paid until the monk had presented three signatures to verify that it had taken place. Interview with Father Manuel Garrido, 27 July 1996.

69 There was particular hardship for day labourers, whose wages declined by 40 per cent between the years 1940 and 1951 and for whom there was no guaranteed length of working day. E. Sevilla Guzmán and Manuel González de Molina, ‘Política social agraria del primer franquismo’, in J.L. García Delgado (ed.), El primer franquismo: España durante la segunda guerra mundial, Madrid: Siglo veintiuno editores de España, 1989, p. 164.

70 D. Ridruejo, Escrito en España, Buenos Aires: Losada, 1962, p. 103; R. Abella, Por el imperio hacia Dios: crónica de una posguerra 1939-55, Barcelona: Planeta, 1978, p. 117. The author believes that figures given elsewhere (30,000 deaths from starvation between the years 1940 and 1946) understate the problem.

71 In 1937, Franco’s wartime government had set up a supply control system for wheat in the Nationalist zone to guarantee wheat prices for growers and ensure that the whole crop was distributed efficiently and sold at fixed prices. But the prices offered were so low that farmers began switching to more profitable crops or concealing some of their crop to sell at much higher prices to black marketeers. In the case of wheat, the black market exceeded the official supply. R.J. Harrison, The Spanish Economy from the Civil War to the European Community, prepared for the Economic History Society by Joseph Harrison, London: Macmillan, 1993, p. 35. The scandal was that the black market operated through the collusion of those working directly in the State-controlled National Wheat Service and the Commission of Supplies and Transport, as well as people in positions of responsibility nearer the rural communities such as mayors and civil governors. C. Barciela, ‘El mercado negro de productos agrarios en la posguerra 1939-53’, in J. Fontana (ed.), España bajo el franquismo, Barcelona: Grijalbo, 1984, p. 199.

72 For example the leading article in Arriba, 18 January 1941 accused some of falsifying ration cards, thereby depriving ‘the humble classes’ of their bread ration. Revista ‘Y’ (August 1941) took a similar stand, blaming shortages in Madrid on the fact that ration cards were not handed in when people died.

73 Pilar’s speech at the 1938 national conference, in Primo de Rivera, Cuatro discursos, p. 6.

74 What distinguished the Spanish black market was its duration, scale, degree of penetration into society and its widespread acceptance as an inevitable phenomenon. C. Barciela, ‘La España del estraperlo’, in García Delgado (ed.), El primer franquismo, p. 106.

75 Revista ‘Y’ (August 1942).

76 Interview with ANA member (b), 29 October 1997.

77 Interview with ANA member (b), 29 October 1997.

78 Revista ‘Y’ (October 1939, August 1939).

79 Revista ‘Y’ (July 1941, February 1941, May 1941, October 1941).

80 J.L. García Delgado, ‘Estancamiento industrial e intervencionismo’, in Fontana (ed.), España bajo el franquismo, p. 185.

81 Order circular no. 146, 15 March 1940, from the national office of SF stated: ‘In recognition of the circumstances of Spain and because it is not in accordance with our style all provincial and local leaders are forbidden to give presents to their superiors. Equally, the national leader and her deputy or any other national mando will not accept presents given in the course of their inspections through the provinces.’ Primo de Rivera, Discursos, p. 273.

82 Interview with Puri Barrios and Mariti Calvo, 31 October 1996.

83 E. Sevilla Guzmán and M. González de Medina, ‘Política social agraria del primer franquismo’, in García Delgado (ed.), El primer franquismo, p. 163.

84 The head of Town and Country remembers many battles, among them trying to persuade women workers to understand their labour rights, of overcoming machista attitudes of employers who frequently insulted the female employees and of removing the discriminatory requirement that women needed to present medical certificates before they could be employed. Interview with ANA member (national mando), 30 May 1996.

85 The Law of Political Responsibilities, passed before the war had ended, criminalized political activities deemed to be against the National Movement retrospectively to 1934. Payne, The Franco Regime, pp. 221-2.

86 Interview with Rosalía Pemán, 30 July 1996. It went on for a year at most and the informants, mostly children, were rewarded with sweets.

87 Interview with ANA member (b), 29 October 1997.

88 The SEM was a section of the Falange’s Education Department, set up in 1940 as the transmission-belt for the political indoctrination of primary teachers. It comprised a professional advisory section, a welfare department and a general register of teachers. Anuario social de España 1941, Madrid: Hermosilla, 1941, pp. 720-2. SEM membership was a guarantee of immunity from the effect of political denunciations. Interview with the former head of SEM, José María Gutiérrez del Castillo, 19 February 1996.

89 Interview with Carmen Martín Olmedo, 21 February 1996.

90 Interview with Enrique de Sena, 3 June 1995.

91 Interview with Puri Barrios, 31 October 1996. She states that the Basque Country and Catalonia had strong SF leadership, a point confirmed by ANA member (b), 30 May 1996.

92 SF de FET y de las JONS, Personal: organización local, Madrid: Osca, 1962, pp. 117-18.

93 SF de FET y de las JONS, Historia y misión de la SF de FET y de las JONS, Madrid: DN de Educación de FET y de las JONS, 1944, n.p.

94 ‘La labor realizada por las Secciones Femeninas de FET y de las JONS en las diversas dependencias sanitarias’, in SF, Consejos nacionales (libro primero), p. 37.

95 ‘Obra sindical del Ajuar’, in Revista ‘Y’ (June 1943).

96 ‘En la exposición de Bellas Artes: consideraciones sobre las canastillas, el amor, los niños y el matrimonio’, in Revista ‘Y’ (February 1942).

97 Pilar’s speech at the 1941 SF national conference, in SF de FET y de las JONS, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d., p. 105.

5 Continuing the Revolution: SF 1945-1959

1 ‘Norma Programática de la Falange’, in J.A. Primo de Rivera, Textos de doctrina política, Madrid: DN de la SF de FET y de las JONS, 1966, pp. 339-44.

2 ‘Norma Programática de la Falange’, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, p. 344.

3 R. Chueca, El fascismo en los comienzos del régimen de Franco; un estudio sobre FET- JONS, Madrid: Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas, 1983, p. 149.

4 The Youth Front was one of the very few departments of the National Movement that was not primarily bureaucratic and that connected directly with both members and the unaffiliated. The content and style of training of youth leaders was similar to that of SF mandos.

5 ‘Acerca de la Revolución’, in Haz, no. 9, 12 October 1934, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, p. 663.

6 SF de FET y de las JONS, Instructoras rurales de la Sección Femenina: reglamentación de sus servicios, Madrid: Vicente Rico, 1958, p. 3. As noted in Chapter 2, the specialism of rural instructor was created after the opening of the first national agricultural school in 1950.

7 SF, Instructoras rurales, pp. 9, 11.

8 The number of divulgadoras was at its highest in 1945, with 3,861 on active service. But there was a sharp drop the following year and by 1951 the total had fallen to 3,100. SF de FET y de las JONS, Alcance y acción de la Sección Femenina, Madrid: Magerit, 1953, Anejo 4, p. 29. From 1944, divulgadoras were entitled to a monthly salary of between 75 and 100 pesetas, to be paid directly by the civil authorities and replacing the previous grace-and-favour arrangement. Carta Circular no. 28, Madrid, 27 November 1944, from national head of Health and Welfare to provincial leaders. Archivo General de la Administración Civil del Estado, Sección Cultura, legajo 5066-7, no. IDD, 99.03.

9 D. Ridruejo, Escrito en España, Buenos Aires: Losada, 1962, p. 114. As stated in Chapter 2, Dionisio Ridruejo was one of the Falangist intellectuals and was instrumental in the organization of the early SF. His first post in the Falange was as provincial leader of Valladolid and following the Decree of Unification, he was appointed to the Falangist National Council (Consejo Nacional), its Political Committee (Junta Política) and the post of national head of propaganda. His political views changed, however, following his return from service in Russia with the Blue Division and a brief stay in Germany. In 1942, he resigned his membership of the Falange and editorship of the journal Escorial. Franco’s response to his outspoken comments was to have him placed under house arrest and ban publication of three volumes of poetry. Restrictions were lifted on him in 1947 and he spent two and a half years in Italy. Once back in Spain, his continuing opposition to the regime was not tolerated and he was imprisoned twice. Ridruejo, Escrito en España, pp. 15-30.

10 Pilar’s speech at the 1952 SF national conference, in P. Primo de Rivera, Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1952, p. 5.

11 Interview with Asociación Nueva Andadura (ANA) member (i), 23 February 1996.

12 Pilar’s speech at the 1952 SF national conference, in Primo de Rivera, Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, p. 4.

13 For example, Revista ‘Y’, ‘Fuero del trabajo de la mujer’, April 1938; ‘La Ley sindical’, February 1941; ‘Usted quiere casarse, pero antes desea saber’, April 1941; ‘La mujer universitaria’, March 1942; ‘Préstamos de nupcialidad’, August 1941; ‘Pensamiento y trayectoria de las vidas de mujer’, February 1942.

14 L. Suárez Fernández, Crónica de la Sección Femenina y su tiempo, Madrid: Asociación Nueva Andadura, 1992, p. 254.

15 Interview with Mercedes Fórmica, 22 February 1996. The detail of the incident is quoted in the introduction of one of her novels. M. Fórmica, A instancia de parte, Madrid: Castalia, Instituto de la Mujer, 1991, pp. 36-7. She was even more suprised to recognize the work of her team in the text of the draft of the Law of Political, Professional and Employment Rights of the Woman, presented to parliament by Pilar ten years later!

16 Article 168 was redrafted to: ‘subsequent marriage of the father or mother will not affect paternal authority’. Article 1882 of the Law of Civil Proceedings redefined the marital home as ‘the family home’ and the wife was able to remain there and normally awarded custody of the children. Article 1413 was redrafted to ensure that the permission of the woman was granted before family property was disposed of. Article 105 removed the distinction between male and female adultery. T. Loring, ‘Promoción político-social de la mujer durante los años del mandato de Franco’, in (Autores Varios), Colección Azor de Estudios Contemporáneos, El legado de Franco, Burgos: Fundación Nacional Francisco Franco, 1993, pp. 593-4.

17 Interview with ANA member (b), 30 May 1996. Telephone helplines were set up and SF spoke on radio and television to help advertise the cause; 300,000 women joined in the first three months. The scheme ‘Montepío del Servicio Doméstico’ was created by the decree of 17 March 1959.

18 The Law of Political, Professional and Employment Rights of the Woman, passed on 22 July 1961, gave access to women to work in most fields, but still barred her from the Armed Forces and the judiciary and did not remove the need for her husband to give written permission for her to work. A decree seven months later gave women the right to continue working after marriage, leave (with State benefits) or take temporary leave of absence. M.A. Durán, El trabajo de la mujer en España, Madrid: Tecnos, 1972, pp. 37-8.

19 A. de Miguel, La sociología del franquismo - análisis ideológico de los ministros del régimen, Barcelona: Euros, 1975, p. 195.

20 In November 1945, the U.S. ambassador left Madrid and in March 1946, the French government closed the border with Spain indefinitely. In December of that year, the United Nations called for withdrawal of diplomatic recognition and the British ambassador left Madrid. S. Payne, The Franco Regime 1936-1975, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987, pp. 356-9.

21 ‘Norma Programática de la Falange’, in Primo de Rivera, Textos, p. 339.

22 Grants were generally for higher degrees or specialist professional courses. They covered the costs of accommodation and excursions for a one-year period. Interview with ANA member (c), 23 October 1995. Between the years 1947 and 1952, SF gave a total of ninety grants. It received far fewer - seventeen between the years 1949 and 1952. SF, Alcance y acción, p. 75.

23 S. Ellwood, Spanish Fascism in the Franco Era: Falange Española de las JONS 1936-76, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1987, p. 105.

24 J. Tusell, Franco y los católicos: la política interior española entre 1945 y 1957, Madrid: Alianza, 1990, p. 311.

25 Secretary-General of the Movement’s speech at the FET y de las JONS 1953 national conference, quoted in de Miguel, La sociología del franquismo, p. 195.

26 Jorge Jordana was appointed head of SEU in 1951 with plans to make it more dynamic by extending its services, changing the voting procedures and encouraging debate and cultural initiatives. M.A. Ruiz Carnicer, El Sindicato Español Universitario (SEU), 1939-1965, Madrid: Siglo veintiuno de España editores, 1996, pp. 247-9.

27 The SF Students’ Syndicate (Regiduría de la Sección Femenina del SEU) never became wholly independent of the overall Falange organization, the SEU. Up to 1951, the national head (regidora central) was hierarchically dependent on her male boss, the national leader of SEU. Each university district had its own mando (regidora de distrito), and local (female) leaders for faculties and courses where women students made up more than 30 per cent of the student body. Until 1951, they did not even have the right to take part in the election of the equivalent male mandos. After 1953, women students were permitted to stand for positions in the SEU hierarchy, although these were largely limited to cultural rather than political responsibilities. Ruiz Carnicer, El Sindicato Español Universitario, pp. 480, 482.

28 Three events that year gave a platform for debate on the National Movement: the first National Congress of Students (organized by SEU), a National Youth Conference and the first National Conference of FET y de las JONS. Ruiz Carnicer, El Sindicato Español Universitario, p. 273.

29 Ruiz Carnicer, El Sindicato Español Universitario, p. 278.

30 Payne, The Franco Regime, pp. 446-7.

31 Pilar’s speech at the 1956 SF national conference, in P. Primo de Rivera, Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1956, p. 3.

32 Suárez Fernández, Crónica, p. 313.

33 Interview with ANA member (b), 29 October 1997. In May 1958, the government published new Principles of the Movement, which replaced the original twenty-six Programmatic Points of FET y de las JONS. They confirmed SF’s new direction, stating that the Movement was a ‘communion’ and defining the regime as a traditional, Catholic, social and representative monarchy. Payne, The Franco Regime, p. 455.

34 Suárez Fernández, Crónica, pp. 324-5.

35 Pilar’s speech at the 1958 SF national conference, in P. Primo de Rivera, Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1958, p. 7.

36 Pilar’s speech at the 1958 SF national conference, in Primo de Rivera, Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, p. 5.

37 Pilar’s speech at the 1956 SF national conference, in P. Primo de Rivera, Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1956, p. 5.

38 Ibid.

39 The funding of the National Movement was always a tiny proportion of the State budget. Its highest funding was in 1945 when it accounted for 1.92 per cent of total State spending. This fell sharply to 0.38 per cent the following year. The 1958 figure of 0.21 is the lowest recorded. Source: Presupuestos del Partido, in Chueca, El fascismo, p. 203.

40 Suárez Fernández, Crónica, pp. 167, 168, 242-3, 265.

41 Suárez Fernández, Crónica, p. 201.

42 Circular no. 329, Regiduría Central de Personal. The initial sum of 350 pesetas was raised in line with the cost of living and enabled the schools to become self-financing. Reply to questionnaire to Asociación Nueva Andadura, January 1995. For 1968, however, the only year for which data is available, the base budget for SF was 287,743,503 pesetas. P. Primo de Rivera, Recuerdos de una vida, Madrid: Dyrsa, 1983, p. 415. On the above figures (Presupuestos del Partido (1968), in Chueca, El fascismo, p. 203), this represented 47 per cent of the total budget of the National Movement. Funding from other ministries was on top of this sum.

43 Interview with Puri Barrios, 31 October 1996.

44 Arriba, 21 March 1959.

45 Primo de Rivera, Recuerdos, p. 230.

46 Interview with ANA member (c), 23 October 1995.

47 SF, Alcance y acción, Anejo 2, p. 17.

48 SF, Alcance y acción, p. 21.

49 Arriba, 31 December 1941, in R. Chueca, El fascismo, p. 311. The same source gives the male youth membership as 564,999. Even with these figures, membership of the male and female youth organizations represented only a tiny percentage of the juvenile population of 1940 (12.98 per cent and 7.69 per cent respectively). Ibid.

50 FET y de las JONS, La Sección Femenina: historia y organización, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1952, p. 63. On this calculation (using R. Chueca’s figure of 6,497,392 for the juvenile population of 1940), female youth membership in that year represented 0.58 per cent of that figure.

51 Youth membership - 1948 = 58,931; 1951 = 67,310. Numbers of youth members joining the adult organization - 1948 = 4,025; 1951 = 3,450. SF de FET y de las JONS, Labor realizada en 1948, Madrid: Magerit, 1949, p. 40; SF de FET y de las JONS, Labor realizada en 1951, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1952, p. 38.

52 For example, some data gives figures for certificates for completed service issued. Other data relates to numbers of women about to start or those half way through. The source quoted speaks ambiguously of the number of women ‘registered’ (encuadradas) yearly over a twenty-two-year period. P. Primo de Rivera, La enseñanza doméstica como contribución al bienestar de la familia española, Madrid: Comercial Española de Ediciones, 1961, p. 27. Another SF source for the years 1940-52 gives a total figure of 277,979 women doing social service in these years. This is a yearly average of 23,164. SF, Alcance y acción, Anejo 1, p. 15.

53 Ibid.

54 Primo de Rivera, La enseñanza doméstica, p. 27; 1950 census, quoted in C. Borderías, Entre líneas. Trabajo e identidad femenina en la España contemporánea - La Compañía Telefónica 1924-80, Barcelona: Icaria, 1993, pp. 67, 70. The Spanish term ‘población activa’ is interpreted as those in work and those seeking it. The statistics refer to all single women of working age, whereas social service was limited to women under thirty-five.

55 Social service completers going on to become adult members of SF - 1948 = 260; 1951 = 630. SF, Labor realizada en 1948, p. 17; SF, Labor realizada en 1951, p. 20.

56 SF, Labor realizada en 1948, p. 16. The figures do not include women working in the political hierarchy (mandos políticos) as provincial and local leaders. In Pilar’s memoirs, however, she states that there were 2,851 salaried political mandos in 1968. Primo de Rivera, Recuerdos, p. 405. Assuming that the political mando total would not vary greatly (given that the provincial and regional structure was static), an estimate of SF staff membership in 1948 is c.14,000. This figure (of whom between 4,000 and 5,000 were salaried) is also the recollection of a former national mando. Interview with ANA member (b), 30 May 1996.

57 SF, Labor realizada en 1951, pp. 18-19.

58 The first university residence (‘Santa María de la Almudena’ in Madrid) was opened in 1959. Junior colleges started in the 1950s, providing residential accommodation in towns to give access to secondary education for girls from rural areas. Suárez Fernández, Crónica, pp. 344, 348. SF local and provincial centres varied in size and scope. Villages frequently had no premises at all and SF activities centred round the local leader. In others, premises were shared with the male departments of the Movement in a ‘Falange house’ (Casa de Falange). Typically, SF had at least partial use of some or all the following: youth centre, offices, hall, library and classrooms. The premises were used jointly by SF’s political mandos and their specialist colleagues. Interviews with Nuri Ogando, 23 February 1995; Puri Barrios, 31 October 1996; Lolita Bermúdez-Cañete Orth, 22 February 1996.

6 Gender, class and the SF mandos

1 Dr J. Bosch Marín, ‘El Fuero del Trabajo y la mujer’, in Revista ‘Y’ (April 1938).

2 R. Griffin, The Nature of Fascism, London: Routledge, 1991, p. 41.

3 The seven founder members in 1934 were upper-class, wealthy women, all close in some way to the Primo de Rivera family.

4 No. 24 of the 1934 Programmatic Points stated: ‘Culture will be organized so that no talent will be wasted through lack of financial resources. All deserving cases will have easy access even to higher education.’ J.A. Primo de Rivera, Textos de doctrina política, Madrid: DN de la SF de FET y de las JONS, 1966, p. 344.

5 The 1934 manifesto of SF in ‘Historia de la Sección Femenina’, in Revista ‘Y’ (April 1938).

6 Pilar’s speech at the 1937 SF national conference, in P. Primo de Rivera, Cuatro discursos, Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1939, p. 13.

7 P. Primo de Rivera, ‘Historia de la Sección Femenina’, in Revista ‘Y’ (September 1938).

8 María Moscardó was the daughter of the Army General made famous by his defence of the Toledo military academy in the Civil War. Josefina Arraiza Goñi later married José Antonio Elola, the Falangist who became head of the Youth Front.

9 The nurses were all volunteers and from the highest social class. Interview with José María Gutiérrez, 19 February 1996.

10 ‘Escuela de Jefes’, in Revista ‘Y’ (July-August, 1938).

11 Pilar’s speech at the 1939 SF national conference, in Primo de Rivera, Cuatro discursos, pp. 22-3.

12 Interview with Puri Barrios, 31 October 1996.

13 Interview with Rosalía Pemán, 30 July 1996. In her memory, it was educated families whose daughters got the jobs and whose children were admitted to summer camps. Poor people were helped charitably through the dining rooms of Social Aid, but for those in between, there was no chance of a post. In her opinion, SF became more inclusive as the operation expanded and SF needed more members.

14 Their basic structure is described in Chapter 2.

15 Similar arrangements applied in urban areas, which were divided into districts, each with its own local leader (jefe de distrito) responsible for members and activities.

16 The first regidoras centrales included a further sister of Dionisio Ridruejo, Laly, as head of Administration, a cousin of Pilar’s, Lula de Lara, as head of Culture, and family friend and former girlfriend of José Antonio, Carmen Werner, as head of the Youth Wing.

17 After this time, SF began to work actively to increase educational opportunities for girls from poorer families, particularly in rural communities. SF junior residences (colegios menores), which enabled girls from the country to attend city secondary schools where they could sit for the school-leavers’ examination, were expanded in 1960 with funding from the National Movement. There were eventually twenty-two over the country. L. Suárez Fernández, Crónica de la Sección Femenina y su tiempo, Madrid: Asociación Nueva Andadura, 1992, p. 348.

18 Interview with Lolita Bermúdez-Cañete Orth, 19 February 1998. She recalls one mando who was criticized by her former convent teacher for her decision to work full-time for SF, as signifying a drop in social status. In another Madrid convent, SF teachers were admitted only if they had been former pupils.

19 An example is Viky Eiroa, whose final post was as principal of the SF university residence (colegio mayor) in Madrid. After graduation and a spell as local leader during the war, she worked as an administrator in the national office. She was then appointed national head of the SF Foreign Service. This involved her in work in Latin America and included management of the choirs and dances foreign visits. Teresa Loring, Pilar’s final deputy leader, worked first as a nurse before becoming a teacher trainer in youth work, then in health care and SF training. Next, she was appointed principal of the first teacher-training establishment, Las Navas, then was asked to take a demotion to provincial leader. From here she was promoted directly to the post of national deputy of SF.

20 Suárez Fernández, Crónica, p. 106. These included Pilar, her deputy, five national heads of specialist departments and office staff. The sums were tiny - 1,000 pesetas for Pilar, 800 for her deputy and 500 for the national staff.

21 The divulgadoras earned a monthly average of 75 pesetas. The instructors (instructoras elementales) who taught basic-level SF courses to voluntary groups such as youth members were never paid. Those with more qualifications (instructoras generales), teaching the SF curriculum in schools, were paid by the schools from the point when the subjects became compulsory. Typically, staff worked part-time in a number of schools and were paid a small amount by each, earning on average 200-300 pesetas monthly. The rural instructors (instructoras rurales) who had qualified at the SF national agricultural school were paid by the ministry and frequently worked on rural regeneration schemes. Monthly salaries in the 1950s were between 200 and 400 pesetas. Interview with Asociación Nueva Andadura (ANA) member (b), 7 November 1999.

22 Interview with ANA member (a), 21 February 1996; M. Kenny, A Spanish Tapestry, London: Cohen and West, 1961, p. 177.

23 Circular no. 99, 24 June 1938 from P. Primo de Rivera to provincial leaders, in Primo de Rivera, Discursos, circulares, escritos, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d., pp. 266-7. Anecdotal evidence suggests, however, that the age bar was dropped in the 1950s, when SF was keen to encourage new blood and hold on to its experts.

24 Interview with ANA member (a), 21 February 1996. The issue was brought to the attention of the 1956 SF national conference, where it was decided to increase salaries. Suárez Fernández, Crónica, pp. 305-6.

25 SF de FE de las JONS, Estatutos, Salamanca: Imp. Cervantes, n.d., pp. 3-4.

26 Pilar’s speech at the 1941 SF national conference, in SF de FET y de las JONS, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d., p. 105.

27 Pilar’s speech at the 1940 SF national conference, SF, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), p. 13.

28 Pilar’s speech at the 1941 SF national conference, SF, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), p. 105.

29 Interview with Mercedes Fórmica, 22 February 1996.

30 Interview with Marichu de la Mora, 27 October 1997.

31 Interview with Mercedes Otero, 20 February 1996.

32 R. Felski, The Gender of Modernity, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995, p. 13.

33 Pilar’s speech at the 1940 SF national conference, in SF, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), p. 12.

34 H. Graham, ‘Gender and the State: Women in the 1940s’, in H. Graham and J. Labanyi (eds.), Spanish Cultural Studies: An Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 185.

35 J. Lasso de la Vega’s speech at the 1941 SF national conference, in SF, Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), p. 147.

36 Interview with María Luisa Oliveros, 18 February 1998. She was not a member of SF.

37 In Santiago, for example, a former member was absent for three days of her social service but was debited for six. Interview with Rosalía Pemán, 30 July 1996.

38 Pilar’s speech to provincial youth workers, in Primo de Rivera, Discursos, p. 179.

39 F. Ximénez de Sandoval, José Antonio - biografía, 2a edición, Madrid: Lazaro-Echaniz, 1940, p. 601.

40 Pilar’s speech at the 1942 national conference, in P. Primo de Rivera, Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1942, p. 6.

41 Pilar’s speech at the 1942 national conference, in P. Primo de Rivera, Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, p. 8.

42 DN de la SF de FET y de las JONS, Personal: organización. Delegación provincial, SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d., p. 130. Information was also sought on depth of religious faith and the candidate’s personal appearance.

43 SF de FET y de las JONS, Personal: organización local, Madrid: Osca, 1962, p. 83.

44 Interview with Enrique de Aguinaga, 22 February 1996. He tells the story of a messenger boy looking for the National Movement’s offices by asking the way to ‘the men’s Sección Femenina’.

45 Interview with Enrique de Aguinaga, 22 February 1996.

46 Interview with Nuri Ogando, 23 February 1995.

47 ‘¿Qué duda tienes?’, in Revista ‘Y’ (February 1938).

48 For example, one mando was called to Pilar’s office, given a hat from the cupboard and required to accompany her there and then to the wedding of a minister’s son. Interview with Lolita Bermúdez-Cañete Orth, 19 February 1998. Also remembered is Pilar’s obsession with timekeeping. Interview with Rosalía Pemán, 30 July 1996.

49 SF de FET y de las JONS, Enciclopedia elemental, Madrid: E. Giménez, 1959, p. 156.

50 The case in point was a local leader’s insistence on giving aid to a pregnant woman who was unmarried. Interview with Nuri Ogando, 23 February 1995.

51 A mando was asked to admit the general public, including well-to-do women, to a training course she ran for factory women and maids. The public was to come in via the main door with the others obliged to enter separately. She refused to run the course under these conditions and handed over the keys of the hall to her provincial superior. This incident (in the late 1960s) led to her dismissal. Interview with Rosalía Pemán, 30 July 1996. One mando had taken to heart Pilar’s oft-expressed doubts about continuing as leader of SF and made the suggestion at the 1964 national conference that there should be a secret vote to reaffirm her continuance. This caused an uproar and she was forgiven only because she was deemed young and naive. Interview with Lolita Bermúdez-Cañete Orth, 22 February 1996.

52 Interview with Rosalía Pemán, 30 July 1996.

Conclusion

1 Interview with Julia Alcántara, 26 October 1994.

2 F. Ximénez de Sandoval, José Antonio - biografía, 2nd ed., Madrid: Lazareno-Echaniz, 1940, p. 601.

3 P. Primo de Rivera, ‘Historia de la Sección Femenina’, in Revista ‘Y’ (February, March, April, May, June, July-August, September, October, December 1938); Revista ‘Y’ (January-May 1939).

4 Franco’s speech at the Medina rally 1939, in SF de FET y de las JONS, Consejos nacionales (libro primero), Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d., p. 99.

5 Pilar’s speech at the 1938 SF national conference, in P. Primo de Rivera, Cuatro discursos, Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1939, p. 5.

6 P. Preston, Las tres Españas del 36, Barcelona: Plaza y Janés, 1999, p. 169.

7 Mercedes lost her seat when she relinquished control of Social Aid.

8 Interview with Nuri Ogando, 23 February 1995.

9 Interview with Carmen Osuña Castelló, 31 July 1996.

10 SF’s welfare work made it the most highly regarded sector of the National Movement. Interview with José Utrera Molina, 29 May 1996.

11 Interviews with Enrique de Sena, 3 June 1995; Julio Ibáñez Rodrigo, 3 June 1995; Sebastián Barrueco, 27 October 1995.

12 Interview with María Luisa Oliveros, 18 February 1998.

13 For example, SF literature of 1958 takes credit for the fall in infant mortality (defined as death within twelve months of birth) from 142 per thousand in 1940, to 62 per thousand in 1951 and 47 per thousand in 1958. DN de la SF de FET y de las JONS, Nociones de puericultura postnatal, Madrid: Ruan, 1958, pp. 3-4.

14 As noted in Chapter 5, the numbers were 260 and 630 respectively. SF de FET y de las JONS, Labor realizada en 1948, Madrid: Magerit, 1949, p. 17; SF de FET y de las JONS, Labor realizada en 1951, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1952, p. 20.

15 As noted in Chapter 5, annual figures for social service were on average 23,164 for the years between 1940 and 1952. SF de FET y de las JONS, Alcance y acción de la Sección Femenina, Madrid: Magerit, 1953, Anejo 1, p. 15.

16 Interview with Rosa Valladolid Barazal, 27 October 1995.

17 Interview with Asociación Nueva Andadura (ANA) member (b), 30 May 1996.

18 For example, a government-run nurse training school had SF teachers on its staff to teach the political, domestic and physical education courses which were an integral part of its curriculum. Dr J. Turegano, La enfermera y la Escuela Nacional de instructoras sanitarias, Madrid: Dirección General de Sanidad, 1953, pp. 14-19.

19 As noted in Chapter 5, the estimate of 15,000 is based on figures given in 1968 by Pilar Primo de Rivera and the recollections of a former mando.

20 Interview with ANA member (a), 21 February 1996.

Appendix: the oral sources

1 L. Suárez Fernández, Crónica de la Sección Femenina y su tiempo, Madrid: Asociación Nueva Andadura, 1991.

2 A schedule for questions was devised on the principles decribed in P. Thompson, The Voice of the Past, 2nd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988, pp. 202-3.

3 As Paul Thompson notes, memory is more likely to be reliable when dealing with practical matters than in recalling past attitudes. Thompson, The Voice of the Past, p. 112.

4 In this category were five women who had never joined SF, four men who had held posts in the Falange, a further three who experienced the Civil War in the Nationalist zone and three clergymen.

5 The main archive for SF is housed in the Archivo General de la Administración in Alcalá de Henares. It comprises over 900 archive boxes, catalogued only under the broadest of headings. It was in knowledge of the impenetrability of the information in Alcalá that Asociación Nueva Andadura decided to give its own archive to the Real Academia.
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Bibliography

Primary sources

Archive sources


• Archivo Documental de la Asociación Nueva Andadura, Madrid: carpeta 45-A, doc.41.
• Archivo Documental de la Asociación Nueva Andadura, Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid: carpeta 41, doc.3; carpeta 41, doc.41; carpeta 108-b, doc.5.
• Archivo de Santa Cruz, Abadía de la Santa Cruz, Valle de Los Caídos, Guadarrama: J-P, 4, G.
• Archivo General de la Administración Civil del Estado, Alcalá de Henares: Sección Cultura, legajos 5066-5067, no. IDD, 99.03.

Interviews (1994-1999)

SF national staff


Julia Alcántara Rocafort
head, Youth Wing.

Lolita Bermúdez-Cañete Orth
head, Students’ Syndicate.

Viky Eiroa
head, Foreign Service; principal, Ladies’ Residence.

Mercedes Fórmica
editor, Medina.

Lula de Lara
head, Culture.

Andresa López Enseñat
principal, Las Navas.

Teresa Loring
SF national deputy leader.

Carmen Martín Olmedo
head, Medina Cultural Circle.

Marichu de la Mora
editor, Revista ‘Y’.

Mercedes Otero
deputy head, Culture.

Mónica Plaza
head, Town and Country.

Adelaida del Pozo
national team, Culture.

Mercedes Sanz Bachiller
head, Social Aid.

Oliva Tomé Lambea
national team, Training.

SF provincial and local staff

Puri Barrios
SF provincial leader (Salamanca).

Mariti Calvo provincial
head, Students’ Syndicate (Salamanca).

Carmina Carpintero
travelling schools.

Lucía del Día Valdeón
SF local leader (Toledo); nurse in Blue Division.

Angelina Garrido
teacher trainer, Las Navas.

Maruja Martín Sierra
physical education teacher.

Carmen Moreno de Vega
SF provincial leader (Salamanca).

Nuri Ogando
SF local leader (La Bañeza, León).

Antonia Ortolá
domestic science teacher, La Mota.

Carmen Osuña Castelló
physical education teacher (Santiago de Compostela).

Rosalía Pemán
local head, Town and Country (Santiago de Compostela).

Margarita Pérez-Urria Baqueiro
travelling schools.

Nieves Serrano
provincial head, Culture (Palencia).

Falangists

José María Gutiérrez del Castillo
head, Teachers’ Service (SEM); Blue Division.

Julio Ibáñez Rodrigo
provincial leader, Social Aid (Salamanca).

Jesús Suevos
Director-General, television and radio.

José María Utrera Molina
Secretary-General, National Movement.

Women with connections with or recollections of SF

Petra Bondía Román
doctor (Salamanca).

María Teresa de la Fuente Vera
social service (Madrid).

María Jesús García
physical education teacher (Zaragoza).

Carmen Michalska
social service (Madrid).

María Luisa Oliveros
social service (Madrid); student in Ladies’ Residence.

Conchita Valladolid Barazal
midwife (Salamanca).

Luisa Valladolid Barazal
nurse-practitioner (Salamanca).

Rosa Valladolid Barazal
nurse-practitioner (Salamanca).

Men with connections with or recollections of SF

Enrique de Aguinaga
journalist (Madrid).

Sebastián Barrueco
corporal, working in military court (Salamanca).

Father Manuel Garrido
Benedictine (Silos and Valle de los Caídos).

Father Manuel González
priest, Ermita de San Isidro (Madrid).

Msgr. Ronald Hishon
rector, St Alban’s College (Valladolid).

Enrique de Sena
editor (Salamanca).

Press and journals

Arriba
29 April, 23 May, 8 July, 21 July, 28 September, 11 October 1939.

17 January, 29 October 1940.

18 January, 1 July, 28 August, 7 October, 31 December 1941.

3 July, 4 July, 22 August, 29 August, 13 September 1942.

5 October 1943.

5 July, 7 July, 9 July 1944.

21 March 1959.

Anuario social de España
1941.

Boletín Sindical, número extraordinario
1942.

Informaciones
26 October 1931.

Medina
30 November 1941; 19 April 1942.

Mujer
7 November 1931.

Orientaciones y normas
November 1940.

Revista ‘Mandos’
June 1944.

Revista ‘Y’
February, March, April, May, June, July- August, September, October, December 1938.

January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, October 1939.

January, February, November, December 1940.

February, April, May, July, August, September, October 1941.

January, February, March, August, October 1942.

June 1943.

June 1945.

Unpublished sources

Andresa López Enseñat, ‘Escuela Nacional de Instructoras Generales “Isabel la Católica” - Recuerdos y reflexiones sobre años decisivos (1956-1978)’. Unpublished manuscript.

‘Cuerpo de divulgadoras de la Sección Femenina’ (SF de FET y de las JONS). Unpublished draft report.

Reply to questionnaire sent to Asociación Nueva Andadura, January 1995.

Reply to questionnaire sent to Julia Alcántara, 1995.

Publications: (1) SF, Falange, National Movement

SF de FE de las JONS


——Estatutos de la Sección Femenina de Falange Española de las J.O.N.S., Salamanca: Cervantes, n.d.

SF de FET y de las JONS

——Alcance y acción de la Sección Femenina, Madrid: Magerit, 1953.

——Cátedras de la Sección Femenina: organización, Madrid: Magerit, 1965.

——Concentración nacional de las falanges femeninas en honor del Caudillo y del ejército español, Bilbao: Talleres Gráficos de Jesús Alvarez, 1939.

——Consejos nacionales (libro primero), Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d.

——Consejos nacionales (libro segundo), Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d.

——Consejos provinciales de la Sección Femenina, Madrid: FET y de las JONS, 1945.

——Directorio litúrgico, tercera edición, Madrid: Ibarra, 1963.

——Emblema de aptitud física: reglamento, Madrid: Magerit, 1959.

——Enciclopedia elemental, Madrid: E. Giménez, 1959.

——Escuela Mayor de Mandos ‘José Antonio’, Castillo de la Mota mayo 1942 - mayo 1962, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1962.

——Escuela Nacional de instructoras de juventudes ‘Isabel la Católica’, Madrid: Vicente Rico, 1951.

——Escuela Nacional de instructoras ‘Isabel la Católica’, Madrid: n.p., 1944.

——Escuela Nacional de instructoras rurales, Madrid: Magerit, 1970.

——Formación Política: cuarto curso, Madrid: Ibarra, 1958.

——Granjas-escuelas 1a ed., Madrid: Magerit, 1952.

——Guía litúrgica: asesoría religiosa, Madrid: Sucesores de Rivadeneyra, 1945.

——Instructoras rurales de la Sección Femenina: reglamentación de sus servicios, Madrid: Vicente Rico, 1958.

——Juventudes, Madrid: Magerit, 1953.

——La función de la Sección Femenina en la enseñanza según la legislación: normas para delegaciones provinciales, Madrid: Magerit, n.d.

——La Sección Femenina del Movimiento y la promoción de las Empleadas del Hogar, Madrid: 1974.

——La Sección Femenina - historia y misión, Madrid: DN de Educación de FET y de las JONS, 1944.

——La Sección Femenina - historia y organización, Madrid: FET y de las JONS, 1952.

——La Sección Femenina: síntesis de su organización, Madrid: Ibarra, 1963.

——Labor realizada en 1948, Madrid: Magerit, 1949.

——Labor realizada en 1951, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1952.

——Lecciones de educación física de 1a, 2a enseñanza y comercio, Madrid: Fareso, 1964.

——Lecciones de puericultura e higiene para cursos de divulgadoras sanitario-rurales, Madrid: Sucesores de Rivadeneyra, 1945.

——Manual de cocina: recetario, octava edición, Madrid: Ruan, 1958.

——Misa dialogada para escuelas de mandos, Madrid: Monteverde, 1946.

——Nace Jesús, Madrid: Ibarra, 1958.

——Nociones de higiene y medicina casera, Madrid: Magerit, 1955.

——Nociones de puericultura post-natal, Madrid: Ruan, 1958.

——Normas relacionadas con el Departamento de Bibliotecas de la Regiduría de Cultura, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1956.

——Obra social de artesanía ‘ayuda al hogar’, Madrid: Ibarra, 1970.

——Oraciones para juventudes, Madrid: Ruan, 1958.

——Personal: organización. Delegación provincial: SF, n.d.

——Personal: organización local, Madrid: Osca, 1962.

——Plan de formación, Madrid: Afrodisio Aguado, 1942.

——Programas para cursos de instructoras elementales de hogar y juventudes, Madrid: Magerit, 1959.

——Programas para escuelas de hogar de la Sección Femenina, Madrid: Aragón, 1959.

——Reglamento para Escuelas Nacionales de formación de mandos y especialidades de la S.F.: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d.

——II Concentración nacional de la Sección Femenina en el Escorial, SF de FET y de las JONS, 1944.

——Servicio social de la mujer - su aspecto educativo, Madrid: Ibarra, 1965.

FE de las JONS

——Reglamento de Flechas, Burgos: Aldecoa, 1937.

FET y de las JONS

——La Falange llama a todas las mujeres de España, leaflet, n.p.: FET y de las JONS, 1937.

DN de Prensa y Propaganda del SEU

——Capítulo sobre el Sindicato Español Universitario del reglamento del Frente de Juventudes de Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS, Madrid: Sucesores de Rivadeneyra, 1941.

——La S.F. del S.E.U. en el castillo de la Mota, Madrid: Editorial Haz, n.d.

DN de Auxilio Social

——Auxilio Social desde el punto de vista religioso y moral, Madrid: Ayala, 1940.

——Auxilio Social - lo que es, lo que hace, Madrid: Fareso, 1959.

——Auxilio Social: obra nacional-sindicalista de protección a la madre y al niño: labor desarrollada en beneficio de los niños españoles de 0 a 3 años durante el año de 1941, Madrid: Fénix, 1942.

——Conferencias y discursos de la primera reunión nacional de delegados provinciales de Auxilio Social, Madrid: Fareso, 1961.

——Labor realizada 1956-57, Albacete: Delegación provincial de Auxilio Social, 1958.

DN de Deportes

——Ley de educación física, Madrid: DN de Deportes, 1961.

——Memoria-resumen de las tareas científicas del 1 Congreso Nacional de Educación Física, Madrid: Jesús López, 1943.

DN de Organizaciones Juveniles

——El libro de las margaritas, Madrid: Regiduría Central de O.J., 1940.

——Tardes de enseñanza: formacion nacional-sindicalista, Madrid: Afrodisio Aguado, 1939.

DN del Frente de Juventudes

——Estaciones preventoriales - calendario que ha de regir en la campaña 1945, n.p.: Asesoría Nacional de Sanidad.

——Resumen de legislación laboral para productores menos de 21 años: centros de trabajo, Madrid: Ediciones Frente de Juventudes, 1943.

Publications: (2) Other

Acción Católica


——Aspirantado: folleto para instructores, Madrid: Juventud de Acción Católica, 1936.

——Delegadas de Menores. Curso Superior, Madrid: Ediciones del Consejo Rector de las jóvenes de Acción Católica, 1956.

——Extracto de leyes benéfico-sociales, Madrid: Mujeres de Acción Católica de España, Consejo Superior, 1942.

——Guia de visitadoras, Madrid: Mujeres de Acción Católica de España, n.d.

——Ideario de las jóvenes de Acción Católica, Madrid: Ediciones del Consejo Rector de las jóvenes de Acción Católica, 1957.

——Organización general de Acción Católica Española - Jornadas Nacionales, Valle de los Caídos: Ediciones Acción Católica Española, 1960.

——Sentir con el débil. Menores: folleto de campaña 1956-60, Madrid: Ediciones del Consejo Nacional de las jóvenes de Acción Católica.

Agosti, L., Gimnasia educativa, Madrid: Talleres del Instituto Geográfico y Estatal, 1948.

Amado, J., Vía-Crucis, Málaga: Editorial Dardo, 1938.

Anzoategui, I., Manifiesto a las juventudes de Falange, Madrid: Ediciones Flechas y Pelayos, 1948.

Ayudante Técnico Sanitario, Madrid: Ministerio de Educación Nacional, 1960.

Ballesteros Gaibrois, M., La letra ‘Y’ - su historia y presente, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d.

Corona de sonetos, Madrid: Ediciones Jerarquía, 1939.

De la Villa, L., and Rodríguez-Alarcón, J., Asamblea sanitaria 1958: asistencia al niño recién nacido, Madrid: González, 1958.

Diez Monar, D., Vademecum de la Acción Católica, Madrid: Talleres Poligráficos, 1932.

Fórmica, M., Falsas y verdaderas formas del feminismo (conferencia 11 de diciembre de 1975 en el acto homenaje a Beatriz Galindo), Madrid: n.p., 1975.

Idelio Pérez, P., A las enfermeras de España: jornada de la enfermera, Salamanca: Hijos de F. Núñez, 1939.

Información para las Estudiantes de la Residencia de Señoritas 1932-3, Madrid: Junta directiva de la Residencia de Señoritas, n.d.

Jahr, H., Las mujeres laboran para Alemania, Berlin: Müller und Sohn, n.d.

La enfermera y la escuela nacional de instructoras sanitarias, Madrid: Dirección General de Sanidad, 1953.

La Residencia de Señoritas, Madrid: Junta para Ampliación de Estudios, 1929.

Marañón, G., Tres ensayos sobre la vida sexual, Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, 1927.

Mendízabal M., and González Allas, A., Asamblea sanitaria 1958: índice de la labor realizada en las Casas de la Madre de Auxilio Social en Madrid, Madrid: González, 1958.

Morales Romero-Girón, M., Otaño Ruiz de la Torre, V., and Calderón Villalobos, F., Asamblea sanitaria 1958: estudios sobre morbilidad por tuberculosis en la población infantil de Auxilio Social, Madrid: González, 1958.

Muguruza Otano, P., Arquitectura popular española, Madrid: Publicaciones de la dirección general de regiones devastadas y reparaciones, 1940.

——Mujeres de España, Madrid: Publicaciones españolas, 1953.

Noguera, E., and Huerta, L., Libro de las primeras jornadas eugénicas españolas: genética, eugenesia y pedagogía sexual, Tomo 1, Madrid: Javier Morata, 1934.

Poch y Gascón, A., La vida sexual de la mujer, Valencia: Cuadernos de Cultura, 1932.

Primo de Rivera, J.A., Textos de doctrina política, Madrid: DN de la SF de FET y de las JONS, 1966.

Primo de Rivera, P., Cuatro discursos de Pilar Primo de Rivera, Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1939.

——Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, Granada: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1942.

——Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, IX Consejo Nacional, Bilbao-San Sebastian, n.p.: SF de FET de las JONS, 1945.

——Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, XI Consejo Nacional, Zaragoza-Huesca, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1947.

——Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, XII Consejo Nacional, Sevilla-Huelva, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1948.

——Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, XV Consejo Nacional, Burgos-Palencia, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1951.

——Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, XVI Consejo Nacional, Cádiz-Jerez de la Frontera, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1952.

——Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, XVII Consejo Nacional, Málaga-Antequera, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1956.

——Discurso de Pilar Primo de Rivera, XIX Consejo Nacional, Medina del Campo, n.p.: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1958.

——Discursos, circulares, escritos, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d.

——La enseñanza doméstica como contribución al bienestar de la familia española, Madrid: Colección Congreso, 1961.

——‘“Lecciones de Santa Teresa”, conferencia pronunciada por Pilar Primo de Rivera en el Casón del Buen Retiro, cerrando el ciclo organizado con motivo de la exposición Santa Teresa y su tiempo’, pamphlet, Madrid: Ruan, 1971.

——Palabras de Pilar Primo de Rivera, Condesa del Castillo de la Mota, Delegada Nacional de la Sección Femenina, en el Pleno de las Cortes Españolas del día 22 de julio de 1961, Madrid: Ibarra, 1961.

——Recuerdos de José Antonio, conferencia pronunciada por Pilar Primo de Rivera en el Club ‘Mundo’, Barcelona: DN de la SF del Movimiento, 1973.

Resumen de la natalidad y mortalidad en el año 1932, Madrid: Departamento de Estadísticas Sanitarias, Dirección General de Sanidad, 1933.

Ros, S., and Bouthelier, A., A hombros de la Falange, Madrid: Ediciones Patria, 1940.

Sanz Bachiller, M., La mujer y la educación de los niños, Madrid: Ediciones Auxilio Social, 1939.

——Mujeres de España, Madrid: Textos Escolares Aguado, 1940.

Turegano, J., La enfermera y la Escuela Nacional de instructoras sanitarias, Madrid: Dirección General de Sanidad, 1953.

Urraca Pastor, M., Conferencia pronunciada en el ‘Cine’ de la Opera, el domingo, día 5 de marzo de 1933, n.p.: El Siglo Futuro, 1933.

Vallejo Nágera, Dr A., Eugenesia de la hispanidad y regeneración de la raza, Burgos: Editorial Española, 1937.

——Divagaciones intranscendentes, Valladolid: Talleres Cuesta, 1938.

——El factor emoción en la nueva España, Burgos: Federación de Amigos de la Enseñanza, 1938.

——Política racial del Nuevo Estado, San Sebastián: Biblioteca España Nueva, 1938.

Werner, C., Formación familiar y social, 3rd ed., Madrid: Ediciones de la SF, Departamento de Cultura, 1946.

Memoirs and biographies

Bolín, L., The Vital Years, London: Cassell, 1967.

Escribano, E., Por Jesucristo y por España: las Hijas de la Caridad de la provincia española en trescientos veinticinco hospitales de sangre durante la Cruzada Nacional-tomo primero, Madrid: Uguina, 1941.

Fernández Cuesta, R., Testimonio, recuerdos y reflexiones, Madrid: Dyrsa, 1985.

Fórmica, M., A instancia de parte, Madrid: Editorial Castalia, Instituto de la Mujer, 1991.

——Visto y vivido 1931-1937, Barcelona: Planeta, 1993.

Garrido Bonaño, M., Fray Justo y los hombres de su tiempo, Valle de los Caídos: Abadía de la Santa Cruz, 1983.

González Ruiz, N., José Antonio - biografía e ideario, Madrid: Editorial Redención, 1940.

Martínez de Bedoya, J., Memorias desde mi aldea, Valladolid: Ambito, 1996.

Primo de Rivera, P., Recuerdos de una vida, Madrid: Dyrsa, 1983.

Ridruejo D., Escrito en España, Buenos Aires: Losada, 1962.

——Casi unas memorias, Barcelona: Planeta, 1976.

Ruiz Vilaplana, A., Doy fe: un año de actuación en la España nacionalista, Paris: Éditions Imprimerie Coopérative Etoile, n.d.

Suárez Fernández, L., Crónica de la Sección Femenina y su tiempo, Madrid: Asociación Nueva Andadura, 1992.

Urraca Pastor, M., Así empezamos: memorias de una enfermera, Bilbao: Editorial Vizcaína, n.d.

Ximénez de Sandoval, F., José Antonio - biografía, 2nd ed., Madrid: Lazareno-Echaniz, 1940.

Secondary sources

Articles


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Ben-Ghiat, R., ‘Italian Fascism and the Aesthetics of the “Third Way”’, Journal of Contemporary History, 1996, vol. 31, 293-316.

Bennett, J., ‘Feminism and History’, Gender and History, 1989, vol. 1, no. 3, Autumn, 249-72.

Bock, G., ‘Women’s History and Gender History: Aspects of an International Debate’, Gender and History, 1989, vol. 1, no. 1, Spring, 7-30.

Braun, E., ‘Expressionism as Fascist Aesthetic’, Journal of Contemporary History, 1996, vol. 31, 273-92.

Chodorow, N., ‘Gender as a Personal and Cultural Construction’, Signs, 1995, Spring, 516-44.

Durham, M., ‘Gender and the British Union of Fascists’, Journal of Contemporary History, 1992, vol. 27, 513-29.

Enders, V., ‘Nationalism and Feminism: the Sección Femenina of Falange’, History of European Ideas, 1992, vol. 15, no. 4-6, 673-80.

Fogu, C., ‘Fascism and Historic Representation: The 1932 Garibaldian Celebrations’, Journal of Contemporary History, 1996, vol. 31, 317-45.

Gellott, L., and Phayer, M., ‘Dissenting Voices: Catholic Women in Opposition to Fascism’, Journal of Contemporary History, 1987, vol. 22, 91-114.

Gentile, E., ‘Fascism as Political Religion’, Journal of Contemporary History, 1990, vol. 25, 229-51.

Hermand, J., ‘All Power to the Women: Nazi Concepts of Matriarchy’, Journal of Contemporary History, 1984, vol. 19, 649-67.

Hoff, J., ‘Gender as a Postmodern Category of Paralysis’, Women’s History Review, 1994, vol. 3, no. 2, 149-68.

Mosse, G., ‘Fascist Aesthetics and Society: Some Considerations’, Journal of Contemporary History, 1996, vol. 31, 245-52.

Nash, M., ‘Experiencia y aprendizaje: la formación histórica de los feminismos en España’, Historia Social, 1994, no. 20, Autumn, 151-72.

Pérez Ledesma, M., ‘Una dictadura “por la gracia de Dios”’, Historia Social, 1994, no. 20, Autumn, 173-93.

Rodgers, E., ‘The Reyes Católicos and “National Unity”: Aspects of Nationalist Historiography in post-Civil War Spain’, Association of Contemporary Iberian Studies, 1994, vol. 7, no. 2, Autumn, 53-9.

Sánchez López, R., ‘Mussolini, los jóvenes y las mujeres: la lisonja como estratagema’, Historia Social, 1995, no. 22, 19-41.

——‘Sección Femenina, una institución en busca de investigador. Análisis crítico de la bibliografía disponible’, Historia Social, 1993, no. 17, Autumn, 141-54.

Schnapp, J., ‘Fascinating Fascism’, Journal of Contemporary History, 1996, vol. 31, 235-44.

Stone, M., ‘Staging Fascism: The Exhibition of the Fascist Revolution’, Journal of Contemporary History, 1993, vol. 28, 215-43.

Ulrich Gumbrecht, R., ‘I redentori della vittoria: On Fiume’s Place in the Genealogy of Fascism’, Journal of Contemporary History, 1996, vol. 31, 253-72.

Visser, R., ‘Fascist Doctrine and the Cult of the Romanità’, Journal of Contemporary History, 1992, vol. 27, 5-22.


Books
Abbott, A., and Wallace, C., An Introduction to Sociology: feminist perspectives, London: Routledge, 1990.

Abella, R., Por el imperio hacia Dios: crónica de una posguerra 1939-55, Barcelona: Planeta, 1978.

——La vida cotidiana en España bajo el régimen de Franco, Madrid: Argos Vergara, 1985.

Allardt, E., and Littunen, Y. (eds.), Cleavages, Ideologies and Party Systems, Helsinki: Westermaarck Society, 1964.

Alvarez Puga, E., Diccionario de la Falange, Barcelona: Dopesa, 1977.

Amalric, J-P., Bennassar B., Pérez J., and Témime E., Léxico histórico de España siglos XVI a XX, Madrid: Taurus, 1982.

Autores Varios, Colección Azor de Estudios Contemporáneos, El legado de Franco, Burgos: Fundación Nacional Francisco Franco, 1993.

——Las mujeres en Andalucía: actas del 2o encuentro interdisciplinar de estudios de la mujer en Andalucía - II, Málaga: Diputación Provincial Servicio de Publicaciones, 1993.

Bessel, R. (ed.), Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany - Comparisons and Contrasts, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Blinkhorn, M., Carlism and Crisis in Spain 1931-1939, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.

——Democracy and Civil War in Spain 1931-39, London: Routledge, 1988.

Bock, G., and Thorne, P. (eds.), Maternity and Gender Politics, London: Routledge, 1991.

Borderías Mondéjar, C., Entre líneas. Trabajo e identidad femenina en la España contemporánea. La Compañía Telefónica 1924-1980, Barcelona: Icaria Editorial S.A., 1993.

Borreguero, C., Catena, E., de la Gandara, C., and Salas, M. (eds.), La mujer española: de la tradición a la modernidad, Madrid: Tecnos, 1986.

Brenan, G., The Spanish Labyrinth, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967.

Bullough, S., Roman Catholicism, London: Penguin, 1963.

Burgueño, M., El Cardenal Segura y la prensa católica, Sevilla: Editorial Católica Española, 1979.

Burleigh, M., and Wippermann, W., The Racial State - Germany 1933-45, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Carr, R., Spain 1808-1975, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2nd ed., 1982.

Chueca, R., El fascismo en los comienzos del régimen de Franco: un estudio sobre FET-JONS, Madrid: Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas, 1983.

Crew, D. (ed.), Nazism and German Society, 1933-1945, London: Routledge, 1994.

Crozier, B., Franco: a Biographical History, London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1967.

Cunningham, V. (ed.), Spanish Front: Writers on the Civil War, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Díaz-Andreu, M., and Stig Sørensen, M. (eds.), Excavating Women: a History of Women in European Archaeology, London: Routledge, 1998.

Duby, G., and Perrott, M. (eds.), Historia de las mujeres en Occidente, vol. 5, Madrid: Taurus, 1983.

——A History of Women: Towards a Cultural Identity in the Twentieth Century, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994.

Durán, M., El trabajo de la mujer en España, Madrid: Tecnos, 1972.

Ellwood, S., Spanish Fascism in the Franco Era: Falange Española de las JONS 1936-75, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1987.

Falcón, L., Mujer y sociedad: análisis de un fenómeno reaccionario, Barcelona: Fontanella, 1973.

Felski, R., The Gender of Modernity, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Folguera, P. (ed.), Otras visiones de España, Madrid: Editorial Pablo Iglesias, 1993.

Fontana, J. (ed.), España bajo el franquismo, Barcelona: Grijalbo, 1984.

Fraser, R., The Pueblo, Newton Abbott: Readers’ Union, 1973.

——Blood of Spain: The Experience of Civil War, 1936-1939, London: Allen Lane, 1979.

Fusi, J., Franco, Madrid: Ediciones El País, 1985.

Gallego Méndez, M., Mujer, Falange y franquismo, Madrid: Taurus, 1983.

Gallo, M., Spain under Franco: A History, London: George Allen and Unwin, 1973.

García Delgado, J.L. (ed.), El primer franquismo: España durante la segunda guerra mundial, Madrid: Siglo veintiuno de España editores, 1989.

Garriga, R., La España de Franco: las relaciones con Hitler, 2nd ed., Puebla: Cajica, 1970.

——El Cardenal Segura y el nacional-catolicismo, Barcelona: Planeta, 1977.

Gibson, I., En busca de José Antonio, Barcelona: Planeta, 1980.

Graham, H., and Labanyi, J. (eds.), Spanish Cultural Studies: An Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Grazia, V. de, How Fascism Ruled Women - Italy 1922-45, London: University of California Press, 1992.

Griffin, R., The Nature of Fascism, London: Routledge, 1991.

Grugel, J., and Rees, T., Franco’s Spain, London: Arnold, 1997.

Gurney, J., Crusade in Spain, London: Faber and Faber, 1974.

Harrison, R.J., The Spanish Economy from the Civil War to the European Community, London: Macmillan, 1993.

Hobsbawm, E., and Ranger, T. (eds.), The Invention of Tradition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Huertas Vázquez, E., La política cultural de la Segunda República Española, Madrid: Ministerio de Cultura, 1988.

Jarne, A., La Secciò Femenina a Lleida: els anys trionfals, Lleida: Pagès Editors, 1991.

Kenny, M., A Spanish Tapestry, London: Cohen and West, 1961.

Lannon, F., Privilege, Persecution and Prophecy: The Catholic Church in Spain 1875-1975, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987.

Lannon, F., and Preston, P. (eds.), Elites and Power in Twentieth Century Spain, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

Madariaga, S., Spain, London: Jonathan Cape, 1930.

Mangini, S., Memories of Resistance. Women’s Voices from the Spanish Civil War, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1995.

Mar-Molinero, C., and Smith, A. (eds.), Nationalism and the Nation in the Iberian Peninsula, Oxford: Berg, 1996.

Mason, T., Nazism, Fascism and the Working Class, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

McBrien, R., Catholicism, London: Chapman, 1984.

Miguel, A. de, La sociología del franquismo: análisis ideológico de los ministros del régimen, Barcelona: Euros, 1975.

Morodo, R., Acción Española. Orígenes ideológicos del franquismo, Madrid: Túcar, 1980.

Núñez Pérez, M., Trabajadoras en la Segunda República: un estudio sobre la actividad extradoméstica 1931-1936, Madrid: Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social, 1989.

Orduña Prada, M., El Auxilio Social (1936-1940): la etapa fundacional y los primeros años, Madrid: Escuela Libre Editorial, 1996.

Ortega y Gasset, J., España invertebrada, Madrid: Revista de Occidente en Alianza Editorial, 1981.

Ortolá Noguera, A., El Castillo de La Mota de Medina del Campo, Valladolid: Junta de Castilla y León, 1994.

Owings, A., Frauen: German Women Recall the Third Reich, London: Penguin, 1995.

Pastor I Homs, M., La educación femenina en la postguerra (1939-45): el caso de Mallorca, Madrid: Ministerio de Cultura, 1984.

Payne, S., A History of Spanish Fascism, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1961.

——Franco’s Spain, London: Routledge, 1967.

——The Franco Regime 1936-1975, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.

——Franco: el perfil de la historia, Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1993.

——Spain’s First Democracy: the Second Republic 1931-36, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press , 1993.

——A History of Fascism 1914-45, London: UCL Press, 1995.

Pitt-Rivers, J., The People of the Sierra, London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1954.

Preston, P., Las derechas españolas en el siglo XX: Autoritarismo, fascismo y golpismo, Madrid: Editorial Sistema, 1986.

——The Politics of Revenge: Fascism and the Military in Twentieth-century Spain, London: Unwin Hyman, 1990.

——Franco, London: HarperCollins, 1993.

——The Coming of the Spanish Civil War: Reform, Reaction and Revolution in the Second Spanish Republic 1931-1936, 2nd ed., London: Routledge, 1994.

——Las tres Españas del 36, Barcelona: Plaza y Janés, 1999.

——Palomas de Guerra: Cinco mujeres marcadas par la guerra Civil, Barcelona: Plaza y Janés, 2001.

——Doves of War: Four Women of Spain, London: Harper Collins, 2002. [Originally published as Cinco mujeres marcadas por el enfrentamiento bélico, Barcelona: Plaza y Janés, 2001.]

Primo de Rivera y Urquijo, M., Papeles póstumos de José Antonio, Barcelona: Plaza y Janés, 1996.

Quin, M. (ed.), Virtue’s Catholic Encyclopedia, vols 1-3, London: Virtue, 1965.

Richards, M., A Time of Silence. Civil War and the Culture of Repression in Franco’s Spain, 1936-1945, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Romeu Alfaro, F., El silencio roto: mujeres contra el franquismo, n.p.: J.C. Producción, 1994.

Ruhl, K-J., Franco, Falange y Tercer Reich: España en la segunda guerra mundial, Madrid: Akal, 1986.

Ruiz Carnicer, M., El sindicato español universitario (SEU) 1939-1965, Madrid: Siglo veintiuno de España editores, 1996.

Sáez Marín, J., El Frente de Juventudes: Política de Juventud en la España de la postguerra 1937-1960, Madrid: Siglo veintiuno de España editores, 1988.

Sánchez López, R., Mujer española, una sombra de destino en lo universal. Trayectoria histórica de Sección Femenina de Falange 1934-1977, Murcia: Universidad, Secretariado de Publicaciones, 1990.

Saña, H., El franquismo sin mitos - conversaciones con Serrano Suñer, Barcelona: Grijalbo, 1982.

Scott, J., Gender and the Politics of History, New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

Segura, F., S.J., La Iglesia y el Alzamiento Nacional, Barcelona: Publicaciones Cristiandad, 1961.

Shubert, A., A Social History of Modern Spain, London: Unwin Hyman, 1990.

Sorel, G., Reflections on Violence, London: Collier-Macmillan, 1961.

Southworth, H., Antifalange: estudio crítico de ‘La Falange en la guerra de España’ de M. García Venero, Paris: Ruedo Ibérico, 1967.

Stephenson, J., Women in Nazi Society, London: Croom Helm, 1975.

——The Nazi Organisation of Women, London: Croom Helm, 1981.

Sueiro, D., and Díaz Nosty, B., Un imperio en ruinas: historia del franquismo (1), Barcelona: Argos Vergara, 1985.

Thomas, H., The Spanish Civil War, 3rd ed., London: Hamish Hamilton, 1977.

Thomàs, J., Falange, Guerra Civil, franquisme: FET y de las JONS de Barcelona en els primers anys del règim franquista, Barcelona: Publicacions de l’Abadia de Montserrat, 1992.

Thompson, P., The Voice of the Past, 2nd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Tomlinson, A., and Whanel, G. (eds.), Five-ring Circus, London: Pluto Press, 1984.

Tusell, J., Franco y los católicos: la política interior española entre 1945 y 1957, Madrid: Alianza, 1990.

Williams, M., St. Alban’s College, Valladolid, London: Hurst, 1986.

Zulueta, C. de, and Moreno, A., Ni convento ni college: la Residencia de Señoritas, Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas y Amigos de la Residencia de Estudiantes, 1993.
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Re: WOMEN AND SPANISH FASCISM -- THE WOMEN'S SECTION OF THE

Postby admin » Thu Oct 22, 2015 10:56 am

Index

Note : Illustrations and figures are indicated in the index by the use of italics.

a

abortion 20
adultery 88
Agosti, Luis 24-5, 26
‘agrarian fascism’ 78
agricultural schools 44, 76, 86 ;
see also rural instructors;
rural regeneration programmes
agriculture 52, 77, 78 ;
see also rural instructors;
rural regeneration programmes
aid providers 12, 85 ;
see also welfare
Aladrén, Emilio 43
Alcántara, Julia 29, 30, 68-9, 118
Amado, José María:
‘Vía-Crucis’ 55-6
ANA (Asociación Nueva Andadura) 129, 130, 132, 134, 135
Anadón, Pilar 118
Argentina 75
Army 2-3, 5, 14
Arraiza Goñi, Josefina 103
Arrese, José Luis de 92, 93
Arriba 28, 77, 95
autarky 4, 11, 66, 76, 77, 78
‘Autarky and you’ 78
awards system 9, 40, 41
Azaña, Manuel 52
Azlor de Aragón, Pilar Luna 37

b

bankers 66
Barcelona women’s sports club 24
Basque Country 1
BDM (Bund Deutscher Mädel) 25-6
behaviour 9, 10, 57, 63, 111 ;
see also dress code
Benedictines 57, 65
Bilbao 69
birth control 18
birth rate 14, 18
black market (estraperlo) 66, 77, 153 n71
Blue Division 73-4, 103
Brazil 75
budget 11, 72, 73, 94 ;
see also funding
Burgos 55

c

Carlist women’s group 7
Carnicer, Ruiz 91
Catalonia 1, 75
Catholic Action (Acción Católica) 6, 54, 56, 60, 62, 63
Catholic Church 2-3, 5, 9, 14, 19, 28, 52, 57, 64, 87 ;
criticisms from 24, 27, 56, 61-2 ;
see also religion
Caudillo see Franco
charter of rights 90
Chávarri, Pepa 30
childbirth 25
childcare 18, 53 ;
programme 62
choirs and dances (coros y danzas) 27, 75, 76, 84, 109
Church and State 2-3, 5, 52-3 ;
see also Catholic Church;
religion
Civil Code 14, 88
civil unrest 71
Civil War 1, 3, 14, 66 ;
‘Crusade’ 14, 53
class 2, 3, 52, 58, 66, 110 ;
upper 54, 67 ;
working 1, 2, 14, 52, 67, 69, 78, 110
‘cleansing the nation’ 15
code of conduct see behaviour
Columbus, Christopher 38-9
‘complete work’ (labor total) 85
Conde, Marina 118
conferences 7, 9, 18, 38-9, 104, 107-8, 118 ;
first (Salamanca) 7, 35-6, 38, 39, 40 ;
eugenics 139 n25;
Hispano-American 87, 88, 89 ;
locations 38, 39 ;
writers’ 91
Conquest of the State 2, 38-9, 85
conservative agenda 53
conservatives 85-6 ;
see also rightwing groups
crafts 76
cultural diversity 91
culture 62, 89, 90, 110
Culture department (Cultura) 23

d

Daughters of Mary (Hijas de María) 6
Decree of Unification 3, 11, 56, 66, 67, 68, 72, 85
Delgado, José Luis 78
democratic representation 90
demonstrations 91
departments 39, 67-8 ;
see also individual departments
discrimination against women 88
dissidents 91
divorce law 5, 6, 14, 52
domestic programmes 22, 62, 78, 110 ;
schools (escuela de hogar) 15-17, 23, 28
domestic staff 88-9
domesticity 16-17, 21-3, 43, 53, 110
D’Ors, Eugenio 108
dress code 10, 26, 111 ;
see also behaviour

e

economy 2, 11, 12, 21, 78, 93, 94
education 10, 12, 52, 96, 97, 110 ;
higher 6, 9, 10, 90 ;
see also individual programmes;
teachers
Education department 79
Education, Ministry of 90
Eiroa, Viky 110
El Escorial rally 74
elite members (mandos) 4, 5, 8, 10, 12-13, 15, 16, 85, 86-7, 101-3 ;
lifestyle 15, 101, 102 ;
managerial skills 105, 107-8 ;
marriage 113-14 ;
mobility 106, 114 ;
religion 62, 63, 64 ;
salaries 106-7, 112 ;
self-worth 114-15 ;
social class 102-4, 105-8, 110-11, 116 ;
training 40, 53, 54, 110
Elizabeth II 91
Ellwood, Sheelagh 69, 71-2, 90
Elola, José Antonio 68
emblems 40, 41, 45, 51
Empire 38-9, 93
employers 66, 77, 78-9
equality of opportunity 98
eugenics 19, 20, 24, 139 n25
executions 66
exiles 75
expulsion of Jews 38

f

factory workers 79
Falange (Falange española) 1-4, 6, 34, 35, 52-3, 66-7, 73, 84-7, 107 ;
see also National Movement
Falange National Council 67
Falangist Revolution 2-3, 15, 21, 27, 33-4, 84-5, 112, 116, 120 ;
failure of 12-13, 95-7 ;
see also joseantoniano doctrine
family 15, 19-20 ;
see also women
fascism 1, 33-4 ;
‘agrarian’ 78 ;
‘generic’ 4, 33
Felski, Rita 109
feminism 6, 10, 15, 24
Ferdinand V 38, 40, 44
Fernández Cuesta, Raimundo 70, 91, 92
Fernández Miranda, Torcuato 90
First Congress of Justice and Law 88
First World War 5, 22
folklore 27, 42, 75
food shortages 66, 77
foreign influences (extranjerización) 19
foreign relations 75
Foreign Service 74-5, 89, 109
Fórmica, Mercedes 87-8, 108
Franco, Carmen 89
Franco, General Francisco 1, 3, 4, 8, 11, 14, 34, 84, 90
free market economy 93
Fronts and Hospitals department (Frentes y Hospitales) 68
Fundamental Laws 90, 92
funding 72, 77, 94, 98 ;
see also budget
fund-raising 35

g

Galarza, Colonel Valentín 71
Galindo, Beatriz 42
Galvarriato, María Dolores 118
gender 14-15, 53, 65, 115
‘generic fascism’ 4, 33
Genevois, Danièle Bussy 16
Germany 4, 14, 18, 19, 20, 25 ;
Frauenschaft 101 ;
women’s organizations 15, 25, 27-8, 32
Gibraltar 91
Girón de Velasco, José Antonio 71, 93
Golden Age 14, 19, 38, 39, 42
government appointments 71, 73, 93
Government Organization, Law of 92
Graham, Helen 110
Griffin, Roger 33-4, 102
Guzmán, Sevilla 78

h

handbooks 42 ;
see also textbooks
health 16, 18, 24, 59 ;
maternal and infant 18, 20, 25 ;
programmes 16, 18, 105, 106 ;
workers (Cuerpo de divulgación) 15, 20, 85 ;
see also welfare
Health Department 16
Hedilla, Manuel 67, 69
hierarchies 99 ;
political 39, 104-5, 112 ;
provincial 106 ;
service 39, 104-5, 107, 113, 144 n43;
specialist 104
Hitler, Adolf 25, 73
holiday home for working women 82
home versus work debate 21-2, 23, 24 ;
see also SF contradictions;
women and work
honours system 9, 40, 41
hunger 66, 77

i

icons 9, 41, 43, 45
identity 9, 33-4, 38, 41, 44-5, 64, 84, 107, 112
ideology 33-5, 38, 41, 45, 87, 120, 122, 124-5
industry 66, 76, 77
Infant and Maternal Health, Law of 20
infant mortality 14, 16, 18, 20 ;
see also health;
welfare
information gathering 77-8, 79-80
Information and Investigation department 79
informing 77, 79
Inquisition 38
Institute of Political Studies 88
interventionist methods 15, 20-1, 64, 78, 80, 84, 86
interview process 130-3, 134
invented traditions 38, 143 n33
Isabella I 13, 38, 39, 40-1, 42, 44
Italy 4, 14, 18, 20 ;
Fasci Femminile 101 ;
women’s organizations 15

j

JONS (Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista) 69, 70, 71, 103, 149 n13
Jordana Jorge 90, 91
joseantoniano doctrine 38, 45, 62, 64, 71, 75, 84, 85, 86, 97 ;
rejection of 94
journals 22-3 ;
see also individual titles
Juan Carlos I 92

l

La Mota 8, 9, 31, 41-4, 45, 46-8, 49-50, 61, 62, 93, 97, 106, 118
Labour Charter (Fuero del Trabajo) 20, 22, 76, 78, 97, 101
Labour, Ministry of 76
Laín Entralgo, Pedro 90
landowners 52, 66, 77, 78
Lannon, Frances 53, 58, 105
Las Navas 44, 61, 82-3, 109
Latin America 2, 87, 89, 93 ;
see also individual countries
Ledesma Ramos, Ramiro 69
Legal Advisory department 40
legal separation 88
legislation 13, 14, 20, 92 ;
employment 87-9 ;
labour 21-3 ;
religious 52 ;
welfare 20, 78 ;
on women’s issues 1, 6, 11, 88, 155 n15;
see also individual laws
legitimists 67, 69, 70-1
leisure activities 85
lesbianism 113
‘link members’ (enlaces) 21
literacy 5, 59, 86, 97 ;
schools (esculas de formación) 23, 28
local leaders (delegada local) 7, 102, 104

m

Madrid 15, 34, 67
Madrid Ladies’ Residence 9, 89, 90, 110
Madrid Lyceum 89
Madrid University 91
Maeztu, María de 110
Málaga school 8, 40, 103
male dominance 86, 97, 113
Marañón, Gregorio de 18
marriage 110, 113-14 ;
civil 52 ;
loans 20 ;
see also divorce law;
legal separation;
women
Martínez de Bedoya, Javier 70-1
Mass 58, 59, 61
maternity rights 137 n2;
see also health;
motherhood;
welfare
Medina 16, 108
Medina del Campo 8, 41, 42
Medina Circle 89
Medina, González de 78
membership 7, 33-5, 56, 64, 85, 95-7, 98, 102-3, 126-75
memorial crosses 55
Miguel, Amando de 89
missionaries of Falangism 61, 64 ;
see also Falangist Revolution
mobile classrooms see travelling schools
mobilization 2, 9, 85, 86
modernity 109, 113
modernization:
of National Movement 90-1, 92 ;
of SF 91-4, 97-8
modesty 26
monarchy 71-2, 90, 92
Montes, Eugenio 109
Mora, Marichu de la 108-9
Morales, Mercedes 118
Morales, Pilar 118
morality 15, 16, 61, 62, 85, 87, 97, 107
Moscardó, María 103
motherhood 18, 110 ;
see also maternity rights;
welfare
Muguruza, Pedro 42
musicians 89
myths 33-8

n

Nash, Mary 18
National Council 11
national identity 27, 52 ;
diversity 75
National Institute of Industry 76
National Movement (Movimiento Nacional) 1, 4, 9, 33, 45, 86, 98 ;
corruption 66, 77, 78, 79 ;
modernization 90-1, 92 ;
see also Falange;
joseantoniano doctrine
national office (La Nacional) 105-6, 111, 117
National School for Youth Instructors:
Isabella The Catholic (Las Navas) 44, 61, 82-3, 109
national schools 33, 44, 59, 64, 73, 84, 94, 109 ;
see also La Mota;
Las Navas
nationalization 2
‘New State’ 14, 20
non-believers 64
nurseries and crèches 22, 63
nursing 53, 54, 67-8, 74, 103

o

‘Olympiad’ (film) 25
Olympic Games 141 n77
oral sources 129-35
Organic Law of the Movement 92
orphanages 63
Ortega y Gasset, José 2
Otero, Mercedes 109

p

Palencia, Benjamín 43
Pamplona 34
Papal blessing 64
patriarchy 14, 15
patriotism 15, 18-19, 27, 74, 75
peninsular languages 75
Pereda, Rosario 103
Pérez de Urbel, Fray Justo 56-7, 59, 60, 61
personal devotions 59, 64
personal files 79
Physical Education department 25
physical education programmes 17, 24-7, 28, 56, 61, 110 ;
see also sport
political department hierarchy 39, 99, 104-5, 112
political education 59, 110
Political, Professional and Employment
Rights of the Woman, Law of 155 n15
Popular Front 18
populism 37, 102, 106, 111, 122
poverty 66, 77-8, 85
Prado Museum 76
prenuptial examinations 20
Preston, Paul 67
Primo de Rivera, José Antonio 1-3, 4-5, 6, 9, 11, 12 ;
cult 54-6 ;
death and conspiracy of silence 35-7 ;
myth 33-8 ;
removal of remains 94-5 ;
tomb 43 ;
writings 36-7, 55 ;
see also joseantoniano doctrine
Primo de Rivera, General Miguel 4, 5, 18
Primo de Rivera, Miguel 71, 95, 150 n30
Primo de Rivera, Pilar 4, 6, 7, 8-9, 11, 29, 80, 119, 124-5 ;
and Franco 67, 71-3 ;
leadership 33, 35, 36, 44, 45, 64 ;
memoirs 56, 94, 95 ;
and religion 57-8, 60, 61-2, 63-4
prisoners 15, 35
private space 41-2, 45 ;
see also La Mota
professional women 9, 12, 88, 97, 105, 106
professions for women 23
Programmatic Points 85, 92, 156 n33
programmes 5, 8, 16, 20, 23, 28, 61, 72, 81, 86, 94, 106, 110 ;
see also individual programmes
propaganda 3, 8, 11, 15
proselytization 63-4
provincial department hierarchy 106 ;
leaders (delegada provincial) 7, 8, 103, 104-5, 106
public image 35, 76, 110
publications 10, 16, 23, 42, 59, 92, 93 ;
see also individual titles

r

race 18, 75
rally, El Escorial 74
Reconquest of Spain 38-9
recruitment 8, 102-3 ;
see also membership
Redondo, Onésimo 17, 69, 103
regeneration 4, 8, 15, 18-19, 27, 109
relief programmes 7, 15 ;
see also health;
welfare
religion 2-3, 19, 53-4, 57, 58, 59, 60, 63, 65 ;
see also Benedictines;
Catholic Church
religious education 56, 57-8, 59, 60, 61, 64, 65
repression 66, 79, 86
Republican Constitution 5
Revista ‘Y’ 16, 23, 25, 35, 41, 74, 77, 78, 87, 108-9
Richards, Michael 15, 34
Ridruejo, Angela 35, 103
Ridruejo, Dionisio 35-6, 38, 67, 69, 86, 89-90, 108-9
Ridruejo, Tina 118
Riefenstahl, Leni 25
rightwing groups 2-3, 5, 6, 53
Rodríguez de Velasco, Pilar 118
Ruiz Giménez, Joaquín 90, 91, 92
rural instructors (instructoras rurales) 85, 96, 105
rural regeneration programmes 21, 76-8, 84
Russian Front 73-4

s

sacrifice 1, 2, 74, 84
Salamanca 7, 35, 67, 69 ;
Bishop of 3 ;
conference 7, 35-6, 38, 39, 40
Sanz Bachiller, Mercedes 17, 69-71
Sanz Orrio, Fermín 89
scholarships 89
Second Republic 1, 5, 10, 14, 18, 52 ;
opposition to 2, 3, 6, 53
Second Vatican Council 9, 58, 59, 62
Second World War 4, 28, 74
Segovia 35, 38, 103
self-sufficiency 4, 11, 66, 76, 77, 78
Senior National Training School José Antonio (Escuala Mayor de Mandos: José Antonia) (La Mota) 8, 9, 31, 41-4, 45, 46-8, 50-1, 61, 62, 93, 97, 106, 118
Serrano Suñer, Ramón 20, 67, 70-1
service 2, 84, 106
service department hierarchy 39, 99, 104-5, 107, 113, 144 n43
SEU 90-2, 108
Seville 67
sexual behaviour 59
SF 4-5, 6, 7-15, 35, 39-40, 64, 79, 85-7, 96-7, 120-1 ;
autonomy 123-4 ;
contradictions 15, 22-3, 106, 108, 115 ;
modernization 91-4, 97-8 ;
and the regime 66-7, 72-3 ;
working relationship with men 72-3, 107, 112-14 ;
see also individual entries
SF-SEU 90-2
single women 21-2, 113-14;
see also elite members
Social Aid (Auxilio Social) 17, 20, 22, 63, 69-71, 80
social control 4, 5, 25, 76, 79
social justice 2, 11-12, 59, 62, 106, 114, 115
social security scheme 88-9
social service programmes 17-18, 21, 28, 63, 70, 96, 103, 110
Solís Ruiz, José 93, 95
‘soppiness’ (ñoñería) 60
Sorel, Georges 45
sources:
oral 129-35;
written 129, 133
Spanish fascist party see Falange
Spanishness (hispanidad) 19
specialist departments (regiduría) 39, 61, 85, 96-7, 104, 109
‘spiritual value of money, The’ 78
sport:
clothing 26, 57, 61 ;
competitive 26, 44, 146 n26;
events 63 ;
and physical education programmes 17, 24-7, 28, 56, 61, 110;
professional 24, 27
St Teresa of Avila 13, 40-1, 44, 60
Stabilization Plan 4
starvation 66, 77
sterilization 19
Students’ Syndicate see SEU;
SF-SEU
‘style’ (estilo) 10, 42-3, 60, 87, 111-12, 116
Succession, Law of 11, 71-2, 86, 115
suicide 66
summer camps 28, 30, 44, 62
superstition 58
Syndical Organization 21, 76, 79, 80

t

teachers 44, 79, 105, 109
Teachers’ Service (Servicio Español del Magisterio) 79
territorial expansion 38-9
textbooks 10, 23, 59, 92, 93
Tovar, Antonio 90
Town and Country department (Hermandad de la Ciudad y el Campo) 21, 76, 88-9
Traditionalists 56, 151 n42;
women’s groups (margaritas) 68
Training department (Formación) 23
training programmes 10, 12, 53 ;
schools 8, 9, 39, 61, 97, 100, 103, 113
travelling schools 59, 63, 76, 113

u

universities 90-2, 137 n2
urban workplace 78-9
urbanization 97

v

Valladolid 7, 34, 67, 69, 103
Vallejo Nágera, Antonio 18
Vázquez de Parga, María Luisa 30
‘Vía-Crucis’ 55-6
Vigo 34
violence 2, 3, 6, 34, 66, 69
voting rights 5, 14

w

wages 66, 77, 78
war dead 40, 55
‘way of being’ (manera de ser) 40-1, 43, 45, 60, 76, 111
welfare 12, 15, 19, 20, 21, 35, 77, 96 ;
programmes 8, 11, 16, 18, 59, 69-70, 72, 80
women:
careers in SF 102, 106, 108, 112 ;
discrimination against 88 ;
graduates 105, 106 ;
in politics 90, 113 ;
professionals 9, 12, 88, 97, 105, 106 ;
rights 18, 62 ;
role 8-9, 14, 18, 20-2, 43, 53, 56-7, 62, 65 ;
single 21-2, 113-14 ;
and work 5, 9-11, 12, 14, 20-3, 76, 78, 82, 87-9, 96 ;
see also elite members
Women’s Lyceum Club (Lyceum Club Femenino) 9
Women’s Section (Sección Femenina) see SF
Women’s University Association (Asociacíon Universitaria Fememina) 9
working conditions 77, 78-9, 111, 112
writers 89, 108
written sources 129, 133

y

Youth Congress, Vienna 29
Youth Front 68-9, 85, 94
youth:
members (flechas) 41 ;
programmes 94, 97
Youth Wing 25, 68
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Re: WOMEN AND SPANISH FASCISM -- THE WOMEN'S SECTION OF THE

Postby admin » Thu Oct 22, 2015 11:00 am

Plates

Image

Plate 1.1 Youth Congress, Vienna, 1942. Pilar Primo de Rivera (left) and Julia Alcántara (right). Source: J. Alcántara.

Image

Plate 1.2 SF visit to camp at Aumrüm, Germany, 1938. Pepa Chávarri (tennis champion), M. Luisa Vázquez de Parga and Julia Alcántara. Source: J. Alcántara.

Image

Plate 1.3 Dance display, La Mota. Source: A. Ortolá.

Image

Plate 2.1 Central courtyard, La Mota. Source: A. Ortolá.

Image

Plate 2.2 Façade in central courtyard (Puerta de La Latina), La Mota. Source: K. Richmond.

Image

Plate 2.3 Sewing, La Mota. Source: A. Ortolá.

Image

Plate 2.4 Great staircase (Escalera de honor), La Mota. Source: A. Ortolá.

Image

Plate 2.5 Classroom, La Mota. Source: A. Ortolá.

Image

Plate 2.6 Dining room, La Mota. Source: A. Ortolá.

Image

Plate 2.7 Bedroom, La Mota. Source: A. Ortolá.

Image

Plate 2.8 Bedroom of Pilar Primo de Rivera, La Mota. Source: A. Ortolá.

Image

Plate 4.1 SF course in Pontevedra. Source: J. Alcántara.

Image

Plate 4.2 First training course for youth leaders, Olmedo (Valladolid). Source: J. Alcántara.

Image

Plate 4.3 First holiday home for working women, Ramallosa (Pontevedra). Source: J. Alcántara.

Image

Plate 4.4 Official opening of the National School for Youth Instructors ‘Isabella the Catholic’, La Quinta del Pardo, Madrid, October 1942. Franco and Julia Alcántara. Source: J. Alcántara.

Image

Plate 4.5 Exhibition for youth members’ activities, opening of ‘Isabella the Catholic’. Source: J. Alcántara.

Image

Plate 6.1 SF national office, Madrid, now the Institute of the Woman. Source: K. Richmond.

Image

Plate 6.2 Mandos outside La Mota. Source: J. Alcántara.

Image

Plate 6.3 Mandos at the 1943 SF national conference, Santiago de Compostela. From left to right: Pilar Morales, Mercedes Morales, Tina Ridruejo, Pilar Rodríguez de Velasco, Julia Alcántara, Marina Conde. Source: J. Alcántara.

Image

Plate 6.4 Pilar Primo de Rivera. Source: Asociación Nueva Andadura.

Figures

Image

Figure 1.1 Departmental structure of the women’s or ganizations of Germany and Spain, 1937 and 1941. Sources: J. Stephenson, The Nazi Organization of Women, London: Croom Helm, 1981, Appendices 2 and 3. SF de FET y las JONS, Consejos nacionales (libroprimero), Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, n.d., p. 13. SF de FET y las JONS, Consejos nacionales (libro

Image

Figure 2.1 Emblems and insignia of Sección Femenina (SF).

Image

Figure 5.1 The twin hierarchies of Sección Femenina (SF) in 1952. Source: FET y de las JONS, La Sección Femenina: historia y organización, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1952, pp. 23-4, index.

Image

Figure 5.2 Training centres of Sección Femenina (SF) in 1952. Source: FET y de las JONS, La Sección Femenina: historia y organizacion, Madrid: SF de FET y de las JONS, 1952, pp. 44-5.
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