Children and Media Violence, by Ulla Carlsson

Rapeutationists and DIRA zombies are preconditioned for violent behavior by cinema and video game violence.

Re: Children and Media Violence, by Ulla Carlsson

Postby admin » Sat Sep 07, 2013 12:13 am

Media in the World

The Global Audio-Visual Media Landscape

ROBERT LAMB


UNICEF commissioned Robert Lamb, Director of Television Trust for the Environment (TVE), to conduct studies on the development in audio-visual media. One study was reported in The Bigger Picture: Audio-visual survey and recommendations, February 1997, copyright© United Nations Children's Fund, March 1997. With the permission of UNICEF, we here reproduce Preface, Executive summary, Chapter 1: Main Findings, and Methodology and Sources from the report (whereas Chapter 2: Survey of the Television Broadcasting Landscape 1997-2000 and Chapter 3:Author's Endnote are omitted due to lack of space).

Preface

You would have to be a modern-day Rip van Winkle to be surprised when told that television is by far the world's powerful mass medium. But you might raise an eyebrow to find out that in 1996 for every ten households on the planet there are seven television sets. Half the world may never have made a telephone call, but the vast majority of humankind now sees television.

Love it or hate it, anyone who is involved in development communications must come to terms with television. Three years ago, UNICEF commissioned Robert Lamb, Director of TVE to conduct a study and make recommendations to UNICEF on how we should be responding to the bewildering pace of development in the audio visual media. UNICEF has fared well by applying a number of those recommendations. But at risk of being overwhelmed by the demands the industry is making upon the organization and unclear about the implications of the digital revolution and all the talk of 'techno-convergence', we commissioned TVE to conduct two more studies: one on the International Children's Day of Broadcasting, the other, an up-date by Robert Lamb of his study of three years ago that attempts to sketch out the likely developments to the end of the century.

In UNICEF's view, the findings and recommendations are of relevance to other organizations committed to keeping the global public tuned into sustainable development. The Bigger Picture draws on the latest industry surveys and benefits from canvassing the views of television executives, producers and distributors. To all those who spared the time to answer TVE's questionnaires and to meet with the researchers, UNICEF extends its gratitude and thanks.

It was no simple task UNICEF set for TVE. It was to take a global view, stare into a crystal ball and detect trends that are relevant to an organization like UNICEF. Unsurprisingly, for every rule, an exception can be found. For example, an executive in an Asian satellite service found that our output was far too controversial while a European producer found the material to be far too bland! Notwithstanding caveats like these, certain global trends are discernible. The main finding is that television is going in two directions at the same time: re-inforcing its position as the quintessential mass medium while providing an outlet for diversity through the myriad of new speciality channels.

The Bigger Picture demystifies a lot of the jargon and is therefore easy reading for the non-specialist. Colleagues in national, international and NGO development assistance agencies will find much information that is useful in deciding how modest budgets can be deployed for maximum impact. I commend the document to you and look forward to receiving any comments you may have.

Morten Giersing
UNICEF, New York
February 1997

Executive summary

• The 1990s have seen television extend its dominance as the global mass medium. Virtually everywhere, television is now cited as the public's first source of information. Seven out every ten households in the world possess a television set -- three quarters are outside the OECD countries.
• Television is growing both as a mass and a minority medium. Non-broadcast organizations with a brief to raise awareness of environment and development are presented with new opportunities to tailor their messages to special interest groups, women, children and youth as well as to mass audiences. But as the numbers of channels multiply with digitisation, the demands on poorly financed information divisions will increase exponentially with diminishing returns in terms of the numbers of people reached.
• With extraordinarily few exceptions, the pattern of prime-time television viewing is similar throughout the world -- entertainment, live action, sports and news broadcasts. With public service broadcasting on the wane throughout the world, tapping the mass media potential of television means staying in touch with the needs of increasingly ratings-conscious decision-makers in the industry and the independent producers with a strong track-record in delivering popular programming.
• Despite the flourishing of new national services, western television news agencies are the dominant suppliers of, and agenda- setters for, international news and current affairs. Development assistance agencies could take cost-effective steps to increase global coverage in the only factual programming sector scheduled in prime-time on major national TV networks.
• On a strict ratings criterion, development assistance agencies should end their involvement in documentary co-production. But with a rigorous set of rules applied, there remains a strong case for continued involvement in documentary production.
• Children and youth are major targets for the schedulers, but traditionally not of the development assistance agencies. Virtually everywhere expenditures and broadcast hours for children's television are on the increase.
• The new multi-media platforms (CD-ROM, Internet) are not so widely used yet to justify any special effort by the international development agencies.
• Through an out-sourcing strategy, advocacy agencies should be maximising the use of the new non-linear editing and digital cameras to satisfy viewers' preference for home-made and customised programming.
• The biggest-selling consumer item in the world is not the PC but the colour television set. The development of broadcasting mirrors the globalisation of the world economy. Driven by the requirements of advertisers, the first target of providers in the developing world are the middle classes and those that aspire to that status.
• The replacement of the analogue by the digital signal is already happening. But the two technologies will co-exist. The much vaunted second electronic revolution will be a staggered process.
• What viewers watch and when is decided by the schedulers. Despite all the noise about interactive television putting viewers in the driving seat, little has changed. Change will take place first in well-off households with children. Interactive TV is at the experimental stage. Until a simple, affordable tool along the lines of a hand-held remote control comes on the market, interactive TV will remain the plaything of the techno-boffins. The vast majority of viewers could not care less about technology. Unless the advantages are manifestly clear they will stick to what they already have. Meanwhile, most viewers continue to tune into the established national broadcasters.
• Transmission of live events -- especially sports events -- popular drama and soaps, natural history films and blockbuster movies are how the networks have kept their mass audience share.
• Direct-to-home broadcasting by satellite and the VCR have broken governments' restrictions over what their people watch, but not as radically as many suppose.

Main Findings (Chapter 1)

Television: the pre-eminent global medium


The 1990s have seen television extend its dominance as the global mass medium. Virtually everywhere, television is now cited as the public's first source of information. Seven out every ten households in the world possess a television set -- three quarters are outside the OECD countries.

With at least one television set for every six people on the planet, television broadcasting is the single most important means for development assistance agencies to deliver messages to a global public. Only a handful of small countries are without a domestic broadcaster. But every country is under the footprint of one or another satellite broadcaster. Even in many low income countries, television is no longer a medium for the middle classes alone. According to the International Telecommunications Union, the global information industry generated US $1,425 billion world-wide of which about US $300 billion in 1994 was accounted for by the audiovisual sector.

This paper finds that the trends outlined by TVE in a 1994 UNICEF-sponsored study are being realized. The channel expansion, hours of television watched and increase in television ownership have been truly astonishing -- a 100 per cent increase since the end of the 1980s. The single biggest-selling consumer product in the world is the colour television set. According to Philips, 105 million colour television sets were sold world-wide in 1995.

In 1995 the average American spent more time watching television than listening to the radio, surfing the Internet, reading newspapers or listening to recorded music put together. This is not exceptional -- a Pole spends more time watching television than an American; a Malaysian as much as a Dane, or an Italian as much as a Turk.

Virtually every household in the industrialised world owns one or more television sets, with Asia fast catching up. Most remarkable is the rapid expansion in the low income countries where television is frequently watched by communities larger than individual households. There is one TV set for every three homes in India where it is estimated that over 400 million people watched the Hindu series, the Ramayana. Vietnam's ownership per household is predicted to rise from 37 per cent now to over 70 per cent in just two years. In China, television is in at least 280 million homes, with 60,000 colour television sets being bought each day.

World-wide one in five households are hooked up to cable or satellite television. One in four households owns a video recorder. In schools and colleges -- every educational institution in Botswana is equipped with a VCR -- video is an essential educational aid. Increasingly civil society organizations use video for campaigning and awareness raising.

The pattern of expansion in television and VCR ownership is repeated in Latin America, the Caribbean and the Arab-speaking countries. Only in the shanty-towns and rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa is television not expected to develop into a mass medium by 2000.

The most unexpected finding is that globalisation of the economy is not for the most part being played out in the content of programming. Most of the 1.6 billion or so TV sets are showing home-grown programming in national languages. "Everywhere, the demand is for local programming in local languages", is a recent comment by Rupert Murdoch, Chairman of News Corporation.

TVE finds there is an overwhelming case for development assistance organizations to invest more resources in television within a strategy designed to utilise the 'points of leverage' in broadcasting.

The broadcasting paradox

Television is growing both as a mass and a minority medium. Non-broadcast organizations with a brief to raise awareness of environment and development are presented with new opportunities to tailor their messages to special interest groups, women, children and youth as well as to mass audiences. But as the numbers of channels multiply with digitisation, the demands on poorly financed information divisions will increase exponentially with diminishing returns in terms of the numbers of people reached.

One of the most important findings of this study is the success of national broadcasters in holding on to the majority of viewers.

This applies to every country, poor or prosperous, regardless of how many channels are available via cable, direct-to-home satellite, wireless cable or terrestrial transmission via the spectrum.

In Germany, five broadcasters account for three quarters of the audience share. Mexico's four Televisa channels account for 80 per cent of the viewers. The three SABC channels take 83 per cent of the viewers in South Africa. In the UK the four main channels have a 90 per cent share. Even in the USA, with a longer exposure to multi-channel television than any other country, 70 per cent of prime-time viewing is on the four main networks.

On a global measurement, the audience share of the transcontinental broadcasters is feeble by comparison. Satellite up-linked television received direct-to-home or relayed by cable has only succeeded where it has customised its output for domestic audiences. A prime example is Zee TV. Offering a menu of slick programming aimed at a youthful up-market Indian viewership, it claims an audience of 80 million on the sub-continent.

Advertising drives the US $300 billion global television industry. And advertisers are finding it worth their while to reach for niche audiences via the themed channels.

The development of these speciality channels is the phenomenon of the 1990s. Operating on slim budgets, their demand for programming to fit their brief will increase geometrically as digitisation takes place. This development could distract agencies seeking to reach the biggest audiences.

Aid and development agencies should consider prioritising in a draconian fashion, targeting the national networks and broadcasters/producers with a successful proven track record of high ratings and successful international sales.

What are viewers watching?

With extraordinarily few exceptions, the pattern of prime-time viewing is similar throughout the world -- entertainment, live action, sports and news broadcasts. With public service broadcasting on the wane throughout the world, tapping the mass media potential of television means staying in touch with the needs of increasingly ratings-conscious decision-makers in the television industry and the independent producers with a strong track-record in delivering popular programming.

Live events -- especially sports -- home-made popular drama (telenovelas, soaps etc.), and blockbuster movies are how the national networks have retained their audience share.

Despite all the predictions of convergence and interactivity, television viewing remains a passive activity. The key players are the schedulers, programme commissioners and a handful of highly-regarded production companies -- an elite group who decide what viewers will see and when. These are the quintessential points of leverage in the industry who number in their hundreds.

Through their pathway to mass audiences they can powerfully influence decision-making. A myth is that by reaching policy/decision-makers with tailored programming, policies will be changed to favour sustainable development. Programmes that warrant prime-time coverage, generating national debate involving the general public must be the main target for organizations seeking to influence decision-makers.

With the public service ethic in broadcasting in steep decline, television is increasingly a world of cut-throat competition with tabloid formats becoming ever more popular. Almost exclusively stations are concerned with ratings or with targeting the special interest categories. They are especially concerned to attract youthful (14-30 years) viewers.

Encouragingly, this report finds there is a fund of goodwill among the commissioners for organizations like UNICEF that implement a sophisticated audiovisual policy. Its work in the field of animation, the professionalism of its ad spots and B Rolls and experience in brokering co-productions, give organizations like UNICEF a sound basis on which to achieve more coverage.

TVE recommends that staying in touch with the elite decision-makers in television, being sympathetic to their needs, providing stories and contacts and, from time to time, start-up to-finance, should be the priority for any agency seeking to step up coverage on television. Sympathetic tabloid TV journalists should be sought out. Agencies should give priority to maintaining a television VIP listing and to nurturing these contacts on an individual basis. Given the dominant share of English-speaking programming in the international sales market, special attention should be paid to the North American and UK commissioners.

The factual exception

Despite the flourishing of new national services, Western television news agencies are the dominant suppliers of, and agenda-setters for, international news and current affairs. Development assistance agencies could take cost-effective steps to increase global coverage in the only factual programming sector scheduled in prime-time on major national TV networks.

A recent study of news coverage in a cross-section of 35 countries found that the hegemony of the Western television news agencies is even greater than when UNESCO sponsored the New World Information Order in the 1970s.

A European Union sponsored survey found that 80 per cent of the public in the EU cite television news and current affairs programming as their primary source of information. Thematic magazine programmes also make the prime-time schedules.

The two most frequent pleas among news and current affairs editors contacted during this study were: topical story-led items that respect editorial independence and stories that try to be relevant to national audiences. Though national TV services focus mostly on domestic and near-neighbour stories, they rely heavily on the big three London based agencies (two USA owned) for international coverage. These agencies also supply the 30 or so successful satellite news broadcasters like CNN, BBC World and Deutsche Welle. About 90 per cent of the world's non-domestic generated news items pass through London.

The multi-media environment enables non-broadcast organizations to plan integrated television, radio and print campaigns. A possible model is one TV agency's highly professional Global Beltway which combines television news features, regional tailoring, stills and on-screen information.

Bi-lateral agencies or international organizations with a need to communicate to a particular country or region should work with national broadcasters. The most effective means to achieve global coverage is via the international TV news agencies. The route preferred by most broadcasters is via trusted independent producers.

The documentary conundrum

On a strict ratings criterion, development assistance agencies should end their involvement in documentary co-production. But with a rigorous set of rules applied, there remains a strong case for continued involvement in documentary production.

Documentaries have all but disappeared from the prime-time scheduling of major national broadcasters, including the public service broadcasters who have been forced to go downmarket in the ratings wars. But the tabloid format does not necessarily mean any loss in quality of coverage.

One-off documentaries and series in a tabloid as well as a blue chip format can still have a measurable impact on public opinion in inverse proportion to the numbers who see the programmes. There is also a significant international sales market not least because this kind of factual programming has 'shelf-life' and can be customised to meet national and regional broadcasters' requirements. Series and other forms of 'bulk' programming are most in demand, with single 'one off' documentaries difficult to place. The success of the Discovery Channel throughout the world is based on repackaging to suit national/regional audience preferences. Crucially, the documentary format can also be edited to meet cultural and religious sensitivities.

New technologies -- digital hi-8 cameras and non-linear editing equipment -- also offer the opportunity for the independent producer to make programmes to international broadcast standard at a fraction of the cost of a decade ago. The new digitised programme- making hardware and channels may yet offer the best hope for consistent and fearless in-depth coverage of environment and development.

TVE proposes that agencies should only support documentary production when all or most of the following criteria are fulfilled: commissions are within programme strands with proven above average audience ratings for factual programming; themes are directly relevant to their mission; co-production involving at least one or more major broadcaster; submission of promotional and distribution work plans; generous rights assignment to the agency for international distribution in whole or in part, in perpetuity.

The only exceptions should be: when the agency has a pressing policy need to see a programme broadcast in a particular country and/or territory; coverage of a subject (for example water or sanitation) with little media potential but which accords with an agency priority (there will always be reason for advocacy organizations to swim against the media tide).

Reaching the younger viewer

Children and youth are major targets for the schedulers, but traditionally not of the development assistance agencies. Virtually everywhere expenditures and broadcast hours are on the increase.

There is a case to be made that far too little effort has gone into supporting programming aimed at 10-30 year olds. There is persuasive evidence that the best way to reach adults is through the younger family members -- especially in cultures where family viewing is the norm. Children's news programme commissioners, for example, are far less resistant to directly featuring the work of an agency.

The needs of the child and youthful viewer are wildly different to adult programming. The Convention on the Rights of the Child explicitly recognises the right to children's self-expression.

A recent survey of 62 broadcasters revealed that by far the biggest expenditures and audiences were achieved by the national broadcasters. Just five countries -- France, Australia, Canada, UK and the USA -- dominated the international sales market for children and youth programming.

Most popular are live events and animations. Magazine programmes featuring young presenters and fast-moving on-site formats are avidly watched by youthful audiences. In the contacts made during the research for the two UNICEF-commissioned studies, TVE found that the producers of children and youth programming were the category most open to new ideas.

Preliminary contacts made during this survey indicate that an investment in human and financial resources to this fast-expanding area would pay dividends not only in reaching the next generation of decision-makers but in using their influence with parents to alter lifestyles and pay more attention to environment and development issues.

Multi-media and all that

The new multi-media platforms are not so widely used yet to justify any special effort by the international funders In the global perspective, multi-media applications -- CD-Rom, PC games etc. -- are the playthings of relatively few better-off households. TVE found that the 'hype' surrounding the Internet, multi-media, 'techno-convergence' and so on was distracting attention (and scarce resources) away from the fact that tiny numbers actually know how to use the new interactive platforms.

Organizations like UNICEF risk losing sight of the bigger picture if they were to decide to invest in interactive software production. Their role should be confined to selling imagery and information only to the producers of multi-media software.

Digitisation and new developments such as Web-TV or video-on-demand (VoD) may usher in the much talked about interactive television revolution (i.e. the television, telephone and PC as an integrated unit). But no company has yet put on the market an affordable navigator to bring an end to the era of passive viewing.

Nor is there any evidence of any strong demand from the viewers. A RAI working paper to the October 1996 United Nations World Television Forum states: "...despite around thirty VoD experiments world-wide, involving thousands of families, the results have not suggested great commercial potential."

TVE's findings are that it will be the end of the century possibly later -- before the development assistance community needs to develop a strategy in this area.

TVE recommends that involvement with multi-media be restricted to the start up of an Internet film catalogue. As the decade draws to a close, the on-line catalogue will become a major vehicle for promoting co-productions and independently made audio-visual software on themes relevant to agencies' mission.

Utilising the new programme-making technologies

Through an out-sourcing strategy, advocacy agencies should be maximising the use of the new non-linear editing and digital cameras to satisfy viewers' preference for homemade and customised programming.

The findings of TVE's two surveys, the pattern of demand for programming featured in its six Moving Pictures catalogues, as well as five regional television workshops convened by TVE since 1994, indicate that in order to make an impact, a systematic versioning policy must be introduced to satisfy national audience preferences.

New technological developments render this a cost effective objective. Programmes can be versioned (e.g. voice dubbing, sub- titling, video introductions, insertion of local stories etc.) at relatively little cost. One instance is the Spanish versioning of 12 TVE Moving Pictures programmes for US $7000 in Mexico.

Agencies such as WWF and UNICEF report great success with video news releases and 'B' roll tapes that enable stations to make their own versions. But as one Dutch producer told us, TV stations are 'lazy' and 'overworked'. They are far more likely to use video programmes if an effort is made to customise the output.

The TVE/ICDB evaluation showed that, with a few exceptions, hard-pressed field offices of even a well organized and funded organization like UNICEF cannot be expected to undertake this task. But throughout the world, there are facilities houses and broadcasters highly practised in customising programming. Crucially, a decentralised approach enables an organization to tailor the output to accord with national and regional cultural and religious sensitivities. Drawing on TVE's own experience, far more trust should be placed in indigenous producers in the South and economies in transition to make and version programming to meet local preferences. If necessary quality control can be exercised by tried and trusted independent production outfits.

Organizations with a public advocacy mission should set aside an element of its annual information budget to finance versioning. More effort should go into tapping production capacities in the non-OECD countries.

Methodology and Sources

The research for this survey was conducted by TVE's director, Robert Lamb over a six-week period (October/November 1996).

TVE reviewed the latest publications:

Zenith Media Television in Europe and Asia to 2005; Zenith Media, Bridge House, London, 1996 Television Business International (TBI) Yearbook 1997; 21st Century Publications, Pearson Professional Ltd., London, 1996.

Screen Digest, Screen Digest Ltd.; London, published monthly.

The Digital Broadcast Revolution; Broadcasting Corporation, London.

Interactive TV A Revolution in Global Broadcasting; Financial Times, Corporation, London, 1996.

Extending Choice in the Digital Age; British Broadcasting Corporation, London, 1996.

Study on the Introduction of Terrestrial Television; Convergent Decisions Group, The Mews, Putney Common, London, 1996.

Television in a Changing World; RAI Working Papers -- 4 vols -- for UN TV Forum, November 1996. Watching the World - Television and Audience Engagement with Developing Countries (Third World and Environment Broadcasting Project), International Broadcasting Trust, London, 1996.

References are made in the text to other published sources. TVE conducted person-to-person meetings and telephone interviews with over 80 key players in the television industry and sent our over 150 questionnaires.

TVE drew upon its ICDB (International Children's Day of Broadcasting) Evaluation of June 1996.

TVE also contacted over 40 Video Resource Centres (VRCs) in the South and NIS countries.

Statistics

• Television and Video
• Children's & Youth's Television Programmes
• Abbreviations - Television
• Cinema Screens
• Personal Computers and Internet Users
• Telephone Main Lines and Internet Host Computers
• Interactive Entertainment Software Retail Sales Value
• Radio Broadcast Stations and Radio Possessions
• Book Titles Published
• International Entertainment Companies (Top 50)

Table 1. Television and Video (1996)

Image
Image

Image
Image

Image

Image
Image

Image
Image

Table 2. Children's & Youth's Television Programmes (1996)

Image
Image
Image
Image

Image
Image

Table 3. Cinema Screens

Image
Image

Table 4. Personal Computers and Internet Users (1994)

Image
Image
Image
Image

Table 5. Telephone Main Lines and Internet Host Computers (1996)

Image
Image

Table 6. Interactive Entertainment Software Retail Sales Value (in Europe and USA 1992-1996, US $1,000)

Image
Image

Table 7. Radio Broadcast Stations and Radio Possessions

Image
Image

Image
Image

Image

Image
Image

Image

Image
Image

Table 8. Book Titles Published

Image

Image
Image

Image

Image

Image

Image

Table 9. International Entertainment Companies (Top 50) (ranked by 1996-97 revenue)

Image
Image

References

Global Interactive Entertainment: Big Growth in Spending (1997) Screen Digest, February.

Human Development Report 1997 (1997) The United Nations Development Programme. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

International Telecommunication Union (1997) Pressrelease no. 15, 7 September.

Peers, M. & Goldner, D. (1997) The Global 50. Merger Mania Shuffles Rankings. Supplement to Variety, August 25-31.

TBI Yearbook 97 (1996) Television Business International. London: 21st Century Business Publications.

UNESCO Statistical Yearbook '96 (1997) Paris: UNESCO.

The World Factbook 1996 (1997) Web site: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/pubs.html Washington: CIA.

World Cinema Market: Start of the European Fightback (1997) Screen Digest, August.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 24270
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Children and Media Violence, by Ulla Carlsson

Postby admin » Sat Sep 07, 2013 1:28 am

Children in the World

Statistics


• Number of Children in Different Regions
• Children in Different Regions - Percentage of total population
• Demographic Indicators
• Education
• Working Children

Figure 1. Number of Children in Different Regions (1995)Source: The State of the World's Children 1997, UNICEF.

Image

Table 1. Children in Different Regions - Percentage of total population (1995)

Image

Table 2. Demographic Indicators (1995)

Image
Image

Image
Image

Image

Image
Image

Image

Image
Image

Table 3. Education

Image
Image

Image
Image

Image

Image
Image

Image

Image
Image

Table 4. Working Children (1995)

According to new estimates, there are some 250 million children 5-14 years old who are toiling in economic activity in developing countries. For close to one-half of them (or 120 million), this work is carried out on a full time basis, while for the remaining one-half it is combined with schooling or other non-economic activities. Among school going children, up to one-third of the boys (33%) and more than two-fifths (42%) of the girls are also engaged in economic activities on a part-time basis.

The overall estimates of 250 million working children are exclusive of children who are engaged in regular non-economic activities, including those who provide services of domestic nature on a full-time basis in their own parent's or guardian's households.

Distribution of Economically Active Children 5-14 Years of Age in Developing Countries, by Region and Sex (1995)

Image

... Working Children

Economic Activity Participation Rate of Children 5-14 Years of Age, by Region and Sex (1995)

Image

References

Ashagrie, K. (1997) Statistics on Working Children and Hazardous Child Labour in Brief. Internal document draft for discussion. Geneva: International Labor Organization (ILO).

The State of the World's Children (1996) New York: UNICEF.

World Population Prospects: The 1994 Revision (1995) 145 Population Studies.New York: United Nations.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 24270
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Children and Media Violence, by Ulla Carlsson

Postby admin » Sat Sep 07, 2013 1:57 am

Children's Participation in the Media

Some Examples


There are many ways to improve the image of children in media contents and to facilitate children's right to express themselves through the media. One way is to offer children the chance to participate in the media -- in the programmes, films, texts, on the Internet, etc. -- and to give them the opportunity to be active in the media production process. This section contains a few practical examples -- by no means exhaustive -- of how this can be done. The Clearinghouse is interested in collecting and publishing comments and articles on positive and practical experiences of active child participation in the media world-wide. We hope that the following examples will inspire persons and organisations engaged in other projects related to children's media participation to contact us about them. We also hope that the examples will encourage new initiatives.

UNICEF Media Activities for Children

In recent years, UNICEF has developed ways of approaching children directly to solicit their opinions and engage them in discussion on development issues. A number of initiatives, outlined below, have involved the participation of children from industrialized and developing countries in meaningful dialogue and activities that enhance their awareness of global issues and increase their capacity to take action in appropriate ways. These initiatives strongly encourage child participation and challenge children to take an active part in exploring and discussing issues that affect their future.

World Wide Web

In 1995, the Voices of Youth (VOY) site on the World Wide Web was launched at the World Summit for Social Development (WSSD) in Copenhagen, where it was an immediate success. It introduces children to child rights issues, and encourages them to express their views. Children from all over the world responded to the invitation to come forward with questions for government delegates attending the Summit.

After the Summit, we decided to continue VOY as a worldwide forum for children to express their views and dialogue on issues of development, peace and justice, and in particular those issues affecting their own lives. VOY is a good example of how today's technology can be used to bring young people together in a meaningful dialogue about issues that concern them. Indeed, the VOY website has just been chosen as one of "Seven Super Sites of the Month" by Kids' Space, a children's web magazine with readers in 124 countries, which chooses web sites that inspire children to learn and discover the world. For further information, contact Voices of Youth online at voy@unicef.org or Web site, http://www.unicef.org/voy

CD-ROM

My City is an interactive animated CD-ROM game jointly funded by UNICEF and the Canadian government. The players, who Children's Participation in the Media become mayors of their city for a day, encounter a series of social and cultural issues based on the Convention on the Rights of the Child. As mayors, they must decide how to respond to each of these issues. They are given a budget at the start of their tenure, and a popularity meter indicates the success or otherwise of their policies with the voting public. The aim is for the mayor to stay in office without losing resources and popularity as she/he responds to the issues presented. The game encourages awareness and discussion of problems encountered by youth around the world, and encourages them to act on similar problems in their own communities.

Broadcasting

Participation in the International Children's Day of Broadcasting has grown from around 50 broadcasters in 1992 to over 2,000 in 1996. More remarkable than the numbers however, is the extent to which broadcasters throughout the world have become involved in the Day, and have taken its message to heart. An increasing number of broadcasters are devoting an entire day or week to children. Many participating broadcasters have trained children to produce their own programmes, and make documentaries on violations of children's rights.

Another interesting aspect of the Day is the selection of a theme of special concern each year. Through the theme in 1996 of violence in the media, we were able to draw attention to the International Children's Television Charter, which rejects "gratuitous scenes of violence and sex", and is specifically aligned with the principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

1994 saw the creation of a special International Emmy award to honour the broadcaster whose participation in the Day is judged the most outstanding.

In 1997 the International Children's Day of Broadcasting was celebrated on Sunday, December 14. For further information, contact the ICDB website at http://www. unicef.org/icdb

Multi-media

In November 1997, UNICEF launched the Meena Communication Initiative, a new regional effort whose goal is to change the lives of girls in South Asia, a region where discrimination is rife. The protagonist is Meena, a ten-year-old girl who must overcome a series of obstacles in her quest to exercise her rights. As she does so, the series explores the implications of girls' development for the community as a whole.

The project takes the form of a multimedia package comprising a 12-episode animated film series, a 15-part radio series on the BBC's Urdu, Bengali, Hindi and Nepali World Services, documentaries, comic books, posters, folk media and various other materials. Meena will not only be carried on TV and radio, but the concept will also be integrated into school curricula throughout South Asia, and special kits will be made available to non-profit organizations working on behalf of girls in the region.

In Africa, UNICEF has launched Sara, a similar multi-media communication package aimed at providing a role-model for adolescent girls in East and Southern Africa.

The package includes an animated television series, a radio series, comic books, story books, audio cassettes and posters. Sara, the heroine, embarks on a series of adventures and faces important decisions, such as whether or not to stay in school, how to deal with difficult adults, and how to protect herself from the HIV/ AIDS virus. The episodes teach girls essential life skills such as effective communication, negotiation and problem-solving. The series will be carried in at least 15 countries in the region.

Children's news

In 1996, UNICEF also teamed up with the Children's Express, a news service run by children for audiences of all ages, to visit Bangladesh where they filed stories on child labour issues.

The Children's Express members conducted a training workshop with three Bangladeshi children, who subsequently worked as reporters during the project. Together, the group interviewed child rights activists, child labour experts and other children in Dhaka.

The Bangladeshi children returned to New York with the rest of the group to work together on additional stories concerning child labour issues in America, and made media appearances to coincide with the International Children's Day of Broadcasting. The trip was a sequel to the Children's Express/ UNICEF visit to Bosnia and Croatia in 1995, which focused on the issue of children affected by armed conflict.

Reporting on children's issues

At the World Congress against commercial sexual exploitation of children in 1996, one area of concern that was identified is how the media report cases of child abuse and children's issues generally. UNICEF is working with the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) to encourage the media to develop international guidelines and codes of conduct for reporting on children's issues. In a series of consultations with media from all over the world, UNICEF will collaborate with the IFJ and the Committee on the Rights of the Child to prepare and adopt final draft guidelines for media reporting on children's issues.

These are just a few of UNICEF's planned media and multi-media activities for children.

Morten Giersing
Director
Division of Communication
UNICEF (H-9F)
New York, New York 10017
USA

Children's Express, UK/USA

Imagine a youth club whose focus is journalism rather than football. A place where inner-city kids are given the chance to tackle issues like: why teachers can turn a blind eye to drugs, why suicide is the second biggest cause of young deaths or why Ecstasy is something to die for.

Children's Express began life in the back room of a brownstone house in New York City in 1975. It was the home of Bob Clampitt, a former Wall Street lawyer and business entrepreneur, and a man who passionately believed that what children thought and said did matter. It was his dream to create a vehicle for children to report the news. As a first step he set up a magazine called Children's Express. But what began as a publication 'by children for children' in the living room of his house in Greenwich Village, very soon evolved into a news service that provided newspaper columns, articles, radio and television programmes across the United States.

Since then CE has gone on to be nominated for a Pulitzer Price, has won Emmy and Peabody Awards for its television coverage, published five books and held bi-annual symposia on young people and the media -- in the course of which the organisation has developed an enviable reputation as an objective source of youth views. There are now five bureaux in the States: Washington (the Foundation headquarters), New York, Indianapolis, Marquette and Oakland.

By children for everyone

Having heard about Children's Express, a group of journalists and TV producers ran a two-week pilot scheme in London in August 1994. Notices were put up in schools around the city, and 30 children were selected from 100 applicants. The main criterion was enthusiasm. Four teen editors from the New York bureau trained the London children and the final product was a double page spread in The Guardian in October 1994. Stephanie Williams, a journalist of 20 years, who helped run the pilot, was overwhelmed by how the young people worked and was struck by the fact that they were providing what was lacking in the media: the youth angle -- 'by children for everyone'. She decided that these kids could not be let down and started raising money to set up a London bureau. Children's Express UK celebrated its second anniversary in May this year.

Operating as a news agency

Children's Express reporters and editors research and report stories on subjects of their choice. They also accept commissions from newspapers and magazines. The organisation operates like a news agency by placing their stories in local, national and regional newspapers and magazines. CE's aim is to give young people the power and means to express themselves publicly on vital issues that affect them, and in the process to raise their self-esteem and develop their potential.

Children's Express targets children aged 8 to 18 from inner city areas, working with them after school, on Saturdays and during the holidays. The programme operates in two tiers. Younger children, aged 8 to 13, are the reporters, and are trained by the older children, aged 14 to 18, who also take responsibility for editing and overseeing the editorial activities. The ideal story team is five: three reporters and two editors. Every aspect of the story from interview, roundtable discussion to the debriefing afterwards, is tape-recorded. Not only does this mean that the programme is open to all, regardless of academic ability, but it guarantees accuracy and encourages literacy, organisation and writing well. In particular, it reinforces numerous aspects of the National Curriculum. It also increases children's self-confidence, develops curiosity and teaches them responsibility and citizenship.

From idea to publishing

The young people at Children's Express take an extraordinary degree of ownership into the process, from the initial story idea right through to seeing their names on the published article. But it is the process which is of the utmost importance. Publication is not a certainty; it is the cherry on the cake. The children run the reporters' board and the editors' board, determine which stories to follow, initiate research and interviews and work together in teams to realise their aims. They organise and run monthly meetings, quarterly training sessions in-house, and trainings for pilot schemes (two so far: one in Kent in February 1996 which did not develop into a bureau, and one in Newcastle in February 1997 which did), presentations and workshops. They are directly involved in the management of the programme: groups of kids sit on panels to interview shortlisted adult staff; they contribute to the on-going monitoring and evaluation of the programme; a team of young people have been instrumental in selecting the winners of a design competition which CE is running with students at the London College of Printing; their management proposals are put before the trustees on a regular basis.

Through CE, kids meet adults that they would normally never meet, discover things are not always what they seem and find out that if they do not take responsibility no one else will. They learn to see issues from someone else's point of view and to be persistent and assiduous. They also learn that many people are worse off than they are. The London bureau's first big scoop was published in May 1995 in The Independent -- an investigation on how easy it is for under-age children to buy Lottery tickets. CE covered the 1995 Labour Party Conference for Channel Four's 'First Edition' and investigated over-crowded classrooms for their 'Hands Up' programme. Since then, apart from producing a regular monthly piece for the Times Educational Supplement, they have covered the European Youth Parliament in Brussels for The Observer in May 1996, the BAFTA Children's Television Awards and the Childline Conference, produced a special edition of the Architects' Journal in October 1996 and made presentations at conferences run by Demos, BT Forum and Save the Children. CE members have also recently produced their first pre-recorded packages for radio which were commissioned by BBC Radio 5 Live, and 'fact-voice' presentations have been prepared for Liberty Radio and Radio 4.

Increasing demand

In the last two years, over 195 young people have been trained by CE teen editors and further recruitment is planned to roll out over the coming months. To date, Children's Express has worked on over 175 stories and published over 100 articles in the national press. They have reached over 50 million people through newspapers, on radio and television, and demand for their pieces is steadily increasing. Also during this period, CE has participated in seven television and six radio broadcasts, and has spoken at three conferences and covered seven others. In February 1997, Children's Express opened its first regional bureau, in partnership with the Save the Children Fund, on the Cowgate Estate in Newcastle. Here the focus is on a specific community where the children have virtually nothing on offer: no sports or leisure provision, no shops, no entertainment, no youth clubs, a school which is under threat of closing, and children with major literacy problems who are frequently excluded from school and who live in very difficult family situations. The pressure from the community and media is huge. Children are literally breaking into the building to be included in the programme.

Our aim is to open a further two bureaux in the UK by the year 2000 and then a further five. In this way it is our intention to improve the future prospects of thousands of children as well as to become Britain's first national news service producing news by young people.

Rowena Young
London Bureau Chief
Children's Express
Exmouth House, 3-11 Pine Street
London ECIR OJH, UK
Tel: +44 171 8332577
Fax: +44 171 278 7722

Participatory Techniques in Nepal [1]

This project combines participatory techniques for evaluation as well as for learning to use mass media. The sites are the Nagubahal and Guchibahal areas of the municipality of Lalitpur, Nepal. It combines the use of video, magazine and street drama. Under the Nepal/UK Partnership Scheme of The British Embassy in Nepal, funding for this project was provided to the DECORE Consultancy group to initiate the work and evaluate the results of the project, using participatory communication.

The idea behind the project is based on Thurnberg's Spiral of Interaction model (Windahl et al. 1992 p. 79) which says that when the communication function is fulfilled in a community, other functions are set in motion -- a spiral of increased identity, community, knowledge and action, enabling the group/community to reach its goals. This project shows how a participatory communication approach can help realise development goals.

DECORE worked with young people from different urban communities in Nepal. They let the young people express in their own terms the need of their communities and after attending communication classes arranged by DECORE these young participants were enabled to address local issues and problems through communication production. In one case, participants chose to address the issue of drug addiction and related social problems and express their ideas through the medium of video. Other participants chose to address the issue of conflicts in family relations through the medium of street drama.

DECORE has also carried out a participatory evaluation of the project to determine the extent to which the project as a whole has achieved its general objectives of attempting to test an existing theory, that is, whether participatory actions spirally lead to other community activities -- by discerning the attitudes and perceptions about the project and its activities among the participants themselves, their parents/relatives, community members, the persons and agencies involved in the project, or those who have a stake in it. Generally speaking the feedback has been positive.

Communication starts interactions

One main result of the project is that communication (interpersonal or mediatised) starts a 'spiral' of other interactions that can be oriented to forming a group attitude, or catalysing group action, or even merely ensuring the delivery of complete and relevant information. The project also makes heavy use of participatory communication techniques.

As a basic methodology of participatory communication, both the project and its evaluation techniques are replicable in other societies. Project managers and personnel will have to be extra sensitive to appreciate what can be adopted and what must be 'created' in the new contexts.

Ms Josefina O. Dhungana
Executive Director
DECORE
Development Communication and Research Consultancy Group
P.O. Box 4343, Kathmandu, NEPAL
Fax: +977 1 221 459

Note

1. Presentation of the project at the International Forum of Researchers, Youth and Media -- Tomorrow, April 21-25 1997, in Paris, France, organised by GRREM (Group de Recherche sur la Relation Enfants/Medias), as related in Carlos A. Arnaldo and Helle Jensen, Helping Young People Learn Media: a preliminary compilation of best practices. Paris: UNESCO, 1997, pp. 14-15.

Reference

Windahi, Sven, and Signitzer, Benno H., with Olson, Jean T. (1992) Using Communication Theory. An introduction to Planned Communication. London, Sage Publications.

Implementation of the UN CRC and the Role of Radio

In Salt River, South Africa, the Children's Resource Centre has set up a children's radio production group that regularly makes recordings for transmission on local community radio stations. In Senegal, Radio Gune-Yi is a radio show produced by young people broadcast weekly on the national radio airwaves. A similar children's radio show is produced and transmitted nationally in Guatemala. In North America the White Mountain Apache Tribe broadcasts its own youth magazine and in Australia another indigenous radio station also involves young people in production. What they all share is an interest in issues such as the environment, peace and basic human rights. What they all have in common is a recognition of the way radio can action at least two of those rights -- the freedom to hold and express an opinion and the right to access to the media.

Of all media -- print, television and the Internet -- radio excels in actioning and delivering those rights codified in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. With an outreach that currently exceeds television by a ratio of ten to one in developing countries (500 million radio receivers to 50 million TV sets), low-cost operational requirements, an oral mode not dependent on literacy that can reflect indigenous culture, and also with an easily-mastered, simple technology, radio plays a key role in delivery of news and information, health messages, education provision and in the representation of diverse multi-cultural social groups. Radio drama (in the soap-opera edutainment format) now plays a crucial part in awareness-raising and conflict resolution in Afghanistan and Bosnia Herzegovina.

Communicators of tomorrow

In an increasing number of countries radio is now offering children and young people the opportunity of access and the chance to participate. For them, radio production training gives experience in teamwork and communication as well as a sense of community and citizenship. It is an effective vehicle for learning what the Convention on the Rights of the Child means to themselves and to others. An involvement in radio can also be a fast-track to understanding the responsibilities that are linked to rights.

Learning these skills builds confidence and self-esteem. It also demystifies and builds capacity for the communicators of tomorrow. Already the Internet is making it possible for those in countries beyond the perimeters of the developed world to have access. RealAudio is the key. News and information can be downloaded by online radio stations and sent on in the form of radio signal to stations that don't have computers. They in turn can radio back their own news and information to the "mother" station and have it uploaded to the Internet as RealAudio and made available to other stations around the world.

One World Online (http://www. oneworld.org/news/) is the organisation that is running the pilot project. Current plans include an online children's and youth radio news and information exchange. 1998 will see many youth radio groups in different parts of the world connect on the OneWorld website in an innovative development that will make children's views and voices accessible to all the world's radio broadcasters and go even further towards implementing those articles of the Convention that protect rights to hold and express an opinion and have access to the media.

Sarah McNeill
UNLIMITED Productions
P.O. Box 2041, Hove BN3 2EW
East Sussex, U.K.
e-mail: sarahmcneill@dial.pipex.com
Tel/Fax: + 44 I 273 724 948

Note

Established in 1994 as a consultancy specialising in radio production management and media project co-ordination, UNLIMITED Productions brings practical experience to new ventures in the field of human rights, child rights, radio in development and youth broadcasting.

Radio Gune-Yi, Senegal

Gune-Yi, meaning 'youth' in the Wolof language, is a production team which makes a 50 minute long weekly programme broadcast by children for children. The programme is aired on Senegalese national radio on AM and FM frequencies every Saturday at midday. It is funded by Plan International, has an expatriate advisor, Mimi Brazeau, and ties in with a popular young people's newspaper and Plan's child-sponsorship programme in Senegal. Its raison d'etre is that while 60 per cent of the population are children, only 15 per cent of programmes on the radio are child oriented. The team has five core staff and the show costs $70,000 a year.

The programme is recorded in villages around the country. Its format includes news; a guest of the week; "What do you want to know?" feature; "Grandma tell me a story"; "Young Reporter" feature with a child reporting on his or her village; "Did you know" describing issues affecting young people including health and the rights of the child; "Listen, I've got something to say," a young person's message addressed to parents, teachers or politicians; "Have you read?" suggestions on African and other authors. There are also exchanges between young people in Senegal and abroad, debates on controversial issues such as girls' education and child labour, recipes, everyday tips, and jokes.

Education by example

The programme intends to education by example, through a process of self-discovery and confidence building for children. Promotion of the child is also done through always having girl as well as boy presenters. A female sociologist goes to each venue before the recording and does a socio-economic and cultural survey of the area, to identify the pertinent issues effecting young people.

There are indications that about 500,000 children and as many adults listen every week. The national station gives the programme free airtime, and refers to it as one of its "flagship" projects. The press is supportive, as are phone calls and letters. The production team sees increasing confidence amongst girls, school attendance has increased, and some listeners' clubs have formed spontaneously.

Entertainment and high quality

Mary Meyers, development communications consultant, who has completed the first media monitoring survey commissioned by the ICHR (International Centre for Humanitarian Reporting) Radio Partnership as part of its ODA (Britain's Overseas Development Agency) funded Creative Radio Initiative, believes the success of the programme is due to its entertainment value and high quality. "There is no doubt", she concludes, "that Gune-Yi's format and ethos of allowing the young to speak for themselves and to grow in confidence as a result, is a great example for other radio stations in Africa and beyond".

Source

Message on May 15, 1997, from Gordon M. Adam, Deputy Editor of Crosslines Global Report, The Independent Newsjournal on Humanitarian Action, Development and World Trends, to the Creative-Radio Mailing List (radio@xlines.tiac.net).

Radio to Reach Young People in Denmark [1]

Polaroid is a catchy name that describes an attitude as well as a programme on radio that has caught the attention of a lot of young folk in Denmark. This documentary programme reflects upon young people's lives in the 1990s and seeks to lead listeners into the lives of others, to advise, to suggest, to learn. The programme has an open telephone line so that listeners can call Polaroid and participate actively on the spot and influence the debate and the development of the programme.

Polaroid aims particularly at 13-29-year-olds, although there is a slight bias to give more attention to 15-25 year-olds. The typical young listener of this radio programme has dreams about travelling around the world as a back-packer, he/she is a student, a so-called non-skilled worker trying just to earn some money, or he/she is young and unemployed receiving 'unemployment' money from the government. He/she has an attitude towards how the world ought to be organised but he/she would never dream of joining a political party or organisation. Polaroid addresses itself to young people who have an attitude towards themselves and the world they live in.

A voice for young people

Polaroid's objective is to influence the agenda setting for the debate about young peoples lives. The programme focuses on problems that have consequences for young people and gives voice to those who want to have a say on the subject. With its content, its debates and participating listeners, Polaroid aims at portraying young people's reality and to help those get back on the track that might have fallen by the wayside.

Danmarks Radio is a national public service radio and TV station. The radio has three programmes: P1, P2 and P3. Polaroid broadcasts on P1 every Tuesday from 2100h to 2400h. The people behind the production and the live programme of Polaroid are themselves young people of approximately the same age as their target group.

The tradition since 1973 has been that Danmarks Radio aims to ensure time for independent and 'free' voices. Polaroid also interacts with Go, a daily radio music programme broadcast from 1900h to 2100h for young people on P3 (known as the more entertaining programme) in the sense that just before Polaroid broadcasts on P1 on Tuesdays, Go mentions the content and the debate of 'this Tuesday's Polaroid' and plays spots from interviews that reflect the theme of the night. In this way Polaroid which is a serious, documentary and journalistic programme, is announced in the more entertaining music programme Go, which in effect brings Go's listeners to Polaroid.

Urgent issues

Among the kinds of issues Polaroid deals with is, for example, that the conflict between two groups of so-called Rockers -- Hells Angels and Bandidos -- has made public night-clubs and cafes unsafe places for young people to go to at night. Another example of Polaroid's debates is youth and unemployment. The programme goes behind postulates and myths such as: 'A young person can get a pistol in 3/4 of an hour', 'Young second generation immigrants are never allowed access to night clubs', 'You can buy anabolic steroids in any fitness or workout centre', 'A 15 year-old girl can easily buy alcohol in a bar at 4 o'clock in the morning', 'It is easy to obtain personal information about somebody with the help from a hacker'.

Polaroid also produces radio documentaries outside Denmark. Examples of subjects have been: Elections in England and the lack of participation from young people in politics; 'Rock the vote' project with rock groups such as 'Oasis' and 'Blur' who try to motivate the young people to participate; Why have young people lost belief in politics? How the young with their passivity indirectly influence the political future for Great Britain; Hip Hop band killings in USA; How young blacks from Ghettos are inspired by their idols to lead gang wars; Young Jewish men born and brought up in Denmark join the Israeli army to fight for their religious country. These documentaries are always followed up by a debate. Professionals are interviewed and listeners can call in and participate in the debate.

A special feature of Polaroid is the Diary. Polaroid arranges with someone who is facing a big change in his or her life, or has overcome a crisis or lived through a conflict with somebody, to talk about this experience. This is done outside the studio, on a tape recorder. The same procedure is used to 'illustrate' contrasts among young people in Denmark. For example, a young man in prison exchanges his life with an upper class young girl. He moves into her house and uses her car, and she goes to prison. Both are equipped with a tape recorder to reflect their views on the 'new' life.

Social awareness most important

The young people behind the production do not necessarily have to be professional journalists. It is more important that they have a social awareness. It is important, too, both for the form and the content of the programme that the producers are familiar with the subject matter and are ready to deal with the problems they will face. The fact that the producers and the hosts of the programme are also young, means that there is an understanding of and an almost 'automatic' sensitivity towards the problems, as well as towards the young persons who are reporting on their life situation in the documentaries. Style and content of the programme will automatically address the young listeners because there is a mutual understanding between the senders and the receivers of the messages in Polaroid.

A powerful medium

Young people with a desire to 'make radio' and with an urge to say something or tell a story to somebody, usually need only a basic introduction to making radio, to basic interview techniques, how to edit and how to prepare oneself as the host of the programme. That is enough for them to be able to produce a radio documentary programme and to be left with the responsibility of deciding the content of their programme and the broadcasting of it. The success of this programme also means that radio is still a powerful medium among the young in Denmark.

Michaela Krogh
Polaroid, Danmarks Radio
Rosenorns alle 22
2000 Frederiksberg C, DENMARK
Fax: +45-35-205 488

Note

I. Project as related in Carlos A. Arnaldo and Helle Jensen, Helping Young People Learn Media: a preliminary compilation of best practices. Paris: UNESCO, 1997, pp. 17-19.

French Pupils Produce Radio Programmes [1]

Ocean represents an approach using informatics to produce sound programmes for radio or cassette listening. Hypermedia radio uses narratives, music or sounds digitally stored on a computer. A simple programme gives access to the files and allows the 'editor' to match files, mix, add, remove or otherwise edit and eventually 'mount' his/her sound programme. This involves not only some basic skills in radio production but also in multimedia informatics (hypermedia) by means of computer. The project aims to encourage media education in schools, using hypermedia radio as pedagogical tool for educators and teachers, but also for students.

The Ocean project works with school children from 9-11 years old. Classes produce a 13-20 minutes' radio programme with music mix every day. Because of hypermedia technology, it is possible today to perform quality editing of a radio programme -- all sound cuts are digital. Artistry, of course, will depend on the ability of the children and of the guidance given by their monitor. The project has shown that the children, knowing they are 'on the air' with an audience listening, make an effort to structure their narration and to express themselves clearly. Thus it is also an exercise in written and oral presentation, and in this way one pedagogical objective is achieved.

Great enthusiasm and originality

The children have generally participated with great enthusiasm and originality. Like any project which is based on free expression it demands great investment (patience and time!) from the teacher, but the results often recoup well the effort invested.

Experiments in 1996-97 showed that children from 9-10 years were able to make a ten-minutes quality programme during a two and a half hours' work session. The children are completely autonomous in the use of the technology and the teacher/educator follows up as needed.

Pascal Jablonka
Responsible for Educational Informatics
Institut Universitaire Formation des Maitres (IUFM)
10, Rue Molitor
75016 Paris, FRANCE
E-mail: jablonka@paris.iufm.fr

Note

I. Presentation of the project at the International Forum of Researchers. Youth and Media -- Tomorrow, April 21-25, 1997, in Paris, France, organised by GRREM (Group de Recherche sur la Relation Enfants/Medias), as related in Carlos A. Arnaldo and Helle Jensen, Helping Young People Learn Media: a preliminary compilation of best practices, Paris: UNESCO, 1997, p, 16.

Introducing Children to Journalism and Media, Argentina [1]

This project is managed by a media specialist working through public schools in the region of Buenos Aires, interested in or wishing to offer media education for children and young people by facilitating their access to work with and reflect upon media. The project favours especially less well endowed schools in difficult and poor areas. When all these schools have been covered by courses and media exercises, the project will be ready to service other schools, including private sector schools, and in other regions.

The objective is to introduce a new media pedagogy in the public schools and thus create an atmosphere of curiosity, participation, and passion for knowledge, all with the possibility of expression through various media -- photography, newspapers, radio programmes, video and television. The project thus seeks to teach children that participation is possible, that nobody is unreachable even though it seems that they are far away, that their voices are worth listening to and thinking about.

The Co-ordination Centre works closely together with The General Directorate of Education of The City Council of Buenos Aires under the Secretary of Education. This co-operation has made it possible for the Centre to operate in 200 public schools in The Federal Capital of Buenos Aires, reaching in 1995 4,622 school children working on media projects.

Using media in learning situations

The Centre makes use of an important pedagogical innovation: a drastic change from the traditional pedagogical model to one based on student initiative and hands-on output. The Centre insists that the school as a social institution in today's information society needs to rethink it's role but at the same time recognises that the school provides a fundamental space for the development and education of the individual. The project attempts to meet that need by a process that introduces media in learning situations.

To do this, the project invites teachers and librarians to workshops to learn the production of graphic material, radio or audiovisual material and how to use these as a support or as a 'dynamiser' in the process of learning. The workshops concentrate on planning, communication, investigation, reflection upon the practice and the functions and the tools of each media. Afterwards each participant forms a group with pupils in his/her school. The workshop in the school makes it possible for the pupils to 'experience' journalism and media and to participate in working processes such as media criticism, finding sources, debates, selection of materials and the final editing of the broadcast. The workshop model and the media production thus creates active participation and a gratifying interaction between teachers and pupils.

In nine years, the Centre has organised more than 300 workshops in 200 schools. Over 250 teachers and 6,000 pupils were directly involved. The multiplier factor of this project has been very high over the nine years of the project, and could possibly be higher with additional technical equipment and human resources. The result is that several thousand young people now know how to prepare articles for a newspaper, make a radio programme, shoot a video and mount a television programme.

Silvia Bacher
Professor
The Co-ordination Centre for Journalism, Communication and Education
Bartolome Mitre 1249, Piso 50 , Of. 51
Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA
Fax: +54 1 5522206

Note

1. Presentation of the project at the International Forum of Researchers, Youth and Media -- Tomorrow, April 21-25, 1997, in Paris, France, organised by GRREM (Group de Recherche sur la Relation Enfants/Medias), as related in Carlos A. Arnaldo and Helle Jensen, Helping Young People Learn Media: a preliminary compilation of best practices. Paris: UNESCO, 1997, pp. 10-11.

A Pedagogical Kit for Learning About Television, Brazil [1]

This project, the Telespectator's Educational Programme, offers school teachers practical materials to implement media education activities in their courses and thereby provide to young people, 10-16 years old, the opportunity to ask questions and to discuss television and it's messages.

The project is a result of fruitful cooperation between the University of Brazil where the programme has been carried out and the International Centre of the Child (CIE) which has participated in the design of the programme and has supplied the biggest part of the financing. A multidisciplinary team of professors and students from the University of Brazil has been developed over two years. The project has also received support from the National Council for Scientific and Technical Development which has offered initiation grants for the students who participated in the project.

Enthusiasm among the students

The principal pedagogical method is self-activity. The young students read the text material and watch visualised 'lessons' on video, allowing them to reflect upon and to discuss problem matters such as, e.g., violence in the media. They can elaborate on a subject and carry out activities that are proposed in the video and in the text material. Those activities are, e.g., writing poems and creating a theatre play. Experience so far has shown that self-activity works. In general the young students participate with enthusiasm in the proposed activities. One positive experience using this Telespectator self-activity approach has been with poor adolescents from Casa da Liberdade, an institution which receives young street people free of charge and offers them activities to complement their normal school.

The philosophy behind the project is that the integration of television in schools as a subject of study is as necessary as journalistic and literary texts are 'languages'. Apart from being a valuable pedagogical tool, television is another 'language', another means of expression which young students as television viewers should learn how to 'read' critically. This, in brief, is also the aim of the project.

In a first experiment, two hundred examples of the Kit were produced in 1992 at the university and they were sold out quickly. In 1995 a new edition has been prepared and two hundred and fifty new examples have been produced in order to respond to requests from educators. If this is as successful as early tests seem to indicate, the Kit should perhaps be produced in greater quantity, including an instructor's guide.

Maria Luiza Belloni
Rua Infantaria Dezasseis
52 Apto, 5 Dto
1350 Lisboa, PORTUGAL
Fax: +351 48 234 3617

Note

1. Presentation of the project at the International Forum of Researchers, Youth and Media -- Tomorrow, April 2 I -25 1997, in Paris, France, organised by GRREM (Group de Recherche sur la Relation Enfants/Medias), as related in Carlos A. Arnaldo and Helle Jensen, Helping Young People Learn Media: a preliminary compilation of best practices. Paris: UNESCO, 1997, pp. 12-13.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 24270
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Children and Media Violence, by Ulla Carlsson

Postby admin » Sat Sep 07, 2013 2:04 am

International and Regional Declarations and Resolutions

Children and Media

International Declarations and Resolutions

BRATISLAVA RESOLUTION


Soon, Mankind will enter the Third Millennium. The cinema will celebrate its 100th anniversary. Television is a little bit younger.

As we reach the crossroads of the year 2000, the importance of children's film continues to grow, as does the need for children to see these films. We can know that.

We live and will live, people from North and South, East and West, in a changing and dynamic world. Mankind will reach new heights in knowledge and in achievement. Children, who are our hope for the future, have the right to benefit from these general developments.

As specialists in children's cinema and television, we appreciate that the increasing impact of film, television and other media on our children demands more specific care and action with an aim to achieving better quality in the lives of the young people.

Good quality films and television programmes for children can and must carry positive fundamental human values. These will help and support the development of a personal conscience in young people, and add new dimensions to their basic social behaviour and to their knowledge of the world.

Good quality children's films and television programmes can and must encourage the process of creative thinking, of deciding and of acting in full liberty in order that children can build their own personalities and their future.

Good quality children's films and television programmes can and must reveal and stress the basic values of each people and of each nation, according to their traditions, the social and cultural backgrounds upon which they are founded, and the national identity of each country. At the same time, these nations must share these values with others in a general harvest of human spirituality.

Good quality children's films can also travel across borders, playing a leading role in the building of the world of tomorrow, helping to define the place in which our children will live.

For all these reasons, we think that the governments, the parliaments, the national and international agencies and organizations around the world must recognize, through support of production and distribution of children's films, a duty to the future of each nation and of the entire world.

The Bratislava resolution was adopted by the assembly, on the occasion of a gathering of producers, broadcasters and others interested in production for children, and in sharing experiences, East and West. Over 70 participants came from 30 countries. The meeting was called by CIFEJ, hosted by the Biennale of Animation, and held in Bratislava November 1994. For more information on the Bratislava gathering, see the Clearinghouse newsletter, News on Children and Violence on the Screen, No 1-2, 1997.


Bratislava Resolution

There are several ways to achieve such goals:

• stimulating increased production of children's films and television, on a national level, by raising and investing more funds
• building a support system for wider and better distribution of those children's films whose artistic and educational values are more important than their commercial aspects
• encouraging the use on a large scale of production for children in schools and in other educational institutions and activities
• supporting the spread of quality children's screenings in all social areas
• financing and developing the education and training of specialists -- scriptwriters, directors and others -- of children's production
• stimulating and financing scientific research about the reaction of children to the media, and about the way they use media for their specific needs
• helping national and international professional organizations and associations dealing with the issues surrounding children's film and television to achieve and develop their activities.

We are sure that the governments, the parliaments, the national and international agencies and organizations are aware that supporting children's film and television production will serve the interests of each people, of each country, and will contribute to the building of a better world, one in which we would like to live in at the threshold of the Third Millennium. Never forget that any little thing done for children now is an investment in the future.

November 1994

International and Regional Declarations and Resolutions

THE CHILDREN'S TELEVISION CHARTER

1. Children should have programmes of high quality which are made specifically for them, and which do not exploit them. These programmes, in addition to entertaining, should allow children to develop physically, mentally and socially to their fullest potential.

2. Children should hear, see and express themselves, their culture, their language and their life experiences, through television programmes which affirm their sense of self, community and place.

3. Children's programmes should promote an awareness and appreciation of other cultures in parallel with the child's own cultural background.

4. Children's programmes should be wide-ranging in genre and content, but should not include gratuitous scenes of violence and sex.

5. Children's programmes should be aired in regular slots at times when children are available to view, and/or distributed via other widely accessible media or technologies.

6. Sufficient funds must be made available to make these programmes to the highest possible standards.

7. Governments, production, distribution and funding organisations should recognize both the importance and vulnerability of indigenous children's television, and take steps to support and protect it.

May 29, 1995

The Children's Television Charter, was presented by Anna Home, Head of Children's Programmes, Television, BBC, at the first World Summit on Television and Children in Melbourne, Australia, March 1995. The charter was revised and adopted in Munich in May 1995. It is actively used by many organisations. A session at the Second World Summit will be devoted to the progress of the charter. For more information on the First World Summit, see the Clearinghouse newsletter, News on Children and Violence on the Screen, No 1-2, 1997.

SADC Children's Broadcasting Charter was adopted by the assembly of the Southern African Developing Countries' Summit on Children and Broadcasting, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in May 1996. The idea for a regional (SADC plus Kenya) forum grew from discussions about how to make the Children's Television Charter emanating from the First World Summit more relevant and applicable to Africa, and how to prepare for future representation at broader gatherings.


THE SADC CHILDREN'S BROADCASTING CHARTER

We, the people of the Southern African Developing Countries of Angola, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland and Zambia, affirm and accept the internationally adopted Children's Television Charter which was accepted in Munich on 29 May, 1995.

Without detracting from the International Children's Charter, we further adopt, in line with the said Charter, our SADC Children's Broadcasting Charter, which takes into account the needs and wants of children in our region.

Children should have programmes of high quality, made specially for them and which do not exploit them. These programmes, in addition to entertaining, should allow children to develop physically, mentally and socially to their fullest potential. Whilst endorsing the child's right to freedom of expression, thought, conscience and religion, and protection against economic exploitation, children must be assured access to programmes and production of programmes through multi-media access centres.

Children should hear, see and express themselves, their culture, their language and their life experiences, through the electronic media which affirm their sense of self, community and place.

As part of the child's right to education and development, children's programmes should promote an awareness and appreciation of other cultures in parallel with the child's own cultural background. To facilitate this there should be an ongoing research into the child audience, including the child's needs and wants which, as a matter of priority, should be implemented.

Children's programmes should be wide-ranging in genre and content, but should not include gratuitous scenes of violence and sex.

Children's programmes should be aired in regular slots at times when children are available to listen and view, and/or be distributed via other widely accessible media or technologies.

Sufficient resources, technical, financial and other must be made available to make these programmes to the highest possible standards, and in order to achieve quality, codes and standards for children's broadcasting must be formulated and developed through a diverse range of groupings.

In compliance with the UN policy of co-operation between states in the international community, and especially in the SADC countries, the Children's Broadcasting Charter recognises all international covenants, conventions, treaties, charters and agreements adopted by all international organisations including the UN and the OAU affecting children, but with particular reference to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

June 1996

ASIAN DECLARATION ON CHILD RIGHTS AND THE MEDIA

We, Ministers of Information, Education, Welfare and Social Development from 27 countries of Asia, Senior Officials representing the various government, executives, researchers, practitioners and professionals from various streams of media, non-governments organisations, advocacy groups and concerned individuals gathered in Manila for the Asian Summit on Child Rights and the Media:

re-affirming our commitment to ensure implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) as ratified in our countries;

acknowledging the developmental role, responsibility and power of all forms of media to inform, entertain, educate and influence; and,

recognising their potential for children and for social change.

NOW, THEREFORE, RESOLVE THAT ALL MEDIA FOR OR ABOUT CHILDREN SHOULD:

protect and respect the diverse cultural heritage of Asian societies; be accessible to all children;

provide for the girl child and counter the widespread discrimination against the girl child; and,

provide for children with special needs; children in especially difficult circumstances, children of indigenous communities and children in situation of armed conflict

The Asian Summit on Child Rights and the Media, was held in Manila, the Philippines in July 1996. Delegates at the Summit -- Including ministers and senior officials of Asian Governments, journalists, media executives, educators and child rights advocates from 16 countries adopted the Asian Declaration on Child Rights and the Media. For more information on the Asian Summit, see the Clearinghouse newsletter, News on Children and Violence on the Screen, No 1- 2, 1997.


The Asian Declaration on Child Rights and the Media

RESOLVE ALSO, THAT ALL MEDIA ABOUT CHILDREN SHOULD:

adopt policies that are consistent with the principles of nondiscrimination and the best interests of all children;

raise awareness and mobilise all sectors of society to ensure the survival, development, protection and participation of all children;

address all forms of economic, commercial and sexual exploitation and abuse of children in the region and ensure that such efforts do not violate their rights, particularly their right to privacy;

protect children from material which glorifies violence, sex, horror and conflict; and,

promote positive values and not perpetuate discrimination and stereotypes.

RESOLVE FURTHER, THAT ALL MEDIA FOR CHILDREN SHOULD:

be of high quality, made especially for them, and do not exploit them;

support their physical, mental, social, moral and spiritual development;

enable children to hear, see and express themselves, their culture, their languages and their life experiences through media which affirm their sense of self and community, while promoting an awareness and appreciation of other cultures;

be wide-ranging in genre and content, but not include gratuitous scenes of violence and sex; and,

be accessible to them at times when they need and can use it.

RESOLVE FINALLY, THAT GOVERNMENTS, MEDIA, NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND OTHER LOCAL, REGIONAL AND HOLDING AGENCIES SHOULD:

provide media education for children and families to develop their critical understanding of all media forms;

provide opportunities for children in creating media and to express themselves on a wide range of issues relating to their needs and interests;

provide sufficient funds and resources to ensure access to and enable the production and dissemination of high quality materials for and about children as well as capacity building for media practitioners so that they could perform their role as developmental agencies;

promote regional and international cooperation through the sharing of research, expertise and exchange of materials and programmes, networking among government, non-government organisations, media organisations, educational institutions, advocacy groups and other agencies;

provide incentives for excellence through awards at regional and national levels;

provide coordinated monitoring mechanisms and encourage self-regulation at regional and national levels to ensure the implementation of this Declaration; and,

convene as early as possible broad national multi-sectoral consultations to develop action plans, including professional guidelines consistent with this Declaration.

Adopted, 5 July 1996 Asian Summit on Child Rights and the Media, Manila

AFRICA CHARTER ON CHILDREN'S BROADCASTING

Preamble

We, the delegates of the Africa Summit on Children's Broadcasting, Accra Ghana 8-12 October 1997, affirm and accept the internationally adopted Children's Television Charter that was accepted in Munich on 29 May 1995. In addition, we amend the SADC Children's Broadcasting Charter (June 1996) to read as the Africa Charter on Children's Broadcasting.

Without detracting from the International Children's Television Charter, we further adopt in line with the said Charter and in the spirit of the said Charter, our Africa Charter on Children's Broadcasting, which takes into consideration the needs and wants of children in our region.

The first All Africa Summit on Children's Broadcasting was held in Accra, Ghana, October 1997. The most important thing that came out of the Summit was an Africa Charter on Children's Broadcasting. The Charter is in keeping with the international Children's Television Charter, but expands on the issues relevant to the African continent, and includes radio as well. In particular greater emphasis is placed on the educational and developmental needs of African children and protection from all forms of commercial exploitation.


1. Children should have programmes of high quality, made specifically for them and which do not exploit them at any stage of the production process. These programmes, in addition to entertaining, should allow children to develop physically, mentally and socially to their fullest potential.

2. Whilst recognising that children's broadcasting will be funded through various mechanisms including advertising, sponsorship and merchandising, children should be protected from commercial exploitation.

3. Whilst endorsing the child's right to freedom of expression, thought, conscience and religion, and protection against economic exploitation, children must be ensured equitable access to programmes, and whenever possible, to the production of programmes.

4. Children should hear, see and express themselves, their culture, their language and their life experiences, through the electronic media which affirm their sense of self, community and place.

5. Children's programmes should create opportunities for learning and empowerment to promote and support the child's right to education and development. Children's programmes should promote an awareness and appreciation of other cultures in parallel with the child's own cultural background. To facilitate this there should be ongoing research into the child audience, including the child's needs and wants.

6. Children's programmes should be wide ranging in genre and content, but should not include gratuitous scenes, and sounds of violence and sex through any audio or visual medium.

7. Children's programmes should be aired in regular time slots at times when children are available to listen and view, and/or be distributed via other widely accessible media or technologies.

8. Sufficient resources, technical, financial and other, must be made available to make these programmes to the highest possible standards, and in order to achieve quality, setting codes and standards for children's broadcasting must be formulated and developed through a diverse range of groupings.

9. In compliance with the UN policy of co-operation between states in the international community, the Africa Charter on Children's Broadcasting recognises all international covenants, conventions, treaties, charters and agreements adopted by all international organisations including the OAU and the UN affecting children, but with particular reference to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

11 October 1997
Accra, Ghana
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 24270
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Children and Media Violence, by Ulla Carlsson

Postby admin » Sat Sep 07, 2013 2:12 am

Regulations and Measures

Regulations and Measures Concerning Visual Media and Child Protection: An Overview of Europe, North America, Australia and Japan


COMPILED BY TITTI FORSSLUND

When trying to make a compilation of regulations on visual media and child protection, I found the problem highlighted on the agenda in many countries all over the world. Laws and regulations are being amended, declarations are written and various measures are being tried out. The most regulated media are the cinema and national television (whereas satellite television channels often are outside national or regional control). Measures for the protection of minors in relation to the new electronic and digital media are discussed or under way. The protection of children against harmful media content most frequently concerns gratuitous violence, sex and coarse language (and child pornography). In this overview concerning visual media, advertising is not included.

I will present some examples of regulations and measures in Europe, the USA, Canada, Australia and Japan. The overview is far from complete, but only a first draft. It is mostly based on earlier documents and compilations, complemented with a few personal contacts. Therefore, many data are lacking, and corrections, comments, additions, and extensions are most welcome for a future, more comprehensive overview.

Regulations

Apart from legislation, in the area of protecting children from being exposed to harmful media content, there are various systems:

• Regulatory authorities, including certain obligations concerning the portrayal of violence and indecency among the licensing conditions.
• Recommendations, e. g., the Council of Europe recommendation, a politically but not legally binding measure on the portrayal of violence in the electronic media.
• The industries' self-regulation, codes of conduct and internal guidelines, elaborated by individual broadcasting companies or by associations of broadcasters, e.g., the European Broadcasting Union's (EBU's) Guidelines for Programmes when Dealing with the Portrayal of Violence, [1] the Canadian Association of Broadcasters Voluntary Code regarding Violence in Television Programming, [2] and the Japanese public service broadcaster NHK's Standards of Domestic Broadcast Programmes. [3]

Definition of children

When talking about children and protection of minors the definition varies. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child -- ratified by all nations but the USA and Somalia (1997) -- is valid for children below the age of eighteen.

In Canada, "children" in the Rules for Children's Programming refers to persons under 12 years of age. [4] In Australia "children" refers to people younger than 14 years of age, in Japan programming for children means up to about 15 years. The Netherlands, France and Belgium define a "minor" as a person under the age of 16, Germany and the United Kingdom as a person under 18.

General broadcast policies and child protection

The United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child, discussing "the child and the media" in 1996, identified three main areas, which were further considered in a Working Group in April, 1997: Child Participation in the Media, Protection of the Child against Harmful Influences through the Media, and Respect for the Integrity of the Child in Media Reporting (see the second article by Thomas Hammarberg in the first section of this book). Among the recommendations were:

6. Constructive Agreements with Media Companies to Protect Children against Harmful Influences: Facts should be gathered about various attempts of voluntary agreements with media companies on positive measures such as not broadcasting violent programmes during certain hours, clear presentations before programmes about their content and the development of technical device -- like 'V-chips' -- to help consumers to bloc out certain types of programmes. Likewise, experiences of voluntary ethical standards and mechanisms to encourage respect for them should be assembled and evaluated; this should include an analysis of the effectiveness of existing Codes of Conduct, professional guidelines, Press Councils, Broadcast Councils, Press Ombudsmen and similar bodies.


Many European countries, both eastern and western, within and outside the European Union, refer to the EU directive Television without Frontiers, adopted in 1989 and amended in 1997. The new directive provides for a set of rules concerning protection of minors: [5]

Article 22:

1. Member States shall take appropriate measures to ensure that television broadcasts by broadcasters under their jurisdiction do not include any programmes which might seriously impair the physical, mental or moral development of minors, in particular programmes that involve pornography or gratuitous violence.

2. The measures provided for in paragraph 1 shall also extend to other programmes which are likely to impair the physical, mental or moral development of minors, except where it is ensured, by selecting the time of the broadcast or by any technical measure, that minors in the area of transmission will not normally hear or see such broadcasts.

3. Furthermore, when such programmes are broadcast in unencoded form Member States shall ensure that they are preceded by an acoustic warning or are identified by the presence of a visual symbol throughout their duration.

Article 22 a:

Member States shall ensure that broadcasts do not contain any incitement to hatred on grounds of race, sex, religion or nationality.


Article 22 b states, among other things, that the Commission within one year shall carry out an investigation of the possible advantages and drawbacks of further measures with a view of facilitating the control exercised by parents or guardians over the programmes that minors may watch.

Further, The European Convention on Transfrontier Television documents the responsibilities of the broadcaster in Article 7: [6]

1. All items of programme services, as concerns their presentation and content, shall respect the dignity of the human being and the fundamental rights of others. In particular, they shall not:

a. be indecent and in particular contain pornography;

b. give undue prominence to violence or be likely to incite to racial hatred.

2. All items of programme services which are likely to impair the physical, mental or moral development of children and adolescents shall not be scheduled when, because of the time of transmission and reception, they are likely to watch them.

3. The broadcaster shall ensure that news fairly presents facts and events and encourage the free formation of opinions.


In Australia, the Broadcasting Services Act from 1992, sets objectives for television and radio broadcasting services. One of the objects of the Act is

to ensure that providers of broadcasting services place a high priority on the protection of children from exposure to programme material which may be harmful to them.


In Canada, five guiding principles underlying the approach of the Canadian Radiotelevision and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), an independent organisation established by the Broadcasting Act, are identified: [7]

1. Abandon an ideological, legalistic and therefore combative approach in favour of a co-operative strategy recognising TV violence as a major mental-health problem for children.

2. Adopt the goal of protecting children, not censoring adults, in order to strike a reasonable balance between the right to freedom of expression and the right of children to a healthy childhood.

3. Stick to a focused agenda on gratuitous or glamorised violence, not diffusing efforts by adding sex, foul language, family values, specific feminist concerns or other distinct, more controversial issues.

4. Bring all players to the table -- broadcasters, advertisers, producers, parents, teachers, psychiatrists and the regulator.

5. Have both a short-term and long-term perspective.


In Japan the Broadcasts Law requires broadcasters to establish standards for programming and to set up consultative committees to ensure that programmes satisfy the stated standards. The public service broadcaster NHK states in its Standards of Domestic Programming: [8]

Under no circumstances shall acts of violence be permitted. ( ) Human life shall not be treated with contempt and neither shall the act of suicide be glorified. ( ) Criminals shall not be portrayed attractively and acts of crime shall not be treated with approval (...).


From the United States I cannot find any direct policy statement on violence in television. There is a general ban on child pornography (as elsewhere) and obscene material, operating at both Federal and State level. The ban on obscene material applies essentially to sex-related photographic and video material. But the First Amendment (constitutional principle of freedom of speech) can also be applied to speeches inciting hatred or discrimination, provided that they do not constitute an immediate danger to people or goods. [9]

"The FCC is not interested in influencing, or even knowing, the content or viewpoint of any programming", said former Chairman Hunt of the Federal Communications Commission [10] in his speech at a conference on Children and Television in 1997. However, in the Telecommunications Act of 1996, TV manufacturers are required to incorporate the V-chip in the sets, which is combined with a rating system made by the broadcasters (see under the headline "V-chip" below).

In Canada, there is a public worry about the massive influx of American programmes delivered via cable, which cannot be stopped from entering Canadian homes. In the USA broadcasters set the standards, and any government intervention to control violent contents is frowned upon. [11]

Measures

Ratings/classification


All kinds of measures to prevent children from exposure to certain media products require some kind of classification of the media product, be it television programmes, films, videos, computer games, etc. This is a crucial issue; the criteria for classification varies and the systems of classification differ among countries, within countries and between various media.

Descriptive classifications, indicating the content of individual programmes rather than giving a recommendation of the age of the child who should see it, is being asked for in many countries, whereas so far the age rating is the most common. In the USA, research indicates that recommendations for movies like "PG-13: Parents Strongly Cautioned" and "R: Restricted" may run the risk of attracting younger viewers instead of discouraging them. [12] The former X-symbol for ratings of pornographic movies in the USA is nowadays sometimes used as a promotion tool. [13]

Since some kind of classification/rating system is always used as a base for other measures, I do not, in the tables of measures in different countries below, explicitly mention rating/classification.

To understand the tables, I here make a first review of the measures, illustrated by examples:

Scheduling: time, watershed

"Scheduling" means that TV programmes, promotion materials, etc., which are classified as unsuitable to children, are broadcast "later" in the evening (often called a "watershed"). This "later", when children are not supposed to watch television, varies, however, between 19.15 and 24.00. Also varying is the age of the children who should not watch television after a certain time. Ages mentioned are from up to 12 years to up to 18 years (Irving & Tadros, 1996, 1997). Examples:

after 19.15 Bosnia and Herzegovina (after Bedtime story 19.00-19.15)

after 20.00 Switzerland (16 years following cinema rules, 18 years after 23.00); UK

after 20.30 Australia (15 years)

after 21.00 Canada (12 years); Ireland (15 years); Netherlands (16 years); Denmark; Finland; Sweden

after 21.30 Greece

after 22.00 Germany (16 years, 18 years after 23.00); Latvia; Slovak Republic; Spain; USA

after 22.30 France (16 years)

after 23.00 Albania (14 years); Italy (14 years); Bulgaria; Poland; Romania

after 24.00 Macedonia


Age limits

Age limits for television programmes are not often explicitly stated. The contrary is the case for film and video shown in public -- for these media age limits or the similar are stated in most countries included in this overview. There are also often age limits for video rental or purchase, and in some countries for computer/video games and other audio-visual media.

Advice: oral or written consumer advice

In Australia, for example, with M- or MA-rated programmes (M = mature, A = adult) on television, there are cautionary messages under the letter symbol on the screen with some detail of why the programme has been rated M or MA: "depicts violence", "contains coarse language", "depicts sexual scenes", etc. [14] The written script is accompanied by a voice over, saying the same thing.

Advisories are also broadcast by the public service broadcaster TVO in Canada at the beginning and "if necessary at appropriate intervals" during each programme containing violence. [15]

In Austria, as another example, the public service broadcaster ORF provides printed television guides with advice for parents on the suitability of programmes for young viewers. [16]

In Poland, the broadcasters are required to inform viewers or listeners of the nature of the programme, when advertising the programme and just before transmission. This information should specify that the programme may negatively affect the psychological, emotional or physical development of children and teenagers, according to the National Broadcasting Council, Act on Radio and Television. [17]

In Romania, Article 2 of the National Audio-visual Council Directives underpins the risk of the "forbidden-fruit-effect", requiring the announcements for "adult" programmes be adopted to protective measures for minors and that they "must not be accompanied by commentary liable to heighten their interest in viewing these programmes". [18]

Warning: acoustic or visual warnings

An acoustic warning before the start of an unsuitable television programme, and/or a visual symbol throughout its duration is used in a few countries. Warnings are also presented in the timetable/schedule.

France, for instance, has adopted a warning system overseen by the Audiovisual Superior Council. A green circle symbolises programmes containing certain scenes which could be harmful to young children; an orange triangle is used for films not allowed to children under 12 years of age and to caution audiences; a red square is used to indicate adult-only programming. [19]

In Italy, Channel 5 uses a similar "traffic light" signalling system: green for family, yellow for parental guidance, while red indicates that the show is not suitable for children. [20]

In Canada, viewer advisories are provided for at the beginning of and during the first hour of programmes containing "scenes of violence intended for adult audiences". [21]

Labelling

Concerning video cassettes, CD-ROM's and other audio-visual material in, for example, Germany, the classification must be clearly indicated on the cassette jacket as well as on the object itself. Items that have not been classified or have been classified as "18 and over" may not be offered to children and young people in any way. [22]

Descriptive information about violence, sex and language in programming, similar to food labelling, which provides information about food ingredients without commenting on who should or should not eat those ingredients, is recommended in a report by Joel Federman (1996). [23]

V-Chip

The anti-violence "V-chip" is a microchip, which can be incorporated in a television set, a cable selector or a decoder. It reads the classification code of each programme that is rated. The viewer can programme the chip to block the signal of programmes with a classification which exceeds the level considered acceptable. For example, if the viewer selects level 3, then levels 4, 5 and above will not appear on the screen.

This technology was developed by Professor Tim Collings at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada, and is now being tried out in the USA and Canada. In the United States the Telecommunication Act was amended in 1996 to require TV manufacturers to incorporate the anti-violence chip into their products from 1998. Since 1996, the industries involved have been working on the introduction of a programme classification and encoding system which the V-chip can decode and which began being implemented in January 1997.

As there is a high percentage of U.S. programming in Canada, the Canadian Broadcast Standards Council states that for a V-chip based rating system to be a truly effective tool for parents in Canada, it must be applied also to U.S. services and non-Canadian cable services distributed in Canada.

The U.S. kind of rating system has been criticised for its diversity and lack of specificity of content and for its risks to increase rather than reduce children's exposure to harmful programming. Earlier research indicated that children were more eager to see a movie labelled "PG-13: Parents Strongly Cautioned" and "R: Restricted", than a movie labelled more by content, e.g., "mild violence" and "graphic violence". [24]

In July of 1997, as a result of intense pressure from parents, child advocacy organisations and members of Congress, the U.S. television industry agreed to modify its rating system to add letters to the age-based system. The letters indicate whether the rating level was due to sex, violence, coarse language or sexual dialogue. The amended ratings were implemented in October of 1997. All major networks except NBC are using the amended rating system. [25]

In Canada the Action Group on Violence on Television (AGVOT), a group representing the broadcast industry, has developed a classification system for the English language broadcasters in Canada, currently being considered by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). In August 1997 AGVOT unveiled the graphic icons which are used to identify the ratings on screen and in TV listing publications. The French language programmers in Canada will use their own established ratings systems, as had been agreed to by the CRTC. [26]

In Europe the V-chip technology is under consideration and it is obvious that there will not be an easy task to develop a rating system that all countries can agree upon.

Outright prohibitions

Several countries also have outright prohibitions on certain material in all media:

• material containing incitement to hatred, discrimination or violence
• obscene material
• material contrary to sound morals and indecent material
• material detrimental to human dignity
• child pornography, either generally defined (obscenity, indecency, etc.) or specifically defined (child pornography, protection of children against sexual abuse, etc.).

On the current agenda

The Internet


The European Commission is drafting a "Communication" (COM (96) 483) and a proposal for a Council Recommendation on Illegal and Harmful Content on the Internet. Illegal material, such as child pornography, falls under existing laws and can be punished accordingly. As part of this work, the Commission has launched a "discussion forum" on the Internet, "to encourage networking of organisations and individuals actively establishing measures to ensure the protection of minors and human dignity in audio-visual and information services". The forum can be reached on the Internet at europa.eu.int/en/comm/dg10/avpolicy/forum/index.html. [27]

In Norway, the Norwegian Ombudsman for Children and Save the Children have initiated a project with the aim of identifying pedophile networks. Everyone can report about web-sites, ftp-servers, chat channels, etc., relating to child pornography or pedophile activity. The information will be passed on to the Norwegian police, who co-operates with Interpol. [28]

Need for media education

Many different aspects of media education are relevant to the protection of minors and human dignity in the new media services. Schools still need to provide more encouragement for the acquisition of skills in the use of all kinds of media. Measures to improve parental awareness and information as to the various types of harm to which their children may be exposed are an inevitable corollary to their increasing level of responsibility.

Need for research

When reading about a South African research study on children's emotional responses to television, which shows that half of the surveyed children are made unhappy and uncomfortable by children's programmes aimed specifically at them, [29] and about British research which establishes that programmes that provoke negative emotional responses are diverse and unpredictable, [30] I would like to argue for more empirical research on children's reception of media. There is a lot to learn for parents, teachers, broadcasters, media producers and distributors -- and for politicians.

Tables

The measures "Scheduling", "Age limits", "Advice", "Warning", "Labelling" and "V-chip" for various audio-visual media, as well as the "outright prohibitions" will now be included in tables for different countries. Additional comments are sometimes made.

For the fifteen countries in the European Union (EU) in Table 1 (page 342), the information in the first column of the table emanates from a study commissioned by the EU Commission. [31] Much of the information in the other columns in the tables for the European countries is gathered from Joan Irving and Connie Tadros (1996) Creating a Space for Children. Volume 1. Children's Film and Television in EV-countries and (1997) Creating a Space for Children. Volume 2. Children's Film and Television in Central and Eastern Europe, International Centre of Films for Children and Young People (CIFEJ) Montreal. These and other sources are referred to in the footnotes.

For western European countries outside the European Union, there are fewer sources. A blank square in Table 2 (page 346) means that I have no information -- not necessarily that there is no relevant measure. Table 3 (page 347) comprises measures in Australia, Canada, Japan and the USA Table 4 (page 350) for measures in eastern European countries is the most scarcely documented table.


Image
Image
Image
Image
Image

Image

Image
Image
Image

Table 4. Measures in Eastern European Countries

For the former eastern European countries, less information is documented. The information in Table 4 is gathered from Joan Irving and Connie Tadros (1997) Creating a Space for Children -- Volume 2. Children's Film and Television in Central and Eastern Europe, The International Centre of Films for Children and Young People (CIFEJ). Montreal.

Image
Image

Notes

1. These EBU Guidelines are reproduced after the article.
2. Canadian Association of Broadcasters, 1993.
3. Kodaira, 1996.
4. Canadian Association of Broadcasters Voluntary Code regarding Violence in Television
Programming.
5. The new "Television without Frontiers" Directive. Internet, November, 1997.
6. News on Children and Violence on the Screen, Vol. 1, No. 1-2, 1997.
7. Caron & Jolicoeur, 1996.
8. Kodaira, 1996.
9. Green Paper on the Protection of Minors ... , 1997.
10. Hundt, 1997.
11. Flagan, 1992.
12. Trotta, 1997.
13. Control Examination and Censorship of Films, 1993.
14. Barrie McMahon, e-mail, November, 1997. See also table 3 including Australia.
15. TVOntario, 1996.
16. Irving & Tadros, 1996.
17. Irving & Tadros, 1997.
18. ibid.
19. von Feilirzen, 1997.
20. Irving & Tadros, 1996.
21. Canadian Broadcast Standards Council, 1997.
22. Irving & Tadros, 1996.
23. Trotta, 1997.
24. Cantor, 1997.
25. Cantor, Joanne, e-mail, December, 1997.
26. Media Awareness Network. Internet, December, 1997.
27. Celsing, 1997a, 1997b.
28. Waage & Aasli, 1997.
29. Ramsden, 1997.
30. ibid.
31. ibid.
32. ACT, Association of Commercial Television in Europe.
33. Irving & Tadros, 1996.
34. ibid.
35. ibid.
36. Film Censorship in Sweden. The National Board of Film Censors.
37. Icelandic Board of Film Classification.
38. The Norwegian Government's campaign ... , 1995.
39. Statens Filmtilsyn, Oslo, 1996.
40. DRS, Prakrischer Richtlinien fur die Programmierung.
41. Biggins, 1997.
42. Federman, 1996.
43. Young Media Australia, 1997.
44. Caron & Jolicoeur, 1996.
45. ibid.
46. Kodaira, 1996.
47. Green Paper on the Protection of Minors ..., 1997.
48. Oeda, 1996.
49. Green Paper on the Protection of Minors ... , 1997.
50. Federman, 1996.
51. ibid.

References

ACT, Association of Commercial Television in Europe (undated) Appendix IV: A survey of broadcasting regulation in Europe. (Enclosed to a letter to the Clearinghouse in September, 1997.)

Ageback, Ann Katrin (1995) Discourse in Hollywood (in Swedish). Stockholm: Valdsskildringsrader, nr 7.

Biggins, Barbara (1997) Cuts & Clips: Censorship and Classification the Australian Way. Young Media Australia.

Buckingham, David (J1997) Moving Images. Undemanding Children's Emotional Responses to Screen Violence. News on Children and Violence on the Screen, Vol. 1, No. 3.

Cantor, Joanne (1997) Critique of the New Rating System for United States Television. News on Children and Violence on the Screen, Vol. I, No. 1-2.

Caron, Andre H. & Jolicoeur, Annie (1996) Systemized Summary of Canadian Regulation Concerning Children and the Audiovisual Industry. Centre de recherche en droir public, Faculte de droit, Universite de Montreal.

CBSC, Canadian Broadcast Standards Council (1993) Canadian Private Broadcasters Voluntary Code Regarding Violence in Television. Internet, November, 1997.

Celsing, Anna (1997a) European Media Measures under Consideration. News on Children and Violence on the Screen, Vol. 1, No. 1•2.

Celsing, Anna (1997b) European Policy News on TV and Internet. News on Children and Violence on the Screen, Vol. 1, No. 3.

CRTC, Canadian Radio Television Commission. Internet, November 1997.

Control, Examination and Censorship of Films (in Swedish) (1993) Stockholm: Valdsskildringsradet, nr 6.

Federman, Joel (1996) Media Ratings: Design, Use and Consequences. Mediascope, Inc.

von Feilitzen, Cecilia (1997) Optimism in France. News on Children and Violence on the Screen, Vol. 1, No. 1-2.

Film Censorship in Sweden. Stockholm: The National Board of Film Censors.

Flagan, Frances (1992) CRTC, Planning and Development Research. Summary of two CRTC reports on television and violence.

Green Paper on the Protection of Minors and Human Dignity in Audiovisual and Information Services. EU (COM(96)483). Internet, November, 1997.

Hundt, Reed E. (1997) Getting better all the time. Speech to the Annenberg Public Policy Centre's 2nd Annual Conference on Children and Television, Washington, D.C., June 9.

Irving, Joan & Tadros, Connie (1996) Creating a Space for Children. Volume 1. Children's Film and Television in EU Countries. Montreal: The International Centre of Films for Children and Young People (CIFEJ).

Irving, Joan & Tadros, Connie (1997) Creating a Space for Children. Volume 2. Children's Film and Television in Central and Eastern Europe. Montreal: The International Centre of Films for Children and Young People (CIFEJ).

Kodaira, Sachiko (1996) Television for Children in Japan: The Broadcasting System and Programming Characteristics. Tokyo: NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute.

News on Children and Violence on the Screen, Vol. 1, No. 1-2, 3, 1997.

Norwegian Government's Campaign to Combat Violence in the Visual Media (1995). Oslo.

Oeda, Shigeaki (1996) Brief Synopsis of our Organisation, EIRIN, Japan.

Ramsden, Noreen (1997) What Makes You Unhappy When You Watch Television? Survey Carried Out among Children in South Africa. News on Children and Violence on the Screen, Vol. 1, No. 3.

SF DRS Gewaltdarstellung im fiktionalen Program men von SF DRS, e-mail from Beny Kiser, 31 Oktober, 1997.

Trotta, Laurie (1997) Television Ratings Should Describe Not Judge Programs. News on Children and Violence on the Screen, Vol. 1. No. 1-2.

TVOntario (1996) Policy on Violence in Programming. Approved by the TVOntario Board of Directors. June 20, 1996.

Violence in the Media -- a global problem (in Swedish), Flodet, Nr. 15 1996. Valdsskildringsradet.

Waage, Trond & Aasli, Jeanette (1997) Child Pornography on the Net. News on Children and Violence on the Screen. Vol. 1. No. 1-2.

Young Media Australia (I997) Ministerial Committee Inquiry into the Portrayal of Violence in the Electronic Media. Implementation of Decisions. http://www.nanou.com.au/yma/viol.html

THE EUROPEAN BROADCASTING UNION'S GUIDELINES FOR PROGRAMMES WHEN DEALING WITH THE PORTRAYAL OF VIOLENCE

1. WATERSHED


Programme-makers and schedulers should always take into account the transmission time of their programme when considering matters of content.

Scenes of violence may well make a programme inappropriate for an early placing because of its unsuitability for viewing by children.

In order to avoid any confusion in this matter by the viewing public in general, and parents in particular, there should be a clearly understood watershed at an appropriate time during evening viewing, before which all programmes should be suitable for audiences consisting of a high proportion of children. Parents must accept that responsibility for what their children watch after the watershed lies in large measure with them.

2. NEWS AND FACTUAL PROGRAMMES

News and information broadcasts have of necessity to deal on a daily basis with social conflicts in which violence can be a part. The audience should not, and cannot, be protected from this everyday occurrence. Actual violence is acceptable in news programmes as broadcasters have a duty to show factual violence in the world, but the negativity of such acts should be stressed.

News should and will shock viewers at times. With some news stories a sense of shock is part of a full human understanding of what has happened, but care should be taken never to discomfort viewers gratuitously by over-indulgence. The more often viewers are shocked, the more it will take to shock them.

One person's shock is another person's news or art. Thus, a decision in this field means striking a balance between the current social consensus on what is acceptable and the broadcaster's duty to reflect reality as he or she sees it.

In particular, the human dignity of the victim as well as those also affected must not be offended and their personal rights must be respected. Violence in factual programmes should not be so prominent or commonplace as to become sanitized. The public cannot be shielded from the violence which happens daily in the world, but it must be portrayed in the most sensitive way possible.

The degree of violence in news programmes must be essential to the integrity of the programme; care should be taken in the choice of material depending on the time of day at which bulletins are broadcast.

3. FICTIONAL AND ENTERTAINMENT PROGRAMMES

Television drama must be able to reflect important issues truthfully, and violence is part of both nature and society. Drama on television involves the collaboration of many different skills and creative talents. In any collaboration there must be editorial judgement.

Since conflict and its associated violence are somewhat ingrained human traits, they are often made the central component in fictional and entertainment programmes. What is crucial is that the reasons for the existence of violence in the treatment should be portrayed in a plausible manner and violence should not be used in a purely unprovoked manner to entertain and as a way of maximizing the audience.

Gratuitous violence must be proscribed. The more intense the violence, the greater should be the distancing from reality. The aim should be how little violence is necessary without undue dramatic compromise.

The effects of portraying violence are heavily dependent on the form this presentation takes and the dramatic context. Particular care must therefore be taken with realistic presentations with which the viewer may more easily identify. Details of violence and aggressive behaviour which invite imitation should be avoided.

Portrayals which trivialize, or indeed glorify, the use of violence, whether physical or psychological, and which present violence as a means of overcoming conflicts, should also be avoided at all costs. It is important that in addition to the causes of violence their destructive consequences should also be shown, and that the use of violence as a way of solving problems should be portrayed critically. Not all violence is physical. Non-physical violence can also be upsetting and shocking, especially to children. This is an important area where particular care should be taken, as is the portrayal of sadistic violence.

Scheduling of fictional and entertainment programmes containing violent scenes is important and adequate warning must be given.

4. PROGRAMME ACQUISITIONS

Acquired programmes should conform to normal editorial policy.

Violence in distant settings can be relatively less shocking, disturbing or liable to dangerous imitation.

Broadcasters, however, are committed to the vigilant exercise of control; acquisitions should be abandoned if they are incapable of being adapted or edited to conform to guidelines.

Broadcasters will need to ensure the right to edit overtly violent acquisitions before transmission.

Accurate description in promotional material is essential.

5. PROGRAMMES FOR CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE

Children and young people can be particularly sensitive to violence and brutality. Generally speaking, those rules valid for the totality of the public should be applied in a much stricter manner at times when the audience is more particularly made up of children and adolescents.

Programmes aimed at children should treat the portrayal of violence, both physical and non-physical, with particular caution. Special care should be exercised and careful scheduling is necessary.

In programme choices, programmes should be preferred which propound a positive attitude to life, human values, and non-violence.

Young children do not fully understand the subtleties of good and bad and will readily commit themselves to one side in a conflict. Violence as an easy way of resolving conflict should be avoided. Care should be taken with domestic violence, both physical and verbal. The danger of imitation should always be borne in mind.

When portraying conflicts and violence it should be taken into account that young children are less able to perceive television programmes in their entirety than adults, that they align themselves much more powerfully to individual, visual surface appeal and only gradually become able to differentiate between central and peripheral aspects. Children identify with characters on an emotional level more readily than adults and the corresponding reactions such as fear are stronger and last longer.

The same rules apply to fantasy as to realistic dramas. Care should be taken not to cause anxiety and undesirable tension nor to incite aggressive behaviour.

In news reports, attention should be given to the likely impact, particularly on children viewing alone, of coverage of violence and its consequences.

Programme-makers should clearly understand that moral attitudes and values only emerge gradually throughout childhood, so children and young people are easier to influence than adults.

Programmes should take care therefore not to undermine the moral development of minors.

6. PROGRAMME TRAILS AND SIGNPOSTING

Programmes containing scenes of violence may be required to be preceded by a detailed warning announcement, but overuse of warnings can render them ineffective. They should not be used as disclaimers against the programmes that follow.

Prudence must be exercised in respect of promotional material and the transmission time of a trail must always be borne in mind.

Trails should honestly reflect the type of programmes being trailed.

Violence as a means of promotion of programmes should not be permitted. Taking violent scenes arbitrarily out of context may shock viewers unfairly.

It may be legitimate to let viewers know if the film or programme being trailed does contain violent scenes, but there is a fine line between effective description and exploitative come-on.

7. ADVERTISING

Advertising should not use violence as a means to sell a product nor as an incitement to violent behaviour. Since children up to a certain age are far less able than adults to recognize the intentions of advertising, and to judge it critically, they are therefore open to influence to a greater extent. Advertising should not exploit the weaknesses of young consumers by using either fear or violence.

The Children's Television Charter

Assessing the Feasibility of Global Consensus for Television Policy

JOANNE M. LISOSKY


It is no good having fine ideas and fine ideals, unless you can make them stick. -- Anna Home, Head of Children's Programmes, Television, BBC, referring to the Children's Television Charter (World Summit on Television and Children, Melbourne, 1995)


Speakers from around the world met in London in March 1998 for the Second World Summit on Television for Children. One of the primary aims of the Summit was to evaluate and assess the impact of the Children's Television Charter that was first publicly discussed at the World Summit on Television and Children in Melbourne in 1995. This Charter marks a unique step in global policy-making, but the question remains as to whether it is possible to reach consensus on a policy that will possess the "teeth" to make a difference while being universally applicable to various nations.

Due to publication deadlines, it is unknown at the time of writing this article what occurred at the Second World Summit in London, but the outcome was, no doubt, similar to what happened in Melbourne in 1995 when the Charter was first discussed. At that time, numerous advocates from many nations offered suggestions to augment and improve the Charter. Issues like advertising exploitation, cultural perspectives, and government subsidies for children's programming were discussed in a special session by over twenty participants from Malaysia, Canada, Britain, Australia, France, Vietnam, as well as other countries. Consensus emerged that there was a need for this ambitious universal policy. But gaps occurred in the chorus on several of the mentioned issues. However, there appeared to be one area where global convergence had been broached. In this Summit session and throughout the 1990s, many nations have addressed the need, and several have introduced legislation, to mitigate the influence of television violence. While the 1980s were characterized by a trend toward deregulation and a detachment from traditional public service obligations, the 1990s have been marked by an increase in global attention toward the control of violent television content (Hoffmann-Riem, 1996).

In fact, many countries have been engaged in discussions about media violence since (at least) the 1940s. A number of basic questions were pursued which led to a large-scale government inquiry in the United States in the 1960s. By the 1970s, children's television advocates vociferously questioned violent images on television and their impact on impressionable children. More recently, the television violence debate has escalated in several nations. Organizations like the Action Group on Violence on Television in Canada, the Council on Media Violence in Sweden, and the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, sponsored by UNESCO and the Swedish government, have emerged to promote research and discussion about the issue of media violence. Discussions surrounding violent television content have ultimately led to questions of government's role in regulating the medium and the messages.

Debates focusing on the proper role of any government in implementing policies for controlling violence on television have been heated and riddled with controversy in recent years. Rules and regulations concerning the proliferation of unsavory media images have undergone a series of revisions over the last twenty years in nearly every nation in the world. Balancing the needs of the broadcast industry, the duties of the broadcast regulators and a unique set of cultural, economic and political values in a country have resulted in distinct national policies regarding the control of television violence. However, while many nations agree on the need to control violence on television, strategies to enact this control have been unique in each nation.

In research comparing children's television regulations in Australia, Canada and the United States (Lisosky, 1997), it was posited that national broadcast policies are founded on the evolution of factors within each nation. By peeling away the fundamental factors that influence controls over violent television content, certain criteria emerge, generally characterized as systemic, ideological, economic and political. More specifically, whether the national broadcast system was originally based on a social responsibility or private enterprise model provides an example of a systemic factor that will influence television policy regarding the control of violent programming. How a nation protects freedom of expression or the degree to which a society may be willing to allow the government to constrain the television industry, serves as examples of ideological factors observed in every nation debating the control of violence on television. The balance of power among a nation's regulatory agency, industry lobbying groups and citizen advocates demonstrates the fluctuation in political factors that influence media policy. Finally, how each nation defines violence or violent programming will have a strong impact on the regulatory strategies that are developed to mitigate this programming. These fundamental factors exist in some manner in all nations struggling to formulate a children's television policy. Each critical criterion can, thus, serve as a salient point to assess the possibility of a global consensus.

For that reason, any comprehensive, global policy designed to address the issue of regulating violent programming will need to be cognizant of the distinct factors that have influenced policy debates for individual societies. In order to design universal policies that may address normative standards for television violence or any other issue, examination of the criteria that have influenced the debates and subsequent policies among several nations would serve to inform the policy makers. Moreover, observing alternative solutions to common problems affords the broad vista needed to make informed judgments about the present status and future prospects of global policies.

One way to observe these diverse strategies is to examine multinational responses to a single television series. During the 1990s, an internationally-syndicated program attracted the attention of citizens, governments and broadcast policy-makers around the world and demonstrated how different nations responded to the same television content. The incident focused on the U.S. series, Mighty Morphin Power Rangers (Lisosky, in press). In the mid-1990s, the series was broadcast in over 30 countries and subsequently found itself in real-life battles with regulatory agencies, and in some cases private citizens, because of its perceived violent content.

Nations' different responses to Mighty Morphin Power Rangers

Ironically, the program itself was a morphin, with much of the action footage lifted from a long-running Japanese television program, Jyu Rangah. Reportedly, much of the original Japanese violence was toned down for the U.S. audience (Cody, 1994).

A number of countries that acquired the Mighty Morphin Power Rangers (MMPR) series from the Los Angeles based Saban Entertainment in the 1990s, found that the program was not compatible with national regulations or cultural norms regarding televised violence. For example, in England, a mild public outcry ensued when a four-year-old was karate-style kicked by a playmate imitating the Power Rangers (Orvice, 1994). This led the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents to issue a warning that the series was "extremely dangerous".

Other European nations responded to the MMPR with more severe action. In October, 1994, a young girl's brutal killing by teenage boys in Norway fueled public debate over the causes of violence in Scandinavian society. In response, MMPR was immediately taken off the air. The ban was temporary, however, and the program returned.

Earlier in 1994, Television New Zealand (TVNZ) pulled the MMPR off the air on the advice of the Broadcast Standards Authority, a statutory broadcast watchdog group ("TVNZ Dumps ... ", 1994). The Authority had reacted to complaints from a citizen advocacy group. Even though TVNZ had edited out some of the violent confrontations and the network had added pro-social public service announcements to the conclusion of each program, the Authority claimed that these changes were not enough.

Also in 1994, the Canadian Broadcast Standards Council (CBSC), ruled that MMPR, estimated to be the most popular children's television show in Canada, was too violent for Canadian television (Lacey, 1994). The CBSC had been spurred to review the MMPR by the complaints from two Canadian parents. The CBSC unanimously agreed that the program contravened several articles of the industry's Voluntary Code Regarding Violence. As a result, a youth cable channel, YTV, canceled MMPR and the Montreal-based French TVA network dropped the series. Subsequently, Global Television, a commercial satellite network and part of Can West Global, requested permission from the program's producers, Saban International, to alter the program to conform to Canadian criteria (Farnsworth, 1994). After a year of editing the violent content, Can West dropped the series as well.

In January 1995, the Power Rangers came under attack from the German Society for the Protection of Children. The Society called for the program to be banned for excessive violence due primarily to complaints by German kindergarten teachers who charged that the program promoted child nightmares (Kindred, 1995).

Authorities in Malaysia banned the popular children's program in December 1995 in a dispute over its title. The Deputy Home Minister said that the title words "Mighty Morphin" may cause children to associate the characters with the drug morphine, leading them to believe that "the drug could make them strong like the characters in the show" ("Mighty Morphins ... ", 1995).

After reviewing three episodes of MMPR in 1995, the Australian Broadcasting Authority (ABA) stated that two episodes of the series contained scenes that did not comply with the general audience classification that was originally given the series (ABA, 1995). The network airing the series in Australia was allowed to continue to screen the Power Rangers during children's viewing time, as long as certain scenes were edited out.

In contrast to these national responses, U.S. reactions to the program were remarkably positive. In 1994, Parenting Magazine named MMPR as one of the ten best children's television programs on the air. In addition, newly elected Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives, Newt Gingrich, shook hands with the Power Rangers in 1994 and remarked that he was a Power Ranger ("Nightline ... ", 1995).

Children's Television Charter -- the first step

These responses to the MMPR series demonstrate the range of television violence policies and illustrate how various nations find unique strategies to address the issue. Distinctions are found in the rationale for controlling the violent images as well as the strategies employed to mitigate the violent content. This example also illustrates that while consensus exists among most nations about the need to attend to the violent content on television, policies on how to control violent content may not be converging. Granted, some recent strategies have what appears to be universal appeal. Many nations have embraced actions like sanctioned media literacy programs, watershed stipulations, industry self-regulation, content ratings and the V-chip as strategies to tone down violent content. However, these approaches are not endorsed universally and have differing outcomes when implemented in different countries. For example, many agree that in order to control the dissemination of violent television content, broadcasters should adhere to watershed stipulations. Critics, however, claim that these time, place and manner restrictions merely allow broadcasters more freedom to air extremely violent programming during late evening hours. Moreover, critics of the V-chip suggest that this technological advancement relieves broadcasters of any responsibility in scheduling violent programming.

While children may be watching the same television programming around the world, strategies for regulating television content are not universal. The MMPR example as well as other research (Lisosky, 1997), show that policies to mitigate unsavory content are closely aligned with cultural factors. Thus, it is suggested, to make the ideas and ideals of The Children's Television Charter stick, it will be necessary to discuss and assess more than current policies. Any broad-reaching global policy may need to first examine the historic, systemic, ideological, economic and political factors that influenced the development of television policies across several nations to assess the possibility of convergence.

Finally, in their quest to develop a universally acceptable policy for children's television with teeth, and one devised to adhere to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the designers of the Children's Television Charter may have another looming problem. This problem is analogous to the elephant in the parlor everyone strains to ignore. While the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is the most widely accepted human rights instrument ever, protecting the rights of approximately two billion children worldwide, it has not yet been ratified or acceded by the United Stares. As a result, the impact of the Children's Television Charter may turn out to be, as Janet Holmes a Court of the Australian Children's Television Foundation suggested at the World Summit in Melbourne, "the rest of the world against America -- not because we're anti-American, but because we are pro-Aboriginal, pro-Filipino, pro-Pole, and for the rest of the children in the world" (transcript from recordings made at the World Summit, 1995).

Despite the struggle to find consensus and the lack of U.S. participation in the UN Convention, the developers of the Children's Television Charter should nor be dissuaded from pursuing a comprehensive policy. Children will continue to watch television, in some cases -- like the Mighty Morphin Power Rangers -- the same television programming around the world. As a result, it will become increasingly necessary for policy-makers to find the balance of social responsibility of broadcasters not only from within each country but among various nations. The Children's Television Charter is the first step in this arduous process to seek global consensus for the sake of all children.

References

Australian Broadcasting Authority (I995) Investigation Report: "Mighty Morphin Power Rangers" G Classification.

Cody, J. (1994, June 10) Power Rangers take on the whole world. Wall Street Journal, p. B3(E).

Farnsworth, C. H. (1994, November 11) Zap! Children's Ninja show ruled alien to Canadian culture. New York Times News Service.

Hoffmann-Riem, W. (1996) Regulating media. New York: Guilford Press.

Kindred, J. (1995, January 28) Critics say a popular children's TV series shows excessive violence. Deutsche Presse-Agentur. NEXIS.

Lacey, L. (1994, November 2) Power Rangers suffers body blow to programming. The Globe and Mail, p. A15.

Lisosky, J .M. (1997) Controlling Children's Channels: Comparing Children's Television Regulations in Australia, Canada and the United States. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Washington, USA.

Lisosky, J.M. (in press) Battling Standards Worldwide -- "Mighty Morphin Power Rangers" fight for their lives. In Yahya R. Kamalipour (Ed.) U.S. Image Around the World. State University of New York Press.

"Mighty Morphins" regarded as too violent (1994, November 5). The Straits Times (Singapore), p. 9.

Orvice, V. (1994, October 19) Copycat dangers of the Power Rangers: Outcry over children's TV heroes after your fan is hurt. Daily Mail, p. 3.

Transcripts from the World Summit on Television and Children (1995, March) Melbourne. TVNZ dumps "The Mighty Morphin Power Rangers" (1994, August 25). Dominion, p. 1, 364.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 24270
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Children and Media Violence, by Ulla Carlsson

Postby admin » Sat Sep 07, 2013 6:33 am

Bibliography

Children and Media Violence Research

A selection (1970-)

Adoni, H. & Cohen, A. (1979) Children's Responses to Televised War News Films. Megamot Behavioral Sciences Quarterly, 35(1), pp. 49-64.

American Psychological Association (1993) Violence and Youth: Psychology's Response. Volume 1: Summary Report of the American Psychological Association Commission on Violence and Youth. Washington: American Psychological Association.

Anderson, C.A. & Morrow, M. (1995) Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, pp. 1020-1030.

Andison, F. Scott (1977) TV Violence and Viewer Aggression: A Cumulation of Study Results 1956-1976. Public Opinion Quarterly, 41, pp. 314-331.

Arnaldo, C. (1996) Television Violence versus Viewer Power: The Power to Zap Away: A synthesis of UNESCO IPDC actions 1994-1996. Paris: UNESCO.

Arquilla, J. & Ronfeldt, D. (1993) Cyberwar Is Coming. Comparative Strategy, 12(2), pp. 141-165.

Atkin, C. (1983) Effects of Realistic TV Violence vs. Fictional Violence on Aggression. Journalism Quarterly, 60, pp. 615-621.

Aufenanger, S.; Lampert, C. & Vockerodt, Y. (1996) Lustige Gewalt? Zum Verwechslungsrisiko realer und inszenierter Fernsehgewalt bei Kindern durch humoreske Programmkontexte. Munchen: Reinhard Fischer.

Australian Broadcasting Tribunal (1990) TV Violence in Australia. Report to the Minister for Transport and Communications. Volume I: Decisions and Reasons. Sydney: Australian Broadcasting Tribunal.

Australian Broadcasting Tribunal (1990) TV Violence in Australia. Report to the Minister for Transport and Communications. Volume II: Research Findings. Sydney: Australian Broadcasting Tribunal.

Bachrach, R.S. (1986) The Differential Effect of Observation of Violence on Kibbutz and City Children in Israel. In Huesmann, L.R. & Eron, L.D. (Eds.) Television and the Aggressive Child: A Cross-National Comparison. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 201-238.

Baillie, M.; Thompson, A. & Kaplan, C. (1994) The Terror of Television -- Anxious Children at Greatest Risk. British Medical Journal, 308(6)-930:714 ff.

Barker, M. & Petley, J. (Eds.) (1997) Ill Effects. The Media/Violence Debate. London: Routledge.

Barlow, G. & Hill, A. (Eds.) (1995) Video Violence and the Children. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Baron, R.A. (1971) Aggression as a Function of Magnitude of Victim's Pain Cues, Level of Prior Anger Arousal, and Aggressor-Victim Similarity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,18( I), pp. 48- 54.

Baron, R.A. (1971) Magnitude of Victim's Pain Cues and Level of Prior Anger Arousal as Determinants of Adult Aggressive Behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,17(3), pp. 236-243.

Bassett, G. & Shuker, R. (1993) Attitudes and Perceptions of Television Violence. Palmerstone North: Massey University, Educational Research and Development Centre.

Belson, W.A. (1978) Television Violence and the Adolescent Boy. Farnborough: Saxon House.

Berkowitz, L. (1970) Aggressive Humor as a Stimulus to Aggressive Responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16(4). pp. 710-717.

Berkowitz, L. (1984) Some Effects of Thoughts on Anti- and Prosocial Influences of Media Events: A Cognitive-Neoassociation Analysis. Psychological Bulletin,95(3), pp. 410-427.

Berkowitz, L. (1986) Situational Influences on Reactions to Observed Violence. Journal of Social Issues, 42(3), pp. 93-106.

Berkowitz, L. (1990) On the Formation and Regulation of Anger and Aggression: A Cognitive Neoassociationistic Analysis. American Psychologist, 45(4), pp. 494-503.

Berkowitz, L. (1993) Aggression: Its Causes, Consequences, and Control. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Berkowitz, L.& Powers, PC. (1979) Effects of Timing and Justification of Witnessed Aggression on the Observers' Punitiveness. Journal of Research in Personality. 13, pp. 71-80.

Berkowitz, L. & Rogers, K.H. (1986) A Priming Effect Analysis of Media Influences. In Bryant, J. & Zillman, D. (Eds.) Perspectives on Media Effects. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 57-81.

Betsch, T. & Dickenberger, D. (1993) Why Do Aggressive Movies Make People Aggressive -- An Attempt to Explain Short-Term Effects of the Depiction of Violence on the Observer. Aggressive Behavior, 19(2), pp. 137- 149.

Bettelheim, B. (1975) The Uses of Enchantment. The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales. London: Thames and Hudson.

Biblow, E. (1973) Imaginative Play and the Control of Aggressive Behavior. In Singer, J. L. (Ed.) The Childs World of Make Believe. London: George Allen & Unwin.

Bjorkqvist, K. (1985) Violent Films, Anxiety and Aggression. Experimental Studies of the Effect of Violent Films on the Level of Anxiety and Aggression in Children. Helsinki: Commentationes Scientiarum Socialium, 30.

Blin, B. (1994) Television and Children. Report prepared for the Steering Committee on Social Policies. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Boe, S. (Ed.) (1995) Medievold - Born och unge. [Media Violence - Children and Youth.] Copenhagen: Kulturministeriet.

Bogart, L. (1980) After the Surgeon General's Report: Another Look Backward. In Withey, S.B. & Abeles, R.P (Eds.) Television and Social Behavior: Beyond Violence and Children. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 103-133.

Broadcasting Standards Council (1995) Children and Violence. The report of the Commission on Children and Violence. London: Gulbenkian Foundation.

Broadcasting Standards Council (1995) Violence in Broadcasting Worldwide. International survey of regulations in broadcasting with specific regard to violence. Paris: UNESCO.

Brody, S. (1977) Screen Violence and Film Censorship. Home Office Research, 40. London: Her Majesty's Stationary Office.

Bromley, H.K. (1974) The Very Young and Television Violence. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 18, pp. 233- 237.

Bryant, J. & Zillman, D. (Eds.) (1986) Perspectives on Media Effects. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bryant, J. & Zillman, D. (Eds.) (1994) Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Buckingham, D. (1993) Children Talking Television. London: The Falmer Press.
Buckingham, D. (1996) Moving Images: Understanding Children's Emotional Responses to Television. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Buckingham, D. & Allerton, M. (1996) A Review of Research on Children's Negative Emotional Responses to Television. London: Broadcasting Standards Council, 12.

Bundesministerium fur Unterricht und Kunst (1992) Gewalt und Horror in den medien, Unterrichtsmaterialim zur Medienerziehung. Wien.

Buttner, C. (1990) Video-Horror. Schule und Gewalt. Weinheim: Beltz Grune Reihe.

Buttner. C & Meyer. E.W. (1991) Rambo im Klassenzimmer. Wie Lehrerinnen sich der Video-Faszination ihrer Schuler annahern konnen. Weinheim: Beltz Grune Reihe.

Cantor. J. (1991) Fright Responses to Mass Media Production. In Bryant. J. & Zillman. D. (Eds.) Responding to Television. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cantor. J. (1994) Confronting Children's Fright Responses to Mass Media. In Zillman. D. & Huston. AC (Eds.) Media, Children, and the Family: Social Scientific, Psychodynamic, and Clinical Perspectives. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 139- 150.

Cantor. J. (1994) Fright Reactions to Mass Media. In Bryant, J. & Zillman, D. (Eds.) Media Effects. Advances in Theory and Research. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 213-245.

Cantor. J. (1996) Television and Children's Fear. In MacBeth, T.M. (Ed.) Tuning in to Young Viewers: Social Science Perspectives on Television. Thousand Oaks: Sage. pp. 87-115.

Cantor, J. & Nathanson. A.I. (1996) Children's Fright Reactions to Television News. Journal of Communication. 46(3), pp. 139-152.

Cantor. J. & Nathanson, A.I. (1997) Predictors of Children's Interest in Violent Television Programs. Journal of Broadcasting &Electronic Media. 41(2). pp. 155-167.

Cantor,J.; Wilson. B.J.; Rice, M.L. & Faber. R.J. (1984) Children and Television. Journal of Broadcasting, 28(4), pp. 43 I -476.

Caplan. R.E. (1985) Violent Program Content in Music Video. Journalism Quarterly, 62(1), pp. 144-147.

Caprara, G.Y.; D'Imperio. G.; Gentilomo, A; Mammucari, A.; Renzi, P.& Travaglia. G. (1987) The Intrusive Commercial: Influence of Aggressive TV Commercials on Aggression. European Journal of Social Psychology. 17, pp. 23-31.

Carlson. M.; Marcus-Newhall, A. & Miller. N. (1990) Effects of Situational Aggression Cues: A Quantitative Review. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(4), pp. 622-633.

Carlson-Paige, N. & Levin, D.E. (1987) Young Children and the War Play. Educational Leadership, 45(4). pp. 80-84.

Cater. D. & Strickland, S. (1975) The Evolution and Fate of the Surgeon General's Report. New York: Russel Sage Foundation.

Centerwall. B.S. (1990) Young Adult Suicide and Exposure to the Television. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 25. pp. 149-153.

Cesarone. B. (1994) Video Games and Children. University of Illinois: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood.

Chambers. J.H. & AscoInc. ER. (1986) The Effect of Prosocial and Aggressive Videogames on Children's Donating and Helping. Journal of Genetic Psychology. 148(4), pp. 499-505.

Charren, P.; Szulc. P. & Tchaicha. J. (1995) A Public-Policy Perspective on Televised Violence and Youth: From a Conversation with Peggy Charren. Harvard Educational Review, 65(2), pp. 282-291.

ClInc. V.B.; Croft, R.G. & Courier, S. (1973) Desensitization of Children to Television Violence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27. pp. 360-365.

Cohen, A.A. & Adoni, H. (1980) Children's Fear Responses to Real-Life Violence on Television: The Case of the 1973 Middle East War. Communication, 6, pp. 81-94.

Cohen. A.A.; Adoni. H.; Bantz. CR. et al. (1990) Social Conflict and Television News. Newbury Park: Sage.

Cohen. S. (1972) Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers. London: MacGibbon & Kee.

Cole, J. (Ed.) (1995) The UCLA Television Violence Monitoring Report. Los Angeles: UCLA, UCLA Center for Communication Policy.

Cole, J. (Ed.) (1997) The UCLA Television Violence &port 1996. Los Angeles: UCLA, UCLA Center for Communication Policy.

Cole, J. (Ed.) (1998) The UCLA Television Violence &port 1997. Los Angeles: UCLA, UCLA Center for Communication Policy.

Comstock, G.A. & Rubinstein. E.A. (Eds.) (1972) Television and Social Behavior. Reports and papers. volume I: Media Content and Control. A technical report to the Surgeon General's Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior. Washington: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, National Institute of Mental Health.

Comstock. G.A. & Rubinstein. E.A. (Eds.) (1972) Television and Social Behavior. Reports and papers, volume III: Television and Adolescent Aggressiveness. A technical report to the Surgeon General's Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior. Washington: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, National Institute of Mental Health.

Comstock. G.A.; Rubinstein, E.A. & Murray. J.P. (Eds.) (1972) Television and Social Behavior. &ports and papers. volume V: Televisions Effects: Further Explorations. A technical report to the Surgeon General's Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior. Washington: U.S. Department of Health, Education. and Welfare, National Institute of Mental Health.

Comstock, G.A. & Paik, H. (1991) Television and the American Child. New York: Academic Press.

Comstock, G.A. & Strasburger, V.C. (1990) Deceptive Appearances: Television Violence and Aggressive Behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health Care. 11. pp. 31-44.

Cooper, J. & Mackie, D. (1986) Video Games and Aggression in Children. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 16(8), pp. 726-744.

Cronstrom. J. (1994) Skildringar av wild och valdets offer i televisionens nyhetsprogram. En kvantitativ-kvalitativ innehalllsanalys over tid och mellan aktorer i det svenska etermedieutbudet. [Descriptions of Violence and the Violence's victims in the 1V News. A Quantitative-Qualitative Content Analysis Across Time and Actors in the Swedish Broadcasting Media.] Stockholm: Stockholms universitet. Institutionen for Journalistik. medier och kommunikation.

Cronstrom, J. & Hoijer, B. (1996) 40 timmar i veckan - en studie av vald i sexsvenska TV-kanaler.[40 Hours a Week: A Study of Violence in Six Swedish Television Channels.] Stockholm: Valdsskildringsrader, 14.

Cumberbatch, G.; Jones, I. & Lee, M.(l988) Measuring Violence on Television. Current Psychology Research and Reviews. 7(1), 10-25.

Cupit, C.G. (1986) Kids and the Scary World of Video. The Television Committee of the South Australian Council for Children's Film & Television inc.

Davis, M.M. (1989) Television is Good for Your Kids. London: Hillary Shipman.

Dedayan. S. (1995) Un regard sur le contexte mediatique de la violence televisse. Background document prepared for the the international conference 'Violence on the Screen and the Rights of the Child', Lund, Sweden, 26-27 September 1995. Paris: UNESCO.

le Diberder, A. & le Diberder, F. (1993) Qui a peur des jeux video? Paris: Decouverte.

Dominick, J.R. (1984) Videogames, Television Violence, and Aggression in Teenagers. Journal of Communication, 34, pp. 136-147.

Dominick, J.R. & Greenberg, B.S. (1972) Attitudes Toward Violence: The Interaction of Television Exposure, Family Attitudes. and Social Class. In Comstock. GA. & Rubinstein. E.A. (Eds.) Television and Social Behavior. Reports and papers, volume Ill: Television and Adolescent Aggressiveness. Washington: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Institute of Mental Health, pp. 314-335.

Donnerstein, E. (1988) Television and the Aggressive Child - A Cross-National Comparison. Journal of Communication, 38(1), pp. 183-186.

Donnersrein, E.: Slaby, R.G. & Eron, L.D. (1994) The Mass Media and Youth Aggression. In Eron, L.D.; Gentry, J.H. & Schlegel, P. (Eds.) Reason to Hope: A Psychosocial Perspective on Violence and Youth. Washington: American Psychological Association, 219-250.

Donnerstein, E.; Wilson, B. & Linz, D. (1992) On the Regulation of Broadcast Indecency to Protect Children. Journal of Broadcasting &Electronic Media, 36(1), pp. 111- 117.

Dorr, A. (1986) Television and Children. A Special Medium for a Special Audience. London: Sage

Drabman, R.S. & Thomas, M.H. (1974) Does Media Violence Increase Children's Toleration of Real Life Aggression? Development Psychology, 10, pp. 418-421.

Duhs, L.A. & Gunton, R.J. (1988) TV-Violence and Childhood Aggression - A Curmudgeons Guide. Australian Psychologist, 23(2), pp. 183-195.

Durkin, K. (1992) Young People, Crime and the Media. Proceedings of the Censorship Conference, 1992. Sydney, N.S.W.: Office of Film and Literature Classification.

Eron, L.D. (1971) Learning of Aggression in Children. Boston: Little, Brown.

Eron, L.D. (1982) Parent-Child Interaction, Television Violence and Aggression of Children. American Psychologist, 37(2), pp. 197-211.

Eron, L.D. (1986) Interventions to Mitigate the Psychological Effects of Media Violence on Aggressive Behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 42(3), pp. 155-169.

Eron, L.D. et al. (1974) How Learning Conditions in Early Childhood -- Including Mass Media -- Relate to Aggression in Late Adolescence. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 44(3), pp. 412-423.

Eron, L.D., Gentry, J .H. &Schlegel, r (Eds.) (1994) Reason to Hope. A Psychosocial Perspective on Violence &Youth. Washington: American Psychological Association.

Eron, L.D. & Huesmann. L.R. (1980) Integrating Field and Laboratory Investigations of Televised Violence and Aggression. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association. Montreal, Quebec, Canada, September 1-5, 1980.

Eron, L.D. & Huesmann, L.R. (Eds.) (1986) Television and the Aggressive Child: A Cross-National Comparison. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Eron, L.D. & Huesmann, L.R. (1987) Television as a Source of Maltreatment of Children. School Psychology Review, 16(2), pp. 195-202.

Eron, L.D. & Huesmann, L.R. (1987) The Stability of Aggressive Behavior in Cross-National Comparison. In Kagitcibasi, C. Growth and Progress in Cross-Cultural Psychology. Berwyn: Swets North America, pp. 207-217.

Eron, L.D.; Huesmann, L.R.; Lefkowitz, M.M. & Walder, L.O. (1996) Does Television Violence Cause Aggression? In Greenberg, D.F. (Ed.) Criminal Careers, Vol. 2. The International Library of Crimonology, Criminal Justice and Penology. Aldershot: Dartmouth, pp. 311-321.

Evjen, T.A. & Bjornebekk, R. (1997) Voldspornografi pa Internett - en kartlegging av forekomst og tilgjenglighet. [Pornography of Violence at Internet -- A Survey of Existence and Availability.) Delrapport II. I Volden for oyet - en studie om unge i risikosonen, vold og medier. Oslo: Regjeringens handlingsplan mot vold i bildemediene.

Favaro, P.J. (1983) The Effects of Video Game Play on Mood, Psychological Arousal and Psychomotor Performance. Hofstra: Hofstra University.

Favaro, P.J. (1984) How Video Games Affect Players. Softside, (7) 1.

Federman, J. (Ed.) (1997) National Television Violence Study, Volume 2. Executive Summary. Santa Barbara: University of California, Center for Communication and Social Policy.

von Feilitzen, C. (1978) Aristoteles, katharsis och underhallningsvald. [Aristotle, Catharsis and Violence-as-entertainment.] The Author, 1-2, pp. 22-26.

von Feilitzen, C. (1981) Barns radsla och tv. [Children's Fear and Television.] Barn och Kultur, 27(6), pp. 123-130.

von Feilitzen, C. (1984) On the Cultural Oppression of Childlen. In Melischek, G.; Rosengren, K.E. & Stappers, J. (Eds.) Cultural Indicators: An International Symposium. Wien: Verlag der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. pp. 71-84.

von Feilitzen, C. (1989) Spanning, radsla, aggression och vald. [Excitement, Fear, Aggression and Violence.] In von Feilitzen, C.; Filipson, L.; Rydin, I. &Schyller, I. Barnoch unga i mediealdern. Fakta i ord och siffror. Stockholm: Raben & Sjogren, pp. 188-208.

von Feilitzen, C. (1994) Media Violence: Research Perspectives in the 1980s. In Hamelink, C.J. & Linne, O. (Eds.) Mass Communication Research: On Problems and Policies. The Art of Asking the Right Questions: In Honor of James D. Halloran. Norwood: Ablex, pp. 147-170.

von Feilitzen, C. (1996) Barn och de realistiska valdsskildringarna. [Children and Realistic Depictions of Violence.] In Anden-Papadopoulos, K. & Hoijer, B. (Eds.) Valdsamma Nyheter: Perspektiv pa dokumentara valdsskildringar i media. Stockholm/Stehag: Brutus Ostlings Bokforlag Symposion, pp. 203-222.

von Feilitzen, C.; Forsman, M. & Roe, K. (Eds.) (1993) Vald fran alla hall. Forskningsperspektiv pa vald i rorliga bilder. [Violence from Everywhere. Research Perspectives on Violence in Moving Images.] Stockholm/Stehag: Brutus Ostlings Bokforlag Symposion.

Feshbach, S. (1976) The Role of fantasy in Response to Television. Journal of Social Issues. 32, pp. 71-85.

Feshbach, S. (1984) The Catharsis Hypothesis, Aggressive Drive, and the Reduction of Aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 10, pp. 91-101.

Feshbach. S. & Singer. R.D. (1971) Television and Aggression: An Experimental Field Study. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Fling, S.; Smith, L.; Rodrigues, T; Thornton, D. et al. (1992) Videogames, Aggression and Self-Esteem: A Survey. Social Behavior and Personality, 20, pp. 39-46.

Forsman, M. (1996) Vald i reklam - spekulation, ironi eller samtidskritik? [Violence in Advertising.] Konsumentverket, 39.

Fraczek, A. (1986) Socio-Cultural Environment, Television Viewing and the Development of Aggression Among Children in Poland. In Huesmann, L.R. & Eron, D.E. Television and the Aggressive Child: A Cross-National Comparison. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 119-159.

Frau-Meigs, D. (1997) La violence sur les ecrans, enjeux culturels de politiques economiques. Image et violence, actes du colloque BPI 3-4 octobre 1996. Paris: BPI en Actes.

Frau-Meigs, D. (1997) l.es fictions televisuelles internationales: violence du cliche a la television. GRAAT-CERCA, 13.

Frau-Meigs, D. (1997) Violence commise, violence subie. In Lacroix, J-M. Television et violence. authour de l'example canadien. Paris: Presses de la Sorbonne Nouvelle.

Frau-Meigs, D. & Jehel, S. (1997) Les ecrarns de la violence. Enjeux economiques et responsabilitis sociales. Paris: Economica.

Freedman, J.L. (1986) Television Violence and Aggression: A Rejoinder. Psychological Bulletin. 100(3), pp. 372-378.

French, J. & Pena, S. (1991) Children's Hero Play of the 20'h Century: Changes Resulting from Television's Influence. Child Study Journal 21(2), pp. 79-94.

French, K. (Ed.) (1996) Screen Violence. London: Bloomsbury.

Friedlander, B.Z. (1993) Community Violence, Children's Development and Mass Media. In Hanford, U. (Ed.) Pursuit of New Insights, New Goals and New Strategies. Special Issue: Children and Violence. Psychiatry-Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 56(1), pp. 66-81.

Friedrich-Cofer, L. & Huston, A. (1986) Television Violence and Aggression: The Debate Continues. Psychological Bulletin, 100(3), pp. 364-371.

Friedrich, L.K. & Huston A. (1973) Aggressive and Prosocial Television Programs and the Natural Behavior of Preschool Children. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Funk, J.B. (1993) Reevaluating the Impact of Video Games. Clinical Pediatrics, 32(2), pp. 86-90.

Funk, J .B. & Buchman, D.D. (1996) Playing Violent Video and Computer Games and Adolescent Self-Concept. Journal of Communication, 46(2).

Gadow, K.D. & Sprafkin, J. (1989) Field Experiment of Television Violence with Children: Evidence for an Environmental Hazard. Pediatrics, 83(3), pp. 399-405.

Gadow, K.D. & Sprafkin, J. (1990) Television Violence. Archives of General Psychiatry. 47, pp. 595-596.

Gauntlett, D. (1995) Moving Experiences. Understanding Televisions Influences and Effects. London: John Libbey.

Gauntlett, D. (1997) Video Critical: Children, the Environment and Media Power. London: John Libbey Media.

Geen, R.G. (1975) The Meaning of Observed Violence: Real vs. Fictional Violence and Consequent Effects on Aggression and Emotional Arousal. Journal of Research in Personality. 9. pp. 270- 281.

Geen, R.G. (1981) Behavioral and Physiological Reactions to Observed Violence: Effects of Prior Exposure to Aggressive Stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 40(5), pp. 868-875.

Geen, R.G. (1994) Television and Aggression: Recent Developments in Research and Theory. In Zillman, D.; Bryant. J. & Huston. A.C (Eds.) Media, Children and the Family. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 151-162.

Geen. R.G. & Rakosky. J.J. (1975) Interpretations of Observed Violence and their Effects on GSR. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality. 6. pp. 289-292.

Geen. R.G. & Stonner, D. (1973) Context Effects in Observed Violence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 25(1), pp. 145-150.

Geen, R.G. &Thomas, S.L. (1986) The Immediate Effects of Media Violence on Behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 42(3), pp. 7-27.

Gerbner, G. (1980) Children and Power on Television: The Other Side of the Picture. In Gerbner, G.; Ross, CJ. & Zigler, E. (Eds.) Child Abuse: An Analysis and Agenda ftr Action. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 239- 248.

Gerbner. G. (1988) Violence and Terror in the Mass Media. Paris: UNESCO, Reports and Papers on Mass Communication, 102.

Gerbner, G. (1994) The Politics of Media Violence: Some Reflections. In Hamelink. CJ. & Linne. O. (Eds.) Mass Communication Research: On Problems and Policies. The Art of Asking the Right Questions: In Honor of James D. Halloran. Norwood: Ablex, pp. 133-145.

Gerbner. G. (1995) Television Violence: The Power and the Peril. In Dines. G. & Humez. J.M. (Eds.) Gender, Race. and Class in Media: A Critical Text-Reader. London: Sage, pp. 547-557.

Gerbner, G. & Gross, L. (1976) Living with Television: The Violence Profile. Journal of Communication, 26(2), pp. 173-199.

Gerbner, G. & Gross, L. (1980) The Violent Face of Television and Its Lessons. In Palmer, E. & Door. A. (Eds.) Children and the Faces of Television: Teaching. Violence, Selling. New York: Academic Press, pp. 149-162.

Gerbner, G.; Gross, L.; Morgan. M. & Signorielli, N. (1986) Living with Television: The Dynamics of the Cultivation Process. In Bryant, J. & Zillmann, D. (Eds.) Perspectives on Media Effects. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 17-40.

Gerbner, G.; Gross, L.; Morgan. M. & Signorielli. N. (1994) Growing up with Television: The Cultivation Perspective. In Bryant, J. & Zillmann, D. (Eds.) Media Effects. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 17-41.

Gerbner, G.; Gross, L.& Signorielli. N. (1980) The 'Mainstreaming' of America: Violence Profile No. 11. Journal of Communication, 30(3).

Gcrbner, G.; Ross. C.J. & Zigler. E. (Eds.) (1980) Child Abuse: An Agenda for Action. New York: University Press.

Girard. R. (1972) La violence et le sacre. Paris: Bernard Grasset.

Goonasekera, A. (1990) Lock. Yut, Kam: Violence on Television in Asia. Asian Journal f Communication, 1 (1), pp. 136-146.

Gosselin. A. (1993) Violence et effet d'incubation de la television: la these de la cultivation analysis. In Les etudes de communication publique. Quebec. Universite Laval. Departement d'information et de communication, cahier 6.

Gosselin, A. (1994) Media ct violence: dimensions micro-macro des modeles d'explication. In Les etudes de communication publique. Quebec: Universite Laval. Departement d'information et de communication, cahier 8.

Graybill, D.; Kirsch, J.R. & Esselman, E.E. (1985) Effects of Playing Violent versus Nonviolent Video Games on the Aggressive Ideation of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children. Child Study Journal, 15(3). pp. 199-205.

Graybill, D.; Strawniak, M.; Hunter. T. & O'Leary. M. (1987) Effects of Playing versus Observing Violent versus Nonviolent Video Games on Children's Aggression. Psychology, 24(3), pp. 1-8.

Griffiths, M.D. & Shuckford. G.L.J. (1989) Desensitization to Television Violence - A New Model. New Ideas. Psychology. 7(1), pp. 85-89.

Gripsrud, J. (1989) De fryktinngytende bildene. [The Frightening Pictures.] Z. Filmtidskrift, (3), pp. 10-17; (4), pp. 16-23.

Groebel, J. (1986) International Research on Television Violence: Synopsis and Critique. In Huesmann. L.R. & Eron, L.D. (Eds.) Television and the Aggressive Child: A Cross-National Comparison. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 259-281.

Groebel. J. & Gleich. U. (1993) Gewaltprofil des deutschen Fernsehprogramms - Eine Analyse des Angebots privater und offentlich-rechtlicher Sender. Leske & Budrich: Schriftenreihe Medienforschung der Landesanstalt fur Rundfunk Nordrhein-Westfalen, 6.

Gunter, B. (1985) Dimensions of Television Violence. A1dershot: Gower.

Gunter, B. (1987) Television and the Fear of Crime. London: John Libbey & IBA.

Gunter, B. (1994) The Question of Media Violence. In Bryant, J. & Zillman, D. (Eds.) Media Effects. Advances in Theory and Research. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 163-211.

Gunter, B. & Harrisson. J. (Eds.)(1995) Violence on Television in the United Kingdom, A Content Analysis. Sheffield: University of Sheffield, Department of Journalism Studies.

Gunter, B. & McAleer, J. (1990) Children and Television - The One Eyed Monster? London: Routledge.

Gunter, B. & Wober, M. (1988) Violence on Television. What the Viewers Think. London: John Libbey & IBA.

Hagiwara, S. (1990) Violence on Television in Asia: Japanese Study. KEIO Communication Review, 11, pp. 3-23.

Hall, S.; Chritcher, C.; Jefferson, T.; Clarke, J. & Roberts, B. (1978) Policing the Crisis. Mugging, the State, and Law and Order. London: MacMillan.

Halloran, J.D. (1978) Mass Communication: Symbol or Cause of Violence? International Social Science Journal, 30(4), pp. 816-834.

Halloran, J.D.; Brown, R.L. & Chaney, D.C. (1970) Television and Delinquency. Leicester: Leicester University Press.

Halloran, J.D.; Elliott, I'&Murdock, G. (J 970) Demonstrations and Communication: A Case Study. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Hammarberg, T. (1996) Children, the UN Convention and the Media. Report prepared for the Committee on the Rights of the Child. General discussion day, 7 October 1996. Geneva: Palais des Nations.

Hapkiewicz, W.G. (1979) Children's Reactions to Cartoon Violence. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 8, pp. 30-34.

Hargrave, A.M. (Ed.) (1993) Violence in Factual Television. London: John Libbey.

Hargrave, A.M. & Halloran, J.D. (1996) Young People and the Media. Research Working Paper. London: Broadcasting Standards Council.

Hart, A. (1996) Television, Children and Violence. Communications, 2.1(4), pp. 433-445.

Hartwig, H. (1988) Grymhetens bilder, bildernas grymhet. Skrack och fascination i gamla och nya media. [The Cruelty of Pictures. Fear and Fascination in Old and New Media.] Goteborg: Daidalos.

Hearold, S. (1986) A Synthesis of 1043 Effects of Television on Social Behavior. In Comstock, G. (Ed.) Public Communication and Behavior, I, pp. 65-133.

Heath, L.; Bresolin, L.B. & Rinaldi, R.C. (1989) Effects of Media Violence on Children - A Review of the Literarure. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, pp. 376-379.

Hellbom, B. (1982) TV-vald. En innehallsanalys. [TV Violence. A Content Analysis.] Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen.

Hill, A. (1997) Shocking Entertainment: Viewer Response to Violent Movies. London: John Libbey Media.

Hoberman, H.M. (1990) Study Group Report on the Impact of Television Violence on Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 11(1), pp. 45-49.

Hodge, B. & Tripp, D. (1986) Children and Television. A Semiotic Approach. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Holmberg, O. (1988) Videovald och undervisning. [Video Nasties and Teaching.] Stockholm/Lund: Symposion.

House of Representatives, Crime and Violence in the Media. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Crime of the Committee on the Judiciary., Ninety-Eight Congress, first Session, 83.

Howitt, D. & Cumberbatch, G. (1975) Mass Media Violence and Society. London: Elek Science.

Huesmann, L.R. (1986) Psychological Processes Promoting the Relation Between Exposure to Media Violence and Aggressive Behavior by the Viewer. Journal of Social Issues, 42(3), pp. 125-140.

Huesmann, L.R. (1988) An Information Processing Model for the Development of Aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 14, pp. 13-24.

Huesmann, L.R. (Ed.) (1994) Aggressive Behavior: Current Perspectives. New York: Plenum Press.

Huesmann, L.R.; Eron, L.D.; Lefkowitz, M.M. & Walder, L.O. (1973) Television Violence and Aggression: The Causal Effect Remains. American Psychologist, 28(7), pp. 617-620.

Huesmann. L.R. & Eron. L.D. (Eds.) (1986) Television and the Aggressive Child. A Cross-National Comparison. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Huesman n. L.R.; Eron. L.D.; Berkowitz. L.&Chaffee. S. ( 1992) The Effects of Television Violence on Aggression: A Reply to a Skeptic. In Suedfeld. P.& Tetlock. P.E. (Eds.) Psychology and Social Policy. New York: Hemisphere. pp. 191-200.

Huston. A.C (1987) Television and Aggression around the World. Contemporary Psychology. 32(1). pp. 942-943.

Huston. A.C. & Wright. J. C. (1987) The Effects of Television Form and Violent Content on Boys' Attention and Social Behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 41. pp. 1-17.

Huston. A.C; Donnerstein. E.; Fairchild. H.; Feshbach. N.D.; Katz. P.A; Murray. J.P.; Rubinstein. EA.; Wilcox. B.L. & Zuckerman. D. (1992) Big World. Small Screen. The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Hoijer. B. (1994) Valdsskildringar i TV-nyheter. Produktion. utbud. publik. [The Depiction of Violence on Television News.] Stockholm. Valdsskildringsradet. 9.

Irwin. A.R. & Gross. AM. (1995) Cognitive Tempo. Violent Video Games and Aggressive Behavior in Young Boys. Journal of Family Violence, 10. pp. 337-350.

Iwao, S.; de Sola Pool. I. & Hagiwara. S. (1981) Japanese and U.S. Media: Some Cross-Cultural Insights into TV Violence. Journal of Communication, 31 (2), pp. 28-36.

Iwao, S. et al. (1991) Content Analysis of TV Dramatic Programs (in Japanese). Hoso Bunka Foundation Research Report. 14. pp. 291-294.

Jablonski. CM. & Zillmann. D. (1995) Humor's Role in the Trivialization of Violence. Medienpsychologie Zeitschrift fur Individum und Massenkommunikation, 7, pp. 122- 133.

Jehel, S. (1995) Enquete sur la representation de la violence a la television en France. Paris: Conseil Superieur de l'Audiovisuel.

Jehel-Cathelineau. S. (1996) L'impact de la violence televisee sur les enfants. Revue de neuro-psychiatrie de l'enfance et de l'adolescence, april.

Jehel-Cathelineau. S. (1997) La rhetorique de la violence dans les programmes pour enfants. Image et violence, actes du colloque BPI 3-4 octobre 1996. Paris: BPI en Actes.

Jensen. J. F. (1993) Powerplay: maskuliniter. makt och vald i datorspel. [Masculinity. Power and Violence in Computer Games.] In von Feilitzen. C; Forsman. M. & Roe. K. (Eds.) Vald fran alla hall Forskningsperspektiv pa vald i rorliga bilder. Stockholm/Stehag: Symposion, pp. 151-173.

Jo, E. & Berkowitz. L. (1994) A Priming Effect Analysis of Media Influences. In Bryant. J. & Zillman. D. (Eds.) Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 43-60.

Johnson, R. (1996) Bad News Revisited: The Portrayal of Violence. Conflict and Suffering on Television News. Journal of Peace Psychology. 2(3).

Johnston. D.D. (1995) Adolescents' Motivations for Viewing Graphic Horror. Human Communication Research, 21(4). pp. 522-552.

Josephson, W.L. (1987) Television Violence and Childrens' Aggression: Testing the Priming. Social Script and Disinhibition Predictions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(5), pp. 882-890.

Joy, L.A; Kimball. M.M. & Zabrack, M.L. (1986) Television and Children's Aggressive Behavior. In Williams. T.M. (Ed.) The Impact of Television: A Natural Experiment in Three Communities. New York: Academic Press, pp. 303-360.

Kapoor. S.K.; Kang. J.G.; Kim. W.Y. & Kim. K. (1994) Televised Violence and Viewers' Perceptions of Social Reality: The Korean Case. Communication Research Reports, 11 (2). pp. 189-200.

Kashiwagi, A. & Munakata, K. et al. (1985) Research on Relationship between Influence by Children's Exposure to TV Film with High Violence Ratings and Family Background (in Japanese). Hoso Bunka Foundation Research Report, 8, pp. 58-66.

Kenny, D.A. (1984) The NBC Study and Television Violence. A Review. Journal of Communication. 34, pp. 176- 188.

Klosinski, G. (1987) Beitrag zu Beziehung von Video-Filmkonsum und Kriminalitat in der Adoleszenz. Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie, 2, pp. 66-71.

Krogh, T. (1994) Non-Violence. Tolerance and Television. Report of the Chairman of the International Programme for the Development of Communication. Paris: UNESCO.

Kunkel. D.; Wilson, B.; Donnerstein. E.; Linz. D.; Smith. S.; Gray, T; Blumenthal, E. & Potter, J.W. (1995) Measuring Television Violence: The Importance of Context, Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. 39(2), pp. 284-291.

Lagadeck. P. & Rudetzki, F. (1996) Les victimes d'attentats et les medias. Revue Administration, 171.

Lagerspetz, K. & Viemero, V. (1986) Television and Aggressive Behaviour Among Finnish Children. In Huesmann, L.R. & Eron. L.D. Television and the Aggressive Child: A Cross-National Comparison. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 81- 117.

Landesanstalt fur Rundfunk Nordrhein-Westfalen (LRF) (1993) Gewalt im Fernsehen -- (K)ein Thema fur Kindergarten und Schule? Dusseldorf, LFR-Dokumentationen Band 8.

Lawrence, P.A. & Palmgreen, P.V. (1996) A Uses and Gratifications Analysis of Horror Film Preference. In Weaver, J.B. & Tamborini, R.C. (Eds.) Horror Films. Current Research on Audience Preferences and Reactions. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 161-178.

Lefkowitz, M.M.; Walder, L.O.; Eron. L.D. & Huesmann, L.R. (1973) Preference for Televised Contact Sports as Related to Sex Differences in Aggression. Developmental Psychology, 9(3). pp. 417-420.

Lefkowitz, M.M.; Eron, L.D.; Walder. L.O. & Huesmann, L.R. (1977) Growing Up to Be Violent. A Longitudinal Study. of the Development of Aggression. New York: Pergamon Press.

Linne, O. (1976) The Viewer's Aggression as a Function of a Variously Edited TV Film. International Journal of Communication Research. 1.

Linne, O. (1995) Media Violence Research in Scandinavia. Nordicom Review, 2. pp. 1-11.

Linz. D.G. & Donnerstein. E. (1989) The Effects of Violent Messages in the Mass Media. In Bradac, J.J. (Ed.) Message Effects in Communication Science, Newbury Park: Sage.

Linz, D.G.; Donnerstein. E. & Penrod. S. (1988) Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Violent and Sexually Degrading Depictions of Women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(5), pp. 758-768.

Litteratur om vald och media 1972- I 994. (1995) [Violence and Media in the Literature.] Nordicoms specialbibliografiserie I. Aarhus: Statsbiblioteket.

Lornetti, G.E. (1995) The Measurement of Televised Violence. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 39(2), pp. 292-295.

Lurcat, L. (1989) Violence a la tele: l'enfant fascInc. Paris: Syros.

Lurcat. L. (1990) Impact de la violence televisuelle. Enfance, Tome, 43(1). pp. 167-171.

Magell, A. & Newburn, T. (1994) Young Offenders and the Media. Viewing Habits and Preferences, London: Policy Studies Institute.

Martinez. A. (1991) 1.A violence a la television: etat des connaissances scientifiques. Ottawa: Canadian Radio- Television and Telecommunications Commission.

Mayor, F. (1995) Paper prepared by the Director-General. UNESCO, for the opening of the international Conference on Violence on the Screen and the Rights of the Child. Lund. Sweden. 26 September 1995.

Meyer. T.P. (1972) Effects of Viewing Justified and Unjustified Real Film Violence on Aggressive Behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 23, pp. 21-29.

Mikami. S. (1993) A Cross-National Comparison of the U.S.-Japanese TV Drama: International Culture Indicators (in Japanese). KEIO Communication Review, 15, pp. 29-44.

Milavsky. J.R.; Kessler. R.C.; Stipp. H.H. & Rubens. W.S. (1982) Television andAggression: A Panel Study. New York: Academic Press.

Milgram. S. & Shotland. R.L. (1973) Television and Antisocial Behavior. Field Experiments. New York: Academic Press.

Mouseler. V. (1997) La violence dans les programmes de jeux. In Image et violence. Acres du colloque BPI. 3-4 octobre 1996. Paris: BPI en Actes.

Munakata. K.; Kashiwagi. A. et al. (1991) Effect of Viewing of TV Programs with Violence on Children and Their Families: Five-Years Later (in Japanese). Hoso Bunka Foundation Research Report, 14, pp. 275-278.

Murdock, G. (1982) Mass Communication and Social Violence: A Critical Review of Recent Research Trends. In Marsh. P. & Campbell. A. (Eds.) Aggression and Violence. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. pp. 62-90.

Murdock. G. (1994) Visualizing Violence: Television and the Discourse of Disorder. In Hamelink. C.J. & Linne. O. (Eds.) Mass Communication Research: On Problems and Policies: The Art of Asking the Right Questions: In Honor of James D. Halloran. Norwood: Ablex. pp.171-187.

Murdock. G. & McCron. R. (1979) The Television and Delinquency Debate. Screen Education. pp. 55-68.

Murray. J. P. (Ed.) (1980) Television Studies in Scottish Schools. Television Studies in Primary Schools. Glasgow: Scottish Council for Educational Technology.

Murray, J.P. (1994) Impact of Televised Violence. Hofsta Law Review.

Murray, J.P. (1995) Children and Television Violence. Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy, 4(3)

Murray, J.P. (1997) Studying Television Violence -- A Research Agenda for the 21st Century. In Asamen, J.K. and Berry. G.L (Eds.) Research Paradigms in the Study of Television and Social Behavior. Sage.

Murray. J.P.; Rubinstein. E.A. & Comstock. G.A. (Eds.) (1972) Television and Social Behavior. Reports and papers, volume II: Television and Social Learning. A technical report to the Surgeon General's Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior. Washington: U.S. Department of Health. Education. and Welfare. National Institute of Mental Health.

Mustonen. A. & Pulkkinen. L. (1993) Aggression in Television Programs in Finland. Aggressive Behavior, 19(3). 175-183.

National Academy of Science (1993) Understanding and Preventing Violence. Washington: National Academy Press.

National Institute of Mental Health (1982) Television and Behavior. Ten Years of Scientific Progress and Implications for the Eighties. Volume I: Summary Report. Washington: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

National Television Violence Study. Executive Summary 1994-1995 (1996). Mediascope: Inc.

National Television Violence Study. Scientific Papers 1994-1995 (1996). Mediascope: Inc.

National Television Violence Study. Volume 1 (1996). Newbury Park: Sage.

National Television Violence Study. Volume 2 (1997). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Noble, G. (1975) Children in From of the Small Screen. London: Constable.

Ogles. R.M. & Hoffner, C. (1987) Film Violence and Perceptions of Crime: The Cultivation Effect. In McLaughlin, M.L. (Ed.) Communication Yearbook 10. Newbury Park: Sage, pp. 384-394.

Paguette, G. & de Guise, J. (1995) La violence a la telelvision canadienne; profile de la violence diffusee 93-94. Quebec: Universite Laval, Department d'information et de communication.

Paik, H. & Comstock, G. (1994) The Effects of Television Violence on Antisocial Behavior: A Meta-Analysis. Communication Research, 21(4). pp. 516-546.

Palermo, G. B. (1995) Adolescent Criminal Behavior - Is TV Violence One of the Culprits? International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 39(1). pp. 11-22.

Pape, H.; Isachsen. T. & Jessen, J. (1998) Ungdom og vold i bildemediene. [Youth and Violence on the Screen.] Oslo: Regjeringens handlingsplan mot void i bildemediene & Norsk institutt for forskning om oppvekst, velferd og aldring. 1.

Pearl, D.; Bouthilet, L. & Lazar. J. (Eds.) (1982) Television and Behavior. Ten Years of Scientific Progress and Implications for the Eighties. Volume II: Technical Reviews. Washington: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Institute of Mental Health.

Perez de Cuellatr, J. (1995) Our Creative Diversity. Report of the World Commission on Culture and Development. Paris: UNESCO.

Phillips. D. (1986) Natural Experiments on the Effects of Mass Media Violence on Fatal Aggression - Strengths and Weaknesses of a New Approach. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 19. pp. 207-250.

Phillips. D. & Carstensen, M. (1986) Clustering of Teenage Suicide after Television News Stories about Suicide. J. Med, 315, pp. 685-9.

Pietila, V. (1976) Notes on Violence in the Mass Media. Instant Research on Peace and Violence, VI(4), pp. 195- 197.

Potter, W.J. & Warren. R. (1996) Considering Policies to Protect Children from TV Violence. Journal of Communication, 46(3), pp. 116-138.

Rasmussen. H.A. (1989) Actionfilm og drengekultur. [Films of Action and Young Mens' Culture.] In Hojbjerg. L. (Ed.) Reception af levende billeder. Kobenhavn: Akademisk Forlag, pp. 221-234.

Ridley-Johnson, R.; Chance, J.E. & Cooper, H. (1984) Correlates of Children's Television Viewing: Expectancies, Age and Sex. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 5(3). pp. 225-235.

Ridley-Johnson, R.; Surdy. T. & O'Laughlin. E. (1991) Parent Survey on Television Violence Viewing: Fear, Aggression and Sex Differences. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. 12. pp. 63-71.

Roberts. V. (1981) Children's and Patents' Television Viewing and Perception of Violence. Journalism Quarterly. 58(4). pp. 556-564.

Roe, K. (1983) The Influencee of Video Technology in Adolescence. Lund: Lunds universitet, Sociologiska institutionen, Mediapanel nr 27.

Roe, K. (1985) The Swedish Moral Panic over Video 1980-1984. Nordicom Review, I. pp. 20-25.

Rosengren. K.E. (Ed.) (1986) Pa gott och ont: Barn och ungdom, TV och video. [For Better or Worse: Children and Youth, Television and Video.] Stockholm: Liber Urbildningsforlag.

Rosengren. K.E. & Windahl, S. (1989) Media Matter. TV Use in Childhood and Adolescence. Norwood: Ablex.

Rosenthal, R. (1986) Media Violence. Antisocial Behaviour, and the Social Consequences of Small Effects. Journal of Social Issues, 42(3), pp.141-154.

Rowe, D.C. & Herstand, S.E. (1986) Familial Influences on Television Viewing and Aggression: A Sibling Study. Aggressive Behavior, 12. pp. 111-120.

Rowland, W.D. Jr. (1983) The Politics of TV Violence: Policy Uses of Communication Research. Beverly Hills: Sage.

Royal Commission on Violence in the Communications Industry (1976) Volume 1. Approaches. Conclusions and Recommendations. Ontario: Thatcher.

Rubinstein, EA.; Comstock. GA. & Murray, J.P. (Eds.) (1972) Television and Social Behavior. Reports and papers, volume IV: Television in Day-to-day Life: Patterns of Use. A technical report to the Surgeon General's Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior. Washington: U.S. Department of Health. Education, and Welfare, National Institute of Mental Health.

Sander, I. (1997) How Violent is TV Violence? An Empirical Investigation of Factors Influencing Viewers' Perceptions of TV Violence. European Journal of Communication, 12(1), pp. 43-98.

Santos. R. and Albornoz, L. (1995) Violencia en la programacion televisiva infantil Argentina. Universidad Nacional Quilmes.

Sasaki. T. (1986) A Review of Empirical Studies on Television Violence (in Japanese). Tokyo: International Christian University. Educational Studies. 28. pp. 127-156.

Schlesinger. P.; Murdock. G. & Elliot, P.( 1983) Televising Terrorism. Political Violence in Popular Culture. London: Comedia Publishing Group.

Schneider, L.B. (1994) Warning: Television Violence May Be Harmful to Children; But the First Amendment May Foil Congressional Attempts to Legislate Against It. University of Miami Law Review, 49(2), pp. 477-530.

Schutte, N.S.; Malorff, J.M.: Post-Gordon. J.C. & Rodasta. A.L.I. (1988) Effects on Playing Videogames and Children's Aggressive and Other Behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18(5), pp. 454-460.

Selg, H. (1990) Gewaltdarstellungen in Medien und ihre Auswirkungen auf Kinder und Jugendliche. Zeitschrift fur Kinder und Jugendspsychiatrie, 18(3), pp. 152-156.

Selg, H. (1997) Gewalt in Medien -- Moglichkeiten von Eltern zur Vermeidung negativer Auswirkungen. Kindheit und Entwicklung, 6, pp. 79-83.

Shaw, I.S. & David. S.N. (1972) Violence on Television. Programme Content and Viewer Perception. London: British Broadcasting Corporation.

Sheehan, P.W. (1986) Television Viewing and its Relation to Aggression among Children in Australia. In Huesmann. L.R. & Eron, L.D. (Eds.) (1986) Television and the Aggressive Child. A Cross-National Comparison. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 161-199.

Sherman, L.B. & Dominick, J.R. (1986) Violence and Sex in Music Videos: TV and Rock'n Roll. Journal of Communication, 36(1), pp. 79-93.

Shimai, S.; Masuda, K. & Kishimoto, Y. (1990) Influence of TV Games on Physical and Psychological Development of Japanese Kindergarten Children. Perceptual and Motor Skills 70, pp. 771-776.

Shimai. S.; Yamada. E; Masuda. K. & Tada, M. (1993) TV Game Play Obesity in Japanese School Children. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 76, pp. 1121-1122.

Signorielli, N. (1988) Viok=lence and Terror in the Mass Media: An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Greenwood Press.

Signorielli. N. (1990) Television's Mean and Dangerous World: A Continuation of the Cultural Indicators Perspective. In Signorielli, N. & Morgan, M. (Eds.) Cultivation Analysis. New Directions in Media Effects Research. Newbury Park: Sage, pp. 85-106.

Signorielli. N. & Morgan, M. (Eds.) (1990) Cultivation Analysis. New Directions in Media Effects Research. Newbury Park: Sage.

Silver, R. (Ed.) (1993) Media and Violence. Parr One: Making the Connections. Media & Values. 62, pp. 1-24.

Silvern. S.B.; Lang. M.K. & Williamson. P.A. (1987) Social Impact of Video Game Play. In Fine, G.A. (Ed.) Meaningful Play. Playful Meaning. Champaign: Human Kinetics.

Silvern. S.B. &Williamson. P.A.(1987) The Effects of Video Game Play on Young Children's Aggression. Fantasy and Prosocial Behavior. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 8. pp. 453-462.

Simonson, H. (1992) Interaction Effects of Television and Socioeconomic Status on Teenage Aggression. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 3, pp. 233-343.

Singer, D. (1989) Children, Adolescents and Television. Television Violence: A Critique. Pediatrics. 83(3). pp. 445-446.

Singer. J.L. (1986) Is Television Bad for Children? Social Science, 71 (2-3). pp. 178-182.

Singer. J.L. & Singer, D.G. (1981) Television. Imagination and Aggression: A Study of Preschoolers' Play. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Singer. J.L.; Singer. D.G. & Rapaczynski. W. (1984) Family Patterns and Television Viewing as Predictors of Children's Beliefs and Aggression. Journal of Communication, 34, pp. 73-89.

Sjogren, O. (1985) Den forbannade troskeln. Skrackfilm som modern overgangsrit. [The Damned Threshold. Horror Movies as a Modern Initiation Rite.] In Forselius. T.M. & Luoma-Keturi. S. (Eds.) Valdet mot ogat. Filmforskare om film- och videoskrack. Stockholm: Forfattarforlaget. pp. 13-58.

Sneed, C. & Runco, M.A. (1992) The Beliefs Adults and Children Hold about Television and Video Games. Journal of Psychology, 126(3), pp. 273-284.

Sonesson. I. (1979) Forskokbarn och TV [Preschoolers and Television.]. Malmo: Esselte Studium.

Sonesson. I. (1989) Vem fostrar vara barn - videon eller vi? TV, video och emotionell och social anpassning. [Who Brings up Our Children - The Video or We? Television. Video and Emotional and Social Adaption.] Stockholm: Esselte studium.

Sorensen. B.H. (1995) Media Violence - Young People. Nordicom Review, 2, pp. 13-20.

Sparks. R. & Varma, V. (Eds.) (1996) Television and the Well-Being of Children and Young People. Violence in Children and Adolescents, pp. 132-143.

Sprafkin. J. & Gardow. K.D. (1988) The Immediate Impact of Aggressive Cartoons on Emotionally Disturbed and Learning Disabled Children. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 149(1), pp. 35-44.

Stack, S. (1990) The Impact of Fictional Television Films on Teenage Suicide. 1984-85. Social Science Quarterly, 2, pp. 391-399.

Stipp, H. & Milavsky, J.R. (1988) Television Programming's Effects on Aggressive Behaviour of Children and Adolescents. Current Psychology: Research & Rreviews, 7(1). pp. 76-92.

Strasburger, V.C. (1995) Adolescents and the Media: Medical and Psychological Impact. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Stutz, E. (1991) What Are They Doing Now? A Study of Children Aged 7-14. Norwich: Play for Life.

Surgeon General's Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior (1972) Television and Growing Up: The Impact of Televised Violence. Report to The Surgeon General United States Public Health Service. Washington: Department of Health. Education. and Welfare. National Institute of Mental Health.

Tan, A.S. (1986) Social Learning of Aggression from Television. In Bryant. J. & Zillman. D. (Eds.) Perspectives on Media Effects. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 41-55.

Tannenbaum. P.H. (1980) Entertainment as a Vicarious Emotional Experience. In Tannenbaum, P.H. (Ed.) The Entertainment Functions of Television. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 107-131.

Theunert. H.; Pescher. R.; Best, P.& Schorb, B. (1991) Zwischen Vergnugen und Angst-Fernsehen im Alltag von Kinder. Eine Untersuchungzur Wahrnemung und Verarbeitung von Fernsehinhalten durch Kinder aus unterschiedlichen soziokulturellun Milieus in Hamburg. Hamburg: Vistas Verlag.

Thomas, M. H. & Drabman, R.S. (1975) Toleration of Real Life Aggression as a Function of Exposure to Televised Violence and Age of Subject. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. 21(3), pp. 227-232.

Thomas, M. H. & Drabman, R.S. (1978) Effects of Television Violence on Expectations of Others' Aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 4(1). pp. 73-76.

Thomas, M.H. & Tell. P.M. (1974) Effects of Viewing Real versus Fantasy Violence upon Interpersonal Aggression. Journal of Research in Personality, 8, pp. 153-160.

Toles, T (1985) Video Games and the American Military Ideology. In Mosco. V. & Wasko. J. (Eds.) The Critical Communications Review, Vol. 3 - Popular Culture and Media Events. Norwood: Ablex.

Tulloch. J.C. &Tulloch, M.I. (1992) Tolerating Violence: Children's Responses to Television. Australian Journal of Communication. 19(1). pp. 9•21.

Tulloch, M.1. (1995) Evaluating Aggression: School Students' Responses to Television Portrayals of Institutionalized Violence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24, pp. 95-15.

Tulloch. M.1. & Tulloch. J.C. (1992) Attirudes to Domestic Violence: School Students' Responses to a Television Drama. Australian Journal of Marriage & Family, 13, pp. 62-69.

Turner. C.W.; Hesse. B.W. & Pererson-Lewis, S. (1986) Naturalistic Studies of the Long-Term Effects of Television. Journal of Social Issues, 42(3), pp. 51-73.

Vaagland. O. (1979) Fjersyn og vold. [Television and Violence.] Bergen: Bergens Universiter, Institutt for medievitenskap.

Viemero, V. (1986) Relationships between Filmed Violence and Aggression. Abo: Abo Akademi, Psykologiska institutionen.

Violence on the Screen and the Rights of the Child (1996) Report from a Seminar in Lund, Sweden. 26- 27 September 1995. Svenska Unesco-Riders skrifrserie 2. Stockholm: Swedish National Commission for UNESCO.

Virro, A.; Csapo, A.; Szilard, J. & Vargha, M. (1988) Effects of Television on Aggressivity of Adolescents. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 3(4), pp. 303-321.

Voojis. M.W.; van der Vort, T.H.A. (1993) Learning about Television Violence: the Impact of a Critical Viewing Curriculum on Children's Attitudinal Judgements of Crime Series. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 26(3), pp. 133-142.

Voojis, M.W.; van der Vort, T.H.A. (1993) Teaching Children to Evaluate Television Violence Critically - The Impact of a Dutch Schools' Television Project. Journal of Educational Television, 19(3). pp. 139-152.

van der Voort, T.H.A. (1986) Television Violence: A Child's-Eye View. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

van der Voort, T.H.A & Valkenburg. P.A. (1994) Television's Impact on Fantasy Play: A Review of Research. Developmental Review, 14, pp. 27-51.

Waever, J.B. &Tamborini. R. (Eds.) (1996) Horror Films. Current Research on Audience Preferences and Reactions. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Walker, K.B. & Mortey, D.D. (1991) Attitudes and Parental Factors as Intervening Variables in the Television Violence-Aggression Relation. Communication Research Reports, 8, pp. 41-47.

Wartella, E. (1995) Media and Problem Behaviours in Young People. In Rutter, M. &Smith, D. (Eds.) Psychosocial Disorders in Young People: Time Trends & Their Origins. Chichester: Wiley, pp. 296-323.

Werner, A. (1994) Barn i fkernsynsalderen: Hva vet vi om medienes innflytelse? [Children in the Television Age.] Oslo: Ad Notam Gyldendal.

Wiegman, O.; Kuttschreuter. M. & Baarda. B. (1986) Television Viewing Related to Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviour. Den Haag: Stichting voor Onderwek van het Onderwijs.

Wiegman. O.; Kuttschreuter. M. & Baarda, B. (1992) A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Television Viewing on Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors. British Journal of Social Psychology, 31 (2), pp. 147-164.

Williams, T.M. (Ed.) (1986) The Impact of Television. A Natural Experiment in Three Communities. Orlando: Academic Press.

Wilson, B.J. (1995) Les recherches sur medias et violence: Aggressivite, desensibilisation, peur. Les cahiers de la seeurite interieure, 20(2), pp. 21-37.

Wilson. B.J. & Weiss. A.J. (1991) The Effects of 2 Reality Explanations on Children's Reactions to a Frightening Movie Scene. Communication Monographs. 58(3), pp. 307-326.

Wober, M. & Gunter, B. (1988) Television & Social Control. Avebury: Gower.

Yuji, H. & Mori, S. (1995) Gender and Violence on Computer Games (in Japanese). Journal of Child Study. 1, pp. 93-104.

Zillman. D. (1971) Excitation Transfer in Communication-mediated Aggressive Behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 7, pp. 419-434.

Zillman. D.; Weaver. J.B.; Mundorf. N. & Aust, C.F. (1986) Effects of an Opposite Gender Companion's Affect to Horror on Distress, Delight. and Attraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, pp. 586-594.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 24270
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Children and Media Violence, by Ulla Carlsson

Postby admin » Sat Sep 07, 2013 6:36 am

Authors of the Research Articles

Carlos A. Arnaldo
Chief, Free Flow of Information and
Communication Research
Communication Division, UNESCO
Paris, France

Mike Berry
Graduate Student
Department of Communication
University of California
Santa Barbara, USA

Eva Blumenthal
Graduate Student
Department of Communication
University of California
Santa Barbara, USA

Nadia Bulbulia
Independent Researcher
Children and Broadcasting Forum and
University of the Witwatersrand
Johannesburg, South Africa

Ed Donnerstein
Dr, Full Professor
Department of Communication
University of California
Santa Barbara, USA

Kevin Durkin
Associate Professor of Psychology
University of Western Australia
Nedlands, Australia

Joel Federman
Co-Director
Center for Communication and Social Policy
University of California
Santa Barbara, USA

Asa Finnstrom
Head of Section
Division for the Media, Ministry of Culture
Stockholm, Sweden

Titti Forsslund
Researcher, Freelance Journalist
Department of Research and Education
Stockholm School of Education
Stockholm, Sweden

Anura Goonasekera
Dr, Head of Research
Asian Media Information and Communication Centre
School of Communication Studies Building
Nanyang Technological University
Singapore

Jo Groebel
Professor, Dr, Chair
Department of Media Psychology
Utrecht University
Utrecht, The Netherlands

Thomas Hammarberg
Ambassador and Special Advisor
to the Swedish Government on Humanitarian Issues
Stockholm, Sweden

Nancy Jennings
Doctoral Student
Radio-Television-Film Department
University of Texas at Austin
Austin, USA

Sachiko Imaizumi Kodaira
Senior Researcher
NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute
Tokyo, Japan

Dale Kunkel
Dr, Associate Professor
Department of Communication
University of California
Santa Barbara, USA

Robert Lamb
Director
TVE (Television Trust for the Environment)
London, United Kingdom

Dafna Lemish
Dr, Senior Lecturer
Department of Communication
Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv, Israel

Olga Linne
Dr, Senior Lecturer, Postgraduate Course Tutor
Centre for Mass Communication Research
University of Leicester
Leicester, United Kingdom

Dan Linz
Dr, Full Professor
Department of Communication
University of California
Santa Barbara, USA

Joanne M. Lisosky
Dr, Assistant Professor of Communication
Department of Communication and Theatre
Pacific Lutheran University Tacoma
Washington, USA

Jason Low
Dr, Researcher
University of Florida
Gainesville, USA

Tatiana Merlo-Flores
Dr, Senior Researcher
Universidad Catolica
Buenos Aires, Argentina

Stephen Nugent
Research Manager
Australian Broadcasting Authority
Sydney, Australia

Adriana Olivarez
Doctoral Student
Radio- Television- Film Department
University of Texas at Austin
Austin, USA

W. James Potter
Dr, Visiting Professor
Department of Communication
University of California
Santa Barbara, USA

Keith Roe
Professor
Department of Communication
Catholic University of Leuven
Leuven, Belgium

Stacy L. Smith
Graduate Student
Department of Communication
University of California
Santa Barbara, USA

Ellen Wartella
Professor, Dean
College of Communication and Walter Cronkite
Regents Chair in Communication
University of Texas at Austin
Austin, USA

Barbara J. Wilson
Dr, Full Professor
Department of Communication
University of California
Santa Barbara, USA

Sun Yunxiao
Associate Researcher, Director
Juvenile Research Institute
China Youth and Juvenile Research Center
Beijing, People's Republic of China

Image
Image
Image
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 24270
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Children and Media Violence, by Ulla Carlsson

Postby admin » Sat Jun 27, 2015 1:33 am

In a typical week of television, there are over 800 violent portrayals that qualify as high risk for children under 7. Where are these hazardous portrayals located on television? Of all genres, children's programs contain the greatest number of these high-risk violent portrayals (N = 409). In other words, most of the portrayals that pose particular concern for teaching aggressive attitudes and behaviors to young children are contained in the very programs that are targeted to young viewers. Furthermore, nearly all of the children's programs that contain these kinds of portrayals are cartoons.

Of all channel types, child-oriented basic cable (Cartoon Network, Disney, and Nickelodeon) contains the most high-risk portrayals for young viewers. The individual channels and time periods that primarily feature cartoons are most responsible for this finding. However, it should be noted that not all cartoons contain high-risk portrayals. Adults often assume that violent cartoons are not a problem for children because the content is so unrealistic. However, this assumption is directly contradicted by research on the effects of viewing violence by younger children. Numerous studies show that animated programs have the potential of increasing aggressive behavior in young children (Hapkiewicz, 1979). Thus, violent cartoons should not be regarded as harmless, particularly for children under 7 years of age who have difficulty distinguishing reality from fantasy.

***

Studies by NHK ...suggested that the total atmosphere of TV programs could unsettle the children emotionally, even if the frequency of violent acts was not high ... research showed that programs with high violence received lower audience ratings.

***

It is often asserted in public debate that audiences, including the young, have become inured to violence in the media as a result of the sheer proliferation of aggressive content. Sheldon et al.'s (1994) study indicates that the true picture is more complex. For example, about half of their sample certainly professed liking programs that were 'action packed' with fights, guns and car chases. On the other hand, nearly two thirds said that they did not like to watch programs that show children being hurt or 'whacked'. Almost as many disliked programs which showed animals being hurt or parents arguing and fighting. When asked in the survey whether they had ever viewed anything which had upset or bothered them, 50% of children spontaneously listed incidents involving violence (contrasting with mentions of nudity and swearing, which appeared in only 8% and 2% of responses, respectively). Independent research by Cupit (1997) yields compatible findings. He asked 1,500 South Australian upper primary children to identify scenes that they had witnessed on videos that left them with unwelcome memories, Approximately 25% of children spontaneously mentioned themes related to violence....We know from other Australian research that children often report that they do not like watching the news, in part because it is 'boring' but also because it contains realistic accounts of horrific, violent and frightening events (Australian Broadcasting Tribunal, 1990; Palmer, 1986; Sheldon & Loncar, 1996).

***

There is growing concern about the presentation of minority groups in Australian media, most notably Aboriginal people. Aboriginal people tend to be both underrepresented and misrepresented. They appear infrequently in many areas of television, for example, but when they do they are often associated with antisocial behaviour, drunkenness, violence and civil disturbances and race riots (Bell, 1993; Bosrock, 1993; Cuneen, 1994; Goodall, 1993; Nugent, Loncar, & Aisbett, 1993). Aggression in this context, then, is manifest in the media's contributions to the cultural marginalization of a minority group, in the stereotyping of ethnic groups as aggressive and problematic, and in the possible encouragement in the larger community of racist attitudes and aggressive behaviour towards people of indigenous background (Cahill &Ewen, 1992). The representation of Maori people in New Zealand's media is associated with some similar concerns, though the more complex history of colonial relations in that country has given rise to a correspondingly more ambivalent (occasionally very idealised) pattern of representation (Blythe, 1994).

***

On May 1st, 1994, an article under the title "Dozens of Children were Hurt in WWF Style Fights" appeared in the Israeli's major daily newspaper Yediot Acharonot:

"Hocked" on the wrestling television series WWF, dozens of children from the north were hurt when they tried to imitate their idols with friends. Parents living in Nahariya claim that as a result of intensified viewing of the television series -- in which all the exercises are staged -- many children in the town became "addicted" to performing the exercises in reality.

Dozens of children in the north have broken hands or legs during WWF style fights. A 10-year-old boy told Yediot Acharonot: "We were practicing and one of the boys broke his leg. I accidentally broke a girl's arm. Those were just from a few blows. But I have been expelled from school three times because of these kinds of accidents." Yesterday, after performing a backthrow and head turning exercise, a 15-year-old-boy in Nahariya lost consciousness. Luckily, he woke up after a few minutes.

As a result of the intensification of these accidents, the citizens of Nahariya are demanding a restriction on broadcasting of the wrestling series. Ilana, one of the children's mother: ''The blows exchanged at school have become routine. Dozens of children are being sent home after wrestling. It all starts as 'pretend' and ends 'for real'".

***

In Albania, there is a system of self-regulating, "ensuring that violent and erotic programmes are not aired at times when children might be watching television" (Pepo, in Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 14).

In the Republic of Azerbaijan the rules are: "For public protection, the distribution of films promoting violence and cruelty is liable for a prison term of up to two years or a fine of the equivalent of 700-800 times minimum wage" (Mirkassimov, in Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 15). Rather harsh, it appears.

From the Republic of Belarus, Andreev informs: "Any use of mass media, literature, shows, etc., which include pornography, the worship of violence and cruelty, or anything which may offend the human dignity and influence children in any harmful way by encouraging them to break the law is punishable by the law" (Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 16).

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, "the production and distribution of films is not governed by legislation. No special laws exist to regulate either children's film or children's television" (Selimovic, in Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 18).

In the Republic of Bulgaria, Dereliev et al. explain that a law was passed about radio and television in 1996: "In programming scheduled between 06.00 and 23.00 it is not permitted to include shows potentially harmful to the psychological, physical, and moral development of children and young adults" (Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 19).

The production and distribution of film are not subject to legislation in the Republic of Croatia. However, broadcasters, "must not offend the public morality, must not show pornography, accentuate violence or provoke racial, religious and ethnic hatred" (Alajbeg et al., in Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 21).

In the Czech Republic, "the broadcasting of programmes promoting violence and sex is prohibited by Czech television, which has set up an ethics panel to make recommendations in these matters" (Bajgar et al., in Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 23).

Estonia passed a law in 1992 and in article 48 it is stated: "It is forbidden to produce or demonstrate to children any printed material, films videos, or any other implements which propagate cruelty and violence" (Salulai et al., in Irving and Tadros, 1997, p 24).

In the Republic of Georgia minors are protected from watching pornographic or violent films by law (Chigogidze, in Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 25).

The Hungarian Media Law of 1996 is very similar (Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 26).

The Latvian Electronic Mass Media Act of 1995, article 18.5 states: "Between 07.00 and 22.00 programmes containing violence in visual or textual form, plots associated with the use of drugs are prohibited" (Ruben is et al., in Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 28).

Lithuania passed a law in 1991 prohibiting "broadcasting of pornography or violence" (Luiga, in Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 30).

The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia approved a law in 1997 and in article 35 it is stated: "Broadcasting of programmes with indecent content, and in particular with pornography or violence, shall not be permitted" (Lozanovski et al., in Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 31).

Moldova has a new law on mass media, but which does not specifically address children. However, the public broadcaster has adopted internal regulations (Pirtac, in Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 33).

The Broadcasting Act of 1992 in Poland also addresses violence on the screen (Grudzinska, in Irving and Tadros 1997, p. 35).

In Romania a law from 1994 prohibits pornographic and violent images (Chirila et al., in Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 37).

In Russia the Law on Mass Media of 1991 protects children from viewing pornography and violent images (Menshikov et al., in Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 40).

The Slovak Republic has an Audiovisual Law from 1995. The protection of children from violent images on the screen has not until recently been acknowledged as problem in Slovak-produced shows. However Grujbarova argues: "Violent scenes are appearing more often, in imported television programmes and in foreign television programmes available through satellite or re-transmitted on cable. Without legislative initiative we can take only administrative measures ... in the form of licence terms or recommendations for broadcasters ... aimed to prevent excesses of violent contents or forms on screen" (Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 43).

In the Republic of Slovenia the public broadcaster RTV is preparing to accept a set of International regulations using the European Broadcasting Union model (Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 45).

Finally, in the Ukraine there are no specific laws mentioning violence on the screen (Polishchuk, in Irving and Tadros, 1997, p. 47).

Thus it appears that the majority of Eastern European countries recently have adopted legislation against the showing of violent images on the screen, at least during certain time periods.

***

The following countries participated in the core study: Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, Croatia, Egypt, Fiji, Germany, India, Japan, Mauritius, the Netherlands, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, South Africa, Spain, Tadjikistan, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Ukraine....

The results demonstrate:

93% of the children in this study have access to a TV-set. The range is 99% for the North-Western hemisphere to 83% for Africa with Asia and Latin-America in between. In the areas surveyed, the screen has practically become a universal medium. For schoolchildren, it is the most powerful source of information and entertainment. Even radio and books do not have the same global distribution.

The world's children spend an average of 3 hours daily in front of the screen with of course a broad International spectrum of individual viewing behaviour. That is at least 50% more time spent with this medium than with any other out-of-school activity including home-work, being with family or friends, or reading.

Thus, TV has become a major socialization factor and dominates the life of children in urban and electrified rural areas around the globe.

In particular boys are fascinated by aggressive media heroes. Some of these, like Arnold Schwarzenegger's Terminator, have become global icons; 88% of the world's children know him. 51% of the children from high-aggression environments (war; crime) would like to be like him as compared to 37% in the low-aggression neighbourhoods. Clearly, children need and use media heroes as role models to cope with difficult situations. And these are plentiful for the children of the world.

A remarkable large number live in a problematic emotional state. Nearly half of the children report that they are anxious most of the time or often; 9% had to flee their homesite at least once in their life; 47% report that they would like to live in another country. In the high-aggression areas, 16% of the children report that most people in their neighbourhood die because they are killed by others. Here, 7.5% of the children have already themselves used a weapon against someone.

In this situation, media heroes are used for escapism and compensation of the children's actual problems. For boys, it is primarily aggressive role models (30% name an action hero), for girls, pop stars and musicians. There are regional differences for the favourite heroes: Asia has the highest ranking for action heroes (34%), Africa the lowest (18%), with Europe and the Americas in between (25% each).

The children's world views are obviously influenced by actual as well as media experiences. Nearly one third of the aggression-environment group believe that most people in the world are evil as compared to a fifth in the low aggression group. A remarkable number of children from both groups report a strong overlap in what they perceive as reality and what they see on the screen (about 44%). Many children are surrounded by an environment where "real" and media experiences both support the view that violence is natural.

The impact of media violence can primarily be explained through the fact that aggressive behaviour is rewarded. 47% of those children who prefer aggressive media content would also like to be involved in a risky situation (as compared to 19% with another media preference). This holds again in particular for boys. In addition, nations with a high level of technological development reinforce the risk-seeking tendency. The broad spectrum of different available audio-visual communication means have increased the desire to permanently satisfy physiological stimulus needs which are triggered through aggressive media content.

***

Different forms of aggression are evaluated differently in the cultures of the world. We wanted to know whether a physical attack or a verbal insult is perceived as more "damaging". The results confirm the cultural differences: In Europe and Canada, children regard a physical attack with fists as worse (55.5%) than being given insulting names (44%). In Asia, the opposite is the case: for nearly 70%, verbal insults are worse than physical attacks (29%). Africa is similar to Asia (verbal: 63%, physical: 35%). Latin-America is balanced (50% each)....In situations of social conflict, children in Africa reported most frequently that they would regard physical attacks as adequate reaction: e.g., 32% hitting the other as reaction to verbal insult (Asia 15%, Latin-America 14%, Europe/Canada 16%); 9% even reported shooting the other as adequate.

***

Twice as many children in the "high technology"-group as in the "low technology"-group reported a risk-seeking tendency (20% versus 10%)....

This may have to do with two aspects:

a) the sensory stimulation is probably higher in high-technology environments; it thus creates a generally higher state of permanent arousal;

b) with a higher availability of media programming, the risk-seeking tendency is modelled into uniform patterns which mirror the content of the media (e.g., the car chase as a movie icon).

To test the latter, we linked the sensation-seeking tendency in an additional analysis with the preference for media content. The picture is clear. Children, and in particular boys, with a risk seeking tendency have a higher preference for aggressive media content than those who lack this tendency (boys: 40% versus 29%). When asked, whether they would themselves want to be involved in an aggressive situation, the tendency was even stronger: 47% of those who prefer aggressive media content would also like to be involved themselves in a risky situation (as compared to an average of 19% with other media preferences, range: 15%-23%). In the recent analysis, this result comes closest to a direct effects measure:

There is a link between the preference for media violence and the need to be involved in aggression oneself.

***

According to the children's ethics education outline issued by China State Education Commission in 1993 and referring to the contents and the standards of ethics as defined by the earlier researchers, we define the contents and the standards of the ethics learned by children as those which cover the main aspects of their individual and social lives. Ethics can be roughly divided into two kinds: (1) individual ethics -- individual ethics mainly refers to the social ethical standards that children learn and obey in order to satisfy their needs for self-development. It includes: in the aspect of material life -- eat food that benefits health, dress plainly and neatly, love sports, study hard, fulfill tasks independently, love labor, practice thrift; in the aspect of social life - strong desire for knowledge and information, love art. (2) social ethics -- social ethics mainly refers to the moral standards, the nature and the codes of conduct that a child should follow when he coordinates the relationships between himself and another person, a collective or the society. It includes: honesty, equality, independence, being ready to help others, care for collective, patriotism. The difference in children's ethics level lies in: (1) whether or not they obey all the ethics codes; (2) to what extent they can obey the rules....

Firstly, Chinese urban children are exposed to many kinds of mass media. Although most children watch TV, it does not lead to a lessening interest in print. Children have limited reading ability, however over 50% of Chinese urban children's contact with print (2,407) is higher than with electronic media (2,052). This is of great importance to children's all-round development, especially the formulation of modern concept, and intelligence development. When children are about 10 years old, they are able to select different media to meet their needs. They will choose electronic media such as television, tape recorder, video tape recorder or video game machine when they need recreation or stimulation; they will choose television, broadcast or newspaper when they want to get news; they will choose print such as books, magazines or newspaper when they want to realize the present world and understand themselves; they will choose video game machine, tape recorder, television and telephone when they want to lessen life pressures, loneliness and annoyance. More than half of the children like pop music, which means children are likely to become socially involved when they are pupils. If the time a child has contact with electronic media exceeds two hours a day, it is possible that the child's social intercourse and study, even his mental health, will be affected. Generally speaking, the frequency, duration and kinds of media that Chinese children have contact with are reasonable. The abnormal phenomenon of children lost in some electronic media has not spread out in China. One important reason is that the economy in China developed so rapidly that various media developed almost at the same time; thus it is possible for children to select media to satisfy their own needs. Besides, the proper care of schools and families play an important role.

Secondly, Chinese urban children have the principal nature of ethics and behavior, however it is not satisfactory. In the aspect of patriotism, they got the highest average mark that was 4.56 points (total 5 points); as for the three other aspects -- point of view on money, confidence and attitudes towards study -- their marks are above the average. In the aspects of care for collective and others, good habits and customs, aspiring after knowledge and arts, physical training and independence, they obtained a mark lower than average, and the lowest mark was 3.27 points in independence, which could not meet the demands of a modern society.

According to research on the personality development of Chinese urban only children, we find that the only child has a greater desire for affinity and persistence and that 70% of the only children can accept themselves. But most of the only children do not have a strong desire for achievement although they are in better living conditions and their parents place high hopes in them. Some only children are relatively aggressive, which has become a main shortcoming in their personality.

Thirdly, there exists a correlation between children's contact with media and their ethics points of view and behavior:

1. There exists a notable positive correlation between children's moral marks and the frequency and duration of children's contact with broadcast and print, such as newspapers, magazines, books, and so on. That is, the more frequently and longer children listen to broadcast and read newspapers, magazines and books, the higher moral marks they gain; the higher moral marks they gain, the more frequently and longer they have contact with these four kinds of media. On the contrary, there exists a negative correlation between children's moral marks and the frequency and duration of children's contact with television, video tape recorders and video game machine. That is, the more frequent and longer children's contact with television, video tape recorder and video game machine, the lower moral marks they gain; the lower moral marks they gain, the more frequent and longer their contact with these three kinds of media.

A study on Chinese children's ideological, ethical and cultural condition (including rural areas) in 1996 shows that as high as 75.4% of the primary pupils regard books as the most helpful to their growth (see Table 1).

As for middle school students, what they think is a little different from the primary school pupils (see Table 1). What is worth paying attention to is that 28% of the middle school students think that the computer is the most helpful, which ranks the sixth in the list. That is, at least 28% of the middle school students are computer users, and have entered the information society.

When we ask a primary school pupil or a middle school student "Which media in the list do you think has the worst effect on you?", 87.2% primary school pupils will answer that it is video game machine (see Table 2).

But we cannot simply conclude that electronic media is harmful to children. In fact, television, video tape recorder and video game machine are neutral; therefore their effects depend on the users -- who use them, how they use them, for what purpose they use them and how they understand them, and so on. Media is only one of the various factors that affect children's ethics development. Video game machine will exercise bad influence over a child when his/her family relations become strained, or when his/her own life is not successful or when he/she has a strong desire for violence.

2. As for the contact with print and broadcast, there is a notable difference between the high frequency group and the lower frequency group in their preference for the contents of the media: children in the high frequency group obviously prefer the educational contents on television, broadcast, newspaper and books; while the lower frequency group obviously prefers the recreational and stimulating programs and popular literature in books. There exists a notable positive correlation between the knowledgeable contents in different media and children's moral marks. Thus, our hypotheses are proved.

3. There exists a notable positive correlation between children's moral marks and the contents of children's literature in television, broadcast, newspaper, magazine and books. With the development of China's commodity economy, the main tendency of children's literature is healthy and helpful and good for children's development. And children think it is most helpful. Children's literature refers to animated cartoon TV plays, TV play serials for children, theatrical performances for children, fairy tales, children's stories, reportage, fables, essays in magazines and newspapers, and songs for children. We can conclude that children who gain high moral marks like children's literature, and there forms a benign cycle between the contents of children's literature and children's ethics development.

4. There exists a negative correlation between children's moral marks and the recreational and stimulating contents in television programs. The two possible reasons for this negative relationship are: (1) the ethical point of view and behavior standards that exist in the media are contrary to those that the children are asked to learn and follow; (2) when the ethical point of view and behavior standards that exists in media agree with those the children are asked to learn and follow, the negative relationship is probably caused by children's misunderstanding of the programs for adults because they lack the necessary and complete background knowledge; therefore they might misunderstand or distort the contents of the programs. Sometimes the two reasons take effect at the same time....

Based on our present results, we make the following suggestions:

1. Encourage children to come into contact with print and advocate and organize their listening to broadcasts for children. For this purpose, we should make well-known to parents and teachers the meaning of print and broadcast, and pass on all the effective experience.

2. Strengthen, promote and spread educational contents and children's literature. Guide children to better contact with the educational contents and children's literature in such media as television, broadcast, newspaper, magazine, etc.

(1) Encourage and advocate writers to produce high quality, educational and literary works which reflect children's lives so as to attract them to reading.

(2) Make great efforts to develop television art for children. Because of the lack of the literary and educational TV programs that are appropriate for them, children have been in contact with programs for adults, such as gong-fu films, amorous films, and so on. If this continues, it may probably cause misunderstanding and misbehavior because of their lack of knowledge and experience. According to a report in the 4th issue of Juvenile Study by China Youth and Juvenile Research Center, titled Tragedy from Teenage-Research on the Causes of 115 Capital Prisoners, all the 115 capital prisoners committed crimes during their teenage years. 30.5% of them had been juvenile offenders and 61.5% of them had criminal records by their teenage years. 103 of the 115 were affected by indecent video tapes, which accounted for 90%. A rapist raped a young girl when he saw two lovers flirting on TV. Thus, it is of great importance to give energetic support to the development of healthy television art for children.

3. Strengthen the guidance of children's use of television, video tape recorder and video game machine. Spread the related knowledge to parents and teachers. Improve children's ability to analyze and evaluate electronic media. Ask children to lessen the frequency of using electronic, audio and video media, for example, three times a week and 1.5 hours each time. Encourage children to learn to exist, care for others and develop themselves in order to grow up as physically and mentally healthy modern people.

***


Despite all the predictions of convergence and interactivity, television viewing remains a passive activity. The key players are the schedulers, programme commissioners and a handful of highly-regarded production companies -- an elite group who decide what viewers will see and when. These are the quintessential points of leverage in the industry who number in their hundreds.

Through their pathway to mass audiences they can powerfully influence decision-making. A myth is that by reaching policy/decision-makers with tailored programming, policies will be changed to favour sustainable development. Programmes that warrant prime-time coverage, generating national debate involving the general public must be the main target for organizations seeking to influence decision-makers.

With the public service ethic in broadcasting in steep decline, television is increasingly a world of cut-throat competition with tabloid formats becoming ever more popular. Almost exclusively stations are concerned with ratings or with targeting the special interest categories. They are especially concerned to attract youthful (14-30 years) viewers.

Encouragingly, this report finds there is a fund of goodwill among the commissioners for organizations like UNICEF that implement a sophisticated audiovisual policy. Its work in the field of animation, the professionalism of its ad spots and B Rolls and experience in brokering co-productions, give organizations like UNICEF a sound basis on which to achieve more coverage.

TVE recommends that staying in touch with the elite decision-makers in television, being sympathetic to their needs, providing stories and contacts and, from time to time, start-up to-finance, should be the priority for any agency seeking to step up coverage on television. Sympathetic tabloid TV journalists should be sought out. Agencies should give priority to maintaining a television VIP listing and to nurturing these contacts on an individual basis. Given the dominant share of English-speaking programming in the international sales market, special attention should be paid to the North American and UK commissioners.

***

The documentary conundrum

On a strict ratings criterion, development assistance agencies should end their involvement in documentary co-production. But with a rigorous set of rules applied, there remains a strong case for continued involvement in documentary production.

Documentaries have all but disappeared from the prime-time scheduling of major national broadcasters, including the public service broadcasters who have been forced to go downmarket in the ratings wars. But the tabloid format does not necessarily mean any loss in quality of coverage.

One-off documentaries and series in a tabloid as well as a blue chip format can still have a measurable impact on public opinion in inverse proportion to the numbers who see the programmes. There is also a significant international sales market not least because this kind of factual programming has 'shelf-life' and can be customised to meet national and regional broadcasters' requirements. Series and other forms of 'bulk' programming are most in demand, with single 'one off' documentaries difficult to place. The success of the Discovery Channel throughout the world is based on repackaging to suit national/regional audience preferences. Crucially, the documentary format can also be edited to meet cultural and religious sensitivities.

New technologies -- digital hi-8 cameras and non-linear editing equipment -- also offer the opportunity for the independent producer to make programmes to international broadcast standard at a fraction of the cost of a decade ago. The new digitised programme- making hardware and channels may yet offer the best hope for consistent and fearless in-depth coverage of environment and development.

TVE proposes that agencies should only support documentary production when all or most of the following criteria are fulfilled: commissions are within programme strands with proven above average audience ratings for factual programming; themes are directly relevant to their mission; co-production involving at least one or more major broadcaster; submission of promotional and distribution work plans; generous rights assignment to the agency for international distribution in whole or in part, in perpetuity.

The only exceptions should be: when the agency has a pressing policy need to see a programme broadcast in a particular country and/or territory; coverage of a subject (for example water or sanitation) with little media potential but which accords with an agency priority (there will always be reason for advocacy organizations to swim against the media tide).

***

According to new estimates, there are some 250 million children 5-14 years old who are toiling in economic activity in developing countries. For close to one-half of them (or 120 million), this work is carried out on a full time basis, while for the remaining one-half it is combined with schooling or other non-economic activities. Among school going children, up to one-third of the boys (33%) and more than two-fifths (42%) of the girls are also engaged in economic activities on a part-time basis.

***

World Wide Web

In 1995, the Voices of Youth (VOY) site on the World Wide Web was launched at the World Summit for Social Development (WSSD) in Copenhagen, where it was an immediate success. It introduces children to child rights issues, and encourages them to express their views. Children from all over the world responded to the invitation to come forward with questions for government delegates attending the Summit.

After the Summit, we decided to continue VOY as a worldwide forum for children to express their views and dialogue on issues of development, peace and justice, and in particular those issues affecting their own lives. VOY is a good example of how today's technology can be used to bring young people together in a meaningful dialogue about issues that concern them. Indeed, the VOY website has just been chosen as one of "Seven Super Sites of the Month" by Kids' Space, a children's web magazine with readers in 124 countries, which chooses web sites that inspire children to learn and discover the world. For further information, contact Voices of Youth online at voy@unicef.org or Web site, http://www.unicef.org/voy

CD-ROM
My City is an interactive animated CD-ROM game jointly funded by UNICEF and the Canadian government. The players, who Children's Participation in the Media become mayors of their city for a day, encounter a series of social and cultural issues based on the Convention on the Rights of the Child. As mayors, they must decide how to respond to each of these issues. They are given a budget at the start of their tenure, and a popularity meter indicates the success or otherwise of their policies with the voting public. The aim is for the mayor to stay in office without losing resources and popularity as she/he responds to the issues presented. The game encourages awareness and discussion of problems encountered by youth around the world, and encourages them to act on similar problems in their own communities.

***

THE CHILDREN'S TELEVISION CHARTER

1. Children should have programmes of high quality which are made specifically for them, and which do not exploit them. These programmes, in addition to entertaining, should allow children to develop physically, mentally and socially to their fullest potential.

2. Children should hear, see and express themselves, their culture, their language and their life experiences, through television programmes which affirm their sense of self, community and place.

3. Children's programmes should promote an awareness and appreciation of other cultures in parallel with the child's own cultural background.

4. Children's programmes should be wide-ranging in genre and content, but should not include gratuitous scenes of violence and sex.

5. Children's programmes should be aired in regular slots at times when children are available to view, and/or distributed via other widely accessible media or technologies.

6. Sufficient funds must be made available to make these programmes to the highest possible standards.

7. Governments, production, distribution and funding organisations should recognize both the importance and vulnerability of indigenous children's television, and take steps to support and protect it.

***

The Asian Declaration on Child Rights and the Media

RESOLVE ALSO, THAT ALL MEDIA ABOUT CHILDREN SHOULD:

adopt policies that are consistent with the principles of nondiscrimination and the best interests of all children;

raise awareness and mobilise all sectors of society to ensure the survival, development, protection and participation of all children;

address all forms of economic, commercial and sexual exploitation and abuse of children in the region and ensure that such efforts do not violate their rights, particularly their right to privacy;

protect children from material which glorifies violence, sex, horror and conflict; and,

promote positive values and not perpetuate discrimination and stereotypes.

RESOLVE FURTHER, THAT ALL MEDIA FOR CHILDREN SHOULD:

be of high quality, made especially for them, and do not exploit them;

support their physical, mental, social, moral and spiritual development;

enable children to hear, see and express themselves, their culture, their languages and their life experiences through media which affirm their sense of self and community, while promoting an awareness and appreciation of other cultures;

be wide-ranging in genre and content, but not include gratuitous scenes of violence and sex; and,

be accessible to them at times when they need and can use it.

***

In Canada, five guiding principles underlying the approach of the Canadian Radiotelevision and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), an independent organisation established by the Broadcasting Act, are identified: [7]

1. Abandon an ideological, legalistic and therefore combative approach in favour of a co-operative strategy recognising TV violence as a major mental-health problem for children.

2. Adopt the goal of protecting children, not censoring adults, in order to strike a reasonable balance between the right to freedom of expression and the right of children to a healthy childhood.

3. Stick to a focused agenda on gratuitous or glamorised violence, not diffusing efforts by adding sex, foul language, family values, specific feminist concerns or other distinct, more controversial issues.

4. Bring all players to the table -- broadcasters, advertisers, producers, parents, teachers, psychiatrists and the regulator.

5. Have both a short-term and long-term perspective.

In Japan the Broadcasts Law requires broadcasters to establish standards for programming and to set up consultative committees to ensure that programmes satisfy the stated standards. The public service broadcaster NHK states in its Standards of Domestic Programming: [8]

Under no circumstances shall acts of violence be permitted. ( ) Human life shall not be treated with contempt and neither shall the act of suicide be glorified. ( ) Criminals shall not be portrayed attractively and acts of crime shall not be treated with approval (...).

From the United States I cannot find any direct policy statement on violence in television. There is a general ban on child pornography (as elsewhere) and obscene material, operating at both Federal and State level. The ban on obscene material applies essentially to sex-related photographic and video material. But the First Amendment (constitutional principle of freedom of speech) can also be applied to speeches inciting hatred or discrimination, provided that they do not constitute an immediate danger to people or goods. [9]

"The FCC is not interested in influencing, or even knowing, the content or viewpoint of any programming", said former Chairman Hunt of the Federal Communications Commission [10] in his speech at a conference on Children and Television in 1997. However, in the Telecommunications Act of 1996, TV manufacturers are required to incorporate the V-chip in the sets, which is combined with a rating system made by the broadcasters (see under the headline "V-chip" below).

In Canada, there is a public worry about the massive influx of American programmes delivered via cable, which cannot be stopped from entering Canadian homes. In the USA broadcasters set the standards, and any government intervention to control violent contents is frowned upon. [11]

***

Several countries also have outright prohibitions on certain material in all media:

material containing incitement to hatred, discrimination or violence

obscene material

material contrary to sound morals and indecent material

material detrimental to human dignity

child pornography, either generally defined (obscenity, indecency, etc.) or specifically defined (child pornography, protection of children against sexual abuse, etc.).

***

When reading about a South African research study on children's emotional responses to television, which shows that half of the surveyed children are made unhappy and uncomfortable by children's programmes aimed specifically at them, [29] and about British research which establishes that programmes that provoke negative emotional responses are diverse and unpredictable, [30] I would like to argue for more empirical research on children's reception of media. There is a lot to learn for parents, teachers, broadcasters, media producers and distributors -- and for politicians.

***

Greece: Film is regulated by the Commission Responsible for the Supervision and Control of Publications Destined to Children and Adolescents, under the authority of the Minister of Justice: "Publications (...) must not contain any illustration, article, story, title or insert presenting in a favourable light banditry, lying, thievery, laziness, cowardice, hate, any criminal act, or act that demoralises children or juveniles (...) or inspires or instils ethnic prejudice." [33]

***

Portugal: The transmission of pornographic or obscene programmes or programmes which incite violence, the practice of crimes or whatever in a general way violates rights, liberties or fundamental guarantees is not permitted, according to the Television Law.

***

Spain: The classifications are recommendations but cannot be used to deny persons younger than the classified age to entry cinemas. X-rated films depicting pornography or extreme violence can be shown only in X-rated cinemas, where persons under the age of 18 are not allowed entry. The X classification is valid for video, as well. (Law 6/28, March 1995, prohibits the sale or rent to minors of video games and other audio-visual materials that contain messages contravening rights recognised in the Constitution or containing violence, delinquency or pornography.)[35]

***

Sweden: According to the Examination and Control of Films and Videos Act (SFS 1990:886), all films shall be examined and approved by Statens Biografbyra, the national Board of Film Classification, prior to exhibition. For videos intended for sale or hire, the advance examination is voluntary. The Board does not take any action on religious or political grounds. Its task is to judge whether films or sequences are liable to have a brutalising effect on the audience. The distribution of certain scenes of violence is a criminal offence under the law on freedom of expression.

***

Norway: The Norwegian Broadcasting Act is in accordance with the EU Television Directive. According to the Act relating to Films and Videos, 1987, films shown in cinema shall be classified by the Norwegian Board of Film Classification and must not violate public decency or have a brutalising or morally corruptive influence. Computer games including moving photographic images are covered by the Film and Video Act. [38] Regarding Cable transmissions, the Statens Medieforvaltning can ban the local distribution of emissions from other countries sent from Norwegian soil, which regularly show pornography or violence in defiance of Norwegian law. Pornography is defined as 'sexual depictions which are offensive or which could otherwise be perceived as being humanly degrading or debasing, including sexual depictions involving children, animals, violence, enforcement or sadism." [39]

***

Australia: The film/video (since 1984) and computer game (since 1994) industries are required to submit material to the OFLC, Office of Film and Literature Classification, for classification before they can be shown or sold." The ratings include Consumer Advice, which informs the public as to the rationale for a given rating. This consumer information is required by law to appear in advertisements for videos or films, and on the covers of video tapes for sale or rental. Rating categories are: G8 + for interactive electronic games suitable for children 8 years or older; M for media suitable for persons 15 years and over; MA for more advanced media content and titles with this classification may not be sold, rented or demonstrated to persons under 15 years of age. R -- restricted to persons 18 years or older -- is for films or other media and is not allowed for television broadcasting. [42]

***

Japan: The Broadcast Law of Japan regulates both the public service television and radio, NHK, and the commercial stations " ... to make broadcasting contribute to the development of healthy democracy". The law requires broadcasters to establish standards for programming and to set up broadcast programme consultative committees to ensure that programmes satisfy the stated standards. The NHK Standards of Domestic Broadcast Programmes from 1959 says in article 1. Section 6-3: 'Under no circumstances shall acts of violence be permitted."

***

Azerbaijan: The Penal Code 1982, article 228-1 (adopted 1996) says: "For public protection, the distribution of films promoting violence and cruelty is liable for a prison term of up to two years or a fine of the equivalent of 700-800 times minimum wage."

***

Belarus: The Law of the Republic of Belarus Concerning Media and Other Means of Public Information contains an article prohibiting the use of media for the presentation of pornography or anything else against any violation of morality, honour and dignity of the citizens. The Law Concerning Television and Radio currently under consideration contains certain regulations aimed at protecting the rights of young viewers and listeners.

***

Ukraine: The Ukrainian Law on Television and Radio Broadcasting, 1993, Section V, article 4.1 states: "Programmes (films) that can damage the physical, psychological or moral development of minors are forbidden."

***

THE EUROPEAN BROADCASTING UNION'S GUIDELINES FOR PROGRAMMES WHEN DEALING WITH THE PORTRAYAL OF VIOLENCE ...

2. News and information broadcasts have of necessity to deal on a daily basis with social conflicts in which violence can be a part. The audience should not, and cannot, be protected from this everyday occurrence. Actual violence is acceptable in news programmes as broadcasters have a duty to show factual violence in the world, but the negativity of such acts should be stressed.

News should and will shock viewers at times. With some news stories a sense of shock is part of a full human understanding of what has happened, but care should be taken never to discomfort viewers gratuitously by over-indulgence. The more often viewers are shocked, the more it will take to shock them.

One person's shock is another person's news or art. Thus, a decision in this field means striking a balance between the current social consensus on what is acceptable and the broadcaster's duty to reflect reality as he or she sees it.

In particular, the human dignity of the victim as well as those also affected must not be offended and their personal rights must be respected. Violence in factual programmes should not be so prominent or commonplace as to become sanitized. The public cannot be shielded from the violence which happens daily in the world, but it must be portrayed in the most sensitive way possible.

The degree of violence in news programmes must be essential to the integrity of the programme; care should be taken in the choice of material depending on the time of day at which bulletins are broadcast.

3. FICTIONAL AND ENTERTAINMENT PROGRAMMES

Television drama must be able to reflect important issues truthfully, and violence is part of both nature and society. Drama on television involves the collaboration of many different skills and creative talents. In any collaboration there must be editorial judgement.

Since conflict and its associated violence are somewhat ingrained human traits, they are often made the central component in fictional and entertainment programmes. What is crucial is that the reasons for the existence of violence in the treatment should be portrayed in a plausible manner and violence should not be used in a purely unprovoked manner to entertain and as a way of maximizing the audience.

Gratuitous violence must be proscribed. The more intense the violence, the greater should be the distancing from reality. The aim should be how little violence is necessary without undue dramatic compromise.

The effects of portraying violence are heavily dependent on the form this presentation takes and the dramatic context. Particular care must therefore be taken with realistic presentations with which the viewer may more easily identify. Details of violence and aggressive behaviour which invite imitation should be avoided.

Portrayals which trivialize, or indeed glorify, the use of violence, whether physical or psychological, and which present violence as a means of overcoming conflicts, should also be avoided at all costs. It is important that in addition to the causes of violence their destructive consequences should also be shown, and that the use of violence as a way of solving problems should be portrayed critically. Not all violence is physical. Non-physical violence can also be upsetting and shocking, especially to children. This is an important area where particular care should be taken, as is the portrayal of sadistic violence.

***

Nations' different responses to Mighty Morphin Power Rangers

Ironically, the program itself was a morphin, with much of the action footage lifted from a long-running Japanese television program, Jyu Rangah. Reportedly, much of the original Japanese violence was toned down for the U.S. audience (Cody, 1994).

A number of countries that acquired the Mighty Morphin Power Rangers (MMPR) series from the Los Angeles based Saban Entertainment in the 1990s, found that the program was not compatible with national regulations or cultural norms regarding televised violence. For example, in England, a mild public outcry ensued when a four-year-old was karate-style kicked by a playmate imitating the Power Rangers (Orvice, 1994). This led the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents to issue a warning that the series was "extremely dangerous".

Other European nations responded to the MMPR with more severe action. In October, 1994, a young girl's brutal killing by teenage boys in Norway fueled public debate over the causes of violence in Scandinavian society. In response, MMPR was immediately taken off the air. The ban was temporary, however, and the program returned.

Earlier in 1994, Television New Zealand (TVNZ) pulled the MMPR off the air on the advice of the Broadcast Standards Authority, a statutory broadcast watchdog group ("TVNZ Dumps ... ", 1994). The Authority had reacted to complaints from a citizen advocacy group. Even though TVNZ had edited out some of the violent confrontations and the network had added pro-social public service announcements to the conclusion of each program, the Authority claimed that these changes were not enough.

Also in 1994, the Canadian Broadcast Standards Council (CBSC), ruled that MMPR, estimated to be the most popular children's television show in Canada, was too violent for Canadian television (Lacey, 1994). The CBSC had been spurred to review the MMPR by the complaints from two Canadian parents. The CBSC unanimously agreed that the program contravened several articles of the industry's Voluntary Code Regarding Violence. As a result, a youth cable channel, YTV, canceled MMPR and the Montreal-based French TVA network dropped the series. Subsequently, Global Television, a commercial satellite network and part of Can West Global, requested permission from the program's producers, Saban International, to alter the program to conform to Canadian criteria (Farnsworth, 1994). After a year of editing the violent content, Can West dropped the series as well.

In January 1995, the Power Rangers came under attack from the German Society for the Protection of Children. The Society called for the program to be banned for excessive violence due primarily to complaints by German kindergarten teachers who charged that the program promoted child nightmares (Kindred, 1995).

Authorities in Malaysia banned the popular children's program in December 1995 in a dispute over its title. The Deputy Home Minister said that the title words "Mighty Morphin" may cause children to associate the characters with the drug morphine, leading them to believe that "the drug could make them strong like the characters in the show" ("Mighty Morphins ... ", 1995).

After reviewing three episodes of MMPR in 1995, the Australian Broadcasting Authority (ABA) stated that two episodes of the series contained scenes that did not comply with the general audience classification that was originally given the series (ABA, 1995). The network airing the series in Australia was allowed to continue to screen the Power Rangers during children's viewing time, as long as certain scenes were edited out.

In contrast to these national responses, U.S. reactions to the program were remarkably positive. In 1994, Parenting Magazine named MMPR as one of the ten best children's television programs on the air. In addition, newly elected Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives, Newt Gingrich, shook hands with the Power Rangers in 1994 and remarked that he was a Power Ranger ("Nightline ... ", 1995).

***

Finally, in their quest to develop a universally acceptable policy for children's television with teeth, and one devised to adhere to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the designers of the Children's Television Charter may have another looming problem. This problem is analogous to the elephant in the parlor everyone strains to ignore. While the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is the most widely accepted human rights instrument ever, protecting the rights of approximately two billion children worldwide, it has not yet been ratified or acceded by the United Stares. As a result, the impact of the Children's Television Charter may turn out to be, as Janet Holmes a Court of the Australian Children's Television Foundation suggested at the World Summit in Melbourne, "the rest of the world against America -- not because we're anti-American, but because we are pro-Aboriginal, pro-Filipino, pro-Pole, and for the rest of the children in the world" (transcript from recordings made at the World Summit, 1995).

-- Children and Media Violence: Yearbook from the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, edited by Ulla Carlsson and Cecila von Felitzen
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 24270
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Previous

Return to Media Violence Studies

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 0 guests