The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past

Re: The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past

Postby admin » Mon Nov 05, 2018 2:39 am

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

My first debt of gratitude goes to the Center for the Study of American Religion (now the Center for the Study of Religion) at Princeton University. The CSAR has been unfailingly supportive and unstintingly generous over the past four years, giving me access to a wonderful community of scholars and an unparalleled research library. I want to thank Robert Wuthnow and Anita Kline in particular, who have done a great deal to smooth my path at Princeton. The members of the CSAR workshop, especially Ann Braude and Marie Griffith, have provided much encouragement and helpful criticism. Ann Taves and Grey Gundaker deserve a special thank you for continuing to insist over my protests that I was really writing two books rather than one, until I finally came to believe them.

Many librarians have shared their passion for information by tracking down obscure sources for me. Lois Nase, Robert G. Margolis, and Patti Ponzoli of the Firestone Library Interlibrary Services have enriched this project enormously, as have Nancy Janow, Joyce McKee, Lindita Cani, and Catherine Sullivan of the South Orange Public Library. Jo Ann Troncone of Summit Bank walked me through the labyrinthine process of sending international money orders, and I thank her for her expertise. For translations, I am indebted to Rosa Zagari-Molinari, Tamara Schoenbaum, Teresa Shaw, Pamela Klassen, and Vondah Sheldon.

Readers of this manuscript have provided an invaluable service to me (and to all future readers). Lauren Bryant, Faulkner Fox, Elizabeth Reis, Teresa Shaw, and Sylvia Wolfe took on the thankless task of wading through a sprawling first draft. With patience and tact, they helped me to see how it could be reworked and cut down to size, and I am extremely appreciative of their efforts. Alice Kehoe and Wayne Eastman read a considerably trimmer manuscript and zeroed in on remaining peculiarities at a time when I had become blind to them.

Susan Worst nurtured this project in its early stages, as did Doug Abrams. Amy Caldwell of Beacon Press later took on this project with much grace and offered many valuable suggestions. I would also like to thank Lynn Meskell, Grey Gundaker, Lauren Talalay, Donna Maeda, Marie Griffith, and Robert Wolfe for providing helpful readings of individual chapters; Susan Meigs, who copyedited the manuscript; and Lori Krafte, who proofread it.

I owe long overdue debts to two mentors: Robert Ellwood, who has had a deep and lasting influence on how I think about religion, myth, society, and the funny business of writing about people's deepest spiritual commitments; and John Collins, who at a crucial point in my life insisted that it was worth every penny it took to have my own space in which to work.

Truly wonderful combinations of support, distraction, and much-needed perspective were offered by family and friends as I worked on this project. I owe my mental health, such as it is, first and foremost to Teresa Shaw, who tolerates endless whiny phone calls with remarkable patience, and never fails to send me back out into the world feeling better able to take it on. Other friends who have lent encouragement and a listening ear to the development of this project include Elizabeth Reis, Sylvia Wolfe, Lori Krafte, Jody Shapiro Davie, Janna Southworth, Carol Hansen, Kathy and Jesse Carliner, Carolyn and Tom McGee, Deborah Campbell, Michael Brzozowski, Lynn and Paul Woodruff, Holly and Tomm Scalera, Jane Hurwitz, Stephen Moore, Magda and Bernard Greene, and of course my darling Sophia.

All the staff at the Blue Moon Diner kept me fed, watered, and in touch with the twentieth century when I threatened to permanently drift off to 6000 BCE. And the teachers and administrators of the South Mountain YMCA -- particularly Marguerite McDougal, Elaine Lyons, Rachel Mondalto, April Pray, Kirbee Stern, Tameka Pullen, Judith Hannah, Julia Dixon, Estelle Fields, Marie Papageorgis, Diane DiGiovanni, Christine La Rosa, Ellie Maziekien, Keyana Rogers, Kathleen Jones, Kathleen Shaw, and Elissa Lombardo -- left my mind free to wander by taking my daughter into their loving and very professional arms.

The Marlin Eller Foundation for the Support of Siblings made the illustrations in this volume possible, and I am most grateful for the Foundation's continued financial underwriting of my work.

This book, and most of my life, would not be possible without the love, laughter, and periodic infusions of cash I have received from Jonathan Greene, the best patron a writer could wish for and a terrific husband besides. It is to him and our daughter Sophia that this book is dedicated.
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Re: The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past

Postby admin » Mon Nov 05, 2018 3:10 am

INDEX

abortion, 99
Acheulean hand axes, 39
Aeschylus, 170-71, 173
Africa, 29, 41, 109, 159, 192n. 29, 197n.
28
Afrocentrism, 29, 197n. 29
Agamemnon, 170-71
agriculture: associated with goddess worship,
138, 223n. 42; in matriarchal societies,
48; women's invention of, 33, 42,
93, 107, 111-12, 217-18n. 49. See also
horticulture, plow agriculture.
Albania, 96
Alpert, Jane, 42, 57
Alphabet Versus the Goddess, The, 29, 206-
207n. I
Amazons, 172, 178, 200n. 57, 230-3 In.
34, 231-32n. 53
Americas, the, 159, 163; as site of pre historic
matriarchy, 40, 197n. 28, 214n. 29
Anat, 104
Anatolia, 40, 146, 161, 165, 227n. 10
Ancient Society, 32
Anima Mundi Dance Company, 191n. 25
animal husbandry, 46, 47-48, 157, 160
animals, as represented in prehistoric art,
119, 121, 123, 124, 128, 138, 143, 144.
See also bucrania.
Ann, Martha, 15
Anthony, David, 113, 114
anthropology: and study of gender, 85-
87; as champion of matriarchal myth,
3I; cultural, 82-87; evolutionary, 31-
32, 82-83; feminist, 34-35, 86-87,
216-17n. 44; socialist feminist, 198n.
37, 199-200n. 54, 204n.25
anthropomorphic figurines, 126-42,
143-44, 148, 219n.4, 223n.39;
ascertaining sex, 126-28, 138-39,
147, 148, 221nn. 15, 25, 225n. 57;as
dolls, 139; as fertility symbols, 134,
138; as goddess icons, 124-26, 129,
133, 134, 139, 143, 147-48, 153-55,
181; fatness of, 134-36, IJ8; find spots
of, 139, 143, 153; interpretation of
prehistoric, 124-33, 139-40, 156; magical
or ritual uses of, 136, 139; male,
143, 153-54; question of pregnancy,
134, 138, 143, 222n. 34, 223n. 38; variety among,
134, 136-38, 143. See also
art; "bird goddess"; "goddess with
leopards"; Paleolithic "Venus" figurines;
"phallic goddesses"; "pillar deities";
"sleeping goddess" of Malta;
"snake goddess."
anti-Semitism, 50, 201n. 64
Aphrodite, 106
apocalypticism, 27, 33, 54, 202n. 73
Apollo, 171, 173
Appiah, Kwame Anthony, vii, 64, 75,
205n.34, 206n.47
archaeology: as champion of matriarchal
myth, 32, 36, 90, 142, 151, 195n. 6,
220n. 7; as resource for uncovering the
past, 87-89; feminist, 89, 134; methodology,
90-91; study of gender in, 88-
89
architecture. See palaces, of Minoan
Crete; temples, Maltese.
Ariadne, 22, 43, 47, 192n. 27
Aristotle, 95, 168, 211n. 5
arrowheads, 113, 114
265
art: as contemporary medium for matriarchal
myth, 20-21, 191n. 24; decorative,
[33; interpretation of prehistoric,
1I6-42; Neolithic, 120, 121 fig. 7.1,
124, 125 fig. 7-4, 127, 128, 129 fig. 7.7,
IJ2 fig. 7. I I, 136-47, 144 fig. 7.16, 145
figs. 7.17 and 7. I 8 (see also "bird goddess";
"phallic goddesses"); of Catalhoyuk,
142-47 (see also "goddess with
leopards"; plaster reliefs and paintings,
at Catalhoyuk); of Malta, 147-50 (see
also "sleeping goddess" of Malta); of
Minoan Crete, 151-55 (see also frescoes,
from Minoan Crete; "snake goddess");
Paleolithic, 120-24, 125, 126
fig. 7.5, 127, 127 fig. 7.6, 128-29, 130-
3 1, 130 figs. 7.8 and 7.9, 131 fig 7.10;
133-39, 135 figs. 7.12 and 7.13; 137
fig. 7.14 (see also "breast pendants";
"buttocks silhouette"; Paleolithic
"batons"; Paleolithic cave art; Paleolithic
"Venus" figurines). See also
anthropomorphic figurines; symbols,
interpretation of.
Artemis, 106
arthritis, 111
Asia: and Indo-European languages, 159;
as site of patriarchal revolution, 161,
165; as site of prehistoric matriarchy,
40
astrology, as explanation of patriarchal
revolution, 51
Athena, 106, 170, 171, 173, 174, 229n. 30
Athens, myth of naming of. See naming
of Athens, myth of.
Atkinson, Ti-Grace, 16
Augustine, 170
Austen, Hallie Iglehart, 54, 175
Australian aborigines, 94-95, 98, 208n. 8,
211-12n.12, 214n.29, 229n.28
australopithecenes, 39
Babylon, 169, 229n. 29
Bachofen, Johann Jakob, 7, 30, 31, 189n.
3, 195n. 7
Baring, Anne, 120, 155
"batons." See Paleolithic "batons."
Baumler, Alfred, 30
Bebel, August, 30
"bell beaker" people, 158
Berry, Thomas, 29
Biaggi, Cristina, 148, 149
Bible, The, 53
biological determinism, 7, 63, 68-74,
187-88
"bird goddess, " 128, 129 fig. 7.7
black madonnas, 197n. 30
Black Sea, 49, 166
Bleier, Ruth, 70
blood type. See genetics.
Bohemia, 121 fig. 7.1
Bolen, Jean Shinoda, 66
bones. See skeletons.
Bradley, Marion Zimmer, 22
Brailoiu, Constantin, 173
brain lateralization, 29
"breast pendants, " 129-3 I
"breast" reliefs, at Catalhoyuk. See plaster
reliefs and paintings, at Catalhoyuk.
breastfeeding, 45-46, 65, 183
Breuil, Abbe, 122, 222n. 27
Britfault, Robert, J2
Brindel, June Rachuy, 22, 43, 47, 192n. 27
Bronze Age, 164 fig. 8.1, 168, 201-202n.
68
Brosamer, Hans, 140 fig. 7. I 5
Brown, Norman 0., 170
Brown v. Board of Education, 68
Bruniquel, 130 fig. 7.9
bucrania, 144-47, 145 fig. 7.18; as representations
of female reproductive tract,
146-47, 146 fig. 7.19; as symbolic of
maleness, 146
Buddhism, 106, 148
Bulgaria, 124, 125 fig. 7.4
bulls' heads. See bucrania.
burials, 99-100, 114, 115, 148, 162-63,
219n. 59, 220n.6, 22In.23. See also
excarnation; grave goods; skeletons.
Burkert, Walter, 224n. 46, 230n. 42
"buttocks silhouette, " 124, 126 fig. 7.5,
127 fig. 7.6, 221n. 23
Cakes for the Queen if Heaven, 24
Cameron, Dorothy, 146
Campbell, Ena, 106
Canaan, 104
Cantarella, Eva, 12, 168
capitalism, 19
Carpathian mountains, 161
Carson, Anne, 13, 57
Cashford, Jules, 120, 155
Caspian Sea, 49
Catalhoyuk, 34, 40, 96, 99, 113, 151, 157,
211n. 6, 224n. 49; art of, 142-47, 144
fig. 7.16, 145 figs. 7.17 and 7.18, 224n.
51 (see also "goddess with leopards";
plaster reliefs and paintings, at Catalhoyuk);
burials in, 100-101. See also
Mellaart, James; Hodder, Ian.
Catholicism, 54, 96, 106, 215n. 36
Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca, 165-66, 228
n.21
cave art. See Paleolithic cave art.
Ceres, 138
Chalcolithic era, 164 fig. 8. I
Chalice and the Blade, The, 24, 29, 62
Chapman, Anne McKaye, 177
Chernin, Kim, 67, 205n. 29
Chesler, Phyllis, 44, 178
child sacrifice, 113, 218n. 55
childbirth, 28, 79: as mysterious or miraculous,
1, 3, 26, 44, 45-46, 56-58, 97,
192n. 27; male envy of (see womb
envy). See also maternal mortality.
Childe, V Gordon, 227n. 9, 13
childlessness, 57, 203n. 5
children, 108: in matriarchal societies, 42,
44-45; in prehistoric art, 138; in sex
difference research, 69-70; male ownership
of, 1, 167
children's books, 3, 28, 193n. 39
China, 11, 189n. 2, 197nn. 28, 30, 199n.
51, 223n. 39
Choco, I39
Chodorow, Nancy, 63
Christ, Carol P., 22, 201n. 64, 219n. 4
Christianity, 10, 14, 36, 54, 74, 83, 106,
116, 123, 202n.70, 215n.33, 215n.36,
217n.44, 224n.45, 232n.8
City of God, 170
civilization, women's invention of, 33, 39
Civilization of the Goddess, The, 38, 146-
47
class stratification. See hierarchy.
classical Greece: goddess worship in, 103,
215n. 35; myth in, 31, 32, 168, 169-72,
175, 177-78, 194n. I, 229nn. 30, 33,
23 In. 52; sex in, 169; status of women
in, 105-106, 153, 168-69, 215n.35,
229n.28
classics, 32, 177-78, 195n. 6
classism, 68-69
climate, as reason for patriarchal revolution,
50
Clytemnestra, 170-71, 173
Cold War, 200n. 59
Colombia, 139
"complex" societies, 112
conception. See sexual reproduction.
contraception, 43, 99
Copper Age, 165
Corded Ware culture complex, 163, 164
fig. 8. I, 228n. 18
couvade, 98
Craighead, Meinrad, 57
Crawford, O. G. S., 32
Creation cif Patriarchy, The, 27
Crete, 23. See also Minoan Crete.
cultural feminism, 15-17, 190n. 14
cuneiform, II, 167-68
Cybele, 224n. 51
Cyprus, 131, 132 fig. 7.11
Czechoslovakia, I3ofig. 7.8, 131 fig. 7.10,
133
Daly, Mary, 12, 16, 192n. 26
Danube River, 161, 162
Dargun, Lothar, 30
Darwinian evolution, 72, 184
Davis, Elizabeth Gould, 28, 34, 35, 50, 58,
202n.73
Davis, Philip, II7
de Beauvoir, Helene, 21, 21 fig. 2.1
de Beauvoir, Simone, 66
Dea Nutrix. See "pillar deities."
degenerative joint disease. See arthritis.
Delaney, Carol, 95
Delphy, Christine, 77
Demarest, Arthur, 115
Demeter, 106, 170
Didon, L., 122
Differefene, The, 24-26
"difference" feminism, 16, 64-65, 76,
204n.26
dildoes. See penises, artificial.
Dirt cif Luck, The, 22
division of labor. See sexual division of
labor.
Dnieper River, 162
Dolni Vestonice, 129, 130 fig. 7.8, 131 fig.
7.10
domestication of animals. See animal
husbandry.
Don River, 49
Downing, Christine, 78, 204n. 22
Dream of the Earth, The, 29
dualistic thinking, 61-62, 68
Durant, Will, 33
Dworkin, Andrea, 16, 67
Earth in the Balance, 29
ecofeminism, 16-17, 19m. 17
Edelson, Mary Beth, 21, 61, 19m. 191
"egalitarian" societies, 35, 109, 112, 216n.
43
Eisler, Riane, I 1, 24, 29, 49, 50, 51, 61-
62, 124, 189n.2, 201n. 61, 211n.6
Eliade, Mircea, 173, 223n. 42
embodiment, 6, 56, 65-66
embryology, 59, 203-204n. 13
Engels, Friedrich, 30, 32, 35, 194n. 3
England, 10, 21, 23, 40, 117, 118, 199n.
5I, 220n.7, 224n.49
environmentalism, 16, 29. See also
ecofeminism.
erinyes, 171
ethnocentrism, 40, 86
ethnography: as resource for uncovering
the past, 82-84, 88; difficulties in practice
and use of, 83-87, 2 16-17n. 44
Europe, 11, 22, 29, 40, 49, 92, 113-14,
118, 124, 159, 161, 163, 165-66, 181;
as locus of interest in matriarchal
myth, 31-34, 37, 40
Evans, Sir Arthur, 151, 154 fig. 7.25, 226n.
69
evolution, cultural influences on, 72. See
also Darwinian evolution; natural
selection; nature/nurture debate.
excarnation, 100, 143
Exodus story, 14, 36
extraterrestrial invasions, II, 51, 178,
201n.65
fallopian tubes, 147
falsifiability, 91, 210n. 21
Faris, James, 108
fatherhood, as seen ethnographically, 96-
97, 109, 21m. 7
Feder, Kenneth, 99
femaleness: as connected to nature, 56,
65-66, 79; conceptions of, 6-7, 56-
58, 63, 65, 67
femininity, 15, 16, 17, 54, 58, 60-61, 73-
74, 76-77, 79, 81; as timeless, 63-64,
67-68, 183
Feminism and Religion, 27
feminist matriarchalists: demographic features
of, 10
feminist movement, 7, 190n. 14, 19m. 15;
first wave, 16, 32, 64; second wave, 2,
15-18, 34-37. See also cultural feminism;
"difference" feminism; liberal
feminism; radical feminism; "sameness"
feminism.
feminist spirituality movement, 1, 4, 5-6,
34, 35-36, 192-93n. 31, 196nn. 14, 15,
198n.42
Ferguson, Marianne, 27
figurines. See anthropomorphic figurines.
Fires of Spring, The, 22
Firestone, Shulamith, 16
First Sex, The, 34
Fisher, Elizabeth, 34
fishing, 107
Fontales cave, 127 fig. 7.6
foraging societies, 83, 183, 216n. 44; economic
contribution of women and
men, 109; fertility control in, 99; male
domination in, 98, 109, 157, 177, 180;
population densities in, II2. See also
gathering; hunting.
forgeries, 220n. 7, 226n. 69
fortifications, 114-15, 218-19n. 57
Fox, Matthew, 20
France, 119, 121, 122, 127 fig. 7.6, 130 fig.
7.9, 133, 135 fig. 7.13
Francia, Luisa, 203n. 7
Frazer, Sir James George, 32
French, Marilyn, 44
frescoes, from Minoan Crete, 151-53, 152
fig. 7.23, 155; portrayal of women and
men in, 152-53, 155
Freud, Sigmund, 3 [
Fromm, Erich, 30, 33
future: role of men in, 54; role of women
in, 54-55; visions of, 3, 27, 54-55, 182,
188, 202n. 78
Gage, Matilda Joslyn, 16, 30, J2
Gaia, 170
Gailey, Christine Ward, 187
gathering, 108; as female occupation, 42,
107
gender: as effect of sexism, 76-78; as
performance, 75; as presently inescapable,
74-79; cultural determinants of,
63, 70-73, 75; ethnographic universality of,
89; ethnographic variety in, 8,
187; stereotypical views of, 8, 61, 65-
67
"gendered archaeology." 89. 209n. 16
genetics, 165-66, 179. 228n. 21
George. Stefan. 195n. 7
Germany. 10. 124. 126 fig 7.5, 135 fig.
7.12
Getty. Adele. 151
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 16, 32
Gimbutas, Marija, 20, 29, 173; and feminism,
38; and Indo-European linguistics.
37-38, 196n. 19, 227nn. 9, 10, 13;
biography of, 37-38, 219n. 5; on matriarchal
societies. 40, 41, 114. 201-202n.
68, 218n. 55; on patriarchal revolution,
48-50, 164 fig. 8.1, 166, 199n. 51; on
prehistoric art, 119-20, 124, 125 fig.
7.4.128. 129 fig. 7.7, 131 fig. 7.10, 134,
146-47. 220n. 13, 221n. 2; on religion.
43, 133, 196n.2I, 220n.6, 222n.29;
relationship to other archaeologists,
89-90, 158, 209-21on. 18
God Giving Birth, 19
goddess pilgrimages, 22-23. 23 fig. 2.2,
142, 192n.29
Goddess Remembered, 23
goddess reproductions, 25 fig. 2.3, 26.
191n.23, 192-93n. 31
Goddess Sites: Europe, 22
"goddess with leopards, " from Catalhoyuk,
143, 144 fig. 7.16, 224n. 51
goddess worship: early historic, 167; ethnographic
and historical examples of.
93. 104. 106, 107, 214-15n.31.215n.
32, 216n. 38; in male dominant societies.
54, 104, 18I; prehistoric, 12, 18,
35, 36, 37, 118, 214n. 27, 220n. 6. See
also thealogy.
Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe, The, 38.
128
Goddessing Regenerated, 22. 24
Goldberg, Steven. 28. 71
golden age myths, 169. 172, 230n. 37
Golden Bough, The, 32
Gore. A1, 29. 1940. 42
Gotrner-Abendroth. Heide. 19.45
Grahn, Judy. 38
grave goods, 88, 99, 108,113, 115,139,
163, 181, 216n. 40, 229-30n. 34. See
also burials; skeletons.
Graves, Robert, 30, 33
Great Mother, The, 33
Gross. Rita. 27, 72
gynaecaeum, 169
Hades, 170
Hain, 175-76, 177
Hamilton, Naomi, 101
Harris, Marvin. 114, 213n. 24
Harrison. Jane Ellen, 32
Hartland, E. S., J2
Hawkes. Jacquetta, 34. 195n. 9
Hayden. Brian, 113
Hebrews, as patriarchal invaders. 50, 53,
157, 201n. 64
Helium, 22, 192n. 26
Henes, Donna, 22
herding, 45. 47. 48, 160. 161, 168. 228n.
21
Heroine's Journey, The, 66
herstory, 193n. 36
Hesiod, 168. 170, 172, 229n. 30, 230n. 35
heterosexism, 19.74
Hiatt, L. R., 98
hierarchy: among proto-Indo-Europeans,
160; in "complex" societies, 112; in
early historic societies, 167-68, 219n.
59; in "the patriarchy, " S 3
Hinduism, 106, 214n. 29, 214-15n. 31,
21sn.32
History of Mankind, 33
history of religions: as champion of matriarchal
myth, 36
Hodder Ian, 90, 101, 142, 144, 228n. 18
Holocaust. See Nazism.
Homer, 168, 171, 172, 173, 229n. 26
Homo erectus, 39
Homo habilis, 39
Homosapiens, 39, 181
Hopi, 86
horses: domestication of (for riding), 163;
in proto-Indo-European or Kurgan
culture, 157, 162; role in patriarchal
revolution, 49, 159
Horses at the Gate, The, 22, 57
horticultural societies, 83; economic contribution
of women and men, 109,
2 16n. 39; fertility control in, 99; land
ownership in, 110; male domination
in, 98, 157, 180; population densities
In, 112
horticulture, 47; women's practice of, 108
Hua, 98
Humes, Cynthia, 104, 2lsn. 32
hunting, 108; as male occupation, 45, 88,
107, 142-43, 147, 154, 15S, 175
hunting and gathering societies. See foraging
societies.
Iglehart, Hallie Austen. See Austen, Hallie
Iglehart.
Iliad, 168
lmel, Dorothy Myers, 15
Inanna, 104, 214n.27
India, 40, 104, 170, 197nn. 28, 29, 199n.
51, 223n. 39, 226n. 7
Indo-European languages, 159-62, 164
fig. 8.1, 196n. 19, 226n. 6; dispersal of,
159, 162, 163, 166, 226n. 3, 227n. 12;
homeland of, 37-38, 159, 161-62,
227n. 9. See also Kurgans; protolexicon,
Indo-European.
Inevitability of Patriarchy, The, 28, 71
infant mortality, 99
infanticide, 99, 101, 169
initiation, use of anthropomorphic figurines
in, 139
intensive agriculture. See plow
agriculture.
invasions. See patriarchal invasions.
inventions, prehistoric: women's role in,
33, 42
Iphigenia, 170
Ireland, 21, 23, 40, 170, 199n. 51
"Is Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture?, "
35
Ishtar, 141
Isis, 197n. 30
Islam, 123, 224n. 45
Israel, 39, I4I, 170, 224n. 48
Italy, II
Japan, 197n. 28
Jericho, 218-19n. 57
Jesus, 14, 36, 224n. 45
jewelry, 108, 114, 229-30n. 34
Johnson, Buffie, 124-25, 127 fig. 7.6
Judaism, 14, 106, 123, 141, 224nn. 45, 48,
232n. 8
Judd, Elizabeth, 62, 199n. 52
Jung, Carl, 117, 219n. 5
Jungianism, 33, 195n. 6
Jupiter, 160
"Kamchatka syndrome, " 84
Kavanagh, Ursula, 21
Kazakhstan, 49
Kehoe, Alice, 129-3 I
Keller, Mara Lynn, 13
Keuls, Eva, 169
Kidd, Sue Monk, vii, 69, 105
Kingsolver, Barbara, 124
kinship, 93-103, 213n. 24
Knossos, 3, 154, 155
Kosse, Roberta, 2 I
Kurgans, 48-51, 157-66, 179, 200n. 55;
genesis of term, 48; homeland of, 48-
so, 161-62, 200nn. 59, 60; religion
among, 53, 104-1°5, 160
Kurten, Bjorn, 136
lactation. See breastfeeding.
Lady of the Beasts, 12 5
LaMonte, Willow, 22
language, written, 29, 197n. 35, 206-
207n. 1; early, 166-69; historical usefulness
and limitations of, 81-82
Language of the Goddess, The, 38
Laqueur, Thomas, 73
Latin America. See Americas, the.
Leach, Edmund, 95, 96, 228n. 16
Leakey, Richard, 186
Lerner, Gerda, 27, 52, 106
Leroi-Gourhan, Andre, 116, 122-23, 123
fig. 7.2
lesbianism, 10, 43, 57, 198n. 40
Levy, Gertrude Rachel, 148
liberal feminism, 15, 17, 190n. 14
life expectancy, prehistoric, 99, 212-13n.
15
Linear A, 167
Linear B, 167-68
linguistics, 158, 159-62, 163, 179, 196n.
19, 227n. 13, 228n. 16
Lippert, Julius, 30
literacy. See language, written.
"living fossils, " 82
Lobell, Mimi, 151
Lost Goddesses rif Early Greece, 193n. 39
Lubbock, Sir John, 31
maces, 113
Mackey, Mary, 22, 45, 57, 212n. 15, 219n.
59
Madagascar, 133
male-identified women. See
"pseudomen."
maleness: as genetic mutation, 51, 59; conceptions
of, 47, 58-60
Malinowski, Bronislaw, 94, 176-77,
191n. 20, 210n. 2
Mallory, J. P., 165, 228n. 16
Malta, 21, 23, 40; art of, 147-50, 148
fig. 7.20, 151, 225nn. 57. 59. See also
"sleeping goddess" of Malta; temples.
Maltese.
Mann. Judy. 24. 26.103
Marduk. 169-70. 174, 229n.29
Marinatos. Nanno. 153, 155
Marler. Joan. 173
marriage, 102-103, 167-69. 177
Marx. Karl. 12. 194n. 3
masculinity. 60-61.68.74
Mason. Jim. 29
maternal mortality. 99. 203 n. 8
maternity. ignorance of. 95-96. 171
Matriarchal Listings, 21
matriarchal myth: as antifeminist. 31.34.
195n. 10, 232n. 56; as myth. 182-83,
190n. 9; criticism of. 28-29. 189-90n.
6; feminist functions of, 4. 7. 15-20,
34, 63, 180. 182, 185-86; geographic
locations of, 10; historical accuracy of.
5.7-8, 13-14, 81-82, 180-82,187; history
of. 7, 30-39, 189n. 2, 189n. 3; in
colleges and universities. 27. 193nn.
36. 37; in secondary schools. 26-27
matriarchal societies: absence of warfare
in. 4, 41, 52, 113, 201-202n.68;as
golden age, 41, 46; as relatively static.
205n. 27; children in. 42, 44-45;
descriptions of. 3, 4, 12, 39-46, 62;
duration of, 2, 3, 4, 19-20, 39-40; geographical
scope of. 19, 40-41, 49-50;
harmony with nature in. 4. 17.41, 115,
183; role of men in. I. 39. 44-45, 47;
sex roles in. 4, 12, 41; status of women
in, 35. 36, 44
matriarchy: as nonexistent in ethnographies,
35; definitions of. 12-13
Matriarchy Research and Reclaim Network
Newsletter, 24
matriliny. 3, 44, 93, 99, 101-102, 170,
171-72, 226n. 6
matrilocality, 12, 44.93.99.101-102,
213n.23
Mayas. 114-15
Mbuti. 102. 109
McLennan. John Ferguson, 31
Mediterranean, 40, 48, 50, 147, 151
Megatrends for Women, 24
Meigs. Anna. 98
Melanesia. 94
Mellaart, James, 100, 142, 143, 146
Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus,
74
menopause, 199n. 49
menstruation, 45-46, 47, 57-58, 94, 107,
203n. 7; male imitations of, 47, 98
Mesolithic era, 113, 166
Mesopotamia, 141
metallurgy, 40, 161, 227 n. 12
Metis, 24
Mexico, 106, 197n.28, 199n. 51, 223n.39
Middle East. See Near East.
migrations, prehistoric, 158-66. See also
patriarchal invasions.
Miles, Rosalind, 26, 59
Milisauskas, Sarunas, 108
Mill, John Stuart, 186
Millett, Kate, 16, 186
Minoan Crete, 3-4, 22, 40, 47, 113, 114,
118; art of, 151-55, 152 fig. 7.23, 153,
fig 7.24, 154 fig 7.25, 167, 226n. 69
(see also frescoes, from Minoan Crete;
"snake goddess"). See also Evans, Sir
Arthur; Knossos.
misandry, 59
misogyny, 16, 104, 107, 109, 168-69, 172
Mists of Avalon, The, 22
Mithen, Steven)., 113
Mob of Angels, the, 22
monotheism: goddess, 37, 103, 198n. 42,
214n. 29; patriarchal, 53, 59, 141
Moon Over Crete, The, 28
Mor, Barbara, 20, 55
Morgan, Lewis Henry, 3I, 32, 194n. 3
Moses, 6, 14
mother goddess, 36, 43, 106, 192n. 27,
214n. 29, 220n. 7, 225n. 59.Seea~0
thealogy: goddess as mother.
motherhood, 10, 26, 33, 42, 44, 57, 63, 67,
79, 97, 99, I83, 187;assourceofsexism,
97
Motherpeace tarot deck, 59-60
Mu, 20
Mundurucu, 102, 111, 217n. 48
Murdock, Maureen, 58, 66-67
music, as contemporary medium for
matriarchal myth, 21-.Z2
mutations. See maleness: as genetic
mutation.
Mutterrecht, Das, 31
Mycenean Greece, 3-4, 34, 141, 167-68,
170-71; religion of, 141
myth: definitions of, 5, 12-14; interpretation
of, 172-79, 190n. 10, 191n. 20,
230n. 42, 231n. 52
myth as charter, 175-78
myth as history, 172-75, 230n. 42
myth of matriarchal prehistory. See matriarchal
myth.
Myth of the Eternal Return, The, 173
myths of a golden age. See golden age
myths.
myths of former female dominance, 169-
72, 175-78, 230-3 In. 45, 23 Inn. 50,
51
myths of goddess murder or rape, 169-70
Myths of Motherhood, The, 26
myths of serpent or dragon murder, 170
Nairs, 101
naming of Athens, myth of, 171-72, 173,
174, 178
National Organization for Women
(NOW), 24
Native Americans: figurine use among,
139; gendered effects of adoption of
agriculture on, 111
natural selection, 72, 184
nature: as intellectual construct, 183-84
nature/culture split, 65-66
nature/nurture debate, 73, 183-84
Nazism, 33, 205n. 36, 227n. 13
Near East, 40, 48, 49, 92, 113, 118, 124,
136, 142, 146, 157-58, 159, 161, 165-
66, 181, 182
Nelson, Sarah Milledge, 124
Neolithic era, 92, 98-99, 108, 113-14,
120, 124, 136, 138-47, 158-66, 179;
as height of matriarchy, 34, 40, 42
neopaganism, 3, 36, 196n. 14, 198n. 42
Neslen, Kristie, sr, 52
Neumann, Erich, 33, 219n. 5
New Age movement, 11, 196n. 14
New Guinea, 98, 102, 177-78, 211-12n.
12, 230-3 In. 45
New Left movement, 15
Noble, Vicki, 22, 28, 38, 59-60, 73, 201n.
65, 201-202n.68, 206n.45
nomadism, 1-2, 48, 157, 160, 161, 200n.
56, 228n.21
North America. See Americas, the.
nostalgia, 183, 191n. 20
objectivity. 13, 14, 90
Odyssey, 168
Old Europe. 40. 48, 108. 113-14, 118, 119.
136, 146. 157-58, 165, 166, 182, 201-
202n.68, 215n.35
Olympian pantheon, 170
On the Issues, 1
Ophelia syndrome. 26
oral history. 167, 173
Oresteia, 170-71. 173
Orestes, 171, 173
orgasm. 43. 45-46
Origin, The, 51
Origin cif the Family, Private Property, and the
State, The, 32, 35
origins stories. 8, 30, 182-85, 188, 194n.
I; and political interests. 184-85, 188
Ortner, Sherry. 35. 65, 86, 97. 208n. 9
ovaries. 147
palaces. of Minoan Crete. 151- 52
Paleolithic "batons, " 128-29, 130 figs. 7.8
and 7.9. 222n. 27. See also penises.
artificial.
Paleolithic cave art. 96. 120-24; dating of.
220n. 14; representations of women
and men in, 120-21; "vulva symbols"
in, 122-24, 125 fig. 7-3
Paleolithic era. 3. See also Upper Paleolithic
era.
Paleolithic "Venus" figurines, 117, 133-
36, 137 fig. 7.14, 138, 196n. 27, 221n.
15, 222nn. 31, 34, 223n. 38; dating of.
134. See also anthropomorphic figurines;
Venus of Lespugue; Venus of
Willendorf.
Pandora. 24. 168
Pangloss. Dr ., 184
Paradise Papers, The, 36
Park, MichaeI Alan.99
parthenogenesis, 11
Partnership Way, The, 24, 62
pastlives. 11, 210n. 21
pastoralism. See herding.
paternity: discovery of. 1.46-47.157.
185. 199n. 52. 211n. 6; evidence for
ignorance of in ethnographies. 93-96.
210n. 2; ignorance of, 1.45. 198-99n.
48, 211n. 5
"patriarchal accretions, " in interpretation
of myth, 174
patriarchal invasions, 1, 22, 40, 46, 48-50.
157-66, 179. See also Hebrews. as patriarchal
invaders; Kurgans.
patriarchal religion. See religion: patriarchal.
patriarchal revolution. 2, 46-53.157-79,
182, 185-86, 190n.9. 206-207n. 1; as
accident, 51, 184; as revealed in classical
myths, 169-72; dating of. 1.2 fig.
1.1. 46. 50. 199n. 51, 202n. 70; external
explanations of (see patriarchal invasions);
internal explanations of. 46-48;
role of men in, 48.50-51. 21In. 8; role
of religion in, 36, 52, 53, 104-105
patriarchy: among the proto-Indo-
Europeans. 160; descriptions of. 18-
19. 53-54, 6I-62; duration of. 18-20;
explanations for, 51-52; goddess worship
in. 54. 2I5n. 35; in early historic
societies. I67-68; inertial power of.
5I. I86-87, 20In. 66; status of women
in. 53-54
patriliny. 102, 160, 167, 171, 179
patrilocality, 160, 213n. 23
peace. See matriarchal societies. absence
of war in.
penis-bleeding. 98, 211-12n. 12. See also
subincision.
penises. artificial. 129, 131, 133, 222n.28
Pepper. Hubert. 137
Persephone. 170
Pestalozza. Uberto. 30
Petersfels, 126 fig. 7.5
"phallic goddesses;' 128-29, 130 fig. 7.8.
131. 132 fig. 7.11. 221-22n. 26
pilgrimages. See goddess pilgrimages.
"pillar deities, " 141
Pindar, 170
Pirate Prude, 22
Pit Grave culture. See Kurgans.
plaster reliefs and paintings. at Catalhoyuk.
142-47, 145 figs. 7.17 and
7.18
plow agriculture. 47, 112, 157. 186
Poland. 16I, 166
Pollack, Rachel, 119, 120
population densities, 112
pornography, 123-24, 136, 137 fig. 7.14,
22In.20
Poseidon, 171, 174, 229n. 33
pottery, 108, 121 fig. 7.1, 136, 151, 158,
163, 229n. 6
Powell, H. A., 94
precedent, 191n. 20; lack of need for,
186-87; matriarchal prehistory as,
19
pregnancy, 56-57, 59, 94, 99, 203n. 3,
223n.38
priestesses, 3, 11, 22, 36, 44, 107, 167, 168,
181
primates, 35, 39
property, 107; communal ownership of,
82; men's ownership of, 47, 211n. 8;
private, 42, 47; women's ownership of,
44, 107, 110-11
Proserpina, 138
prostitution, 53, 169; "sacred prostitution, "
26, 43
proto-Indo-Europeans, 159-62, 164,
226n. 6; dating dispersal of, 162, 228n.
2 r. See also Indo-European languages;
Kurgans.
protolexicon, Indo-European, 159-62,
226n.4
"pseudomen, " 66-67, 78-79, 205n. 29
psychoanalysis: as champion of matriarchal
myth, 32-33, 195n. 6; object relations
theory, 190n.9
public/private split, 42
race, 10, 75-76
racism, 19, 68, 75-77, 205n. 34, 206n. 47
radical feminism, 15-19, 190n. 14
rape, 17, 43, 53, 109, 111, 164, 169, 170,
217n. 48. See also sexual violence.
rationality, 19, 58
Reading the Past, 90
Reay, Marie, 177
Redmond, Layne, 22
Reich, Wilhelm, 30, 33
Reis, Patricia, 117
religion: among the proto-Indo-Europeans,
160; centrality of in matriarchal
societies, 43, 222n. 29; in early historic
societies, 167-68; marxist analysis of,
106; nature of, 18, 84, 191n. 19; patriarchal,
18, 27, 50, 52, 123, 141, 157,
215n.33, 215n.36, 224nn.45, 48
Renfrew, Colin, 163-64, 227n. 10
reproduction. See sexual reproduction.
"Return of the Great Mother, The, " 21-
22
Riley, Denise, 77
ritual: male domination of, 98, 109, 111;
use of figurines in, 136, 139
Roberts, Catherine, 89
Roberts, Nickie, 26
Roman Empire, 138, 166, 202n. 70, 228n.
16
romance novels, prehistoric, 192n. 28
Romania, 173
romanticism, 33, 65, 195n. 7
Rose, H. J., 173
Roszak, Theodore, 183
Roth, W. E., 94-95
Russia, 197n. 28, 199n. 5I
Russian steppes, 48, 49, 161, 163-64, 166,
179, 200n.59, 219n.59, 227n.9, 229-
30n.34
"Sameness" feminism, 17, 64
San, 109
Schlegel, Alice, 86, 97
Schliemann, 172
sealstones, from Minoan Crete, 153 fig.
7.24, 155
Second Encounter with the Great Goddess,
21, 21 fig 2.1
secondary products revolution, 161, 227n.
12
sedentism, 1-2, 48, 158
Selk'nam, 175-76, 177
Semites. See Hebrews.
Semitic languages, 161
Seneca, 139
"separate but equal, " 68
sex, 6, 22, 187; men's control of women's
sexual activity, 103, 109, 168; sexual
freedom, 41, 42-43, 1°3, 123
sex difference research, 8, 69-70
sex differences: as occasion for sexism, 68,
74, 76-77; biological and cultural
determinants of, 73, 75; in matriarchal
myth, 29, 56-64, 185; ways of working
with, 71-80
sexual division of labor, 107-111, 181,
186, 216nn. 39, 40, 41: differential valuation
of women's and men's labor in,
109-10, 217nn. 45, 48; in early historic
societies, 168-69
sexual reproduction: understandings of,
94-96, 210n. 2
sexual selection, 72
sexual violence, 16, 17, 43, 109, 179. See
also rape; slavery: sexual
Shakyamuni, 6
Shannon, Jacqueline, 28
Sheaffer, Robert, 28
Shitala, 104
Shlain, Leonard, 29, 206-207n. 1
Siberia, 118, 133
Sjoo, Monica, 20, 55, 60, 148
skeletons, 88-89, 99, 101, 111-12, 113,
115, 116, 179, 218n. 55, 229-30n. 34.
See also burials; grave goods.
slavery, 42, 52-53, 167-68, 186; among
the proto-Indo-Europeans, 160; in the
United States, 86-87, 102, 110, 188;
sexual, 52- 53, 113
"sleeping goddess" of Malta, 148
Smith, William Robertson, 31
"snake goddess, " 21, 154-55, 154 fig. 7.25,
226n.69
"social charter, " myth as. See myth as
charter.
social stratification. See hierarchy.
sociobiology, 72
Sotira Arkolies, 112 fig. 7.11
South America, 178, 223n. 39, 230-3 In.
45
southeastern Europe. See Old Europe.
Soviet anthropology, 32
Spain, 121
Spencer, Herbert, 3I
"spiritual activism, " 18
Spretnak, Charlene, 15, 42, 58, 190, 193n.
39, 203n.3
Sredny Stog culture, 162
Sreenivasan, Jyotsna, 28
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 16, 30
Stareevo, 124, 125 fig. 7.4
Starhawk, 61, 134, 1910.19
state-level societies, 112, 115
status of women, 85-87, 107, I12-J!,
180, 207-208n.7, 217n.45, 2180.54;
in early historic societies, 167-69,
229n.28
Status if l#men in Preindustrial Societies,
The, 107
Stein, Diane, 20
Steinem, Gloria, 1
Stephenson, June, 27, 42
Stesichorus, 170
Stone, Merlin, 36-37, 38, 42, 43, 50, 58
Story of Civilization, The, 33
subincision, 211-12n. 12
Sumer, 11, 104, 167, 219n. 59; status of
women in, 167, 214n. 27, 228-290. 24
"survival of the fittest." See natural
selection.
"survivals, " 82-83, 207no. 3, 5
symbols, interpretation of, 118-20, 146,
149, 155, 219n.5, 220nn.6, 13
Taylor, Sarah, I85
Taylor, Timothy, 129
Teish, Luisah, 1920. 29
temples, Maltese, 148-50, 150 figs. 7.21
abd 7.22, 225n. 59
thealogy, 4: goddess as mother, 43, 59;
goddess as sexual, 43, 123; goddess
linked to nature, 43, 183; goddess of
fertility, birth and death, 43, 134, 138,
147, 196n. 21; the goddess within, 15
Theogony, 170
third genders, 88-89, 208-209n. 14,
209n. 15
third sexes. See third genders.
Thomson, George, J2
Through the Goddess, 117
Thurer, Shari, 26
Tiamat, 169-70, 174, 229n. 29
Tibet, 1970. 28
Tierra del Fuego, 175-76
Timony, Mary, 192n. 26
trade, 45, 101
Trobriand Islanders, 94-96, 102, 210n. 2
Troy, 172
Trump, D. H., 151
Tully River Blacks, 94-95
Turkey 23, 40, 95, 144, 161, 224n.49
Tylor, E. B., 30, 31
Ukraine, 162, 166
United States, 10, 224n. 49; as locus of
interest in matriarchal myth, 31-32,
40; cemeteries in, 99-100; status of
women in, 85, 99, 208n. 10
United States Supreme Court, 68
Unnatural Order, An, 29
Upper Paleolithic era, 40, 92, 113, 133-36
Uralic languages, 166
Varro, 170
Venus di Milo, 133
"Venus" figurines. See Paleolithic
"Venus" figurines.
Venus of Lespugue, 134, 135 fig. 7.13
Venus of Willendorf, 134, 135, 135 fig.
7.12, 155
Victorianism, 67, 72
Vinca, 128, 129 fig. 7.7
Virgin of Guadalupe, 106, 138
Virgin Mary, 54, 215n. 33, 215n. 36, 224n.
45
Virgin Mother Crone, 21
Vogel, Karen, 59
Volga River, 49, 162
vultures, 143, 147
"vulva symbols." See Paleolithic cave art.
Wailes, Bernard, 90
Walker, Barbara, 58
warfare, 19, 42, 47, 51, 52, 93, 113-15,
154, 155, 157, 160, 163, 166, 179, 181,
201-202n.68
weapons, 88, ro8, 1I3-14, 160, 179, 181,
229-30n.34
wheeled transportation, 163
When God Was a Woman, 37
Whore Venerated by a Fool, A, 140 fig. 7.15,
141
Whores in History, 26
Why It's Great to Be a Girl, 28
Whyte, Martin King, 107, 187, 207-
208n.7, 2I7n.48
Wilshire, Donna, 13, 21, 191n. 25, 201-
202n.68
womb envy, 1, 46-47, 58, 97; ethnographic
evidence for, 97-98, 157
Woman and Religion, 27
Women's History of the World, 26
Women's Mysteries, 78
Women's Roots, 27
Woolger, Jennifer and Roger, 105
work and social status, 110
Worthman, Carol, 203-2o4n. 13
written language. See language, written.
Yamnaya culture. See Kurgans.
Year the Horses Came, The, 22, 45
Your Five Thousand Years Are Up, 21
Yugoslavia, 128, 129 fig. 7.7
Zafunaniry, 133
Zeus, 160, 170, 171, 174
zoomorphic figurines. See animals, as represented
in prehistoric art.
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